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1

Developmental Levels of Economically Disadvantaged College Freshmen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The personal developmental levels of students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds were studied; and the hypothesis that students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds would be less mature than other students in the developmental levels of autonomy, purpose, and interpersonal relationships was assessed. The effects of participation in…

Yarbrough, Stephen L.

2

49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? 26.67 Section 26...67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of...million, the individual's presumption of economic disadvantage is rebutted. You are...

2013-10-01

3

Developing Latent Mathematics Abilities in Economically Disadvantaged Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study was undertaken as an effort to attend to the potential giftedness of economically disadvantaged students, to give opportunities for mathematics acceleration, and to provide a sequential, individualized mathematics program for students of high mobility. The authors evaluated the Project SAIL (Students' Active Interdisciplinary…

McKenna, Michele A.; Hollingsworth, Patricia L.; Barnes, Laura L. B.

2005-01-01

4

Book Selections of Economically Disadvantaged Black Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author identified books most often selected among a sample of economically disadvantaged Black 8- to 12-year-old participants (N = 293) and investigated reasons participants offered for choosing specific books. Participants self-selected books at a book fair providing 412 books. The most commonly selected books supplied descriptive data.…

Williams, Lunetta M.

2008-01-01

5

Misperceptions of Motivation of Economically Disadvantaged Employees in Work Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the cross-cultural perceptions of appropriate and inappropriate behaviors for three sets of role relationships between employers and economically-disadvantaged job trainees. Results suggest that job trainees perceived the role of a superordinate as being more punitive, more deceitful, and less friendly than the employers thought would be…

Smith, Althea; Chemers, Martin M.

1981-01-01

6

INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT AMONG ECONOMICALLY AND EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CURRENT RESEARCH INDICATES THAT SCHOOL AND HOME ENVIRONMENTS STRONGLY INFLUENCE AN INDIVIDUAL'S INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT, ALTHOUGH CERTAIN VERY BROAD HEREDITARY LIMITATIONS MAY ALSO AFFECT IT. THE ECONOMICALLY AND EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH EXPERIENCES AN ENVIRONMENT WHICH LACKS STIMULI ESSENTIAL TO POSITIVE INTELLECTUAL GROWTH AND…

GREEN, ROBERT L.

7

Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models  

PubMed Central

Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This paper reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate diversity and instability. This expansion would be particularly relevant for research among low-income ethnic minority families and families with young children. This line of research would highlight specific pathways to target to prevent the onset of early parental and child dysfunction.

Barnett, Melissa A.

2014-01-01

8

Adherence to Accelerometer Protocols Among Women From Economically Disadvantaged Neighborhoods  

PubMed Central

Background Objective measurement of physical activity with accelerometers is a challenging task in community-based intervention research. Challenges include distribution of and orientation to monitors, nonwear, incorrect placement, and loss of equipment. Data collection among participants from disadvantaged populations may be further hindered by factors such as transportation challenges, competing responsibilities, and cultural considerations. Methods Research staff distributed accelerometers and provided an orientation that was tailored to the population group. General adherence strategies such as follow-up calls, daily diaries, verbal and written instructions, and incentives were accompanied by population-specific strategies such as assisting with transportation, reducing obstacles to wearing the accelerometer, tailoring the message to the participant population, and creating a nonjudgmental environment. Results Sixty women asked to wear the Actigraph GT1M returned the accelerometer, and 57 of them provided sufficient data for analysis (at least 10 hours a day for a minimum of 4 days) resulting in 95% adherence to the protocol. Participants wore the accelerometers for an average of 5.98 days and 13.15 hours per day. Conclusions The high accelerometer monitoring adherence among this group of economically disadvantaged women demonstrates that collection of high-quality, objective physical activity data from disadvantaged populations in field-based research is possible.

Sharpe, Patricia A.; Wilcox, Sara; Rooney, Laura J.; Strong, Donna; Hopkins-Campbell, Rosie; Butel, Jean; Ainsworth, Barbara; Parra-Medina, Deborah

2011-01-01

9

Neighborhood Disadvantage, Individual Economic Distress and Violence Against Women in Intimate Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuing debate in sociological criminology involves the association of crime with economic disadvantage at both aggregate and individual levels of analysis. At the aggregate level, data from law enforcement sources suggest that rates of intimate violence are higher in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience higher rates of intimate violence for compositional or contextual reasons, or rates may only

Michael L. Benson; Greer L. Fox; Alfred DeMaris; Judy Van Wyk

2003-01-01

10

48 CFR 6.207 - Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible...Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB)...

2013-10-01

11

13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section...Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? (a)...

2009-01-01

12

13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section...Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? (a)...

2010-01-01

13

48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern or women-owned small business (WOSB) concern eligible...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern...

2013-10-01

14

48 CFR 18.117 - Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible...117 Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB)...

2013-10-01

15

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Economic Disadvantage E Appendix E to Part 26 Transportation Office...ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Pt. 26, App. E Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations...determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social...

