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1

Learning to (Dis)Engage? The Socialising Experiences of Young People Living in Areas of Socio-Economic Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Young people are increasingly required to demonstrate civic engagement in their communities and help deliver the aspirations of localism and Big Society. Using an ecological systems approach this paper explores the experiences of different groups of young people living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage. Using volunteering as an example of…

Mason, Carolynne; Cremin, Hilary; Warwick, Paul; Harrison, Tom

2011-01-01

2

Profit Related Loans for Economically Disadvantaged Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing recognition that economically disadvantaged areas do not have an inherent capacity to regenerate economic activity or to deliver automatically socially propitious outcomes. In such circumstances, there might be a strong case for public sector intervention of various types. In what follows we a case for the provision of financial resources for the establishment or consolidation of

Bruce Chapman; Ric Simes

2004-01-01

3

Clinical research with economically disadvantaged populations  

PubMed Central

Concerns about exploiting the poor or economically disadvantaged in clinical research are widespread in the bioethics community. For some, any research that involves economically disadvantaged individuals is de facto ethically problematic. The economically disadvantaged are thought of as “venerable” to exploitation, impaired decision making, or both, thus requiring either special protections or complete exclusion from research. A closer examination of the worries about vulnerabilities among the economically disadvantaged reveals that some of these worries are empirically or logically untenable, while others can be better resolved by improved study designs than by blanket exclusion of poorer individuals from research participation. The scientific objective to generate generalisable results and the ethical objective to fairly distribute both the risks and benefits of research oblige researchers not to unnecessarily bar economically disadvantaged subjects from clinical research participation.

Denny, Colleen C; Grady, Christine

2007-01-01

4

How children from disadvantaged areas keep safe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper sets out to describe how children from disadvantaged areas perceive their communities and actively negotiate threats in their lives. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 60 interviews and 16 discussions groups were held with 8 to 14-year-olds sampled from four deprived communities located in the West of Scotland. Participants were asked about their local area and how

Katrina M. Turner; Malcolm Hill; Anne Stafford; Moira Walker

2006-01-01

5

How Children from Disadvantaged Areas Keep Safe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The paper sets out to describe how children from disadvantaged areas perceive their communities and actively negotiate threats in their lives. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 60 interviews and 16 discussions groups were held with 8 to 14-year-olds sampled from four deprived communities located in the West of Scotland.…

Turner, Katrina M.; Hill, Malcolm; Stafford, Anne; Walker, Moira

2006-01-01

6

Peer-mentoring for first-time mothers from areas of socio-economic disadvantage: A qualitative study within a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Non-professional involvement in delivering health and social care support in areas of socio-economic deprivation is considered important in attempting to reduce health inequalities. However, trials of peer mentoring programmes have yielded inconsistent evidence of benefit: difficulties in implementation have contributed to uncertainty regarding their efficacy. We aimed to explore difficulties encountered in conducting a randomised controlled trial of a peer-mentoring programme for first-time mothers in socially disadvantaged areas, in order to provide information relevant to future research and practice. This paper describes the experiences of lay-workers, women and health professionals involved in the trial. Methods Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with women (n = 11) who were offered peer mentor support, lay-workers (n = 11) who provided mentoring and midwives (n = 2) who supervised the programme, which provided support, from first hospital antenatal visit to one year postnatal. Planned frequency of contact was two-weekly (telephone or home visit) but was tailored to individuals' needs. Results Despite lay-workers living in the same locality, they experienced difficulty initiating contact with women and this affected their morale adversely. Despite researchers' attempts to ensure that the role of the mentor was understood clearly it appeared that this was not achieved for all participants. Mentors attempted to develop peer-mentor relationships by offering friendship and sharing personal experiences, which was appreciated by women. Mentors reported difficulties developing relationships with those who lacked interest in the programme. External influences, including family and friends, could prevent or facilitate mentoring. Time constraints in reconciling flexible mentoring arrangements with demands of other commitments posed major personal difficulties for lay-workers. Conclusion Difficulties in initiating contact, developing peer-mentor relationships and time constraints pose challenges to delivering lay-worker peer support. In developing such programmes, awareness of potential difficulties and of how professional support may help resolve these should improve uptake and optimise evaluation of their effectiveness. Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN55055030

Murphy, Christine A; Cupples, Margaret E; Percy, Andrew; Halliday, Henry L; Stewart, Moira C

2008-01-01

7

The "Collateral Impact" of Pupil Behaviour and Geographically Concentrated Socio-Economic Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools in areas of concentrated disadvantage tend to have below-average attainment, but there is no consensus on why. Mental and behavioural disorders in children are correlated with socio-economic disadvantage. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the first phenomenon can at least partly be accounted for by the second phenomenon through…

David, Alex Hugh

2010-01-01

8

Peer-mentoring for first-time mothers from areas of socio-economic disadvantage: A qualitative study within a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Non-professional involvement in delivering health and social care support in areas of socio-economic deprivation is considered important in attempting to reduce health inequalities. However, trials of peer mentoring programmes have yielded inconsistent evidence of benefit: difficulties in implementation have contributed to uncertainty regarding their efficacy. We aimed to explore difficulties encountered in conducting a randomised controlled trial of a

Christine A Murphy; Margaret E Cupples; Andrew Percy; Henry L Halliday; Moira C Stewart

2008-01-01

9

Book Selections of Economically Disadvantaged Black Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author identified books most often selected among a sample of economically disadvantaged Black 8- to 12-year-old participants (N = 293) and investigated reasons participants offered for choosing specific books. Participants self-selected books at a book fair providing 412 books. The most commonly selected books supplied descriptive data.…

Williams, Lunetta M.

2008-01-01

10

Adverse life events, area socio-economic disadvantage, and adolescent psychopathology: The role of closeness to grandparents in moderating the effect of contextual stress.  

PubMed

The study, using data from 801 11-16-year-olds clustered in 68 schools across England and Wales, tested whether closeness to grandparents moderates the association between contextual stress and adolescent psychopathology and prosocial behavior, measured with the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). Contextual stress was measured at both school area level (assessed with the index of multiple deprivation) and child level (assessed, as life stress, with the number of proximal and distal adverse life events experienced). At baseline, area stress (multiple deprivation) was unrelated to psychopathology (SDQ), and although both proximal (during the last 12 months) and distal (before the last 12 months) life stress was associated with broad and specific child psychopathology, the association with proximal life stress was stronger. Closeness to the most significant grandparent moderated both the effect of proximal life stress on hyperactivity and broad psychopathology, and the effect of the interaction between distal and proximal life stress on broad and externalizing psychopathology. These findings suggest that the role of grandparents deserves further attention in future investigations of the development of resilience in youth. PMID:20666637

Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann; Tan, Jo-Pei; Griggs, Julia; Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet

2010-09-01

11

Social characteristics of psychological distress in disadvantaged areas of Berlin.  

PubMed

Purpose: Living in disadvantaged urban areas is associated with poor mental health. The purpose of this study was to assess which social characteristics were associated with psychological distress within a disadvantaged, multi-ethnic neighbourhood of Berlin. METHODS: The study was conducted in an area of Berlin with the highest rates of unemployment and highest density of migrants. A total of 143 participants aged 18-57 years were included from a random sample. The social characteristics educational level, employment status, marital status, living alone, per-capita income and background of migration were collected. Psychological distress was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-28; scores ? 5 indicated psychological distress corresponding to psychiatric caseness. RESULTS: Psychological distress was found in 40.6% (n = 58) of the sample. Psychological distress was associated with younger age (OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.92-0.98, p = .004), female gender (OR = 3.51, 95% CI = 1.55-7.92, p = .003) and living alone (OR = 3.88, 95% CI = 1.58-9.52, p = .003), but not with background of migration, low educational level or with unemployment. CONCLUSIONS: Young age and female gender may predispose for psychological distress in disadvantaged areas. Living alone could be a social indicator of poor mental health within disadvantaged urban areas. The directionality of the association is unclear. BACKGROUND: of migration, low income and educational level do not seem to be associated with poor mental health within those areas. PMID:23117825

Mundt, Adrian; Kliewe, T; Yayla, S; Ignatyev, Y; Busch, M A; Heimann, H; Heinz, A; Rapp, M A; Schouler-Ocak, M; Ströhle, A; Aichberger, M C

2012-10-30

12

Universe Awareness . An inspirational programme for economically disadvantaged young children.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beauty of the sky and its connection with the human development have inspired generations with wonder. Astronomy conveys the excitement of science to the public. Considerable resources are devoted to outreach in developed countries, with spectacular images produced by modern astronomical facilities and astronomical discoveries that change our views of the Universe. Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is a programme for children between 4 and 10 years old. The formative ages of 4 to 10 years are crucial in child development. Children of that age can appreciate the beauty of astronomical objects and develop a ``feeling'' for the vastness of the Universe. Exposing young children to such material is likely to broaden their minds and stimulate their world-view. The programme concentrates on economically disadvantaged young children because most other children will be exposed to some knowledge about the Universe and disparities between advantaged and disadvantaged children increase with age. Venezuela hosted a successful pilot project in 2006. From spontaneous observation of the sky to a teacher-training workshop in the "Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía" in Mérida, this was a wonderful experience for participants and organisers alike. This shows how successful the UNAWE programme can be.

Ödman, C. J.; Scorza, C.; Miley, G. K.; Madsen, C.

13

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...opportunity or access to those things which would enable the individual to participate more successfully in the American economic system, available to individuals not considered to be members of social or economically disadvantaged...

2010-01-01

14

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...opportunity or access to those things which would enable the individual to participate more successfully in the American economic system, available to individuals not considered to be members of social or economically disadvantaged...

2009-01-01

15

Marine protected area improves yield without disadvantaging fishers.  

PubMed

Potential fishery benefits of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are widely acknowledged, yet seldom demonstrated, as fishery data series that straddle MPA establishment are seldom available. Here we postulate, based on a 15-year time series of nation-wide, spatially referenced catch and effort data, that the establishment of the Goukamma MPA (18?km alongshore; 40?km(2)) benefited the adjacent fishery for roman (Chrysoblephus laticeps), a South African endemic seabream. Roman-directed catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) in the vicinity of the new MPA immediately increased, contradicting trends across this species' distribution. The increase continued after 5 years, the time lag expected for larval export, effectively doubling the pre-MPA CPUE after 10 years. We find no indication that establishing the MPA caused a systematic drop in total catch or increased travel distances for the fleet. Our results provide rare empirical evidence of rapidly increasing catch rates after MPA implementation without measurable disadvantages for fishers. PMID:23962973

Kerwath, Sven E; Winker, Henning; Götz, Albrecht; Attwood, Colin G

2013-08-20

16

13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section...Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? (a)...

2010-01-01

17

13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section...Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? (a)...

2009-01-01

18

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individuals not considered to be members of socially or economically disadvantaged groups. (3) Evidence of educational discrimination in comparison to educational opportunities available to individuals not considered to be members of...

2005-01-01

19

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individuals not considered to be members of socially or economically disadvantaged groups. (3) Evidence of educational discrimination in comparison to educational opportunities available to individuals not considered to be members of...

2004-01-01

20

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individuals not considered to be members of socially or economically disadvantaged groups. (3) Evidence of educational discrimination in comparison to educational opportunities available to individuals not considered to be members of...

2000-01-01

21

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individuals not considered to be members of socially or economically disadvantaged groups. (3) Evidence of educational discrimination in comparison to educational opportunities available to individuals not considered to be members of...

2007-01-01

22

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individuals not considered to be members of socially or economically disadvantaged groups. (3) Evidence of educational discrimination in comparison to educational opportunities available to individuals not considered to be members of...

2012-01-01

23

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individuals not considered to be members of socially or economically disadvantaged groups. (3) Evidence of educational discrimination in comparison to educational opportunities available to individuals not considered to be members of...

2011-01-01

24

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individuals not considered to be members of socially or economically disadvantaged groups. (3) Evidence of educational discrimination in comparison to educational opportunities available to individuals not considered to be members of...

2008-01-01

25

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individuals not considered to be members of socially or economically disadvantaged groups. (3) Evidence of educational discrimination in comparison to educational opportunities available to individuals not considered to be members of...

2003-01-01

26

ENVIRONMENTAL RISK AND IMPACT IN COMMUNITIES OF COLOR AND ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Research has shown that communities of color and economically/educationally disadvantaged communities are at a greater risk of impact from environmental hazards. In many past studies in environmental justice (EJ) communities, scientists have used surrogate measures of exposure b...

27

An Exploratory Study of Radical Mindfulness Training with Severely Economically Disadvantaged People: Findings of a Canadian Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a two-phased research project that piloted a modified mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention developed specifically for a severely economically disadvantaged population. The terms severely economically disadvantaged (SED) and “severely marginalised” were used to describe the participants who experience socioeconomic disadvantage and social isolation as well as significant medical, psychological, physical, and learning challenges. Phase one of the

Steven F. Hick; Charles Furlotte

2010-01-01

28

Economically Disadvantaged Children's Transitions into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify "family-based" mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential "school-based" remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation…

Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.

2010-01-01

29

Addressing Summer Reading Setback among Economically Disadvantaged Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much research has established the contribution of summer reading setback to the reading achievement gap that is present between children from more and less economically advantaged families. Likewise, summer reading activity, or the lack of it, has been linked to summer setback. Finally, family socioeconomic status has been linked to the access…

Allington, Richard L.; McGill-Franzen, Anne; Camilli, Gregory; Williams, Lunetta; Graff, Jennifer; Zeig, Jacqueline; Zmach, Courtney; Nowak, Rhonda

2010-01-01

30

How Does Childhood Economic Disadvantage Lead to Crime?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: This study sought to examine the associations between indices of socio-economic deprivation in childhood and later involvement in crime. Method: Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study. In this project a cohort of 1,265 children born in Christchurch in 1977 have been studied from birth to age 21…

Fergusson, David; Swain-Campbell, Nicola; Horwood, John

2004-01-01

31

Children aged 9–14 living in disadvantaged areas in England: Opportunities and barriers for cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to take a holistic perspective to explore levels of cycling and opportunities and barriers to increase children’s safer cycling in disadvantaged areas in England. The study was one part of a larger study which explored the factors underlying the high level of road traffic casualties especially among children in the most disadvantaged areas of

Nicola Christie; Richard Kimberlee; Elizabeth Towner; Sarah Rodgers; Heather Ward; Judith Sleney; Ronan Lyons

2011-01-01

32

Predictors of Parenting among Economically Disadvantaged Latina Mothers: Mediating and Moderating Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role of ecological risk factors, maternal psychological distress, and social network support on the parenting behaviors of 535 economically disadvantaged Latina mothers, who were surveyed for the Welfare Children, & Families: A Three City Study. We predicted that ecological risk would influence…

Prelow, Hazel M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Bowman, Marvella A.; Swenson, Rebecca R.

2010-01-01

33

A Role Model Approach to Job Transition for Disadvantaged Cooperative Home Economics Students. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A pilot project implemented a role-model approach to job transition for disadvantaged cooperative home economics students in Tulsa and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. From 1974 through 1976, 21 students in four urban high schools were matched with role models on the job. Sixteen of these students retained their jobs. The matches included many different…

Pestle, Ruth

34

Political Participation and Cumulative Disadvantage: The Impact of Economic and Social Hardship on Young Citizens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we seek to provide the most comprehensive exploration to date of the effects of economic and social disadvantage on young citizens' voter turnout. We look at four overlapping domains of hardship—those rooted in (a) the family context, (b) the community context, (c) the school context, and (d) major events and life transitions. Our conceptual model of cumulative

Julianna Sandell Pacheco; Eric Plutzer

2008-01-01

35

A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…

Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette

2011-01-01

36

An investigation of the college and career counseling needs of economically disadvantaged, minority gifted students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is an investigation of the college and career counseling needs of economically disadvantaged, academically gifted minority students. Two groups of students were studied and compared ? one group of 50 low?income students, predominantly minority, who were chosen for a special college counseling program, and a second group of 42 middle to high income students, predominantly Asian and Caucasian,

Joy M. Scott

1992-01-01

37

Linking Inputs and Outcomes: Achievement among Economically Disadvantaged Appalachian Middle Grades Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines school, family, and community factors related to the academic success of economically disadvantaged Appalachian students. In two middle schools in Appalachian Kentucky and Tennessee, 245 students who received free or reduced-price school lunches completed the Rural School Success Inventory (RSSI) and a writing sample about…

Henry, Kenneth J.; And Others

38

Inputs, Processes, Outcomes: The Context for Achievement among Economically Disadvantaged Students in Appalachia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the context of education at two Appalachian middle schools and examines family, community, and school factors related to the academic success of economically disadvantaged and middle-class students. The 429 students at two rural middle schools in Appalachian Kentucky and Tennessee were assigned to low socioeconomic status…

Henry, Kenneth J.; And Others

39

TV Characters at Work: Television's Role in the Occupational Aspirations of Economically Disadvantaged Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Television regularly depicts work-related activities of fictional characters and is one of several important sources of occupational information for young people. However, no research appears to have examined the influence of televised occupational portrayals on economically disadvantaged youths, although television may be an especially important…

Hoffner, Cynthia A.; Levine, Kenneth J.; Sullivan, Quintin E.; Crowell, Dennis; Pedrick, Laura; Berndt, Patricia

2006-01-01

40

Neighborhood economic disadvantage, violent crime, group density, and pregnancy outcomes in a diverse, urban population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research has established associations between pregnancy outcomes and specific neighborhood characteristics, including economic disadvantage, violent crime, and racial\\/ethnic segregation. Recently, associations have also been found between various health outcomes and group density, the degree to which an individual is a racial or ethnic majority in his or her local community. The objective of this study was to determine the

Christopher M. Masi; Louise C. Hawkley; Z. Harry Piotrowski; Kate E. Pickett

2007-01-01

41

Tech scholars learning community: a college-university partnership program for academically and economically disadvantaged students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a college-university partnership program, namely the tech scholar learning community, formed by the Division of Engineering Technology at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan and the Schoolcraft College in Livonia, Michigan. The objective is to increase the number of academically and economically disadvantaged students who transfer from community colleges to baccalaureate programs. The strategies adopted to improve

Chih-Ping Yeh; Silverenia Kanoyton; Deborah Daiek

2004-01-01

42

Is an Intervention Program Necessary in Order to Improve Economically Disadvantaged Children's IQ Scores?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hypothesis was investigated that alleviation of negative motivational factors underlies much of the 10-point IQ increase commonly found in economically disadvantaged children's performance following a preschool intervention program. Head Start and non-Head Start groups were tested on IQ and motivational measures three times before and during…

Zigler, Edward; And Others

1982-01-01

43

The Issue of Resource Equalization: Funding the Education of Economically Disadvantaged Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The State of Illinois appropriates funds according to a resource equalizer formula which allows a district having a large number and a high percentage of economically disadvantaged school children to gain a sizable bonus in State aid, contingent upon a plan to improve instruction. The Chicago Public Schools have received this bonus without…

Fox, Roger; Lacour, Bernard

44

Country Road Bureaucracy: The Challenges of Social Service Delivery in an Economically Disadvantaged Rural State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The devolution of state authority embedded in the 1996 federal welfare reform law (since reaffirmed in the 2006 reauthorization of this law) has enormous implications for economically disadvantaged adults and their families as well as those responsible for the local management and delivery of these welfare services. Although over a decade of welfare reform “impact” research currently exists, the majority

Melissa Latimer; Corey Colyer

2010-01-01

45

Predictors of Quality of Life in Economically Disadvantaged Populations in Montreal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most epidemiological studies agree that economically disadvantaged populations are the groups most vulnerable to mental health problems and report lower quality of life among these populations. However, it appears that access to social support plays a role in protecting against the chronic stress resulting from conditions such as poverty. This…

Caron, Jean

2012-01-01

46

A Longitudinal Study of Perceived Family Functioning and Adolescent Adjustment in Chinese Adolescents With Economic Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This longitudinal study examines the relationships between perceived family functioning and adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage (N = 199). Results showed that perceived family functioning was concurrently related to measures of adolescent psychological well-being (existential…

Shek, Daniel T. L.

2005-01-01

47

Economically Disadvantaged Children's Transitions Into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy  

PubMed Central

Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify family-based mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential school-based remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation of markers of economic disadvantage reduced math and reading testing gains across the primary grades. Such disparities were partially mediated by corresponding differences in children’s socioemotional problems, parenting stress, and parents’ human capital investments. These patterns appeared to be robust to observed and unobserved confounds. Various teacher qualifications and classroom practices were assessed as moderators of these family mediators, revealing teacher experience in grade level as a fairly consistent buffer against family-based risks for reading.

Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.

2010-01-01

48

Economic Stress, Psychological Well-Being and Problem Behavior in Chinese Adolescents with Economic Disadvantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between perceived economic stress (current economic hardship and future economic worry) and adolescent adjustment was examined in 229 Chinese adolescents using children and parental reports of perceived economic stress. Parents displayed higher levels of current economic hardship and future economic worry than their children did and mothers had more worry about their children's economic conditions in future than

Daniel T. L. Shek

2003-01-01

49

Family adversity and inhibitory control for economically disadvantaged children: preschool relations and associations with school readiness.  

PubMed

This study examined longitudinal relations linking aspects of family adversity to inhibitory control and school readiness for 120 economically disadvantaged children attending a Head Start preschool. The aspects of family adversity included income-to-needs ratios and an adversity index representing family instability and family chaos. The results showed that the adversity index but not the income ratios contributed to explaining diversity in the development of inhibitory control over the course of the preschool year. Additionally, the adversity index predicted school readiness at the end of the year, and the results suggested that inhibitory control mediated this effect. The implications concern understanding family sources of diversity in inhibitory control for economically disadvantaged preschool children. PMID:23750526

Brown, Eleanor D; Ackerman, Brian P; Moore, Charlee A

2013-06-01

50

A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social–emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered analysis of 207 Hispanic American preschoolers (ages 4 and 5 years) yielded 6 distinct profiles, 2

Geraldine V. Oades-Sese; Giselle B. Esquivel; Pamela K. Kaliski; Lisette Maniatis

2011-01-01

51

13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Spouse's financial situation. SBA may consider a spouse's financial situation in determining a woman's...an individual claiming economic disadvantage must submit...a spouse's financial situation in determining an...

2013-01-01

52

The School Readiness of Children Living in a Disadvantaged Area in Ireland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the multiple factors that contribute to the school readiness and early school progress of children living in an urban disadvantaged area. Structured interviews were undertaken with parents of children who had recently started school to elicit information about those aspects of children's health, and their home and…

Kiernan, Gemma; Axford, Nick; Little, Michael; Murphy, Cliona; Greene, Sheila; Gormley, Michael

2008-01-01

53

Language and Disadvantage: A Comparison of the Language Abilities of Adolescents from Two Different Socioeconomic Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: It is recognized that children from areas associated with socioeconomic disadvantage are at an increased risk of delayed language development. However, so far research has focused mainly on young children and there has been little investigation into language development in adolescence. Aims: To investigate the language abilities of…

Spencer, Sarah; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy

2012-01-01

54

49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false What rules determine...DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISES...26.67 What rules determine...disadvantage? (a) Presumption...disadvantaged owner is, in fact...notarized statement of personal...1) If the statement of personal...paragraph (a)(2) of...disadvantage is...

2011-10-01

55

The impact of a college counseling program on economically disadvantaged gifted students and their subsequent college adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of a college and career counseling program on economically disadvantaged gifted students and their subsequent college adjustment was assessed. Fifty?five students from public high schools in a major urban school district in the midwest were compared to a group of economically advantaged students who participated in a special summer program for high school students at a private midwestern

Leswin Laubscher

1996-01-01

56

Mobile Technologies & Socio-Economic Opportunities for Disadvantaged Women: A Study of Information Behavior in a Developing Nation Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been championed by the United Nations and others as one of the key media to open up socio-economic opportunities for disadvantaged populations. Studies lead us to believe that after being introduced to ICTs, users' information behavior changes, enabling them to benefit from socio-economic

Potnis, Devendra Dilip

2010-01-01

57

Mobile Technologies & Socio-Economic Opportunities for Disadvantaged Women: A Study of Information Behavior in a Developing Nation Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been championed by the United Nations and others as one of the key media to open up socio-economic opportunities for disadvantaged populations. Studies lead us to believe that after being introduced to ICTs, users' information behavior changes, enabling them to benefit from socio-economic

Potnis, Devendra Dilip

2010-01-01

58

Enhancing Motivation to Reduce the Risk of HIV Infection for Economically Disadvantaged Urban Women  

PubMed Central

This research evaluated a motivation-based HIV-risk-reduction intervention for economically disadvantaged urban women. Participants completed a survey that assessed HIV-related knowledge, risk perceptions, behavioral intentions, sexual communication, substance use, and risk behavior. A total of 102 at-risk women (76% African-American) were randomly assigned to either the risk-reduction intervention or to a waiting list. Women were reassessed at three and twelve weeks. Results indicated that treated women increased their knowledge and risk awareness, strengthened their intentions to adopt safer sexual practices, communicated their intentions with partners, reduced substance use proximal to sexual activities, and engaged in fewer acts of unprotected vaginal intercourse. These effects were observed immediately and most were maintained at follow-up.

Carey, Michael P.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Forsyth, Andrew D.; Wright, Ednita M.; Johnson, Blair T.

2008-01-01

59

Processes of change for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents.  

PubMed

This study sought to identify Transtheoretical Model processes of change associated with consumption of ?5 daily servings of FVs in a sample of economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (N=549; mean (SD) age=12.44 (.99) years; 61% female; 15% African American Hispanic). Participants completed measures of stages and processes of change, and were ranked according to intake level based on their reported stage. Spearman correlations and independent samples t tests were used in cross-sectional analyses of the relationship between processes of change and FV consumption. Consciousness raising, environmental reevaluation, helping relationships and stimulus control processes were significantly associated with FV consumption (??.12; p<.01), and were practiced more often by youths who consumed ?5 daily servings of FVs relative to those who did not (p<.05). Findings highlight the potential of these processes for increasing FV consumption in this population. PMID:22177398

Di Noia, Jennifer; Thompson, Debbe

2011-10-25

60

Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ?24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services.

Hu, Yu; Li, Qian; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Yaping; Qi, Xiaohua

2013-01-01

61

Contextual Risk, Maternal Negative Emotionality, and the Negative Emotion Dysregulation of Preschool Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: This study examined relations between contextual risk, maternal negative emotionality, and preschool teacher reports of the negative emotion dysregulation of children from economically disadvantaged families. Contextual risk was represented by cumulative indexes of family and neighborhood adversity. The results showed a direct…

Brown, Eleanor D.; Ackerman, Brian P.

2011-01-01

62

Contextual Risk, Maternal Negative Emotionality, and the Negative Emotion Dysregulation of Preschool Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research Findings: This study examined relations between contextual risk, maternal negative emotionality, and preschool teacher reports of the negative emotion dysregulation of children from economically disadvantaged families. Contextual risk was represented by cumulative indexes of family and neighborhood adversity. The results showed a direct…

Brown, Eleanor D.; Ackerman, Brian P.

2011-01-01

63

Contextual Risk, Caregiver Emotionality, and the Problem Behaviors of Six- and Seven-Year-Old Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored relations between additive and cumulative representations of contextual risk, caregiver emotionality, child adaptability, and teacher reports of problem behaviors of 6- and 7-year-olds from economically disadvantaged families. Found evidence that the relation for cumulative risk may be moderated by caregiver negative emotionality and…

Ackerman, Brian P.; Izard, Carroll E.; Schoff, Kristen; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Kogos, Jen

1999-01-01

64

The Relationship between Teachers' Collective Efficacy and Student Achievement at Economically Disadvantaged Middle School Campuses in Texas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the collective efficacy of teachers and student achievement at economically disadvantaged middle school campuses. Schools of today are expected to show continuous improvement in student achievement from year to year, regardless of the students' family background, ethnicity, or…

Sandoval, Juan Manuel

2010-01-01

65

Adherence to combined montelukast and fluticasone treatment in economically disadvantaged african american youth with asthma.  

PubMed

High rates of asthma treatment nonadherence have been reported, particularly in economically disadvantaged African American youth. The relationship between adherence to combined medication treatment and asthma outcomes has potential clinical significance but is not well understood. Using electronic monitoring, we describe the pattern of adherence to daily corticosteroid (fluticasone) and leukotriene receptor antagonist (montelukast) medication over the course of 1 year in a population of African American youth with moderate to severe asthma. On average, adherence to montelukast was higher than adherence to fluticasone (p < 0.01); however, for both medications, adherence rates significantly declined over the course of the study. After 1 year, participants took only 31% of prescribed doses of montelukast and 23% of prescribed doses of fluticasone. The decline in adherence to both fluticasone (p < 0.05) and montelukast (p < 0.001) was related to increased healthcare utilization. Furthermore, asthma symptom ratings were related montelukast (p < 0.001), but not fluticasone adherence. These results suggest that adherence promotion intervention strategies are warranted to improve health-related outcomes in families who are at-risk for treatment nonadherence. PMID:19905919

McNally, Kelly A; Rohan, Jennifer; Schluchter, Mark; Riekert, Kristin A; Vavrek, Pamela; Schmidt, Amy; Redline, Susan; Kercsmar, Carolyn; Drotar, Dennis

2009-11-01

66

The social-emotional impact of instrumental music performance on economically disadvantaged South African students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent these findings hold true for disadvantaged students. The purpose of this study

Karendra Devroop

2012-01-01

67

Tobacco Use in Six Economically Disadvantaged Communities in the Dominican Republic  

PubMed Central

The Dominican Republic (DR) is a tobacco-growing country and tobacco control efforts have been virtually nonexistent. This study provides a first systematic surveillance of tobacco use in 6 economically disadvantaged DR communities (2 small urban, 2 peri-urban, 2 rural; half were tobacco-growing). Approximately 175 households were randomly selected in each (total N=1048) and an adult household member reported on household demographics and resources (e.g., electricity), tobacco use and health conditions of household members, and household policies on tobacco use. Poverty and unemployment were high in all communities, and significant gaps in access to basic resources such as electricity, running water, telephones/cell phones, and secondary education were present. Exposure to tobacco smoke was high, with 38.4% of households reporting ?1 tobacco user, and 75.5% allowing smoking in the home. Overall, 22.5% reported using tobacco, with commercial cigarettes (58.0%) or self-rolled cigarettes (20.1%) the most commonly used types. Considerable variability in prevalence and type of use was found across communities. Overall, tobacco use was higher in males, illiterate groups, ages 45+, rural dwellers, and tobacco-growing communities. Based on reported health conditions, tobacco attributable risks, and WHO mortality data, it is estimated that at least 2254 lives could potentially be saved each year in the DR with tobacco cessation. While it is expected that the reported prevalence of tobacco use and health conditions represent underestimates, these figures provide a starting point for understanding tobacco use and its prevalence in the Dominican Republic.

Ossip-Klein, Deborah J.; Fisher, Susan; Diaz, Sergio; Quinones, Zahira; Sierra, Essie; Dozier, Ann; McIntosh, Scott; Guido, Joseph; Winters, Paul; Diaz, Omar; Armstrong, LaToya

2008-01-01

68

Trends in opioid use and dosing among socio-economically disadvantaged patients  

PubMed Central

Background Opioid therapy for patients with chronic nonmalignant pain remains controversial, primarily because of safety concerns and the potential for abuse. The objective of this study was to examine trends in opioid utilization for nonmalignant pain among recipients of social assistance and to explore the relation between dose of analgesic and mortality. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, we characterized annual trends in prescriptions for and daily dose of opioid analgesics between 2003 and 2008 for beneficiaries (aged 15 to 64 years) of Ontario’s public drug plan. We defined moderate, high and very high dose thresholds as daily doses of up to 200, 201 to 400, and more than 400 mg oral morphine (or equivalent), respectively. In an exploratory cohort study, we followed, over a 2-year period, patients who received at least one prescription for an opioid in 2004 to investigate the relation between opioid dose and opioid-related mortality. Results Over the study period, opioid prescribing rates rose by 16.2%, and 180 974 individuals received nearly 1.5 million opioid prescriptions in 2008. Also by 2008, the daily dose dispensed exceeded 200 mg morphine equivalent for almost a third (32.6%) of recipients of long-acting oxycodone but only 20.3% of those treated with fentanyl or other long-acting opioids. Among patients for whom high or very high doses of opioids were dispensed in 2004, 19.3% of deaths during the subsequent 2 years were opioid-related, occurring at a median age of 46 years. Two-year opioid-related mortality rates were 1.63 per 1000 population (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42–1.85) among people with moderate-dose prescriptions, 7.92 per 1000 population (95% CI 5.25–11.49) among those with high-dose prescriptions, and 9.94 per 1000 population (95% CI 2.78–25.12) among those with very-high-dose prescriptions. Interpretation Among socio-economically disadvantaged patients in Ontario, the use and dose of opioids for nonmalignant pain has increased substantially, driven primarily by the use of long-acting oxycodone and, to a lesser extent, fentanyl. The findings of our exploratory study suggested a strong association between opioid-related mortality and the dose of opioid dispensed.

