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1

Development of Human Resources Through a Vocationally Oriented Educational Program for Disadvantaged Families in Depressed Rural Areas, Degree to which Families are Satisfied with Selected Aspects of Family Life in an Economically Depressed Rural Area. Interim Report No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One aspect of Project REDY (Rural Education-Disadvantaged Youth) was to identify elements of family living which were satisfying to residents of an economically depressed rural area in Southern Illinois. McVoy's Wants and Satisfaction scale was administered to 115 family heads to determine the degree to which certain wishes and interests of…

Fuller, Gerald R.; Phipps, Lloyd J.

2

How children from disadvantaged areas keep safe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper sets out to describe how children from disadvantaged areas perceive their communities and actively negotiate threats in their lives. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 60 interviews and 16 discussions groups were held with 8 to 14-year-olds sampled from four deprived communities located in the West of Scotland. Participants were asked about their local area and how

Katrina M. Turner; Malcolm Hill; Anne Stafford; Moira Walker

2006-01-01

3

Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This article reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate…

Barnett, Melissa A.

2008-01-01

4

Book Selections of Economically Disadvantaged Black Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author identified books most often selected among a sample of economically disadvantaged Black 8- to 12-year-old participants (N = 293) and investigated reasons participants offered for choosing specific books. Participants self-selected books at a book fair providing 412 books. The most commonly selected books supplied descriptive data.…

Williams, Lunetta M.

2008-01-01

5

The Positive Effects of Mentoring Economically Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on evidence that human performance can be influenced by effective belief systems, formal mentoring programs have been developed. Improvement is found in aspirations of economically disadvantaged students but none of the findings, with respect to self-efficacy and possible selves, indicated significant improvement. Further development of…

Lee, Jongyeun; Cramond, Bonnie

1999-01-01

6

Comparing homeless smokers to economically disadvantaged domiciled smokers.  

PubMed

We compared characteristics of homeless smokers and economically disadvantaged domiciled smokers (Dallas, TX; August 2011-November 2012). Although findings indicated similar smoking characteristics across samples, homeless smokers (n = 57) were exposed to more smokers and reported lower motivation to quit, lower self-efficacy for quitting, more days with mental health problems, and greater exposure to numerous stressors than domiciled smokers (n = 110). The sample groups reported similar scores on measures of affect, perceived stress, and interpersonal resources. Results may inform novel cessation interventions for homeless smokers. PMID:24148069

Businelle, Michael S; Cuate, Erica L; Kesh, Anshula; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Kendzor, Darla E

2013-12-01

7

48 CFR 52.219-29 - Notice of Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns. 52...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns. As...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns (JUL...

2013-10-01

8

48 CFR 52.219-29 - Notice of Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns. 52...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns. As...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns (APR...

2012-10-01

9

Structural Impediments to Success: A Look at Disadvantaged Young Men in Urban Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores how recent economic, demographic, and social changes have created the conditions that are presently constricting the opportunities and future expectations of today's urban young men. While research indicates that all disadvantaged youth in urban areas are facing impediments to their success, the paper focuses on the realities…

Jones, Sarah E.

10

New Labour and Educational Disadvantage: The Limits of Area-Based Initiatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since coming to power in 1997, New Labour has adopted area-based initiatives (ABIs) as a key strategy to combat economic, social and (especially) educational disadvantage. This paper briefly outlines the history of ABIs within the UK and explores the discontinuities and continuities between recent initiatives and their earlier counterparts. It…

Power, Sally; Rees, Gareth; Taylor, Chris

2005-01-01

11

Development of Human Resources Through a Vocationally Oriented Educational Program for Disadvantaged Families in Depressed Rural Areas. Interim Report 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore the degree of upward social and occupational mobility which could be expected from residents of rural economically depressed areas under existing circumstances, interviews were conducted with a random sample of 85 families from an economically depressed county and 30 severely disadvantaged families. Some findings were: (1) The majority…

Fuller, Gerald R.; Phipps, Lloyd J.

12

Marine protected area improves yield without disadvantaging fishers.  

PubMed

Potential fishery benefits of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are widely acknowledged, yet seldom demonstrated, as fishery data series that straddle MPA establishment are seldom available. Here we postulate, based on a 15-year time series of nation-wide, spatially referenced catch and effort data, that the establishment of the Goukamma MPA (18?km alongshore; 40?km²) benefited the adjacent fishery for roman (Chrysoblephus laticeps), a South African endemic seabream. Roman-directed catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) in the vicinity of the new MPA immediately increased, contradicting trends across this species' distribution. The increase continued after 5 years, the time lag expected for larval export, effectively doubling the pre-MPA CPUE after 10 years. We find no indication that establishing the MPA caused a systematic drop in total catch or increased travel distances for the fleet. Our results provide rare empirical evidence of rapidly increasing catch rates after MPA implementation without measurable disadvantages for fishers. PMID:23962973

Kerwath, Sven E; Winker, Henning; Götz, Albrecht; Attwood, Colin G

2013-01-01

13

48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern or women-owned small business (WOSB) concern eligible...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern...

2013-10-01

14

13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?  

...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section...Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? (a)...

2014-01-01

15

48 CFR 18.117 - Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible...117 Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB)...

2011-10-01

16

48 CFR 18.117 - Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible...117 Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB)...

2013-10-01

17

48 CFR 6.207 - Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible...Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB)...

2012-10-01

18

13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section...Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? (a)...

2011-01-01

19

13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section...Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? (a)...

2013-01-01

20

48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern or women-owned small business (WOSB) concern eligible...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern...

2012-10-01

21

13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section...Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? (a)...

2012-01-01

22

48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern or women-owned small business (WOSB) concern eligible...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern...

2011-10-01

23

48 CFR 18.117 - Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible...117 Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB)...

2012-10-01

24

48 CFR 6.207 - Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible...Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB)...

2013-10-01

25

13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section...Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? (a)...

2010-01-01

26

48 CFR 6.207 - Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible...Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB)...

2011-10-01

27

ENVIRONMENTAL RISK AND IMPACT IN COMMUNITIES OF COLOR AND ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Research has shown that communities of color and economically/educationally disadvantaged communities are at a greater risk of impact from environmental hazards. In many past studies in environmental justice (EJ) communities, scientists have used surrogate measures of exposure b...

28

48 CFR 52.219-29 - Notice of Total Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business (EDWOSB...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business (EDWOSB) Concerns...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business (EDWOSB) Concerns...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business (EDWOSB)...

2011-10-01

29

How Does Childhood Economic Disadvantage Lead to Crime?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study sought to examine the associations between indices of socio-economic deprivation in childhood and later involvement in crime. Method: Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study. In this project a cohort of 1,265 children born in Christchurch in 1977 have been studied from birth to age 21…

Fergusson, David; Swain-Campbell, Nicola; Horwood, John

2004-01-01

30

Developmental outcomes of economically disadvantaged adolescents in Hong Kong: a replication.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between economic disadvantage and adolescent and developmental outcomes as well as perceived family qualities in 3580 Secondary 2 students in Hong Kong. Developmental outcomes include positive youth development constructs, problem behavior and drug taking behavior, whereas perceived family qualities include perceived family interaction and parental parenting. Generally speaking, poor and non-poor adolescents differ in terms of overall positive youth development and family life quality. Although adolescents experiencing poverty do not display significant differences from non-poor adolescents in terms of risk behavior and psychosocial competencies, adolescents with economic disadvantage show lower levels of positive identity, family interaction, and perceived paternal parenting than do those without economic disadvantage. PMID:23446936

Shek, Daniel T L; Tsui, Pik-fong

2013-01-01

31

Family and personal adjustment of economically disadvantaged chinese adolescents in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

This study attempted to examine the relationship between poverty and adolescent developmental outcomes in the family and personal domains in 3,328 Chinese secondary school students in Hong Kong. Developmental outcomes included positive youth development constructs, problem behaviors, perceived family interaction, and parental parenting. Results showed that adolescents experiencing poverty did not differ from nonpoor adolescents in terms of risk behavior and in most indicators of positive youth development. On the other hand, adolescents with economic disadvantage displayed lower levels of positive identity, family interaction, and perceived paternal parenting than did those without economic disadvantage. PMID:22919290

Shek, Daniel T L; Tsui, Pik Fong

2012-01-01

32

Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED) population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods The primary prevention element of Have a Heart Paisley (HaHP) offered risk screening to all eligible individuals. The programme employed two approaches to engaging with the community: a) a social marketing campaign and b) a community development project adopting primarily face-to-face canvassing. Individuals living in areas of SED were under-recruited via the social marketing approach, but successfully recruited via face-to-face canvassing. This paper reports on focus group discussions with participants, exploring their perceptions about and experiences of both approaches. Results Various reasons were identified for low uptake of risk screening amongst individuals living in areas of high SED in response to the social marketing campaign and a number of ways in which the face-to-face canvassing approach overcame these barriers were identified. These have been categorised into four main themes: (1) processes of engagement; (2) issues of understanding; (3) design of the screening service and (4) the priority accorded to screening. The most immediate barriers to recruitment were the invitation letter, which often failed to reach its target, and the general distrust of postal correspondence. In contrast, participants were positive about the face-to-face canvassing approach. Participants expressed a lack of knowledge and understanding about CHD and their risk of developing it and felt there was a lack of clarity in the information provided in the mailing in terms of the process and value of screening. In contrast, direct face-to-face contact meant that outreach workers could explain what to expect. Participants felt that the procedure for uptake of screening was demanding and inflexible, but that the drop-in sessions employed by the community development project had a major impact on recruitment and retention. Conclusion Socio-economically disadvantaged individuals can be hard-to-reach; engagement requires strategies tailored to the needs of the target population rather than a population-wide approach. PMID:20598130

2010-01-01

33

Predictors of Parenting among Economically Disadvantaged Latina Mothers: Mediating and Moderating Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role of ecological risk factors, maternal psychological distress, and social network support on the parenting behaviors of 535 economically disadvantaged Latina mothers, who were surveyed for the Welfare Children, & Families: A Three City Study. We predicted that ecological risk would influence…

Prelow, Hazel M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Bowman, Marvella A.; Swenson, Rebecca R.

2010-01-01

34

WWC Quick Review of the Report "Addressing Summer Reading Setback among Economically Disadvantaged Elementary Students"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined whether providing summer reading books to economically disadvantaged first- and second-grade students for three consecutive summers improved reading achievement. The study analyzed data on about 1,300 students from 17 high-poverty elementary schools in two large districts in Florida. Student-level reading achievement was…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

2010-01-01

35

Food Insecurity Is Associated with Past and Present Economic Disadvantage and Body Mass Index1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fears and experiences of food restriction influence eating behavior but the association between past and present economic disadvantage, food insecurity and body size is poorly understood. Therefore, we examined these associations in a nationwide, representative sample of 25- to 64-y-old Finnish men and women (n 5 6506). The respondents were classified by their body mass index (BMI) into four groups:

Sirpa Sarlio-Lahteenkorva; Eero Lahelma

36

Coordinating Federal Assistance Programs for the Economically Disadvantaged: Recommendations and Background Materials. Special Report No. 31.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special report from the National Commission for Employment Policy on coordinating federal assistance programs for the economically disadvantaged contains two parts. Part 1 includes recommendations for improving public assistance coordination programs in general and employment and training programs in particular. Eight recommendations focus on…

National Commission for Employment Policy (DOL), Washington, DC.

37

Tuberculin Skin Testing among Economically Disadvantaged Youth in a Federally Funded Job Training Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low income, medically underserved communities are at increased risk for tuberculosis. Limited population- based national data are available about tuberculous infection in young people from such backgrounds. To determine the prevalence of a positive tuberculin skin test among economically disadvantaged youth in a federally funded job training program during 1995 and 1996, the authors evaluated data from medical records of

Alan R. Lifson; Linda L. Halcon; Ann M. Johnston; Charles R. Hayman; Peter Hannan; Carol A. Miller; Sarah E. Valway

38

An investigation of the college and career counseling needs of economically disadvantaged, minority gifted students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is an investigation of the college and career counseling needs of economically disadvantaged, academically gifted minority students. Two groups of students were studied and compared ? one group of 50 low?income students, predominantly minority, who were chosen for a special college counseling program, and a second group of 42 middle to high income students, predominantly Asian and Caucasian,

Joy M. Scott

1992-01-01

39

A Role Model Approach to Job Transition for Disadvantaged Cooperative Home Economics Students. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pilot project implemented a role-model approach to job transition for disadvantaged cooperative home economics students in Tulsa and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. From 1974 through 1976, 21 students in four urban high schools were matched with role models on the job. Sixteen of these students retained their jobs. The matches included many different…

Pestle, Ruth

40

Promoting community involvement at brownfields sites in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brownfields programmes provide environmental justice to distressed communities by applying private sector remediation and real estate expertise to abandoned and contaminated properties. This study examines how brownfields developers and community support organisations operating in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods work to increase awareness of projects in the community, build trust between stakeholders and create mechanisms for community members to participate in brownfields

Deborah Rigling Gallagher; Sarah E. Jackson

2008-01-01

41

Political Participation and Cumulative Disadvantage: The Impact of Economic and Social Hardship on Young Citizens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we seek to provide the most comprehensive exploration to date of the effects of economic and social disadvantage on young citizens' voter turnout. We look at four overlapping domains of hardship—those rooted in (a) the family context, (b) the community context, (c) the school context, and (d) major events and life transitions. Our conceptual model of cumulative

Julianna Sandell Pacheco; Eric Plutzer

2008-01-01

42

Educators' Use of Cognitively Challenging Questions in Economically Disadvantaged Preschool Classroom Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: This study investigated the complexity of teacher questions in 14 preschool classrooms serving economically disadvantaged 4-year-olds. The purposes were to explore the frequency and complexity of teacher questions and to determine the extent to which question types varied for different classroom contexts. Using teacher utterances from 24-min transcripts of videotaped classroom observations, we used a logistic regression framework

Susan L. Massey; Khara L. Pence; Laura M. Justice; Ryan P. Bowles

2008-01-01

43

Relation between Reading Problems and Internalizing Behavior in School for Preadolescent Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study of 105 economically disadvantaged children examined the relation between reading problems and internalizing behavior in 3rd- and 5th-grade assessments (8- to 12-year olds). The variable-centered results showed that reading problems predicted change in internalizing behavior in the context of child and family predictors. The…

Ackerman, Brian P.; Izard, Carroll E.; Kobak, Roger; Brown, Eleanor D.; Smith, Clare

2007-01-01

44

Does living in a disadvantaged area mean fewer opportunities to purchase fresh fruit and vegetables in the area? Findings from the Brisbane food study.  

PubMed

Understanding the particularly low intake of fruits and vegetables among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups is an important issue for public health. This study investigated whether access to retail outlets is similar across areas of varying socioeconomic disadvantage in an Australian urban setting, in terms of distance, the numbers of local shops, and their opening hours. This ecological cross-sectional study used 50 randomly sampled census collection districts and their nearby shopping environment (i.e. within 2.5 km), and generally found minimal or no socioeconomic differences in shopping infrastructure. Important methodological and social/economic issues may explain this contrast with overseas findings. PMID:16546696

Winkler, Elisabeth; Turrell, Gavin; Patterson, Carla

2006-09-01

45

Longitudinal predictors of frequent vegetable and fruit consumption among socio-economically disadvantaged Australian adolescents.  

PubMed

Adequate vegetable and fruit consumption is necessary for preventing nutrition-related diseases. Socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume relatively few vegetables and fruits. However, despite nutritional challenges associated with socio-economic disadvantage, a minority of adolescents manage to eat vegetables and fruit in quantities that are more in line with dietary recommendations. This investigation aimed to identify predictors of more frequent intakes of fruits and vegetables among adolescents over a 2-year follow-up period. Data were drawn from 521 socio-economically disadvantaged (maternal education ?Year 10 of secondary school) Australian adolescents aged 12-15 years. Participants were recruited from 37 secondary schools and were asked to complete online surveys in 2004/2005 (baseline) and 2006/2007 (follow-up). Surveys comprised a 38-item FFQ and questions based on Social Ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental influences on diet. At baseline and follow-up, respectively, 29% and 24% of adolescents frequently consumed vegetables (?2 times/day); 33% and 36% frequently consumed fruit (?1 time/day). In multivariable logistic regressions, baseline consumption strongly predicted consumption at follow-up. Frequently being served vegetables at dinner predicted frequent vegetable consumption. Female sex, rarely purchasing food or drink from school vending machines, and usually being expected to eat all foods served predicted frequent fruit consumption. Findings suggest nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving eating behaviours among this at-risk population and should focus on younger adolescents, particularly boys; improving adolescent eating behaviours at school; and encouraging families to increase home availability of healthy foods and to implement meal time rules. PMID:24685764

Stephens, Lena D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

2014-07-01

46

Referral patterns and proximity to palliative care inpatient services by level of socio-economic disadvantage. A national study using spatial analysis  

PubMed Central

Background A range of health outcomes at a population level are related to differences in levels of social disadvantage. Understanding the impact of any such differences in palliative care is important. The aim of this study was to assess, by level of socio-economic disadvantage, referral patterns to specialist palliative care and proximity to inpatient services. Methods All inpatient and community palliative care services nationally were geocoded (using postcode) to one nationally standardised measure of socio-economic deprivation – Socio-Economic Index for Areas (SEIFA; 2006 census data). Referral to palliative care services and characteristics of referrals were described through data collected routinely at clinical encounters. Inpatient location was measured from each person’s home postcode, and stratified by socio-economic disadvantage. Results This study covered July – December 2009 with data from 10,064 patients. People from the highest SEIFA group (least disadvantaged) were significantly less likely to be referred to a specialist palliative care service, likely to be referred closer to death and to have more episodes of inpatient care for longer time. Physical proximity of a person’s home to inpatient care showed a gradient with increasing distance by decreasing levels of socio-economic advantage. Conclusion These data suggest that a simple relationship of low socioeconomic status and poor access to a referral-based specialty such as palliative care does not exist. Different patterns of referral and hence different patterns of care emerge. PMID:23176397

2012-01-01

47

Troubled times, troubled relationships: how economic resources, gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence intimate partner violence.  

PubMed

We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N = 1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mothers' reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age 3, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women's risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women's economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV. PMID:23300198

Golden, Shelley D; Perreira, Krista M; Durrance, Christine Piette

2013-07-01

48

Language and Disadvantage: A Comparison of the Language Abilities of Adolescents from Two Different Socioeconomic Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: It is recognized that children from areas associated with socioeconomic disadvantage are at an increased risk of delayed language development. However, so far research has focused mainly on young children and there has been little investigation into language development in adolescence. Aims: To investigate the language abilities of…

Spencer, Sarah; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy

2012-01-01

49

Development of Human Resources through a Vocationally Oriented Education Program for Disadvantaged Families in Depressed Rural Areas. Interim Report No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One aspect of Project REDY (Rural Education-Disadvantaged Youth) was to explore the degree of upward social and occupational mobility which society might realiztically expect from residents of a rural economically depressed area. Social class structure was identified as a related factor and examined in a rural, Southern Illinois county. It was…

Fuller, Gerald R.; Phipps, Lloyd J.

50

The Impact of a College Counseling Program on Economically Disadvantaged Gifted Students and Their Subsequent College Adjustment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty-four gifted students from economically disadvantaged high schools who attended a college/career counseling program were compared to 16 gifted economically advantaged students who attended a private university summer program. Groups were similar in their motivation to attend college and career readiness. At three-year follow-up, more…

Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Laubscher, Leswin

1996-01-01

51

The impact of a college counseling program on economically disadvantaged gifted students and their subsequent college adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of a college and career counseling program on economically disadvantaged gifted students and their subsequent college adjustment was assessed. Fifty?five students from public high schools in a major urban school district in the midwest were compared to a group of economically advantaged students who participated in a special summer program for high school students at a private midwestern

Leswin Laubscher

1996-01-01

52

Mobile Technologies & Socio-Economic Opportunities for Disadvantaged Women: A Study of Information Behavior in a Developing Nation Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been championed by the United Nations and others as one of the key media to open up socio-economic opportunities for disadvantaged populations. Studies lead us to believe that after being introduced to ICTs, users' information behavior changes, enabling them to benefit from socio-economic

Potnis, Devendra Dilip

2010-01-01

53

Handwriting speed: duration of testing period and relation to socio-economic disadvantage and handedness.  

PubMed

In the course of norm-referencing the Handwriting Speed Test (HST) for 8- to 18-year-olds in the Irish education system, the authors examined the issue of the duration of the handwriting test period, the relation of handwriting speed to socio-economic disadvantage and the comparative handwriting speed of left- and right-handed students. The literature reports some concerns about the generalizability of results from a short-duration handwriting speed test, some evidence that children from poorer backgrounds are less proficient at handwriting, and conflicting results on the relation of handedness to speed of handwriting. The results of this study suggest that the addition of a further 9-minute test to the 3-minute test of the HST would improve its ability to predict handwriting speed problems in everyday extended writing tasks, such as examinations, and would also identify some children who are wrongly classified as slow writers on the 3-minute test. The results also indicate a markedly lower-than-average handwriting speed for children attending designated disadvantaged schools. The results suggest that neither left- nor right-handed children have a consistent advantage in handwriting speed. PMID:18613264

O'Mahony, Paul; Dempsey, Mairead; Killeen, Hazel

2008-01-01

54

Processes of Change for Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Economically Disadvantaged African American Adolescents  

PubMed Central

This study sought to identify Transtheoretical Model processes of change associated with consumption of ? 5 daily servings of FVs in a sample of economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (N = 549; mean (SD) age = 12.44 (.99) years; 61% female; 15% African American Hispanic). Participants completed measures of stages and processes of change, and were ranked according to intake level based on their reported stage. Spearman correlations and independent samples t tests were used in cross-sectional analyses of the relationship between processes of change and FV consumption. Consciousness raising, environmental reevaluation, helping relationships and stimulus control processes were significantly associated with FV consumption (? ? .12; p < .01), and were practiced more often by youths who consumed ? 5 daily servings of FVs relative to those who did not (p < .05). Findings highlight the potential of these processes for increasing FV consumption in this population. PMID:22177398

Thompson, Debbe

2011-01-01

55

Incredible Years Parent Training Support for Nursery Staff Working within a Disadvantaged Flying Start Area in Wales: A Feasibility Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parenting programmes are effective interventions for preventing and treating conduct problems in young children. Up to 20% of children in disadvantaged areas have conduct disorder. Recent government initiatives such as targeting early years services to designated disadvantaged Flying Start areas in Wales have resulted in increased nursery-care…

Bywater, Tracey Jane; Hutchings, Judith Mary; Gridley, Nicole; Jones, Karen

2011-01-01

56

Nicotine dependence more strongly correlates with psychological distress in disadvantaged areas of Kazakhstan than Germany.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the association of current smoking and nicotine dependence with psychological distress in socially disadvantaged urban areas of Germany and Kazakhstan. Random samples of people living in disadvantaged areas of Berlin, Germany, and Almaty, Kazakhstan, were assessed using the General Health Questionnaire with 28 items and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. The association of both current smoking and nicotine dependence with psychological distress was assessed for each sample using linear regression analyses and compared between the two samples calculating t-values for the comparison of B-coefficients. Current smoking was equally associated with psychological distress in both countries, whereas the association of nicotine dependence and psychological distress was only seen for the Kazakh sample and significantly stronger than for the German sample. The results could not be explained by social characteristics. Possibly due to the lack of outpatient community mental health services for the treatment of common mental disorders, nicotine dependence was associated with psychological distress in the disadvantaged area of Kazakhstan. PMID:23807567

Ignatyev, Yuriy; Mundt, Adrian P

2014-10-01

57

Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ?24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services. PMID:23839061

Hu, Yu; Li, Qian; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Yaping; Qi, Xiaohua

2013-01-01

58

Risk factors for low birth weight in a socio-economically disadvantaged population: Parity, marital status, ethnicity and cigarette smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low birth weight (LBW) is a public health problem, because it is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The principal aim of this study was to assess risk factors for LBW in a large multi-ethnic and socio-economically disadvantaged population. Data from 3242 mothers, who attended the Well Baby Clinic (Southwestern Sydney, Australia) for the first time, were analysed

H. Phung; A. Bauman; T. V. Nguyen; L. Young; M. Tran; K. Hillman

2003-01-01

59

The Relationship Between Chinese Cultural Beliefs About Adversity and Psychological Adjustment in Chinese Families with Economic Disadvantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between Chinese beliefs about adversity and psychological well-being was studied in 229 economically disadvantaged Chinese families. Results showed that adolescents with stronger endorsement of positive Chinese beliefs about adversity generally displayed better psychological well-being and school adjustment and less problem behavior. Maternal endorsement, but not paternal endorsement, of Chinese beliefs about adversity was related to adolescent adjustment. Parental

Daniel T. L. Shek; Vera Tang; C. M. Lam; M. C. Lam; K. W. Tsoi; K. M. Tsang

2003-01-01

60

Growing up as "Man of the House": Adultification and Transition into Adulthood for Young Men in Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field…

Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

2014-01-01

61

Exposure to interpersonal violence and socioemotional adjustment in economically disadvantaged preschoolers.  

PubMed

Focusing specifically on the experiences of economically disadvantaged preschoolers, the relations between interpersonal violence exposure, behavior problems, and social skills were examined in both the home and school settings. In this racially and ethnically diverse sample of preschoolers from poor, urban households (N = 64; 3-6 years old; 56% female), many children (33%) had been exposed to at least 1 type of interpersonal violence, and even more (70%) had been exposed to any type of potentially traumatic event (PTE). Although exposure to interpersonal violence was not directly associated with parent- or teacher-reported behavior problems or social skills, a significant interaction effect was observed between exposure to interpersonal violence and teacher-reported internalizing problems in predicting teacher-reported social skills; specifically, for children with the highest levels of internalizing problems, a positive relation between interpersonal violence exposure and social skills was observed. This indirect effect was observed only in the school setting, whereas children in this high-risk sample appeared to demonstrate resilience in the home setting. Given these high rates of exposure, additional, clinically relevant research is needed to inform interventions for this vulnerable population. PMID:25175528

Bush, Hillary H; Eisenhower, Abbey

2014-01-01

62

The social-emotional impact of instrumental music performance on economically disadvantaged South African students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent these findings hold true for disadvantaged students. The purpose of this study

Karendra Devroop

2012-01-01

63

Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to provide greater access and support to academically talented students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Originally intended to provide financial support to lower income students, this NSF program also advocated that additional professional development and advising would be strategies to increase undergraduate persistence to graduation. This innovative program for economically disadvantaged students was extended in 2004 to include students from other disciplines including the physical and life sciences as well as the technology fields, and the new name of the program was Scholarships for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (S-STEM). The implementation of these two programs in Louisiana State University (LSU) has shown significant and measurable success since 2000, making LSU a Model University in providing support to economically disadvantaged students within the STEM disciplines. The achievement of these programs is evidenced by the graduation rates of its participants. This report provides details on the educational model employed through the CSEMS/S-STEM projects at LSU and provides a path to success for increasing student retention rates in STEM disciplines. While the LSU's experience is presented as a case study, the potential relevance of this innovative mentoring program in conjunction with the financial support system is discussed in detail.

Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

2012-10-01

64

Geographic remoteness, area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and inequalities in colorectal cancer survival in Queensland: a multilevel analysis  

PubMed Central

Background To explore the impact of geographical remoteness and area-level socioeconomic disadvantage on colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. Methods Multilevel logistic regression and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations were used to analyze geographical variations in five-year all-cause and CRC-specific survival across 478 regions in Queensland Australia for 22,727 CRC cases aged 20–84 years diagnosed from 1997–2007. Results Area-level disadvantage and geographic remoteness were independently associated with CRC survival. After full multivariate adjustment (both levels), patients from remote (odds Ratio [OR]: 1.24, 95%CrI: 1.07-1.42) and more disadvantaged quintiles (OR?=?1.12, 1.15, 1.20, 1.23 for Quintiles 4, 3, 2 and 1 respectively) had lower CRC-specific survival than major cities and least disadvantaged areas. Similar associations were found for all-cause survival. Area disadvantage accounted for a substantial amount of the all-cause variation between areas. Conclusions We have demonstrated that the area-level inequalities in survival of colorectal cancer patients cannot be explained by the measured individual-level characteristics of the patients or their cancer and remain after adjusting for cancer stage. Further research is urgently needed to clarify the factors that underlie the survival differences, including the importance of geographical differences in clinical management of CRC. PMID:24152961

2013-01-01

65

The Social-Emotional Impact of Instrumental Music Performance on Economically Disadvantaged South African Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent these…

Devroop, Karendra

2012-01-01

66

Engaging Women Who Are Depressed and Economically Disadvantaged in Mental Health Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women disadvantaged by poverty, as well as racial or ethnic minority status, are more likely to experience depression than the rest of the U.S. population. At the same time, they are less likely to seek or remain in treatment for depression in traditional mental health settings. This article explores a therapeutic, psychosocial engagement strategy…

Grote, Nancy K.; Zuckoff, Allan; Swartz, Holly; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Geibel, Sharon

2007-01-01

67

Economic Upturn Reaches Problem Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic recovery in Austria is well under way. Signs that economic activity has picked up can also be found at the regional level. None of the major regions has lagged behind; even in the Southeast, where in previous business cycles the rebound came at a late stage, demand has firmed up rapidly. The upturn has been supported by foreign

Norbert Geldner; Peter Mayerhofer; Gerhard Palme

1994-01-01

68

Lessons from black-thicket jungle: What is feasible in village schools of disadvantaged areas?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative examination of the national goals of education as presented by various developing countries shows such goals to be often abstract and overly idealistic: a long way from the harsh reality of most rural village schools. Drawing on the results of a lengthy field study in a disadvantaged area of Sri Lanka, this article discusses the matter of feasibility in the shadow of too high expectations. It is concluded that ambitious goals should be operationalized at a practicable level, and recommendations are put forward for feasible action. As a rigidly ordered system of schooling may be an inevitable stage in a progressive evolution of schooling types, patience is needed before criticizing schools which lack creative teaching and problem-solving approaches. It is emphasised that the most important raw materials of the educational system are abundantly present, i.e., human resources. Children are eager to learn; parents are potentially supportive and want education for the sake of learning as well as for jobs. And most importantly for the success of the schools, dedicated principals and teachers are present in unexpectedly high numbers considering the constraints they face. The importance of such educators is stressed, along with implications for selection, training and remuneration.