2011-10-01

16

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Economic Disadvantage E Appendix E to Part 26 Transportation Office...ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Pt. 26, App. E Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations...determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social...

2012-10-01

17

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...socially or economically disadvantaged includes but is not limited to: (1) Statistical profile outlining the national income level and standard of living enjoyed by members of the group in comparison to the income level and standard of...

2009-01-01

18

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...socially or economically disadvantaged includes but is not limited to: (1) Statistical profile outlining the national income level and standard of living enjoyed by members of the group in comparison to the income level and standard of...

2010-01-01

19

ENVIRONMENTAL RISK AND IMPACT IN COMMUNITIES OF COLOR AND ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Research has shown that communities of color and economically/educationally disadvantaged communities are at a greater risk of impact from environmental hazards. In many past studies in environmental justice (EJ) communities, scientists have used surrogate measures of exposure b...

20

Social characteristics of psychological distress in a disadvantaged urban area of Kazakhstan.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to systematically assess the association of socio-economic characteristics and psychological distress in a disadvantaged urban area of a post-Soviet Republic. Psychological distress was assessed in a random sample of 200 persons, aged 18-57, living in a disadvantaged urban area of Kazakhstan using the General Health Questionnaire with 28 items (GHQ-28). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the association of social characteristics and psychological distress. Female gender (P < 0.05), living without a partner (P < 0.01), higher age (P < 0.01), unemployment (P < 0.01), and low perceived income (P < 0.05) were associated with psychological distress in multivariate analyses. Non-Kazakh ethnicity (P < 0.05) was linked with psychological distress in bivariate analyses. The educational level was not significantly associated with psychological distress. Women, aged 38-57, living without partner and with low access to financial resources, were at a very high risk of psychological distress. Possibly due to social drift or status inconsistency, higher educational levels were not associated with lower levels of psychological distress in the disadvantaged area. PMID:23712308

Ignatyev, Yuriy; Assimov, Marat; Dochshanov, Dauren; Ströhle, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas; Mundt, Adrian P

2014-01-01

21

An Exploratory Study of Radical Mindfulness Training with Severely Economically Disadvantaged People: Findings of a Canadian Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a two-phased research project that piloted a modified mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention developed specifically for a severely economically disadvantaged population. The terms severely economically disadvantaged (SED) and “severely marginalised” were used to describe the participants who experience socioeconomic disadvantage and social isolation as well as significant medical, psychological, physical, and learning challenges. Phase one of the

Steven F. Hick; Charles Furlotte

2010-01-01

22

Temperament Influences on Parenting and Child Psychopathology: Socio-Economic Disadvantage as Moderator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite calls for research on how the socio-economic environment may be related to temperament, we still do not know enough about the relationship between temperament and socio-economic disadvantage (SED). A particularly under-researched question in temperament research is how SED may moderate the temperament-parenting and the temperament-child…

Flouri, Eirini

2008-01-01

23

Addressing Summer Reading Setback among Economically Disadvantaged Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much research has established the contribution of summer reading setback to the reading achievement gap that is present between children from more and less economically advantaged families. Likewise, summer reading activity, or the lack of it, has been linked to summer setback. Finally, family socioeconomic status has been linked to the access…

Allington, Richard L.; McGill-Franzen, Anne; Camilli, Gregory; Williams, Lunetta; Graff, Jennifer; Zeig, Jacqueline; Zmach, Courtney; Nowak, Rhonda

2010-01-01

24

How Does Childhood Economic Disadvantage Lead to Crime?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study sought to examine the associations between indices of socio-economic deprivation in childhood and later involvement in crime. Method: Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study. In this project a cohort of 1,265 children born in Christchurch in 1977 have been studied from birth to age 21…

Fergusson, David; Swain-Campbell, Nicola; Horwood, John

2004-01-01

25

Parental Depression and Economic Disadvantage: The Role of Parenting in Associations with Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effects of parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and parenting behaviors in 180 children and adolescents of depressed parents (ages 9–15 years-old). Analyses revealed that while parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and disrupted parenting behaviors were related to children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms, disrupted parenting (e.g., intrusive, neglectful parenting) accounted for the association of parental depressive symptoms and economic disadvantage with children’s symptoms. This study provides evidence that disrupted parenting may be a common or shared process through which both parental depression and economic disadvantage are associated with children’s internalizing and externalizing problems.

Watson, Kelly H.; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E.