Gomes, Tara; Juurlink, David N; Dhalla, Irfan A; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Paterson, J Michael; Mamdani, Muhammad M

2011-01-01

69

The Social-Emotional Impact of Instrumental Music Performance on Economically Disadvantaged South African Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent…

Devroop, Karendra

2012-01-01

70

Lessons from black-thicket jungle: What is feasible in village schools of disadvantaged areas?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative examination of the national goals of education as presented by various developing countries shows such goals to be often abstract and overly idealistic: a long way from the harsh reality of most rural village schools. Drawing on the results of a lengthy field study in a disadvantaged area of Sri Lanka, this article discusses the matter of feasibility in the shadow of too high expectations. It is concluded that ambitious goals should be operationalized at a practicable level, and recommendations are put forward for feasible action. As a rigidly ordered system of schooling may be an inevitable stage in a progressive evolution of schooling types, patience is needed before criticizing schools which lack creative teaching and problem-solving approaches. It is emphasised that the most important raw materials of the educational system are abundantly present, i.e., human resources. Children are eager to learn; parents are potentially supportive and want education for the sake of learning as well as for jobs. And most importantly for the success of the schools, dedicated principals and teachers are present in unexpectedly high numbers considering the constraints they face. The importance of such educators is stressed, along with implications for selection, training and remuneration.

Baker, Victoria J.

1989-06-01

71

Health Inequalities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Lower Healthy Life Expectancy in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Areas  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated deprivation and inequalities in life expectancy and healthy life expectancy by location in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods. We conducted a health survey of 576 adults in 2006. Census tracts were stratified by income level and categorization as a slum. We determined health status by degree of functional limitation, according to the approach proposed by the World Health Organization. We calculated healthy life expectancies by Sullivan's method with abridged life table. Results. We found the worst indicators in the slum stratum. The life expectancy at birth of men living in the richest parts of the city was 12.8 years longer than that of men living in deprived areas. For both men and women older than age 65 years, healthy life expectancy was more than twice as high in the richest sector as in the slum sector. Conclusions. Our analysis detailed the excess burden of poor health experienced by disadvantaged populations of Rio de Janeiro. Policy efforts are needed to reduce social inequalities in health in this city, especially among the elderly.

Correa da Mota, Jurema; Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Sardinha Pereira, Tatiana Guimaraes

2011-01-01

72

Life Coping Skills Categories and Sub-Categories. Areas of the Information Needs of Disadvantaged Adults.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major catagories and subcatagories of the information needs of disadvantaged adults are listed. The list was compiled by the Appalachian Adult Education Center (AAEC) in its research and demonstration projects and by consultants to the center from oth...

1973-01-01

73

Area Disadvantage and Intimate Partner Homicide: An Ecological Analysis of North Carolina Counties, 2004-2006  

PubMed Central

Using data from the North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System and other sources, we examined ecologic relationships between county (n=100) disadvantage and intimate partner homicide (IPH), variability by victim gender and county urbanicity, and potential mediators. County disadvantage was related to female-victim homicide only in metropolitan counties (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.25); however, disadvantage was associated with male-victim IPH regardless of county urbanicity (IRR 1.17). None of the potential intervening variables examined (shelter availability, intimate partner violence services’ funding), was supported as a mediator. Results suggest disparities across North Carolina counties in IPH according to county disadvantage. Future research should explore other potential mediators (i.e., service accessibility and law enforcement responses), as well as test the robustness of findings using additional years of data.

Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Martin, Sandra L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Schoenbach, Victor J.

2009-01-01

74

Adherence to Pediatric Asthma Treatment in Economically Disadvantaged African-American Children and Adolescents: An Application of Growth Curve Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives?The primary aims of the study were to: (a) describe the trajectories of adherence to daily inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) medication for a year in economically disadvantaged, African-American youth with asthma based on growth curve modeling; and (b) test the relationship of treatment adherence to symptom control, quick-relief medication, and healthcare utilization.?Methods?This prospective study measured adherence to daily ICS treatment using electronic monitoring in 92 children and adolescents with moderate to severe asthma for 9–12 months and assessed clinical outcomes, including asthma-related symptoms, quick-relief medication, and healthcare utilization.?Results?Youth showed a decrement in treatment adherence to less than half of prescribed corticosteroid treatment over the course of the study, which related to increased healthcare utilization (p < .04), but not to asthma symptoms or albuterol use.?Conclusion?Economically disadvantaged youth with asthma demonstrate high rates of chronic nonadherence that warrant identification and intervention to reduce asthma-related healthcare utilization.

Drotar, Dennis; McNally, Kelly; Schluchter, Mark; Riekert, Kristin; Vavrek, Pamela; Schmidt, Amy; Redline, Susan; Kercsmar, Carolyn

2010-01-01

75

Education in Disadvantaged Urban Areas; an In-Service Course, January-March 1964.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This pamphlet contains the lectures delivered during an inservice course for staff in the Boston public schools to acquaint them with the characteristics of their Negro students. The contents include: Rev. Edward L. Murphy, S.J., "The Urbanization of America"; Catherine M. Maney, "Preventive and Remedial Programs for the Disadvantaged Child";…

Boston Public Schools, MA.

76

A Study of Participatory Action Research as Professional Development for Educators in Areas of Educational Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the final analysis of a mixed methodological study of participatory action research (PAR) as professional development. The participants were administrators and teachers studying extreme educational disadvantage caused by homeless and transient living conditions. Two questions are answered: 1. What was the experience of…

James, E. Alana

2006-01-01

77

Same Landscape, Different Lens: Variations in Young People's Socio-Economic Experiences and Perceptions in Their Disadvantaged Working-Class Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper, I compare socio-economic experiences and community perceptions expressed by socially and economically disadvantaged young people with those of university students living in the same post-industrial community. I consider markers of distinction among these young people in relation to their family and educational experiences. I also…

Brann-Barrett, Mary Tanya

2011-01-01

78

Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Interactions of Disadvantages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based on a study of 7,372 students in grades 5-10 (aged 11-16) in a representative sample of Norwegian compulsory schools. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between students' reported socio-economic status (SES) and their perceived social inclusion (SI) in school in the whole sample. We also considered separately a…

Veland, Jarmund; Midthassel, Unni Vere; Idsoe, Thormod

2009-01-01

79

Participation in Higher Education in South Australia by People from Socio-economically Disadvantaged Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a study of the socio-economic background of students admitted to South Australian universities in 1996 We describe briefly the scope and methodology of the study and then present our findings in a series of tables which, we believe, clearly demonstrate the effect of socio-economi c background on university preferences and enrolments. This confirms and somewhat elaborates the

Gavin Moodie; Lynette Swift

80

Perceived Socio?Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Interactions of Disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on a study of 7,372 students in grades 5–10 (aged 11–16) in a representative sample of Norwegian compulsory schools. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between students' reported socio?economic status (SES) and their perceived social inclusion (SI) in school in the whole sample. We also considered separately a sub?sample of students with

Jarmund Veland; Unni Vere Midthassel; Thormod Idsoe

2009-01-01

81

Beyond income: Material resources among drug users in economically-disadvantaged New York City neighborhoods  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about material resources among drug users beyond income. Income measures can be insensitive to variation among the poor, do not account for variation in cost-of-living, and are subject to non-response bias and underreporting. Further, most do not include illegal income sources that may be relevant to drug-using populations. Methods We explored the reliability and validity of an 18-item material resource scale and describe correlates of adequate resources among 1593 current, former and non-drug users recruited in New York City. Reliability was determined using coefficient ?, ?h, and factor analysis. Criterion validity was explored by comparing item and mean scores by income and income source using ANOVA; content validity analyses compared scores by drug use. Multiple linear regression was used to describe correlates of adequate resources. Results The coefficient ? and ?h for the overall scale were 0.91 and 0.68, respectively, suggesting reliability was at least adequate. Legal income >$5000 (vs. ? $5000) and formal (vs. informal) income sources were associated with more resources, supporting criterion validity. We observed decreasing resources with increasing drug use severity, supporting construct validity. Three factors were identified: basic needs, economic resources and services. Many did not have their basic needs met and few had adequate economic resources. Correlates of adequate material resources included race/ethnicity, income, income source, and homelessness. Conclusions The 18-item material resource scale demonstrated reliability and validity among drug users. These data provide a different view of poverty, one that details specific challenges faced by low-income communities.

Ompad, Danielle C.; Nandi, Vijay; Cerda, Magdalena; Crawford, Natalie; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

2011-01-01

82

Recruitment, retention, and compliance results from a probability study of children's environmental health in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods.  

PubMed Central

The School Health Initiative: Environment, Learning, and Disease (SHIELD) study used a probability sample of children (second through fifth grades) from two low-income and racially mixed neighborhoods of Minneapolis, Minnesota, to assess childhood environmental health. Children were eligible to participate in SHIELD regardless of whether they or their families spoke a foreign language, their household had a telephone, or they were enrolled in a special education program. The overall enrollment rate in year 1 was 57%, with a substantial disparity between children from English-speaking (42%) versus non-English-speaking (71%) families. At the end of year 1, 85% were retained in the study. A relatively high percentage of children provided the two requested blood (82%) and urine (86%) samples in year 1, and 90% provided a valid spirometry sample. Eighty-two percent provided both requested volatile organic chemical badge samples, and both time-activity logs were obtained from 66%. However, only 32% provided both peak flow measurements. All percentages increased for those participating in the second year of the study. Results indicate that a school-based research design makes it feasible and practical to conduct probability-based assessments of children's environmental health in economically disadvantaged and ethnically diverse neighborhoods. There is an ongoing need, however, to improve understanding of the cultural, economic, psychologic, and social determinants of study participation among this population.

Sexton, Ken; Adgate, John L; Church, Timothy R; Greaves, Ian A; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Fredrickson, Ann L; Geisser, Mindy S; Ryan, Andrew D

2003-01-01

83

A Longitudinal Study of Chinese Cultural Beliefs about Adversity, Psychological Well-Being, Delinquency and Substance Abuse in Chinese Adolescents with Economic Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This longitudinal study examines the relationships between Chinese cultural beliefs about adversity and psychological well-being and problem behavior in 199 Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage. Results showed that endorsement of Chinese cultural beliefs about adversity was concurrently related to measures of adolescent psychological…

Shek, Daniel T. L.

2005-01-01

84

Evaluating the Employment Impact of Business Incentive Programs in EU Disadvantaged Areas. A case from Northern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business incentive programs have been increasingly popular within the EU as regional economic development tools to promote employment growth in areas with severely distressed and\\/or declining socio-economic conditions. Reliable evidenced on the effective net employment impact of such initiatives are greatly needed to help refining future intervention as, to these days, European policy makers' decisions can mostly be supported only

Daniele Bondonio

2002-01-01

85

Validity and Reliability of a Dietary Stages of Change Measure Among Economically Disadvantaged African-American Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the construct validity and 2-month test-retest reliability of a staging measure for assessing readiness to consume five or more daily servings of fruits and vegetables among economically disadvantaged African-American adolescents. Design Longitudinal survey. Setting Youth services agencies serving low-income communities in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Subjects African-American adolescents (N = 390) aged 11 to 14 years. Measures Self-report measures of stage of change and fruit and vegetable consumption. Analysis Correlation analysis and analysis of covariance were used to examine, cross-sectionally, whether fruit and vegetable consumption differed by stage of change (validity assessment). Correlation analysis and Cohen's kappa (?) were used to assess the degree of association and level of agreement between stages longitudinally (test-retest reliability assessment). Results Fruit and vegetable consumption was moderately correlated with stage of change (r ? .54, p = .000). Consistent with the transtheoretical model, youths’ consumption increased from earlier to later stages (p = .000). Forty-six percent of youths were in the same stage at both measurements. The correlation between stages was .26, and Cohen's ? was .20 (p = .000). Conclusions Despite preliminary evidence of construct validity, the low test-retest reliability found suggests that further research and testing are needed to improve the stability of the measure.

Di Noia, Jennifer; Mauriello, Leanne; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Thompson, Debbe

2013-01-01

86

Examining Alternative Measures of Social Disadvantage Among Asian Americans: The Relevance of Economic Opportunity, Subjective Social Status, and Financial Strain for Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socioeconomic position is often operationalized as education, occupation, and income. However, these measures may not fully\\u000a capture the process of socioeconomic disadvantage that may be related to morbidity. Economic opportunity, subjective social\\u000a status, and financial strain may also place individuals at risk for poor health outcomes. Data come from the Asian subsample\\u000a of the 2003 National Latino and Asian American

A. B. de Castro; Gilbert C. Gee; David T. Takeuchi

2010-01-01

87

'If the Food Looks Dodgy I Dinnae Eat It': Teenagers' Accounts of Food and Eating Practices in Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how young teenagers living in socio-economically disadvantaged families perceive everyday food and eating practices within the home. From in-depth interviews with 36 Scottish teenagers aged 13-14 years, we analysed teenagers\\\\' accounts of contemporary \\\\'family meals\\\\'. We found that food and eating practices were negotiated amidst complex family arrangements with extended, resident and non-resident kin. Parents were often

Wendy J. Wills; Kathryn Backett-Milburn; Sue Gregory; Julia Lawton

2008-01-01

88

INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO PREPARING HOME ECONOMICS LEADERS FOR EMERGING PROGRAMS SERVING DISADVANTAGED YOUTH AND ADULTS. FINAL REPORT, APPENDIX C.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SIXTY-FIVE SELECTIONS, IN NOTE OR OUTLINE FORM, FROM PRESENTATIONS BY CONSULTANTS AIDING IN PREPARING LEADERS FOR EMERGING PROGRAMS SERVING THE DISADVANTAGED ARE INCLUDED IN THIS APPENDIX. THE SUBJECT MATTER RANGES FROM SPECIFIC TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING SUCH SKILLS AS READING TO GENERAL INFORMATION SUCH AS BASIC UNDERSTANDINGS NECESSARY FOR…

GARRETT, PAULINE GILLETTE

89

Work in a World of High Technology: Problems and Prospects for Economically Disadvantaged Workers. State-of-the-Art Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to analyze the changing nature of work in today's economy and to investigate employment problems and mobility opportunities for disadvantaged workers. Principal dimensions of employment opportunities in the "old economy" of the 1950s and 1960s are highlighted, and the impact of the emergence of the "new economy" on the…

Noyelle, Thierry J.

90

Protected Area Economics and Policy: Linking Conservation and Sustainable Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Economic and Policy Issues in Natural Habitats and Protected Areas; Conservation, Protected Areas, and the Global Economic System: How Debt, Trade, Exchange Rates, Inflation, and Macroeconomic Policy Affect Biological Diversity; Conservation in ...

M. Munasinghe J. A. McNeely

1994-01-01

91

A quantitative nutritional evaluation of a healthy eating intervention in primary school children in a socioeconomically disadvantaged area - A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To perform a pilot study that evaluates the nutritional and dietary habits of primary school children in a socioeconomically disadvantaged area prior to and following a healthy eating intervention programme.Design A quantitative study whereby the food intakes of 20 boys and 20 girls aged 8 to 9 years old were recorded for five days prior to, and for five

Niamh OBrien; Caroline Roe; Sue Reeves

2002-01-01

92

Economic Development for Small Communities and Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is designed to provide an introductory understanding of challenges, goals, processes, and procedures for economic developers, particularly economic development volunteers, in rural areas and small towns. Chapter 1 defines economic development and basic terms. Chapter 2 describes major economic, social, and demographic trends that…

Phillips, Phillip D.

93

Incentives as connectors: insights into a breastfeeding incentive intervention in a disadvantaged area of North-West England  

PubMed Central

Background Incentive or reward schemes are becoming increasingly popular to motivate healthy lifestyle behaviours. In this paper, insights from a qualitative and descriptive study to investigate the uptake, impact and meanings of a breastfeeding incentive intervention integrated into an existing peer support programme (Star Buddies) are reported. The Star Buddies service employs breastfeeding peer supporters to support women across the ante-natal, intra-partum and post-partum period. Methods In a disadvantaged area of North West England, women initiating breastfeeding were recruited by peer supporters on the postnatal ward or soon after hospital discharge to participate in an 8 week incentive (gifts and vouchers) and breastfeeding peer supporter intervention. In-depth interviews were conducted with 26 women participants who engaged with the incentive intervention, and a focus group was held with the 4 community peer supporters who delivered the intervention. Descriptive analysis of routinely collected data for peer supporter contacts and breastfeeding outcomes before and after the incentive intervention triangulated and retrospectively provided the context for the qualitative thematic analysis. Results A global theme emerged of 'incentives as connectors', with two sub-themes of 'facilitating connections' and 'facilitating relationships and wellbeing'. The incentives were linked to discussion themes and gift giving facilitated peer supporter access for proactive weekly home visits to support women. Regular face to face contacts enabled meaningful relationships and new connections within and between the women, families, peer supporters and care providers to be formed and sustained. Participants in the incentive scheme received more home visits and total contact time with peer supporters compared to women before the incentive intervention. Full participation levels and breastfeeding rates at 6-8 weeks were similar for women before and after the incentive intervention. Conclusion The findings suggest that whilst the provision of incentives might not influence women's intentions or motivations to breastfeed, the connections forged provided psycho-social benefits for both programme users and peer supporters.

2012-01-01

94

Economic Development Policies and Programs for the Muskegon County Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report outlines a broad economic development program for Muskegon County, Michigan, and the surrounding area. It encompasses a theoretical and empirical analysis of the present economic status and future opportunities, an overall three-staged developm...

J. R. Sheaffer H. Bonus K. Cypra

1970-01-01

95

Regional Economic Input and Small Area Economic Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research was to provide forecasts of the variables necessary to determine possible future levels of regional wood utilization for the TVA region. Second, the research was extended to subregional areas where the impacts that could res...

C. E. Bohac

1984-01-01

96

It Doesn't Happen Here: Eating Disorders in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Economically Disadvantaged, Urban College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulk of eating disorder studies have focused on white, middle-upper class women, excluding ethnically and economically diverse women and men. Accordingly, our knowledge of prevalence rates and risk factors is reliant on this narrow literature. To expand upon the current literature, we examined eating disorders in ethnically diverse low-income, urban college students. We surveyed 884 incoming freshmen during an

Katie Gentile; Chitra Raghavan; Valli Rajah; Katie Gates

2007-01-01

97

Independent predictors of breastfeeding intention in a disadvantaged population of pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding rates in Scotland are very low, particularly in the more disadvantaged areas. Despite a number of interventions to promote breastfeeding very few women actually intend to breastfeed their baby. The aim of this study was to identify personal and social factors independently associated with intention to breastfeed. METHODS: Nine hundred and ninety seven women from two socio-economically disadvantaged

Rhona J Mclnnes; Janet G Love; David H Stone

2001-01-01

98

ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC GAPS BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL ROMANIAN AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the authors will perform a comparative analysis of the impact that the population residential areas have on the economic and social activity from Romania. Our analysis will be carried out for a time span of 10 years, between 2000 and 2009. The main purposes are to emphasize the economic gaps between the residential areas (urban and rural)

Gîdiu Valeria; Toader Valentin

2011-01-01

99

Regional economic input and small area economic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to provide forecasts of the variables necessary to determine possible future levels of regional wood utilization for the TVA region. Second, the research was extended to subregional areas where the impacts that could result from the operation of fuel alcohol plants were estimated along with the impacts of increased use of biomass for residential

Bohac

1984-01-01

100

A mixed-methods investigation to explore how women living in disadvantaged areas might be supported to improve their diets.  

PubMed

Mixed-methods explored the potential for using Sure Start Children's Centres (SSCCs) to deliver an intervention to improve the diets of disadvantaged women and their children. In an 'expert' discussion, SSCC staff described gaining women's trust, meeting needs and bringing about change as key to engaging women successfully. Structured observations in SSCCs showed they host activities in an environment conducive to building relationships and meeting women's needs. However, staff often missed opportunities to support women to make dietary changes. These data suggest that an intervention to help staff make the most of these opportunities would have the best chance of success. PMID:22044913

Lawrence, Wendy; Keyte, Jeanette; Tinati, Tannaze; Haslam, Cheryl; Baird, Janis; Margetts, Barrie; Swift, Judy; Cooper, Cyrus; Barker, Mary

2011-11-01

101

The impact of socio-economic disadvantage on rates of hospital separations for diabetes-related foot disease in Victoria, Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Information describing variation in health outcomes for individuals with diabetes related foot disease, across socioeconomic strata is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate variation in rates of hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease and the relationship with levels of social advantage and disadvantage. Methods Using the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD) each local government area (LGA) across Victoria was ranked from most to least disadvantaged. Those LGAs ranked at the lowest end of the scale and therefore at greater disadvantage (Group D) were compared with those at the highest end of the scale (Group A), in terms of total and per capita hospital separations for peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, foot ulceration, cellulitis and osteomyelitis and amputation. Hospital separations data were compiled from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Database. Results Total and per capita separations were 2,268 (75.3/1,000 with diabetes) and 2,734 (62.3/1,000 with diabetes) for Group D and Group A respectively. Most notable variation was for foot ulceration (Group D, 18.1/1,000 versus Group A, 12.7/1,000, rate ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.3, 1.6) and below knee amputation (Group D 7.4/1,000 versus Group A 4.1/1,000, rate ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.5, 2.2). Males recorded a greater overall number of hospital separations across both socioeconomic strata with 66.2% of all separations for Group D and 81.0% of all separations for Group A recorded by males. However, when comparing mean age, males from Group D tended to be younger compared with males from Group A (mean age; 53.0 years versus 68.7 years). Conclusion Variation appears to exist for hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease across socioeconomic strata. Specific strategies should be incorporated into health policy and planning to combat disparities between health outcomes and social status.

2011-01-01

102

Economic Impacts of a Wide Area Release of Anthrax  

SciTech Connect

This analysis explores economic impacts that might result from a wide-area release of anthrax. The intent is not to provide a quantitative analysis of such a disaster, but to: 1. Define the general categories of economic impacts that the region should be concerned about; and, 2. Explore what types of private sector businesses or industries, if any, may have the greatest impact on speeding the economic recovery of the region.

Judd, Kathleen S.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.

2009-05-29

103

Guam: 2002. 2002 Economic Census of Island Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data from the 2002 Economic Census of Islands Areas are published for the first time on the basis of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). NAICS replaces the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) System used in 1997 and earlier cen...

2005-01-01

104

Urban Places in Nonmetro Areas: Historic Preservation and Economic Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Urban places during the 20th century faced economic forces causing the decline of their downtowns. Historic preservation, as part of a broader framework, is used for the redevelopment of the urban places' central business districts in nonmetro areas. Whil...

P. L. Stenberg

1995-01-01

105

An Examination of the First/Second-Grade Form of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance: Factor Structure and Stability by Grade and Gender across Groups of Economically Disadvantaged Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We tested the structure of the Pictorial Scale of Competence and Social Acceptance (PSPCSA) across groups of first and second grade children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. We used confirmatory factor analysis, including latent mean structures analysis, to test the fit of competing PSPCSA factor models and examined invariance across…

French, Brian F.; Mantzicopoulos, Panayota

2007-01-01

106

An Examination of the First/Second-Grade Form of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance: Factor Structure and Stability by Grade and Gender across Groups of Economically Disadvantaged Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested the structure of the Pictorial Scale of Competence and Social Acceptance (PSPCSA) across groups of first and second grade children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. We used confirmatory factor analysis, including latent mean structures analysis, to test the fit of competing PSPCSA factor models and examined invariance across…

French, Brian F.; Mantzicopoulos, Panayota

2007-01-01

107

Can we disentangle life course processes of accumulation, critical period and social mobility? An analysis of disadvantaged socio-economic positions and myocardial infarction in the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation hypothesis would propose that the longer the duration of exposure to disadvantaged socio-economic position, the greater the risk of myocardial infarction. However there may be a danger of confounding between accumulation and possibly more complex combinations of critical periods of exposure and social mobility. The objective of this paper is to investigate the possibility of distinguishing between these

Johan Hallqvist; John Lynch; Mel Bartley; Thierry Lang; David Blane

2004-01-01

108

Individual, social and environmental factors influencing physical activity levels and behaviours of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged urban mothers in Canada: A mixed methods approach  

PubMed Central

Background Existing data provide little insight into the physical activity context of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged mothers in Canada. Our primary objectives were: (1) to use focus group methodology to develop tools to identify the individual, social, and environmental factors influencing utilitarian and leisure time physical activities (LTPA) of multiethnic SED mothers; and (2) to use a women specific physical activity survey tool to assess psychosocial barriers and supports and to quantify individual physical activity (PA) levels of multi-ethnic SED mothers in Canada. Methods Qualitative focus group sessions were conducted in West, Central and Eastern Canada with multiethnic SED mothers (n?=?6 focus groups; n?=?42 SED mothers) and with health and recreation professionals (HRPs) (n?=?5 focus groups; n?=?25 HRPs) involved in community PA programming for multiethnic SED mothers. Administration of the women specific Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) tool was completed by consenting SED mothers (n?=?59). Results More than half of SED mothers were employed and had higher total PA scores with occupation included than unemployed mothers. However, nearly 60% of both groups were overweight or obese. Barriers to LTPA included the lack of available, affordable and accessible LTPA programs that responded to cultural and social needs. Concerns for safety, nonsupportive cultural and social norms and the winter climate were identified as key barriers to both utilitarian and LTPA. Conclusions Findings show that multiethnic SED mothers experience many barriers to utilitarian and LTPA opportunities within their communities. The varying LTPA levels among these multi-ethnic SED mothers and the occurrence of overweight and obesity suggests that current LTPA programs are likely insufficient to maintain healthy body weights.

2012-01-01

109

Financial institutions in disadvantaged areas: a comparative analysis of policies encouraging financial inclusion in Britain and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper compares British and US government policy initiatives to combat financial exclusion and promote community reinvestment. Financial exclusion, a general term for those who lack financial products, is concentrated in a small number of deprived urban areas in larger cities that are also starved of private sector investment. British policies, though they have drawn on US experience, predominantly treat

J Neill Marshall

2004-01-01

110

Remarks on Successful Economic Development Programs in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rural economic development depends on implementation of strategies that capture the competitive edge of the total rural environment. It will not succeed by weak duplication of traditional urban development strategies. The historic dependence on the natural resource base that is the common denominator for rural areas must be regarded not as a…

Thomas, Margaret G.

111

FCC Auction: The Phase II 220 MHz Service Auction Nationwide, Economic Area, and Economic Area Group Licenses. Bidder Information Package, September 15, 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Auction Highlights: Auction of the Phase II 220 MHz Service Licenses 908 Licenses Consisting of Economic Area (EA), Economic Area Grouping (EAG), and Nationwide Licenses; Simultaneous Multiple Round Auction; Bidder Eligibility Requirements.

1998-01-01

112

Strategies for Educating Gifted, Disadvantaged Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Disadvantaged youth should not be penalized for their economic status or stereotyped as unintelligent. Despite schools' best intentions, poor youngsters are underrepresented in gifted and talented education programs. This article shows what administrators and communities can do to ensure that highly able disadvantaged youth are included in…

Cavazos, Lauro F.

1990-01-01

113

The Relations between Cluster Indexes of Risk and Promotion and the Problem Behaviors of 6- and 7-Year-Old Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relations between alternative representations of poverty cofactors and promotion processes, and problem behaviors of 6- and 7-year-olds from disadvantaged families. Found that single-index risk representations and promotion variables predicted aggression but not anxiety/depression. An additive model of individual risk indicators performed…

Ackerman, Brian P.; Schoff, Kristen; Levinson, Karen; Youngstrom, Eric; Izard, Carroll E.

1999-01-01

114

Politics and patriarchy: barriers to health screening for socially disadvantaged women.  

PubMed

Health screening and early detection of cancer results in significantly better health outcomes and lower mortality. However barriers to such screening are multiple and complex. This paper specifically addresses barriers to women's health screening for socially disadvantaged women in an economically and service disadvantaged area. In this qualitative study, women's healthcare workers and consumers of women's health screening were interviewed and data related to issues for women who had special needs were analysed. Findings indicate there is a lack of access to appropriate services for socially disadvantaged women which affects their screening uptake rates. This study also highlights the difficulties socially disadvantaged women encountered when they were able to access these services which also influenced their decisions regarding subsequent health screening. Implications for nurses and other healthcare professionals are manifold and include advocating for greater access to services and more sensitive care in the delivery of health screening services for socially disadvantaged women. PMID:23181371

Peters, Kathleen

2012-10-01

115

Special Counseling for the Disadvantaged Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to aid teachers and administrators who have not had special training in counseling and who are working in educational programs for the disadvantaged adult. Subject areas discussed are: The Counselor and the Client (Duties of the Counselor; Areas of Assistance for the Client); Who Are the Disadvantaged (Characteristics of the…

Kaple, Donald J.; Kaple, Marion Keeler

116

Effects of Work Incentive Policies and Determinants of the Socioeconomic Status of Welfare Leavers in an Economically Disadvantaged Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores how work incentive policies influence the socioeconomic status of welfare leavers. Logistic and ordinal regression methods were used to analyze 1999 statewide survey data on West Virginia WORKS leavers. This study found that people who had more months of eligibility remaining for TANF were more likely to have jobs than those with fewer months of eligibility. People

Kyoung Hag Lee

2006-01-01

117

Discussion of Relevance of BEA Areas to the Economic Development Administration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper will introduce the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) area framework and discuss the ways in which it contributes to the analysis of subnational economic development and will further show that BEA areas provide a desirable spatial unit suitable ...

C. E. Snead

1976-01-01

118

Process evaluation for the FEeding Support Team (FEST) randomised controlled feasibility trial of proactive and reactive telephone support for breastfeeding women living in disadvantaged areas  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the feasibility, acceptability and fidelity of a feeding team intervention with an embedded randomised controlled trial of team-initiated (proactive) and woman-initiated (reactive) telephone support after hospital discharge. Design Participatory approach to the design and implementation of a pilot trial embedded within a before-and-after study, with mixed-method process evaluation. Setting A postnatal ward in Scotland. Sample Women initiating breast feeding and living in disadvantaged areas. Methods Quantitative data: telephone call log and workload diaries. Qualitative data: interviews with women (n=40) with follow-up (n=11) and staff (n=17); ward observations 2?weeks before and after the intervention; recorded telephone calls (n=16) and steering group meetings (n=9); trial case notes (n=69); open question in a telephone interview (n=372). The Framework approach to analysis was applied to mixed-method data. Main outcome measures Quantitative: telephone call characteristics (number, frequency, duration); workload activity. Qualitative: experiences and perspectives of women and staff. Results A median of eight proactive calls per woman (n=35) with a median duration of 5?min occurred in the 14?days following hospital discharge. Only one of 34 control women initiated a call to the feeding team, with women undervaluing their own needs compared to others, and breast feeding as a reason to call. Proactive calls providing continuity of care increased women's confidence and were highly valued. Data demonstrated intervention fidelity for woman-centred care; however, observing an entire breast feed was not well implemented due to short hospital stays, ward routines and staff–team–woman communication issues. Staff pragmatically recognised that dedicated feeding teams help meet women's breastfeeding support needs in the context of overstretched and variable postnatal services. Conclusions Implementing and integrating the FEeding Support Team (FEST) trial within routine postnatal care was feasible and acceptable to women and staff from a research and practice perspective and shows promise for addressing health inequalities. Trial registration ISRCTN27207603. The study protocol and final report is available on request.

Craig, Leone; MacLennan, Graeme; Boyers, Dwayne; Vale, Luke

2012-01-01

119

Risk behaviors of 15-21 year olds in Mexico lead to a high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections: results of a survey in disadvantaged urban areas  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the fact that adolescents are more likely to participate in high-risk behaviors, this sector of the population is particularly vulnerable to contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and resultant health problems. Methods A survey was carried out among adolescents from poor homes in 204 small-urban areas of Mexico. Information was collected in relation to risk behaviors and socio-economic environment. A sub-group of the participants also provided blood and urine samples which were analyzed to detect sexually transmitted infections. Results The presence of Chlamydia was detected in nearly 8% of participants who had stated that they were sexually active (18%) and approximately 12% were positive for herpes type 2-specific antibodies. For both, a greater proportion of girls resulted positive compared to boys. The presence of these biological outcomes of sexual risk behavior was associated with other risk behaviors (smoking), but not with self-reported indicators of protected sex (reported use of condom during most recent sexual activity). Conclusion The results presented in this study show a startlingly high prevalence of HSV-2 among sexually active Mexican adolescents in poor urban areas, suggesting that this group has participated to a great extent in risky sexual practices. The relationships between socioeconomic environment and adolescent risk behavior need to be better understood if we are to design preventive interventions that modify the determinants of risk behaviors.