Baker, Victoria J.

1989-06-01

69

Long-Term Investments in Youth: The Need for Comprehensive Programs for Disadvantaged Young Men in Urban Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New programs taking a comprehensive approach to disadvantaged young men in urban areas have met with some success. This paper attempts to define the issues that will influence the development of comprehensive programs and examines the qualities that have made them a promising alternative for the future. Issues that shape the lives of youth include…

Jones, Sarah E.

70

Building Lectures and Building Bridges with Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is an empirical analysis of the first stage of an ongoing effort to introduce technology to enhance student learning in introductory corporate finance within a multi-campus and multi-mode regional Australian University. The engagement and performance of low socio-economic status (SES) students is of particular interest because…

Phillips, Peter; Loch, Birgit

2011-01-01

71

Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Interactions of Disadvantages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based on a study of 7,372 students in grades 5-10 (aged 11-16) in a representative sample of Norwegian compulsory schools. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between students' reported socio-economic status (SES) and their perceived social inclusion (SI) in school in the whole sample. We also considered separately a…

Veland, Jarmund; Midthassel, Unni Vere; Idsoe, Thormod

2009-01-01

72

An Assessment of Cognitive Behavior of Economically Disadvantaged Young Adults in North Mississippi.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to determine the appropriateness of two conventional intelligence tests for assessing the ability of economically deprived young adults participating in job training programs by comparing their test results with those of the test standardization groups. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), and the Langmuir Oral Direction…

Wolfe, Lillian S.; And Others

73

Economic disadvantage and transitional outcomes: a study of young people from low-income families in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

This study draws on data from focus groups involving 50 young people from low-income families in Hong Kong to investigate their school-to-work experiences. In line with the ecological–developmental perspective, our results show that contextual influences, including lower levels of parental involvement and lack of opportunities for further education or skill development, constrain both the formulation and pursuit of educational and career goals. In contrast, service use and supportive interactions with parents and non-family adults were found to help young people find a career direction and foster more adaptive transition. Furthermore, our results indicate a striking difference in intrapersonal agency and coping styles between youths who were attending further education or engaged in jobs with career advancement opportunities and those who were not. We discuss the implications of our findings, both for future research and for policy development to enhance the school-to-work transition of economically disadvantaged young people. PMID:25364087

Ngai, Steven Sek Yum; Cheung, Jacky Chau-Kiu; To, Siu-ming; Luan, Hui; Zhao, Ruiling

2014-01-01

74

Perceived Socio?Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Interactions of Disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on a study of 7,372 students in grades 5–10 (aged 11–16) in a representative sample of Norwegian compulsory schools. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between students' reported socio?economic status (SES) and their perceived social inclusion (SI) in school in the whole sample. We also considered separately a sub?sample of students with

Jarmund Veland; Unni Vere Midthassel; Thormod Idsoe

2009-01-01

75

Moving beyond the residential neighborhood to explore social inequalities in exposure to area-level disadvantage: Results from the Interdisciplinary Study on Inequalities in Smoking.  

PubMed

The focus, in place and health research, on a single, residential, context overlooks the fact that individuals are mobile and experience other settings in the course of their daily activities. Socio-economic characteristics are associated with activity patterns, as well as with the quality of places where certain groups conduct activities, i.e. their non-residential activity space. Examining how measures of exposure to resources, and inequalities thereof, compare between residential and non-residential contexts is required. Baseline data from 1890 young adults (18-25 years-old) participating in the Interdisciplinary Study of Inequalities in Smoking, Montreal, Canada (2011-2012), were analyzed. Socio-demographic and activity location data were collected using a validated, self-administered questionnaire. Area-level material deprivation was measured within 500-m road-network buffer zones around participants' residential and activity locations. Deprivation scores in the residential area and non-residential activity space were compared between social groups. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate associations between individual- and area-level characteristics and non-residential activity space deprivation, and to explore whether these characteristics attenuated the education-deprivation association. Participants in low educational categories lived and conducted activities in more disadvantaged areas than university students/graduates. Educational inequalities in exposure to area-level deprivation were larger in the non-residential activity space than in the residential area for the least educated, but smaller for the intermediate group. Adjusting for selected covariates such as transportation resources and residential deprivation did not significantly attenuate the education-deprivation associations. Results support the existence of social isolation in residential areas and activity locations, whereby less educated individuals tend to be confined to more disadvantaged areas than their more educated counterparts. They also highlight the relevance of investigating both residential and non-residential contexts when studying inequalities in health-relevant exposures. PMID:24632055

Shareck, Martine; Kestens, Yan; Frohlich, Katherine L

2014-05-01

76

The general and mental health of movers to more- and less-disadvantaged socio-economic and physical environments within the UK.  

PubMed

Residential mobility may play an important role in influencing both individual health, by determining individual exposures to environments, and area health, by shaping area population composition. This study is the first analysis of migration within the UK to compare general and mental health among adults by age group and consider moves between neighbourhoods with different levels of both socio-economic and physical environment disadvantage. The analysis assesses 122,570 cases from the annual British Household Panel Survey, 1996-2006, based upon pooled data describing moves between consecutive waves of the survey. It assesses the rates and binary logistic regression model odds of self-reported general health and mental health problems of movers and stayers by age group. It also compares movers between Census Area Statistics wards in the UK with different levels of Carstairs and Multiple Environmental Deprivation Index (MEDIx) scores. At all ages, movers had similar or higher odds of poor general and mental health relative to non-movers. Risk of mental health problems were particularly elevated among movers and remained significant after adjustment for socio-demographic variables in most age groups. In adjusted analysis of all adults odds of poor general and mental health were most elevated among movers to more socio-economically deprived areas, with the highest odds for mental health (1.54 95% CI 1.27-1.86). In contrast, risk of poor mental health among total adults was greatest among movers to better physical environments (1.40 95% CI 1.16-1.70). This study therefore finds little evidence of 'healthy migrant effects' among recent movers within the UK and suggests movers have particularly elevated risk of mental health problems. It also indicates that selective migration may not contribute to poor health found in UK neighbourhoods with multiple physical environment deprivation. Further analysis should explore why people with mental health problems are more likely to move to socio-economically deprived neighbourhoods. PMID:25112564

Tunstall, Helena; Mitchell, Richard; Pearce, Jamie; Shortt, Niamh

2014-10-01

77

Neighbourhood inequality - do small area interactions influence economic outcomes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 25 years neighbourhood economic outcomes have become increasingly polarised in Australia (Badcock, 1997; Hunter, 2003). The growing spatial dimensions of this inequality have generated discussion about the existence of 'neighbourhood effects', localised externalities and other endogenous processes, leading to underinvestment in education, lower levels of job-creation and economic activity, than might be expected in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Recently

Anthea Bill

78

Molecular Identification of Human Hookworm Infections in Economically Disadvantaged Communities in Peninsular Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Species identification of human hookworm infections among eight communities in rural areas of Peninsular Malaysia was determined during 2009–2011. Fecal samples were examined by microscopy and subsequently, the internal transcribed spacer 2 and 28S ribosomal RNA region of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp. were sequenced. Overall, 9.1% (58 of 634) were identified positive by microscopy for hookworm infection, and 47 (81.0%) of 58 were successfully amplified and sequenced. Sequence comparison found that N. americanus (87.2%) was the most predominant hookworm identified, followed by Ancylostoma ceylanicum (23.4%). No A. duodenale infection was detected in this study. Detection of A. ceylanicum in humans highlighted the zoonotic transmission among humans living near dogs. Thus, implementation of effective control measures for hookworm infections in future should seriously consider this zoonotic implication. PMID:22556084

Ngui, Romano; Ching, Lee Soo; Kai, Tan Tiong; Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Lim, Yvonne A. L.

2012-01-01

79

A Longitudinal Study of Chinese Cultural Beliefs about Adversity, Psychological Well-Being, Delinquency and Substance Abuse in Chinese Adolescents with Economic Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examines the relationships between Chinese cultural beliefs about adversity and psychological well-being and problem behavior in 199 Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage. Results showed that endorsement of Chinese cultural beliefs about adversity was concurrently related to measures of adolescent psychological…

Shek, Daniel T. L.

2005-01-01

80

Rethinking the Curriculum To Meet the Needs of Underprepared, Underrepresented, and Economically Disadvantaged Students: Majors and Courses for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attracting and assuring the success of students of color requires the rethinking of curricula to meet the needs of underrepresented, underprepared, and economically disadvantaged students. General education offerings should be restructured to give students the skills and resources needed to make sense out of their particular gender and ethnicity,…

Glock, Nancy Clover

81

Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities, and psychological well-being in chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage.  

PubMed

The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques to control their behavior; (b) the extent to which their parents attempted to control them in a way that undermined their psychological development; (c) the parent-child relational qualities, such as the child's readiness to communicate with the parents and perceived mutual trust; and (d) the child's psychological well-being. Although adolescents with economic disadvantage did not differ from adolescents without economic disadvantage on the maternal variables (except on parental knowledge and parental monitoring), adolescents whose families were receiving public assistance generally perceived paternal behavioral control and father-child relational qualities to be more negative than did adolescents who were not receiving public assistance. The author found psychological well-being (shown by hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, self-esteem) of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage to be weaker than that of adolescents not experiencing economic disadvantage. PMID:15906930

Shek, Daniel T L

2005-06-01

82

The Relationship between Residential Land Use Patterns and the Educational Outcomes of Economically Disadvantaged Students in Texas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disparate outcomes resulting from economic segregation in public primary schools have been the subject of much debate and litigation. Little research, however, examines whether negative outcomes may be exacerbated by inequities in the distribution of housing across metropolitan areas. This article explores connections between residential land use…

Van Zandt, Shannon; Wunneburger, Douglas F.

2011-01-01

83

Electronic Monitoring of Oral Therapies in Ethnically Diverse and Economically Disadvantaged Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Consequences of Low Adherence  

PubMed Central

Background To quantify adherence to oral therapies in ethnically diverse and economically disadvantaged patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using electronic medication monitoring, and to evaluate the clinical consequences of low adherence. Methods 107 patients with RA enrolled in a 2-year prospective cohort study agreed to have their oral RA drug therapy intake electronically monitored, with the Medication Events Monitoring System (MEMS®). Adherence to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and prednisone were determined as the percentage of days (or weeks for methotrexate) in which the patient took the correct dose as prescribed by the physician. Patient outcomes were assessed including the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ), the Disease Activity Index 28 (DAS28), quality of life and radiological damage using Sharp-van der Heijde scores. Results Adherence to the treatment regimen as determined by percent of correct doses was 64% for DMARDs and 70% for prednisone. Patients who had better mental health were statistically more likely to be adherent. Only 23 (21%) of the patients had an average adherence to DMARDs ? 80%. These patients showed significantly better disease activity scores across 2 years of follow-up than those who were less adherent (DAS28 3.3±1.3 vs. 4.1±1.2, p<0.02). Radiological scores were also worse in non-adherent patients at baseline and 12 months. Conclusions Only one fifth of the RA patients had an overall adherence of at least 80%. Less than two thirds of the prescribed DMARD doses were correctly taken. Adherent patients had lower disease activity and radiological damage scores across the 2 years of follow-up. PMID:23728826

Waimann, Christian A.; Marengo, Maria F.; de Achaval, Sofia; Cox, Vanessa L.; Garcia-Gonzalez, Araceli; Reveille, John D.; Richardson, Marsha N.; Almazor, Maria E. Suarez

2013-01-01

84

Virgin Islands Demonstration Library Network Study: Exploring Library Networking in Remote, Disadvantaged Areas. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Virgin Islands Demonstration Library Network Study (VIDLNS) seeks to determine whether the development of either local or regional library networks would be the key to optimal organization of small library collections in isolated areas. This report describes the research and demonstration components of the exploratory phase of the project: (1)…

Chang, Henry C.; And Others

85

'If the Food Looks Dodgy I Dinnae Eat It': Teenagers' Accounts of Food and Eating Practices in Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how young teenagers living in socio-economically disadvantaged families perceive everyday food and eating practices within the home. From in-depth interviews with 36 Scottish teenagers aged 13-14 years, we analysed teenagers\\\\' accounts of contemporary \\\\'family meals\\\\'. We found that food and eating practices were negotiated amidst complex family arrangements with extended, resident and non-resident kin. Parents were often

Wendy J. Wills; Kathryn Backett-Milburn; Sue Gregory; Julia Lawton

2008-01-01

86

Types of Social Capital and Mental Disorder in Deprived Urban Areas: A Multilevel Study of 40 Disadvantaged London Neighbourhoods  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the extent to which individual and ecological-level cognitive and structural social capital are associated with common mental disorder (CMD), the role played by physical characteristics of the neighbourhood in moderating this association, and the longitudinal change of the association between ecological level cognitive and structural social capital and CMD. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of 40 disadvantaged London neighbourhoods. We used a contextual measure of the physical characteristics of each neighbourhood to examine how the neighbourhood moderates the association between types of social capital and mental disorder. We analysed the association between ecological-level measures of social capital and CMD longitudinally. Participants 4,214 adults aged 16-97 (44.4% men) were randomly selected from 40 disadvantaged London neighbourhoods. Main Outcome Measures General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Results Structural rather than cognitive social capital was significantly associated with CMD after controlling for socio-demographic variables. However, the two measures of structural social capital used, social networks and civic participation, were negatively and positively associated with CMD respectively. ‘Social networks’ was negatively associated with CMD at both the individual and ecological levels. This result was maintained when contextual aspects of the physical environment (neighbourhood incivilities) were introduced into the model, suggesting that ‘social networks’ was independent from characteristics of the physical environment. When ecological-level longitudinal analysis was conducted, ‘social networks’ was not statistically significant after controlling for individual-level social capital at follow up. Conclusions If we conceptually distinguish between cognitive and structural components as the quality and quantity of social capital respectively, the conclusion of this study is that the quantity rather than quality of social capital is important in relation to CMD at both the individual and ecological levels in disadvantaged urban areas. Thus, policy should support interventions that create and sustain social networks. One of these is explored in this article. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN68175121 http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN68175121 PMID:24312459

Bertotti, Marcello; Watts, Paul; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Yu, Ge; Schmidt, Elena; Tobi, Patrick; Lais, Shahana; Renton, Adrian

2013-01-01

87

Measuring disadvantage: changes in the underprivileged area, Townsend, and Carstairs scores 1981-91.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To compare the intercensal change for each of the underprivileged area (UPA), Townsend, and Carstairs scores calculated from 1981 and 1991 census data. SETTING--England and Wales. METHODS--The method described enables comparison of change in composite scores such as the UPA, Townsend, and Carstairs scores which are derived from normalised variables. The national values of equivalent variables derived from the censuses are calculated and normalised on the same baseline of the 1981 electoral ward mean and SD values. The resultant change in composite scores for different censuses can then be compared directly. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Change in the composite score values for the 1991 census when compared with the 1981 census. RESULTS--For England and Wales, the UPA score increased by 5.62 units (0.35 of the SD) but the Townsend and Carstairs scores fell by 2.39 and 1.13 units respectively (0.71 and 0.33 of the SDs). CONCLUSION--The Townsend and Carstairs scores are good measures of material deprivation and show a general improvement as such between 1981 and 1991. The UPA score, however, includes additional factors relating to family structure, social deprivation, and health need and shows a decline in the overall situation. PMID:8594131

Dolan, S A; Jarman, B; Bajekal, M; Davies, P M; Hart, D

1995-01-01

88

Housing conditions and mental health in a disadvantaged area in Scotland.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the mental health impact of different aspects of poor housing. DESIGN: This was a post hoc analysis of data from a household interview survey. SETTING: A public sector housing estate on the outskirts of Glasgow. SUBJECTS: These comprised 114 men and 333 women aged between 17 and 65 from 451 households. MEASURES: Dependent variable: scoring > or = 5 on the 30 item general health questionnaire (GHQ30). Independent variables: self reported data on household composition, whether ill health was a factor in the move to the current dwelling, length of time at address, household income, whether the respondent was employed, chronic illness, and 6 problems with the dwelling. RESULTS: Reporting a problem with dampness was significantly and independently associated with scores of > or = 5 on the GHQ30 after controlling for possible confounding variables. CONCLUSION: Initiatives to tackle housing dampness may be important in developing a strategy to improve mental health for the study area. More research on the mental health impact of different aspects of poor housing is required. PMID:8762355

Hopton, J L; Hunt, S M

1996-01-01

89

The NASA Plan: To award eight percent of prime and subcontracts to socially and economically disadvantaged businesses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is NASA's intent to provide small disadvantaged businesses, including women-owned, historically black colleges and universities and minority education institutions the maximum practicable opportunity to receive a fair proportion of NASA prime and subcontracted awards. Annually, NASA will establish socioeconomic procurement goals including small disadvantaged business goals, with a target of reaching the eight percent level by the end of FY 1994. The NASA Associate Administrators, who are responsible for the programs at the various NASA Centers, will be held accountable for full implementation of the socioeconomic procurement plans. Various aspects of this plan, including its history, are discussed.

1990-01-01

90

Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to…

Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

2012-01-01

91

Updating the Process and Content of Teacher Education Curriculum to Research Disadvantaged Youth in Western Metropolitan Areas. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central purpose of this report is to help teachers, teacher educators, supervisors, and local directors to be more aware of the problems and needs of disadvantaged urban youth. Focus is directed toward existing teacher education programs to determine needed changes which will help teachers to better serve the education needs of disadvantaged

Haas, Mary Helen; Wood, Marcile

92

The Do-Well study: protocol for a randomised controlled trial, economic and qualitative process evaluations of domiciliary welfare rights advice for socio-economically disadvantaged older people recruited via primary health care  

PubMed Central

Background Older people in poor health are more likely to need extra money, aids and adaptations to allow them to remain independent and cope with ill health, yet in the UK many do not claim the welfare benefits to which they are entitled. Welfare rights advice interventions lead to greater welfare income, but have not been rigorously evaluated for health benefits. This study will evaluate the effects on health and well-being of a domiciliary welfare rights advice service provided by local government or voluntary organisations in North East England for independent living, socio-economically disadvantaged older people (aged ?60?yrs), recruited from general (primary care) practices. Methods/Design The study is a pragmatic, individually randomised, single blinded, wait-list controlled trial of welfare rights advice versus usual care, with embedded economic and qualitative process evaluations. The qualitative study will examine whether the intervention is delivered as intended; explore responses to the intervention and examine reasons for the trial findings; and explore the potential for translation of the intervention into routine policy and practice. The primary outcome is the effect on health-related quality of life, measured using the CASP 19 questionnaire. Volunteer men and women aged ?60?years (1/household) will be identified from general practice patient registers. Patients in nursing homes or hospitals at the time of recruitment will be excluded. General practice populations will be recruited from disadvantaged areas of North East England, including urban, rural and semi-rural areas, with no previous access to targeted welfare rights advice services delivered to primary care patients. A minimum of 750 participants will be randomised to intervention and control arms in a 1:1 ratio. Discussion Achieving a trial design that is both ethical and acceptable to potential participants, required methodological compromises. The choice of follow-up length required a trade-off between sufficient time to demonstrate health impact and the need to allow the control group access to the intervention as early as possible. The study will have implications for fundamental understanding of social inequalities and how to tackle them, and provides a model for similar evaluations of health-orientated social interventions. If the health benefits of this intervention are proven, targeted welfare rights advice services should be extended to ensure widespread provision for older people and other vulnerable groups. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN Number ISRCTN37380518 PMID:22639988

2012-01-01

93

Examining Alternative Measures of Social Disadvantage Among Asian Americans: The Relevance of Economic Opportunity, Subjective Social Status, and Financial Strain for Health  

PubMed Central

Socioeconomic position is often operationalized as education, occupation, and income. However, these measures may not fully capture the process of socioeconomic disadvantage that may be related to morbidity. Economic opportunity, subjective social status, and financial strain may also place individuals at risk for poor health outcomes. Data come from the Asian subsample of the 2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (n = 2095). Regression models were used to examine the associations between economic opportunity, subjective social status, and financial strain and the outcomes of self-rated health, body mass index, and smoking status. Education, occupation, and income were also investigated as correlates of these outcomes. Low correlations were observed between all measures of socioeconomic status. Economic opportunity was robustly negatively associated with poor self-rated health, higher body mass index, and smoking, followed by financial strain, then subjective social status. Findings show that markers of socioeconomic position beyond education, occupation, and income are related to morbidity among Asian Americans. This suggests that potential contributions of social disadvantage to poor health may be understated if only conventional measures are considered among immigrant and minority populations. PMID:19434494

Gee, Gilbert C.; Takeuchi, David T.

2009-01-01

94

Schools and Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three books reviewed in this essay all have a similar theme: the role that schools and other institutions can play in improving the life-chances of young people and breaking the cycle of socio-economic disadvantage and low educational attainment that is characteristic of school systems around the world. Through an evaluation of the Academies…

Smith, Emma

2011-01-01

95

Economic Development for Small Communities and Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to provide an introductory understanding of challenges, goals, processes, and procedures for economic developers, particularly economic development volunteers, in rural areas and small towns. Chapter 1 defines economic development and basic terms. Chapter 2 describes major economic, social, and demographic trends that…

Phillips, Phillip D.

96

An Analysis of the Emerging Roles of the Paraprofessional School-Community Aide with Implications for Strategies of Social Change in Disadvantaged Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed the use of paraprofessionals as school-community workers (Community Counselors) by the Flint (Michigan) Community Schools. The purpose was to examine perceptions and expectations of this position in order to: organize a framework for the emerging role of the indigenous school-community worker in urban disadvantaged areas; make…

Hadden, Marise Alvena Tabor Bell

97

A quantitative nutritional evaluation of a healthy eating intervention in primary school children in a socioeconomically disadvantaged area - A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To perform a pilot study that evaluates the nutritional and dietary habits of primary school children in a socioeconomically disadvantaged area prior to and following a healthy eating intervention programme.Design A quantitative study whereby the food intakes of 20 boys and 20 girls aged 8 to 9 years old were recorded for five days prior to, and for five

Niamh OBrien; Caroline Roe; Sue Reeves

2002-01-01

98

Public perception and economic implications of bottled water consumption in underprivileged urban areas.  

PubMed

This paper presents a comparative assessment of public perception of drinking water quality in two underprivileged urban areas in Lebanon and Jordan with nearly similar cultural and demographic characteristics. It compares the quality of bottled water to the quality of the drinking water supplied through the public network and examines the economic implications of bottled water consumption in the two study areas. Participants' perception of the quality of drinking water provided via the public network was generally negative, and bottled water was perceived to be of better quality in both areas, thus affecting drinking water preferences and consumption patterns. The results reveal that the quality of bottled water is questionable in areas that lack enforcement of water quality standards, thus adding to the burden of an already disadvantaged community. Both areas demonstrated a considerable cost incurred for purchasing bottled water in low income communities reaching up to 26 % of total income. PMID:22828978

Massoud, M A; Maroun, R; Abdelnabi, H; Jamali, I I; El-Fadel, M

2013-04-01

99

THE ATLANTA AREA WORKSHOP ON PREPARING TEACHERS TO WORK WITH DISADVANTAGED YOUTH (PINE MOUNTAIN, GEORGIA, MARCH 5-8, 1967).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS IS A REPORT OF A WORKSHOP FOR 114 SOUTHERN EDUCATIONAL LEADERS WHICH AIMED AT (1) INVESTIGATING THE PROBLEMS FACED BY TEACHERS OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN, (2) GENERATING IDEAS FOR MODEL PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE PROGRAMS FOR SUCH TEACHERS, AND (3) HAVING WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS DESIGN SUCH PROGRAMS. THERE WAS GENERAL AGREEMENT THAT THE BASIC…

CODY, WILMER S.; SHUFELT, LYNN F.

100

It Doesn't Happen Here: Eating Disorders in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Economically Disadvantaged, Urban College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulk of eating disorder studies have focused on white, middle-upper class women, excluding ethnically and economically diverse women and men. Accordingly, our knowledge of prevalence rates and risk factors is reliant on this narrow literature. To expand upon the current literature, we examined eating disorders in ethnically diverse low-income, urban college students. We surveyed 884 incoming freshmen during an

Katie Gentile; Chitra Raghavan; Valli Rajah; Katie Gates

2007-01-01

101

2013 Economic Outlook for Denver Metro Area  

E-print Network

to 2012" #12;2012 Outlook I don't always make economic forecasts But when I do, I am invariably wrong. #12;2012 Outlook · New Jobs: The region could add between 13,000 and 18,000 jobs in 2012 (1.2% - 1.5%) ­ Pre=y wrong. The region

Stephens, Graeme L.

102

ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF A WIDE AREA RELEASE OF ANTHRAX  

E-print Network

ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF A WIDE AREA RELEASE OF ANTHRAX May 2009 Prepared Regional Technology Center for Homeland Security Economic Impacts of a Wide Area Release of Anthrax KS, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness

103

METROPOLITAN REPORT Economic Indicators for the New Orleans Area  

E-print Network

METROPOLITAN REPORT Economic Indicators for the New Orleans Area Division of Business and Economic was down to 51% of what it had been before the storm hit. 216,900 jobs had been lost to bring-Katrina, and the area's population is at 75% of its former level. · The sectors that have regained or even surpassed

Kulp, Mark

104

METROPOLITAN REPORT Economic Indicators for the New Orleans Area  

E-print Network

METROPOLITAN REPORT Economic Indicators for the New Orleans Area Division of Business and Economic · The New Orleans metropolitan area has achieved significant recovery during the past five years. Despite%, respectively). Residential construction has slowed and is one of the lowest ranking indicators at 51% of pre

Kulp, Mark

105

METROPOLITAN REPORT Economic Indicators for the New Orleans Area  

E-print Network

METROPOLITAN REPORT Economic Indicators for the New Orleans Area Division of Business and Economic HIGHLIGHTS Just after Katrina, employment fell to 70% while population dropped by almost half to 51%. After six years, New Orleans employment stands at 87% of pre-Katrina jobs, while 90% of the area population

Kulp, Mark

106

Briefing paper Economic and monetary conditions in the euro area  

E-print Network

Briefing paper Economic and monetary conditions in the euro area: crossing the Atlantic Ocean Jean. The fashionable world is "resilient". Most forecasting institutes expect the euro area to be relatively resilient the uncertainty surrounding the forecast : "despite the slowing down of world growth, the euro area

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

107

Exploring disparities in acute myocardial infarction events between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: roles of age, gender, geography and area-level disadvantage.  

PubMed

We investigated disparities in rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in the 199 Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) in New South Wales, Australia. Using routinely collected and linked hospital and mortality data from 2002 to 2007, we developed multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the relative rates of first AMI events in the study period accounting for area of residence. Rates of AMI in Aboriginal people were more than two times that in non-Aboriginal people, with the disparity greatest in more disadvantaged and remote areas. AMI rates in Aboriginal people varied significantly by SLA, as did the Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal rate ratio. We identified almost 30 priority areas for universal and targeted preventive interventions that had both high rates of AMI for Aboriginal people and large disparities in rates. PMID:24751666

Randall, D A; Jorm, L R; Lujic, S; Eades, S J; Churches, T R; O'Loughlin, A J; Leyland, A H

2014-07-01

108

Can we disentangle life course processes of accumulation, critical period and social mobility? An analysis of disadvantaged socio-economic positions and myocardial infarction in the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation hypothesis would propose that the longer the duration of exposure to disadvantaged socio-economic position, the greater the risk of myocardial infarction. However there may be a danger of confounding between accumulation and possibly more complex combinations of critical periods of exposure and social mobility. The objective of this paper is to investigate the possibility of distinguishing between these

Johan Hallqvist; John Lynch; Mel Bartley; Thierry Lang; David Blane

2004-01-01

109

Three-year change in diet quality and associated changes in BMI among schoolchildren living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.  

PubMed

Findings from research that has assessed the influence of dietary factors on child obesity have been equivocal. In the present study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that a positive change in diet quality is associated with favourable changes in BMI z-scores (zBMI) in schoolchildren from low socio-economic backgrounds and to examine whether this effect is modified by BMI category at baseline. The present study utilised data from a subsample (n 216) of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, a longitudinal cohort study with data collected in 2007-8 (T1) and 2010-11 (T2) in socio-economically disadvantaged women and children (5-12 years at T1). Dietary data were collected using a FFQ and diet quality index (DQI) scores derived at both time points. The objective measures of weight, height and physical activity (accelerometers) were included. The other variables were reported in the questionnaires. We examined the association between change in DQI and change in zBMI, using linear regression analyses adjusted for physical activity, screen sedentary behaviour and maternal education level both in the whole sample and in the sample stratified by overweight status at baseline. After accounting for potential covariates, change in diet quality was found to be inversely associated with change in zBMI only in children who were overweight at baseline (P= 0.035), thus supporting the hypothesis that improvement in diet quality is associated with a concurrent improvement in zBMI among already overweight children, but not among those with a normal BMI status. The identification of modifiable behaviours such as diet quality that affect zBMI longitudinally is valuable to inform future weight gain prevention interventions in vulnerable groups. PMID:24775601

Lioret, Sandrine; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cameron, Adrian J; Crawford, David; Campbell, Karen J; Cleland, Verity J; Ball, Kylie

2014-07-01

110

77 FR 65164 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 2105-AE08 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation...entitled, ``Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation...modifications of the Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE) Program...programs and to identify trends or problem areas in the program....

2012-10-25

111

A multilevel analysis of the association between social networks and support on leisure time physical activity: evidence from 40 disadvantaged areas in London.  