Gutierrez, Juan-Pablo; Bertozzi, Stefano M; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Sanchez-Aleman, Miguel-Angel

2006-01-01

120

Local decentralization and local economic growth: A cross-sectional examination of US metropolitan areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper builds on the growing empirical literature that explores the relationship between government structure and economic growth. It uses a new data set of 314 US metropolitan areas to examine the relationship between local decentralization and local economic growth. The results indicate a negative relationship between the central-city share of metro area population and economic growth and a positive

Dean Stansel

2005-01-01

121

Measuring the Determinants of Relative Economic Performance of Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the determinants of economic performance of 149 English rural Local Authority Districts (LADs). A Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) estimation procedure was employed to jointly determine the influence of a wide range of indicators representing economic, human, cultural and environmental capital, as well as less tangible or…

Agarwal, Sheela; Rahman, Sanzidur; Errington, Andrew

2009-01-01

122

New Mexico: 2002 Economic Census. Educational Services, Geographic Area Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. The economic census furnishes an important part of the framework for such composite measures as the gross domestic product estimates,…

US Department of Commerce, 2005

2005-01-01

123

Higher Education, the Health Care Industry, and Metropolitan Regional Economic Development: What Can “Eds & Meds” Do for the Economic Fortunes of a Metro Area’s Residents?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effects of expansions in higher educational institutions and the medical service industry on the economic development of a metropolitan area. This examination pulls together previous research and provides some new empirical evidence. We provide quantitative evidence of the magnitude of economic effects of higher education and medical service industries that occur through the mechanism of providing

Timothy J. Bartik; George A. Erickcek

2007-01-01

124

Economic Census 2002: Nebraska. Finance and Insurance. Geographic Area Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. Title 13 of the United States Code (Sections 131, 1...

2005-01-01

125

Economic Census 2002: Florida. Finance and Insurance. Geographic Area Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. Title 13 of the United States Code (Sections 131, 1...

2005-01-01

126

Reconnecting Disadvantaged Young Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By several recent counts, the United States is home to 2 to 3 million youth age 16 through 24 who are out of school and out of work. Much has been written on disadvantaged youth, and government policy has gone through many incarnations, yet questions remain unanswered. Why are so many young people "disconnected," and what can public policy do…

Holzer, Harry; Edelman, Peter; Offner, Paul

2006-01-01

127

Reconnecting Disadvantaged Young Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|By several recent counts, the United States is home to 2 to 3 million youth age 16 through 24 who are out of school and out of work. Much has been written on disadvantaged youth, and government policy has gone through many incarnations, yet questions remain unanswered. Why are so many young people "disconnected," and what can public policy do…

Holzer, Harry; Edelman, Peter; Offner, Paul

2006-01-01

128

Behavioral economics: areas of cooperative research between economics and applied behavioral analysis1  

PubMed Central

The current research methods of behavioral economics are characterized by inadequate empirical foundations. Psychologists involved in the experimental analysis of behavior with their research strategies and their experimental technology, particularly that of the Token Economy, can assist in providing empirical foundations for behavioral economics. Cooperative research between economists and psychologists to this end should be immediately fruitful and mutually beneficial.

Kagel, John H.; Winkler, Robin C.

1972-01-01

129

Coordination Risk and Cost Impacts on Economic Development in Poor Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses issues relevant to a critical problem in economic development: how to get rapid pro-poor economic growth in poor rural areas in Africa and South Asia where most of the world's dollar a day poor live. It examines constraints to the development of coordinated exchange systems in poor rural areas, focusing on the core problem of thin markets

Andrew Dorward; Jonathan Kydd; Colin Poulton; Dirk Bezemer

2009-01-01

130

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: Ohio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

131

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: Alabama  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

132

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: Tennessee  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

133

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: North Carolina  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

134

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: West Virginia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

135

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: Georgia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

136

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: South Carolina  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

137

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: Mississippi  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

138

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: Kentucky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

139

Working Adolescents in Economically Depressed Areas of Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed labour participation among 12- through 17-year-olds. A total of 283 females and 330 males from two economically depressed regions of Canada completed a survey which assessed the amount and type of labour participation, time spent in other activities, importance given academic achievement, employment, and time with friends and family, and attitudes toward substance use, school, and ethical employment

KATHERINE COVELL; R. BRIAN HOWE

1999-01-01

140

Research trends in nanotechnology studies across geo-economic areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current temporal and spatial research trajectories in nanoscience and nanotechnology studies in order to display the worldwide patterns of research fields across main economic players. The results show the leadership of Europe and North America in nanotechnology research, although the role of China has been growing over time. Current nanotechnology studies

Coccia Mario; Finardi Ugo; Margon Diego

2010-01-01

141

Economic Census of Island Areas 2002: American Samoa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. Title 13 of the United States Code (Sections 131, 191, and 2...

2005-01-01

142

Cycles of Discrimination: Older Women, Cumulative Disadvantages, and Retirement Consequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article identifies typical life course situations that women experience, which contribute to a cycle of discrimination or a recurrence of disadvantages simply because of their sex, race, or age. Although men suffer social, health, psychological, and economic disadvantages as they age, this article focuses primarily on women as a more deprived…

Davis, Nanette J.

2005-01-01

143

Access to Higher Education and Disadvantaged Young People  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will highlight the difficulties faced by qualified but disadvantaged young people in accessing higher education. This is an issue which has strong implications for education policy, economic efficiency and social justice. Over the past two decades, despite large increases in overall access to higher education, the gap in level of participation between the most affluent and most disadvantaged

ALASDAIR FORSYTH; ANDY FURLONG

2003-01-01

144

ECONOMIC VALUE OF PERLIS STATE PARK AS A RECREATIONAL AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valuation of protected natural areas such as national parks and state parks allows park managers to obtain information that could be used in cost benefit analysis as an aid for public sector decision making processes. The main purpose of the study is to analyse the demand for the Perlis State Park (PSP) as a recreational area. The travel cost model

A. K. Azyyati; H. M. A. Syamsul; S. Ahmad

145

Instructional Materials for Occupational Home Economics; Food Service Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials were developed by subject matter specialists at an Indiana State University workshop for teacher use when planning a cooperative occupational training program for supervised food service workers. Content areas, each printed on a different color paper, include: (1) Grooming and Public Relations, (2) Counter and Cafeteria Service, (3)…

Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis. Div. of Vocational Education.

146

Instructional Materials for Occupational Home Economics; Food Service Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Materials were developed by subject matter specialists at an Indiana State University workshop for teacher use when planning a cooperative occupational training program for supervised food service workers. Content areas, each printed on a different color paper, include: (1) Grooming and Public Relations, (2) Counter and Cafeteria Service, (3)…

Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis. Div. of Vocational Education.

147

Euro Area Debt Crisis Weighing Increasingly on Domestic Activity. Economic Outlook for 2012 and 2013  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic policy in the euro area is confronted with major challenges. Against this background it is extremely difficult to project international and domestic economic developments. The present forecast is based on highly benign assumptions concerning the resolution of the current crisis. Subject to these assumptions, Austria's GDP should grow by 0.6 percent this year and by 1.3 percent in 2013,

Marcus Scheiblecker

2012-01-01

148

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PLANNING IN THE MBASHE LOCAL MUNICIPAL AREA IN THE EASTERN CAPE: A CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planning for economic development at the local level has become increasingly important in many countries of the world. South Africa is no exception and has had the local focus entrenched through constitutional provisions for developmental local government. In this paper, the Mbashe Local Municipal area is used as a case study for an examination of the linkages between economic development

John Reynolds

149

Profiles in Rural Economic Development: A Guidebook of Selected Successful Rural Area Initiatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook presents 64 profiles of successful economic development initiatives in the small towns and rural areas of 37 states. Intended for use by rural and small town leaders and rural economic development specialists, the guide provides ideas, encouragement, and an "insider perspective" on alternative rural development strategies. Each…

Thomas, Margaret G.

150

Disadvantaged populations in maternal health in China who and why?  

PubMed Central

Background China has made impressive progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for maternal and reproductive health, but ensuring that progress reaches all segments of the population remains a challenge for policy makers. The aim of this review is to map disadvantaged populations in terms of maternal health in China, and to explain the causes of these inequities to promote policy action. Methods We searched PUBMED, Popline, Proquest and WanFang and included primary studies conducted in mainland China. Experts were also contacted to identify additional studies. Disadvantaged populations in terms of MDG 5 and the reasons for this disadvantage explored by authors were identified and coded based on the conceptual framework developed by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Results In China, differences in maternal health service utilization and the maternal mortality ratio among different income groups, and among regions with different socio-economic development still exist, although these differences are narrowing. Groups with low levels of education and ethnic minorities utilize maternal health care less frequently and experience higher maternal mortality, although we could not determine whether these differences have changed in the last decade. Rural-to-urban migrants use maternal health care and contraception to a lower extent than permanent residents of cities, and differential maternal mortality shows a widening trend among these groups. Gender inequity also contributes to the disadvantaged position of women. Intermediary factors that explain these inequities include material circumstances such as long distances to health facilities for women living in remote areas, behavioral factors such as traditional beliefs that result in reduced care seeking among ethnic minorities, and health system determinants such as out-of-pocket payments posing financial barriers for the poor. Conclusions Inequity in maternal health continues to be an issue worthy of greater programmatic and monitoring efforts in China.

Yuan, Beibei; Qian, Xu; Thomsen, Sarah

2013-01-01

151

A Novel EP Approach for Multi-area Economic Dispatch with Multiple Fuel Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel approach to multi-area economic dispatch problems with multiple fuel options using a hybrid evolutionary programming method. The objective is to minimize the operation cost of the entire system while satisfying the tie line constraints. In this paper, EP-LMO (Evolutionary Programming with Levenberg-Marquardt Optimization) technique is proposed to solve multi-area economic dispatch problems with multiple fuel

P. S. MANOHARAN; P. S. KANNAN; V. RAMANATHAN

2009-01-01

152

Wareships provide economical supply base alternative for remote area drilling  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the three basic support-supply systems available to an operator when drilling offshore in remote, undeveloped areas of the world. These are: operate from a far distant port; construct one's own shore base; use a wareship. Each of these alternatives are discussed in detail, reviewing the various facets of support logistics for various cases. A cost comparison of the three alternatives for a typical one well and two well program are given. Some examples of Amoco Production Company's experience using wareships are discussed and advantages, other than cost, are listed.

Williams, L.M.; Harrington, J.P.

1984-02-01

153

Economic growth analysis system (E-GAS) for EPA region 1 - northeast area (for microcomputers). Software  

SciTech Connect

The E - Gas modeling system is a forecast model used to predict National and regional economic activity in order to estimate attainment of ozone and photochemical air quality standards. Since growth in source emissions largely depends on the amount of economic activity growth in an area, a consistent set of growth factors requires forecasts using consistent Gross National Product (GNP) forecasts and a consistent methodology for estimating economic activity in Urban Airshed Model (UAM) and Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) modeling regions. The need for consistent economic growth facts, however, must be satisfied in a way that allows States to use their own estimates of National and regional economic activity. The Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) is an economic and activity forecast model which satisfies both of these standards. The E-GAS modeling system contains three tiers. The first tier includes available national economic forecasts which are used to drive the regional economic models. The second tier includes regional economic models for the UAM modeling areas, as well as the States in the ROM modeling regions. The third tier estimates fuel consumption, physical output, and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) based on the second tier`s regional economic forecasts. The tiers must be sequentially executed, since data are created by and passed from early tiers for transfers to later tiers. The three-tiered structure of E-GAS allows users flexibility in modeling. Although a tier must be run before preceding to later tiers, the system allows the models to be rerun at the user`s discretion. For example, users may run the National model using either BLS or WEFA forecasts before performing regional modeling on the last national model run. E-GAS is designed such that growth factor projection scenarios for each nonattainment area and attainment portion of States can be made using a common assumption about future U.S. economic activity.

NONE

1994-12-31

154

Preschool Child Development Program (Head Start) in Disadvantaged Areas of New York City-Summer 1967. Evaluation of New York City Title I Educational Projects 1966-67.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This program evaluation of the 1967 summer Head Start Program examines data in these areas: (1) program functioning; (2) student gains and school readiness; (3) parent involvement; and (4) ancillary services. The report evaluates 720 classrooms which contained 23,000 children and utilized 51 supervisors, 260 head teachers, 728 group teachers, and…

Chaplan, Abraham A.; Platoff, Joan

155

A Task Ordering Agreement for the Evaluation of the Area Resource File (ARF) for Utility in Health Planning for the Disadvantages. Volume II. Listing of Secondary Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A listing of secondary data sources identified by respondents to a survey concerning the value of the Area Resource File (ARF) to health planners is provided. The study was based on the assumption that health planners' accessibility to relevant and timely...

1975-01-01

156

Technology and the Education of the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To use devices aimed at combating our major educational problems with the disadvantaged, we need criteria based upon learning theory which will reveal for each of the types of media their competetively established efficiency. In the meantime, in the areas of greatest educational need, we need technology that involves many senses; permits the…

Martin, John Henry

157

Inner City Disadvantaged and the Metropolitan Bind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay on education for the poor who live in urban areas is discussed how the problems of large cities relate to the educational experience of disadvantaged children. The inter-related development of middle-class suburbs, blue-collar neighborhoods, and the central city are analyzed. The basic argument is that segregation and fragmentation…

Levine, Daniel U.

158

A GENERAL TECHNICIAN PROGRAM FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A 2-YEAR GENERAL TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM HAS BEEN PLANNED BY RUTGERS UNIVERSITY AND THE NEWARK SCHOOL SYSTEM AS A MEANS OF PREPARING DISADVANTAGED YOUTH TO ENTER GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT AND ENHANCE THEIR OPPORTUNITY TO IMPROVE THEIR STATION IN LIFE. THE STUDENTS WILL BE DEPRIVED AREA YOUTH WHO ARE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES OR THE EQUIVALENT, GENERALLY FROM THE…

GILLIE, ANGELO C.

159

[Mammography screening--advantages and disadvantages].  

PubMed

Mammography screening involves advantages as well as disadvantages. Intensive research in this area is being carried out both internationally and in Denmark. As mammography screening becomes nationwide in Denmark in 2007, it is crucial to closely monitor the advantages as well as the disadvantages, their extent and the possibility of optimizing the balance between them. The effect of a screening programme on breast cancer mortality is not likely to be evident until several years after starting the programme, and it is necessary to define process indicators for close monitoring of the programme. PMID:17953873

Olsen, Anne Helene; Schwartz, Walter; Vejborg, Ilse M M

2007-09-01

160

Public Health Problems in Low and High Socio Economic Areas of Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite many media campaigns by government and private sectors highlighting, water and sanitation treat- ment plans and policies, the public health problems are still common in different socioeconomic areas. The objective of our study was to explore the major public health problems prevailing in two different socio economic areas in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted

HA Qazi; J Ahmed Soomro; A Hashmi; M Hafeez Qadri; F Rasheed; M Tariq Karim

161

The use of economic valuation to create public support for green infrastructure investments in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing urbanization has created pressure on land use. Today more and more land in urbanized areas is used for housing, industry, community services or other economic functions. However, green spaces have a proven positive effect on people living in the neighborhood of green spaces, as well as on people working or recreating in the urbanized area. Therefore, green infrastructure investments

Valerie Vandermeulen; Ann Verspecht; Bert Vermeire; Guido Van Huylenbroeck; Xavier Gellynck

2011-01-01

162

Multiple Generation Disadvantage: How Communities Affect the Outcomes of Different Generations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intergenerational disadvantage has been defined as “disadvantage induced by the attitudes, social circumstances or economic limitations of a person’s parents’ (Vinson, 2009,P. 1). This disadvantage could be in terms of poverty, labour force, or lack of access to opportunities that other children may have. One of the limitations of this concept is that it only takes into account direct family,

Robert Tanton; Honge Gong; Ann Harding

2011-01-01

163

Area-level socio-economic status and health status among adults with asthma and rhinitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socio-economic status (SES) may affect health status in airway disease at the individual and area level. In a cohort of adults with asthma, rhinitis or both conditions, questionnaire-derived individual- level SES and principal components analysis (PCA) of census data for area-level SES factors were used. Regression analysis was utilised to study the associations among individual- and area-level SES for the

P. D. Blanc; I. H. Yen; H. Chen; P. P. Katz; G. Earnest; J. R. Balmes; L. Trupin; N. Friedling; E. H. Yelin; M. D. Eisner

2006-01-01

164

13 CFR 123.600 - Are economic injury disaster loans under this subpart limited to the geographic areas contiguous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Economic Injury Disaster Loans as a Result of the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks § 123.600 Are economic injury disaster loans under this subpart limited to the geographic areas...

2009-01-01

165

Infrastructure for Reaching Disadvantaged Consumers  

PubMed Central

Both consumers and health service providers need access to up-to-date information, including patient and practice guidelines, that allows them to make decisions in partnership about individual and public health in line with the primary health care model of health service delivery. Only then is it possible for patient preferences to be considered while the health of the general population is improved. The Commonwealth Government of Australia has allocated $250 million over five years, starting July 1, 1997, to support activities and projects designed to meet a range of telecommunication needs in regional, rural, and remote Australia. This paper defines rural and remote communities, then reviews rural and remote health services, information, and telecommunication technology infrastructures and their use in Australia to establish the current state of access to information tools by rural and remote communities and rural health workers in Australia today. It is argued that a suitable telecommunication infrastructure is needed to reach disadvantaged persons in extremely remote areas and that intersectoral support is essential to build this infrastructure. In addition, education will make its utilization possible.

Hovenga, Evelyn J. S.; Hovel, Joe; Klotz, Jeanette; Robins, Patricia

1998-01-01

166

An Exploratory Study of Changes in Economic Conditions and Teacher Salaries in Metropolitan Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Encompassing the years between 1969 and 1979, this study of 18 standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSAs) attempted to determine if changes in selected economic indicators were correlated with changes in teacher salaries. Researchers looked at changes in consumer price indices, per capita personal income, and average beginning teachers'…

Matthews, Kenneth M.

167

Economic evaluation of bovine brucellosis and tuberculosis eradication programmes in a mountain area of Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied social cost-benefit analysis to the economic evaluation of the bovine brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis eradication programmes carried out by the public eradication authority for mountain areas in the Spanish Central Pyrenees. We considered only the effects on animal health and production. We also evaluated several hypotheses corresponding to the different sanitary situations of two valleys studied.The results were

A. Bernués; E. Manrique; M. T. Maza

1997-01-01

168

The economic feasibility of small solar MED seawater desalination plants for remote arid areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to compare the economics of using solar energy to operate small multiple effect seawater distillation systems in remote areas with the conventional method of using fossil fuels. The particular multiple effect system used is an advanced horizontal tube, falling film system called “multiple effect stack”, MES, in which the pumping energy requirement is relatively

Ali M. El-Nashar

2001-01-01

169

Evolutionary dynamics and scientific flows of nanotechnology research across geo-economic areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to analyze, by concentration measures, metrics of dispersion and heterogeneity, the dynamics of the production of scientific output in nanosciences and nanotechnologies across worldwide economic players. The main result is that the concentration ratio of the production of nanotechnology research across different macro subject areas has been reducing over time and space, because knowledge

Coccia Mario

2011-01-01

170

Clothing and Related Areas--Grades 9-12. Home Economics Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|GRADES OR AGES: 9-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Home economics; clothing and related areas. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide provides for four semesters with special provision for high school boys and adults. There are six main sections: 1) basic clothing and grooming for the teenager; 2) clothing construction and consumer education for the…

Edwards, Marguerite; And Others

171

THE READING OF THE CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|ASPECTS OF READING RELATED TO CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED ADULTS AND CHILDREN ARE SURVEYED. THE MAIN TOPICS OF DISCUSSION BASED ON RESEARCH AND LITERATURE ARE READING ABILITY OF DISADVANTAGED ADULTS, READING ABILITY OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN, CAUSES OF READING PROBLEMS AMONT THE DISADVANTAGED, READING INTERESTS, LIBRARY USE BY DISADVANTAGED ADULTS,…

MCCROSSAN, JOHN

172

Matrix Organizations: Overcoming the Disadvantages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper a background on the matrix management organizational structure. The author identifies typical disadvantages of the matrix organization with the focus on project and functional managers, functional experts, and project teams. Various techniques ...

H. E. Berg

1984-01-01

173

Effects of Employment-Based Programs on Families by Prior Levels of Disadvantage  

PubMed Central

This study examines how welfare and employment policies affect subpopulations of low-income families that have different levels of initial disadvantage. Education, prior earnings, and welfare receipt are used to measure disadvantage. The analysis of data from experiments suggests that employment-based programs have no effects on economic well-being among the least-disadvantaged low-income, single-parent families, but they have positive effects on employment and income for the most-disadvantaged and moderately disadvantaged families. These programs increase school achievement and enrollment in center-based child care of children only in moderately disadvantaged families. The most-disadvantaged families are found to increase use of child care that is not center based. Parents in these families experience depressive symptoms and aggravation. The findings raise questions about how to support families at the lowest end of the economic spectrum.

Alderson, Desiree Principe; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Imes, Amy; Huston, Aletha C.

2011-01-01

174

Global leaf trait relationships: mass, area, and the leaf economics spectrum.  

PubMed

The leaf economics spectrum (LES) describes multivariate correlations that constrain leaf traits of plant species primarily to a single axis of variation if data are normalized by leaf mass. We show that these traits are approximately distributed proportional to leaf area instead of mass, as expected for a light- and carbon dioxide-collecting organ. Much of the structure in the mass-normalized LES results from normalizing area-proportional traits by mass. Mass normalization induces strong correlations among area-proportional traits because of large variation among species in leaf mass per area (LMA). The high LMA variance likely reflects its functional relationship with leaf life span. A LES that is independent of mass- or area-normalization and LMA reveals physiological relationships that are inconsistent with those in global vegetation models designed to address climate change. PMID:23539179

Osnas, Jeanne L D; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Reich, Peter B; Pacala, Stephen W

2013-03-28

175

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Puget Sound Area, Washington) Part 1. Volume 1 of 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Puget Sound Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Puget Sound Area includes Whatcom, Skagit, Snohomish, King, Pierce, Thurston, Mason, and Kitsap counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

176

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Puget Sound Area, Washington) Part 2. Volume 1 of 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Puget Sound Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Puget Sound Area includes Whatcom, Skagit, Snohomish, King, Pierce, Thurston, Mason, and Kitsap counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

177

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Puget Sound Area, Washington). Part 1. Volume 2 of 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Puget Sound Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Puget Sound Area includes Whatcom, Skagit, Snohomish, King, Pierce, Thurston, Mason, and Kitsap counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

178

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Puget Sound Area, Washington). Part 2. Volume 2 of 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Puget Sound Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Puget Sound Area includes Whatcom, Skagit, Snohomish, King, Pierce, Thurston, Mason, and Kitsap counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

179

Recruiting and retaining postpartum women from areas of social disadvantage in a weight-loss trial--an assessment of strategies employed in the WeighWell feasibility study.  

PubMed

Little is known about the response of post-partum women from deprived backgrounds to weight management interventions, however behavioural intervention trials in disadvantaged communities are often characterised by recruitment difficulties. Recruitment and retention is key to the robust conduct of an effective trial, and exploratory work is essential prior to a definitive randomised controlled trial. This paper describes strategies used to recruit to the WeighWell feasibility study, which aimed to recruit 60 overweight or obese post-partum women living in areas of deprivation to a trial of a weight-loss intervention. Recruitment strategies included the following: (1) distribution of posters and 'business cards'; (2) newspaper advertisements; (3) visits to community groups; and (4) personalised letters of invitation sent via the National Health Service (NHS). Potential participants were screened for eligibility following response to a Freephone number. Body mass index was calculated using self-reported body weight and height. Over 6 months, 142 women responded of whom 65 (46%) met the eligibility criteria. The most effective methods for recruiting eligible women and those who went on to complete the study (n = 36) were visits to community groups (37% and 42%, respectively), personalised letters (26% and 17%, respectively) and posters and 'business cards' (22% and 31%, respectively). These results emphasise the need to utilise a range of strategies beyond traditional NHS settings. Current approaches might be enhanced by sending personal contact letters via their General Practitioner to women identified as eligible at post-natal discharge. Under-reporting of body weight by self-report suggests that a threshold lower than 25 kg/m(2) should be utilised for screening purposes. PMID:22284216

Macleod, Maureen; Craigie, Angela M; Barton, Karen L; Treweek, Shaun; Anderson, Annie S

2012-01-29

180

The Economic Benefit of Data-Communication Technology on the New York Metroplex Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to estimate the economic benefit for the New York Metroplex area of the controller-to-pilot communication standard known as Data-Communication. RAMS simulation software was first used to evaluate the potential impact of the new technology on airport operations in the three airports of LaGuardia, Newark and John F. Kennedy. The new technology would allow for

Gabriele Enea; Lucrezio Figurelli; Giovanni Osea Giuntella

2010-01-01

181

BOARDING SCHOOLS FOR THE DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|SUGGESTED IS THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PUBLIC ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY BOARDING SCHOOLS FOR URBAN DISADVANTAGED AND DISTURBED OR DELINQUENT CHILDREN. THE INSTITUTIONAL FAMILY LIFE OF RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS CAN OFFER THESE CHILDREN AN ESCAPE FROM THE DESTRUCTIVE ENVIRONMENT OF THE URBAN GHETTO. MOREOVER, URBAN SCHOOLS SHOULD INSTITUTE SUMMER PROGRAMS OUT…

CLATWORTHY, F. JAMES

182

Tactics for Teaching the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New tactics for teaching the disadvantaged must be developed which are significantly different from traditional approaches which have been used with advantaged children. Creative strategies in teaching must be developed which utilize sound teaching and learning theories and which, at the same time, are able to be continuously evaluated in a…

White, William F.

183

Against the Odds: Disadvantaged Students Who Succeed in School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report explores the factors and conditions that could help more students succeed at school despite challenging socio-economic backgrounds. It does this by studying resilient students and what sets them apart from their less successful peers. Understanding how educational systems can support disadvantaged students and help them "beat the…

OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

2011-01-01

184

COMMUNITY RESOURCES IN THE GUIDANCE OF SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

BECAUSE THE PROBLEMS OF EDUCATING SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN EXTEND FAR BEYOND CLASSROOM WALLS, GUIDANCE COUNSELORS MUST CONSIDER THE ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL FACTORS WHICH AFFECT THE LIVES OF THESE CHILDREN. IN GUIDING THE NEGRO CHILD, FOR EXAMPLE, THE COUNSELOR SHOULD BE AWARE OF THE HOUSING AND EMPLOYMENT PROBLEMS WHICH THIS CHILD'S…

FINLEY, OTIS

185

Do Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Affect Children's Verbal Skills? Evaluation Science Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Evaluation Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study evaluating the effects of an early childhood program or environment. This Brief evaluates the study "Durable Effects of Concentrated Disadvantage on Verbal Ability Among African-American Children" (R. Sampson; R. Sharkey; and S. Raudenbush.) Racial and economic

National Forum on Early Childhood Program Evaluation, 2008

2008-01-01

186

Entrepreneurship and Earnings among Young Adults from Disadvantaged Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Academicians and policymakers have argued that entrepreneurship provides a route out of poverty and an alternative to unemployment or discrimination in the labor market. Existing research, however, provides little evidence from longitudinal data on the relationship between business ownership and economic advancement for disadvantaged groups. I use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to examine the earnings

Robert W. Fairlie

2005-01-01

187

Partnering with IT to Help Disadvantaged Students Achieve Academic Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study will describe how the Stony Brook University Libraries instruction program partnered with another student support service (student computing office) to nurture a relationship with the Educational Opportunities Program (EOP) over several years to provide their students with the library research and computer skills needed to succeed in college. EOP is a state-funded program aimed at economically disadvantaged

Janet H. Clarke

2012-01-01

188

The First National Conference on the Disadvantaged Gifted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarized are 19 presentations given at the first annual National Conference on the Disadvantaged Gifted held March 24-25, 1973. Emphasized is the effect of identification procedures, program provisions, and research and evaluation on (1) economically deprived gifted students, (2) culturally different gifted students, (3) female gifted students,…

Fitzgerald, Ellen J., Ed.; And Others

189

The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response.…

Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

2013-01-01

190

Emergy evaluation and economic analysis of three wetland fish farming systems in Nansi Lake area, China.  

PubMed

Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare three fish production models, i.e., cage fish farming system, pond intensive fish rearing system and semi-natural extensive pond fish rearing system, in Nansi Lake area in China in the year 2007. The goal of this study was to understand the benefits and driving forces of selected fish production models from ecological and economic points of view. The study considered input structure, production efficiency, environmental impacts, economic viability and sustainability. Results show that the main difference among the three production systems was the emergy cost for fish feed associated with their feeding system, i.e., feeding on natural biomass such as plankton and grass or on commercial feedstock. As indicated by EYR, ELR and ESI, it can be clearly shown that the intensive production model with commercial feed is not a sustainable pattern. However, the point is that more environmentally sound patterns do not seem able to provide a competitive net profit in the short run. The intensive pond fish farming system had a net profit of 2.57E+03 $/ha, much higher than 1.27E+03 $/ha for cage fish farming system and slightly higher than 2.37E+03 $/ha for semi-natural fish farming system. With regard to the drivers of local farmer's decisions, the accessibility of land for the required use and investment ability determine the farmer's choice of the production model and the scale of operation, while other factors seem to have little effect. Theoretically, the development of environmentally sustainable production patterns, namely water and land conservation measures, greener feed as well as low waste systems is urgently needed, to keep production activities within the carrying capacity of ecosystems. Coupled emergy and economic analyses can provide better insight into the environmental and economic benefits of fish production systems and help solve the problems encountered during policy making. PMID:20970243

Zhang, L X; Ulgiati, S; Yang, Z F; Chen, B

2010-10-20

191

Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twelfth edition of this classic text has built upon the success of previous editions and has been thoroughly updated and revised to give students a deeper understanding and appreciation of the core principles of Economics. Suitable for beginners, Economics is accessible but has a rigour that will stretch readers to achieve their full potential. In-depth explanations of key theoretical

Richard G. Lipsey; Gordon R. Sparks; Peter O. Steiner

1979-01-01

192

Analysis and projection of national and regional mortality for countries of the European Economic Area.  

PubMed

"Three scenarios of future mortality trends are presented for all countries of the European Economic Area. The high scenario assumes a considerable decline in mortality rates. Consequently life expectancy at birth will continue to increase at about the same rate as during the last decades.... In the low scenario only a small decline in death rates is assumed. This scenario assumes that there will be no convergence between countries. Moreover the current differences between male and female mortality are assumed to persist." PMID:12348630

Van Hoorn, W D; De Beer, J

1998-06-01

193

Measuring social capital in a known disadvantaged urban community – health policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To assess the social capital profile of a known disadvantaged area a large cross-sectional survey was undertaken. The social capital profile of this area was compared to data from the whole of the state. The overall health status of the disadvantaged area was assessed in relation to a wide variety of social capital related variables. Univariate and multivariate analysis

Anne W Taylor; Carmel Williams; Eleonora Dal Grande; Michelle Herriot

2006-01-01

194

Economic Planning for Multicounty Rural Areas: Application of a Linear Programming Model in Northwest Arkansas. Technical Bulletin No. 1653.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Planners in multicounty rural areas can use the Rural Development, Activity Analysis Planning (RDAAP) model to try to influence the optimal growth of their areas among different general economic goals. The model implies that best industries for rural areas have: high proportion of imported inputs; low transportation costs; high value added/output…

Williams, Daniel G.

195

SocioEconomic Status of Women in Rural Poultry Production in Selected Areas of Kwara State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the socio-economic status of women in rural poultry production in selected areas of Kwara State, Nigeria. This is based on the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between women's participation and their socio-economic status such as age, marital status, level of education and occupation. The study was conducted in selected villages in Kwara State. A total

I. Ogunlade; S. A. Adebayo

2009-01-01

196

The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…

Maroto, Michelle

2012-01-01

197

Application of a Conceptual Model of College Withdrawal to Disadvantaged Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a study of retention and attrition after the freshman year among disadvantaged students at an urban, primarily non-residential, university. Economically and academically disadvantaged college students are widely known to be at risk for attrition, which highlights the need to investigate the process among members of this group. Substantial progress has been made developing and testing explanatory models

Richard N. Fox

1986-01-01

198

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)|

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

199

Undiscovered Oil Resources in the Federal Portion of the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: An Economic Update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report updates an economic analysis of the U. S. Geological Surveys 1998 petroleum assessment of the Federal 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (Attanasi, 1999). Whereas the 1998 geologic assessment evaluated Federal and Native lands in...

E. D. Attanasi

2005-01-01

200

Economic feasibility of utilizing urban wood: case study of the San Francisco Bay area  

SciTech Connect

Rising costs of wood, energy and solid waste disposal have created growing interest in utilizing urban wood. As a model for wider application, we estimated the economic feasibility of a facility located in Oakland, California which would integrate the utilization and disposal of urban wood. A related study used questionnaires and interviews with producers of wood-waste as well as field visits, published information, and contacts with professional and trade organizations to estimate the supply of woodwaste in the San Francisco Bay area. The supply available to an Oakland utilization facility was estimated by multiplying the total Bay area supply by the percentage of the area's population projected to be closer to the facility than to a sanitary landfill by 1982. Potential users of hogged chips and hardwood blocks and slabs were contacted to determine how much material they would be willing to buy, at what prices, and under what conditions. Fees that produce would be willing to pay to dispose of wastewood were also estimated, as were costs of producing hogged chips for fuel or composting and high-quality hardwood material for crafts use. Potential revenues were estimated by subtracting processing and transportation costs from sales prices and dump fees. An Oakland hogging facility producing chips for fuel or sewage composting was judged as likely to be profitable with the chance of profit increased by adding a chainsaw mill to convert quality hardwoods into material for use by woodworkers. The procedures used for Oakland should be applicable to other communities and regions.

Kent, M.; Wagar, J.A.; Dost, W.A.

1982-09-01

201

SPOT NDVI Change and Its Correlation with Economic Factors in China-Russian Border Area of Heilongjiang River  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper researched the spatial pattern dynamic change of vegetation on China-Russian border area form 1998 to 2007 using NDVI data of 10-day synthesis. Then the analysis had been made on the relationship between vegetation coverage change and economic factors using data from local statistical yearbook. Results showed that that mostly research areas were well covered and vegetation coverage trend

Fan Xia

2011-01-01

202

Economic Analysis of the Gypsy Moth Problem in the Northeast. III. Impacts on Homeowners and Managers of Recreation Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economic impacts of a gypsy moth infestation on homeowners and on managers of recreation areas (commercial, public, and quasi-public) were determined from data collected via interviews with 540 homeowners and 170 managers of recreation areas in New Yo...

G. H. Moeller R. L. Marler R. E. McCay W. B. White

1977-01-01

203

Concept Area Four and Five Objectives, Hierarchy Charts, and Test Items. Economic Analysis Course. Segments 85-96.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A multimedia course in economic analysis was developed and used in conjunction with the United States Naval Academy. (See ED 043 790 and ED 043 791 for final reports of the project evaluation and development model.) This report deals with concept areas four and five, which focus on international trade and enrichment areas. The behavioral…

Sterling Inst., Washington, DC. Educational Technology Center.

204

Perspectives in the Education of Disadvantaged Children; A Multidisciplinary Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A collection of original papers presents an interdisciplinary approach to the education of disadvantaged children. The volume, prepared especially for preservice and inservice teachers, is divided into three sections--poverty and its effects, the children of poverty, and educational implications. The first two parts deal with such areas as…

Cowles, Milly, Ed.

205

Guidelines for the Employment of the Culturally Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "culturally disadvantaged" are men and women over 16, regardless of race, who live outside the mainstream of American life in urban ghettos and isolated rural areas. They are functionally illiterate people. The time for crash programs to employ these people has passed; the total involvement approach is necessary. These employment guidelines…

Fine, Sidney A.

206

Barriers to Healthier Eating in a Disadvantaged Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The research objective was to identify how healthy eating was understood in a disadvantaged community and how barriers to healthy eating might be overcome. Design: Participatory action research. Setting: Communities in Gurnos, Merthyr Tydfil, one of the most deprived areas in the UK. Method: Trainees on a participative methods course…

O'Neill, Martin; Rebane, Deanne; Lester, Carolyn

2004-01-01

207

Barriers to Healthier Eating in a Disadvantaged Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The research objective was to identify how healthy eating was understood in a disadvantaged community and how barriers to healthy eating might be overcome. Design: Participatory action research. Setting: Communities in Gurnos, Merthyr Tydfil, one of the most deprived areas in the UK. Method: Trainees on a participative methods course…

O'Neill, Martin; Rebane, Deanne; Lester, Carolyn

2004-01-01

208

Economic Development Strategies for Nonmetropolitan Areas. Occasional Papers Series No. 85-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rural economic development presents a paradox of growth in population and jobs without corresponding improvement in local economic well-being. Four forces may impede nonmetropolitan development efforts. Growth of multiestablishment corporations makes traditional regional economic development models unrealistic. Rural industrialization is…

Smith, Russell L.

209

Geographic variation in participation for physically disabled adults: The contribution of area economic factors to employment after spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

This study investigates that role of area economic characteristics in predicting employment, a key aspect of social participation for adults with physical disabilities, using data from a national registry of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI results in chronic impairment and most commonly occurs during young adulthood when working is a key aspect of the adult social role. Geocoded data was collected from two of the 14 SCI Model Systems (SCIMS) centers involved in the National SCIMS database and used to link individual-level data with area-level measures extracted from the 2000 US Census. The analysis included participants of working age (18–64 years) and living in the community (N=1,013). Hierarchical generalized linear modeling was used to estimate area-level variation in participation and the relative contribution of area-level economic indicators, adjusted for individual-level health, functioning, and background characteristics. The likelihood of employment for adults with SCI varied by area and was associated with area SES and ubanicity, but not area unemployment. These findings suggest that variation in area economic conditions may affect the feasibility of employment for persons who experience chronic physical disability during adulthood, thus limiting full participation in society.

Botticello, Amanda L.; Chen, Yuying; Tulsky, David S.

2012-01-01

210

Early secondary prevention with disadvantaged preschool children.  

PubMed

A body of research data is reviewed pointing to considerable intellectual lag and nonstandard linguistic abilities among the disadvantaged. While "difference" and "deficit" theorists interpret these findings differently, many observers agree that early educational intervention may be a useful approach to such problems. A series of early intervention programs is reviewed for three young disadvantaged groups: infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Findings from these programs suggest that early intervention helps materially to reduce the intellectual and linguistic problems of the young disadvantaged. PMID:1093388

Jason, L

1975-03-01

211

A network description on geometry and economics of Yangtze drainage area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drainage basin of large rivers can be viewed as a network. This is well known in geomorphology. Recently, Dodds and Rothman performed an investigation of detailed geometry of river networks [1]. After them, we have investigated geometry and economics of drainage area of Yangtze, the largest river in China. In our first-degree network, we define all the anabranches of Yangtze as the nodes, and the flowing water as the directed edges. A statistics has been performed with 2332 anabranches. Six statistical properties have been obtained, which are in a good agreement with the conclusions reported in Ref. [1] and show that the drainage basin of Yangtze is a scale-free network. In our second-degree network, we define all the open ports along the anabranches as the nodes, and the trade relationship between each pair of nodes as an edge. Population, GDP, berth number, and the large quantities of goods taken in and sent out of 229 open ports have been investigated. A simple model has been suggested to describe the trade process. The results are in a good agreement with the statistical data and show that our second-degree network is also scale-free. [1] P. S. Dodds and D. H. Rothman, Phys. Rev. E 63, (2000) 016115; 016116; 016117.

Wang, Binbin; Xu, Tian; He, Da-Ren

2004-03-01

212

Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in European Union and European Economic Area countries.  

PubMed

In order to ensure the availability of resources for tuberculosis (TB) and HIV management and control, it is imperative that countries monitor and plan for co-infection in order to identify, treat and prevent TB-HIV co-infection, thereby reducing TB burden and increasing the years of healthy life of people living with HIV. A systematic review was undertaken to determine the burden of TB-HIV infection in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). Data on the burden of HIV infection in TB patients and risk factors for TB-HIV co-infection in the EU/EEA were extracted from studies that collected information in 1996 and later, regardless of the year of initiation of data collection, and a narrative synthesis presented. The proportion of HIV-co-infected TB patients varied from 0 to 15%. Western and eastern countries had higher levels and increasing trends of infection over time compared with central EU/EEA countries. Groups at higher risk of TB-HIV co-infection were males, young adults, foreign-born persons, the homeless, injecting drug users and prisoners. Further research is needed into the burden and associated risk factors of co-infection in Europe, to help plan effective control measures. Increased HIV testing of TB patients and targeted and informed strategies for control and prevention could help curb the co-infection epidemic. PMID:21737549

Pimpin, L; Drumright, L N; Kruijshaar, M E; Abubakar, I; Rice, B; Delpech, V; Hollo, V; Amato-Gauci, A; Manissero, D; Ködmön, C

2011-07-07

213

Molecular materials and its technology: disruptive impact on industrial and socio-economic areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the economic, health and social potential of nanotechnology. This involves the development of techniques\\u000a for the manipulation of matter at the atomic and molecular levels. These new materials can perform multiple functions and\\u000a be economically produced in large quantities, and hence have the potential for replacing existing technologies and materials\\u000a in socially and economically disruptive ways. The

Shantesh Hede

2007-01-01

214

Legislative Report; National Advisory Council on the Education of Disadvantaged Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report enumerates principles which should be considered important to any legislation designed to provide educational services to disadvantaged children. It is recommended that the primary objective of Title I programs be to raise the educationally disadvantaged child's level of achievement in the area of the basic skills. It is recommended…

National Advisory Council on the Education of Disadvantaged Children, Washington, DC.

215

Economic evaluation of area-wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus, which limit outdoor activities. While several evaluations of effectiveness exist, information on costs is lacking. Economic evaluation of such a program is important to help inform policy makers an...

216

Concept Area One Objectives (Rev), Test Items (Rev), and Instructional Events. Economic Analysis Course. Segments 1 - 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multimedia course in economic analysis was prepared and used in conjunction with the United States Naval Academy. (See ED 043 790 and ED 043 791 for final reports of the project evaluation and the development model.) This report presents the first concept area--basic principles--in 24 segments, of which eight are "enrichment segments." The…

Sterling Inst., Washington, DC. Educational Technology Center.

217

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY BY PROTECTING NATURAL RESOURCES IN CONSERVATION AREA TO PROMOTE THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF WEST JAVA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural resources degradation in Indonesia, including West Java, dramatically rose during the decade of 90's. The decline of several crucial ecological functions of the West Java's ecosystem especially natural forest within the protected areas may have serious consequences for numerous economic activities of the local communities as well as local industries. The Gross National Product of Indonesia that grows 7.1%

Rika WINURDIASTRI; West Java

218

Assessment of access to electricity and the socio-economic impacts in rural areas of developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to reveal relations between access to electricity and advancement in a socio-economic condition in rural areas of developing countries. Recently, multi-dimensional aspects of poverty, for example, economy, education, and health, has been increasingly focused on, and access to modern energy such as electricity is one possible solution. As a case study, we have analyzed

Makoto Kanagawa; Toshihiko Nakata

2008-01-01

219

Promising Practices: Teaching the Disadvantaged Gifted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended for teachers, the document offers 10 articles on educating the disadvantaged gifted student. Included are the following titles: "Four Promising Practices for Teaching Gifted Disadvantaged Students" (which describes a workshop with problem solving and creative expressive activities) by E. Paul Torrance; "Cultural Diversity and the…

Miley, James F., Comp.; And Others

220

Testing of the Disadvantaged: New Opportunities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This essay discusses testing of the disadvantaged and the possibilities for new approaches to the problem. The black community's resistance to testing and the legal implications of employment and educational discrimination which results from testing are discussed. The objections to testing the disadvantaged are reviewed. At the end, it is hoped…

Williams, E. Belvin

221

Self Concepts of Disadvantaged and Advantaged Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a study of 707 students show that all disadvantaged children do not necessarily have negative self concepts. In fact, they show just the opposite at the elementary school level; however, self concept diminishes for both disadvantaged and advantaged students at the secondary school level. (NH)

Soares, Louise M.; Soares, Anthony T.

1970-01-01

222

Technology and economics assessment of developing an Arctic offshore petroleum area in Alaska (Chukchi Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This assessment begins with three lines of investigation: petroleum geology, environmental conditions affecting engineering and siting, and available technologies for Arctic offshore oil and gas development. These results were integrated for economic analysis into scenarios that reflect reasonable variations in operators' strategies. Construction costs and schedules are estimated, and then examined using an economic model (a basic discounted cash flow

J. C. Jr

1983-01-01

223

Economic and financial analysis on rainwater harvesting for agricultural irrigation in the rural areas of Beijing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 2006, around 600 rainwater harvesting systems have been constructed for agricultural irrigation in Beijing. The financial and economic implications of using these systems are discussed less. It is important to understand the effectiveness of the investments spent on the rainwater harvesting systems. The paper aims to analyze economic and financial performance of the constructed rainwater harvesting systems in rural

Xiao Liang; Meine Pieter van Dijk

2011-01-01

224

BASE Home Economics Curriculum Grades 5-8. Area 3.0 Foods/Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication contains curriculum banks for teaching home economics in grades 5 through 8 in West Virginia. Rather than containing a complete curriculum guide for the home economics program, the banks provide ideas, sections, and lessons that can be drawn out and used with other materials. Four banks are provided in the guide. Bank 1 contains…

Blankenship, Martha Lee, Ed.

225

The Economic Impact of Universities in Non-Metropolitan Areas of the Great Plains, USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public universities cite their economic impact to help justify state financial support, but the literature offers no comprehensive theory that can guide analysis of such claims. This research used qualitative methodology to complement the ubiquitous economic impact studies, and showed that mission, leadership and geography determine how public…

Falconer, John

2007-01-01

226

Toward Evaluating the Effectiveness of Regional Partnerships for Economic Development in U.S. Metropolitan Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past few decades, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of regional partnerships in the United States to enhance economic development across local government jurisdictions. This trend has been mirrored by an increase in regional organizations in Europe, Asia and South America to enhance economic development, usually across national boundaries. While the literature has examined the

Julie Cencula Olberding

2009-01-01

227

Maine: 2002 Economic Census. Educational Services, Geographic Area Series. EC02-61A-ME.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. Title 13 of the United States Code (Sections 131, 191, and 224) directs the Census Bureau to take the economic census every 5 years, covering…

US Department of Commerce, 2005

2005-01-01

228

Environmental inequity in England: small area associations between socio-economic status and environmental pollution.  

PubMed

Recent studies have suggested that more deprived people tend to live in areas characterised by higher levels of environmental pollution. If generally true, these environmental inequities may combine to cause adverse effects on health and also exacerbate problems of confounding in epidemiological studies. Previous studies of environmental inequity have nevertheless indicated considerable complexity in the associations involved, which merit further investigation using more detailed data and more advanced analytical methods. This study investigates the ways in which environmental inequity in England varies in relation to: (a) different environmental pollutants (measured in different ways); (b) different aspects of socio-economic status; and (c) different geographical scales and contexts (urban vs. rural). Associations were analysed between the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD2004) and its domains and five sets of environmental pollutants (relating to road traffic, industry, electro-magnetic frequency radiation, disinfection by-products in drinking water and radon), measured in terms of proximity, emission intensity and environmental concentration. Associations were assessed using bivariate and multivariate correlation, and by comparing the highest and lowest quintiles of deprivation using Student's t-test and Hotelling's T2. Associations are generally weak (R(2) < 0.10), and vary depending on the specific measures used. Strongest associations occur with what can be regarded as contingent components of deprivation (e.g. crime, living environment, health) rather than causative factors such as income, employment or education. Associations also become stronger with increasing level of spatial aggregation. Overall, the results suggest that any triple jeopardy for health, and problems of confounding, associated with environmental inequities are likely to be limited. PMID:18786752

Briggs, David; Abellan, Juan J; Fecht, Daniela

2008-09-09

229

Childhood tuberculosis in the European Union/European Economic Area, 2000 to 2009.  

PubMed

Childhood tuberculosis (TB) has been neglected for decades as a key component of TB control. However, ensuring proper monitoring of childhood TB has recently been given renewed emphasis. A descriptive analysis of surveillance data was performed to assess burden and trends of paediatric TB in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) between 2000 and 2009. From 2000 to 2009, 39,695 notified paediatric (defined as 0–14 years of age) TB cases were reported by the 27 EU countries plus Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. These paediatric cases accounted for 4.3% of all notified cases. However, across the EU/EEA Member States, paediatric case notification rates ranged from 29.6 per 100,000 to 0.3 per 100,000 for the latest reporting year, 2009. Overall,though, these rates dropped from 5.5 per 100,000 in 2000 to 4.2 per 100,000 in 2009. The EU/EEA average annual percent changes (AAPC) in paediatric notification rates decreased between 2000 and 2004 by 1.3%and between 2005 and 2009 by 2.4%, with an overall decrease between 2000 and 2009 of 2.8%. Of all paediatric cases reported from 2000 to 2009, only 16.9%were culture-confirmed, amongst which the overall treatment success was 80.5% for all culture-confirmed pulmonary paediatric TB cases. Childhood TB in the EU/EEA remains a public health issue. Due attention should be paid to assessing paediatric trends as they could provide an insight in recent transmission. Whilst the primary aim of further reducing TB rates among children is paramount, better rates of appropriate diagnosis should also be achieved, along with a further improvement of therapeutic success rates. PMID:21457686

Sandgren, A; Hollo, V; Quinten, C; Manissero, D

2011-03-24

230

Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

1995-03-01

231

Demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths in a special project area of rural northern India.  

PubMed

The demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths (n = 475) in a special project area of rural northern India (Ballabgarh) were ascertained from 1991 to 1999 using the electronic database system of the project area for data extraction, and were compared with the eligible living children of the same age using a matched population-based case-control study design. Similar determinants were also ascertained in neonatal deaths (n = 212) using the same study design. After controlling for the potential confounders using conditional logistic regression analyses, lower caste (a proxy measure for low socio-economic conditions in rural India) was found to be significantly associated with higher post-neonatal deaths (OR = 2.21). Higher maternal age (>30 years) and fathers' lower educational levels were significantly associated with higher neonatal deaths, in addition to higher post-neonatal deaths in the same area. PMID:12881622

Kabir, Zubair

2003-07-01

232

24 CFR 599.105 - Economic condition requirements for a nominated area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the nominated area is an area of pervasive poverty, unemployment, and general distress...period to which such data relate. (c) Poverty requirement. A nominated area meets the poverty requirement if the poverty rate for...

2013-04-01

233

Economic Census 2002: New Hampshire. Finance and Insurance. Geographic Area Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. Title 13 of the United States Code (Sections 131, 1...

2005-01-01

234

Economic Census 2002: New Jersey. Finance and Insurance. Geographic Area Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. Title 13 of the United States Code (Sections 131, 1...

2005-01-01

235

Economic Census 2002: North Carolina. Finance and Insurance. Geographic Area Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. Title 13 of the United States Code (Sections 131, 1...

2005-01-01

236

Delineation of Economic and Health Service Areas and the Location of Health Manpower Education Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interrelationships between the economic system and the health care delivery system in the intermountain region (Wyoming and parts of Montana, South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, Utah, and Idaho) are explored in the context of the central place theory of usi...

J. Lofgren J. White J. M. Leyes J. S. Miller S. Goetz

1973-01-01

237

The Economic Role of a University in a Small Area: The San Marcos Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper analyzes the economic development of Hays County, Texas, the site of Southwest Texas State University and indicates the important effect of that university's growth on the county, which might otherwise have stagnated. (JH)|

And Others; Savage, V. Howard

1974-01-01

238

Physical activity for adolescents living in a disadvantaged neighbourhood: Views of parents and adolescents on needs, barriers, facilitators, and programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical activity promotes physical, psychological, and social well?being for young people. However, socio?economically disadvantaged adolescents participate significantly less in physical activity. Three focus groups were held with disadvantaged adolescents and parents to better understand factors related to participation in physical activity and to successfully implement and sustain a new program for such young people in one target community in Ottawa.

Julie Beaulac; Danielle Bouchard; Elizabeth Kristjansson

2009-01-01

239

Increasing Social and Economic Inequalities among Suburban Schools: A Study in Educational Administration and Finance. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of five metropolitan areas indicates increasing social and economic inequalities among suburban schools. In addition, the metropolitan areas seemed to be developing contiguous sectors of "advantaged" school districts and "disadvantaged" school districts. Financial differences are at the base of the inequalities, with high income/low tax…

Hickrod, G. Alan; Sabulao, Cesar M.

240

Barriers to healthier eating in a disadvantaged community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective The research objective was to identify how healthy eating was understood in a disadvantaged community and how barriers to healthy eating might be overcome.Design Participatory action research.Setting Communities in Gurnos, Merthyr Tydfil, one of the most deprived areas in the UK.Method Trainees on a participative methods course undertook hands- on research, directed by the course leader and local researchers.

Martin ONeill; Deanne Rebane; Carolyn Lester

2004-01-01

241

Non-Economic Determinants of Energy Use in Rural Areas of South Africa  

SciTech Connect

This project will begin to determine the forces and dimensions in rural energy-use patterns and begin to address policy and implementation needs for the future. This entails: Forecasting the social and economic benefits that electrification is assumed to deliver regarding education and women's lives; Assessing negative perceptions of users, which have been established through the slow uptake of electricity; Making recommendations as to how these perceptions could be addressed in policy development and in the continuing electrification program; Making recommendations to policy makers on how to support and make optimal use of current energy-use practices where these are socio-economically sound; Identifying misinformation and wasteful practices; and Other recommendations, which will significantly improve the success of the rural electrification program in a socio-economically sound manner, as identified in the course of the work.

Annecke, W. (Energy and Development Research Center, University of Cape Town, South Africa)

1999-03-29

242

Public Library Service for the Urban Disadvantaged.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental program of the master's level to prepare twenty students for public library service to the urban disadvantaged is reported. The institute had two general purposes: (1) to recruit and prepare twenty students to be effective librarians worki...

G. M. Casey

1972-01-01

243

Summer Internship Program For Socioeconimically Disadvantaged Undergraduates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the internship program was to give socioeconimically disadvantaged undergraduate students an introduction to what graduate study in Computer Science is like and to encourage them to consider graduate education. A further goal was to build stro...

W. Appelbe

1998-01-01

244

Relational and behavioral interventions with economically disadvantaged toddlers.  

PubMed

Matched groups of children, ages 12-24 months, referred for early social or verbal developmental lags or home-environment problems, participated either in a center-based "relational" or a home-based "behavior modification" intervention. Although both programs accelerated youngsters' intellectual development, there were few differences between groups on the criterion change measures. PMID:1266950

Jason, L A; Gesten, E; Yock, T

1976-04-01

245

34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...whoâ (i) Are employed, in an occupation for which you provided training, on...employed for at least 13 weeks, in an occupation for which you provided training...American Institute of Certified Public Accountants' (AICPA) Statement on...

2013-07-01

246

34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...whoâ (i) Are employed, in an occupation for which you provided training, on...employed for at least 13 weeks, in an occupation for which you provided training, between...American Institute of Certified Public Accountant's (AICPA) Statement on...

2013-07-01

247

13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...used to pay taxes arising in the normal course of operations of the firm...distributed by an ANC as a dividend or distribution on stock); a partnership interest...used to pay taxes arising in the normal course of operations of the...

2012-01-01

248

Highline Public Schools Computer-Assisted Instruction Project: A Program to Meet Disadvantaged Students' Individual Needs for Basic Skill Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This description of a computer-assisted instruction project, which provides an alternative approach to individual instruction in basic skills for economically and educationally disadvantaged students at the secondary level, includes the results of evaluat...

A. L. Maser

1977-01-01

249

Epidemiologic and Economic Burden of Influenza in the Outpatient Setting: A Prospective Study in a Subtropical Area of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo understand the incidence of outpatient influenza cases in a subtropical area of China and the associated economic burden on patients' families.MethodsA hospital-based prospective study was conducted in Zhuhai City during 2008–2009. All outpatient influenza-like illness (ILI) cases were identified in 28 sentinel hospitals. A representative sample of throat swabs from ILI cases were collected for virus isolation using Madin-Darby

Ru-ning Guo; Hui-zhen Zheng; Li-qun Huang; Yong Zhou; Xin Zhang; Chan-kun Liang; Jin-yan Lin; Jian-feng He; Jin-qing Zhang

2012-01-01

250

The economic importance of air travel in high-amenity rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The western United States offers a case study on the importance of access to large population centers and their markets, via road and air travel, for economic development. The vast distances between towns and cities in the American West can be a detriment to business, yet they also serve to attract technology and knowledge-based workers seeking to live in a picturesque

Ray Rasker; Patricia H. Gude; Justin A. Gude; Jeff van den Noort

2009-01-01

251

Fire as an economic disincentive to smallholder rubber planting in Imperata areas of Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fire dimension was incorporated into an existing bioeconomic spreadsheet model of a smallholder rubber agroforestry system, with Imperata as the understorey to rubber. The augmented model was then used to trace the physical and economic consequences of fire. Imperata is regarded as providing the fire fuel load in the model, either as the rubber understorey, or as separate grassland.

Ken Menz; Katie Ellis; Czech Conroy; Peter Grist

1998-01-01

252

Omaha-Council Bluffs Metropolitan Area Comprehensive Plan. Phase II. Housing Study and Economic Base Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phase Two of the areawide comprehensive plan for the Omaha-Council Bluffs three-county SMSA consists of a housing study and economic base survey. The housing study presents a current housing inventory for the SMSA, housing condition analysis, and an analy...

1970-01-01

253

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGES AND PLAYERS IN RURAL AREAS OF THE SOUTH OF EUROPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to analyse the way in which social and economic changes are perceived within the Southern EU rural societies (in particular, regions like Andalusia in Spain, Alentejo in Portugal or Mezzogiorno in Italy). To do this we shall take as our starting point the thesis that the perception of change is not homogeneous, but is

Eduardo Moyano-Estrada

254

The Economic Impact of Spokane Community College upon the Spokane Metropolitan Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In an attempt to show that Spokane Community College was a significant factor in the current and future economic fortunes of the city of Spokane, four hypotheses were tested and confirmed: (1) Spokane Community College (SCC) had a higher growth rate than the city itself between 1963 and 1968 as shown by population, employment, capital investment,…

Merchant, Ronald

255

Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) for EPA Region VII - Plains Area (for Microcomputers).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The E-GAS modeling system is a forecast model used to predict national and regional economic activity in order to estimate attainment of ozone and photochemical air quality standards. The report contains the E-GAS modeling system for EPA region 7. Since g...

1993-01-01

256

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE ARTS ON THE OKLAHOMA CITY AREA ECONOMY FOR 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the type and magnitude of economic impacts on the Oklahoma City economy by 34 arts agencies, organizations, festivals, shows, programs, and other events. The direct and secondary impacts on the Oklahoma City economy in terms of spending and employment were significant. Further analysis indicated that the industry was in need of state,

James V. Pinto

1980-01-01

257

A Model Optimum System of Bus Transportation for Improving Economic Opportunities in Medium-Sized Metropolitan Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research investigated the practicality of utilizing urban bus transportation facilities to serve the job training and employment needs of disadvantaged and underemployed groups in Charleston, Columbia, and Greenville, S.C. Data were collected in surve...

J. D. Williams L. F. Whitener

1972-01-01

258

Socio-economic features of commercial fishery in the bordering upper Danube River area of Serbia.  

PubMed

The multidisciplinary socio-economic study of fisheries in the bordering part of the Danube River between Serbia and Croatia (at the following sites: Apatin, Ba?ka Palanka, Ba?ko Novo Selo, Bezdan, and Sombor) that was performed in order to investigate various aspects of fish resource utilization (management, policy of protection and exploitation of freshwater fishery resources, present fisheries legislation, catch statistics), was realized during 2004 and 2005. Data were collected via survey with a structured interview. Socio-economic circumstances, together with ecological factors, have had an influence on the fish stock and number of commercial fishermen. Awareness of the occurring problems, both economic and ecological ones, is apparent, regardless of whether it is assessed in the field of commercial or recreational fishing. Fishery sector in Serbia is in a prolonged process of transition, with the enforcement of fishing regulations, but also the lack of control that leaves space for illegal commercial fishing. The statements, consciousness, experience and behavior of commercial fishermen represent a good basis for planning the sustainable development of fishing in this section of the Danube River. PMID:21674225

Smederevac-Lali?, Marija; Peši?, Radmilo; Cveji?, Slobodan; Simonovi?, Predrag

2011-06-15

259

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Coastal Oregon). Volume 4 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Oregon Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Oregon Area includes Clatsop, Tillamook, Lincoln, Lane, Douglas, Coos, and Curry counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Oregon, Washington, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

260

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Coastal Washington). Volume 2 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Washington Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Washington Area includes Jefferson, Clallam, Island, San Juan, Grays Harbor, Pacific, and Wahkiakum counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

261

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Coastal Oregon) Volume 2 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Oregon Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Oregon Area includes Clatsop, Tillamook, Lincoln, Lane, Douglas, Coos, and Curry counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Oregon, Washington, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

262

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area. (Coastal Washington). Volume 1 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Washington Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Washington Area includes Jefferson, Clallam, Island, San Juan, Grays Harbor, Pacific, and Wahkiakum counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

263

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Coastal Washington) Volume 3 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Washington Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Washington Area includes Jefferson, Clallam, Island, San Juan, Grays Harbor, Pacific, and Wahkiakum counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

264

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area. (Coastal Washington) Volume 4 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Washington Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Washington Area includes Jefferson, Clallam, Island, San Juan, Grays Harbor, Pacific, and Wahkiakum counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

265

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Coastal Oregon) Volume 3 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Oregon Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Oregon Area includes Clatsop, Tillamook, Lincoln, Lane, Douglas, Coos, and Curry counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Oregon, Washington, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

266

Children's Perspectives on Economic Adversity: A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews some of the recent qualitative literature on children's perspectives on economic disadvantage. The idea of asking people who experience disadvantage about their own situations is still a relatively new one in the social sciences, and the idea of asking children about their own perceptions of economic and social disadvantage is even more recent. Nine analyses, all published

Gerry Redmond

2008-01-01

267

1975 Employment--Minnesota and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area and 11 Economic Regions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bureau of Labor Statistics national industry-occupational matrix was used to project employment for 1975 by occupation and industry for Minnesota and several areas within the state. In addition to the 1975 projections, the report provides statewide and area employment data for 1960 and 1968, by occupation and industry, along with the…

Minnesota State Dept. of Manpower Services, St. Paul.

268

ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND LEGAL ARGUMENTS FOR THE FOUNDATION OF THE BUCHAREST METROPOLITAN AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present globalized world, the existence of a metropolis implies the presence of international activities within that area. Bucharest has significantly evolved from the small village founded by a shepherd many years ago to the metropolitan area it is today. Is Bucharest ready to assume its role as a metropolis? Are there any differences between Bucharest, the Romanian metropolis,

Gabriela TIGU; Delia POPESCU

2008-01-01

269

Elements for an Economic Theory of Free Trade Areas Between Developed and Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world is experiencing an increasing number of free-trade areas between developed and developing countries (think of NAFTA, the Free Trade Area of the Americas, APEC, the Euromediterranean Partnership, or the free trade agreements between the EU and Turkey, Mexico, South Africa or Mercosur and between the United States and Jordan, most of them still in the transitory period before

Iván Martín

2003-01-01

270

ANALYSIS OF THE ECONOMICS OF WATER SUPPLY IN THE WASHINGTON METROPOLITAN AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of a controversy arising over available water supply in the Washington Metropolitan Area, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, administrator for Region III, requested that a cost analysis of the water supply system in the Washington, D.C. area be made. The analys...

271

Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent stress reactivity  

PubMed Central

Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African–American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). We found that concentrated disadvantage was associated with cortisol reactivity and this relationship was moderated by gender, such that higher concentrated disadvantage predicted higher cortisol reactivity and steeper recovery in boys but not in girls. Parental education, alone or as moderated by gender, did not predict reactivity or recovery, while neither education nor concentrated disadvantage predicted estimates of baseline cortisol. This finding is consistent with animal literature showing differential vulnerability, by gender, to the effects of adverse early experience on stress regulation and the differential effects of neighborhood disadvantage in adolescent males and females. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying SES differences in brain development and particularly reactivity to environmental stressors may vary across genders.

Hackman, Daniel A.; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Hurt, Hallam; Farah, Martha J.