PubMed

There has been extensive conceptual and empirical work on the associations between social relations and health in recent years. However, the specific pathways through which social interactions impact on health have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this paper is to estimate associations between Leisure Time Physical Activity (LTPA) and social networks and support. Using data from a cross-sectional household survey in 40 disadvantaged lower super-output areas in London, we applied a multilevel model to investigate psychosocial and environmental determinants of physical activity in these populations. Our findings present a strong case for the influence of individual-level social networks on the level of LTPA, although the associations between the types of social support and LTPA were insignificant. We also found that crime rate was an important area-level correlates of LTPA. PMID:21784693

Yu, Ge; Renton, Adrian; Schmidt, Elena; Tobi, Patrick; Bertotti, Marcello; Watts, Paul; Lais, Shahana

2011-09-01

112

Individual, social and environmental factors influencing physical activity levels and behaviours of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged urban mothers in Canada: A mixed methods approach  

PubMed Central

Background Existing data provide little insight into the physical activity context of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged mothers in Canada. Our primary objectives were: (1) to use focus group methodology to develop tools to identify the individual, social, and environmental factors influencing utilitarian and leisure time physical activities (LTPA) of multiethnic SED mothers; and (2) to use a women specific physical activity survey tool to assess psychosocial barriers and supports and to quantify individual physical activity (PA) levels of multi-ethnic SED mothers in Canada. Methods Qualitative focus group sessions were conducted in West, Central and Eastern Canada with multiethnic SED mothers (n?=?6 focus groups; n?=?42 SED mothers) and with health and recreation professionals (HRPs) (n?=?5 focus groups; n?=?25 HRPs) involved in community PA programming for multiethnic SED mothers. Administration of the women specific Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) tool was completed by consenting SED mothers (n?=?59). Results More than half of SED mothers were employed and had higher total PA scores with occupation included than unemployed mothers. However, nearly 60% of both groups were overweight or obese. Barriers to LTPA included the lack of available, affordable and accessible LTPA programs that responded to cultural and social needs. Concerns for safety, nonsupportive cultural and social norms and the winter climate were identified as key barriers to both utilitarian and LTPA. Conclusions Findings show that multiethnic SED mothers experience many barriers to utilitarian and LTPA opportunities within their communities. The varying LTPA levels among these multi-ethnic SED mothers and the occurrence of overweight and obesity suggests that current LTPA programs are likely insufficient to maintain healthy body weights. PMID:22500882

2012-01-01

113

Examining the Association of NRXN3 SNPs with Borderline Personality Disorder Phenotypes in Heroin Dependent Cases and Socio-economically Disadvantaged Controls*  

PubMed Central

Background Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use disorders frequently cooccur; their dual presence predicts poor prognosis. The genetic underpinnings of BPD have not been well-characterized and could offer insight into comorbidity. The current report focuses on the association of Neurexin 3 (NRXN3) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with BPD symptoms in heroin dependent cases and controls. Methods The sample of the Comorbidity and Trauma Study, a genetic association study of heroin dependence, consists of Australian heroin dependent cases ascertained from opioid replacement therapy clinics and controls ascertained in nearby economically-disadvantaged neighborhoods. The assessment included a screening instrument for BPD, used previously in Australian population surveys. Genotypic and BPD phenotypic data were available for 1439 cases and 507 controls. We examined the association of 1430 candidate gene SNPs with BPD phenotypes. Results One or more NRXN3 SNPs were nominally associated with all BPD phenotypes; however, none met the conservative significance threshold we employed to correct for multiple testing. The most strongly associated SNPs included rs10144398 with identity disturbance (p=4.9 × 10?5) and rs10151731 with affective instability (p=8.8 × 10?5). The strongest association with screening positive for BPD was found for the NRXN3 SNP, rs10083466 (p=.0013). Neither the correlation of BPD phenotypes nor the linkage disequilibrium relationships of the SNPs account for the number of observed associations involving NRXN3 SNPs. Conclusions Our findings provide intriguing preliminary evidence for the association of NRXN3 with BPD phenotypes. The strongest associations were found for traits (i.e., affective instability; identity disturbance) also observed with other disorders. PMID:23245376

Panagopoulos, Vassilis N.; Trull, Timothy J.; Glowinski, Anne L.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Agrawal, Arpana; Henders, Anjali K.; Wallace, Leanne; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Moore, Elizabeth; Degenhardt, Louisa; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Nelson, Elliot C.

2013-01-01

114

Final Accessibility Guidelines for Play Areas: Economic Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This economic assessment informs the public about the implications of the final accessibility guidelines for play areas issued by the Access Board. The guidelines include scoping and technical provisions, which specify when and how access is to be provided to ground level and elevated play components. The guidelines also address soft contained…

Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board, Washington, DC.

115

Remarks on Successful Economic Development Programs in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural economic development depends on implementation of strategies that capture the competitive edge of the total rural environment. It will not succeed by weak duplication of traditional urban development strategies. The historic dependence on the natural resource base that is the common denominator for rural areas must be regarded not as a…

Thomas, Margaret G.

116

Cost-effectiveness of a telephone-delivered education programme to prevent early childhood caries in a disadvantaged area: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Early childhood caries is a highly destructive dental disease which is compounded by the need for young children to be treated under general anaesthesia. In Australia, there are long waiting periods for treatment at public hospitals. In this paper, we examined the costs and patient outcomes of a prevention programme for early childhood caries to assess its value for government services. Design Cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov model. Setting Public dental patients in a low socioeconomic, socially disadvantaged area in the State of Queensland, Australia. Participants Children aged 6?months to 6?years received either a telephone prevention programme or usual care. Primary and secondary outcome measures A mathematical model was used to assess caries incidence and public dental treatment costs for a cohort of children. Healthcare costs, treatment probabilities and caries incidence were modelled from 6?months to 6?years of age based on trial data from mothers and their children who received either a telephone prevention programme or usual care. Sensitivity analyses were used to assess the robustness of the findings to uncertainty in the model estimates. Results By age 6?years, the telephone intervention programme had prevented an estimated 43 carious teeth and saved £69?984 in healthcare costs per 100 children. The results were sensitive to the cost of general anaesthesia (cost-savings range £36?043–£97?298) and the incidence of caries in the prevention group (cost-savings range £59?496–£83?368) and usual care (cost-savings range £46?833–£93?328), but there were cost savings in all scenarios. Conclusions A telephone intervention that aims to prevent early childhood caries is likely to generate considerable and immediate patient benefits and cost savings to the public dental health service in disadvantaged communities. PMID:23674443

Pukallus, Margaret; Plonka, Kathryn; Kularatna, Sanjeewa; Gordon, Louisa; Barnett, Adrian G; Walsh, Laurence; Seow, W Kim

2013-01-01

117

Economics and terminal area environmental impact of STOL transportation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impact of short takeoff and landing aircraft in meeting the needs of short haul transportation systems is analyzed. The objectives of the short haul system are evaluated on the basis of the following criteria: (1) service to the passenger, (2) economic viability, and (3) terminal area environment conditions caused by community noise, ground and air decongestion, and air pollution. Data are presented in the forms of tables, charts, and graphs. An itemization of the conclusions reached after the preliminary investigation is included.

Stewart, E. C.

1973-01-01

118

13 CFR 124.1002 - What is a Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB)?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...accruing directly to the socially and economically disadvantaged...controlled by one or more socially and economically disadvantaged...controlled by one or more socially and economically...must be the project manager responsible for performance of...

2010-01-01

119

Special Counseling for the Disadvantaged Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to aid teachers and administrators who have not had special training in counseling and who are working in educational programs for the disadvantaged adult. Subject areas discussed are: The Counselor and the Client (Duties of the Counselor; Areas of Assistance for the Client); Who Are the Disadvantaged (Characteristics of the…

Kaple, Donald J.; Kaple, Marion Keeler

120

10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. 600...600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. ...economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges,...

2013-01-01

121

10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. 600...600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. ...economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges,...

2011-01-01

122

10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. 600...600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. ...economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges,...

2010-01-01

123

10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. 600...600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. ...economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges,...

2012-01-01

124

10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.  

...2014-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. 600...600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. ...economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges,...

2014-01-01

125

The Disadvantaged and His Milieu.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report comprises a critical analysis of research in the area of the disadvantaged student, mostly on population characteristics and on educational programs offered them. Much of the research on such factors as genetic and environmental influences, verbal ability, motivation, school achievement, attrition rate, demographic characteristics,…

Gordon, Edmund W.

126

Artificial Immune System for Multi-Area Economic Dispatch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents artificial immune system for solving multi-area economic dispatch (MAED) problem with tie line constraints considering transmission losses, multiple fuels, valve-point loading and prohibited operating zones. Artificial immune system is based on the clonal selection principle which implements adaptive cloning, hyper mutation, aging operator and tournament selection. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been verified on three different test systems, both small and large, involving varying degree of complexity. Compared with differential evolution, evolutionary programming and real-coded genetic algorithm, considering the quality of the solution obtained, the proposed algorithm seems to be a promising alternative approach for solving the MAED problems in practical power system.

De, Shankha Suvra; Hazra, Abhik; Basu, Mousumi

2013-09-01

127

Predictors of alcohol and cocaine use one year postpartum in a disadvantaged population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, research on women and substance use remains one of the most neglected areas of research. The purpose was to examine the relative influence of key variables in predicting postnatal alcohol and cocaine use in an economically disadvantaged sample. Variables examined included: conceptional alcohol use, cocaine use during pregnancy, various demographic characteristics such as age, education, IQ, depression, and ego

Karen F Kopera-Frye

1992-01-01

128

76 FR 5083 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DBE subcontractor is not a responsible contractor; (vi) The listed...types of work in which the socially and economically disadvantaged...or control of the firm by socially and economically disadvantaged...The firm is not otherwise responsible for further...

2011-01-28

129

Measuring the Determinants of Relative Economic Performance of Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the determinants of economic performance of 149 English rural Local Authority Districts (LADs). A Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) estimation procedure was employed to jointly determine the influence of a wide range of indicators representing economic, human, cultural and environmental capital, as well as less tangible or "soft"…

Agarwal, Sheela; Rahman, Sanzidur; Errington, Andrew

2009-01-01

130

Educational Interests of Disadvantaged and Non-Disadvantaged Iowa Household Heads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was made of 538 disadvantaged and 247 non-disadvantaged household heads in Iowa -- their occupation, training desired, material possessions, membership and participation. The sample included 643 males and 142 females and was distributed in zones from open country to large urban areas. According to the prescribed criteria 14% of the…

Arendt, Donald Philip

131

PROVIDING OPPORTUNITIES FOR DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE TERM "DISADVANTAGED" IS USED TO REPRESENT ENVIRONMENTS THAT ARE INADEQUATE FOR A FULL LIFE. INCLUDED WOULD BE GROUPS IDENTIFIED AS MIGRANTS, LINGUALLY DISADVANTAGED, CULTURALLY DEPRIVED, AND EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED. A CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILD IS UNABLE TO CONFORM TO PRESENT GROUP EXPECTANCIES. THIS WORKSHOP REPORT IS THE RESULT OF…

POTTS, ALFRED M.; AND OTHERS

132

Economics and Education: Instrumentalism and the Dilemma of Learning in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While most economists agree that educational attainment contributes to national economic performance, studies have not generally confirmed a similar conclusion with respect to rural areas. This paper examines the relationships between rural education and economics. The new aim of American education, restoration of national economic

Howley, Craig B.

133

The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the New Orleans, Louisiana, Metro Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

134

The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Detroit, Michigan, Metro Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

135

The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the New York City Metro Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

136

The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Houston, Texas, Metro Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

137

The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Jackson, Mississippi, Metro Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

138

The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Chicago, Illinois, Metro Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed, with the generous support of State Farm[R], a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

139

The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Atlanta, Georgia, Metro Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

140

ENGLISH AND THE DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PART 1 OF THIS COLLECTION OF ARTICLES BY THE STAFF AND PARTICIPANTS OF AN NDEA SUMMER INSTITUTE IN ENGLISH FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH DESCRIBES ATTITUDES AND VIEWPOINTS ON THE PLACE OF ENGLISH IN THE DAILY LIVES OF STUDENTS AND CONTAINS ARTICLES ON "ENGLISH FOR WHAT" BY CHARLES WEINGARTNER, "ENGLISH TEACHING AND DROP-OUTS" AND "ENGLISH AND THE…

FAGAN, EDWARD R., ED.

141

Zootechnical and Economic Characteristics of Sheep Genetic Resources in Plovdiv Area Lowlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

DIMOV, D., and D. KUZMANOVA, 2007. Zootechnical and economic characteristics of sheep genetic resources in Plovdiv area lowlands. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 12: 105-118 The study took place within 2002 - 2004 in 17 towns and villages of Plovdiv area lowlands. Zootechnical and economic characteristics of three sheep genetic resources was made, namely, the Synthetic dairy sheep population, White Maritza

D. DIMOV; D. KUZMANOVA

142

Optimism and adjustment of economical and social development mode in Dongting Lake area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the homogeneous natural resources, integrated environmental function, similar industrial structure and development history, as well as the same origin of social culture, natural and economical factors in Dongting Lake area are spatially dependent. Based on the analysis of these specific factors, we proposed an economical and social development mode for Dongting Lake area and evaluated its feasibility by

Minghui Dong; Xiaoya Dong

2011-01-01

143

Local Economic Development in Area-based Urban Regeneration in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article is intended to give insight into the state of the art of local economic development in area-based urban regeneration in Germany. The importance of local economic development has been widely recognised and a series of workshops, evaluation reports and programmes has been initiated to promote this policy area. A set of policy programmes has been developed to support

Sabine Weck

2009-01-01

144

ECONOMIC VALUE OF PERLIS STATE PARK AS A RECREATIONAL AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valuation of protected natural areas such as national parks and state parks allows park managers to obtain information that could be used in cost benefit analysis as an aid for public sector decision making processes. The main purpose of the study is to analyse the demand for the Perlis State Park (PSP) as a recreational area. The travel cost model

A. K. Azyyati; H. M. A. Syamsul; S. Ahmad

145

Access to Higher Education and Disadvantaged Young People  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will highlight the difficulties faced by qualified but disadvantaged young people in accessing higher education. This is an issue which has strong implications for education policy, economic efficiency and social justice. Over the past two decades, despite large increases in overall access to higher education, the gap in level of participation between the most affluent and most disadvantaged

ALASDAIR FORSYTH; ANDY FURLONG

2003-01-01

146

Measures of redress: Defining disadvantage in a university access programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creating alternative avenues to higher education for learners from disadvantaged educational contexts is one of several official redress objectives for South African universities attempting to rectify the injustices of apartheid. Yet how disadvantage is to be defined in a nation characterised by profound economic inequalities and the legacy of racialised political domination is not straightforward. This article presents a case

Thembisa Waetjen

2006-01-01

147

An Economic Study of Farm Organization and Operation in the High Plains Cotton Area of Texas.  

E-print Network

WITH THE BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS, UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE An Economic Study of Farm Organization and Operation in the High Plains Cotton Area of Texas AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President [Blank Page... to the area. This bulletin, the first of a series, contains a description of the agriculture and agricultural resources of the area and an analysis of variations in farm earnings during the period of the study. Later pl~blications will pertain to farm...

Bonnen, C.A.; Thibodeaux, B. H.; Magee, A.C.

1939-01-01

148

Theme: Teaching Academically Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Will We Serve the Academically Disadvantaged?" (Iverson); "Using Centers of Learning to Reach Academically Disadvantaged Students" (Gentry); "Georgia's Special Lamb Project Adoption Program" (Farmer); "Teacher Expectations" (Powers); "Providing Instruction for Special Populations" (Jewell); and "The Educational Reform Movement and…

Iverson, Maynard J.; And Others

1993-01-01

149

METROPOLITAN REPORT Economic Indicators for the New Orleans Area  

E-print Network

and private educational services. This brings private education very close to pre-Katrina levels, but state construction shows up as one of the lowest sectors in the local economy ­ currently at about 67% of old levels population is estimated at 65% recovered. #12;Page 2 THE NEW ORLEANS AREA ECONOMY OVERVIEW It has been four

Kulp, Mark

150

Daily economical operation planning for a multi-area system with pump storage plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach based on mixed-integer programming is proposed for daily economical operation planning problem for a multi-area system with hydro-thermal plants and a pump storage plant. All generator units can be coordinately and economically operated in order to gain the most economical effects of the whole power network. The calculation results also show that the approach proposed can successfully

Mingtian Fan; Zuping Zhang; Yingshan Liu; Yuhua Ma; Hai Liang; Jianjun Hu

1998-01-01

151

Profiles in Rural Economic Development: A Guidebook of Selected Successful Rural Area Initiatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook presents 64 profiles of successful economic development initiatives in the small towns and rural areas of 37 states. Intended for use by rural and small town leaders and rural economic development specialists, the guide provides ideas, encouragement, and an "insider perspective" on alternative rural development strategies. Each…

Thomas, Margaret G.

152

Disadvantaged populations in maternal health in China who and why?  

PubMed Central

Background China has made impressive progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for maternal and reproductive health, but ensuring that progress reaches all segments of the population remains a challenge for policy makers. The aim of this review is to map disadvantaged populations in terms of maternal health in China, and to explain the causes of these inequities to promote policy action. Methods We searched PUBMED, Popline, Proquest and WanFang and included primary studies conducted in mainland China. Experts were also contacted to identify additional studies. Disadvantaged populations in terms of MDG 5 and the reasons for this disadvantage explored by authors were identified and coded based on the conceptual framework developed by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Results In China, differences in maternal health service utilization and the maternal mortality ratio among different income groups, and among regions with different socio-economic development still exist, although these differences are narrowing. Groups with low levels of education and ethnic minorities utilize maternal health care less frequently and experience higher maternal mortality, although we could not determine whether these differences have changed in the last decade. Rural-to-urban migrants use maternal health care and contraception to a lower extent than permanent residents of cities, and differential maternal mortality shows a widening trend among these groups. Gender inequity also contributes to the disadvantaged position of women. Intermediary factors that explain these inequities include material circumstances such as long distances to health facilities for women living in remote areas, behavioral factors such as traditional beliefs that result in reduced care seeking among ethnic minorities, and health system determinants such as out-of-pocket payments posing financial barriers for the poor. Conclusions Inequity in maternal health continues to be an issue worthy of greater programmatic and monitoring efforts in China. PMID:23561030

Yuan, Beibei; Qian, Xu; Thomsen, Sarah

2013-01-01

153

Assessment of industrial land use intensity: A case study of Beijing economic-technological development area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, great economic output of land has been achieved in economic-technological development areas in China, but\\u000a the intensity of land use in some of these areas is very low. The degree of the low intensity of land use needs to be evaluated.\\u000a The current method of comprehensive evaluation and grading by one index system has the limitations due

Daquan Huang; Wei Wan; Teqi Dai; Jinshe Liang

2011-01-01

154

A GENERAL TECHNICIAN PROGRAM FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 2-YEAR GENERAL TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM HAS BEEN PLANNED BY RUTGERS UNIVERSITY AND THE NEWARK SCHOOL SYSTEM AS A MEANS OF PREPARING DISADVANTAGED YOUTH TO ENTER GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT AND ENHANCE THEIR OPPORTUNITY TO IMPROVE THEIR STATION IN LIFE. THE STUDENTS WILL BE DEPRIVED AREA YOUTH WHO ARE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES OR THE EQUIVALENT, GENERALLY FROM THE…

GILLIE, ANGELO C.

155

The relation between disadvantaged groups: a social psychological approach  

E-print Network

their self-esteem: attributing negative feedback to discrimination; chiefly making less harmful, ingroup comparisons; and devaluing deficient areas. Jones and Morris (1993) describe the ambivalence present for disadvantaged groups in their attributional... by attributing the unequal dimension to discrimination (Crocker & Major, 1990), an upward comparison with a disadvantaged group member cannot be so easily dismissed, and therefore, is potentially harmful to one's self-esteem. Comparisons between disadvantaged...

Rothgerber, Hank

2012-06-07

156

Estimation of Economic Loss Due to Reduction of Paddy Land Areas: Construction of Samanalawewa Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Samanalawewa Hydro Electric Project (SHEP) is a single purpose hydropower project, it has not paid much attention to the other socioeconomic and environmental impacts such as resettlements of evacuated families, development of infrastructure facilities for people in the area, irrigation water for down-stream areas and inland fishing. This study has been carried out to estimate the economic loss

Udaya Kumara; A. W. Wijeratne

157

Residential Segregation,Spatial Mismatch and Economic Growth across US Metropolitan Area  

SciTech Connect

Numerous studies have demonstrated the detrimental influence of residential segregation on poor inner-city residents. This study examines the impact of residential segregation on the welfare of populations in US metropolitan areas using economic growth as the indicator. Panel data of US metropolitan areas spanning 25 years, 1980 2005, are used to analyze the effect of segregation on economic growth. The results show that both racial and skill segregation have a negative impact on short and long-term economic growth, which have increased over time. Further, the negative impact of the variables associated with spatial mismatch is also revealed. The results clearly point to the need for mobility policies that favor non-White households and comprehensive strategies that promote economic opportunities in low-resource communities in the US.

Campbell, Dr Harrison [University of North Carolina, Charlotte] [University of North Carolina, Charlotte; Li, Huiping [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

158

Teaching Literature to the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation proposes a strategy for teaching literature to disadvantaged students. These students are characterized by an inadequate self-concept, a lack of social skills, restricted language development, and behavior motivated by immediate needs. Most of the disadvantaged are Negroes, Puerto Ricans, Mexicans, and Appalachian whites. A…

Bachner, Saul

159

Economics of electricity production and distribution in rural areas of Nepal  

SciTech Connect

This paper aims at providing the comparative economics from a national perspective (economic analysis) and a users perspective (financial analysis) of low capacity (5-15 KW) electrical add-on systems and medium capacity (25-50 KW) electrical systems to provide electrical energy from various energy sources at three villages of Nepal, each from a different physiographic zone. In general, the increasing economic price of traditional energies coupled with deforestation in rural areas of developing countries and the increasing need for foreign exchange for import of fossil fuels, favors the judicial exploitation of renewable energy for electricity generation. The load factor is one of the most important factors that dictate the economic and financial supply price of electricity production and distribution. It is recommended that a detailed site-specific electricity demand analysis be carried out with appropriate end-use planning for decentralized rural electrification schemes.

Rijal, K.; Bansal, N.K.; Grover, P.D. (Center for Energy Studies, Indian Inst. of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (IN))

1990-01-01

160

Economic Impact of a Potential Scholarship Program for the LaCrosse Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Upjohn Institute conducted an economic impact study of a universal, place-based scholarship program for La Crosse, Wisconsin. This study examined the possibility of developing a program similar to the Kalamazoo Promise for the La Crosse area. The La Crosse area faces a population decline, growing concentrations of low-income students, an aging infrastructure in the region’s largest school district, and

Erickcek George A

2008-01-01

161

48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Small Disadvantaged Business Certification and Eligibility...Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Report...accomplished through using the Electronic Subcontracting Reporting...System's Small Disadvantaged Business Participation...

2010-10-01

162

Data Protection Guidance Transferring personal data outside the European Economic Area  

E-print Network

Data Protection Guidance Transferring personal data outside the European Economic Area The either data protection principles specifies that personal data should not be transferred outside of the EEA unless that country `ensures an adequate level of protection for the rights and freedoms of data subjects

Mumby, Peter J.

163

Economic evaluation of bovine brucellosis and tuberculosis eradication programmes in a mountain area of Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied social cost-benefit analysis to the economic evaluation of the bovine brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis eradication programmes carried out by the public eradication authority for mountain areas in the Spanish Central Pyrenees. We considered only the effects on animal health and production. We also evaluated several hypotheses corresponding to the different sanitary situations of two valleys studied.The results were

A. Bernués; E. Manrique; M. T. Maza

1997-01-01

164

Clothing and Related Areas--Grades 9-12. Home Economics Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

GRADES OR AGES: 9-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Home economics; clothing and related areas. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide provides for four semesters with special provision for high school boys and adults. There are six main sections: 1) basic clothing and grooming for the teenager; 2) clothing construction and consumer education for the…

Edwards, Marguerite; And Others

165

The economic feasibility of small solar MED seawater desalination plants for remote arid areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to compare the economics of using solar energy to operate small multiple effect seawater distillation systems in remote areas with the conventional method of using fossil fuels. The particular multiple effect system used is an advanced horizontal tube, falling film system called “multiple effect stack”, MES, in which the pumping energy requirement is relatively

Ali M. El-Nashar

2001-01-01

166

Economic relations with regions neighbouring the euro area in the ‘euro time zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the economic, monetary and financial relations between the EU and the euro area and a set of countries in a broad set of neighbouring regions. The 80 or so countries are mostly classified as transition, emerging or developing economies and belong to four main regions: the Western Balkans; the European part of the Commonwealth of Independent States;

Francesco Mazzaferro; Arnaud Mehl; Michael Sturm; Christian Thimann; Adalbert Winkler

2002-01-01

167

Economic Dimensions of Major Metropolitan Areas, Population, Housing, Employment and Income. Technical Paper Number 18.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of an effort to develop a body of internally consistent economic data which facilitate comparison of the population, housing, employment, and income characteristics of 56 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas with a population of over 500,000 are reported in this publication. Part of a continuing research program on local government…

de Torres, Juan

168

Poverty-Stricken Schools: What We Can Learn from the Rest of the World and from Successful Schools in Economically Disadvantaged Areas in the US  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses how much of the gap in learning between poverty-stricken students and advantaged students in the US is related to a lack of educational resources and poor teaching quality. It discusses how some school systems have been able to overcome the challenges of poverty and how high-quality teaching can alleviate the effects of…

Morgan, Hani

2012-01-01

169

28 CFR 0.18a - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Attorney General, who shall be responsible to, and report directly...Director shall: (a) Be responsible for the implementation and...businesses owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged...businesses owned and controlled by socially and economically...

2010-07-01

170

Seroprevalence and risk factors for dengue infection in socio-economically distinct areas of Recife, Brazil.  

PubMed

Brazil currently accounts for the majority of dengue cases reported in the Americas, with co-circulation of DENV 1-3. Striking variation in the epidemiological pattern of infection within cities has been observed. Therefore, investigation of dengue transmission in small areas is important to formulate control strategies. A population-based household survey was performed in three diverse socio-economic and environmental areas of Recife, a large urban center of Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Dengue serostatus and individual- and household-level risk factors for infection were collected in residents aged between 5 and 64 years. A total of 2833 individuals were examined, and their residences were geo-referenced. Anti-dengue IgG antibodies were measured using commercial ELISA. The dengue seroprevalence and the force of infection were estimated in each area. Individual and household variables associated with seropositivity were assessed by multilevel models for each area. A spatial analysis was conducted to identify risk gradients of dengue seropositivity using Generalized Additive Models (GAM). The dengue seroprevalence was 91.1%, 87.4% 74.3%, respectively, in the deprived, intermediate and high socio-economic areas, inversely related to their socio-economic status. In the deprived area, 59% of children had already been exposed to dengue virus by the age of 5 years and the estimated force of infection was three times higher than that in the privileged area. The risk of infection increased with age in the three areas. Not commuting away from the area was a risk factor for seropositivity in the deprived area (OR=2.26; 95% CI: 1.18-4.30). Number of persons per room was a risk factor for seropositivity in the intermediate (OR=3.00; 95% CI: 3.21-7.37) and privileged areas (OR=1.81; 95% CI: 1.07-3.04). Living in a house, as opposed to an apartment, was a risk factor for seropositivity in the privileged area (OR=3.62; 95% CI: 2.43-5.41). The main difference between the privileged and other areas could be attributed to the much larger proportion of apartment dwellers. Intensive vector control, surveillance and community education should be considered in deprived urban areas where a high proportion of children are infected by an early age. PMID:19896921

Braga, Cynthia; Luna, Carlos Feitosa; Martelli, Celina Mariaturchi; de Souza, Wayner Vieira; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; Alexander, Neal; de Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão; Júnior, José Constantino Silveira; Marques, Ernesto T

2010-03-01

171

Global leaf trait relationships: mass, area, and the leaf economics spectrum.  

PubMed

The leaf economics spectrum (LES) describes multivariate correlations that constrain leaf traits of plant species primarily to a single axis of variation if data are normalized by leaf mass. We show that these traits are approximately distributed proportional to leaf area instead of mass, as expected for a light- and carbon dioxide-collecting organ. Much of the structure in the mass-normalized LES results from normalizing area-proportional traits by mass. Mass normalization induces strong correlations among area-proportional traits because of large variation among species in leaf mass per area (LMA). The high LMA variance likely reflects its functional relationship with leaf life span. A LES that is independent of mass- or area-normalization and LMA reveals physiological relationships that are inconsistent with those in global vegetation models designed to address climate change. PMID:23539179

Osnas, Jeanne L D; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Reich, Peter B; Pacala, Stephen W

2013-05-10

172

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Puget Sound Area, Washington) Part 2. Volume 1 of 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Puget Sound Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Puget Sound Area includes Whatcom, Skagit, Snohomish, King, Pierce, Thurston, Mason, and Kitsap counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

173

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Puget Sound Area, Washington). Part 2. Volume 2 of 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Puget Sound Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Puget Sound Area includes Whatcom, Skagit, Snohomish, King, Pierce, Thurston, Mason, and Kitsap counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

174

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Puget Sound Area, Washington). Part 1. Volume 2 of 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Puget Sound Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Puget Sound Area includes Whatcom, Skagit, Snohomish, King, Pierce, Thurston, Mason, and Kitsap counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

175

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Puget Sound Area, Washington) Part 1. Volume 1 of 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Puget Sound Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Puget Sound Area includes Whatcom, Skagit, Snohomish, King, Pierce, Thurston, Mason, and Kitsap counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

176

Does the Orphan Disadvantage "Spill Over?" An analysis of whether living in an area with a higher concentration of orphans is associated with children's school enrollment in sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Despite considerable concern regarding the social consequences of sub-Saharan Africa’s high orphan prevalence, no research investigates how living in a community densely populated with orphans is more broadly associated with children’s—including nonorphans’—acquisition of human capital. OBJECTIVE We provide a new look at the implications of widespread orphanhood in sub-Saharan Africa by examining whether living in an area with a high concentration of orphans is associated with children’s likelihood of school enrollment. METHODS We use data from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and the Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey (MICS) to estimate multilevel logistic regression models to assess whether living in a setting with a higher concentration of orphans is associated with school enrollment among 383,010 children in 336 provinces in 34 sub-Saharan African countries. RESULTS Orphan concentration has a curvilinear association with children’s school enrollment in western and eastern Africa: the initially positive association becomes negative at higher levels. In central and southern Africa, orphan concentration has a positive linear association with children’s school enrollment. CONCLUSION In western and eastern Africa, the negative association between living in a setting more densely populated with orphans and children’s school enrollment provides suggestive evidence that the orphan disadvantage “spills over” in the communities most heavily affected. Conversely, in central and southern Africa, the positive association between living in a setting more densely populated with orphans and children’s school enrollment highlights the resiliency of these relatively wealthier communities with high levels of orphans. Although longitudinal research is needed to confirm these findings and clarify the underlying mechanisms, this study lays the groundwork for a new body of research aimed at understanding the broader social implications of widespread orphanhood in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24062628

Smith-Greenaway, Emily; Heckert, Jessica

2013-01-01

177

Does living in a disadvantaged area mean fewer opportunities to purchase fresh fruit and vegetables in the area? Findings from the Brisbane food study. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

178

Increasing the Earnings of Disadvantaged Women. Report No. 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Commission for Employment Policy has examined ways that the United States federal government could improve the economic situation of disadvantaged women. In particular, the Commission examined, during 1980, the role of education and employment and training programs in helping women to prepare for better paying occupations, and then…

National Commission for Employment Policy (DOL), Washington, DC.