2012-01-01

272

Advantage: Disadvantaged Gifted. Presentations from the Third National Conference on Disadvantaged Gifted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The presentations in this volume deal with various aspects of education for the gifted disadvantaged. Maija Blaubergs describes disadvantages experienced by gifted and talented girls in obtaining access to opportunities for achievement congruent with their potentialities. Some of the topics examined are sexist barriers, marriage, institutional and…

Rivlin, Harry N.; And Others

273

Teaching the Disadvantaged: A Curriculum Guide for Classes of Disadvantaged Students in Agricultural Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The guide begins with some observations on teaching disadvantaged students, a list of successful types of learning activities, and recommendations for planning and conducting an effective classroom situation. Also included are 13 general objectives of a program for the disadvantaged. The guide, intended as a source of ideas and directions in…

Crunkilton, John R.

274

Skills, transport and economic development: evidence from a rural area in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the impact of low population density and transport constraints on skills development and the take up of learning and training opportunities in a rural area of eastern England. It draws on analyses of secondary data sources, qualitative interviews and a focus group discussion with employers, trainers and other actors in the labour market, and a survey of

David Owen; Terence Hogarth; Anne E. Green

2012-01-01

275

Environmental inequity in England: Small area associations between socio-economic status and environmental pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have suggested that more deprived people tend to live in areas characterised by higher levels of environmental pollution. If generally true, these environmental inequities may combine to cause adverse effects on health and also exacerbate problems of confounding in epidemiological studies. Previous studies of environmental inequity have nevertheless indicated considerable complexity in the associations involved, which merit further

David Briggs; Juan J. Abellan; Daniela Fecht

2008-01-01

276

SocioEconomic Development and Violence: An Empirical Application for Seven Metropolitan Areas in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work uses several empirical approaches to examine the effects of poverty and inequality on violence in the seven metropolitan areas in Colombia. To this end, this study describes the main determinants of violence in these cities; these determinants are all fundamental features of social instability. For this description, this paper uses several econometric approximations to compare and determine an

Alexander Cotte Poveda

2011-01-01

277

Optimization design and economic analysis of solar power system with sea water desalination for remote areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

People in rural areas at present are still beyond the coverage of pure and fresh water for their daily usage. However, these constraints offer an opportunity for green technology to embrace the people's needs and shortages. Vast source of solar energy and sea water allows the community to reach their dream by using desalination process to convert salty sea water

N. H. Baharudin; T. M. N. T. Mansur; R. Ali; Y. Yatim; A. A. A. Wahab

2011-01-01

278

Protected areas, agricultural pests and economic damage: conflicts with elephants and pests in Yunnan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protected areas are often the source of agricultural pests and Xishuangbanna State Nature Reserve in Yunnan is no exception. The main pest associated with the reserve is the Asian elephant Elephas maximus which causes damage outside the reserve to agriculture and also within the reserve. These elephants are an important attraction for tourists visiting Xishuangbanna. Xishuangbanna prefecture contains the only

Clem Tisdell; Xiang Zhu

1998-01-01

279

Border Flows and Economic Interdependence in California/Baja Urban Areas. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers the major features of a study done to create planning models in the border regions of California and Baja California to develop two interregional input - output models of the San Diego / Tijuana and Imperial Valley / Mexicali areas. The...

N. C. Clement K. L. Shellhammer

1981-01-01

280

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area. (Coastal Oregon) Volume 1 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Oregon Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Oregon Area includes Clatsop, Tillamook, Lincoln, Lane, Douglas, Coos, and Curry counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Oregon, Washington, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socioeconomic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

281

Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from Add Health, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community and school controls. Neighborhood violence…

Harding, David J.

2009-01-01

282

THE DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AND YOUTH OF AMERICA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|PROGRESS IS BEING MADE TOWARD ERASING THE DISADVANTAGES OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED. MUCH PROGRESS HAS BEEN MADE IN RECOGNIZING THE HEALTH NEEDS OF THE RETARDED CHILD THROUGH SUBSTANTIAL LEGISLATION SPONSORED BY MANY BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT, ACTION PROGRAMS STEMMING FROM BOTH PUBLIC AND VOLUNTARY SOURCES, AND A MOUNTING RESEARCH EFFORT. IN AN EFFORT…

OETTINGER, KATHERINE B.

283

Mathematics Education and the Educationally Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains the major presentations of two conferences on the theme: "Low Achievers in Mathematics and Title 1, ESEA" attended by mathematics educators in New York State. Melvin Mendelsohn summarizes "Activities of the Bureau of Mathematics Education Related to Title I, ESEA". "Cognition and Learning Style of the Disadvantaged" is…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Mathematics Education.

284

Educational Issues of the Socially Disadvantaged Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though enrollment in elementary schools and national literacy rates have increased greatly in India since its independence in 1949, the number of dropouts and illiterate individuals will also continue to increase unless the needs of the socially disadvantaged are identified and met. The majority of the dropouts and the illiterates belong to…

Sreedhar, M. V.

285

Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using data from Add Health, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community and school controls. Neighborhood violence…

Harding, David J.

2009-01-01

286

PROGRAMS FOR THE DISADVANTAGED AT HUNTER COLLEGE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DESCRIBED ARE THE PROGRAMS OFFERED BY HUNTER COLLEGE IN NEW YORK CITY FOR TRAINING TEACHERS OF THE DISADVANTAGED. HUNTER OFFERS (1) SPECIALIZED TRAINING COURSES, (2) PROGRAMS FOR TEACHERS OF PUERTO RICAN CHILDREN, AND (3) VARIOUS NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT INSTITUTES ON READING IMPROVEMENT, URBAN EDUCATION, SCIENCE TEACHING, ENGLISH TEACHING,…

GOLD, MILTON J.

287

Teaching English to Disadvantaged High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Removing a disadvantaged student from his environment and giving him the advantages of a middle-class education may be a mixed blessing for him educationally. Yet many compensatory summer programs, including Project ABC (A Better Chance) at Carleton College (Minnesota), appear to have caused no deleterious effects. The summer programs are intended…

Zilliax, John

1968-01-01

288

Physics for educationally disadvantaged students. II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The second year of operation of a one-year introductory college physics course for educationally disadvantaged students is described. Evaluation of student performance, including comparison with other introductory physics students is reported. Information on course enrollment, staffing, and format is included.

Franklin, Allen D.; Mohling, Franz

2006-05-16

289

Localized income inequality, concentrated disadvantage and homicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several theories (e.g., routine activities, strain and social disorganization theories) suggest that there are effects of income inequality and concentrated disadvantage on crime. This study follows primarily the long line of social disorganization theorizing to explain the intraurban variation of homicide rates in Chicago. In addition to poverty, income inequality adds stress to individuals when they compare their situation to

Fahui Wang; Martin T. Arnold

2008-01-01

290

THE EDUCATION OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN, A BIBLIOGRAPHY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DIRECTED AT TEACHERS AND LIBRARIANS CONCERNED WITH EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS, THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY ARRANGES RESOURCE READINGS FOR TEACHERS AND TEXTBOOKS AND LITERATURE FOR STUDENTS UNDER THE FOLLOWING HEADINGS--(1) PROFESSIONAL RESOURCES (GENERAL THEORETICAL MATERIAL AND SPECIFIC TREATMENT OF HANDICAPPED CHILDREN, INTERGROUP RELATIONS, THE…

WATT, LOIS B.; AND OTHERS

291

Special Environmental Education Project for Disadvantaged Gifted Primary Grade Students: 1980-81.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Outdoor Activity Center (Atlanta, Georgia) provides enriched experiences in a natural environment for economically disadvantaged gifted primary grade students and has developed materials incorporating creative activities used at the Center to expand the elementary science curriculum of the Atlanta Public Schools. Fifty-eight gifted students…

Ballagas, Linda D.

292

Project Spring II: Science Curriculum Modifications for Rural Disadvantaged Gifted Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is an overview of the science curriculum intervention that occurred in a federally funded project to identify and serve the needs of gifted and talented economically disadvantaged students (grades 3-8) from minority populations. An introduction discusses the training in curriculum development and methodology, based on Bloom's Taxonomy…

Spicker, Howard H.; Aamidor, Shirley E.

293

Discriminant Analysis of Scholastic Aptitude and Critical Thinking Tests and Levels of "Disadvantagement."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Differences among school children are typically measured by achievement, aptitude and/or intelligence tests. This study investigates the use of critical thinking tests to differentiate between schools of varying racial, economic, and "disadvantagement" factors; the latter being determined by Title I ESEA qualifications and U. S. Office of…

Follman, John; and Others

294

Ethnicity, migration and employment disadvantage under New Labour: reviewing the evidence from the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite economic growth and extensive labour market interventions, the employment disadvantage faced by ethnic minorities and migrants in the UK changed little under the previous Labour Government. Ethnic minorities and migrants in the UK are still significantly less likely to be in employment and are more likely to be unemployed than the majority white population. The key explanatory factors are

Viet-Hai Phung

2011-01-01

295

Maternal Relationship Instability and the School Behavior of Children from Disadvantaged Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examined the relation between the instability of maternal intimate relationships and school behavior of economically disadvantaged third-graders. After ecological correlates were controlled, chronic relationship instability was found to predict externalizing behavior for boys and girls and internalizing behavior for girls,…

Ackerman, Brian P.; Brown, Eleanor D.; D'Eramo, Kristen Schoff; Izard, Carroll E.

2002-01-01

296

Rehabilitation, Sheltered Workshops, and the Disadvantaged: An Exploration in Manpower Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains presentations and summary of a conference designed to explore the potential of the rehabilitation model in providing rehabilitation and manpower services to the disadvantaged through sheltered workshops. Presented by scholars and practitioners in the fields of manpower economics, psychology, social psychology, sociology,…

State Univ. of New York, Ithaca. School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell Univ.

297

Parental Feedback in the Evaluation of a Camp for Disadvantaged Children: The Camp Limberlost Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the impact of Camp Limberlost, a two-week residential camp for socially and economically disadvantaged children, various methods were used to obtain evaluation data in the form of parental feedback on the 1982 and 1983 camps. The four research objectives were (1) to identify changes in children resulting from the camp experience, (2) to…

Belknap, Larry K.; Rickards, William

298

Undermining the Principle of Concentration? European Union Regional Policy and the Socioeconomic Disadvantage of European Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

regstdcenzi R. Undermining the principle of concentration? European Union regional policy and the socio-economic disadvantage of European regions, Regional Studies. This paper sets out to analyse the regional policy of the European Union by assessing whether the actual distribution of funds to the regions undermines the principle of territorial concentration. The empirical analysis shows that, due to either political equilibriums

Riccardo regstdcenzi

2009-01-01

299

Undermining the Principle of Concentration? European Union Regional Policy and the Socioeconomic Disadvantage of European Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crescenzi R. Undermining the principle of concentration? European Union regional policy and the socio-economic disadvantage of European regions, Regional Studies. This paper sets out to analyse the regional policy of the European Union by assessing whether the actual distribution of funds to the regions undermines the principle of territorial concentration. The empirical analysis shows that, due to either political equilibriums

Riccardo Crescenzi

2009-01-01

300

[MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Management. Module III-F-3: Marketing Practices in Relation to Low Income Clientele.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on marketing practices in relation to low income clientele is the third in a set of three modules on management in economically depressed areas (EDAs). (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking…

California State Univ., Fresno. Dept. of Home Economics.

301

Sustainability and economic consequences of creating marine protected areas in multispecies multiactivity context.  

PubMed

The present study deals with harvesting of prey species in the presence of predator in a multispecies marine fishery. The total habitat is divided into two patches: one is reserve area where fishing is completely banned and other zone is called fishing area where only prey is exploited. We assume that the prey fish possesses heterogeneous intrinsic growth rate with uniform carrying capacity where as predator has constant intrinsic growth rate with prey dependent carrying capacity. The analytical conditions are derived to prevent the species extinction for larger employed effort in single (only prey) species fishery. Optimal equilibrium premium are presented for both monospecies and multispecies fishery for all degree of protection. Increasing standing stock (ISS) and protected standing stock (PSS) are measured in the presence of prey-predator interaction. PMID:23149287

Kar, T K; Ghosh, Bapan

2012-11-10

302

Economic analysis of energy use in groundwater irrigation of dry areas: a case study in Syria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed the relationship between the fuel-subsidy policy and groundwater-use expansion at macro level and water allocation to different crops at micro level in Syria. Energy uses for major crops were calculated, and a logistic equation fitted to model groundwater, well drilling, and total-irrigated area trends for the period 1986–1999. Energy costs and water use were modeled using input

Aykut Gül; Fadil Rida; Aden Aw-Hassan; Orhan Büyükalaca

2005-01-01

303

Advantages and disadvantages of a municipal solid waste collection service for citizens of Hanoi City, Vietnam.  

PubMed

Governments of municipalities in Vietnam experiencing dynamic economic growth and dramatic population increases have been struggling to manage increased amounts of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study aimed to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of the current MSW collection service for citizens of the four central districts of Hanoi city, Vietnam, by conducting interviews with 200 households and 200 business entities regarding their satisfaction with the service. The survey results showed that Hanoi city provides an economical collection service with sufficient frequency and at appropriate times for citizens. However, a number of citizens complained about unsanitary conditions in the area surrounding their residence. Business entities had sufficient motivation to sell recyclable waste (RW) to the informal sector, not only to derive revenue from selling RW, but also to reduce the amount of MSW generated, thus reducing the MSW collection fee. Households were not motivated to reduce MSW by selling RW to the informal sector because they paid a fixed collection fee. As a result, an improvement in living standards in the near future is expected to contribute to increasing the amount of MSW generated from households. PMID:23315363

Kawai, Kosuke; Osako, Masahiro

2013-01-11

304

Obesity and Association with Area of Residence, Gender and Socio-Economic Factors in Algerian and Tunisian Adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction The epidemiological transition has resulted in a major increase in the prevalence of obesity in North Africa. This study investigated differences in obesity and its association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic position among adults in Algeria and Tunisia, two countries with socio-economic and socio-cultural similarities. Methods Cross-sectional studies used stratified, three-level, clustered samples of 35–70 year old adults in Algeria, (women n?=?2741, men n?=?2004) and Tunisia (women n?=?2964, men n?=?2379). Thinness was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI)?=?weight/height <18.5 kg/m2, obesity as BMI ?30, and abdominal obesity as waist circumference/height ?0.6. Associations with area of residence, gender, age, education, profession and household welfare were assessed. Results Prevalence of thinness was very low except among men in Algeria (7.3% C.I.[5.9–8.7]). Prevalence of obesity among women was high in Algeria (30.1% C.I.[27.8–32.4]) and Tunisia (37.0% C.I.[34.4–39.6]). It was less so among men (9.1% C.I.[7.1–11.0] and 13.3% C.I.[11.2–15.4]).The results were similar for abdominal obesity. In both countries women were much more obesity-prone than men: the women versus men obesity Odds-Ratio was 4.3 C.I.[3.4–5.5] in Algeria and 3.8 C.I.[3.1–4.7] in Tunisia. Obesity was more prevalent in urban versus rural areas in Tunisia, but not in Algeria (e.g. for women, urban versus rural Odds-Ratio was 2.4 C.I.[1.9–3.1] in Tunisia and only 1.2 C.I.[1.0–5.5] in Algeria). Obesity increased with household welfare, but more markedly in Tunisia, especially among women. Nevertheless, in both countries, even in the lowest quintile of welfare, a fifth of the women were obese. Conclusion The prevention of obesity, especially in women, is a public health issue in both countries, but there were differences in the patterning of obesity according to area of residence and socio-economic position. These specificities must be taken into account in the management of obesity inequalities.

Atek, Madjid; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila; Laid, Youcef; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Mezimeche, Nadia; Bougatef, Souha; Beji, Chiraz; Boutekdjiret, Leila; Martin-Prevel, Yves; Lebcir, Hassiba; Gartner, Agnes; Kolsteren, Patrick; Delpeuch, Francis; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Maire, Bernard

2013-01-01

305

Simplified floor-area-based energy-moisture-economic model for residential buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the United States, 21% of all energy is used in residential buildings (40% of which is for heating and cooling homes). Promising improvements in residential building energy efficiency are underway such as the Building America Program and the Passive House Concept. The ability of improving energy efficiency in buildings is enhanced by building energy modeling tools, which are well advanced and established but lack generality (each building has to be modeled individually) and require high cost, which limits many residential buildings from taking advantage of such powerful tools. This dissertation attempts to develop guidelines based on a per-building-floor-area basis for designing residential buildings that achieve maximum energy efficiency and minimum life cycle cost. Energy and moisture-mass conservation principles were formulated for residential buildings on a per-building-floor-area basis. This includes thermal energy balance, moisture-mass conservation and life cycle cost. The analysis also includes the effects of day-lighting, initial cost estimation and escalation rates. The model was implemented on Excel so it is available for broader audiences and was validated using the standard BESTEST validation procedure for energy models yielding satisfactory results for different scenarios, within a 90% confidence interval. Using the model, parametric optimization studies were conducted in order to study how each variable affects energy and life cycle cost. An efficient whole-building optimization procedure was developed to determine the optimal design based on key design parameters. Whole-building optimization studies were conducted for 12 climate zones using four different criteria: minimum energy consumption, minimum life cycle cost (35 years) using constant energy costs and minimum life cycle cost (35 years) varying escalation rates (-5%, 10%). Conclusions and recommendations were inferred on how to design an optimal house, using each criterion and for all climate zones.

Martinez, Luis A.

306

TELEVISED TRIALS: WEIGHING ADVANTAGES AGAINST DISADVANTAGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent arguments over televised trials juxtapose purported advantages—education about judicial process, restoration of public confidence in the courts, and crime deterrent value—against potential disadvantages—increased prejudicial publicity and public embarrassment of defendants. Although no empirical research has been conducted to test either hypothesis, anecdotal evidence—concerned with news viewing motivation and attention, news recall and retention, and television's function in shaping public

SUSANNA R. BARBER; Suzanna R. Barber

1985-01-01

307

An integrated multi criteria approach for landfill siting in a conflicting environmental, economical and socio-cultural area.  

PubMed

Landfill site selection is a complicated multi criteria land use planning that should convince all related stakeholders with different insights. This paper addresses an integrating approach for landfill siting based on conflicting opinions among environmental, economical and socio-cultural expertise. In order to gain optimized siting decision, the issue was investigated in different viewpoints. At first step based on opinion sampling and questionnaire results of 35 experts familiar with local situations, the national environmental legislations and international practices, 13 constraints and 15 factors were built in hierarchical structure. Factors divided into three environmental, economical and socio-cultural groups. In the next step, the GIS-database was developed based on the designated criteria. In the third stage, the criteria standardization and criteria weighting were accomplished. The relative importance weights of criteria and subcriteria were estimated, respectively, using analytical hierarchy process and rank ordering methods based on different experts opinions. Thereafter, by using simple additive weighting method, the suitability maps for landfill siting in Marvdasht, Iran, was evaluated in environmental, economical and socio-cultural visions. The importance of each group of criteria in its own vision was assigned to be higher than two other groups. In the fourth stage, the final suitability map was obtained after crossing three resulted maps in different visions and reported in five suitability classes for landfill construction. This map indicated that almost 1224 ha of the study area can be considered as best suitable class for landfill siting considering all visions. In the last stage, a comprehensive field visit was performed to verify the selected site obtained from the proposed model. This field inspection has confirmed the proposed integrating approach for the landfill siting. PMID:22503155

Eskandari, Mahnaz; Homaee, Mehdi; Mahmodi, Shahla

2012-04-13

308

Recommendations for Economic Education and the Free Enterprise System in the Following Areas: Teacher Competency, the Curriculum, Participation by Business in Economic Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recommendations are made so that teachers can have a sound background in economics. Teachers should be able to understand and to teach the skills and concepts used in the free enterprise system. This report is designed to help preservice and inservice teachers improve their knowledge of economics and the free enterprise system. The first chapter…

Davis, E. Dale

309

Perceived influences on and strategies to reduce sedentary behavior in disadvantaged women experiencing depressive symptoms: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveRecent studies have found linked sedentary behavior (e.g. Television viewing) with risk of depression. Socio-economically disadvantaged women comprise one group at high risk of both sedentary behavior and depression; hence it is important to explore the influences on sedentary behavior amongst this target group. This study assessed perceived influences on sedentary behavior (particularly television viewing) amongst women living in disadvantaged

Megan Teychenne; Kylie Ball; Jo Salmon

2011-01-01

310

Design, economic analysis and environmental considerations of mini-grid hybrid power system with reverse osmosis desalination plant for remote areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the design process of a mini-grid hybrid power system with reverse osmosis desalination plant for remote areas, together with an economic analysis and environmental considerations for the project life cycle. It presents a design scenario for supplying electricity and fulfilling demand for clean water in remote areas by utilising renewable energy sources and a diesel generator with

Ahmad Agus Setiawan; Yu Zhao; Chem. V. Nayar

2009-01-01

311

Research With Senior Level Students: Advantages--Disadvantages--Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes advantages and disadvantages of undergraduate research in chemical engineering at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. Also describes a five-year program designed to eliminate disadvantages and complement the graduate program. (SK)

Tassios, Dimitrios

1981-01-01

312

Disadvantaged Students in the Traditional University Reading Improvement Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differential effectiveness of a traditionally-oriented college reading improvement program was assessed for culturally disadvantaged and typical students by means of the Nelson Denny Reading Test. Although the, disadvantaged group improved significantly in vocabulary and rate, no measurable gain was demonstrated in comprehension. The failure of the disadvantaged students to make as much progress as the regular enrollees appears to

Lucy Zaccaria; James Creaser; Mitchell Jacobs; Carmen Carsello

1971-01-01

313

Education and Social Crisis; Perspectives on Teaching Disadvantaged Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A collection of readings presents 49 papers published between 1959 and 1965. The volume is organized into three parts: (1) cultural values and family life of disadvantaged youth; (2) problems facing disadvantaged youth in the schools; and (3) programs and progress in meeting the educational needs of disadvantaged youth. Introductions by the…

Keach, Everett T., Jr., Ed.; And Others

314

Age Differences in the Personality Profiles of Disadvantaged Females.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study systematically investigated age differences in personality characteristics of advantaged and disadvantaged high school and college females. Two hundred and thirty three subjects (Ss) were randomly selected from an urban environment: 83 disadvantaged and 112 advantaged high school girls, and 38 disadvantaged college women. The test…

Soares, Louise M.; Soares, Anthony T.

315

Selected Area Fishery Evaluation Project Economic Analysis Study Final Report, Final Draft Revision 4: November 10, 2006.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Study is to provide an economic review of current and proposed changes to the Select Area Fishery Evaluation Project (SAFE or Project). The Study results are the information requested in comments made on the Project by a joint review dated March 2005 by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) and Independent Economic Analysis Board (IEAB). North et al. (2006) addressed technical questions about operations and plans, and this report contains the response information for comments concerning Project economics. This report can be considered an economic feasibility review meeting guidelines for cost-effective analysis developed by the IEAB (2003). It also contains other economic measurement descriptions to illustrate the economic effects of SAFE. The SAFE is an expansion of a hatchery project (locally called the Clatsop Economic Development Council Fisheries Project or CEDC) started in 1977 that released an early run coho (COH) stock into the Youngs River. The Youngs River entrance to the Columbia River at River Mile 12 is called Youngs Bay, which is located near Astoria, Oregon. The purpose of the hatchery project was to provide increased fishing opportunities for the in-river commercial fishing gillnet fleet. Instead of just releasing fish at the hatchery, a small scale net pen acclimation project in Youngs Bay was tried in 1987. Hirose et al. (1998) found that 1991-1992 COH broodstock over-wintered at the net pens had double the smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) of traditional hatchery release, less than one percent stray rates, and 99 percent fishery harvests. It was surmised that smolts from other Columbia River hatcheries could be hauled to the net pens for acclimation and release to take advantage of the SAR's and fishing rates. Proposals were tendered to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other agencies to fund the expansion for using other hatcheries smolts and other off-channel release sites. The BPA, who had been providing funds to the Project since 1982, greatly increased their financial participation for the experimental expansion of the net pen operations in 1993. Instead of just being a funding partner in CEDC operations, the BPA became a major financing source for other hatchery production operations. The BPA has viewed the 10 plus years of funding since then as an explorative project with two phases: a 'research' phase ending in 1993, and a 'development' phase ending in 2006. The next phase is referred to in proposals to BPA for continued funding as an 'establishment' phase to be started in 2007. There are three components of SAFE: (1) The CEDC owns and operates the net pens in the Columbia River estuary on the Oregon side. The CEDC also owns and operates a hatchery on the South Fork Klaskanine River. (2) There are many other hatcheries contributing smolts to the net pen operations. The present suite of hatcheries are operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). The WDFW owns and operates the net pens at Deep River on the Washington side of the Columbia River. (3) The monitoring and evaluation (M&E) responsibilities are performed by employees of WDFW and ODFW. BPA provides funding for all three components as part of NPCC Project No. 199306000. The CEDC and other contributing hatcheries have other sources of funds that also support the SAFE. BPA's minor share (less than 10 percent) of CEDC funding in 1982 grew to about 55 percent in 1993 with the beginning of the development phase of the Project. The balance of the CEDC budget over the years has been from other federal, state, and local government programs. It has also included a 10 percent fee assessment (five percent of ex-vessel value received by harvesters plus five percent of purchase value made by processors) on harvests that take place in off-channel locations near the release sites. The CEDC total annual budget in the last several years has been in the $600 to $700 thousand range. The Project over

Bonneville Power Administration; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

2006-11-01

316

Aboriginal premature mortality within South Australia 1999-2006: a cross-sectional analysis of small area results  

PubMed Central

Background This paper initially describes premature mortality by Aboriginality in South Australia during 1999 to 2006. It then examines how these outcomes vary across area level socio-economic disadvantage and geographic remoteness. Methods The retrospective, cross-sectional analysis uses estimated resident population by sex, age and small areas based on the 2006 Census, and Unit Record mortality data. Premature mortality outcomes are measured using years of life lost (YLL). Subsequent intrastate comparisons are based on indirect sex and age adjusted YLL results. A multivariate model uses area level socio-economic disadvantage rank, geographic remoteness, and an interaction between the two variables to predict premature mortality outcomes. Results Aboriginal people experienced 1.1% of total deaths but 2.2% of YLL and Aboriginal premature mortality rates were 2.65 times greater than the South Australian average. Premature mortality for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people increased significantly as area disadvantage increased. Among Aboriginal people though, a significant main effect for area remoteness was also observed, together with an interaction between disadvantage and remoteness. The synergistic effect shows the social gradient between area disadvantage and premature mortality increased as remoteness increased. Conclusions While confirming the gap in premature mortality rates between Aboriginal South Australians and the rest of the community, the study also found a heterogeneity of outcomes within the Aboriginal community underlie this difference. The results support the existence of relationship between area level socio-economic deprivation, remoteness and premature mortality in the midst of an affluent society. The study concludes that vertically equitable resourcing according to population need is an important response to the stark mortality gap and its exacerbation by area socio-economic position and remoteness.

2011-01-01

317

Castration, other management practices and socio-economic implications for dog keepers in Nsukka area, Enugu state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Structured interviews were used to obtain information from 258 respondents from among 625 people who were selected by stratified random sampling from villages in five of seven local government areas of Nsukka area. Information included gender and literacy status of the respondents, whether the respondents had (between 1990 and 1995) presented any of their dogs for castration, the comparative market value of the dogs, and dog use and owner preference for castrates in performance of such duties. Information on bathing, vaccinations, confinements, use of veterinarians and cultural and religious uses of dogs also were sought. Also, 208 (80%) of the respondents had their dogs castrated. Of the respondents, 23% were literate, 37% semiliterate and 40% illiterate. Of the 367 non-respondents, 63% were not available during the time of contact and 37% resented dog keeping and therefore refused to talk. About 958 dogs were owned by respondents, of these dogs, 56%, 27% and 17% were females, intact males and castrates, respectively. There was no association between the respondent's literacy status and dog-sex preference in performance of such uses as security, hunting, and "economic reasons". The three most-important reasons for dog keeping were security, pet and hunting. However, the use of castrates for security was favoured by most keepers irrespective of literacy status. Most of the respondents agreed that dogs are used as gifts and 72% of the respondents agree that dog meat is a protein source. Castration should be encouraged because of its market value. Usage was low of veterinary services, confinement, and bathing of dogs. PMID:12392878

Eze, C A; Eze, M C

2002-11-15

318

49 CFR 1.62 - Delegations to the Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Delegations to the Director...Disadvantaged Business Utilization... Delegations to the Director...Disadvantaged Business Utilization...Disadvantaged Business Utilization is delegated authority to: (a)...

2011-10-01

319

Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity  

PubMed Central

In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous inequity (AI) and disadvantageous inequity (DI). AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed (1) hypoactivation of the ventral striatum (VS) under DI but not under AI; (2) inequity induced activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) that was stronger under DI than under AI; (3) correlations between subjective evaluations of AI evaluation and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal and left insular activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. One possible interpretation is that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns.

Fliessbach, Klaus; Phillipps, Courtney B.; Trautner, Peter; Schnabel, Marieke; Elger, Christian E.; Falk, Armin; Weber, Bernd

2012-01-01

320

Epidemiologic and Economic Burden of Influenza in the Outpatient Setting: A Prospective Study in a Subtropical Area of China  

PubMed Central

Objectives To understand the incidence of outpatient influenza cases in a subtropical area of China and the associated economic burden on patients' families. Methods A hospital-based prospective study was conducted in Zhuhai City during 2008–2009. All outpatient influenza-like illness (ILI) cases were identified in 28 sentinel hospitals. A representative sample of throat swabs from ILI cases were collected for virus isolation using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The incidence of outpatient influenza cases in Zhuhai was estimated on the basis of the number of influenza patients detected by the sentinel sites. A telephone survey on the direct costs associated with illness was conducted as a follow-up. Results The incidence of influenza was estimated to be 4.1 per 1,000 population in 2008 and 19.2 per 1,000 population in 2009. Children aged <5 years were the most-affected population, suffering from influenza at the highest rates (34.3 per 1,000 population in 2008 and 95.3 per 1,000 population in 2009). A high incidence of 29.2–40.9 per 1000 population was also seen in young people aged 5–24 years in 2009. ILI activity and influenza virus isolations adopted a consistent seasonal pattern, with a summer peak in July 2008 and the longest epidemic period lasting from July–December 2009. The medical costs per episode of influenza among urban patients were higher than those for rural patients. A total of $1.1 million in direct economic losses were estimated to be associated with outpatient influenza during 2008–2009 in Zhuhai community. Conclusions Influenza attacks children aged <5 years in greater proportions than children in other age groups. Seasonal influenza 2008 and Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 had different epidemiological and etiological characteristics. Direct costs (mostly medical costs) impose an enormous burden on the patient family. Vaccination strategies for high-risk groups need to be further strengthened.

Guo, Ru-ning; Zheng, Hui-zhen; Huang, Li-qun; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Chan-kun; Lin, Jin-yan; He, Jian-feng; Zhang, Jin-qing

2012-01-01

321

Adjustment to university and academic performance among disadvantaged students in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adjustment to the university environment is regarded as an important factor in predicting university outcomes. This study explores the pathways taken by adjustment and other psychosocial variables (help?seeking, academic motivation, self?esteem, perceived stress, and perceived academic overload), in relation to the success of economically and educationally disadvantaged students at university. Participants were 194 first?year students on need?based financial aid at

Johann Louw; Kitty Dumont

2009-01-01

322

Drugs, Guns, and Disadvantaged Youths: Co-Occurring Behavior and the Code of the Street  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Guided by Anderson's theory of the code of the street, this study explored social mechanisms linking individual-level disadvantage factors with the adoption of beliefs grounded in the code of the street and with drug trafficking and gun carrying--the co-occurring behavior shaping violence among young men in urban areas. Secondary data were…

Allen, Andrea N.; Lo, Celia C.

2012-01-01

323

Do parental neighbourhood perceptions contribute to child behaviour problems? A study of disadvantaged children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade disadvantaged communities are increasingly the target for intervention, with the introduction of a number of Area Based Initiatives (ABIs) designed to reduce the effects of poverty on children. However, an exclusive focus on the neighbourhood can overlook interactions between individuals' characteristics and their surroundings. Neighbourhood deprivation, parental mental health, parental personality, family stress and harsh discipline

Jacqueline Barnes; Helen Cheng

2006-01-01

324

STTEPping in the right direction? Western classical music in an orchestral programme for disadvantaged African youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at STTEP, an outreach project currently housed at the University of Pretoria, which concentrates on the teaching of western orchestral instruments, plus background areas such as music theory, to disadvantaged children and youth from a variety of townships around Pretoria, South Africa. STTEP’s direction can well be described as ‘right’ – pupils are already surrounded by all

Caroline van Niekerk; Sanna Salminen

2008-01-01

325

STTEPping in the Right Direction? Western Classical Music in an Orchestral Programme for Disadvantaged African Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article looks at STTEP, an outreach project currently housed at the University of Pretoria, which concentrates on the teaching of western orchestral instruments, plus background areas such as music theory, to disadvantaged children and youth from a variety of townships around Pretoria, South Africa. STTEP's direction can well be described as…

van Niekerk, Caroline; Salminen, Sanna

2008-01-01

326

Crossing the Bridge: Overcoming Entrenched Disadvantage through Student-centred Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quality school education is essential if young people are to have access to the greatest possible opportunities in life, but it is not a universal experience in Australia. Instead, too many young people are disengaged from school, especially those in the middle years of schooling and those living in disadvantaged areas. This study examined the…

Black, Rosalyn

2007-01-01

327

Inspiring Teachers to Discern and Enrich Gifted Learners in a Disadvantaged Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a platform for our voices, and the voices of the teachers with whom we are interacting, to be heard via our critical reflections on a project undertaken to assist teachers to discern gifted learners in a disadvantaged environment in the jurisdiction area of Port Elizabeth (now Nelson Mandela Bay). The article outlines how we systematically reflected on

Tilla Olivier; Lesley Wood

2007-01-01

328

Community Involvement and Adolescent Mental Health: Moderating Effects of Race/Ethnicity and Neighborhood Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Social development and stress process theories suggest that participation in one's community can function as a protective factor for mental health, especially for youth from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. However, the effects of community involvement on adolescent mental health could vary across racial/ethnic groups and levels of…

Hull, Pamela; Kilbourne, Barbara; Reece, Michelle; Husaini, Baqar

2008-01-01

329

District heating\\/cogeneration application studies for the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. Market assessment and economic analysis of the St. Paul district heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of the St. Paul District Heating Demonstration Project are: (1) to assess the detailed economic feasibility of a cogeneration, hot water district heating system servicing the commercial core area of St. Paul, Minnesota, and (2) to develop an implementation plan for financing and construction of the first phase of the system over a four- to five-year time span.

H. O. Nyman; J. O. Kolb; M. Krautbauer

1983-01-01

330

Do All Fit One Size? An Evaluation of the ECB Policy Response to the Changing Economic Conditions in Euro Area Member States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically investigates the extent to which the European Central Bank has responded to evolving economic conditions in its member states as opposed to the euro area as a whole. Based on a Taylor rule-type policy reaction function, we conduct counterfactual exercises that compare the monetary policy behavior of the ECB with the alternative hypothetical scenarios (1) were the

Patrick M. Crowley; Jim Lee

331

Wind Farms in Rural Areas: How Far Do Community Benefits from Wind Farms Represent a Local Economic Development Opportunity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although the large-scale deployment of renewable technologies can bring significant, localised economic and environmental changes, there has been remarkably little empirical investigation of the rural development implications. This paper seeks to redress this through an analysis of the economic development opportunities surrounding wind energy…

Munday, Max; Bristow, Gill; Cowell, Richard

2011-01-01

332

75 FR 9534 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XU79 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2010-03-03

333

75 FR 52891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XY57 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2010-08-30

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77 FR 58505 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XC207 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2012-09-21

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77 FR 56564 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XC206 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2012-09-13

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77 FR 3638 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XA954 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2012-01-25

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75 FR 63104 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XZ61 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2010-10-14

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75 FR 11749 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XV12 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2010-03-12

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77 FR 60321 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XC270 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2012-10-03

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75 FR 64172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XZ81 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the opening of...

2010-10-19

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76 FR 11394 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XA257 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2011-03-02

342

75 FR 9534 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XU73 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the opening of...

2010-03-03

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76 FR 10779 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XA237 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the opening of the...

2011-02-28

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75 FR 57702 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XZ13 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the opening of...

2010-09-22

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76 FR 14319 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XA294 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2011-03-16

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76 FR 55606 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XA684 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2011-09-08

347

75 FR 64958 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XZ84 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the opening of...

2010-10-21

348

77 FR 64917 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0624-XC301 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the opening of the...

2012-10-24

349

76 FR 11393 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XA258 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the opening of the...

2011-03-02

350

Role of self-sufficiency, productivity and diversification on the economic sustainability of farming systems with autochthonous sheep breeds in less favoured areas in Southern Europe.  

PubMed

Traditional mixed livestock cereal- and pasture-based sheep farming systems in Europe are threatened by intensification and specialisation processes. However, the intensification process does not always yield improved economic results or efficiency. This study involved a group of farmers that raised an autochthonous sheep breed (Ojinegra de Teruel) in an unfavourable area of North-East Spain. This study aimed to typify the farms and elucidate the existing links between economic performance and certain sustainability indicators (i.e. productivity, self-sufficiency and diversification). Information was obtained through direct interviews with 30 farms (73% of the farmers belonging to the breeders association). Interviews were conducted in 2009 and involved 32 indicators regarding farm structure, management and economic performance. With a principal component analysis, three factors were obtained explaining 77.9% of the original variance. This factors were named as inputs/self-sufficiency, which included the use of on-farm feeds, the amount of variable costs per ewe and economic performance; productivity, which included lamb productivity and economic autonomy; and productive orientation, which included the degree of specialisation in production. A cluster analysis identified the following four groups of farms: high-input intensive system; low-input self-sufficient system; specialised livestock system; and diversified crops-livestock system. In conclusion, despite the large variability between and within groups, the following factors that explain the economic profitability of farms were identified: (i) high feed self-sufficiency and low variable costs enhance the economic performance (per labour unit) of the farms; (ii) animal productivity reduces subsidy dependence, but does not necessarily imply better economic performance; and (iii) diversity of production enhances farm flexibility, but is not related to economic performance. PMID:23552287

Ripoll-Bosch, R; Joy, M; Bernués, A

2013-04-01

351

Correlates of dietary resilience among socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Despite increased risk for unhealthy diets, some socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents manage to consume a healthy diet, thereby showing ‘dietary resilience’. This investigation aimed to describe the vegetable and fruit intakes of socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents, and explore the intrapersonal, social and environmental factors associated with more favourable dietary intakes among socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents.Subjects\\/Methods:The present investigation draws on data from 1014 socioeconomically

L D A Stephens; S A McNaughton; D Crawford; A MacFarlane; K Ball; LDA Stephens

2011-01-01

352

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the northern California planning area. Final report, 1970-2020  

SciTech Connect

The report presents baseline socio-economic profiles of Del Norte, Humboldt, and Mendocino Counties in northern California. It is one of six reports prepared under the contract to develop baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in California, Oregon and Washington. The profiles cover demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and port capacity, marine traffic, and fishing. Secondary sources were used to prepare the profiles. The focus of the profiles is 1980, but 1970 to 2020 is covered to the extent possible with existing data.

Brown, G.; Kolp, P.; Wallace, B.

1987-10-01

353

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the central California planning area. Final report, 1970-2020  

SciTech Connect

The report presents baseline socio-economic profiles of Sonoma, Marin, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties in central California. It is one of six reports prepared under the contract to develop baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in California, Oregon, and Washington. The profiles cover demographics, economics, housing public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and port capacity, marine traffic, and fishing. Secondary sources were used to prepare the profiles. The focus of the profiles is 1980, but 1970 to 2020 is covered to the extent possible with existing data.

Brown, G.; Kolp, P.; Wallace, B.

1987-10-01

354

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the southern California planning area. Final report, 1970-2020  

SciTech Connect

The report presents baseline socio-economic profiles of Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego Counties in southern California. It is one of six reports prepared under the contract to develop baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in California, Oregon, and Washington. The profiles cover demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and port capacity, marine traffic, and fishing. Secondary sources were used to prepare the profiles. The focus of the profiles is 1980, but 1970 to 2020 is covered to the extent possible with existing data.

Brown, G.; Kolp, P.; Wallace, B.

1987-10-01

355

[Laboratory unification: advantages and disadvantages for clinical microbiology].  

PubMed

This article aims to reflect on which areas or tasks of microbiology laboratories could be unified with those of clinical biochemistry, hematology, immunology or pathology laboratories to benefit patients and the health system, as well as the areas that should remain independent since their amalgamation would not only fail to provide a benefit but could even jeopardize the quality of microbiological diagnosis, and consequently patient care. To do this, the distinct analytic phases of diagnosis are analyzed, and the advantages and disadvantages of amalgamation are evaluated in each phase. The pros and cons of the unification of certain areas such as the computer system, occupational risk units, customer service, purchasing logistics, and materials storage, etc, are also discussed. Lastly, the effect of unification on urgent microbiology diagnosis is analyzed. Microbiological diagnosis should be unique. The microbiologist should perform an overall evaluation of the distinct techniques used for a particular patient, both those that involve direct diagnosis (staining, culture, antigen detection techniques or molecular techniques) and indirect diagnosis (antibody detection). Moreover, the microbiology laboratory should be independent, with highly trained technicians and specialists in microbiology that provide added value as experts in infection and as key figures in the process of establishing a correct etiological diagnosis. PMID:21129589

Andreu, Antonia; Matas, Lurdes

2010-10-01

356

Recycling of Industrial Wastes, Illustrated by the Example of the Industrialized Economic Area of North Baden/North Wuerttemberg.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After investigating the technical and organizational problems associated with the re-use of a number of waste products, which have not been considered suitable for utilization so far, economically promising proposals were elaborated and partly put into pr...

G. Gieseler K. Purps U. Rathmann H. Rauschenberger R. Schiller

1977-01-01

357

77 FR 38210 - Channel Spacing and Bandwidth Limitations for Certain Economic Area (EA)-Based 800 MHz...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Spacing and Bandwidth Limitations for Certain Economic...requirement and bandwidth limitation. DATES: Section 90...7)--Bandwidth limitations. Form Number: N...spacing and bandwidth limitation in part 90....

2012-06-27

358

77 FR 33972 - Channel Spacing and Bandwidth Limitations for Certain Economic Area (EA)-based 800 MHz...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Spacing and Bandwidth Limitations for Certain Economic...spacing and bandwidth limitation, subject to conditions...spacing and bandwidth limitation prescribed by Sec...markets covering large population centers. Sprint Nextel...spacing or bandwidth limitation in five of the...

2012-06-08

359

Delineation of Economic and Health Service Areas and the Location of Health Manpower Education Programs. A Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Findings of a study to determine whether the economic system could be used effectively as a surrogate in health planning for the health - care delivery system, and to estimate the interrelationships of the health manpower education system with the economi...

1974-01-01

360

Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.  

PubMed

The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

Porter, M E

361

Nuclear reactor operator training for disadvantaged Americans  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics Department of the University of Virginia was awarded a grant by the US Department of Energy in 1984 to establish and administer a reactor operator training program for disadvantaged Americans. Stipends were provided by the US DOE for five trainees with the anticipation that four other educational facilities would participate in the program. Sub-contracts were awarded to four other Universities: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The University of Missouri at Columbia, Oregon State University, and The State University of New York at Buffalo. The initial two year program was very successful and the grant was renewed in late 1986 for another two years. MIT declined to participate in the second program and was replaced by Ohio State University. U.VA. was notified in September, 1987 that new funding would no longer be provided for this program after December, 1987. U.VA. requested and was granted a no cost extention for the program through December, 1990, since sufficient funds remained in the initial grant to pursue the program further. DOE subsequently approved a no cost extension through November, 1992.

Farrar, J.P.; Mulder, R.U.

1992-12-01

362

Airtraq optical laryngoscope: advantages and disadvantages.  

PubMed

Difficult or unsuccesful tracheal intubation is one of the important causes for morbidity and mortality in susceptible patients. Almost 30% of the anesthesia-related deaths are induced by the complications of difficult airway management and more than 85% of all respiratory related complications cause brain injury or death. Nowadays, due to the advances in technology, new videolaryngoscopic devices became available. Airtraq is a novel single-use laryngoscope which provides glottis display without any deviation in the normal position of the oral, pharyngeal or the tracheal axes. With the help of the display lens glottis and the surrounding structures are visualised and under direct view of its tip the tracheal tube is introduced between the vocal cords. In patients having restricted neck motion or limited mouth opening (provided that it is greater than 3 cm) Airtraq offers the advantage of a better display. Moreover the video image can be transfered to an external monitor thus an experienced specialist can provide assistance and an educational course can be conducted simultaneously. On the other hand the Airtraq videolaryngoscopic devices possess certain disadvantages including the need of experience and the time demand for the operator to learn how to use them properly, the rapid deterioration of their display in the presence of a swelling or a secretion and the fact that they are rather complicated and expensive devices. The Airtraq device has already documented benefits in the management of difficult airways, however serial utilization obviously necessitates experience. PMID:24180160

Saracoglu, Kemal Tolga; Eti, Zeynep; Gogus, Fevzi Yilmaz

2013-06-01

363

Exploring situational factors shaping access in a laptop program for socially disadvantaged children in India: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-cost laptop programs attempt to address gaps in access to computers in developing countries. However, the translation of computing access from intention to actuality is mediated by many situational factors. This research presents a case study of how access to a set of laptops donated to a school for socially disadvantaged children in India was shaped by social, logistical, economic

Poornima Padmanabhan; Alyssa Friend Wise

2012-01-01

364

Matching the Disadvantaged to Job Opportunities: Structural Explanations for the Past Successes of the Center for Employment Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Center for Employment Training is generally acknowledged as an effective program for skills training and placing economically disadvantaged populations into entry-level jobs. Program success is explained by the ability to develop skills demanded by industry while becoming part of employers' own, trusted recruiting networks. These findings suggest the importance of social networks (connecting job seekers to employers) to the

Edwin Melendez; Bennett Harrison

1998-01-01

365

How Community Development Programmes Can Foster Re-Engagement with Learning in Disadvantaged Communities: Leadership as Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family and community capacity building projects in Tasmania are attempting to address the disadvantage of communities marginalised by socio-economic and other influences. Collaborations between the projects, community members and groups, and education and training organisations, have resulted in a leadership process which has fostered reengagement…

Millar, Pat; Kilpatrick, Sue

2005-01-01

366

Subpopulational Profiling of the Psychoeducational Dimensions of Disadvantaged Preschool Children: A Conceptual Prospectus for an Interdisciplinary Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Program planning for economically deprived children might be improved if behavioral information pertinent to specific subcultural groups were systematically obtained. This prospectus focuses on developing a three-part behavioral model which, when integrated, would identify and profile the nature of disadvantagement in terms idiosyncratic and…

Boger, Robert P.; Ambron, Sueann R.

367

Socioeconomic disadvantage, proximal environmental experiences, and socioemotional and academic adjustment in early adolescence: investigation of a mediated effects model.  

PubMed

This study investigated interrelations among conditions of household socioeconomic disadvantage, proximal environmental experiences, and adaptational outcomes in a sample of 398 middle grade, early adolescents from a predominantly poor, rural area. Findings indicated that levels of disadvantage were related to both socioemotional and academic adjustment, with those from relatively disadvantaged backgrounds faring most poorly. Specifically, youth from homes in which adults were employed in low-income, unskilled occupations were found to have lower levels of school performance and achievement compared to those from homes in which adults were employed in higher paying semi-skilled or skilled/professional occupations. Further, youth from families in which neither parent had graduated from high school exhibited significantly worse socioemotional and academic adjustment than did those whose parents had higher educational levels. Youth who lived in relatively disadvantaged homes also reported more negative experiences of proximal environmental conditions relating to family and school contexts and greater exposure to stressful life events. Most notably, findings provided support for employing an ecological-mediational perspective to understand patterns of linkage between socioeconomic disadvantage and levels of adjustment. Support for this viewpoint included the finding that proximal environmental experiences were significant predictors of adolescent adjustment, independent of shared variance with conditions of household disadvantage, whereas conditions of disadvantage in several instances were no longer related significantly to indices of adjustment once their association with proximal environmental conditions was taken into account. The discussion considers implications for the targeting and scope of ecologically oriented approaches to preventive intervention. PMID:7789201

Felner, R D; Brand, S; DuBois, D L; Adan, A M; Mulhall, P F; Evans, E G

1995-06-01

368

L'enseignant-ressource en milieu urbain defavorise: Une intervention educative efficace. (The Teacher as a Resource in Disadvantaged Urban Environments: An Educational Intervention.)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a continuing debate on the effectiveness of educational interventions among disadvantaged groups, this article reports the results of an empirical study of 1,567 pupils from the first and sixth grades, attending 20 primary schools in disadvantaged areas of Montreal, Canada. Assesses the effects of using teachers as "resource persons" on…

Crespo, Manuel; Carignan, Nicole

2001-01-01

369

Affiliation to youth gangs during adolescence: the interaction between childhood psychopathic tendencies and neighborhood disadvantage.  

PubMed

Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join. In this study, we tested whether a combination of individual propensity and facilitating neighborhood conditions amplifies the probabilities of youth gang affiliation. A subset of 3,522 adolescents was selected from a nationally representative, prospective sample of Canadian youth. Psychopathic tendencies (i.e., a combination of high hyperactivity, low anxiety, and low prosociality as compared to national norms) were assessed through parent reports, while neighborhood characteristics (i.e., concentrated economic disadvantage and residential instability) were derived from the 2001 Census of Canada. Our results indicated that neighborhood residential instability, but not neighborhood concentrated economic disadvantage, interacted with individual propensity to predict youth gang membership. Adolescents with preexisting psychopathic tendencies appeared especially vulnerable mainly if they were raised in residentially unstable neighborhoods. PMID:17610153

Dupéré, Véronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

2007-07-04

370

Measures of Disadvantage: Is Car Ownership a Good Indicator?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A need to better understand the multidimensional nature of disadvantage is leading to the adoption of a wider range of measurement variables. One variable now commonly adopted is zero car ownership. This paper challenges the logic of including "not having a car" as an indicator of disadvantage. It argues that this can distort the real picture of…

Johnson, Victoria; Currie, Graham; Stanley, Janet

2010-01-01

371

A Guide to Federal Assistance Programs for the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this guide to work experience and related Federal programs for the disadvantaged, emphasis is on programs in which the most effective participation by installations of the Air Force Systems Command (AFSC) seems feasible. Beginning with an overview of the needs of the disadvantaged and of AFSC involvement, this paper gives information needed as…

Department of the Air Force, Washington, DC.

372

Education and training and the avoidance of financial disadvantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poverty and other forms of financial disadvantage are the most obvious categories of social disadvantage. Being in poverty or suffering financial stress has serious detrimental implications for housing, debt reduction and the ability to obtain credit, future career prospects, marriage and partnering, health, crime and children’s education. Generally, they reduce the ability to fully and actively participate in society. Not

Marks Gary N

2011-01-01

373

Measures of Disadvantage: Is Car Ownership a Good Indicator?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A need to better understand the multidimensional nature of disadvantage is leading to the adoption of a wider range of measurement variables. One variable now commonly adopted is zero car ownership. This paper challenges the logic of including "not having a car" as an indicator of disadvantage. It argues that this can distort the real picture of…

Johnson, Victoria; Currie, Graham; Stanley, Janet

2010-01-01

374

Social Disadvantage: Cause or Consequence of Impending Psychosis?  

PubMed Central

Background: An association between social disadvantage and established psychosis is well documented in the literature, but there remains a lack of data on the social circumstances of patients before they became ill. We investigated whether social disadvantage at, and prior to, first contact with psychiatric services, is associated with psychosis. Method: We collected information on social disadvantage in childhood and adulthood from 278 cases presenting with their first episode of psychosis to the South London and Maudsley National Health Service Foundation Trust and from 226 controls recruited from the local population. Three markers of childhood social disadvantage and 3 markers of disadvantage in adulthood were analyzed. Results: Long term separation from, and death of, a parent before the age of 17 years were both strongly associated with a 2- to 3-fold-increased odds of psychosis. Cases were also significantly more likely to report 2 or more markers of adult social disadvantage than healthy controls (OR = 9.03) at the time of the first presentation with psychosis, independent of a number of confounders. When we repeated these analyses for long-standing adult social disadvantage, we found that the strength of the association decreased but still remained significant for 1 year (OR = 5.67) and 5 years (OR = 2.57) prior to the first contact. Conclusions: Social disadvantage indexes exposure to factors operating prior to onset that increase the risk of psychosis, both during childhood and adulthood.

Stilo, Simona A.

2013-01-01

375

Social disadvantage: cause or consequence of impending psychosis?  

PubMed

Background: An association between social disadvantage and established psychosis is well documented in the literature, but there remains a lack of data on the social circumstances of patients before they became ill. We investigated whether social disadvantage at, and prior to, first contact with psychiatric services, is associated with psychosis. Method: We collected information on social disadvantage in childhood and adulthood from 278 cases presenting with their first episode of psychosis to the South London and Maudsley National Health Service Foundation Trust and from 226 controls recruited from the local population. Three markers of childhood social disadvantage and 3 markers of disadvantage in adulthood were analyzed. Results: Long term separation from, and death of, a parent before the age of 17 years were both strongly associated with a 2- to 3-fold-increased odds of psychosis. Cases were also significantly more likely to report 2 or more markers of adult social disadvantage than healthy controls (OR = 9.03) at the time of the first presentation with psychosis, independent of a number of confounders. When we repeated these analyses for long-standing adult social disadvantage, we found that the strength of the association decreased but still remained significant for 1 year (OR = 5.67) and 5 years (OR = 2.57) prior to the first contact. Conclusions: Social disadvantage indexes exposure to factors operating prior to onset that increase the risk of psychosis, both during childhood and adulthood. PMID:23091267

Stilo, Simona A; Di Forti, Marta; Mondelli, Valeria; Falcone, Aurora M; Russo, Manuela; O'Connor, Jennifer; Palmer, Emma; Paparelli, Alessandra; Kolliakou, Anna; Sirianni, Miriam; Taylor, Heather; Handley, Rowena; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine; Marques, Tiago R; Zoccali, Rocco; David, Anthony; Murray, Robin M; Morgan, Craig

2012-10-22

376

Duration or Disadvantage? Exploring Nativity, Ethnicity, and Health in Midlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives . This study examined nativity as a risk factor for poor physical and emotional health for an ethnically di- verse population making the transition into retirement. The authors addressed whether the health disadvantage observed for immigrants lessens with increased time spent in the country (supporting theories of assimilation) or increases with duration of residence (supporting theories of cumulative disadvantage).

Jacqueline L. Angel; Cynthia J. Buckley; Art Sakamoto

2001-01-01

377

Does Female Disadvantage Mean Lower Access to Food?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on gender differentials in nutrition demonstrates that the calorie intake of females is generally as adequate as that of males at all ages. Female disadvantage in micronutrient intake is, however, frequent. Pregnant and lactating women are disadvantaged relative to both men and other women. In South Asia there is evidence that boys are advantaged over girls in food

Laurie F. DeRose; Maitreyi Das; Sara R. Millman

2000-01-01

378

Reducing Consumer Disadvantage: Reassessing Access in the Retail Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive interviews about the food shopping experiences of one disadvantaged group—wheelchair users in South Wales—enables a reassessment of the access dimension of consumer disadvantage following a period of pronounced retail changes and improvements associated with the Disability Discrimination Act. Although a slim majority of wheelchair users felt that they had proper choice over their shopping locations, many expressed continuing experiences

Rosemary D. F. Bromley; David L. Matthews

2007-01-01

379

Some aspects of resource uncertainty and their economic consequences in assessment of the 1002 area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Exploration ventures in frontier areas have high risks. Before committing to them, firms prepare regional resource assessments to evaluate the potential payoffs. With no historical basis for directly estimating size distribution of undiscovered accumulations, reservoir attribute probability distributions can be assessed subjectively and used to project undiscovered accumulation sizes. Three questions considered here are: (1) what distributions should be used to characterize the subjective assessments of reservoir attributes, (2) how parsimonious can the analyst be when eliciting subjective information from the assessment geologist, and (3) what are consequences of ignoring dependencies among reservoir attributes? The standard or norm used for comparing outcomes is the computed cost function describing costs of finding, developing, and producing undiscovered oil accumulations. These questions are examined in the context of the US Geological Survey's recently published regional assessment of the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. We study effects of using the various common distributions to characterize the geologist's subjective distributions representing reservoir attributes. Specific findings show that triangular distributions result in substantial bias in economic forecasts when used to characterize skewed distributions. Moreover, some forms of the lognormal distribution also result in biased economic inferences. Alternatively, we generally determined four fractiles (100, 50, 5, 0) to be sufficient to capture essential economic characteristics of the underlying attribute distributions. Ignoring actual dependencies among reservoir attributes biases the economic evaluation. ?? 2002 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

Attanasi, E. D.; Schuenemeyer, J. H.

2002-01-01

380

Advantages and disadvantages of reusuable launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cost reduction per launch and payload return capability of reusable launch vehicles are contrasted with higher development costs, more complex engines, need for heat shielding, and retrieval problems. The development of a semireusable vehicle, with expendable first stage is found economically most feasible. It is concluded that for the ESA Solaris project (permanent space platform) 1500 to 2000 MAU would be saved on the 15 year project.

Koelle, D. E.

381

78 FR 62005 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2013 total allowable catch of pollock for Statistical Area 630 in the...

2013-10-11

382

75 FR 14359 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-03-25

383

75 FR 61638 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...total allowable catch limit in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-10-06

384

76 FR 13097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2011-03-10

385

78 FR 61990 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA is 51,444 metric tons (mt) as...the pollock TAC in Statistical Area 620 is 9,120 mt (7,600...revised 2013 TAC in Statistical Area 620 is 52,964 mt (51,444 mt plus 1,520...

2013-10-10

386

[Evaluation on the eco-economic benefits of small watershed in Beijing mountainous area: a case of Yanqi River watershed].  

PubMed

Based on the theory of harmonious development of ecological economy, a total of 13 evaluation indices were selected from the ecological, economic, and social sub-systems of Yanqi River watershed in Huairou District of Beijing. The selected evaluation indices were normalized by using trapezoid functions, and the weights of the evaluation indices were determined by analytic hierarchy process. Then, the eco-economic benefits of the watershed were evaluated with weighted composite index method. From 2004 to 2011, the ecological, economic, and social benefits of Yanqi River watershed all had somewhat increase, among which, ecological benefit increased most, with the value changed from 0.210 in 2004 to 0.255 in 2011 and an increment of 21.5%. The eco-economic benefits of the watershed increased from 0.734 in 2004 to 0.840 in 2011, with an increment of 14.2%. At present, the watershed reached the stage of advanced ecosystem, being in beneficial circulation and harmonious development of ecology, economy, and society. PMID:23479894

Xiao, Hui-Jie; Wei, Zi-Gang; Wang, Qing; Zhu, Xiao-Bo

2012-12-01

387

Expanding Economic and Educational Opportunity in Distressed Rural Areas: A Conceptual Framework for the Rural Community College Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) collaborates with community colleges in rural communities that are racially, ethnically, culturally, and economically diverse by challenging them to think broadly about their potential as catalysts for regional development. RCCI is a national demonstration program that combines the goals of rural…

MDC, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

388

77 FR 18991 - Channel Spacing and Bandwidth Limitations for Certain Economic Area (EA)-Based 800 MHz...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Spacing and Bandwidth Limitations for Certain Economic...spacing and bandwidth limitation, subject to two...different bandwidth limitations for frequencies...have a bandwidth limitation. 12. In lieu...spacing and bandwidth limitation in Sec. 90.209...eliminating these limitations may serve the...

2012-03-29

389

Technical-Economic Impact of UWB Personal Area Networks on a UMTS Cell: Market-Driven Dynamic Spectrum Allocation Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, ultra-wide-band (UWB) technology has been approved for communication applications, utilising spectrum in use by other technologies. Recent studies have evaluated the technological impact of UWB on UMTS, but not the corresponding economic impact. This is of paramount importance, given huge investments already made on UMTS. Those studies also target \\

Virgilio Rodriguez; Friedrich Jondral

2007-01-01

390

Whither the TARGET2 System? Taking a Glance at the Real Economic Facets of the Euro-Area Debt Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TARGET2-system impedes economic recovery within the EMU. Hard budget constraints are a key to kick-start structural reforms in some EMU-member countries. However, the TARGET2-system is not only aggravating real misalignments but also softening budget constraints. The authors argue that the European settlement system is not only a monetary issue but of real concern for the survival of the euro

Christian Fahrholz; Andreas Freytag

2011-01-01

391

Economic evaluation of the use of PCR assay in diagnosing pulmonary TB in a low-incidence area  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing in the initial diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is cost-effective in a low-prevalence population, an economic evaluation was carried out between the smear and culture (NOPCR) and smear, culture and PCR (zPCR) strategies. A decision tree model based on retrospective laboratory data was developed to assess the strategies of testing patients with

I. Rajalahti; E. L. Ruokonen; T. Kotomaki; H. Sintonen; M. M. Nieminen

2004-01-01

392

Disadvantages of VKA and requirements for novel anticoagulants.  

PubMed

Vitamin K antagonists have been in wide use for over 70 years. Warfarin, the most commonly used vitamin K antagonist, has been shown to be highly effective in treating and preventing thrombosis. Despite this, warfarin has many disadvantages, which has led to the development of a new class of oral anticoagulants targeted to specific coagulation factors designated as target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOAs). TSOAs include the thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran) and factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban). This chapter reviews the disadvantages of warfarin and evaluates both the advantages and disadvantages of the new oral anticoagulants. PMID:23953899

Shameem, Raji; Ansell, Jack

2013-07-23

393

13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS...DETERMINATIONS 8(a) Business Development Eligibility Requirements...Participation in the 8(a) Business Development Program § 124.103 ...racial or ethnic prejudice or cultural bias within...

2013-01-01

394

Utilization of Disadvantaged Workers in Public Park and Recreation Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this exploratory study was to collect and analyze existing information and to formulate researchable questions relative to the utilization of disadvantaged persons in entry-level and paraprofessional park and recreation job opportunities pr...

D. E. Hawkins

1973-01-01

395

Review of ADHD Pharmacotherapies: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Clinical Pearls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The advantages, disadvantages, as well as helpful hints on when to use several drug therapies against attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are discussed. The drugs discussed are methylphenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, and bupropion.|

Daughton, Joan M.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

2009-01-01

396

Vulnerability, beliefs, treatments and economic burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in rural areas in China: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in China is very high. This study aimed to assess the vulnerability of COPD patients in rural areas outside Xuzhou City, Jiangsu province, in order to provide helpful guidance for future research and public policies. Methods The vulnerability of 8,217 COPD patients was evaluated using a face-to-face questionnaire to obtain information on general characteristics, awareness, beliefs, medication usage, acute exacerbation of the disease, and economic burdens. Direct economic burdens were calculated based on the questionnaire, and indirect economic burdens were estimated using local per capita income and life expectancy in 2008. The years of potential life lost were calculated using loss of life years for each age group and multiplying by the number of deaths in a given age group. Results Of the 8,217 patients, 7,921 (96.4%) had not heard of COPD, and 2,638 (32.1%) did not understand that smoking was a risk factor for COPD. No patients had used inhalers, nebulizer drugs or oxygen therapy, either regularly or sporadically. No patients had undergone pulmonary rehabilitation or surgical treatment, while 4,215 (51.3%) took theophylline to relieve dyspnea, and 3,418 (41.6%) used antibiotics to treat exacerbations. A total of 2,925 (35.6%) patients had been admitted to hospital during the past year because of respiratory symptoms. The average direct and indirect economic burdens on COPD patients were 1,090 and 20,605 yuan, respectively. Conclusions The vulnerability of patients in rural Xuzhou to COPD was high. Their awareness of COPD was poor, their treatment during both the stable and acute exacerbation stages did not meet standards, and the economic burdens were large. Interventions are therefore needed to improve the prevention and management of COPD in this population. Further studies are required to verify these findings.

2012-01-01

397

13 CFR 124.106 - When do disadvantaged individuals control an applicant or Participant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...this paragraph: (i) Provisions for the establishment of a quorum cannot permit non-disadvantaged Directors to control the Board...allow non-disadvantaged individuals effectively to prevent a quorum or block actions proposed by the disadvantaged...

2013-01-01

398

Economics of Scholarly Publishing: Exploring the Causes of Subscription Price Variations of Scholarly Journals in Business Subject-Specific Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This empirical research investigates subscription price variations of scholarly journals in five business subject-specific areas using the semilogarithmic regression model. It has two main purposes. The first is to address the unsettled debate over whether or not and to what extent commercial publishers reap monopoly profits by overcharging…

Liu, Lewis G.