179

Non-Intellectual Correlates of Attrition Among Disadvantaged Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study described in this report was conducted in order to determine the effects of self concept and selected demographic and economic variables on attrition. Data are drawn from a group of 74 disadvantaged adult students who enrolled in a college preparatory program at the Syracuse Educational Opportunity Center (S.E.O.C.). Demographic…

Wingate, James G.

180

The Early Childhood Education of Disadvantaged Children in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2010, the Chinese government has adopted a series of services and policies to provide early childhood education for disadvantaged children. The rapid economic development and urbanisation process since the mid-1980s have led to great changes in social structure and demographics in China. This creates new challenges for the education of…

Song, Zhanmei; Zhu, Jiaxiong; Xia, Zhuyun; Wu, Xin

2014-01-01

181

Against the Odds: Disadvantaged Students Who Succeed in School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report explores the factors and conditions that could help more students succeed at school despite challenging socio-economic backgrounds. It does this by studying resilient students and what sets them apart from their less successful peers. Understanding how educational systems can support disadvantaged students and help them "beat the odds"…

OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

2011-01-01

182

The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response.…

Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

2013-01-01

183

Virtues of SIN: Can Intensified Public Efforts Help Disadvantaged Immigrants?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The labor market integration of immigrants is a top political priority throughout the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Social and fiscal gains, as well as sustained future labor supply make governments search for effective policies to increase employment among the mostly disadvantaged. The author studies SIN,…

Aslund, Olof; Johansson, Per

2011-01-01

184

Trends in Educational Disadvantage in Dutch Primary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central question in this study is whether the language and math delays of the different socio-economic and ethnic minority groups targeted by Dutch educational disadvantage policy have diminished or not. Data are from the years 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2008. Information from a total of 90,000 pupils in Grades 2 and 8 was selected to represent the…

Driessen, Geert; Merry, Michael S.

2014-01-01

185

An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an economic and environmental study of short haul airline systems using short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft are presented. The STOL system characteristics were optimized for maximum patronage at a specified return on investment, while maintaining noise impact compatibility with the terminal area. Supporting studies of aircraft air pollution and hub airport congestion relief were also performed. The STOL concept specified for this study was an Augmentor Wing turbofan aircraft having a field length capability of 2,000 ft. and an effective perceived noise level of 95 EPNdB at 500 ft. sideline distance. An economic and environmental assessment of the defined STOL system and a summary of the methodology, STOL system characteristics and arena characteristics are provided.

Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

1974-01-01

186

Emergy evaluation and economic analysis of three wetland fish farming systems in Nansi Lake area, China.  

PubMed

Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare three fish production models, i.e., cage fish farming system, pond intensive fish rearing system and semi-natural extensive pond fish rearing system, in Nansi Lake area in China in the year 2007. The goal of this study was to understand the benefits and driving forces of selected fish production models from ecological and economic points of view. The study considered input structure, production efficiency, environmental impacts, economic viability and sustainability. Results show that the main difference among the three production systems was the emergy cost for fish feed associated with their feeding system, i.e., feeding on natural biomass such as plankton and grass or on commercial feedstock. As indicated by EYR, ELR and ESI, it can be clearly shown that the intensive production model with commercial feed is not a sustainable pattern. However, the point is that more environmentally sound patterns do not seem able to provide a competitive net profit in the short run. The intensive pond fish farming system had a net profit of 2.57E+03 $/ha, much higher than 1.27E+03 $/ha for cage fish farming system and slightly higher than 2.37E+03 $/ha for semi-natural fish farming system. With regard to the drivers of local farmer's decisions, the accessibility of land for the required use and investment ability determine the farmer's choice of the production model and the scale of operation, while other factors seem to have little effect. Theoretically, the development of environmentally sustainable production patterns, namely water and land conservation measures, greener feed as well as low waste systems is urgently needed, to keep production activities within the carrying capacity of ecosystems. Coupled emergy and economic analyses can provide better insight into the environmental and economic benefits of fish production systems and help solve the problems encountered during policy making. PMID:20970243

Zhang, L X; Ulgiati, S; Yang, Z F; Chen, B

2011-03-01

187

Briefing paper n2 for the Committee for Economic and Monetary Affairs of the European Parliament Economic and monetary conditions in the Euro area  

E-print Network

22/05/01/1 Economic and monetary conditions in the Euro area : The ECB, the FED and the euro. Jean Affairs of the European Parliament 22/05/01/2 hit the euro-area in the past two years: oil, euro. There is little doubt that in 2002 inflation will recede in the euro area to a figure slightly under 2%. For most

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

188

A contribution to the development of an economic atlas of the Houston Area Test Site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An outine description of the Houston Area Test Site was prepared, in the form of an atlas-catalog of Universal Transverse Mercator grid coordinate locations, building on the manufacturing sector and expanding along agreed lines as far as possible. It was concluded that (1) the effort expended in securing and verifying the locations of larger manufacturing plants yielded 5,000-plus usable entries, in addition to certain valuable conclusions about the general feasibility of obtaining ground information by economic sector; (2) on the basis of the number and the quality of the usable entries obtained, the resources expended on nonmanufacturing sectors and on historical data cannot be wholly justified; and (3) even without the 5,000-odd locations of completely satisfactory quality, the relatively modest cost of this pilot study secured enough data to provide a sound basis for obtaining feasibly and systematically some appropriate ground information on almost any economic or social activity, together with some indication of their relative areal and economic significance.

1972-01-01

189

Young Disadvantaged Men as Fathers  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the existing literature on young disadvantaged fathers’ involvement with children. It first outlines the predominant theoretical perspectives regarding father involvement among resident (married and cohabiting) biological fathers, resident social fathers (unrelated romantic partners of children’s mothers), and nonresident biological fathers. Second, it presents a brief discussion of the ways in which fathers contribute to childrearing. Third, it describes the socioeconomic characteristics of men who enter fatherhood at a young age, highlighting that they tend to be socioeconomically disadvantaged. Fourth, it reviews the empirical research on both antecedents of father involvement and patterns of involvement across father types. Finally, it describes the limitations of existing research and provides suggestions for future research and policy. PMID:21643452

Berger, Lawrence M.; Langton, Callie

2010-01-01

190

An Atomic Layer Deposition Method to Fabricate Economical and Robust Large Area Microchannel Plates for Photodetectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate an economical and robust route to fabricate large-area microchannel plate (MCP) detectors which will open new opportunities in larger area MCP-based detector technologies. Using our newly developed bottom-up process flow, we have fabricated large area MCPs (8 x 8). We used Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), a powerful and precise thin film deposition technique, to tailor the electrical resistance and secondary electron emission (SEE) properties of large area, low cost, borosilicate glass capillary arrays. The self limiting growth mechanism in ALD allows atomic level control over the thickness and composition of resistive and secondary electron emission (SEE) layers that can be deposited conformally on high aspect ratio capillary glass arrays. We have developed several robust and reliable ALD processes for the resistive coatings and SEE layers to give us precise control over the resistance in the target range for MCPs (106-109 ?) and SEE coefficient (up to 8). The MCPs are tested in stacks of one or two plates and exhibit gains as high as 107 for a pair of MCPs. This approach allows the functionalization of microporous, insulating substrates to produce MCPs with high gain and low noise. These capabilities allow separation of the substrate material properties from the amplification properties. We studied the various MCP parameters such as gain, background counts, and resistance as a function of the ALD process parameters. Here we describe a complete process flow to produce fully functionalized working large area MCPs.

Mane, Anil U.; Peng, Qing; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Bennis, Daniel C.; Craven, Christopher A.; Detarando, Michael A.; Escolas, John R.; Frisch, Henry J.; Jokela, Slade J.; McPhate, Jason; Minot, Michael J.; Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Renaud, Joseph M.; Wagner, Robert G.; Wetstein, Matthew J.

191

[Spatial coupling characteristics of eco-environment quality and economic poverty in Lüliang area].  

PubMed

It is one of the important strategies during the poverty alleviation to maintain a basic balance between the eco-environment and economic development in poor areas. Taking the whole 20 counties in Lüliang national contiguous special poverty-stricken areas and the surrounding 36 counties as multi-type and multi-scale typical study areas, the relationship between eco-environment quality and poverty in the poverty-stricken areas was explored in this paper. Firstly, the region's ecological poverty index system was systematically built, and by integrated use of the subjective and objective weighting method, the ecological environment quality was evaluated in the perspective of natural environment. Then, the coupling coordination degree was calculated by coupling the ecological environment quality index and the average disposable income. Finally, the spatial variation was analyzed in detail respectively at provincial, city and county scales. Results showed that as a whole, the spatial autocorrelation coefficient of coupling coordination degree was relatively higher in the study area, and the coupling coordination degree in the eastern part was higher than that in the western part; the whole coupling coordination degree in Shanxi Province was slightly higher than in Shaanxi Province; the national poverty counties presented a state of recession, and their coordinated development degrees were far lower than that of non-national poverty counties. PMID:25223029

Li, Jing-Yi; Wang, Yan-Hui

2014-06-01

192

Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and adult disorders Why do children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families suffer  

E-print Network

socioeconomic disadvantage and adult disorders 2 Approved abbreviations: Confidence Interval: CI; Relative RiskChildhood socioeconomic disadvantage and adult disorders 1 Why do children from socioeconomically, University of Otago, New Zealand Running title: Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and adult disorders

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

193

SocioEconomic Status of Women in Rural Poultry Production in Selected Areas of Kwara State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the socio-economic status of women in rural poultry production in selected areas of Kwara State, Nigeria. This is based on the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between women's participation and their socio-economic status such as age, marital status, level of education and occupation. The study was conducted in selected villages in Kwara State. A total

I. Ogunlade; S. A. Adebayo

2009-01-01

194

California High-Speed Rail and Economic Development: Station-Area Market Profiles and Public Policy Responses  

E-print Network

1 California High-Speed Rail and Economic Development: Station-Area Market Profiles and Public;2 Abstract Investment in California's proposed High-Speed Rail (HSR) system has been justified partly-Speed Rail (HSR) systems as an economic stimulus. Following the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA

Kammen, Daniel M.

195

Incidence of multiple sclerosis among European Economic Area populations, 1985-2009: the framework for monitoring  

PubMed Central

Background A debate surrounding multiple sclerosis epidemiology has centred on time-related incidence increases and the need of monitoring. The purpose of this study is to reassess multiple sclerosis incidence in the European Economic Area. Methods We conducted a systematic review of literature from 1965 onwards and integrated elements of original research, including requested or completed data by surveys authors and specific analyses. Results The review of 5323 documents yielded ten studies for age- and sex-specific analyses, and 21 studies for time-trend analysis of single data sets. After 1985, the incidence of multiple sclerosis ranged from 1.12 to 6.96 per 100,000 population, was higher in females, tripled with latitude, and doubled with study midpoint year. The north registered increasing trends from the 1960s and 1970s, with a historic drop in the Faroe Islands, and fairly stable data in the period 1980-2000; incidence rose in Italian and French populations in the period 1970-2000, in Evros (Greece) in the 1980s, and in the French West Indies in around 2000. Conclusions We conclude that the increase in multiple sclerosis incidence is only apparent, and that it is not specific to women. Monitoring of multiple sclerosis incidence might be appropriate for the European Economic Area. PMID:23758972

2013-01-01

196

Toward improving identification of talent potential among minority and disadvantaged students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The under?inclusion of economically disadvantaged and children of minority cultures in programs for the gifted is well documented. Suggestions are made for the elements of anew paradigm for identifying talent potential in underserved populations. In coming to grips with more effective approaches to the identification and development of talents among minority and disadvantaged gifted, educators will better understand how to

A. Harry Passow; Mary M. Frasier

1996-01-01

197

75 FR 3180 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. 0810141351-9087-02] RIN 0648-XT86 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

2010-01-20

198

75 FR 49422 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. 0910131363-0087-02] RIN 0648-XY14 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

2010-08-13

199

Undiscovered Oil Resources in the Federal Portion of the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: An Economic Update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report updates an economic analysis of the U. S. Geological Surveys 1998 petroleum assessment of the Federal 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (Attanasi, 1999). Whereas the 1998 geologic assessment evaluated Federal and Native lands in...

E. D. Attanasi

2005-01-01

200

THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD--ISSUES AND INNOVATIONS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PART ONE OF THIS COLLECTION OF PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED ARTICLES CONTAINS DISCUSSIONS OF THE DEFINITIONS OF "THE DISADVANTAGED" AND OF THE SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM OF POVERTY. THE ARTICLES IN PART TWO DISCUSS THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DISADVANTAGED, THE ETIOLOGY OF SCHOOL DROPOUT, A SOCIOLOGICAL VIEWPOINT ON THE EDUCATION OF CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED

FROST, JOE L.; HAWKES, GLENN R.

201

Schooling Disadvantaged Children: Racing against Catastrophe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating disadvantaged students will demand a national commitment to increasing the resources devoted to the task, restructuring the schools in which the disadvantaged are educated, and conducting research needed to make those schools more effective. Educationally disadvantaged students have been exposed to insufficient educational experiences in…

Natriello, Gary; And Others

202

EDUCATING THE DISADVANTAGED--TRENDS AND PROSPECTS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

COMPENSATORY AND DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION IS EMPHASIZED AS THE MAJOR MOVING FORCE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED. THE DEVELOPMENT OF DISADVANTAGED PEOPLE IS NECESSARY FOR THE CONTINUED GROWTH OF THEIR COMMUNITIES, PROGRAMS SHOULD BE DEVELOPED WHICH INVOLVE DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AT EVERY STAGE OF THEIR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. TO THAT END,…

BRAZZIEL, WILLIAM F.

203

76 FR 8221 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...its owners and managers will most often...who qualify as socially and economically...the concern is a responsible business for the...the disadvantaged manager works for the firm...as the project manager responsible for...

2011-02-11

204

Socio-economic aspects of Gum Arabic production in Dalanj area, South Korodofan, Sudan.  

PubMed

Acacia senegal (locally: Hashab tree) is one of the most important tree species in Sudan as it considers the main Gum Arabic producing tree. The objective of this study is to investigate the socio-economic aspects of gum Arabic production and to assess contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people in Dalanj Locality, South Kordofan State-Sudan. Social survey was carried out by using structured questionnaire for 80 respondents (gum producers) on random sample basis in eight villages, 10 respondents from each village. Issues pertaining to socio-economic factors affecting gum Arabic production and contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people, in Dalanj Locality, were assessed. Results of the study revealed that expansion of agriculture lands at the expense of hashab trees, fires and illegal felling are the most important factors constraining gum production in the area. The results also indicated that agriculture is the main source of income and gum Arabic is a supplementary source of income. The importance of gum Arabic becomes apparent during (off farm season) the period between crops harvest and the preparation of the next agricultural season. Establishment of producers' associations and provision of loans to producers are highly recommended to ensure sustainability of gum production. PMID:24511757

Koli, A O; Eltayeb, A M; Sanjak, E M; Mohammed, M H

2013-11-01

205

An evolutionary perspective on leaf economics: phylogenetics of leaf mass per area in vascular plants  

PubMed Central

In plant leaves, resource use follows a trade-off between rapid resource capture and conservative storage. This “worldwide leaf economics spectrum” consists of a suite of intercorrelated leaf traits, among which leaf mass per area, LMA, is one of the most fundamental as it indicates the cost of leaf construction and light-interception borne by plants. We conducted a broad-scale analysis of the evolutionary history of LMA across a large dataset of 5401 vascular plant species. The phylogenetic signal in LMA displayed low but significant conservatism, that is, leaf economics tended to be more similar among close relatives than expected by chance alone. Models of trait evolution indicated that LMA evolved under weak stabilizing selection. Moreover, results suggest that different optimal phenotypes evolved among large clades within which extremes tended to be selected against. Conservatism in LMA was strongly related to growth form, as were selection intensity and phenotypic evolutionary rates: woody plants showed higher conservatism in relation to stronger stabilizing selection and lower evolutionary rates compared to herbaceous taxa. The evolutionary history of LMA thus paints different evolutionary trajectories of vascular plant species across clades, revealing the coordination of leaf trait evolution with growth forms in response to varying selection regimes. PMID:25165520

Flores, Olivier; Garnier, Eric; Wright, Ian J; Reich, Peter B; Pierce, Simon; Diaz, Sandra; Pakeman, Robin J; Rusch, Graciela M; Bernard-Verdier, Maud; Testi, Baptiste; Bakker, Jan P; Bekker, Renee M; Cerabolini, Bruno E L; Ceriani, Roberta M; Cornu, Guillaume; Cruz, Pablo; Delcamp, Matthieu; Dolezal, Jiri; Eriksson, Ove; Fayolle, Adeline; Freitas, Helena; Golodets, Carly; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Hodgson, John G; Brusa, Guido; Kleyer, Michael; Kunzmann, Dieter; Lavorel, Sandra; Papanastasis, Vasilios P; Perez-Harguindeguy, Natalia; Vendramini, Fernanda; Weiher, Evan

2014-01-01

206

GIS: Geographic Information System An application for socio-economical data collection for rural area  

E-print Network

The country India follows the planning through planning commission. This is on the basis of information collected by traditional, tedious and manual method which is too slow to sustain. Now we are in the age of 21th century. We have seen in last few decades that the progress of information technology with leaps and bounds, which have completely changed the way of life in the developed nations. While internet has changed the established working practice and opened new vistas and provided a platform to connect, this gives the opportunity for collaborative work space that goes beyond the global boundary. We are living in the global economy and India leading towards Liberalize Market Oriented Economy (LMOE). Considering this things, focusing on GIS, we proposed a system for collection of socio economic data and water resource management information of rural area via internet.

Nayak, S K; Kalyankar, N V

2010-01-01

207

Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Winter Tourism: Challenges for Ski Area Operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing temperatures and snow scarce winter seasons pose a big challenge for the winter tourism industry. Changing natural snow reliability influences tourism demand and ski area operators are faced with an enhanced need of technical snow production. The goal of the present research work is to analyze the economic effects of technical snow production under future climate conditions. Snowmaking as an adaptation strategy to climate change impacts on the ski tourism industry is already taken into consideration in several studies from a scientific perspective concerning snowmaking potentials under future climate conditions and the impacts on ski season length (e.g. Scott et al. 2003; Scott & McBoyle 2007; Hennessy et al. 2008; Steiger 2010). A few studies considered economic aspects of technical snowmaking (e.g. Teich et al. 2007; Gonseth 2008). However, a detailed analysis of the costs and benefits of snowmaking under future climate and snow conditions based on sophisticated climate and snow models has not been carried out yet. The present study addresses the gap of knowledge concerning the economic profitability of prospective snowmaking requirements under future climate scenarios. We carry out a detailed cost-revenue analysis of snowmaking under current and future climate conditions for a case study site in Styria (Austria) using dynamic investment models. The starting point of all economic calculations is the daily demand for artificial snow that determines the requirements for additional snowmaking investments and additional operating costs. The demand for artificial snow is delivered by the snow cover model AMUNDSEN (see Strasser et al. 2011) and is driven by four climate scenarios. Apart from future climate conditions the profitability of snowmaking depends on changes in costs and visitor numbers. The results of a ski tourism demand model analyzing daily visitor numbers and their dependencies of prevailing weather conditions enter the cost-revenue analysis of snowmaking and enable the determination of the immediate benefits in terms of additional revenues of ski ticket sales. Furthermore, we conduct an econometric analysis of how snowmaking investments changed ski ticket prices in previous years, as the positive effects of snowmaking on snow reliability could be offset in the longer term by the effects of higher prices for skiing, possibly resulting in lower demand.

Damm, A.; Köberl, J.; Prettenthaler, F.; Töglhofer, C.

2012-04-01

208

The Effects of Integrating the U.S. Census Bureau's Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates Into the Appalachian Regional Commission's Designation of Economically Distressed Counties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) has used the “distressed county” designation to identify counties with the most structurally disadvantaged economies. The ARC annually updates distressed status of counties with current unemployment and per capita market income data. This research evaluates the potential impact of incorporating the U.S. Census Bureau Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) into the ARC distressed

Roger B. Hammer; Robin M. Blakely; Paul R. Voss

2003-01-01

209

Child Participation and Family Engagement with Early Childhood Education and Care Services in Disadvantaged Australian Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To support national policy initiatives in early childhood education and to determine reasons for low enrolment in services from families in disadvantaged areas, the authors investigated the views and practices of 101 families from disadvantaged communities. Families with a child aged 3-5 years were recruited from urban, rural and remote areas of…

Grace, Rebekah; Bowes, Jennifer; Elcombe, Emma

2014-01-01

210

Concept Area Four and Five Objectives, Hierarchy Charts, and Test Items. Economic Analysis Course. Segments 85-96.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multimedia course in economic analysis was developed and used in conjunction with the United States Naval Academy. (See ED 043 790 and ED 043 791 for final reports of the project evaluation and development model.) This report deals with concept areas four and five, which focus on international trade and enrichment areas. The behavioral…

Sterling Inst., Washington, DC. Educational Technology Center.

211

Exploring relations between crime and disadvantage on merseyside  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sets out some of the conceptual and methodological issues underpinning a two-year study into relations between crime and disadvantage in Merseyside, northwest England. The study forms part of the British Economic and Social Research Council's (ESRC) Crime and Social Order Research Programme; a five-year initiative with resources of 2.1 million pounds funding 21 separate projects (ESRC, 1994). Merseyside,

A. Hirschfield; K. J. Bowers; P. J. B. Brown

1995-01-01

212

Donor-driven local economic development in peripheral areas of KwaZulu-Natal: The Gijima Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gijima Programme in one of KwaZulu-Natal's peripheral economic areas represents a fourth phase of local economic development (LED) approaches in South Africa. This paper assesses the programme by comparing it with international trends and recent developments in South Africa. Despite some noteworthy innovations, the overall programme reflects a supply-driven approach that seldom considers projects funded from the market side.

Lochner Marais

2010-01-01

213

Development of a Cooperative Retailing Program for the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents a two-year junior college retailing curriculum for the disadvantaged, proposed on the basis of answers to questionnaires sent to retailing industries in the Metropolitan Rochester area. The questionnaires were designed to assess the need and feasibility of such a retailing program and to ascertain qualifications required to…

Litzinger, F. Donald; And Others.

214

Barriers to Healthier Eating in a Disadvantaged Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The research objective was to identify how healthy eating was understood in a disadvantaged community and how barriers to healthy eating might be overcome. Design: Participatory action research. Setting: Communities in Gurnos, Merthyr Tydfil, one of the most deprived areas in the UK. Method: Trainees on a participative methods course…

O'Neill, Martin; Rebane, Deanne; Lester, Carolyn

2004-01-01

215

Developing the Potential of the Gifted Disadvantaged in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In dealing with this topic I will draw from my personal experience as a former disadvantaged gifted South African from the underdeveloped rural area in KwaZulu-Natal. I will commence my argument by stating that every child born in this world has some kind of gift which, if well developed, can benefit the community, the nation or even the world in

Surgeon Xolo

2007-01-01

216

Take the money and run: Economic segregation in U.S. metropolitan areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared to racial segregation, economic segregation has received little attention in recent empirical literature. Yet a heated debate has arisen concerning Wilson's hypothesis (1987) that increasing economic segregation plays a role in the formation of urban ghettos. This paper presents a methodological critique of the measure of economic segregation used by Massey and Eggers (1990) and finds that it confounds

Paul A. Jargowsky

217

Geographic variation in participation for physically disabled adults: The contribution of area economic factors to employment after spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

This study investigates that role of area economic characteristics in predicting employment, a key aspect of social participation for adults with physical disabilities, using data from a national registry of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI results in chronic impairment and most commonly occurs during young adulthood when working is a key aspect of the adult social role. Geocoded data was collected from two of the 14 SCI Model Systems (SCIMS) centers involved in the National SCIMS database and used to link individual-level data with area-level measures extracted from the 2000 US Census. The analysis included participants of working age (18–64 years) and living in the community (N=1,013). Hierarchical generalized linear modeling was used to estimate area-level variation in participation and the relative contribution of area-level economic indicators, adjusted for individual-level health, functioning, and background characteristics. The likelihood of employment for adults with SCI varied by area and was associated with area SES and ubanicity, but not area unemployment. These findings suggest that variation in area economic conditions may affect the feasibility of employment for persons who experience chronic physical disability during adulthood, thus limiting full participation in society. PMID:22818491

Botticello, Amanda L.; Chen, Yuying; Tulsky, David S.

2012-01-01

218

Metropolitan Growth and Economic Opportunity for the Poor: If You're Poor Does Place Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on why metropolitan areas vary in their capacity to translate generally high employment rates into economic opportunity for the disadvantaged. Data come from the Urban Institute's Urban Underclass Database, which includes poverty and employment data for 1980 and 1990 for the 100 largest metropolitan areas down to the Census…

Foster-Bey, John A.

219

Epidemiology of tuberculosis in big cities of the European Union and European Economic Area countries.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional survey aimed to examine the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) cities with populations greater than 500,000. National TB programme managers were asked to provide data on big city population size, total number of notified TB cases in big cities and national notification rate for 2009. A rate ratio was calculated using the big city TB notification rate as a numerator and country TB notification rate, excluding big city TB cases and population, as a denominator. Twenty of the 30 EU/EEA countries had at least one big city. Pooled rate ratios were 2.5, 1.0, and 0.7 in low-, intermediate- and high-incidence countries respectively. In 15 big cities, all in low-incidence countries, rate ratios were twice the national notification rate. These data illustrate the TB epidemiology transition, a situation whereby TB disease concentrates in big cities as national incidence falls, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of risk groups found there. This situation requires targeted interventions and we recommend that big city TB data, including information about patients' risk factors, are collected and analysed systematically, and that successful interventions are shared. PMID:24626208

de Vries, G; Aldridge, R W; Cayla, J A; Haas, W H; Sandgren, A; van Hest, N A; Abubakar, I

2014-01-01

220

The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

221

Concept Area Two Objectives and Test Items (Rev.) Part One, Part Two. Economic Analysis Course. Segments 17-49.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multimedia course in economic analysis was developed and used in conjunction with the United States Naval Academy. (See ED 043 790 and ED 043 791 for final reports of the project evaluation and development model.) This report deals with the second concept area of the course and focuses on macroeconomics. Segments 17 through 49 are presented,…

Sterling Inst., Washington, DC. Educational Technology Center.

222

A preliminary analysis of socio-economic and accessibility attributes and landscape patterns in a coastal urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report the result of our preliminary research that aims to examine how spatio-temporal landscape patterns can be related to socio-economic and accessibility attributes with a coastal urban area as the case. Our research methodology emphasizes the use of remotely sensed data, in combination with census data and other geographically referenced data. We classify two satellite images

Xiaojun Yang

2009-01-01

223

Territorial Manifestations of the Economical Influence Areas of Global Warming and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic space is structured by the relationship between the anthropogenic and economic factors, with a dynamical evolution defined by the financial flows around the world and technology evolution. The global warming and the climate change are two different processes associated on the planet, due to different etiologies: the global warming is produced principally by anthropogenic effects, whereas the climate change

Y. G. Garcia Lopez; J. A. Perez-Peraza; V. M. Velasco Herrera

2007-01-01

224

Maine: 2002 Economic Census. Educational Services, Geographic Area Series. EC02-61A-ME.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. Title 13 of the United States Code (Sections 131, 191, and 224) directs the Census Bureau to take the economic census every 5 years, covering…

US Department of Commerce, 2005

2005-01-01

225

Development of a Regional Economic Activity Index For the Chicago Metropolitan Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even with strong demands for local economic activity indices, there have been relatively few attempts to develop comprehensive indices that are compatible with the national business coincident index developed by NBER and Department of Commerce. In this paper, some experimental methods are explored for generating local economic activity index. Using the Chicago Federal Reserve Bank National Activity Index (CFNAI) and

John Seo; Geoffrey J. D. Hewings

226

Do features of public open spaces vary according to neighbourhood socio-economic status?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relations between neighbourhood socio-economic status and features of public open spaces (POS) hypothesised to influence children's physical activity. Data were from the first follow-up of the Children Living in Active Neighbourhoods (CLAN) Study, which involved 540 families of 5–6 and 10–12-year-old children in Melbourne, Australia. The Socio-Economic Index for Areas Index (SEIFA) of Relative Socio-economic Advantage\\/Disadvantage

David Crawford; Anna Timperio; Billie Giles-Corti; Kylie Ball; Clare Hume; Rebecca Roberts; Nick Andrianopoulos; Jo Salmon

2008-01-01

227

Drug resistance among tuberculosis cases in the European Union and European Economic Area, 2007 to 2012.  