2011-01-01

399

Developing Generic Competences in the European Higher Education Area: A Proposal for Teaching the Principles of Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The participation of Spain in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) involves a number of important challenges for academics. Adapting to an educational model that is characterised by competence-based teaching is a difficult task, yet it is of paramount importance in the context of current reforms. In an educational system in which the…

Velasco, Manuel Salas; Sanchez Martinez, Maria Teresa; Ferrero, Noelina Rodriguez

2012-01-01

400

SocioEconomic Aspects Influencing Food Consumption Patterns Among Children under Age of Five in Rural Area of Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: A secondary analysis of data for 150 children under the age of five was carried out in three villages of El Fau rural area of Gadarif state. The community mainly consists of farmers of a semi nomadic nature who own different sizes of herds and agricultural lands; they are the farmers of the Arabic pedigree. The rest of

Muna A. Abdalla; Saad A. Sulieman; Abdullahi H. El Tinay; Abdul Gader H. Khattab

2009-01-01

401

Developing Generic Competences in the European Higher Education Area: A Proposal for Teaching the Principles of Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The participation of Spain in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) involves a number of important challenges for academics. Adapting to an educational model that is characterised by competence-based teaching is a difficult task, yet it is of paramount importance in the context of current reforms. In an educational system in which the…

Velasco, Manuel Salas; Sanchez Martinez, Maria Teresa; Ferrero, Noelina Rodriguez

2012-01-01

402

Engineering and economic analysis of containment area\\/wetlands disposal options in New York harbor. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were conducted to evaluate the engineering feasibility of constructing dredged material disposal sites at four locations within the New York Harbor area. The four sites identified by the New York District for evaluation were Bowery Bay, New York; Flushing Bay, New York; Newark Bay, New Jersey; and Raritan Bay, New Jersey. Each of these locations was evaluated for use

Poindexter

1989-01-01

403

Area based measures of social and economic circumstances: cause specific mortality patterns depend on the choice of index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indices of deprivation based upon the charac- teristics of areas of residence are widely used in epidemiology and public health, and have a number of possible applications. Firstly, they may be used when data describing a person's socioeconomic circumstances have not been, or cannot be, collected directly. 1 Secondly, they may inform the distribution of health service resources, for primary

G Davey Smith; E Whitley; D Dorling; D Gunnell

2001-01-01

404

Health status and socio-economic factors associated with health facility utilization in rural and urban areas in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Abstracts Background With regards to equity, the objective for health care systems is “equal access for equal needs”. We examined associations of predisposing, enabling and need factors with health facility utilization in areas with high HIV prevalence and few people being aware of their HIV status. Methods The data is from a population-based survey among adults aged 15years or older conducted in 2003. The current study is based on a subset of this data of adults 15–49 years with a valid HIV test result. A modified Health behaviour model guided our analytical approach. We report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals from logistic regression analyses. Results Totals of 1042 males and 1547 females in urban areas, and 822 males and 1055 females in rural areas were included in the study. Overall, 53.1% of urban and 56.8% of rural respondents utilized health facilities past 12 months. In urban areas, significantly more females than males utilized health facilities (OR=1.4 (95% CI [1.1, 1.6]). Higher educational attainment (10+ years of schooling) was associated with utilization of health facilities in both urban (OR=1.7, 95% CI [1.3, 2.1]) and rural (OR=1.4, 95% CI [1.0, 2.0]) areas compared to respondents who attained up to 7 years of schooling. Respondents who self-rated their health status as very poor/ poor/fair were twice more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who rated their health as good/excellent. Respondents who reported illnesses were about three times more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who did not report the illnesses. In urban areas, respondents who had mental distress were 1.7 times more likely to utilize health facilities compare to those who had no mental distress. Compared to respondents who were HIV negative, respondents who were HIV positive were 1.3 times more likely to utilize health facilities. Conclusion The health care needs were the factors most strongly associated with health care seeking. After accounting for need differentials, health care seeking differed modestly by urban and rural residence, was somewhat skewed towards women, and increased substantially with socioeconomic position.

2012-01-01

405

Social organization of sexual?economic networks and the persistence of HIV in a rural area in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine why high rates of HIV transmission have persisted in a rural area despite community?wide HIV prevention since the mid?1980s, qualitative information was collected about the contexts and social organization of risk behaviour for HIV transmission from residents of a southern Florida community with high HIV prevalence. Original data were collected during 1995–1997 using individual interviews, observations,

Dale Stratford; Tedd V. Ellerbrock; Sandra Chamblee

2007-01-01

406

Particulates pollution management and economic analysis of small rural enterprises in mountain areas: A case study of Wenquan town in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, many rural enterprises in China's mountainous areas are developing rapidly, and due to poor planning and improper management, in an uncontrolled manner. These small enterprises are making atmospheric pollution far more serious and more difficult to control than before. Thus, as is the case with most developing countries, China is facing the challenge of managing the increased environmental pollution that is accompanying its economic development. This paper examines the case of cement dust pollution in the town of Wenquan in Sichuan province in order to determine how to adjust the relationship between development of rural enterprises and atmospheric environmental pollution in mountainous areas. Using the single objective linear programming method, and based on the principle of overall optimization, an optimal control plan for different pollution sources was worked out and an economic assessment on reclamation of cement dust was completed. According to our analysis, after implementation of this plan for four years, two months, the concentrations of suspended particles in Wenquan will achieve the requirement of the national third-order ambient air quality standard; the current serious dust pollution will be completely controlled; and the reclamation of cement dust will totally compensate for the cost of dust control and will result in 92,000 yuan of pure profit per year. At that time, the economy and environment will be in harmony.

Ning, Datong; Li, Huaiyu; Yang, Xiaosong

1994-03-01

407

[The optimization of the use of economic resources for vaccination against hepatitis B in professionals in the health area].  

PubMed

In order to optimize the employment of financial resources to be allocated for hepatitis B vaccination programs involving health care workers, two different aspects were studied: the need of a pre-vaccination screening and the efficacy of low-doses schedules of HBV vaccine by the intradermal (ID) route. The economical analysis (a cost-minimization study) showed that when the prevalence of immune individuals is higher than 11% it is more cost-effective to perform pre-vaccination screening. This situation was observed in the employees group. For students and doctors vaccination without screening was the best approach. Regarding the schedules, 3 doses of HBV vaccine by the intramuscular (IM) route (group A) were compared to first dose by the ID route and second and third doses by the IM route (group B) and to first and second doses by the ID route and the last dose by the IM route (group C). After the third dose, soroconversion rates in groups A and B (92% and 93%, respectively) and geometric mean titers of antiHBs (1278 UI/L and 789.6 UI/L) were similar, and both were different from group A (p < 0.05), showing that alternative vaccination schedules may be cost-effective. PMID:8668841

Ferraz, M L; de Oliveira, P M; Figueiredo, V M; Kemp, V L; Castelo Filho, A; Silva, A E

408

Obesity Treatment for Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Patients in Primary Care Practice  

PubMed Central

Background Few evidence-based weight loss treatment options exist for medically vulnerable patients in the primary care setting. Methods We conducted a 2-arm, 24-month randomized effectiveness trial in 3 Boston community health centers (from February 1, 2008, through May 2, 2011). Participants were 365 obese patients receiving hypertension treatment (71.2% black, 13.1% Hispanic, 68.5% female, and 32.9% with less than a high school educational level). We randomized participants to usual care or a behavioral intervention that promoted weight loss and hypertension self-management using eHealth components. The intervention included tailored behavior change goals, self-monitoring, and skills training, available via a website or interactive voice response; 18 telephone counseling calls; primary care provider endorsement; 12 optional group support sessions; and links with community resources. Results At 24 months, weight change in the intervention group compared with that in the usual care group was ?1.03 kg (95% CI, ?2.03 to ?0.03 kg). Twenty-four-month change in body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) in the intervention group compared with that in the usual care group was ?0.38 (95% CI, ?0.75 to ?0.004). Intervention participants had larger mean weight losses during the 24 months compared with that in the usual care group (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, ?1.07 kg; 95% CI, ?1.94 to ?0.22). Mean systolic blood pressure was not significantly lower in the intervention arm compared with the usual care arm. Conclusion The intervention produced modest weight losses, improved blood pressure control, and slowed systolic blood pressure increases in this high-risk, socioeconomically disadvantaged patient population.

Bennett, Gary G.; Warner, Erica T.; Glasgow, Russell E.; Askew, Sandy; Goldman, Julie; Ritzwoller, Debra P.; Emmons, Karen M.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Colditz, Graham A.

2012-01-01

409

Making the most of the mosaic: facilitating post-school transitions to higher education of disadvantaged students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research studies of post-school education and training conducted in Australia and internationally have revealed a mosaic of students’ education and employment experiences, with a multiplicity of nonlinear pathways. These tend to be more fragmentary\\u000a for disadvantaged students, especially those of low socio-economic background, rural students, and mature aged students seeking\\u000a a ‘second chance’ education. Challenges faced by students in their

Joan Abbott-Chapman

2011-01-01

410

Socio-economic status and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Rural and Urban Areas of Vellore, Tamilnadu, South India  

PubMed Central

Background We examined associations between socio-economic (SES) indicators and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among urban and rural South Indians. Methods Data from a population-based birth cohort of 2,218 men and women aged 26-32 years from Vellore, Tamilnadu were used. SES indicators included a household possessions score, attained education, and paternal education. CVD risk factors included body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between SES indicators and CVD risk factors. Results Most risk factors were positively associated with possessions score in urban and rural men and women, except for tobacco use, which was negatively associated. Trends were similar with the participants’ own education, and paternal education, though weaker and less consistent. In a concurrent analysis of all three SES indicators adjusted for gender and urban/rural residence, independent associations were observed only for the possessions score; compared with those in the lowest fifth of the possessions score, participants in the highest fifth had a higher risk of abdominal obesity (OR=6.4, 95%CI 3.4, 11.6), high total cholesterol to HDL ratio (OR=2.4, 95%CI 1.6, 3.5) and glucose intolerance (OR=2.8, 95%CI 1.9, 4.1). Their tobacco use (OR=0.4, 95%CI 0.2, 0.6) was lower. Except hypertension and glucose intolerance, risk factors were higher in urban than rural participants independently of SES. Conclusion In rural and urban populations, higher SES, as reflected by household possessions, was associated (apart from tobacco use) with a more adverse CVD risk factor profile.

Samuel, Prasanna; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Raghupathy, P; Richard, J; Fall, Caroline HD

2012-01-01

411

A Parenting Intervention for Childhood Behavioral Problems: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Disadvantaged Community-Based Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A community-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in urban areas characterized by high levels of disadvantage to test the effectiveness of the Incredible Years BASIC parent training program (IYBP) for children with behavioral problems. Potential moderators of intervention effects on child behavioral outcomes were also explored. Method: Families were included if the child (aged 32–88 months) scored above

Sinead McGilloway; Grainne Ni Mhaille; Tracey Bywater; Mairead Furlong; Yvonne Leckey; Paul Kelly; Catherine Comiskey; Michael Donnelly

2012-01-01

412

BALTIMORE REACHES OUT--LIBRARY SERVICE TO THE DISADVANTAGED. DEICHES FUND STUDIES OF PUBLIC LIBRARY SERVICE, NUMBER 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS DOCUMENT IS A STUDY OF THE READING POTENTIAL OF BALTIMORE'S CULTURALLY AND EDUCATIONALLY DEPRIVED AND THE ENOCH PRATT FREE LIBRARY'S ROLE IN SERVING THE DISADVANTAGED. AFTER DESCRIBING THE PRESENT CONDITIONS OF THE INNER CITY AND ITS INHABITANTS AND AFTER A BRIEF HISTORY OF PRATT'S SERVICE IN CITY AREAS, THE AUTHOR DISCUSSES CHARACTERISTICS…

MARTIN, LOWELL A.

413

A Parenting Intervention for Childhood Behavioral Problems: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Disadvantaged Community-Based Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: A community-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in urban areas characterized by high levels of disadvantage to test the effectiveness of the Incredible Years BASIC parent training program (IYBP) for children with behavioral problems. Potential moderators of intervention effects on child behavioral outcomes were also…

McGilloway, Sinead; Mhaille, Grainne Ni; Bywater, Tracey; Furlong, Mairead; Leckey, Yvonne; Kelly, Paul; Comiskey, Catherine; Donnelly, Michael

2012-01-01

414

BALTIMORE REACHES OUT--LIBRARY SERVICE TO THE DISADVANTAGED. DEICHES FUND STUDIES OF PUBLIC LIBRARY SERVICE, NUMBER 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS DOCUMENT IS A STUDY OF THE READING POTENTIAL OF BALTIMORE'S CULTURALLY AND EDUCATIONALLY DEPRIVED AND THE ENOCH PRATT FREE LIBRARY'S ROLE IN SERVING THE DISADVANTAGED. AFTER DESCRIBING THE PRESENT CONDITIONS OF THE INNER CITY AND ITS INHABITANTS AND AFTER A BRIEF HISTORY OF PRATT'S SERVICE IN CITY AREAS, THE AUTHOR DISCUSSES CHARACTERISTICS…

MARTIN, LOWELL A.

415

Adult cognitive ability and socioeconomic status as mediators of the effects of childhood disadvantage on salivary cortisol in aging adults.  

PubMed

In this longitudinal study we investigate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Two mechanisms by which early life stress may affect later pathophysiology are through its influence on cognitive functioning or later socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. We predicted that individual differences in young adult cognitive ability and midlife SES would mediate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife cortisol. On each of three nonconsecutive days, participants provided five salivary cortisol samples corresponding to their diurnal rhythm (N=727 men; mean age 55, SD=2.6). We calculated three measures of cortisol regulation (area-under-the curve cortisol reflecting total daytime cortisol output; cortisol-awakening-response; and wake-to-bed slope), averaging scores for each measure across multiple days. Childhood disadvantage combined four dichotomous indicators used previously by Rutter (1985): father low SES; mother education less than 12th grade; major family disruption/separation before age 18; and large family size (more than 5 siblings). The two mediators were a measure of general cognitive ability assessed at age 20 and highest achieved midlife SES. Men from more disadvantaged childhoods were significantly more likely to have dysregulated cortisol at midlife, with higher daytime cortisol levels decades after their childhood experience. Effects of childhood disadvantage were both direct and indirect. Cognitive ability and adult SES, however, only partially mediated the associations between early life stress and midlife cortisol. Specific indirect effects accounted for 33.8% of the total effect of childhood disadvantage [?=0.12 (0.05; 0.18)] on total daytime cortisol. Associations remained significant after accounting for ethnicity, smoking status, and self-reported depressive symptoms. PMID:23684478

Franz, Carol E; Spoon, Kelly; Thompson, Wesley; Hauger, Richard L; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Jacobson, Kristen C; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J; McCaffery, Jeanne; McKenzie, Ruth; Mendoza, Sally P; Panizzon, Matthew S; Ramundo, Ana; Shahroudi, Afrand; Kremen, William S

2013-05-16

416

Behavioural therapy for smoking cessation: The effectiveness of different intervention types for disadvantaged and affluent smokers?  

PubMed Central

Background Disadvantaged smokers are less likely to be successful when trying to stop smoking than more affluent smokers. In the UK, NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSS) provide a range of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support, delivered by advisors with a range of backgrounds. Whether the types of support provided and who provides it influence differences in quit rates amongst low SES smokers compared with high SES smokers has not previously been examined. Methods 202,084 records of smokers in England who attended a NHS Stop Smoking Service between July 2010 and June 2011 were acquired. Smokers were followed-up by services at four weeks post quit date. Multilevel logistic regression models of CO validated quits were employed. Disadvantage was explored through the National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification (NS-SEC) and by eligibility for free prescriptions, an indicator of low income amongst adults aged between 19 and 59 in England. Results Affluent smokers were more likely to quit than disadvantaged smokers (OR 1.38 (1.35 to 1.42) for clients who paid for prescriptions compared to those eligible for free prescriptions). 80% of service clients received one-to-one counselling but open group forms of behavioural therapy were more successful (main effect OR 1.26 (1.12 to 1.41)) except amongst some of the most disadvantaged clients (long-term unemployed and prisoners). Closed groups were little deployed and they were not significantly more successful than one-to-one behavioural therapy after controls. Who delivered treatment did make a difference for some clients, with all but the most affluent less likely to be successful if they had been treated by a nurse compared with other types of advisers, including smoking cessation specialists (main effect OR 0.73 (0.65 to 0.83)). Conclusion This study provides further evidence that disadvantaged smokers find quitting more difficult even when they have attended a smoking cessation programme. The findings suggest that open groups should be promoted, although they may not be as effective as other forms of behavioural therapy for the long-term unemployed or prisoners. Further research is required to explore why most groups of smokers who attended services staffed by nurses were less likely to quit than those who received treatment from other types of advisors.

Hiscock, Rosemary; Murray, Susan; Brose, Leonie S.; McEwen, Andy; Bee, Jo Leonardi; Dobbie, Fiona; Bauld, Linda

2013-01-01

417

Home Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This presentation of suggested layouts and specifications for home economics facilities has been prepared to be of service to school boards, architects, teachers, and administrators who are planning new schools or making renovations to existing structures. Room layouts are shown for a foods and nutrition room, or the foods and nutrition area of a…

Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto. School Planning and Building Research Section.

418

Land use pattern, socio-economic development, and assessment of their impacts on ecosystem service value: study on natural wetlands distribution area (NWDA) in Fuzhou city, southeastern China.  

PubMed

This paper quantifies the allocation of ecosystem services value (ESV) associated with land use pattern and qualitatively examined impacts of land use changes and socio-economic factors on spatiotemporal variation of ESV in the Natural Wetland Distribution Area (NWDA), Fuzhou city, China. The results showed that total ESV of the study area decreased from 4,332.16 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 1989 to 3,697.42 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 2009, mainly due to the remarkable decreases in cropland (decreased by 55.3 %) and wetland (decreased by 74.2 %). Forest, water, and wetland played major roles in providing ecosystem services, accounting for over 90 % of the total ESV. Based on time series Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery, geographic information system, and historical data, analysis of the spatiotemporal variation of ESV from 1989 to 2009 was performed. It indicated that rapid expansion of urban areas along the Minjiang River resulted in significant changes in land use types, leading to a dramatic decline in ecosystem services. Meanwhile, because of land scarcity and unique ecosystem functions, the emergency of wetland and cropland protection in built-up area has become an urgent task of local authorities to the local government. Furthermore, there was still a significant negative correlation between ESV of cropland and wetland and the GDP. The results suggest that future planning of land use pattern should control encroachment of urban areas into cropland and wetland in addition to scientific and rational policies towards minimizing the adverse effects of urbanization. PMID:23054291

Cai, Yuan-Bin; Zhang, Hao; Pan, Wen-Bin; Chen, Yan-Hong; Wang, Xiang-Rong

2012-10-10

419

Toward an Effective Educational Program for Disadvantaged Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study attempted to determine if significant and lasting cognitive gains could be achieved by focusing preschool efforts upon children younger than those now being serviced by traditional programs--children under three years of age. Thirty-six disadvantaged children, 19-28 months of age, were randomly assigned to two groups: a Home Group…

Dusewicz, Russell A.; Higgins, Martin J.

420

Rural Disadvantaged Parents: Views on Work and Vocational Guidance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Twenty parents considered educationally, socioeconomically, and geographically disadvantaged believe their work is hard and hope their children will do better. They are concerned for their children's work safety, believe their children need to learn about computers, and recognize their role in their children's education. (SK)|

Rehm, Marsha L.; Reagor, Jane D.

1993-01-01

421

Preparing Disadvantaged Pupils for Homemaker and Wage-Earner Roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected teachers were provided learning experiences preparing them to work effectively with disadvantaged pupils; to cooperate with social and educational agencies; to work with employers providing job experience; and to produce curriculum materials for two courses orienting pupils to a dual role, one emphasizing job preparation, the other homemaking. Experimental and control groups were compared post-course. Instruments to measure comprehension,

Helen Y. Nelson; Phyllis K. Lowe; Julia I. Dalrymple

1975-01-01

422

Peer Tutoring and Mentoring Services for Disadvantaged Secondary School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1988, the Congress enacted a one year demonstration program, the Secondary Schools Basic Skills Demonstration Assistance Program, aimed at improving the academic achievement of disadvantaged children with mentoring and peer tutoring services (Pringle, et. al., 1990). The evaluation report prepared upon the completion of this demonstration offers one of the most significant studies of school-based peer tutoring and mentoring

M. Anne Powell

423

Self-Employment Programs and Outcomes for Disadvantaged Jobseekers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An evaluation of Australia's New Enterprise Initiative Scheme, which provides job search information to disadvantaged job seekers, found the following: of 81 long-term unemployed, 76.5% were self-employed after participation; of 51 non-English speaking individuals, 65% were self-employed; and 84% of 400 participants overall were in some form of…

Kelly, Ross; Mulvey, Charles; Lewis, P. E. T.

2002-01-01

424

Promotion of Primary Education for Girls and Disadvantaged Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents the results of a meeting of education officials from Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, and Thailand to discuss the promotion of primary education for girls and other disadvantaged groups in developing Asian countries. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, discussing the goals and results of the meeting. Chapter…

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

425

HEALTH AND THE EDUCATION OF SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THE POOR HEALTH OF THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD IS A PRIMARY VARIABLE IN HIS EDUCATIONAL FAILURE. AN EXTENSIVE REVIEW OF HEALTH STUDIES SHOWS THAT NEGROES, PUERTO RICANS, AND INDIANS SUFFER FROM THE GREATEST HEALTH PROBLEMS. THE HEALTH FACTORS WHICH THESE STUDIES FOUND TO RELATE SPECIFICALLY TO INTELLECTUAL AND EDUCATIONAL DEFICITS ARE PREMATURITY,…

BIRCH, HERBERT G.

426

Predicting Success among Prospective Disadvantaged Students in Natural Scientific Fields  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One hundred and fifty-nine Grade 11 prospective disadvantaged students in the natural sciences at the University of Pretoria completed the Study Orientation Questionnaire in Mathematics and the Senior Aptitude Test (Advanced). Fifty-nine male students (M age = 16.05; SD = 0.57) and 100 females (M age = 16.02; SD = 0.512) scored significantly…

Maree, J. G.; Fletcher, L.; Sommerville, J.

2011-01-01

427

From Disadvantaged Girls to Successful Women: Education and Women's Resiliency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is the result of a 2-year study of women who were disadvantaged as girls but who achieved highly in academics. The participants, all of whom had advanced degrees or had completed two years of graduate school, had been raised in low-income homes, were first-generation college students, and had faced stress as children. Most of these women…

LePage-Lees, Pamela

428

THE LIGHTHOUSE DAY CAMP READING EXPERIMENT WITH DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A READING PROGRAM DESIGNED FOR DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AND CONDUCTED BY THE LIGHTHOUSE, A SETTLEMENT HOUSE IN NORTH PHILADELPHIA, AS PART OF ITS DAY CAMP PROGRAM WAS DESCRIBED AND ASSESSED. THE READING PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED (1) TO BOOST THE OPPORTUNITIES IN READING READINESS FOR CHILDREN ABOUT TO ENTER FIRST GRADE, (2) TO ENRICH LANGUAGE…

GOMBERG, ADELINE W.

429

From Here to Where?--"Disadvantaged Schools," Literacy and Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Argues that the abolishment of the Disadvantaged Schools Program (DSP) in South Australia represented a shift away from a focus on the social to the individual, from curriculum to instruction, from school-based inquiry and teacher research to expert solutions, and from various contexted and contested outcomes to a singular and simplistic version…

Thomson, Pat

2001-01-01

430

Utilization of Disadvantaged Workers in Public Park and Recreation Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study analyzes data to formulate researchable questions regarding the utilization of disadvantaged persons in entry-level and paraprofessional park and recreation job opportunities provided through U.S. Department of Labor programs. Data are comprised of the following components: (a) assessment of the state-of-the-art, (b) field…

Hawkins, Donald E.; Berhoven, Peter J.

431

Compensatory Education: Programs for Diversified Intervention Experinces for Disadvantaged Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As is enunciated by its policy guidelines, funds for compensatory education are being used to provide a diversity of intervention experiences for disadvantaged children. Difficulty in recognizing these implementation practices and outcomes has arisen because of a more popular, but narrow, view of compensatory education. Instead of attempting to…

Brown, Edward K.

432

HEALTH AND THE EDUCATION OF SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE POOR HEALTH OF THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD IS A PRIMARY VARIABLE IN HIS EDUCATIONAL FAILURE. AN EXTENSIVE REVIEW OF HEALTH STUDIES SHOWS THAT NEGROES, PUERTO RICANS, AND INDIANS SUFFER FROM THE GREATEST HEALTH PROBLEMS. THE HEALTH FACTORS WHICH THESE STUDIES FOUND TO RELATE SPECIFICALLY TO INTELLECTUAL AND EDUCATIONAL DEFICITS ARE PREMATURITY,…

BIRCH, HERBERT G.

433

Reaching and Helping Unorganized and Disadvantaged People. Courier No. 33.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The articles in this issue are mainly concerned with how to reach the poorest and most disadvantaged sections of the population and how best to help once contact has been made. "Nijera Kori in Retrospect: In Search of an Organization of the Rural Poor" (Mohiuddin Ahmad) provides extracts from an evaluation of this grassroots, village-based,…

ASPBAE Courier, 1985

1985-01-01

434

Citizenship experiences of young migrants: optimism and disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyses the citizenship experiences of young non-western migrants in the Netherlands. Young migrants are in a disadvantaged position in education and in the labour market and this leads to concerns about their integration in Dutch society. The focus of this study is on the participation of migrant youngsters in education, in which an analysis of the experiences and

D. Gerritsen

2012-01-01

435

An afterschool intervention program for educationally disadvantaged young children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research investigated the premise that if educationally disadvantaged children experience increased instructional time combined with an educational setting that is sensitive to their culture and that provides perceptions of control, enhanced achievement and interest in learning will result. The research setting was the Hilltop Emergent Literacy Project (HELP), an afterschool educational program serving poor, mostly African American five- to

David A. Bergin; Lynne M. Hudson; Carolyn F. Chryst; Mark Resetar

1992-01-01

436

Homeownership and Local Voting in Disadvantaged Urban Neighborhoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homeownership has long been considered the cornerstone of the American dream, and considerable research has pointed to the social benefits of homeownership for both families and communities. Yet research concerning this link between homeownership and social participation has recently undergone critique for failing to consider neighbor- hood context. Do homeowners in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods become active participants in neighborhood improvement,

Kim Manturuk; Mark Lindblad; Roberto G. Quercia

2009-01-01

437

Developing Social Giftedness in Disadvantaged Girls at an Indian School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes developmental interactions with a group of female students at an Indian public school situated in a disadvantaged section of the community. Through a series of activities, the author makes an intensive effort to develop social giftedness in these students. The article describes various activities together with the author's…

Sharma, Yukti

2012-01-01

438

Methods for Developing Resiliency in Children from Disadvantaged Populations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Protective factors that contribute to the development of resiliency in children, defined as "unusually good adaptation in the face of severe stress, and an ability of the stressed person to rebound to the prestress level of adaptation," are discussed. The biological, psychological, familial, and social factors related to disadvantages that…

Steinhauer, Paul D.

439

The Culturally Disadvantaged: A Field Experience Guide. Materials/One.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide resulted from the work of 14 colleges and universities participating in the Red River Valley Inter-Institutional Project, which related to the education of the culturally disadvantaged child. The project included two field experiences, one urban and the other rural; orientation meetings; and discussions. The aims of the Red River…

Eland, Calvin

440

Identifying High-Ability Disadvantaged Students. Discussion Paper No. 13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a study that explored procedures for identifying high ability children from disadvantaged socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. The study constituted the initial phase of the 1980 Priority Exceptional Students' Study, conducted by the Education Department of Western Australia. Focusing on primary school children in the Perth…

Deschamp, P.; And Others

441

Advanced Placement Courses: Do Prohibitive Costs Exclude Financially Disadvantaged Students?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case addresses the guarantee of a free public education for all students, and focuses specifically on how the requirement that students purchase their own books and supplies for advanced placement courses affects the promise of equal educational opportunity. Although there is no correlation between wealth and intellectual ability, financially disadvantaged students may feel compelled not to enroll in advanced

Patrick Brimstein; Daniel Milgate; Laurel OíDonaghue; Todd Yunker

2000-01-01

442

Are new entrants to the residential property market informationally disadvantaged?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sets out to test whether, as a consequence of being informationally disadvantaged, new entrants to residential property markets pay significantly higher prices for a hypothetical standardized property. The paper analyses data on house sales in Glasgow between April 1991 and March 1992. The transactions data are subdivided into mutually exclusive groups of households and the prices paid are

Craig Watkins

1998-01-01

443

Educating the Disadvantaged, 1970-1971. An AMS Anthology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This anthology includes newly published essays by Daniel U. Levine, Robert J. Havighurst, and J. McVicker Hunt, two previously unpublished reports from the National Study of American Indian Education, and a new guide to resource centers. In addition, 35 papers by 55 contributors concerned with educating disadvantaged and culturally different…

Doll, Russell C., Ed.; Hawkins, Maxine, Ed.

444

Disadvantaged Pupil Program Fund (DPPF) Evaluation Reports, 1980-81.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These descriptive and evaluative reports examine fifteen program components implemented under the Disadvantaged Pupil Program Fund by the Cleveland, Ohio public school system beginning in 1966. The following programs are discussed: (1) classroom support program; (2) communication skills improvement project; (3) computer assisted instruction in…

Cleveland Public Schools, OH. Dept. of Research, Development and Evaluation.

445

Education for All: Compensating for Disadvantage in Mexico. Education Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This note series is intended to summarize lessons learned and key policy findings on the World Bank's work in education.Education for all means learning for all. It means closing the "advantage" gap--making sure that the children of the poor and disadvantaged achieve the same levels of learning as all other children. This is one of the great…

Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Shapiro, Joseph; Trevino, Jorge Moreno

2004-01-01

446

Nutritional Supplementation of Disadvantaged Elementary-School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined with 177 disadvantaged elementary school students (5-9 years old, 99 percent Blacks) were the effects of the provision of a nutritionally fortified low-lactose food supplement on hematocrit values (volume percentage of erythrocytes in whole blood), growth, absenteeism, and lunch consumption. (IM)

Paige, David M.; And Others

1976-01-01

447

Extending Support to Disadvantaged Urban Youth in Young Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most young people in postindustrial societies will not full adult status until their late twenties or early thirties and rely on families and institutions for some financial and social support during this period. Disadvantaged urban youth who are not college bound have access to few resources to help them gain the skills, knowledge, and experience necessary to compete successfully in

Jean N. Scandlyna

448

MATERIALS THE DISADVANTAGED NEED--AND DON'T NEED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE ASSUMPTION THAT SOME CHILDREN ARE LOW ACHIEVERS BECAUSE OF CULTURAL, SENSORY, OR DEVELOPMENTAL DEPRIVATION IS CRITICIZED BECAUSE IT LEADS MAINLY TO A GRASPING FOR NEW AND DIFFERENT TEACHING TECHNOLOGIES. WHAT SHOULD BE INCLUDED IN A COHESIVE VIEW OF THE DISADVANTAGED ARE THEORETICAL UNDERPINNINGS FROM WHICH ACTION PROGRAMS CAN BE DERIVED. THE…

HABERMAN, MARTIN

449

Variables Affecting Self-Concept in Black Disadvantaged Boys.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of levels of self-esteem in a sample of black disadvantaged children was conducted to investigate factors known from other studies to facilitate the development and maintenance of a favorable self-concept despite adverse environmental conditions and skin color. The child subjects were selected from six classes of fifth grade black…

Morse, Roberta N.; Piers, Ellen V.

450

"Bigger than Hip-Hop?" Impact of a Community-Based Physical Activity Program on Youth Living in a Disadvantaged Neighborhood in Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored whether a hip-hop dance program was associated with improved well-being for adolescents living in a multicultural, socio-economically disadvantaged urban community in Ottawa. Sixty-seven youths between 11 and 16 years of age participated in a 13-week program. A primarily qualitative approach was used to assess perceived impact…

Beaulac, Julie; Kristjansson, Elizabeth; Calhoun, Melissa

2011-01-01

451

Getting Our Best Teachers into Disadvantaged Schools: Differences in the Professional and Personal Factors Attracting More Effective and Less Effective Teachers to a School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Of the school-level factors that have an impact on student learning, one of the most powerful appears to be the effectiveness of the individual teacher. The most effective teachers are, therefore, one of the most important tools schools and systems have at their disposal to lift the achievement of socio-economically disadvantaged students and…

Rice, Suzanne M.