PubMed

The European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) tuberculosis (TB) surveillance system collects detailed information on resistance to TB drugs. Using this information, we provide an overview of the current TB drug resistance situation and trends in the EU/EEA by performing a descriptive analysis, including analysis of treatment outcomes, of the TB cases reported between January 2007 and December 2012. The percentages of TB cases with different drug resistance patterns have been stable with about 90% of the new laboratory-confirmed cases pan-susceptible, 6% monodrug-resistant, 2% polydrug-resistant, 2% multidrug drug-resistant (MDR) TB - excluding extensively drugresistant (XDR) TB -, and 0.2% XDR-TB. In previously treated laboratory-confirmed TB cases, the percentage with MDR-TB excluding XDR-TB declined until 2010 to 16% and remained stable thereafter. During the study period, the percentages of cases with monodrug- and polydrug-resistant TB remained constant at about 8% and 2% whereas the percentage of XDR-TB cases increased slightly to 2.6%. Treatment outcome results for all cases have been stable with overall 77.9% of the pan-susceptible cases, 69.6% of the monoresistant cases, 68.2% of the polyresistant cases, 32.2% of the MDR-TB cases (excluding XDR-TB), and 19.1% of the XDR-TB cases treated successfully. The treatment success rate target for new pulmonary culture-positive MDR-TB cases of 70% has not been reached. In addition, drug resistance surveillance can be improved by more complete reporting of drug susceptibility results and treatment outcome. PMID:24650865

van der Werf, M J; Ködmön, C; Hollo, V; Sandgren, A; Zucs, P

2014-01-01

228

HANDBOOK, TEACHING SCIENCE TO EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DESCRIBED ARE PROCEDURES AND LABORATORY MATERIALS WHICH ARE OUTGROWTHS OF A RESEARCH PROJECT OF THE SOUTHEASTERN EDUCATION LABORATORY FOR THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE TO DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS IN GRADES 7, 8, AND 9. PART 1 DEALS WITH THE CRITERIA USED IN DEVELOPING PROCEDURES AND MATERIALS FOR USE WITH EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED. INCLUDED ARE (1) THE…

BINGHAM, N.E.; AND OTHERS

229

Professor L. Jean Camp is a founder of the interdiscipline of economics of security. Her core contributions are in area of the social and economic implications of technologies of security  

E-print Network

is the author of "Trust and Risk in Internet Commerce" (MIT Press), "Economics of Identity Theft" (SpringerBiography Professor L. Jean Camp is a founder of the interdiscipline of economics of security. Her core contributions are in area of the social and economic implications of technologies of security

Camp, L. Jean

230

Economic Effects of Land Subsidence Due to Excessive Groundwater Withdrawal in the Texas Gulf Coast Area  

E-print Network

1943. Estimates are divided into three sub-areas within this total area to provide insight into the incidence of subsidence-related costs. The sub-areas considered in this study were sub-area I, an 83 square mile area between Houston and Baytown...

Jones, L. L.; Larson, J.

231

Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

1995-03-01

232

Planting the SEED: Towards a Spatial Economic Ecological Database for a shared understanding of the Dutch Wadden area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we address the characteristics of a publicly accessible Spatial Economic Ecological Database (SEED) and its ability to support a shared understanding among planners and experts of the economy and ecology of the Dutch Wadden area. Theoretical building blocks for a Wadden SEED are discussed. Our SEED contains a comprehensive set of stakeholder validated spatially explicit data on key economic and ecological indicators. These data extend over various spatial scales. Spatial issues relevant to the specification of a Wadden-SEED and its data needs are explored in this paper and illustrated using empirical data for the Dutch Wadden area. The purpose of the SEED is to integrate basic economic and ecologic information in order to support the resolution of specific (policy) questions and to facilitate connections between project level and strategic level in the spatial planning process. Although modest in its ambitions, we will argue that a Wadden SEED can serve as a valuable element in the much debated science-policy interface. A Wadden SEED is valuable since it is a consensus-based common knowledge base on the economy and ecology of an area rife with ecological-economic conflict, including conflict in which scientific information is often challenged and disputed.

Daams, Michiel N.; Sijtsma, Frans J.

2013-09-01

233

An Economic Assessment of STOL Aircraft Potential Including Terminal Area Environmental Considerations, Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of an economic and environmental study of short haul airline systems using short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft are presented. The STOL system characteristics were optimized for maximum patronage at a specified return on investment, while...

H. L. Solomon, S. Sokolsky

1974-01-01

234

Non-Economic Determinants of Energy Use in Rural Areas of South Africa  

SciTech Connect

This project will begin to determine the forces and dimensions in rural energy-use patterns and begin to address policy and implementation needs for the future. This entails: Forecasting the social and economic benefits that electrification is assumed to deliver regarding education and women's lives; Assessing negative perceptions of users, which have been established through the slow uptake of electricity; Making recommendations as to how these perceptions could be addressed in policy development and in the continuing electrification program; Making recommendations to policy makers on how to support and make optimal use of current energy-use practices where these are socio-economically sound; Identifying misinformation and wasteful practices; and Other recommendations, which will significantly improve the success of the rural electrification program in a socio-economically sound manner, as identified in the course of the work.

Annecke, W. (Energy and Development Research Center, University of Cape Town, South Africa)

1999-03-29

235

24 CFR 599.105 - Economic condition requirements for a nominated area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...area is an area of pervasive poverty, unemployment, and...such data relate. (c) Poverty requirement. A nominated...other than those of pervasive poverty and unemployment. Below...of crime, narcotics use, homelessness, high incidence of...

2011-04-01

236

24 CFR 599.105 - Economic condition requirements for a nominated area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...area is an area of pervasive poverty, unemployment, and...such data relate. (c) Poverty requirement. A nominated...other than those of pervasive poverty and unemployment. Below...of crime, narcotics use, homelessness, high incidence of...

2013-04-01

237

24 CFR 599.105 - Economic condition requirements for a nominated area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...area is an area of pervasive poverty, unemployment, and...such data relate. (c) Poverty requirement. A nominated...other than those of pervasive poverty and unemployment. Below...of crime, narcotics use, homelessness, high incidence of...

2012-04-01

238

24 CFR 599.105 - Economic condition requirements for a nominated area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...area is an area of pervasive poverty, unemployment, and...such data relate. (c) Poverty requirement. A nominated...other than those of pervasive poverty and unemployment. Below...of crime, narcotics use, homelessness, high incidence of...

2010-04-01

239

24 CFR 599.105 - Economic condition requirements for a nominated area.  

...area is an area of pervasive poverty, unemployment, and...such data relate. (c) Poverty requirement. A nominated...other than those of pervasive poverty and unemployment. Below...of crime, narcotics use, homelessness, high incidence of...

2014-04-01

240

Advantages and Disadvantages of Individualized Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of individualized instruction, known as the personalized system of instruction (PSI), in teaching college physical science courses. Tables summarizing the advantages and disadvantages of PSI from the viewpoints of students, teachers, and administrators are presented. (HM)

Jones, Merriam A.

1977-01-01

241

Optimizing secure communication standards for disadvantaged networks  

E-print Network

We present methods for optimizing standardized cryptographic message protocols for use on disadvantaged network links. We first provide an assessment of current secure communication message packing standards and their ...

Okano, Stephen Hiroshi

2009-01-01

242

Research Apprenticeships for Disadvantaged High Schooler (RADHS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Research Apprenticeships for Disadvantaged High Schoolers (RADHS) program was initiated in 1980 at the suggestion of Frank Press, Science Advisor to the President. The objectives are to stimulate broader interest in minority communities in careers in ...

R. B. Cowin

1981-01-01

243

Research Apprenticeships for Disadvantaged High Schoolers (RADHS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Research Apprenticeships for Disadvantaged High Schoolers (RADHS) program was initiated in 1980 at the suggestion of Frank Press, Science Advisor to the President. The objectives are to stimulate broader interest in minority communities in careers in ...

R. B. Cowin

1982-01-01

244

Non-white migration patterns in northern metropolitan areas, 1960–1970: The interaction between economic and affinitive factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal objective of this article is to investigate the determinants of variation in the growth of non-white populations attributable to migration across northern metropolitan areas during the 1960s. Economic theory suggests that a substantial proportion of population movements reflect utility-maximizing responses to spatial disequilibria in labor market opportunities. However, existing non-race-specific empirical studies on internal migration in the United

Charles J. Latos

1984-01-01

245

“When the money's low”: Economic participation among disadvantaged young Australians  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a generational group, children and young people are rarely independent financial actors but are nonetheless active consumers of goods and services related to their social identities and enduring orientations to learning, work and community. Many young Australians, however, do not have adequate access to the financial resources that permit their engagement with youth cultures constructed around commodity consumption nor

Jen Skattebol

2011-01-01

246

34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...than the amount listed in the Department of Health and Human Services poverty guidelines for the size of the student's...least a half-time basis in an eligible program...the Armed Forces of the United States within 1 year after...

2011-07-01

247

34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...than the amount listed in the Department of Health and Human Services poverty guidelines for the size of the student's...least a half-time basis in an eligible program...the Armed Forces of the United States within 1 year after...

2013-07-01

248

34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...than the amount listed in the Department of Health and Human Services poverty guidelines for the size of the student's...least a half-time basis in an eligible program...the Armed Forces of the United States within 1 year after...

2012-07-01

249

34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...than the amount listed in the Department of Health and Human Services poverty guidelines for the size of the student's...least a half-time basis in an eligible program...the Armed Forces of the United States within 1 year after...

2012-07-01

250

34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...than the amount listed in the Department of Health and Human Services poverty guidelines for the size of the student's...least a half-time basis in an eligible program...the Armed Forces of the United States within 1 year after...

2011-07-01

251

34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...than the amount listed in the Department of Health and Human Services poverty guidelines for the size of the student's...least a half-time basis in an eligible program...the Armed Forces of the United States within 1 year after...

2010-07-01

252

34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...than the amount listed in the Department of Health and Human Services poverty guidelines for the size of the student's...least a half-time basis in an eligible program...the Armed Forces of the United States within 1 year after...

2013-07-01

253

34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...than the amount listed in the Department of Health and Human Services poverty guidelines for the size of the student's...least a half-time basis in an eligible program...the Armed Forces of the United States within 1 year after...

2010-07-01

254

The Economic Role of Central Community College. [Impact] on the Area Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1988, a study was conducted to determine the economic impact of Central Community College (CCC) on the surrounding communities. Using a research model developed specifically for use by public rural community colleges, the study drew upon data compiled from college records, local government sources, as well as from a survey of CCC students,…

Kiser, Christine; And Others

255

Analysis of socio-economic driving forces on built-up area expansion in Xiamen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on grey relational analysis and stepwise regression, this study analysed the socio-economic driving forces of Xiamen since the reform and opening of China. The research aimed to explore the deep dynamic mechanism of urban space expansion of Xiamen and provide scientific support for its sustainable development. The results indicate resource consumption factors and population factors have had a significant

Kai Yin; Xuanqi Li; Guoqin Zhang; Lishan Xiao

2010-01-01

256

Social and Economic Aspects of the Family in an Italian Peripheral Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

From analyses carried out in the 70s, the family emerges as a system of economic management and a complement to Market and State. Besides having been of undeniable importance in terms of a more detailed perception of the family as a whole in Italian society, this result has also attributed greater possibilities of interpretation to the models of analysis of

Patrizia David; Giovanna Vicarelli

1989-01-01

257

Application of BEA Economic Areas in the Development of the Great Basin Fiscal Impact Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

With changing revenue and service responsibilities between federal, state and local governments, the need for local decision- makers to accurately assess fiscal impacts of new economic deve l- opments or federal government programs has become increasingly important. In this paper we explore the use of cross-sectional data and procedures to derive a fiscal impact model that crosses state boundaries. This

Thomas R. Harris; J. Scott Shonkwiler; George E. Ebai; Peter Janson

2000-01-01

258

Work or place? Assessing the concurrent effects of workplace exploitation and area-of-residence economic inequality on individual health.  

PubMed

Building on previous multilevel studies in social epidemiology, this cross-sectional study examines, simultaneously, the contextual effects of workplace exploitation and area-of-residence economic inequality on social inequalities in health among low-income nursing assistants. A total of 868 nursing assistants recruited from 55 nursing homes in Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia were surveyed between 1999 and 2001. Using a cross-classified multilevel design, the authors tested the effects of area-of-residence (income inequality and racial segregation), workplace (type of nursing home ownership and managerial pressure), and individual-level (age, gender, race/ethnicity, health insurance, length of employment, social support, type of nursing unit, preexisting psychopathology, physical health, education, and income) variables on health (self-reported health and activity limitations) and behavioral outcomes (alcohol use and caffeine consumption). Findings reveal that overall health was associated with both workplace exploitation and area-of-residence income inequality; area of residence was associated with activity limitations and binge drinking; and workplace exploitation was associated with caffeine consumption. This study explicitly accounts for the multiple contextual structure and effects of economic inequality on health. More work is necessary to replicate the current findings and establish robust conclusions on workplace and area of residence that might help inform interventions. PMID:21319719

Muntaner, Carles; Li, Yong; Ng, Edwin; Benach, Joan; Chung, Haejoo

2011-01-01

259

Does living in a disadvantaged area entail limited opportunities to purchase fresh fruit and vegetables in terms of price, availability, and variety? Findings from the Brisbane Food Study. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

260

48 CFR 1552.219-73 - Small Disadvantaged Business Targets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...219-73 Small Disadvantaged Business Targets. As prescribed in...clause: Small Disadvantaged Business Targets (OCT 2000) (a) In accordance with...following small disadvantaged business (SDB) participation...

2010-10-01

261

48 CFR 1519.204 - Small disadvantaged business participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...participation of Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB) concerns in the performance...219-73, Small Disadvantaged Business Targets, or one substantially...219-74, Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Evaluation... [65 FR 58923, Oct. 3,...

2010-10-01

262

Economic structure and socioeconomic change in America’s micropolitan areas, 1970–1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micropolitan areas, county-level geographic units with central cities larger than 15,000, represent a small but increasingly important part of the U.S. urban hierarchy. Despite the attraction of micropolitan areas to migrants, and increasing interest from federal policymakers who may soon officially recognize this geographic unit, little appears in the social science literature on the characteristics of these areas, and how

Alexander C Vias; Gordon F Mulligan; Andreas Molin

2002-01-01

263

Children's Perspectives on Economic Adversity: A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews some of the recent qualitative literature on children's perspectives on economic disadvantage. The idea of asking people who experience disadvantage about their own situations is still a relatively new one in the social sciences, and the idea of asking children about their own perceptions of economic and social disadvantage is even more recent. Nine analyses, all published

Gerry Redmond

2008-01-01

264

An Economic Impact Study of Liberty Baptist College on the Lynchburg Metropolitan Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine Liberty Baptist College's impact on the Lynchburg area in the 1980 fiscal year. Three impact areas were studied: local businesses, governments, and individuals. Local construction expenditures of $5.6 million, additional college-related expenditures of other affiliated organizations, and several other peripheral…

Moisan, Leonard J.

265

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Coastal Oregon). Volume 4 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Oregon Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Oregon Area includes Clatsop, Tillamook, Lincoln, Lane, Douglas, Coos, and Curry counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Oregon, Washington, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

266

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area. (Coastal Washington) Volume 4 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Washington Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Washington Area includes Jefferson, Clallam, Island, San Juan, Grays Harbor, Pacific, and Wahkiakum counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

267

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Coastal Oregon) Volume 3 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Oregon Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Oregon Area includes Clatsop, Tillamook, Lincoln, Lane, Douglas, Coos, and Curry counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Oregon, Washington, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

268

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Coastal Washington). Volume 2 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Washington Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Washington Area includes Jefferson, Clallam, Island, San Juan, Grays Harbor, Pacific, and Wahkiakum counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

269

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Coastal Washington) Volume 3 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Washington Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Washington Area includes Jefferson, Clallam, Island, San Juan, Grays Harbor, Pacific, and Wahkiakum counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

270

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area. (Coastal Washington). Volume 1 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Washington Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Washington Area includes Jefferson, Clallam, Island, San Juan, Grays Harbor, Pacific, and Wahkiakum counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

271

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Coastal Oregon) Volume 2 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Oregon Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Oregon Area includes Clatsop, Tillamook, Lincoln, Lane, Douglas, Coos, and Curry counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Oregon, Washington, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

272

An Economic Study of a Typical Ranching Area on the Edwards Plateau of Texas.  

E-print Network

. INTRODUCTIO CHAPTER I. THE RESPECTIVE DOMAINS OE ~nb SARMER AND THE GRAZIER ..................................... 23-32 ................................... Historical Development 23 ....................... Area and Extent of Grazing Lands 30... ................................... 49 ................................................. Altitude 51 Soils ................................................. 51 ..................................... Water Resources 51 People .............................................. 53 Land...

Youngblood, B. (Bonney); Cox, Alonzo B. (Alonzo Bettis)

1922-01-01

273

Social and economic sustainability of urban systems: comparative analysis of metropolitan statistical areas in Ohio, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

This article presents a general and versatile methodology for assessing sustainability with Fisher Information as a function of dynamic changes in urban systems. Using robust statistical methods, six Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in Ohio were evaluated to comparatively as...

274

Cumulative gender disadvantage in contract employment.  

PubMed

Women's wages do not grow with experience or tenure as much as men's do. Many accounts of this cumulative gender disadvantage attribute it to women's underinvestment in firm-specific skills. Yet if that were true, this disadvantage would not exist where firm-specific skills are not rewarded by the labor market. This article investigates this argument in the context of contract employment, where demand for firm specificity is minimal. Contrary to expectations, men still receive higher rewards than women over time. Drawing on quantitative evidence and qualitative fieldwork using job histories of high-skill contractors affiliated with a staffing firm, the author finds support for two sources of women's disadvantage: lower rates of movement across clients on the supply side and unmeasured demand-side factors by which similar levels of tenure and client transitions accrue lower rewards to women. Implications for research on gender stratification and career advancement in non-formalized labor markets are discussed. PMID:19824298

Fernandez-Mateo, Isabel

2009-01-01

275

A novel atomic layer deposition method to fabricate economical and robust large area microchannel plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a cost-effective and robust route to fabricate large-area microchannel plate (MCP) detectors, which will open new potential in larger area MCP-based detector technologies. For the first time, using our newly developed process flow we have fabricated large area (8"x8") MCPs. We used atomic layer deposition (ALD), a powerful thin film deposition technique, to tailor the electrical resistance and secondary electron emission (SEE) properties of large area, low cost, borosilicate glass capillary arrays. The self limiting growth mechanism in ALD allows atomic level control over the thickness and composition of resistive and SEES layers that can be deposited conformally on high aspect ratio capillary glass arrays. We have developed several robust and reliable ALD processes for the resistive coatings and SEE layers to give us precise control over the resistance (106-1010?) and SEE coefficient (up to 5). This novel approach allows the functionalization of microporous, insulating substrates to produce MCPs with high gain and low noise. These capabilities allow a separation of the substrate material properties from the amplification properties. Here we describe a complete process flow to produce large area MCPs.

Mane, Anil U.; Peng, Qing; Wetstein, Matthew J.; Wagner, Robert G.; Frisch, Henry J.; Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Minot, Michael J.; Adams, Bernhard W.; Chollet, Matthieu C.; Elam, Jeffrey W.

2011-06-01

276

Economics Postgraduate MSc Economics  

E-print Network

of Masters programmes, all designed to give you a competitive advantage in an increasingly challenging future career. The programme focuses on the key areas of advanced economics, quantitative methods. The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching and research

Burton, Geoffrey R.

277

Impact of Job Development on Poverty in Four Developing Areas, 1970. Agricultural Economic Report No. 225.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The direct impact of job development in new and expanded plants on individual salary and poverty reduction was studied in rural areas of Arizona, Appalachian Mississippi, the Ozarks, and the Mississippi Delta. Specific Objectives were to: indicate competiveness between migrants and residents for new jobs; estimate the proportion of jobs which…

Kuehn, John A.; And Others

278

Migrant Response to Industrialization in Four Rural Areas, 1965-70. Agricultural Economic Report No. 270.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Immigrants competed on a limited scale with residents for new jobs in four industrializing rural areas in Arizona, the Central Ozarks, Mississippi, and Arkansas during 1965-70. This study determined: (1) competition for jobs between residents and immigrants; (2) need for immigrants to staff industries; and (3) differences between attributes of…

Olsen, Duane A.; Kuehn, John A.

279

Optimization design and economic analysis of solar power system with sea water desalination for remote areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

People in rural areas at present are still beyond the coverage of pure and fresh water for their daily usage. However, these constraints offer an opportunity for green technology to embrace the people's needs and shortages. Vast source of solar energy and sea water allows the community to reach their dream by using desalination process to convert salty sea water

N. H. Baharudin; T. M. N. T. Mansur; R. Ali; Y. Yatim; A. A. A. Wahab

2011-01-01

280

Renewable Energy Policy in Remote Rural Areas of Western China: Implementation and Socio-economic Benefits  

E-print Network

areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural traditional energy sources (such as candles and dry cell batteries) to electricity from solar PV power

Huber, Bernhard A.

281

The Belgian Industrial Confidence Indicator: Leading Indicator of Economic Activity in the Euro Area?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international press has recently reported on the widely-held view in the financial markets that the movement of the Belgian industrial confidence indicator might precede the euro area business cycles. The initial purpose of this paper is to assess whether this market perception is more than a simple optical illusion, resulting from the inspection of graphical representations of the data.

Jean-Jacques Vanhaelen; Luc Dresse; Jan De Mulder

2000-01-01

282

Geography and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Location and climate have large effects on income levels and income growth through their effects on transport costs, disease burdens, and agricultural productivity, among other channels. Geography also seems to affect economic policy choices. Many geographic regions that have not been conducive to modern economic growth have high population densities and are experiencing rapid increases in population. At particular disadvantage

John Luke Gallup; Jeffrey D. Sachs; Andrew D. Mellinger

1999-01-01

283

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area. (Coastal Oregon) Volume 1 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Oregon Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Oregon Area includes Clatsop, Tillamook, Lincoln, Lane, Douglas, Coos, and Curry counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Oregon, Washington, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socioeconomic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

284

An investigation of economic costs of schizophrenia in two areas of China  

PubMed Central

Background Schizophrenia is a severe psychotic disorder characterized by significant disturbances in thinking, perception, emotions and behavior. Even if it is not a very frequent disorder, but it is the most burdensome and costly illnesses worldwide. The total population was approximate 1.3 billion and there are approximate 8 million schizophrenic patients in China. Despite the wide-ranging financial and social burdens associated with schizophrenia, but there have been few cost-of-illness studies of this illness in China. Objective To evaluate the economic cost of schizophrenic patients in China. Methodology 356 schizophrenic patients who met with DSM-IV criteria were enrolled and investigated with the Economic Burden Questionnaire(EBQ), 299 schizophrenic patients completed the study for 12 months. All the data were combined and classified by researcher. EBQ include all kinds of cost such as direct cost, indirect cost and total cost as well. It was filled in by patients and their close caregivers. Comparison of cost was made between not only out-patients and in-patients but also urban patients and rural patients. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was made to identify the main influence factors of total cost. Results (i) The per case per annum total costs, direct costs and indirect costs of schizophrenia amounted to US$2586.21, US$862.81(33.4%) and US$1723.40(66.6%) respectively. The per case total cost, direct cost and direct medical cost of in-patients were more higher than out-patients (P?Economic cost of schizophrenia were serious, we must pay close attention to it. (ii) The indirect cost are the majority of the total cost. The cost of urban patients are more higher than the cost of rural patients, the cost of in-patients are more higher than the cost of out-patients. PMID:24237846

2013-01-01

285

[Socio-economic context in the Lower Iseo Lake area after World War II].  

PubMed

In the second part of the 20th century, the Basso Sebino Area (Northern Italy) underwent a transformation into an industrial context. The first factories were engaged in the production of textiles, clothes and pasta. This was followed by a major development of mechanic, plastic and rubber industry. The latter activity was concentrated on the production of buttons. This text describes the evolution of the unions'activity in order to obtain a more decent salary and better working conditions in all productive areas. Within this reality, the production of asbestos goods started in 1950 in the Colombo enterprise, run by Rinaldo Colombo, The latter was also the manager of the chrysotile quarry in Balangero, province of Torino (the biggest asbestos mine in Western Europe). Through these connections, asbestos was conveyed from Balangero to the Basso Sebino Area in such a way that most of the asbestos chain (extraction, processing of asbestos goods and sales) was under the control of the same firm. PMID:18050851

Simoncini, Carlo

2007-01-01

286

Estimating the economic value of cultural ecosystem services in an urbanizing area using hedonic pricing.  

PubMed

A need exists to increase both knowledge and recognition of the values associated with ecosystem services and amenities. This article explores the use of hedonic pricing as a tool for eliciting these values. We take a case study approach, valuing several services provided by ecosystems, namely aesthetic quality (views), access to outdoor recreation, and the benefits provided by tree cover in Dakota County, Minnesota, USA. Our results indicate that these services are valued by local residents and that hedonic pricing can be used to elicit at least a portion of this value. We find that many aspects of the aesthetic environment significantly impact home sale prices. Total view area as well as the areas of some land-cover types (water and lawn) in views positively influenced home sale prices while views of impervious surfaces generally negatively influenced home sale price. Access to outdoor recreation areas significantly and positively influenced home sale prices as did tree cover in the neighborhood surrounding a home. These results illustrate the ability of hedonic pricing to identify partial values for ecosystem services and amenities in a manner that is highly relevant to local and regional planning. These values could be used to increase policy-maker and public awareness of ecosystem services and could improve their consideration in planning and policy decisions. PMID:23025985

Sander, Heather A; Haight, Robert G

2012-12-30

287

Lightning protection systems: advantages and disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanics and interaction of lightning producing thunder clouds and earth, are discussed. Compared to the Franklin Air Terminal (rod) and Faraday Cage, the debatable advantages and disadvantages of the Early Streamer Emission Enhanced Ionizing Air Terminal, and Multipoint Discharge Systems, are examined along with conceptual future methods of lightning protection

D. W. Zipse

1993-01-01

288

Neighborhood Disadvantage and Reliance on the Police  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary theories suggest that, due to limited access and generalized distrust, residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods are relatively unlikely to report matters to police. Although existing studies reveal few ecological differences in crime reporting, findings may be limited to victim/offense subsets represented in aggregated victimization…

Schaible, Lonnie M.; Hughes, Lorine A.

2012-01-01

289

Urban Catholic High Schools and Disadvantaged Females  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to discover the life experiences of disadvantaged female graduates of urban Catholic high schools and what they say about the capacity of Catholic education to meet their academic, emotional, social, and spiritual needs. Based on narrative inquiry, this study was conducted using a series of in-depth, semistructured…

Merritt, Corinne R.

2008-01-01

290

Pre-testing Orientation for the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pre-testing orientation was incorporated into the Work Incentives Program, a pre-vocational program for disadvantaged youth. Test-taking skills were taught in seven and one half hours of instruction and a variety of methods were used to provide a sequential experience with distributed learning, positive reinforcement, and immediate feedback of…

Mihalka, Joseph A.

291

Optimizing Secure Communication Standards for Disadvantaged Networks  

E-print Network

, we offer a few extensions to the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) to wrap secure group messages for chat on disadvantaged networks and to reduce XMPP message overhead in secure group that these optimizations have on message overhead, extensibility, and usability of both CMS and XMPP. We have developed

292

Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from Add Health, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community and school controls. Neighborhood violence…

Harding, David J.

2009-01-01

293

Values and Educational Success among Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A research study shows the strong positive relationship between traditional personal values and academic success of students from various disadvantaged backgrounds. Four categories of values were examined: (1) the work ethic, (2) religious commitment, (3) parental support of success in school, and (4) peer group support of success in school. A…

Ginsburg, Alan L.; Hanson, Sandra L.

294

On William Julius Wilson's "Truly Disadvantaged."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A premise of this paper is that in his book "The Truly Disadvantaged" (1987), William Julius Wilson fails to recognize the effect of covert racism on the plight of the African American underclass. Wilson asserts that historical racism has contributed to the present predicament of the underclass, who have been abandoned in the ghettos by their…

Burns, John

295

Technology and the Education of the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational intervention programs involving disadvantaged children have not sufficiently succeeded in the remediation of their academic deficiencies. Gains made appear to be very short term and generally unimpressive. Accepting the assumption that the deficiencies are not genetic, one is led to suspect the adequacy of the educational system.…

Martin, John Henry

296

MEDIA AND THE EDUCATION OF THE DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE CONTENTS OF THIS JOURNAL ISSUE OF "AUDIOVISUAL INSTRUCTION," VOLUME 10, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1965, ARE DEVOTED TO WAYS OF INSTRUCTING THE SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILD THROUGH MORE EFFECTIVE USE OF MATERIALS. SOME OF THE ARTICLES BRIEFLY DISCUSS THE USE OF AUDIOVISUAL INSTRUCTION IN PRESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN PROGRAMS, IN A PEACE CORPS PROJECT,…

SMITH, RICHARD W.; AND OTHERS

297

School Effectiveness and the Disadvantaged Schools Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Disadvantaged Schools Program (DSP) has been an important and integral part of education for many Australian students for over a decade. After reviewing eight school effectiveness variables, this paper argues that adding a new emphasis on academic success and cognitive skills will enhance the DSP program. Includes 3 tables and 20 references.…

Walker, Allan; Murphy, Joseph

1986-01-01

298

Short-Term Economic Impact of New Mexico State University at Grants on the Cibola County Service Area. A Report to the Citizens of Cibola County, New Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted by the Grants Campus of New Mexico State University to determine the campus' economic impact on its service area. Data from the 1993-94 academic year were gathered from state, county, and institutional reports, and surveys conducted of students and college employees. Economic data were analyzed on three levels: level I funds,…

Jernigan, Ron; And Others

299

Gaining Access or Losing Ground? Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students in Undergraduate Engineering, 1994-2003  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expanding access to engineering for underrepresented groups has by and large focused on ethnicity/race and gender, with little understanding of socioeconomic disadvantages. In this study, we use economic, human, and cultural capital theories to frame and then describe access to undergraduate engineering degree programs and bachelor's degrees.…

Lundy-Wagner, Valerie C.; Veenstra, Cindy P.; Orr, Marisa K.; Ramirez, Nichole M.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Long, Russell A.

2014-01-01

300

The Impact of Educational Disadvantage on Adult Citizenship and Participation in Ireland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Annually a little over 2,000 young people leave school in Ireland without any formal qualification (i.e. before taking the Junior Certificate). Indeed, according to the National Economic and Social Forum (NESF) an estimated 1,000 pupils do not transfer annually from primary to post primary education. More often than not educational disadvantage is…

Connolly, Tracey

2005-01-01

301

Quantifying Access Disadvantage and Gathering Information in Rural and Remote Localities: The Griffith Service Access Frame.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A purely geographic classification is not the best way to measure rural disadvantage in Australia. A service access model is described that incorporates the following elements: population center size; distance, time, and cost of travel to the service center; and a measure of the economic capacity of residents to overcome the cost of travel.…

Griffith, Dennis A.

2003-01-01

302

The Displaced vs. the Disadvantaged: A Necessary Dichotomy? Occasional Paper 1994-2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current displaced worker initiative towers over the 30-year effort to bring the economically disadvantaged into the mainstream of the labor market. The Congressional Budget Office defines displacement as all workers 18 years of age and older who lose full-time employment due to slack work, job abolition, or plant closure. Major displaced…

Levitan, Sar A.; Mangum, Stephen L.

303

Academically Disadvantaged Minority Group Students in Public Two-Year Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of disadvantaged students in 2-year colleges concludes that they usually come from minority groups, are underrepresented in institutions of higher education, have little economic support and are characterized by marginal traditional academic qualifications. A number of classification schemes used by social scientists are discussed…

Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Planning and Evaluation.

304

Employment and Earnings of Disadvantaged Young Men in a Labor Shortage Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study contrasts the economic position of youths across local labor markets that differ in their rates of unemployment using the annual merged files of the Current Population Survey and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The paper finds: (1) Local labor market shortages raise the employment-population rate arid reduce the unemployment rate of disadvantaged youths by substantial amounts. (2)

Richard B. Freeman

1990-01-01

305

Economics of Mechanical Cotton Harvesting in the High Plains Cotton Area of Texas.  

E-print Network

and harvest the remainder with strippers. An estimated 40 percent of the 1949 record crop, or about 575,000 bales, was machine harvested in the 10 counties in type-of-farming area No. 3, Figure 1. During the 4 years of study, 1947-50, costs of hand harvest... does cotton harvested after frost. Average grades of cotton machine harvested after frost were slightly below that harvested by hand. It is estimated that 50 acres of cotton yielding an average of 200 pounds of lint per acre is the minimum acreage...

Rogers, Ralph H.; Morgan, Quevedo Martin; Williamson, M. N. (Marion Newton)

1951-01-01

306

An Economic Study of Farm Organization in the Piney Woods Farming Area of Texas.  

E-print Network

consti of col ing P more the d Piney Woods farming area of Texas comprises twenty-three counties northeastern part of the state. The majority of the farms are !d by family labor. Topographic conditions do not permit the 1 use of large machinery... of man labor, 40 hours of horse one bushel of seed, and 200 pounds of fertilizer. The relative proportions of various enterprises that may best be combined to utilize farm resources, from the viewpoint of producton requirements and returns...

Bonnen, C. A. (Clarence Alfred); Thibodeaux, B. H.; Criswell, J. F.

1932-01-01

307

Economic geology of the Zipaquira quadrangle and adjoining area, Department of Cundinamarca, Colombia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At least four evaporite sequences are interbedded with Cretaceous strata in the Bogotga area of the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia. The easternmost and oldest evaporite interval is of probable Berriasian-Valanglnian age; the next oldest is of probable late Barremian-early Aptian age, and is followed by a possible late Aptian sequence. The westernmost and best known sequence is Turonian-early Coniacian in age, in the Sabana de Bogota. This youngest sequence contains the thickest known salt deposits and is probably the most widespread geographically. Three gypsum deposits of probable Barremian-Valanginian age are in the eastern part of the area under investigation. These deposits may have been leached from former salt accumulations. No other evaporites are exposed, but numerous brine springs are known, That the sources of these brines are neither deep not distant is suggested by the generally high concentrations, of the brines, the local presence of rute (leached salt residue), and the commonly significant amounts of H2S gas emitted at these springs. The rock salt exposed in three accessible mines commonly has a characteristic lamination caused by alternating layers of relatively pure halite and very argillaceous halite. Ubiquitously scattered throughout all salt deposits are small clasts of black, commonly pyritic, marly claystone. This lithology is also present as large claystone bodies conformably interbedded in the salt strata. Anhydrite is rare and is apparently more abundant at the Zipaquira mine that at the Nemocon and Upin mine. Paleontologic evidence in the Sabana de Bogota demonstrates that the salt-claystone series, hematite impregnated strata, and carbonaceous to locally coaly claystone are coeval. The salt-claystone facies may have been deposited in shallow evaporite pans that were separated within the overall evaporite interval by barriers on which the locally hematitic strata were deposited. The carbonaceous facies may also have formed in barrier areas or on the edges of the evaporite basins. Whether or not this facies relationship prevails in the older evaporite intervals is not known; meager evidence suggests that it does. Nonmetallic mineral resources other than the evaporite minerals are phosphate rock, limestone, kaolinite, and emeralds. Metallic mineral deposits present in the Zone include hematite at Pericos, La Caldera, Tibirita, Nueva Vizcaya, and Cerro de Montecristo; chalcopyrite at Cerro do Cobre and at Farallones de Medina; galena in several places along the Rio Farallones and Rio Gacheta; and spahlerite in the Junin district.

McLaughlin, Donald H., Jr.; Arce Herrera, Marino

1970-01-01

308

Child restraint use in low socio-economic areas of urban Sydney during transition to new legislation.  

PubMed

Child restraints protect a young child against injury in crashes but best practice child restraint use is low in Australia, particularly among lower socio-economic groups. We investigated factors associated with restraint use to inform the development of education and distribution programmes to support new Australian legislation on child passengers among families in low socio-economic areas of metropolitan Sydney. We interviewed a parent or carer of 1160 children aged 2-5 years enrolled at one of 28 early childhood centres in low socio-economic areas of urban Sydney. Appropriate child restraint use was defined as a forward facing child restraint (FFCR) for 2-3 year olds and a FFCR or booster seat for children aged 4 years or more. Predictors of self-reported appropriate use were explored using logistic regression. Analysis was conducted on one child from each family in the target age range (2-5 years): 586 (51%) were male and the mean age was 3.5 (Standard Deviation 0.8) years. There were 432 (45%) families with annual income below $60,000, 248 (22%) spoke a language other than English at home and 360 (33%) had 3 or more children. Fifty-four percent of carers indicated that their 2-3 year old children travelled in a FFCR. Inappropriate use among children in this age group was more likely when the carer was <36 years (odds ratio (OR) 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-2.45), in families with ?3 children (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.10-2.44) and when the carer believed that a booster seat was just as safe as a FFCR (OR 2.98, 2.05-4.32). Eight-eight percent of carers of 4-5 year olds reported use of a booster seat or FFCR. Non-use was associated with low household income (OR 3.10, 95% CI 1.67-5.75), in families with ?3 children (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.09-3.76) and families where a language other than English is spoken at home (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.10-5.21). Non-English speaking families had less awareness of the new law and poorer knowledge of safety benefits of child restraints. They also had lower household incomes and more concerns about cost of child restraints and booster seats. These findings can inform development of interventions to promote best practice child restraint use, which will reach non-English speaking families in this region. They also confirm the importance of economic and logistic barriers to best practice child restraint use. PMID:22921907

Keay, Lisa; Hunter, Kate; Brown, Julie; Bilston, Lynne E; Simpson, Judy M; Stevenson, Mark; Ivers, Rebecca Q

2013-01-01

309

The intergenerational transmission of inequality: maternal disadvantage and health at birth.  

PubMed

Health at birth is an important predictor of long-term outcomes, including education, income, and disability. Recent evidence suggests that maternal disadvantage leads to worse health at birth through poor health behaviors; exposure to harmful environmental factors; worse access to medical care, including family planning; and worse underlying maternal health. With increasing inequality, those at the bottom of the distribution now face relatively worse economic conditions, but newborn health among the most disadvantaged has actually improved. The most likely explanation is increasing knowledge about determinants of infant health and how to protect it along with public policies that put this knowledge into practice. PMID:24855261

Aizer, Anna; Currie, Janet

2014-05-23

310

Lightning protection systems: advantages and disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful 200-year-old method of using a (Franklin) rod to collect, control, and convey to earth the awesome and destructive power of lightning has produced other controversial, potential alternate methods. The mechanics and interaction of lightning-producing thunderclouds and earth are discussed. Compared to the Franklin air terminal (rod) and Faraday cage method, the debatable advantages and disadvantages of the early

Donald W. Zipse

1994-01-01

311

TELEVISED TRIALS: WEIGHING ADVANTAGES AGAINST DISADVANTAGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent arguments over televised trials juxtapose purported advantages—education about judicial process, restoration of public confidence in the courts, and crime deterrent value—against potential disadvantages—increased prejudicial publicity and public embarrassment of defendants. Although no empirical research has been conducted to test either hypothesis, anecdotal evidence—concerned with news viewing motivation and attention, news recall and retention, and television's function in shaping public

SUSANNA R. BARBER; Suzanna R. Barber

1985-01-01

312

Distribution and fate of perfluoroalkyl substances in municipal wastewater treatment plants in economically developed areas of China.  

PubMed

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are a significant source for poly-/perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) entering the environment. The presence of PFASs in twenty-eight municipal WWTPs from eleven cites in economically developed areas of China were screened. Overall, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were dominant in wastewater and sludge, and were not effectively removed during wastewater treatment. Elevated influent concentration ratios of perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) to PFOA and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) to PFOS in some WWTPs suggested that short chains substitution were adopted in these cities. Cluster analysis showed treatment processes had important impacts on PFASs profiles in effluent and sludge. Average concentration of total PFCAs in influent from each city and its gross domestic product (GDP) had significant positive correlation. This study provides a snapshot of both domestic and industrial discharges of PFAS to WWTPs as well as PFAS discharge from WWTPs to the aquatic environment in China. PMID:23410673

Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yating; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yeung, Leo W Y; Lam, Paul K S; Wang, Jianshe; Li, Xinhai; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Dai, Jiayin

2013-05-01

313

Does Head Start Work? A 1Year Follow-Up Comparison of Disadvantaged Children Attending Head Start, No Preschool, and Other Preschool Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how successful Project Head Start has been as a preschool program for economically disadvantaged children. Most Head Start evaluations have not controlled for initial differences between Head Start and comparison groups. They have also limited comparisons to those with no preschool experience, rather than considering other preschools as an alternative comparison group. Subjects were 969 disadvantaged children

Valerie E. Lee; J. Brooks-Gunn; Elizabeth Schnur

1988-01-01

314

Manpower Policies and the Disadvantaged; A Summary Report on Labor Market Information Systems and the Disadvantaged, with Emphasis on Policy Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report highlights policy implications of research conducted on formal and informal labor market information systems and the disadvantaged. Policy implications are developed at the end of each of eight sections reviewing studies in the areas of: insurance, an inner-city training program, newspaper ads, the Job Bank system, immigrant labor,…

Myers, Charles A.

315

Economic and structural determinants of the demand for public transport: an analysis on a panel of French urban areas using shrinkage estimators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a panel data analysis of annual time series from 1975 to 1995 for 62 urban areas in France. It compares the results obtained from a conventional fixed-effects (FE) model with a Bayesian approach (shrinkage estimators), which allows the computation of elasticities for each urban area. First, considering only three economic determinants (vehicle km, income and price), we

Georges Bresson; Joyce Dargay; Jean-Loup Madre; Alain Pirotte

2004-01-01

316

HIV infection in disadvantaged out-of-school youth: prevalence for U.S. Job Corps entrants, 1990 through 1996.  

PubMed

To describe HIV infection prevalence and prevalence trends for disadvantaged out-of-school youth in the United States, we analyzed the HIV prevalence for and demographic characteristics of youth, aged 16 through 21 years, who entered the U.S. Job Corps from January 1990 through December 1996. Job Corps is a federally funded jobs training program for socially and economically disadvantaged out-of-school youth. All 357,443 entrants residing at Job Corps centers during their training were tested for HIV infection; 822 (2.3 per 1000) were HIV-positive. HIV prevalence was higher for women than for men (2.8 per 1000 versus 2.0 per 1000; relative risk [RR]=1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.2-1.6). Among racial/ethnic groups, prevalence was highest for African Americans (3.8 per 1000). Prevalence was higher for African American women (4.9 per 1000) than for any other gender and racial/ethnic group. From 1990 through 1996, standardized HIV prevalence-stratified by age, race/ethnicity, home region, population of home metropolitan statistical area, and year of entry--declined for women and for men: for women, from 4.1 per 1000 in 1990 to 2.1 per 1000 in 1996 (p=.001); and for men, from 2.8 per 1000 in 1990 to 1.4 per 1000 in 1996 (p=.001). These data suggest that HIV prevalence for disadvantaged out-of-school youth declined from 1990 through 1996. However, considering their youth, prevalence was still high, particularly for women and African Americans, most notably African American women. These data support the need for ongoing HIV prevention programs targeting such youth. PMID:9732072

Valleroy, L A; MacKellar, D A; Karon, J M; Janssen, R S; Hayman, C R

1998-09-01

317

48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...identified as a small disadvantaged business concern by accessing SBA's...Office of Small Disadvantaged Business Certification and Eligibility...officer shall notify the Small Business Administration Assistant...65 FR 60545, Oct. 11,...

2010-10-01

318

48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Small disadvantaged businesses. 706.302-71 Section...DEVELOPMENT ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS...302-71 Small disadvantaged businesses. (a) Authority...to award contracts to small business concerns owned and...

2010-10-01

319

The relationship between transport and disadvantage in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Resource Sheet is designed to provide practitioners and policy-makers who plan and\\/or deliver services to children and families, especially within disadvantaged communities, with an understanding of how transport and disadvantage intersect and why some groups are especially vulnerable to transport disadvantage.Ongoing difficulties associated with access to transport are commonly referred to as “transport disadvantage”. As Australia has comparatively high

Kate Rosier; Myfanwy McDonald

2011-01-01

320

Rethinking consumer disadvantage: the importance of qualitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides insight into the behaviour and attitudes of an under-researched group of consumers, and identifies some useful pointers for future research on consumer disadvantage. More specifically, the paper explores the relationships between the potential causes of consumer disadvantage, forms of consumer disadvantage and accessibility. The exploratory study consisted of a combination of quantitative (diary survey) and qualitative (semi-structured

Lucy Woodliffe

2004-01-01

321

Age Differences in the Personality Profiles of Disadvantaged Females.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study systematically investigated age differences in personality characteristics of advantaged and disadvantaged high school and college females. Two hundred and thirty three subjects (Ss) were randomly selected from an urban environment: 83 disadvantaged and 112 advantaged high school girls, and 38 disadvantaged college women. The test norms…

Soares, Louise M.; Soares, Anthony T.

322

Economic Evaluation of an Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Program to Control the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey  

PubMed Central

Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control) from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY). The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008) and the intervention years (2009-2011) declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8. PMID:25338065

Shepard, Donald S.; Halasa, Yara A.; Fonseca, Dina M.; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P.; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A.; Clark, Gary G.

2014-01-01

323

Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and mortality after stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective: Residence in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community is associated with mortality, but the mechanisms are not well understood. We examined whether socioeconomic features of the residential neighborhood contribute to poststroke mortality and whether neighborhood influences are mediated by traditional behavioral and biologic risk factors. Methods: We used data from the Cardiovascular Health Study, a multicenter, population-based, longitudinal study of adults ?65 years. Residential neighborhood disadvantage was measured using neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES), a composite of 6 census tract variables representing income, education, employment, and wealth. Multilevel Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to determine the association of NSES to mortality after an incident stroke, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, stroke type, and behavioral and biologic risk factors. Results: Among the 3,834 participants with no prior stroke at baseline, 806 had a stroke over a mean 11.5 years of follow-up, with 168 (20%) deaths 30 days after stroke and 276 (34%) deaths at 1 year. In models adjusted for demographic characteristics, stroke type, and behavioral and biologic risk factors, mortality hazard 1 year after stroke was significantly higher among residents of neighborhoods with the lowest NSES than those in the highest NSES neighborhoods (hazard ratio 1.77, 95% confidence interval 1.17–2.68). Conclusion: Living in a socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with higher mortality hazard at 1 year following an incident stroke. Further work is needed to understand the structural and social characteristics of neighborhoods that may contribute to mortality in the year after a stroke and the pathways through which these characteristics operate. PMID:23284071

Liang, Li-Jung; Vassar, Stefanie D.; Merkin, Sharon Stein; Longstreth, W.T.; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Yan, Tingjian; Escarce, Jose J.

2013-01-01

324

Social Disadvantage and Asthma Control in Children  

PubMed Central

Summary This review discusses various aspects of social disadvantage and their association with poor asthma control, including socioeconomic status, exposure to psychosocial stress and violence, minority affiliation, environmental concerns such as allergens and pollution, and poverty in rural settings. Each of these elements has been linked with worsened asthma outcomes in children. Known and hypothesized mechanisms behind these associations are described in an effort to further understand the complex entity of poorly controlled asthma among socially deprived children. Intervention studies to improve asthma outcomes in these vulnerable populations are also described. PMID:24928775

Kopel, Lianne S.; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Gaffin, Jonathan M.

2014-01-01

325

Disadvantages of Preferential Dispersals in Fluctuating Environments  

E-print Network

It has not been known whether preferential dispersal is adaptive in fluctuating environments. We investigate the effect of preferential and random dispersals in bet-hedging systems by using a discrete stochastic metapopulation model, where each site fluctuates between good and bad environments with temporal correlation. To explore the optimal migration pattern, an analytical estimation of the total growth is derived by mean field approximation. We found that the preference for fertile sites is disadvantageous when transportation among sites has a cost or the sensitivity of preference is high.

Morita, Satoru

2014-01-01

326

Communicating health information to disadvantaged populations.  

PubMed

Interest in the communication of health information among disadvantaged populations has increased in recent years with the shift from a model of patient-provider communication to one of a more empowered healthcare consumer; with the use of new communication technologies that increase the number of channels through which health information may be accessed; and with the steadily increasing number of people without health insurance. Three separate research literatures contribute to our current understanding of this issue. In the medicine and public health literature, disparities in health access and outcomes among socioeconomic, ethnic, and racial groups are now well documented. In the information sciences literature, scholars note that on a continuum of health information behaviors, ranging from information avoidance and nonseeking to active seeking, nonseeking behaviors are associated with disadvantaged populations. In the communication literature, enthusiasm over the technology-driven growth of online health information seeking is tempered by evidence supporting the knowledge gap hypothesis, which indicates that as potential access to health information increases, systematic gaps in health knowledge also increase as groups with higher socioeconomic status acquire this information at a faster rate than those with lower socioeconomic status. A number of diverse strategies show promise in reducing information and health disparities, including those that focus on technology, such as programs to increase computer and Internet access, skills, and comprehension; those that focus on interpersonal communication, such as the community health worker model; and those that focus on mass media channels, such as entertainment education. PMID:20216358

Beacom, Amanda M; Newman, Sandra J

2010-01-01

327

Adriano Rampini is a Professor of Finance and Economics in the finance area at Duke University's Fuqua School of Business with a secondary appointment in the Department of Economics and is the Lewis Cook  

E-print Network

Adriano Rampini is a Professor of Finance and Economics in the finance area at Duke University of financial intermediaries on financing and the macro economy. In addition, he is interested in the role of government. Professor Rampini's research has been published in journals such as the Journal of Finance

Ferrari, Silvia

328

Selected Area Fishery Evaluation Project Economic Analysis Study Final Report, Final Draft Revision 4: November 10, 2006.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Study is to provide an economic review of current and proposed changes to the Select Area Fishery Evaluation Project (SAFE or Project). The Study results are the information requested in comments made on the Project by a joint review dated March 2005 by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) and Independent Economic Analysis Board (IEAB). North et al. (2006) addressed technical questions about operations and plans, and this report contains the response information for comments concerning Project economics. This report can be considered an economic feasibility review meeting guidelines for cost-effective analysis developed by the IEAB (2003). It also contains other economic measurement descriptions to illustrate the economic effects of SAFE. The SAFE is an expansion of a hatchery project (locally called the Clatsop Economic Development Council Fisheries Project or CEDC) started in 1977 that released an early run coho (COH) stock into the Youngs River. The Youngs River entrance to the Columbia River at River Mile 12 is called Youngs Bay, which is located near Astoria, Oregon. The purpose of the hatchery project was to provide increased fishing opportunities for the in-river commercial fishing gillnet fleet. Instead of just releasing fish at the hatchery, a small scale net pen acclimation project in Youngs Bay was tried in 1987. Hirose et al. (1998) found that 1991-1992 COH broodstock over-wintered at the net pens had double the smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) of traditional hatchery release, less than one percent stray rates, and 99 percent fishery harvests. It was surmised that smolts from other Columbia River hatcheries could be hauled to the net pens for acclimation and release to take advantage of the SAR's and fishing rates. Proposals were tendered to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other agencies to fund the expansion for using other hatcheries smolts and other off-channel release sites. The BPA, who had been providing funds to the Project since 1982, greatly increased their financial participation for the experimental expansion of the net pen operations in 1993. Instead of just being a funding partner in CEDC operations, the BPA became a major financing source for other hatchery production operations. The BPA has viewed the 10 plus years of funding since then as an explorative project with two phases: a 'research' phase ending in 1993, and a 'development' phase ending in 2006. The next phase is referred to in proposals to BPA for continued funding as an 'establishment' phase to be started in 2007. There are three components of SAFE: (1) The CEDC owns and operates the net pens in the Columbia River estuary on the Oregon side. The CEDC also owns and operates a hatchery on the South Fork Klaskanine River. (2) There are many other hatcheries contributing smolts to the net pen operations. The present suite of hatcheries are operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). The WDFW owns and operates the net pens at Deep River on the Washington side of the Columbia River. (3) The monitoring and evaluation (M&E) responsibilities are performed by employees of WDFW and ODFW. BPA provides funding for all three components as part of NPCC Project No. 199306000. The CEDC and other contributing hatcheries have other sources of funds that also support the SAFE. BPA's minor share (less than 10 percent) of CEDC funding in 1982 grew to about 55 percent in 1993 with the beginning of the development phase of the Project. The balance of the CEDC budget over the years has been from other federal, state, and local government programs. It has also included a 10 percent fee assessment (five percent of ex-vessel value received by harvesters plus five percent of purchase value made by processors) on harvests that take place in off-channel locations near the release sites. The CEDC total annual budget in the last several years has been in the $600 to $700 thousand range. The Project over

Bonneville Power Administration; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

2006-11-01

329

A multi-area linear programming approach for analysis of economic operation of the Indian power system  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the major planning issues pertaining to economic operation of power system in India viz. integrated operation of the State Electricity Boards (SEBs) through formation of National Grid, optimal sharing of central sector generation by the SEBs, time-of-day pricing policy for power trading among the SEBs, optimal expansion of National Grid and streamlining the coal production and transportation for optimal system operation. A multi-area linear programming (LP) model NATGRID is developed to quantify the benefits from National Grid operation, suggest optimal sharing norms for central sector generation and formulate time-of-day pricing scheme for interutility power trading. Four interregional transmission projects are identified by exploiting the duals of the LP problem, for expansion of National Grid. The bottlenecks in coal production and transportation systems are indicated and the system cost savings from removing them are quantified. The analysis aims at encouraging and motivating the utilities to accept the idea of co-operation and making investment more cost-effective.

Parikh, J.; Chattopadhyay, D. [Indira Gandhi Inst. of Development Research, Bombay (India)] [Indira Gandhi Inst. of Development Research, Bombay (India)

1996-02-01

330

Large-area, lightweight and thick biomimetic composites with superior material properties via fast, economic, and green pathways.  

PubMed

Although remarkable success has been achieved to mimic the mechanically excellent structure of nacre in laboratory-scale models, it remains difficult to foresee mainstream applications due to time-consuming sequential depositions or energy-intensive processes. Here, we introduce a surprisingly simple and rapid methodology for large-area, lightweight, and thick nacre-mimetic films and laminates with superior material properties. Nanoclay sheets with soft polymer coatings are used as ideal building blocks with intrinsic hard/soft character. They are forced to rapidly self-assemble into aligned nacre-mimetic films via paper-making, doctor-blading or simple painting, giving rise to strong and thick films with tensile modulus of 45 GPa and strength of 250 MPa, that is, partly exceeding nacre. The concepts are environmentally friendly, energy-efficient, and economic and are ready for scale-up via continuous roll-to-roll processes. Excellent gas barrier properties, optical translucency, and extraordinary shape-persistent fire-resistance are demonstrated. We foresee advanced large-scale biomimetic materials, relevant for lightweight sustainable construction and energy-efficient transportation. PMID:20218653

Walther, Andreas; Bjurhager, Ingela; Malho, Jani-Markus; Pere, Jaakko; Ruokolainen, Janne; Berglund, Lars A; Ikkala, Olli

2010-08-11

331

California Community College Home Economics Program Plan, 1992. Including: Directory of Professional and Trade Organizations and Directory of Home Economics and Related Program Areas and Instructional Staff.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assist local colleges/districts in assessing their existing home economics program, and in developing curricula that respond to the changing needs of students, communities, and the workforce, this plan presents the program guidelines of the California Community Colleges (CCCs). Introductory material describes the history of the program…

California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

332

Measuring social capital in a known disadvantaged urban community - health policy implications  

PubMed Central

Background To assess the social capital profile of a known disadvantaged area a large cross-sectional survey was undertaken. The social capital profile of this area was compared to data from the whole of the state. The overall health status of the disadvantaged area was assessed in relation to a wide variety of social capital related variables. Univariate and multivariate analysis were undertaken. Results In the univariate analysis many statistically significant differences were found between the respondents in the disadvantaged area and the state estimates including overall health status, perceived attributes of the neighbourhood, levels of trust, community involvement and social activities. In the multivariate analysis very few variables were found to be statistically significantly associated with poorer health status. The variables that jointly predicted poorer health status in the disadvantaged area were older age, lower income, low sport participation, non-seeking help from neighbours and non-attendance at public meetings. Conclusion Measuring social capital on a population level is complex and the use of epidemiologically-based population surveys does not produce overly valuable results. The inter-relational/dependence dichotomy of social capital is not yet fully understood making meaningful measurement in the broader population extremely difficult and hence is of questionable value for policy decision making. PMID:16626499

Taylor, Anne W; Williams, Carmel; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Herriot, Michelle

2006-01-01

333

Teaching Culturally Disadvantaged Pupils (Grades K-12). Unit III: The Culturally Disadvantaged Negro Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third of a series of teacher education units on teaching the disadvantaged contains material specifically about the Negro student. Reviewed are the scope and significance of the problem of educating these students, with some brief remarks on their location. The factors which contribute to the cultural deprivation of Negroes are…

Johnson, Kenneth R.