2010-01-01

452

Local Area Networks (The Printout).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Local Area Network (LAN), a project in which students used LAN-based word processing and electronic mail software as the center of a writing process approach. Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of networking. (MM)

Aron, Helen; Balajthy, Ernest

1989-01-01

453

The Exemplary Teacher of the Disadvantaged: Two Views. ERIC-IRCD Urban Disadvantaged Series, Number 30, July 1972.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report attempts to show that there are effective programs, schools, and administrators, and many teachers who serve disadvantaged students well year in year out. The first part of the report focuses on such exemplary teachers through a survey of 59 teachers as reported by their principals. Characteristics of that model discussed relate to…

Jablonsky, Adelaide

454

A Summer Academic Research Experience for Disadvantaged Youth  

PubMed Central

Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience (SARE) program that provides an enriching academic internship to underrepresented youth. Our program has shown that to have a successful internship for these disadvantaged youth, several issues need to be addressed in addition to scientific mentoring. We have found that it is necessary to remediate and/or fortify basic academic skills for students to be successful. In addition, students need to be actively coached in the development of professional skills, habits, and attitudes necessary for success in the workplace. With all these factors in place, these youths can become better students, compete on a more level playing field in their internships, and increase their potential of participating actively in the sciences in the future.

Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N.

2013-01-01

455

Joint hypermobility and sport: a review of advantages and disadvantages.  

PubMed

Joint hypermobility (JH) is a feature observed in several inherited conditions in which joints have a range of motion beyond normal limits. Such inherent flexibility makes it relatively easy for hypermobile people to perform certain physical activities, so this characteristic is particularly convenient for certain athletes. However JH also can carry some disadvantages: it has been associated to a higher risk of injury and to states of anxiety. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the current evidence concerning the advantages and disadvantages of JH in the field of sport. We emphasize the importance of detecting JH in athletes in order to intervene appropriately through injury prevention programs, and emphasize how inherent anxiety may have a negative impact on sporting performance. PMID:24030301

Baeza-Velasco, Carolina; Gély-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Pailhez, Guillem; Vilarrasa, Antonio Bulbena

456

Social disadvantage, family composition, and diabetes mellitus: prevalence and outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo investigate the relation between social disadvantage and family composition on diabetes prevalence and diabetes care outcome.DESIGNRetrospective audit in the south west of England of 801 children with diabetes mellitus.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURESPrevalence of diabetes in relation to the Townsend index. Admissions to hospital with diabetes related problems, glycated haemoglobin, time spent in hospital, outpatient attendance rates.RESULTSThere was no association between

J H Baumer; L P Hunt; J P H Shield

1998-01-01

457

Physical activity, sedentary behavior and depression among disadvantaged women.  

PubMed

This study investigated associations between components of physical activity (PA; e.g. domain and social context) and sedentary behaviors (SBs) and risk of depression in women from disadvantaged neighborhoods. A total of 3645 women, aged 18-45 years, from disadvantaged neighborhoods, self-reported their PA, SB and depressive symptoms. Crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each component of PA, SB and risk of depression using logistic regression analyses, adjusting for clustering by women's neighborhood of residence. Being in a higher tertile of leisure-time PA and transport-related PA was associated with lower risk of depression. No associations were apparent for domestic or work-related PA. Women who undertook a small proportion of their leisure-time PA with someone were less likely to be at risk of depression than those who undertook all leisure-time PA on their own. Women reporting greater time sitting at the computer, screen time and overall sitting time had higher odds of risk of depression compared with those reporting low levels. The domain and social context of PA may be important components in reducing the risk of depression. Reducing time spent in SB may be a key strategy in the promotion of better mental health in women from disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:20145009

Teychenne, Megan; Ball, Kylie; Salmon, Jo

2010-02-09

458

Social disadvantage, family composition, and diabetes mellitus: prevalence and outcome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To investigate the relation between social disadvantage and family composition on diabetes prevalence and diabetes care outcome.?DESIGN—Retrospective audit in the south west of England of 801 children with diabetes mellitus.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Prevalence of diabetes in relation to the Townsend index. Admissions to hospital with diabetes related problems, glycated haemoglobin, time spent in hospital, outpatient attendance rates.?RESULTS—There was no association between social status and diabetes prevalence. Social deprivation increased the likelihood of admission for hypoglycaemia. Children living with a single parent were more likely to be admitted to hospital with a diabetes related problem and stay in hospital longer. Having either a parent with diabetes or a single parent increased the rates of clinic non-attendance. No association was identified between medium term diabetes control and either social disadvantage or single parent status.?CONCLUSIONS—Social disadvantage has no effect on diabetes prevalence and little on diabetes outcome in childhood. Family structure and parental diabetes have adverse effects on some aspects of diabetes outcome.??

Baumer, J; Hunt, L; Shield, J

1998-01-01

459

Stepchildren, community disadvantage, and physical injury in a child abuse incident: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

It is proffered that stepchildren are more likely than genetic children to be physically abused because they are unable to ensure the genetic survival of their adoptive parents. This abuse is theorized to be more pronounced in communities where social and economic resources are scarce. The salience of this cross-level interaction hinges on the assumption that the limited resources of a family are first allocated to genetic offspring because these children, unlike their nongenetic siblings, carry the genes of their parents. A multilevel analysis of child abuse incidents reported to police in 133 U.S. cities during 2005 shows that in cities with a high level of community disadvantage, stepchildren are much more apt than are genetic children to suffer a physical injury in a child abuse incident. Such a finding buttresses the position articulated by proponents of sociobiology. PMID:23393950

D'Alessio, Stewart J; Stolzenberg, Lisa

2012-01-01

460

Can Wind Energy Make a Real Contribution to Improve the Quality of Life of Rural\\/Remote Areas? The European Union and India Compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy can represent a solution to a series of issues including the scarcity of fossil resources, their growing\\u000a cost, their impact on the environment in terms of greenhouse emissions and climate change. Renewable energy, in particular,\\u000a could represent an aid to face the problems of isolation and resulting economic and social disadvantages in rural and remote\\u000a areas of developed

Matilde Cassin; Bruna Zolin

2009-01-01

461

The Joint Admission Medical Program: a statewide approach to expanding medical education and career opportunities for disadvantaged students.  

PubMed

In 2003, Texas initiated an experiment to address enrollment disparities in its medical schools. With bipartisan support from key Texas legislators, funding was allocated in 2002 to establish the Joint Admission Medical Program (JAMP). Texas' then eight medical schools created, through JAMP, a partnership with the state's 31 public and 34 private undergraduate colleges and universities. Cognizant of legal prohibitions against reliance solely on race or ethnicity in promoting diversity, JAMP is designed to enhance opportunities for economically disadvantaged students from across the state, including those from (1) rural and remote areas of the state, and (2) institutions that have historically sent few students to medical school. Now in its seventh year of operation, JAMP is overseen by a council with representatives from all nine Texas medical schools. For the six years-2003 to 2008-for which data are available, indicators of JAMP performance can be seen in (1) the numbers of applicants to JAMP (1,230 applicants in the first six years), (2) levels of JAMP participation (480 participants), and (3) matriculation of JAMP participants into medical schools (164 of 288 of those accepted into the program in the years 2003-2006).The authors provide a brief history of JAMP, describe its structure and operation, summarize objective performance data, and identify some of the challenges still faced. These include increasing the participation of students from underrepresented minority groups within the legal structure for the program, and fostering substantive participation in JAMP by all of Texas' undergraduate institutions. A focused effort is under way to strengthen the evaluative aspects of JAMP so that more comprehensive data, including subjective evaluation data from participants, can be shared with colleagues in the future. PMID:19881424

Dalley, Bernell; Podawiltz, Alan; Castro, Robert; Fallon, Kathleen; Kott, Marylee; Rabek, Jeffrey; Richardson, James; Thomson, William; Ferry, Pamela; Mabry, Budge; Hermesmeyer, Paul; Smith, Quentin

2009-10-01

462

County Summary Report of Areas in New Jersey and New York Affected by Hurricane Sandy. Baseline Demographic and Economic Conditions Prior to the Storm with an Executive Summary that Includes Economic Indicators after the Storm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hurricane Sandy hit New Jersey (NJ) on October 29, 2012. Several months after the storm stakeholders were still assessing the damage and the long-term economic effects on the region. To help with this effort, the Economic and Statistics Administration dev...

2013-01-01

463

Do social disadvantage and early family adversity affect the diurnal cortisol rhythm in infants? The Generation R Study.  

PubMed

Dysregulation of diurnal cortisol secretion patterns may explain the link between adversities early in life and later mental health problems. However, few studies have investigated the influence of social disadvantage and family adversity on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis early in life. In 366 infants aged 12-20 months from the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life onwards, parents collected saliva samples from their infant at 5 moments over the course of 1 day. The area under the curve (AUC), the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the diurnal cortisol slope were calculated as different composite measures of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Information about social disadvantage and early adversity was collected using prenatal and postnatal questionnaires. We found that older infants showed lower AUC levels; moreover, infants with a positive CAR were significantly older. Both the AUC and the CAR were related to indicators of social disadvantage and early adversity. Infants of low income families, in comparison to high income families, showed higher AUC levels and a positive CAR. Infants of mothers who smoked during pregnancy were also significantly more likely to show a positive CAR. Furthermore, infants of mothers experiencing parenting stress showed higher AUC levels. The results of our study show that effects of social disadvantage and early adversity on the diurnal cortisol rhythm are already observable in infants. This may reflect the influence of early negative life events on early maturation of the HPA axis. PMID:20006614

Saridjan, Nathalie S; Huizink, Anja C; Koetsier, Jitske A; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hofman, Albert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

2009-12-16

464

The family model stress and maternal psychological symptoms: mediated pathways from economic hardship to parenting.  

PubMed

Although much of the extant research on low-income families has targeted parental depression as the predominant psychological response to economic hardship, the current study examined a range of maternal psychological symptoms that may mediate the relations between early economic pressure and later parenting behaviors. A family stress model was examined using data from 1,142 mothers living in 2 areas of high rural poverty, focusing on the infancy through toddlerhood period. Maternal questionnaires and observations of mother-child interactions were collected across 4 time points (6, 15, 24, and 36 months). Results from structural equation analyses indicated that early economic pressure was significantly related to a variety of symptoms (depression, hostility, anxiety, and somatization), but only depression and somatization were significantly related to decreased levels of sensitive, supportive parenting behaviors. In contrast, anxiety was positively associated with sensitive parenting. Depression and anxiety were both found to mediate the relations between economic pressure and sensitive parenting behaviors. Results further suggest that mothers did not experience change in objective economic hardship over time but did experience a small decrease in economic pressure. Discussion centers on the apparent indirect influence of early economic hardship on later psychological symptoms and parenting behaviors, as well as detailing the need for broader and more complex perspectives on maternal psychological responses that arise as a result of economic disadvantage. PMID:23421837

Newland, Rebecca P; Crnic, Keith A; Cox, Martha J; Mills-Koonce, W Roger

2013-02-01

465

Extending the Purposes of Science Education: Addressing Violence within Socio-Economic Disadvantaged Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Current discourses about science education show a wide concern towards humanisation and a more socio-cultural perspective of school science. They suggest that science education can serve diverse purposes and be responsive to social and environmental situations we currently face. However, these discourses and social approaches to science education…

Castano, Carolina

2012-01-01

466

Macroeconomic Conditions, Voter Turnout, and the Working-class\\/Economically Disadvantaged Party Vote in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working and lower status citizens are more sensitive to macroeconomic fluctuations than their better-off counterparts in the developing world, due to the higher personal stakes involved. This heightened sensitivity affects fluctuations in voter turnout and voter choice across developing democracies. Macroeconomic downturns result in increased voter participation as more lower status voters express their grievances at the polls. This benefits

EDWIN ELOY AGUILAR; ALEXANDER C. PACEK

2000-01-01

467

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) MINORITY BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT AGENCY DETERMINATION OF GROUP ELIGIBILITY FOR MBDA ASSISTANCE...that it has suffered chronic racial or ethnic prejudice or cultural bias for the purposes of this regulation, a...

2013-01-01

468

Economic and Racial Disadvantage as Reflected in Traditional Medical School Selection Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The extent to which income and race, viewed independently, affect selection factors is examined, based on data collected by the Association of American Medical Colleges on applicants to the 1976-77 entering class. Factors associated with race had a far more significant influence on applicants' credentials. (Author/LBH)|

Waldman, Bart

1977-01-01

469

Toward an Understanding of Unusually Successful Programs for Economically Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conceptual framework derived from previous research was used to evaluate successful compensatory programs for high-risk students. Program effectiveness standards, school culture, curriculum, and teaching were examined through site visits to three elementary and one middle school. (MMU)

Anderson, Lorin W.; Pellicer, Leonard O.

1998-01-01

470

Predicting Kindergarten Success for Economically Disadvantaged Head Start Children: A Latent Curve Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to use data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 database for public use (version 2.9.2.1; Westat, 2000) to examine a sample of Head Start children and families to predict kindergarten and first grade success, The study controlled family variables of income level, family…

Jiang, Ying Hong; Mok, Doris; Weaver, Robert R.

471

Improving Reading Performance for Economically Disadvantaged Students: Combining Strategy Instruction and Motivational Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Seventy-six fifth-year students from low-socioeconomic status backgrounds participated in three different instructional conditions in an intervention study. The first combined strategy training in top-level structuring and interrelated motivational support; the second implemented the strategy training only; and the third was a control condition…

Ng, Chi-Hung Clarence; Bartlett, Brendan; Chester, Ivan; Kersland, Susan

2013-01-01

472

Violent backgrounds of economically disadvantaged youth: Risk factors for perpetrating violence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent Job Corps residents (n=474) reported the violence they had experienced, witnessed, and perpetrated with regards to parents, siblings, friends, and strangers. Results indicated that there was a high prevalence of all types of violence in this atrisk adolescent sample. Moreover, the majority of adolescents who reported violent experiences indicated threat or use of a weapon was involved. Gender differences

Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling; Peter Neidig

1995-01-01

473

Food and macronutrient intake of economically disadvantaged pregnant women in Colombia.  

PubMed

The objective of this article is to assess changes in diet composition, defined in terms of macronutrient intake and types of foods consumed, in pregnancy in poor urban women in Colombia. The subjects were 20 pregnant and 20 matched nonpregnant, nonlactating (NPNL) women 19 to 35 years of age. The pregnant women were studied in three measurement rounds at 14.0 +/- 3.6, 27 +/- 2.2, and 35 +/- 1.7 weeks gestation, and the NPNL women in three measurement rounds approximately 3 months apart. Dietary intake was obtained from estimated food records and macronutrient composition from published sources. Types of foods consumed were aggregated into 16 groups: alcohol; breads; candy; coffee, chocolate; juices; fruit; legumes; meat, fish, offal; dairy; vegetable dishes; other; rice, pasta; tubers, plantains; salads; soft drinks; and soups. Macronutrient intakes showed nonsignificant increases in pregnancy. There were no significant differences between pregnant and NPNL women, except for carbohydrate intake in late pregnancy (P = 0.03). Carbohydrate, fat, and protein provided 74%, 17%, and 12% of dietary energy, respectively, in pregnant women at baseline, and did not change significantly. Except for a decrease in fruits, the types of foods consumed did not change significantly in pregnancy. There were no between-group differences in types of foods consumed except for the greater number of fruits consumed by pregnant women at baseline (P = 0.004). We conclude that in this population there were no changes in diet composition in pregnancy, except for an increase in fruit consumption in Round 1. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 11:753-762, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11533991

Dufour, Darna L.; Reina, Julio C.; Spurr, G.B.

1999-11-01

474

Early Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity among Economically Disadvantaged Families in the USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in…

Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

2012-01-01

475

Family Instability and the Problem Behaviors of Children From Economically Disadvantaged Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed relationship between family instability and problem behaviors at ages 5 and 7 years. Found direct, concurrent relations between family instability and preschool children's externalizing behavior in the context of other family process variables, relations between subsequent family instability and first-grade children's internalizing…

Ackerman, Brian P.; Kogos, Jen; Youngstrom, Eric; Schoff, Kristen; Izard, Carroll

1999-01-01

476

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...recipient will consider such factors as unequal access to credit or capital, acquisition...commercially unfavorable circumstances, unequal treatment in opportunities for government contracts or other work, unequal treatment by potential customers...

2010-10-01

477

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...recipient will consider such factors as unequal access to credit or capital, acquisition...commercially unfavorable circumstances, unequal treatment in opportunities for government contracts or other work, unequal treatment by potential customers...

2009-10-01

478

Perceptions of lung cancer and smoking in an economically disadvantaged population.  

PubMed

This study assessed low socioeconomic adults' perceptions of lung cancer and smoking utilizing the Health Belief Model. A random sample of 500 Ohio residents, with an annual household income of less than $18,000, responded to a 45-item telephone survey. Thirty-six percent of respondents were aware of the prevalence of lung cancer. The majority were aware that sidestream smoke and air pollution are lung cancer risk factors (72% and 79% respectively). Forty-one percent believed there was nothing people could do to decrease their risk of developing lung cancer. Thirteen percent perceived themselves as more susceptible to lung cancer than others of their same age and sex though one in five believed that low SES people were more likely to develop lung cancer than higher SES people. Twenty-five percent believed that almost everyone who develops lung cancer dies of it within five years of diagnosis. Benefits of quitting were identified as saving money (95%), feeling healthier (90%), living longer (80%), and eliminating hassles with smoking in public (79%). The most common barriers of quitting smoking were addiction (86%), habit (82%), and having friends who smoke (66%). PMID:7836557

Price, J H; Everett, S A

1994-10-01

479

Mothers' Parenting and Young Economically Disadvantaged Children's Relational and Overt Bullying  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined links between mothers' parenting and children's relational bullying and overt bullying in a sample of children attending a Head Start program. Mothers completed surveys and face-to-face interviews. Head Start teachers completed assessments on children. Results indicated that a small percentage of children in the sample was rated by teachers as engaging in relational bullying “frequently to almost always,”

Mary E. Curtner-Smith; Anne M. Culp; Rex Culp; Carrie Scheib; Kelly Owen; Angela Tilley; Molly Murphy; Lauren Parkman; Peter W. Coleman

2006-01-01

480

Screening for sexually transmitted infections among economically disadvantaged youth in a national job training program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate results of screening for syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia among youth in a federally funded job training program.Methods: Data were evaluated from medical records of 12,881 randomly selected students in 54 U.S. job training centers during 1996. The intake medical evaluation includes serologic testing for syphilis. The policy was for females to receive a pelvic examination with gonorrhea

Alan R Lifson; Linda L HalcÓn; Peter Hannan; Michael E St. Louis; Charles R Hayman

2001-01-01

481

Child Care and the Development of Behavior Problems among Economically Disadvantaged Children in Middle Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research examining the longer term influences of child care on children's development has expanded in recent years, but few studies have considered low-income children's experiences in community care arrangements. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 349), the present investigation examines the influences of child care quality, extent and…

Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Maldonado-Carreno, Carolina; Li-Grining, Christine P.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

2010-01-01

482

The relationship of parenting stress and child temperament to language development among economically disadvantaged preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral language skills in the preschool years are predictive of children's later reading success and literacy acquisition, and among these language skills, vocabulary and narrative ability play important roles. Children from low socioeconomic families face risks to their language develop- ment and because of threats to these skills it is important to identify factors that promote their development among high-risk

MELANIE NOEL; CAROLE PETERSON; BEULAH JESSO

2008-01-01

483

School Improvement Based on Effective Schools Research: A Promising Approach for Economically Disadvantaged and Minority Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This essay addresses the school improvement process based on Effective Schools Research (ESR) and its commitment to equitable and quality education for minority and poor children. After briefly discussing general attributes of ESR-based programs, the essay explains major premises of the effective school. The first premise sets teaching and…

Lezotte, Lawrence W.; Bancroft, Beverly A.

484

Preschool Quality and the Development of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: The influence of preschool quality on the development of 67 4-year-old children from poor and rural families in South India was examined. Children's developmental status was assessed using a modified version of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and through physician ratings. Preschool quality was assessed through…

Rao, Nirmala

2010-01-01

485

Preschool Quality and the Development of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research Findings: The influence of preschool quality on the development of 67 4-year-old children from poor and rural families in South India was examined. Children's developmental status was assessed using a modified version of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and through physician ratings. Preschool quality was assessed through…

Rao, Nirmala

2010-01-01

486

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...recipients will consider education, employment and business...business world. (1) Education. Recipients will...access to institutions of higher education and vocational training...advancement, pay and fringe benefits, and other...

2011-10-01

487

Wraparound Counseling: An Ecosystemic Approach to Working with Economically Disadvantaged Students in Urban School Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Urban schools are faced with challenges such as low academic performance, increased incidents of violence, lack of parental engagement with educators, and school personnel burnout. Wraparound counseling is a holistic prevention tool that combines the best practices of counseling and special education for use in the school setting. (Contains 1…

West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Frazier, Kimberly N.; Kelley, Erin

2011-01-01

488

Preschool Quality and the Development of Children From Economically Disadvantaged Families in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: The influence of preschool quality on the development of 67 4-year-old children from poor and rural families in South India was examined. Children's developmental status was assessed using a modified version of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and through physician ratings. Preschool quality was assessed through repeated systematic observations and using the Tamil Nadu Early Childhood Environment

Nirmala Rao

2010-01-01

489

Disparate Disparities: Understanding Differences in Infant Mortality Across Economically Disadvantaged Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infant mortality rates (IMRs) vary widely across racial and ethnic groups in the U.S. for reasons that are not well understood. For example, the large black-white disparity is well known and heavily studied. Over the 2000-03 period, the IMR for non-Hispanic blacks was 13.5 per 1000 live births, while for non-Hispanic whites it was 5.7. Only about one-third of this

Todd Elder; John Goddeeris; Steven Haider

2010-01-01

490

Selection of Special Materials for Disadvantaged Adults. Public Library Training Institutes Library Service Guide Number One.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Disadvantaged adults, like all adults, are concerned with their homes, their children, their finances, with themselves and with real life problems. This pamphlet, the first in a series on library services for disadvantaged adults, presents guidelines for ...

B. Rawles

1974-01-01

491

Home and neighbourhood correlates of BMI among children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.  

PubMed

A detailed understanding of the underlying drivers of obesity-risk behaviours is needed to inform prevention initiatives, particularly for individuals of low socioeconomic position who are at increased risk of unhealthy weight gain. However, few studies have concurrently considered factors in the home and local neighbourhood environments, and little research has examined determinants among children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The present study examined home, social and neighbourhood correlates of BMI (kg/m2) in children living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional data were collected from 491 women with children aged 5-12 years living in forty urban and forty rural socioeconomically disadvantaged areas (suburbs) of Victoria, Australia in 2007 and 2008. Mothers completed questionnaires about the home environment (maternal efficacy, perceived importance/beliefs, rewards, rules and access to equipment), social norms and perceived neighbourhood environment in relation to physical activity, healthy eating and sedentary behaviour. Children's height and weight were measured at school or home. Linear regression analyses controlled for child sex and age. In multivariable analyses, children whose mothers had higher efficacy for them doing physical activity tended to have lower BMI z scores (B = - 0·04, 95 % CI - 0·06, - 0·02), and children who had a television (TV) in their bedroom (B = 0·24, 95 % CI 0·04, 0·44) and whose mothers made greater use of food as a reward for good behaviour (B = 0·05, 95 % CI 0·01, 0·09) tended to have higher BMI z scores. Increasing efficacy among mothers to promote physical activity, limiting use of food as a reward and not placing TV in children's bedrooms may be important targets for future obesity prevention initiatives in disadvantaged communities. PMID:21824445

Crawford, David A; Ball, Kylie; Cleland, Verity J; Campbell, Karen J; Timperio, Anna F; Abbott, Gavin; Brug, Johannes; Baur, Louise A; Salmon, Jo A

2011-08-09

492

Integration of data from censuses and remote sensing to measure the socio-economic and environmental evolution in urban areas: case of the city of Sherbrooke (1981-2006)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The urban environment is complex, heterogeneous and temporally changeable. Man is the main actor in the transformation of urban areas where he interacts with intensity. Spatial differentiation is a result of human occupation in the urban environment. This occupation may vary according to land use, population density, social and economic characteristics and environment. This leads us to say that the socio-economic and environmental indicators change according to the various locations in the urban area and through time. Our goal is to measure the socio-economic and environmental changes in the urban area of the city of Sherbrooke using remote sensing data synchronized with the censuses and that we will then integrate into the geographic information system (GIS). We have used data from the 1981 and 2006 censuses, 1983 aerial photos, 2007 orthophotos and 1983 MSS and 2006 Ikons satellite images to measure the socio-economic and environmental changes in the city of Sherbrooke. We have used spatial analysis tools to integrate image data with census data. The methods uses such as global indices, principal component analysis combined with the variation between the two dates have yielded interesting results. The first factor in principal component analysis with orthogonal rotation (Varimax) justified a substantial percentage of the variance in global indices. The use of dissemination areas resulted in detailed information on the change in the city. From the perspective of spatial distribution, we noted a major difference between the central areas and the peripheral areas in 1981 and 2006. From the perspective of evolution between 1981 and 2006, we observed that are positive and negative changes at various levels took place. We also observed the evolution of ethnicity in the Sherbrooke city and Lennoxville municipality. The study showed that the French population is prevalent in the old city of Sherbrooke as the English population is prevalent in Lennoxville. The European population is spread over the two cities. The aboriginal population is well distributed over the city of Sherbrooke. The population from Asian and Oceanic backgrounds are concentrated (sometimes on an exclusive basis) in the north and west-centre area of Jardins-Fleuris, in the eastern area of l'Assomption, the northeastern area of Sainte-Famille and the center area of Marie-Reine. We also find concentrations of immigrant populations from all backgrounds in areas such as in the southern part of the Immaculee-Conception and Saint-Joseph and in the south-eastern part of Sainte-Jeanne-d'Arc. This indicates that ethnic neighborhoods are taking roots in the city of Sherbrooke. Keywords : socio-economic and environmental, urban, remote sensing, multiple factor analysis, dissemination areas, the city of Sherbrooke, Lennoxville municipality.

Dari, Ouassini

493

Contingency contracting with disadvantaged youths: Improving classroom performance  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the effects of a student-teacher contracting procedure on adolescent students' academic productivity. Participants were 13 youths enrolled in a vocational training program for disadvantaged youth and their classroom teacher. During the baseline conditions students were paid contingent on attendance alone, the system operating in the program prior to this research. During contracting conditions students were paid contingent on contract fulfillment of academic productivity goals set by mutual agreement between the student and teacher. Contracting and contingent pay procedures were developed with, and implemented by, the classroom teacher. A reversal experimental design showed that student's productivity more than doubled during contracting conditions as compared with their productivity during baseline.

Kelley, Mary Lou; Stokes, Trevor F.

1982-01-01

494

Place and Disadvantage: The Need for Reflexive Epistemology in Spatial Social Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between place and disadvantage, and particularly the question of whether, and how, geographical concentration of disadvantaged households exacerbates disadvantage is of growing concern to social science and urban policy. Despite many calls for a subtle and complex approach to constructing knowledge about these issues, a positivist approach based on statistical indicators, appears to dominate policy making. This approach

Michael Darcy

2007-01-01

495

[Practice-based evidence in prevention and health promotion among socially disadvantaged communities].  

PubMed

In recent years numerous health promotion and prevention efforts have been created for socially disadvantaged communities. There is a broad consensus that such measures should be scientifically sound; however, the criteria for evidence-based medicine (EBM) have been shown to have limited applicability in this area. It is widely debated which scientific approaches are most appropriate. Several authors have called for the production of "practice-based evidence"(PBE) as an alternative, focusing on ways to produce evidence based directly on practical experience. Implied is a variety of methodological and epistemological approaches for generating knowledge about the effectiveness of interventions. In contrast to the usual means of generating evidence, PBE suggests that practitioners instead of researchers take on the leading role in the generation and interpretation of intervention data. To date, PBE is an idea in need of further definition, both in terms of theory and practice. On the basis of recent research the authors present a definition for PBE and a model for how it could be generated. The authors propose an "Evidence Cycle" which would synthesize the findings from local evaluations for the purpose of generating practice guidelines (Good Practice Criteria) which can be developed in an ongoing way as new data becomes available. In this way local theories of disease causation and development and local evidence for intervention effectiveness could be drawn together to produce empirically-based, generalizable statements about effective health promotion and prevention for disadvantaged communities. PMID:23292968

Wright, M T; Kilian, H; Brandes, S

2013-01-04

496

Cumulative Disadvantage and Health: Long-Term Consequences of Obesity?  

PubMed Central

Drawing from cumulative disadvantage theory, the health consequences of obesity are considered in light of the accumulation of risk factors over the life course. Two forms of compensation are also examined to determine if the risk due to obesity is persistent or modifiable. Analyses make use of data from a national survey to examine the consequences of obesity on disability among respondents 45 years of age or older, tracked across 20 years (N = 4,106). Results from tobit models indicate that obesity, especially when experienced early in life, is consistently related to lower-body disability. The results also show that obesity has long-term health consequences during adulthood, altering the life course in an enduring way. Compensation was not manifest from risk-factor elimination (weight loss), but rather through regular exercise. Although there is evidence for long-term consequences of risk factors on health, the findings suggest that more attention should be given to compensatory mechanisms in the development of cumulative disadvantage theory.

Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Kelley-Moore, Jessica A.

2012-01-01

497

A summer academic research experience for disadvantaged youth.  

PubMed

Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience (SARE) program that provides an enriching academic internship to underrepresented youth. Our program has shown that to have a successful internship for these disadvantaged youth, several issues need to be addressed in addition to scientific mentoring. We have found that it is necessary to remediate and/or fortify basic academic skills for students to be successful. In addition, students need to be actively coached in the development of professional skills, habits, and attitudes necessary for success in the workplace. With all these factors in place, these youths can become better students, compete on a more level playing field in their internships, and increase their potential of participating actively in the sciences in the future. PMID:24006390

Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N

2013-01-01

498

Health improvement for disadvantaged people in Nepal - an evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background An evaluation of progress with participatory approaches for improvement of health knowledge and health experiences of disadvantaged people in eight Districts of Eastern Nepal has been undertaken. Methods A random selection of Village Development Committees and households, within the eight Districts where participation and a Rights-based Approach had been promoted specifically by local NGOs were compared with similar villages and households in eight Districts where this approach had not been promoted. Information was sought by structured interview and observation by experienced enumerators from both groups of householders. Health knowledge and experiences were compared between the two sets of households. Adjustments were made for demographic confounders. Results Complete data sets were available for 628 of the 640 households. Health knowledge and experiences were low for both sets of households. However, health knowledge and experiences were greater in the participatory households compared with the non-participatory households. These differences remained after adjustment for confounders. Conclusions The study was designed to evaluate progress with participatory processes delivered by non-governmental organisations over a five year period. Improvements in health knowledge and experiences of disadvantaged people were demonstrated in a consistent and robust manner where interventions had taken place.

2012-01-01

499

Coexpression of linked genes in Mammalian genomes is generally disadvantageous.  

PubMed

Similarity in gene expression pattern between closely linked genes is known in several eukaryotes. Two models have been proposed to explain the presence of such coexpression patterns. The adaptive model assumes that coexpression is advantageous and is established by relocation of initially unlinked but coexpressed genes, whereas the neutral model asserts that coexpression is a type of leaky expression due to similar expressional environments of linked genes, but is neither advantageous nor detrimental. However, these models are incompatible with several empirical observations. Here, we propose that coexpression of linked genes is a form of transcriptional interference that is disadvantageous to the organism. We show that even distantly linked genes that are tens of megabases away exhibit significant coexpression in the human genome. However, the linkage is more likely to be broken during evolution between genes of high coexpression than those of low coexpression and the breakage of linkage reduces gene coexpression. These results support our hypothesis that coexpression of linked genes in mammalian genomes is generally disadvantageous, implying that many mammalian genes may never reach their optimal expression pattern due to the interference of their genomic environment and that such transcriptional interference may be a force promoting recurrent relocation of genes in the genome. PMID:18440951

Liao, Ben-Yang; Zhang, Jianzhi

2008-04-24

500

New England Economic Review: 2000 Issues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The May/June 2000 issue of New England Economic Review from FRB Boston includes three articles and their abstracts: "Rising Tide in the Labor Market: To What Degree Do Expansions Benefit the Disadvantaged?," "Discouraged and Other Marginally Attached Workers: Evidence on Their Role in the Labor Market," and "The Neutrality of Massachusetts' Taxation of Financial Institutions."

2000-01-01