334

Epidemiologic and Economic Burden of Influenza in the Outpatient Setting: A Prospective Study in a Subtropical Area of China  

PubMed Central

Objectives To understand the incidence of outpatient influenza cases in a subtropical area of China and the associated economic burden on patients' families. Methods A hospital-based prospective study was conducted in Zhuhai City during 2008–2009. All outpatient influenza-like illness (ILI) cases were identified in 28 sentinel hospitals. A representative sample of throat swabs from ILI cases were collected for virus isolation using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The incidence of outpatient influenza cases in Zhuhai was estimated on the basis of the number of influenza patients detected by the sentinel sites. A telephone survey on the direct costs associated with illness was conducted as a follow-up. Results The incidence of influenza was estimated to be 4.1 per 1,000 population in 2008 and 19.2 per 1,000 population in 2009. Children aged <5 years were the most-affected population, suffering from influenza at the highest rates (34.3 per 1,000 population in 2008 and 95.3 per 1,000 population in 2009). A high incidence of 29.2–40.9 per 1000 population was also seen in young people aged 5–24 years in 2009. ILI activity and influenza virus isolations adopted a consistent seasonal pattern, with a summer peak in July 2008 and the longest epidemic period lasting from July–December 2009. The medical costs per episode of influenza among urban patients were higher than those for rural patients. A total of $1.1 million in direct economic losses were estimated to be associated with outpatient influenza during 2008–2009 in Zhuhai community. Conclusions Influenza attacks children aged <5 years in greater proportions than children in other age groups. Seasonal influenza 2008 and Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 had different epidemiological and etiological characteristics. Direct costs (mostly medical costs) impose an enormous burden on the patient family. Vaccination strategies for high-risk groups need to be further strengthened. PMID:22911789

Guo, Ru-ning; Zheng, Hui-zhen; Huang, Li-qun; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Chan-kun; Lin, Jin-yan; He, Jian-feng; Zhang, Jin-qing

2012-01-01

335

Adjustment to university and academic performance among disadvantaged students in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adjustment to the university environment is regarded as an important factor in predicting university outcomes. This study explores the pathways taken by adjustment and other psychosocial variables (help?seeking, academic motivation, self?esteem, perceived stress, and perceived academic overload), in relation to the success of economically and educationally disadvantaged students at university. Participants were 194 first?year students on need?based financial aid at

Johann Louw; Kitty Dumont

2009-01-01

336

Area terrace pit coal mining systems: volume 1technical and economic evaluation of terrace pit mining systems. Open file report (final) Sep 1977Jul 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is principally concerned with the engineering and economic feasibility of area surface coal mining systems other than draglines. This analysis evaluates shovel-trucks, shovel-crusher-conveyors, and shovel-rail excavation and haulage systems for an assortment of geologic environments and production rates in the Powder River Basin (PRB). Shovel-trucks, front-end loader-trucks, and shovel-crusher conveyors were studied in a multiseam, dipping geologic area

F. Leonard; C. Simon; M. Stoddard; M. Verma; M. White

1980-01-01

337

A survey of dental hygienist numbers in Canada, the European Economic area, Japan and the United States of America in 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective The aims of this study were to establish how many dental hygienists were licensed to practice in Canada, Japan, USA and the 18 member states of the European Economic Area (EEA) and to compare these with the populations and numbers of dentists practising in the countries concerned.Method Data for the overall populations, numbers of 'active' dentists, of dental hygienists

H N Newman; E Widström; K A Eaton

2003-01-01

338

The general BSc in Economics and Business Administration programme provides students with in-depth knowledge of two main areas, Business  

E-print Network

's results and market value. Industrial Economics focuses on industries, firms and competition. It exam- ines in the EURO area', `Interest rates in Denmark since 1990', and `Energy consumption'. The Seminar in Business the relationship between structural characteristics and corporate be- haviour, as well as the impact of competition

339

STTEPping in the Right Direction? Western Classical Music in an Orchestral Programme for Disadvantaged African Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article looks at STTEP, an outreach project currently housed at the University of Pretoria, which concentrates on the teaching of western orchestral instruments, plus background areas such as music theory, to disadvantaged children and youth from a variety of townships around Pretoria, South Africa. STTEP's direction can well be described as…

van Niekerk, Caroline; Salminen, Sanna

2008-01-01

340

AN INTER-DISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO IMPROVING THE DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS IS THE TUTORIAL PROGRAM OF THE INTERDISCIPLINARY PROGRAM TO IMPROVE THE DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN. THE OBJECTIVES WERE TO (1) IMPROVE PUPILS' ATTITUDES TOWARD TEACHERS AND SCHOOLS, (2) IMPROVE PUPILS' SELF-CONCEPTS IN THE AREAS OF ACADEMIC ABILITY, AND (3) INCREASE PUPILS' GENERAL LEVEL OF PHYSICAL HEALTH. THE TUTORING…

GORDON, IRA J.; AND OTHERS

341

Do parental neighbourhood perceptions contribute to child behaviour problems? A study of disadvantaged children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade disadvantaged communities are increasingly the target for intervention, with the introduction of a number of Area Based Initiatives (ABIs) designed to reduce the effects of poverty on children. However, an exclusive focus on the neighbourhood can overlook interactions between individuals' characteristics and their surroundings. Neighbourhood deprivation, parental mental health, parental personality, family stress and harsh discipline

Jacqueline Barnes; Helen Cheng

2006-01-01

342

Community Involvement and Adolescent Mental Health: Moderating Effects of Race/Ethnicity and Neighborhood Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social development and stress process theories suggest that participation in one's community can function as a protective factor for mental health, especially for youth from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. However, the effects of community involvement on adolescent mental health could vary across racial/ethnic groups and levels of…

Hull, Pamela; Kilbourne, Barbara; Reece, Michelle; Husaini, Baqar

2008-01-01

343

Gifted Mothers as Social Capital: A View from a Disadvantaged Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores an unexamined area in the realm of gifted adults coming from disadvantaged backgrounds. The focus of this paper documents how a mother, in spite of all sorts of hardships, never deviates from her conviction about the education of her children. The author examines the concept of social capital in a symbiotic relationship with…

Maitra, Krishna

2012-01-01

344

Inspiring Teachers to Discern and Enrich Gifted Learners in a Disadvantaged Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a platform for our voices, and the voices of the teachers with whom we are interacting, to be heard via our critical reflections on a project undertaken to assist teachers to discern gifted learners in a disadvantaged environment in the jurisdiction area of Port Elizabeth (now Nelson Mandela Bay). The article outlines how we systematically reflected on

Tilla Olivier; Lesley Wood

2007-01-01

345

Guidelines for Planning and Evaluation of Programs and Services for the Disadvantaged and Handicapped  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guidelines for programs and services for the disadvantaged and handicapped cover areas of concern essential to Department of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education's program approval/evaluation and project proposals/grants: students served; occupational programs; administrative organization; personnel; objectives; evaluation; resources…

Stadt, Ronald W.; Palmer, Edward W.

1976-01-01

346

Classroom Support Program. Disadvantaged Pupil Program Fund. Evaluation Report, 1982-1983.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated here is the 1982-83 Classroom Support Program of the Cleveland Public Schools. The project is designed to provide a variety of support services to teachers, administrators, and supervisors and to enhance the quality of instruction provided to disadvantaged students. The program's separate components serve six specific areas: elementary…

Morton-Watts, Gwendolyn

347

13 CFR 123.600 - Are economic injury disaster loans under this subpart limited to the geographic areas contiguous...  

...Economic Injury Disaster Loans as a Result of the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks § 123.600 Are economic injury disaster...Trade Center or the damage to the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, or as a direct result of any...

2014-01-01

348

13 CFR 123.600 - Are economic injury disaster loans under this subpart limited to the geographic areas contiguous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Economic Injury Disaster Loans as a Result of the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks § 123.600 Are economic injury disaster...Trade Center or the damage to the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, or as a direct result of any...

2013-01-01

349

13 CFR 123.600 - Are economic injury disaster loans under this subpart limited to the geographic areas contiguous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Economic Injury Disaster Loans as a Result of the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks § 123.600 Are economic injury disaster...Trade Center or the damage to the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, or as a direct result of any...

2011-01-01

350

Role of self-sufficiency, productivity and diversification on the economic sustainability of farming systems with autochthonous sheep breeds in less favoured areas in Southern Europe.  

PubMed

Traditional mixed livestock cereal- and pasture-based sheep farming systems in Europe are threatened by intensification and specialisation processes. However, the intensification process does not always yield improved economic results or efficiency. This study involved a group of farmers that raised an autochthonous sheep breed (Ojinegra de Teruel) in an unfavourable area of North-East Spain. This study aimed to typify the farms and elucidate the existing links between economic performance and certain sustainability indicators (i.e. productivity, self-sufficiency and diversification). Information was obtained through direct interviews with 30 farms (73% of the farmers belonging to the breeders association). Interviews were conducted in 2009 and involved 32 indicators regarding farm structure, management and economic performance. With a principal component analysis, three factors were obtained explaining 77.9% of the original variance. This factors were named as inputs/self-sufficiency, which included the use of on-farm feeds, the amount of variable costs per ewe and economic performance; productivity, which included lamb productivity and economic autonomy; and productive orientation, which included the degree of specialisation in production. A cluster analysis identified the following four groups of farms: high-input intensive system; low-input self-sufficient system; specialised livestock system; and diversified crops-livestock system. In conclusion, despite the large variability between and within groups, the following factors that explain the economic profitability of farms were identified: (i) high feed self-sufficiency and low variable costs enhance the economic performance (per labour unit) of the farms; (ii) animal productivity reduces subsidy dependence, but does not necessarily imply better economic performance; and (iii) diversity of production enhances farm flexibility, but is not related to economic performance. PMID:23552287

Ripoll-Bosch, R; Joy, M; Bernués, A

2013-04-01

351

Metropolitan and state economic regions (master) model: regional economic response to national policy  

SciTech Connect

This multiregional economic model, can forecast: (1) regional activity, and (2) regional economic changes caused by economic changes outside the region. Examples forecast industrial output in a Portland, Oregon standard metropolitan statistical area (SMSA) and the change in industrial output in Portland caused by a change in the price of energy or development of a large energy project. The econometric approach was chosen because of flexibiity required for accuracy and its reasonable cost. A typical disadvantage of this approach is offset because of its access to the data collected as a result of an uncompleted READ project. The remainder of this report on the MASTER model is divided into three sections: literature review; model development; and application of the model. MASTER consists of six sets of equations for: (1) industrial and commercial output; (2) employment; (3) wage rages; (4) labor market clearing; (5) population; and (6) income.

Scott, M.J.; Adams, R.C.

1982-06-01

352

Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' understanding of the concepts of area and how it can relate to perimeter. The shapes explored in this lesson are constructed of adjacent squares on a coordinate plane. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to area as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, the reading level for this resourceâs worksheet is at the grade 8 level.

2010-01-01

353

Jobs for Disadvantaged Workers: The Economics of Employment Subsidies. Studies in Social Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These nine papers are from a conference held at Brookings Institution on April 3-4, 1980, focusing on subsidizing private sector job creation for workers with structural employment problems. Chapter 1 summarizes the papers and conference proceedings. The remaining nine chapters are divided into three parts consisting of three papers each. Part 1…

Haveman, Robert H., Ed.; Palmer, John L., Ed.

354

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the southern California planning area. Final report, 1970-2020  

SciTech Connect

The report presents baseline socio-economic profiles of Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego Counties in southern California. It is one of six reports prepared under the contract to develop baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in California, Oregon, and Washington. The profiles cover demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and port capacity, marine traffic, and fishing. Secondary sources were used to prepare the profiles. The focus of the profiles is 1980, but 1970 to 2020 is covered to the extent possible with existing data.

Brown, G.; Kolp, P.; Wallace, B.

1987-10-01

355

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the northern California planning area. Final report, 1970-2020  

SciTech Connect

The report presents baseline socio-economic profiles of Del Norte, Humboldt, and Mendocino Counties in northern California. It is one of six reports prepared under the contract to develop baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in California, Oregon and Washington. The profiles cover demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and port capacity, marine traffic, and fishing. Secondary sources were used to prepare the profiles. The focus of the profiles is 1980, but 1970 to 2020 is covered to the extent possible with existing data.

Brown, G.; Kolp, P.; Wallace, B.

1987-10-01

356

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the central California planning area. Final report, 1970-2020  

SciTech Connect

The report presents baseline socio-economic profiles of Sonoma, Marin, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties in central California. It is one of six reports prepared under the contract to develop baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in California, Oregon, and Washington. The profiles cover demographics, economics, housing public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and port capacity, marine traffic, and fishing. Secondary sources were used to prepare the profiles. The focus of the profiles is 1980, but 1970 to 2020 is covered to the extent possible with existing data.

Brown, G.; Kolp, P.; Wallace, B.

1987-10-01

357

Instrument Application Capabilities Advantages Disadvantages Recommendations Contact Qiagen Qiacube  

E-print Network

Instrument Application Capabilities Advantages Disadvantages Recommendations Contact Qiagen Qiacube per run Fully automated; DNase over column; Flexible to handle cells and tissues Efficiency of columns

Cui, Yan

358

Economic Valuation of Water Supply as a Key Environmental Service Provided by Montane Oak Forest Watershed Areas in Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodological approach has been applied to conduct an economic appraisal of fresh-water supply in the montane forest zone\\u000a of Costa Rica’s Savegre River watershed. Additionally, the case of a provincial utility company is presented in which mechanisms\\u000a for payments of environmental services (water supply) are involved. It is concluded that these novel approaches to economically\\u000a valuating key environmental services

G. Barrantes Moreno

359

How Community Development Programmes Can Foster Re-Engagement with Learning in Disadvantaged Communities: Leadership as Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family and community capacity building projects in Tasmania are attempting to address the disadvantage of communities marginalised by socio-economic and other influences. Collaborations between the projects, community members and groups, and education and training organisations, have resulted in a leadership process which has fostered reengagement…

Millar, Pat; Kilpatrick, Sue

2005-01-01

360

Shared Reading Interactions between Mothers and Pre-School Children: Case Studies of Three Dyads from a Disadvantaged Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that adult-child shared book reading can enhance language and literacy development in the early years, although little is known about how mothers and children from socio-economically disadvantaged communities interact around books. This study investigated the shared reading interactions of three mother-child dyads living in such…

Morgan, Anne

2005-01-01

361

Adjustment to Parenthood Among a Select Group of Disadvantaged Parents: An Affective Evaluation Study. Parent Involvement Report No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty disadvantaged couples are compared with a cross-sectional norm group from a previous study in order to determine if socio-economic status is a significant variable in the difficulty experienced in adjusting to first time parenthood, and to determine if there is a statistical significant difference between selected variables such as sex, pre-…

Tooke, Sharon K.; Lind, Robert W.

362

Airtraq optical laryngoscope: advantages and disadvantages.  

PubMed

Difficult or unsuccesful tracheal intubation is one of the important causes for morbidity and mortality in susceptible patients. Almost 30% of the anesthesia-related deaths are induced by the complications of difficult airway management and more than 85% of all respiratory related complications cause brain injury or death. Nowadays, due to the advances in technology, new videolaryngoscopic devices became available. Airtraq is a novel single-use laryngoscope which provides glottis display without any deviation in the normal position of the oral, pharyngeal or the tracheal axes. With the help of the display lens glottis and the surrounding structures are visualised and under direct view of its tip the tracheal tube is introduced between the vocal cords. In patients having restricted neck motion or limited mouth opening (provided that it is greater than 3 cm) Airtraq offers the advantage of a better display. Moreover the video image can be transfered to an external monitor thus an experienced specialist can provide assistance and an educational course can be conducted simultaneously. On the other hand the Airtraq videolaryngoscopic devices possess certain disadvantages including the need of experience and the time demand for the operator to learn how to use them properly, the rapid deterioration of their display in the presence of a swelling or a secretion and the fact that they are rather complicated and expensive devices. The Airtraq device has already documented benefits in the management of difficult airways, however serial utilization obviously necessitates experience. PMID:24180160

Saracoglu, Kemal Tolga; Eti, Zeynep; Gogus, Fevzi Yilmaz

2013-06-01

363

Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.  

PubMed

The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

Porter, M E

1992-01-01

364

Nuclear reactor operator training for disadvantaged Americans  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics Department of the University of Virginia was awarded a grant by the US Department of Energy in 1984 to establish and administer a reactor operator training program for disadvantaged Americans. Stipends were provided by the US DOE for five trainees with the anticipation that four other educational facilities would participate in the program. Sub-contracts were awarded to four other Universities: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The University of Missouri at Columbia, Oregon State University, and The State University of New York at Buffalo. The initial two year program was very successful and the grant was renewed in late 1986 for another two years. MIT declined to participate in the second program and was replaced by Ohio State University. U.VA. was notified in September, 1987 that new funding would no longer be provided for this program after December, 1987. U.VA. requested and was granted a no cost extention for the program through December, 1990, since sufficient funds remained in the initial grant to pursue the program further. DOE subsequently approved a no cost extension through November, 1992.

Farrar, J.P.; Mulder, R.U.

1992-12-01

365

Disadvantaged persons' participation in health promotion projects: some structural dimensions.  

PubMed

A structural perspective was used in studying community participation of disadvantaged groups (poor women, street youth, and disabled persons) in health promotion projects. Five community projects in the Canadian Health Promotion Contribution Program were examined in a comparative case study utilizing in-depth interviews, documents, and secondary sources. Analysis revealed relatively low numbers and restricted range of participants, difficulties in recruiting and maintaining participants, declining rates of active participation over time, and limited target group influence and power. This paper reports on the relationship between various dimensions of structure (social-cultural, organizational, political-legal-economic) and the community participation process. Participation was influenced by structural factors such as bureaucratic rules and regulators, perceived minority group rights and relations, agency reputations and responsibilities, available resources, and organizational roles. Control of projects by target group members, rather than by service agencies, was an important overall organizational structural factor which allowed community members to achieve influence in projects. The study concludes that a conceptual model based on structural factors is useful in explaining how key factors from federal and local levels can restrict or facilitate the community participation process. PMID:11314851

Boyce, W F

2001-05-01

366

Some aspects of resource uncertainty and their economic consequences in assessment of the 1002 area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Exploration ventures in frontier areas have high risks. Before committing to them, firms prepare regional resource assessments to evaluate the potential payoffs. With no historical basis for directly estimating size distribution of undiscovered accumulations, reservoir attribute probability distributions can be assessed subjectively and used to project undiscovered accumulation sizes. Three questions considered here are: (1) what distributions should be used to characterize the subjective assessments of reservoir attributes, (2) how parsimonious can the analyst be when eliciting subjective information from the assessment geologist, and (3) what are consequences of ignoring dependencies among reservoir attributes? The standard or norm used for comparing outcomes is the computed cost function describing costs of finding, developing, and producing undiscovered oil accumulations. These questions are examined in the context of the US Geological Survey's recently published regional assessment of the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. We study effects of using the various common distributions to characterize the geologist's subjective distributions representing reservoir attributes. Specific findings show that triangular distributions result in substantial bias in economic forecasts when used to characterize skewed distributions. Moreover, some forms of the lognormal distribution also result in biased economic inferences. Alternatively, we generally determined four fractiles (100, 50, 5, 0) to be sufficient to capture essential economic characteristics of the underlying attribute distributions. Ignoring actual dependencies among reservoir attributes biases the economic evaluation. ?? 2002 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

Attanasi, E.D.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

2002-01-01

367

Disadvantaged Learners and VET to Higher Education Transitions. Occasional Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vocational education and training (VET) system can provide an entry point to the education sector for people who have experienced disadvantage in their lives. Participation in VET can provide personal benefits as well as lead to further study and/or employment. How disadvantaged learners participate in vocational education and training is an…

Griffin, Tabatha

2014-01-01

368

Institute in Consumer Education for Disadvantaged Adults. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This two week professional development institute was designed to equip vocational education personnel for work with the disadvantaged. Participants (business educators and home economists) were expected to acquire basic understanding of the problems of disadvantaged adults; explore consumer education services now available to the poor; identify…

Paolucci, Beatrice; And Others

369

Education and training and the avoidance of financial disadvantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poverty and other forms of financial disadvantage are the most obvious categories of social disadvantage. Being in poverty or suffering financial stress has serious detrimental implications for housing, debt reduction and the ability to obtain credit, future career prospects, marriage and partnering, health, crime and children’s education. Generally, they reduce the ability to fully and actively participate in society. Not

Marks Gary N

2011-01-01

370

Educational Program Development for the Rural Disadvantaged. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a far-reaching research project on educational needs of the rural disadvantaged, this phase of the Rural Education Disadvantaged Youth Project (Project REDY) dealt with the development and evaluation of a vocationally-oriented family-centered educational program. The model program, which was field-tested at a single site, focused upon:…

Thomas, Hollie B.; And Others

371

Practical Problems of Schoolbook Selection for Disadvantaged Pupils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every year the purchase of unsuitable books for disadvantaged children wastes millions of dollars. The use of these unsuitable books results in extensive reading failure. In order to overcome this waste of money and human resources, book committees need to employ standards and methods of evaluation to identify books appropriate for disadvantaged

Whipple, Gertrude

372

The New Challenge: A Relevant Program for the Disadvantaged Gifted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Programs for disadvantaged gifted students require teachers with a number of positive characteristics and a relevant curriculum. The New Challenge Program created by the University of Texas Pan-American College of Education is a Saturday morning enrichment program for disadvantaged gifted children. Students select from classes such as Basic and…

Goertz, Mary Jean; Phemister, Linda

373

Measures of Disadvantage: Is Car Ownership a Good Indicator?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A need to better understand the multidimensional nature of disadvantage is leading to the adoption of a wider range of measurement variables. One variable now commonly adopted is zero car ownership. This paper challenges the logic of including "not having a car" as an indicator of disadvantage. It argues that this can distort the real picture of…

Johnson, Victoria; Currie, Graham; Stanley, Janet

2010-01-01

374

Counseling the Disadvantaged Caucasian: A Statistically Significant Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary objective of this study was to determine whether counseling of disadvantaged students during the course of the academic school year would produce an improvement in their emotional problems and lessen the probability of their becoming school dropouts. The 26 disadvantaged Caucasian subjects received extensive counseling therapy for a…

Titison, Chessadar

375

78 FR 62005 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2013 total allowable catch of pollock for Statistical Area 630 in the...

2013-10-11

376

75 FR 63104 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of pollock for Statistical Area 610 in the...

2010-10-14

377

Appendix -EUROFRAME-EFN Report, Autumn 2006 Disparities in the euro area: a problem for European economic policy  

E-print Network

Appendix - EUROFRAME-EFN Report, Autumn 2006 Disparities in the euro area: a problem for European facilitated policy coordination in the euro area. But since 1999 there have been instead increasing stabilisation and budget consolidation. The reduction of inflation rates and budget deficits in the euro area

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

378

77 FR 58505 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...catch of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2012-09-21

379

78 FR 5145 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...catch of pollock for Statistical Area 630 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2013-01-24

380

75 FR 62482 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...TAC) of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2010-10-12

381

77 FR 64240 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...catch of pollock for Statistical Area 610 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2012-10-19

382

76 FR 16699 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...catch of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2011-03-25

383

77 FR 14698 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...catch of pollock for Statistical Area 630 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2012-03-13

384

75 FR 9358 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...catch of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2010-03-02

385

78 FR 20037 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...catch of pollock for Statistical Area 610 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hours...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2013-04-03

386

78 FR 57097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...catch of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hours...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2013-09-17

387

77 FR 3638 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...catch of pollock for Statistical Area 630 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2012-01-25

388

75 FR 19562 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...of pollock for Statistical Area 610 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the GOA...After the effective date of this closure...

2010-04-15

389

78 FR 57318 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...catch of pollock for Statistical Area 630 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hours...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2013-09-18

390

75 FR 55288 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...TAC) of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2010-09-10

391

76 FR 53658 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...TAC) of pollock for Statistical Area 630 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2011-08-29

392

77 FR 64762 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...catch of pollock for Statistical Area 630 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2012-10-23

393

75 FR 6589 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...TAC) of pollock for Statistical Area 630 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2010-02-10

394

75 FR 52891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...TAC) of pollock for Statistical Area 630 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2010-08-30

395

75 FR 13237 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...TAC) of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2010-03-19

396

76 FR 55606 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...catch of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2011-09-08

397

76 FR 58156 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...catch of pollock for Statistical Area 610 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2011-09-20

398

77 FR 56564 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...catch of pollock for Statistical Area 610 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2012-09-13

399

77 FR 16481 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...catch of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2012-03-21

400

78 FR 17135 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...catch of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hours...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2013-03-20

401

77 FR 11776 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...catch of pollock for Statistical Area 630 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2012-02-28

402

76 FR 14319 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...TAC) of pollock for Statistical Area 630 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2011-03-16

403

76 FR 11394 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...TAC) of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2011-03-02

404

76 FR 17793 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...catch of pollock for Statistical Area 610 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2011-03-31

405

76 FR 4082 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...TAC) of pollock for Statistical Area 610 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2011-01-24

406

77 FR 12505 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...catch of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2012-03-01

407

78 FR 8985 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...catch of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2013-02-07

408

77 FR 20317 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...catch of pollock for Statistical Area 610 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2012-04-04

409

75 FR 11749 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...TAC) of pollock for Statistical Area 630 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2010-03-12

410

78 FR 15643 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...catch of pollock for Statistical Area 630 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hours...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2013-03-12

411

78 FR 11789 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...catch of pollock for Statistical Area 630 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2013-02-20

412

75 FR 56018 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...TAC) of pollock for Statistical Area 610 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2010-09-15

413

76 FR 4082 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...TAC) of pollock for Statistical Area 630 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. After the effective date of this closure...

2011-01-24

414

75 FR 9534 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...allowance of the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of pollock for Statistical Area 610 in...679. The A season allowance of the 2010 TAC of pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the...that the A season allowance of the 2010 TAC of pollock in Statistical Area 610 of...

2010-03-03

415

78 FR 63405 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2012-0180 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

2013-10-24

416

77 FR 64917 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2012-10-24

417

75 FR 14359 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-03-25

418

75 FR 64958 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...of pollock specified for Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-10-21

419

77 FR 16950 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2012-03-23

420

78 FR 63899 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2012-0180 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

2013-10-25

421

77 FR 65330 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2012-10-26

422

78 FR 9849 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2013-0032 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

2013-02-12

423

77 FR 9588 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2012-02-17

424

75 FR 57702 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch of pollock specified for Statistical Area 630 of the GOA...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-09-22

425

76 FR 13097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2011-03-10

426

75 FR 64172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...of pollock specified for Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-10-19

427

77 FR 60321 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2012-10-03

428

75 FR 9534 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-03-03

429

76 FR 10779 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2011-02-28

430

75 FR 61638 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...total allowable catch limit in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-10-06

431

76 FR 11393 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2011-03-02

432

78 FR 17886 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2012-0180 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

2013-03-25

433

76 FR 55606 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2011-09-08

434

13 CFR 123.600 - Are economic injury disaster loans under this subpart limited to the geographic areas contiguous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...have suffered substantial economic injury as a direct result of the destruction of the World Trade Center or the damage to the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, or as a direct result of any related federal action taken between September 11, 2001 and October...

2010-01-01

435

13 CFR 123.600 - Are economic injury disaster loans under this subpart limited to the geographic areas contiguous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...have suffered substantial economic injury as a direct result of the destruction of the World Trade Center or the damage to the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, or as a direct result of any related federal action taken between September 11, 2001 and October...

2012-01-01

436

The Economic Benefits from Halving the Dropout Rate: A Boom to Businesses in the Nation's Largest Metropolitan Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few people realize the impact that high school dropouts have on a community's economic, social, and civic health. Business owners and residents--in particular, those without school-aged children--may not be aware that they have much at stake in the success of their local high schools. Indeed, everyone--from car dealers and realtors to bank…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

437

Development of an open source network management & monitoring platform for wireless broadband service provider in rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

People in rural areas are less likely to obtain broadband Internet access due to a combination of economic disadvantage, technical difficulties, and lack of service providers. There is a great need to develop robust, low-cost and easy-to-maintain network management platform for Wireless Internet Service Providers (WISP) in rural areas. The goal of this project is to partner with a small

Yu Cai

2010-01-01

438

Opportunity Programs for the Disadvantaged in Higher Education. ERIC/Higher Education Research Report No. 6, 1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous federal, state, and institutional projects have been undertaken in the areas of current educational opportunity programs for the disadvantaged, but there is still a need to bring about significant changes in the areas of administration, curriculum, program evaluation, and financial assistance. The state of compensatory education at the…

Gordon, Edmund W.

439

Estimation of economic injury level of Aphis craccivora Koch. (Homoptera: Aphididae) infesting faba bean in new reclaimed area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was based on field screening procedure to detect the population density of Aphis craccivora for two successive seasons (2004–2005) and (2005–2006) to emphasis the relation between the economic injury level (EIL) and yield loss.Results obtained showed that the equilibrium position (steady point) during the first and second season was 9.06 and 3.32 individuals\\/five leaflets, respectively, while the injury

W. L. Abdou; E. A. Abdel-Hakim; N. Y. Salem; M. H Mansour; E. M. Amr

2012-01-01

440

Relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in a water-scarce area in China: A quantitative analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern China has been facing severe water scarcity as a result of vigorous economic growth, population expansion and changing lifestyles. A typical case is Shandong province whose water resources per capita is approximately only a sixth of the national average and a twentieth of the global average. It is useful to assess the implications of the province’s growth and trade patterns for water use and water conservation strategies. This study quantitatively analyses relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in Shandong using an input-output model for virtual water resources. The changes in key indicators for 1997-2007 are tracked and the effects of water-saving policies on these changes are examined. The results highlight the benefits of applying a virtual water trade analysis on a water-scarce region where water resources exhibit highly heterogeneous temporal and geographical distributions. The net export of virtual water in Shandong was initially large, but this declined over the years and the province has recently become a net importer. Between 1997 and 2002, water use in most sectors increased due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Since then, water use in all Shandong economic sectors exhibit a downward trend despite continued increases in goods and services net exports, a trend which can be attributed to the vigorous implementation of water-saving policies and measures, especially water use quotas. Economic sectors consume water directly and indirectly and understanding the pattern of virtual water trade implied by sectoral relationships is important for managing water scarcity problems. This study fills the knowledge gap in the existing literature created by the lack of case studies that dynamically assess virtual water trade and analyse the effects of water-saving policies and measures. The study draws policy recommendations that are relevant for future water planning in Shandong and other regions in northern China.

Wang, Weiping; Gao, Lei; Liu, Pin; Hailu, Atakelty

2014-07-01

441

Working toward Women’s Economic Empowerment: Using Information and Communication Technology in Developing Areas to Market Traditional Crafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Women face many challenges in regard to empowerment, especially economic empowerment. The United Nations (UN) has made a point\\u000a in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that work still needs to be done so women can reach some of the empowerment that\\u000a their male counterparts enjoy. Traditional handicrafts are a rich part of indigenous women’s heritage and these women should\\u000a be

Melissa Secore Levis

442

On the Edge: Facing a Challenging and Uncertain Future. Elder Economic Security Standard™ for the Boston Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is an adequate income for older adults in the Boston area to age in place? How does it vary according to their life circumstances: whether they are living alone or with a spouse, rent or own their home, drive a car or use other transportation? How do Boston area elders’ living costs change as their health status and life

Laura Henze Russell; Ellen A. Bruce; Judith M. Conahan

2006-01-01

443

Some empirical tests on the integration of economic activity between the euro area and the accession countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note looks at the correlation of short-term business cycles in the euro area and the EU accession countries. The issue is assessed with the help of vector autoregressive models. There are clear differences in the degree of correlation between accession countries. For Hungary and Slovenia, euro area shocks can explain a large share of variation in industrial production, while

Iikka Korhonen

2003-01-01

444

Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics  

E-print Network

Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics BSc Economics and Politics #12;www.bath.ac.uk/economics Welcome to the Department of Economics The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching is internationally respected and our students are in demand by employers

Burton, Geoffrey R.

445

Overlapping and distinct representations of advantageous and disadvantageous inequality  

PubMed Central

Advantageous inequality (AI) aversion, or paying at a personal cost to achieve equal reward distribution, represents a unique feature of human behavior. Here, we show that individuals have strong preferences for fairness in both disadvantageous (DI) and advantageous inequality (AI) situations, such that they alter others' payoff at a personal financial cost. At the neural level, we found that both types of inequality activated the putamen, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula, regions implicated in motivation. Individual difference analyses found that those who spent more money to increase others' payoff had stronger activity in putamen when they encountered AI and less functional connectivity between putamen and both orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula. Conversely, those who spent more money to reduce others' payoff had stronger activity in amygdala in response to DI and less functional connectivity between amygdala and ventral anterior cingulate cortex. These dissociations suggest that both types of inequality are processed by similar brain areas, yet modulated by different neural pathways. Hum Brain Mapp 35:3290–3301, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25050425

Yu, Rongjun; Calder, Andrew J; Mobbs, Dean

2014-01-01

446

Economic Recession and Emergence of an HIV-1 Outbreak among Drug Injectors in Athens Metropolitan Area: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background During 2011, a dramatic increase (1600%) of reported HIV-1 infections among injecting drug users (IDUs) was noted in Athens, Greece. We herein assess the potential causal pathways associated with this outbreak. Methods Our study employed high resolution HIV-1 phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses. We examined also longitudinal data of ecological variables such as the annual growth of gross domestic product (GDP) of Greece in association with HIV-1 and HCV sentinel prevalence in IDUs, unemployment and homelessness rates and HIV transmission networks in Athens IDUs before and during economic recession (2008–2012). Results IDU isolates sampled in 2011 and 2012 suggested transmission networks in 94.6% and 92.7% of the cases in striking contrast with the sporadic networking (5%) during 1998–2009. The geographic origin of most HIV-1 isolates was consistent with the recently documented migratory waves in Greece. The decline in GDP was inversely correlated with annual prevalence rates of HIV and HCV and with unemployment and homelessness rates in IDUs (all p<0.001). The slope of anti-HCV prevalence in the sentinel populations of IDUs and in “new” drug injectors was found 120 and 1.9-fold (p?=?0.007, p?=?0.08 respectively) higher in 2008–2012 (economic recession) compared with 2002–2006. The median (25th, 75th) size of transmission networks were 34 (12, 58) and 2 (2, 2) (p?=?0.057) in 2008–2012 and 1998–2007, respectively. The coverage of harm reduction services was low throughout the study period. Conclusions Scaling-up harm reduction services and addressing social and structural factors related to the current economic crisis should be urgently considered in environments where HIV-1 outbreaks may occur. PMID:24265730

Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Fotiou, Anastasios; Tsiara, Chrissa; Paraskeva, Dimitra; Sypsa, Vana; Lazanas, Marios; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Psichogiou, Mina; Skoutelis, Athanasios; Wiessing, Lucas; Friedman, Samuel R.; Jarlais, Don C. d. e. s.; Terzidou, Manina; Kremastinou, Jenny; Malliori, Meni; Hatzakis, Angelos

2013-01-01

447

75 FR 1723 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chiniak Gully Research Area for Vessels...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

NMFS is rescinding the trawl closure in the Chiniak Gully Research Area. This action is necessary to allow vessels using trawl gear to participate in directed fishing for groundfish in the Chiniak Gully Research...

2010-01-13

448

Employing the Disadvantaged: Inland Steel's Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the various approaches used by the Inland Steel Company in training ghetto youth for jobs, greatest promise has been shown by the Work Experience and Training Program initiated in 1965 at the Joseph T. Ryerson and Son plant, an Inland subsidiary located in the Lawndale (West Side) area of Chicago near the scene of the 1966 riots. Results…

Campbell, Ralph

1969-01-01

449

The Disadvantage of Homelessness in Children's Schooling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings of a study that investigated the extent to which homeless children in the United States receive the "free and appropriate education" to which they are entitled. Data were collected through several surveys conducted in two San Francisco Bay Area counties: (1) surveys of parents in homeless shelters with 313 school-age…

Shaver, Debra M.; Dornbusch, Sanford M.

450

Vulnerability, beliefs, treatments and economic burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in rural areas in China: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in China is very high. This study aimed to assess the vulnerability of COPD patients in rural areas outside Xuzhou City, Jiangsu province, in order to provide helpful guidance for future research and public policies. Methods The vulnerability of 8,217 COPD patients was evaluated using a face-to-face questionnaire to obtain information on general characteristics, awareness, beliefs, medication usage, acute exacerbation of the disease, and economic burdens. Direct economic burdens were calculated based on the questionnaire, and indirect economic burdens were estimated using local per capita income and life expectancy in 2008. The years of potential life lost were calculated using loss of life years for each age group and multiplying by the number of deaths in a given age group. Results Of the 8,217 patients, 7,921 (96.4%) had not heard of COPD, and 2,638 (32.1%) did not understand that smoking was a risk factor for COPD. No patients had used inhalers, nebulizer drugs or oxygen therapy, either regularly or sporadically. No patients had undergone pulmonary rehabilitation or surgical treatment, while 4,215 (51.3%) took theophylline to relieve dyspnea, and 3,418 (41.6%) used antibiotics to treat exacerbations. A total of 2,925 (35.6%) patients had been admitted to hospital during the past year because of respiratory symptoms. The average direct and indirect economic burdens on COPD patients were 1,090 and 20,605 yuan, respectively. Conclusions The vulnerability of patients in rural Xuzhou to COPD was high. Their awareness of COPD was poor, their treatment during both the stable and acute exacerbation stages did not meet standards, and the economic burdens were large. Interventions are therefore needed to improve the prevention and management of COPD in this population. Further studies are required to verify these findings. PMID:22521113

2012-01-01

451

Rethinking the Issues Regarding the Culturally Disadvantaged Gifted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aspects covered include definitions, identification, and appropriate educational programing. Several programing strategies are briefly described, and attention is given to the problem of creating an effective learning environment for the disadvantaged gifted child. (DLS)

Frasier, Mary M.

1979-01-01

452

48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disadvantaged business status. 19.304 Section 19.304 ...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs...

2011-10-01

453

48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disadvantaged business status. 19.304 Section 19.304 ...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs...

2012-10-01

454

48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disadvantaged business status. 19.304 Section 19.304 ...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs...

2013-10-01

455

Social disadvantage, genetic sensitivity, and children’s telomere length  

PubMed Central

Disadvantaged social environments are associated with adverse health outcomes. This has been attributed, in part, to chronic stress. Telomere length (TL) has been used as a biomarker of chronic stress: TL is shorter in adults in a variety of contexts, including disadvantaged social standing and depression. We use data from 40, 9-y-old boys participating in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to extend this observation to African American children. We report that exposure to disadvantaged environments is associated with reduced TL by age 9 y. We document significant associations between low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure, and harsh parenting and TL. These effects were moderated by genetic variants in serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways. Consistent with the differential susceptibility hypothesis, subjects with the highest genetic sensitivity scores had the shortest TL when exposed to disadvantaged social environments and the longest TL when exposed to advantaged environments. PMID:24711381

Mitchell, Colter; Hobcraft, John; McLanahan, Sara S.; Siegel, Susan Rutherford; Berg, Arthur; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Garfinkel, Irwin; Notterman, Daniel

2014-01-01

456

Quality in general practice consultations; a qualitative study of the views of patients living in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Scotland  

PubMed Central

Background Inequality in health and health care services is an important policy issue internationally as well as in the UK, and is closely linked to socio-economic deprivation, which in Scotland is concentrated in and around Glasgow. Patients views on primary care in deprived areas are not well documented. In the present study we explore the views of patients living in a high deprivation area on the quality of consultations in general practice. Methods Qualitative focus group study set in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in a large peripheral housing estate in Glasgow, Scotland. 11 focus groups were conducted; 8 with local community groups and 3 with other local residents. In total 72 patients took part. Grounded theory was used to analyse the data. Results Patients' perceptions of the quality of the consultation with GPs consisted of two broad, inter-relating themes; (1) the GPs' competence, and (2) the GPs empathy or ' caring'. Competence was often assumed but many factors coloured this assumption, in particular whether patients had experienced (directly or indirectly with a close family member) 'successful' outcomes with that doctor previously or not. 'Caring' related to patients feeling (a) listened to by the doctor and being able to talk; (b) valued as an individual by the doctor (c) that the doctor understood 'the bigger picture', and (d) the doctors' explanations were clear and understandable. Relational continuity of care (being able to see the same GP and having a good relationship), and having sufficient time in the consultation were closely linked with perceptions of consultation quality. Conclusion Patients from deprived areas want holistic GPs who understand the realities of life in such areas and whom they can trust as both competent and genuinely caring. Without this, they may judge doctors as socially distant and emotionally detached. Relational continuity, empathy and sufficient time in consultations are key factors in achieving this. PMID:17442123

Mercer, Stewart W; Cawston, Peter G; Bikker, Annemieke P

2007-01-01

457

48 CFR 19.305 - Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Small Disadvantaged Business Certification and Eligibility...submitted before bid opening or notification of...small disadvantaged business, and the date of such...4) The date of bid opening or date on which notification...Small Disadvantaged Business Certification...

2010-10-01

458

48 CFR 1552.219-72 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...219-72 Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program. ...clause: Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program (OCT 2000) (a) Section M of this...participation of small disadvantaged business (SDB) concerns in...

2010-10-01

459

76 FR 30898 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements for Airport Concessions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 2105-AE10 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements...Airport Concessions Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (ACDBE) regulation...regulation for the disadvantaged business enterprise (DBE) program...Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or you...

2011-05-27

460

48 CFR 52.219-26 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Incentive Subcontracting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...219-26 Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program... Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program—Incentive Subcontracting (OCT 2000) (a) Of the total...to small disadvantaged business concerns in the...

2010-10-01

461

48 CFR 1552.219-74 - Small disadvantaged business participation evaluation factor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...219-74 Small disadvantaged business participation evaluation factor...clause: Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Evaluation Factor (OCT 2000) Under this factor...participation of small disadvantaged business (SDB) concerns in...

2010-10-01

462

48 CFR 52.219-24 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Targets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...219-24 Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program—Targets...following: Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program—Targets (OCT 2000) (a) This solicitation...participation of small disadvantaged business (SDB) concerns in...

2010-10-01

463

48 CFR 19.1203 - Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROGRAMS Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program 19...subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns. The contracting...219-26, Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program Incentive...at 65 FR 46057, July 26,...

2010-10-01

464

Primary Data on Economic Activity and Water Use in Prototype Oil Shale Development Areas of Colorado: An Initial Inquiry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Potential impacts of oil shale development on the economies of certain Western Slope communities in Colorado are quite large. These impacts will likely exert a substantial pressure on the land and water resource lease of the area in addition to the effect...

S. L. Gray

1974-01-01

465

Economics of Scholarly Publishing: Exploring the Causes of Subscription Price Variations of Scholarly Journals in Business Subject-Specific Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This empirical research investigates subscription price variations of scholarly journals in five business subject-specific areas using the semilogarithmic regression model. It has two main purposes. The first is to address the unsettled debate over whether or not and to what extent commercial publishers reap monopoly profits by overcharging…

Liu, Lewis G.

2011-01-01

466

Valuing water as an economic good in dryland areas - balancing the need for food, environmental and financial security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two watersheds, one in north western Syria and the other in south east Zimbabwe are looked at. Both locations are water scarce and food insecure. In both areas field work has found households making multiple and highly productive uses of small amounts of water. These are usually small-scale, informal systems of water use. Within both watersheds, there are also large-scale

Waughray D K; Rodríguez A

1998-01-01

467

Economic Aspects of Arts Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Background Many people working in arts education will have had the experience of needing to spell out the economic impacts of some project or activity in which they are engaged. It may be a research investigation into the effects of music education on children in primary school; it may be a proposal to teach theatre skills to disadvantaged youth;

David Throsby

468

Health status and socio-economic factors associated with health facility utilization in rural and urban areas in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Abstracts Background With regards to equity, the objective for health care systems is “equal access for equal needs”. We examined associations of predisposing, enabling and need factors with health facility utilization in areas with high HIV prevalence and few people being aware of their HIV status. Methods The data is from a population-based survey among adults aged 15years or older conducted in 2003. The current study is based on a subset of this data of adults 15–49 years with a valid HIV test result. A modified Health behaviour model guided our analytical approach. We report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals from logistic regression analyses. Results Totals of 1042 males and 1547 females in urban areas, and 822 males and 1055 females in rural areas were included in the study. Overall, 53.1% of urban and 56.8% of rural respondents utilized health facilities past 12 months. In urban areas, significantly more females than males utilized health facilities (OR=1.4 (95% CI [1.1, 1.6]). Higher educational attainment (10+ years of schooling) was associated with utilization of health facilities in both urban (OR=1.7, 95% CI [1.3, 2.1]) and rural (OR=1.4, 95% CI [1.0, 2.0]) areas compared to respondents who attained up to 7 years of schooling. Respondents who self-rated their health status as very poor/ poor/fair were twice more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who rated their health as good/excellent. Respondents who reported illnesses were about three times more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who did not report the illnesses. In urban areas, respondents who had mental distress were 1.7 times more likely to utilize health facilities compare to those who had no mental distress. Compared to respondents who were HIV negative, respondents who were HIV positive were 1.3 times more likely to utilize health facilities. Conclusion The health care needs were the factors most strongly associated with health care seeking. After accounting for need differentials, health care seeking differed modestly by urban and rural residence, was somewhat skewed towards women, and increased substantially with socioeconomic position. PMID:23145945

2012-01-01

469

Black carbon aerosols over an urban area in south-eastern Spain: Changes detected after the 2008 economic crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous measurements of black carbon (BC) concentrations performed at Granada, an urban location in southeast Spain, using a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer from December 2005 to November 2008, are analysed and discussed here. The daily mean BC concentrations showed considerable day-to-day variations and were found to vary from low values of 0.5 ?g m -3 to high values of 8.6 ?g m -3, with overall mean and standard deviation of 3.0 ± 1.5 ?g m -3. The annual mean BC concentrations were similar during 2006 and 2007 (3.2 ± 1.4 ?g m -3 and 3.1 ± 1.6 ?g m -3, respectively), but decreased by about 16-18% to 2.6 ± 1.4 ?g m -3 in 2008. This reduction is not only observed in the mean value, but also in the median, third and first quartiles. A Mann-Whitney test at 0.05 significance level confirms that the BC concentration difference between 2006 and 2007 is statistically no significant while the BC concentration in 2008 tends to be less than that in 2006-2007. Analysis of meteorological conditions suggested that although the day-to-day variations in BC concentrations were driven mostly by meteorology, the reduction in the use of fossil fuels due to economic slowdown contributed significantly to the observed decrease in BC concentrations in 2008. Under conditions dominated by local source emissions, the effect of the economic crisis on BC concentration was more pronounced. For the three analysed years, BC concentrations obtained during winter were higher than those measured during summer, probably due to increased emissions from domestic heating and less intense vertical mixing in winter season, which lead to the confinement of the BC particles near the surface. The monthly mean BC concentrations were lower in 2008 than in 2006-2007 for almost every month of the year. In all years BC concentrations exhibited a clear diurnal pattern, with two maxima and two minima within a day. There were no differences among the daily patterns for 2006, 2007 and 2008 except for a general reduction in BC concentrations on 2008, especially during morning and evening traffic hours. For every day of the week, BC concentrations were lower on 2008 than in 2006 and 2007 and this reduction was more pronounced on working days, when BC concentrations were high.

Lyamani, H.; Olmo, F. J.; Foyo, I.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

2011-11-01

470

FOREIGN AID, DOMESTIC SAVINGS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: SOME EVIDENCE FROM THE ECCB AREA \\/ AIDE ÉTRANGÈRE, ÉPARGNE INTÉRIEURE ET CROISSANCE ÉCONOMIQUE: QUELQUES DONNÉES DE LA ZONE EECB (Banque Centrale du Caraïbe Oriental)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the empirical relationship between foreign aid, domestic savings and economic growth in the independent countries in the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank (ECCB) area over the period 1980-1995 and the role of development finance in the process of economic development in the context of micro states particularly vulnerable to external shocks. It draws heavily on some of the

Richard Campbell

1999-01-01

471

48 CFR 219.1203 - Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program 219...subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns. The contracting...at 65 FR 50149, Aug. 17,...

2010-10-01

472

Shared reading interactions between mothers and pre-school children: Case studies of three dyads from a disadvantaged community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that adult-child shared book reading can enhance language and literacy development in the early years, although little is known about how mothers and children from socio-economically disadvantaged communities interact around books. This study investigated the shared reading interactions of three mother-child dyads living in such a community. Mothers were interviewed and videotaped reading at home with their

Anne Morgan

2005-01-01

473

Making the most of the mosaic: facilitating post-school transitions to higher education of disadvantaged students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research studies of post-school education and training conducted in Australia and internationally have revealed a mosaic of students’ education and employment experiences, with a multiplicity of nonlinear pathways. These tend to be more fragmentary\\u000a for disadvantaged students, especially those of low socio-economic background, rural students, and mature aged students seeking\\u000a a ‘second chance’ education. Challenges faced by students in their

Joan Abbott-Chapman

2011-01-01

474

Adult cognitive ability and socioeconomic status as mediators of the effects of childhood disadvantage on salivary cortisol in aging adults.  

PubMed

In this longitudinal study we investigate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Two mechanisms by which early life stress may affect later pathophysiology are through its influence on cognitive functioning or later socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. We predicted that individual differences in young adult cognitive ability and midlife SES would mediate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife cortisol. On each of three nonconsecutive days, participants provided five salivary cortisol samples corresponding to their diurnal rhythm (N=727 men; mean age 55, SD=2.6). We calculated three measures of cortisol regulation (area-under-the curve cortisol reflecting total daytime cortisol output; cortisol-awakening-response; and wake-to-bed slope), averaging scores for each measure across multiple days. Childhood disadvantage combined four dichotomous indicators used previously by Rutter (1985): father low SES; mother education less than 12th grade; major family disruption/separation before age 18; and large family size (more than 5 siblings). The two mediators were a measure of general cognitive ability assessed at age 20 and highest achieved midlife SES. Men from more disadvantaged childhoods were significantly more likely to have dysregulated cortisol at midlife, with higher daytime cortisol levels decades after their childhood experience. Effects of childhood disadvantage were both direct and indirect. Cognitive ability and adult SES, however, only partially mediated the associations between early life stress and midlife cortisol. Specific indirect effects accounted for 33.8% of the total effect of childhood disadvantage [?=0.12 (0.05; 0.18)] on total daytime cortisol. Associations remained significant after accounting for ethnicity, smoking status, and self-reported depressive symptoms. PMID:23684478

Franz, Carol E; Spoon, Kelly; Thompson, Wesley; Hauger, Richard L; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Jacobson, Kristen C; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J; McCaffery, Jeanne; McKenzie, Ruth; Mendoza, Sally P; Panizzon, Matthew S; Ramundo, Ana; Shahroudi, Afrand; Kremen, William S

2013-10-01

475

Vocational Curriculum Resources for Disadvantaged Students. A Guide to Print and Non-Print Instructional Materials. Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume 2 of a three-volume guide to vocational curriculum resources for disadvantaged students consists of instructional checklists for resources identified in the following areas: agriculture, auto body repair, automobile mechanics, basic math skills, basic reading skills, business education, career education, carpentry, cosmetology, custodial…

Mangano, R. Michael; And Others

476

Vocational Curriculum Resources for Disadvantaged Students. A Guide to Print and Non-Print Instructional Materials. Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume 1 of a three-volume guide to vocational curriculum resources for disadvantaged students consists of instructional checklists for resources identified in the following areas: agriculture, auto body repair, automobile mechanics, basic math skills, basic reading skills, business education, carpentry, cosmetology, custodial and maintenance,…

Mangano, R. Michael; And Others

477

Family and neighborhood disadvantage, home environment, and children's school readiness.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine associations between family socioeconomic risk, neighborhood disadvantage, and children's school readiness. A sample of 420 children from 48 early childcare programs yielded multi-informant data. The average age was 55.3 months (SD = 6.4), with 38% of children being Black, non-Hispanic, Hispanic, or other minority race (American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander). One third (32.4%) of the parents had annual incomes less than $30,000. We used multilevel structural equation modeling to test direct and indirect associations among family socioeconomic risk and neighborhood disadvantage and children's cognitive and social-emotional development through home learning environment and parental depression. Children with a greater number of family socioeconomic risks and a higher level of neighborhood disadvantage demonstrated lower scores on cognitive skills. The degree of family socioeconomic risk was indirectly associated with children's cognitive ability through parents' cognitive stimulation at home. Parents who had more family socioeconomic risks and neighborhood disadvantage reported more depressive symptoms, which, in turn, suggested children's greater probability of having social-emotional problems. In other words, home learning environments explained associations between family socioeconomic disadvantage and children's cognitive skills, while parental depression explained associations between family/neighborhood disadvantages and children's social-emotional problems. Results suggest the importance of intervention or prevention strategies for parents to improve cognitive stimulation at home and to reduce depressive symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25150370

Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K; Hur, Eunhye

2014-10-01

478

NASA Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) within NASA promotes the utilization of small, disadvantaged, and women-owned small businesses in compliance with Federal laws, regulations, and policies. We assist such firms in obtaining contracts and subcontracts with NASA and its prime contractors. The OSDBU also facilitates the participation of small businesses in NASA's technology transfer and commercialization activities. Our driving philosophy is to consider small businesses as our products. Our customers are the NASA Enterprises, Field Centers, Functional Staff Offices, major prime contractors, and other large institutions. We hone the skills of our products to make them marketable to our customers in the performance of NASA missions.

2001-01-01

479

Land use pattern, socio-economic development, and assessment of their impacts on ecosystem service value: study on natural wetlands distribution area (NWDA) in Fuzhou city, southeastern China.  

PubMed

This paper quantifies the allocation of ecosystem services value (ESV) associated with land use pattern and qualitatively examined impacts of land use changes and socio-economic factors on spatiotemporal variation of ESV in the Natural Wetland Distribution Area (NWDA), Fuzhou city, China. The results showed that total ESV of the study area decreased from 4,332.16 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 1989 to 3,697.42 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 2009, mainly due to the remarkable decreases in cropland (decreased by 55.3 %) and wetland (decreased by 74.2 %). Forest, water, and wetland played major roles in providing ecosystem services, accounting for over 90 % of the total ESV. Based on time series Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery, geographic information system, and historical data, analysis of the spatiotemporal variation of ESV from 1989 to 2009 was performed. It indicated that rapid expansion of urban areas along the Minjiang River resulted in significant changes in land use types, leading to a dramatic decline in ecosystem services. Meanwhile, because of land scarcity and unique ecosystem functions, the emergency of wetland and cropland protection in built-up area has become an urgent task of local authorities to the local government. Furthermore, there was still a significant negative correlation between ESV of cropland and wetland and the GDP. The results suggest that future planning of land use pattern should control encroachment of urban areas into cropland and wetland in addition to scientific and rational policies towards minimizing the adverse effects of urbanization. PMID:23054291

Cai, Yuan-Bin; Zhang, Hao; Pan, Wen-Bin; Chen, Yan-Hong; Wang, Xiang-Rong

2013-06-01

480

An economical single to three phase converter for induction motors  

E-print Network

There are several different types of single to three phase converters for induction motors available today. However, many of the presently available phase converters suffer from disadvantages such as high cost or low performance. An economical...

Di Zerega, Philp Van Uytandaele

2012-06-07

481

Introducing Computer Science to Educationally Disadvantaged High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An approach to the teaching and learning of high school computer science (CS) to and by educationally disadvantaged students (EDS) is described, as well as the implementation of six pedagogical principles in two learning environments developed for Israeli schools. Following a brief description of the main characteristics of EDS classes and a…

Paz, Tamar; Levy, Dalit

2005-01-01

482

The Early College Challenge: Navigating Disadvantaged Students' Transition to College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful early college high schools (ECHSs) are formed through partnerships between high schools and colleges (usually community colleges). Think of it as preparation through acceleration. ECHSs enroll disadvantaged students who have not excelled with ordinary grade-level academic content and have them take college courses while still in high…

Rosenbaum, James E.; Becker, Kelly Iwanaga

2011-01-01

483

Concrete vs. Abstract Problem Formats: A Disadvantage of Prior Knowledge  

E-print Network

Concrete vs. Abstract Problem Formats: A Disadvantage of Prior Knowledge Andrew F. Heckler experiments examine the effects of varying the relative concreteness of physics word problems on student performance.Previous studies have found that concrete representations benefit performance for relatively

Heckler, Andrew F.

484

MATERIALS THE DISADVANTAGED NEED--AND DON'T NEED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE ASSUMPTION THAT SOME CHILDREN ARE LOW ACHIEVERS BECAUSE OF CULTURAL, SENSORY, OR DEVELOPMENTAL DEPRIVATION IS CRITICIZED BECAUSE IT LEADS MAINLY TO A GRASPING FOR NEW AND DIFFERENT TEACHING TECHNOLOGIES. WHAT SHOULD BE INCLUDED IN A COHESIVE VIEW OF THE DISADVANTAGED ARE THEORETICAL UNDERPINNINGS FROM WHICH ACTION PROGRAMS CAN BE DERIVED. THE…

HABERMAN, MARTIN

485

A Summer Academic Research Experience for Disadvantaged Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience…

Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N.

2013-01-01

486

From Disadvantaged Girls to Successful Women: Education and Women's Resiliency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is the result of a 2-year study of women who were disadvantaged as girls but who achieved highly in academics. The participants, all of whom had advanced degrees or had completed two years of graduate school, had been raised in low-income homes, were first-generation college students, and had faced stress as children. Most of these women…

LePage-Lees, Pamela

487

Loan for Disadvantaged University of Tennessee Health Science Center  

E-print Network

and Human Services found at http://bhpr.hrsa.gov/dsa/sfag/health_professions/bk1prt2.htm. To begin-448-1570 UTHSC participates in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Loan for Disadvantaged Students

Cui, Yan

488

78 FR 57336 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...should register at least five business days before the date of the...entitled, ``Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation...of this notice at least five business days prior to the date of the...representative will make an opening statement outlining the...

2013-09-18

489

Educating the Disadvantaged, 1970-1971. An AMS Anthology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This anthology includes newly published essays by Daniel U. Levine, Robert J. Havighurst, and J. McVicker Hunt, two previously unpublished reports from the National Study of American Indian Education, and a new guide to resource centers. In addition, 35 papers by 55 contributors concerned with educating disadvantaged and culturally different…

Doll, Russell C., Ed.; Hawkins, Maxine, Ed.

490

Preparing Counselors for Disadvantaged Students Using Videotape and IPR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program describes an experimental series of six training workshops, directed toward the unique needs of counselors in inner-city schools. The workshops attempted to counteract insularity in current counselor education programs (textbooks and tape recorded interviews) by providing new and more potent methods for counseling disadvantaged

Maslon, Patricia J.

491

Facilitating the Creative Functioning of Disadvantaged Young Black Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study hypothesized that disadvantaged black children could achieve higher creativity scores if they were provided with stimulating experiences appropriate to psychological warm-up immediately before they were tested for figural and verbal creative thinking ability. The subjects were 105 first grade children divided into three experimental…

Nash, William Roscoe

492

Disadvantaged Children in Canada. Bibliographies in Education, Number 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprised of 191 items, this bibliography on the disadvantaged children in Canada is principally concerned with younger children. It is recommended that this bibliography should be used in conjunction with an earlier one of the series, Number 2, "School Dropouts." The compilation covers the period of the decade of the sixties, and is arranged…

Canadian Teachers' Federation, Ottawa (Ontario).

493

Developing Social Giftedness in Disadvantaged Girls at an Indian School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes developmental interactions with a group of female students at an Indian public school situated in a disadvantaged section of the community. Through a series of activities, the author makes an intensive effort to develop social giftedness in these students. The article describes various activities together with the author's…

Sharma, Yukti

2012-01-01

494

From Here to Where?--"Disadvantaged Schools," Literacy and Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the abolishment of the Disadvantaged Schools Program (DSP) in South Australia represented a shift away from a focus on the social to the individual, from curriculum to instruction, from school-based inquiry and teacher research to expert solutions, and from various contexted and contested outcomes to a singular and simplistic version…

Thomson, Pat

2001-01-01

495

Teaching Low Achieving and Disadvantaged Students, 3rd Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This new edition updates and expands the previous volume and continues to reflect the concepts and the reasons behind learning and behavior problems of low achieving and disadvantaged students. Through the chapters, the author describes instructional levels and independent levels, emphasizing that success is produced by finding the place on the…

Hargis, Charles H.

2006-01-01

496

OHRO Digest. Health Career Opportunity Grants for the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This first edition of the OHRO (Office of Health Resources Opportunity) Digest contains brief summaries of each active project in the Health Careers Opportunity Grant Program. (Projects funded under this federal program are designed to increase the number of health professionals from disadvantaged backgrounds. The project grants meet costs related…

Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

497

Getting Our Best Teachers into Disadvantaged Schools: Differences in the Professional and Personal Factors Attracting More Effective and Less Effective Teachers to a School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of the school-level factors that have an impact on student learning, one of the most powerful appears to be the effectiveness of the individual teacher. The most effective teachers are, therefore, one of the most important tools schools and systems have at their disposal to lift the achievement of socio-economically disadvantaged students and…

Rice, Suzanne M.

2010-01-01

498

The Role of Support Services in Promoting Social Inclusion for the Disadvantaged Urban-dwelling Elderly  

PubMed Central

Background Disadvantaged older adults living in non-family situations in Toronto are more likely than older adults living in family situations to have less economic security, less social support, and less choice in housing. Older adults who live in poverty and are precariously housed are more likely to be chronically ill, to live with multiple illnesses, to have poor nutrition, high stress and loneliness, all of which are strongly associated with the determinant of health social exclusion. The aim of this study is to: 1) evaluate the level of social disadvantage and exclusion experienced by low-income older adults 65 years of age and older living alone or in non-family situations; 2) assess the level of dependency on government and community services (support services) to maintain a reasonable standard of living (minimize effects of social exclusion); and 3) identify consequences of social exclusion not addressed by current available services. Methods Fifteen male older adult members of the Good Neighbours’ Club in downtown Toronto were interviewed. Semi-structured questionnaires assessed barriers to, utility of, and perceived impact of support services available to disadvantaged older adults living in the central core of southeast Toronto. Results Support services for income, housing, food security, social support, and health care do mitigate the effects of social exclusion in the study participants. Data gathered from interviews identified factors that counter the efforts by support services to increase social inclusion in this population. Conclusions Support services reduce social isolation experienced by these older adults. Evidence of the detrimental impact of low financial literacy suggests a need to design and implement training programs to build the older adults’ capacity to manage their own finances effectively, and resist falling victim to financial fraud. PMID:24278093

Nguyen, Vicky P.K.H.; Sarkari, Feroz; MacNeil, Kate; Cowan, Laura; Rankin, Joyce

2013-01-01

499

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/Maize (Zea mays L.) Intercropping Provides a Feasible Way to Improve Yield and Economic Incomes in Farming and Pastoral Areas of Northeast China  

PubMed Central

Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China. PMID:25329376

Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

2014-01-01

500

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/Maize (Zea mays L.) Intercropping Provides a Feasible Way to Improve Yield and Economic Incomes in Farming and Pastoral Areas of Northeast China.  

PubMed

Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China. PMID:25329376

Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

2014-01-01