2013-01-01

26

Children aged 9–14 living in disadvantaged areas in England: Opportunities and barriers for cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to take a holistic perspective to explore levels of cycling and opportunities and barriers to increase children’s safer cycling in disadvantaged areas in England. The study was one part of a larger study which explored the factors underlying the high level of road traffic casualties especially among children in the most disadvantaged areas of

Nicola Christie; Richard Kimberlee; Elizabeth Towner; Sarah Rodgers; Heather Ward; Judith Sleney; Ronan Lyons

2011-01-01

27

Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED) population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods The primary prevention element of Have a Heart Paisley (HaHP) offered risk screening to all eligible individuals. The programme employed two approaches to engaging with the community: a) a social marketing campaign and b) a community development project adopting primarily face-to-face canvassing. Individuals living in areas of SED were under-recruited via the social marketing approach, but successfully recruited via face-to-face canvassing. This paper reports on focus group discussions with participants, exploring their perceptions about and experiences of both approaches. Results Various reasons were identified for low uptake of risk screening amongst individuals living in areas of high SED in response to the social marketing campaign and a number of ways in which the face-to-face canvassing approach overcame these barriers were identified. These have been categorised into four main themes: (1) processes of engagement; (2) issues of understanding; (3) design of the screening service and (4) the priority accorded to screening. The most immediate barriers to recruitment were the invitation letter, which often failed to reach its target, and the general distrust of postal correspondence. In contrast, participants were positive about the face-to-face canvassing approach. Participants expressed a lack of knowledge and understanding about CHD and their risk of developing it and felt there was a lack of clarity in the information provided in the mailing in terms of the process and value of screening. In contrast, direct face-to-face contact meant that outreach workers could explain what to expect. Participants felt that the procedure for uptake of screening was demanding and inflexible, but that the drop-in sessions employed by the community development project had a major impact on recruitment and retention. Conclusion Socio-economically disadvantaged individuals can be hard-to-reach; engagement requires strategies tailored to the needs of the target population rather than a population-wide approach.

2010-01-01

28

Structure and Change in the Behavior of Economically Disadvantaged Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of economically disadvantaged children in free play nursery contexts provided further evidence for the cross-cultural applicability of Schaefer's three-dimensional scheme in assessing classroom competencies. Several implications of the configurational approach are a new way of thinking about competence measurement, its differentiated…

Emmerich, Walter

29

Relation between Reading Problems and Internalizing Behavior in School for Preadolescent Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study of 105 economically disadvantaged children examined the relation between reading problems and internalizing behavior in 3rd- and 5th-grade assessments (8- to 12-year olds). The variable-centered results showed that reading problems predicted change in internalizing behavior in the context of child and family predictors. The…

Ackerman, Brian P.; Izard, Carroll E.; Kobak, Roger; Brown, Eleanor D.; Smith, Clare

2007-01-01

30

WWC Quick Review of the Report "Addressing Summer Reading Setback among Economically Disadvantaged Elementary Students"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined whether providing summer reading books to economically disadvantaged first- and second-grade students for three consecutive summers improved reading achievement. The study analyzed data on about 1,300 students from 17 high-poverty elementary schools in two large districts in Florida. Student-level reading achievement was…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

2010-01-01

31

Food Insecurity Is Associated with Past and Present Economic Disadvantage and Body Mass Index1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fears and experiences of food restriction influence eating behavior but the association between past and present economic disadvantage, food insecurity and body size is poorly understood. Therefore, we examined these associations in a nationwide, representative sample of 25- to 64-y-old Finnish men and women (n 5 6506). The respondents were classified by their body mass index (BMI) into four groups:

Sirpa Sarlio-Lahteenkorva; Eero Lahelma

32

Predictors of Quality of Life in Economically Disadvantaged Populations in Montreal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most epidemiological studies agree that economically disadvantaged populations are the groups most vulnerable to mental health problems and report lower quality of life among these populations. However, it appears that access to social support plays a role in protecting against the chronic stress resulting from conditions such as poverty. This…

Caron, Jean

2012-01-01

33

Economic Disadvantage and Young Children's Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Mechanisms of Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home…

Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

2013-01-01

34

Predictors of Parenting among Economically Disadvantaged Latina Mothers: Mediating and Moderating Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role of ecological risk factors, maternal psychological distress, and social network support on the parenting behaviors of 535 economically disadvantaged Latina mothers, who were surveyed for the Welfare Children, & Families: A Three City Study. We predicted that ecological risk would influence…

Prelow, Hazel M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Bowman, Marvella A.; Swenson, Rebecca R.

2010-01-01

35

Tuberculin Skin Testing among Economically Disadvantaged Youth in a Federally Funded Job Training Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low income, medically underserved communities are at increased risk for tuberculosis. Limited population- based national data are available about tuberculous infection in young people from such backgrounds. To determine the prevalence of a positive tuberculin skin test among economically disadvantaged youth in a federally funded job training program during 1995 and 1996, the authors evaluated data from medical records of

Alan R. Lifson; Linda L. Halcon; Ann M. Johnston; Charles R. Hayman; Peter Hannan; Carol A. Miller; Sarah E. Valway

36

Political Participation and Cumulative Disadvantage: The Impact of Economic and Social Hardship on Young Citizens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we seek to provide the most comprehensive exploration to date of the effects of economic and social disadvantage on young citizens' voter turnout. We look at four overlapping domains of hardship—those rooted in (a) the family context, (b) the community context, (c) the school context, and (d) major events and life transitions. Our conceptual model of cumulative

Julianna Sandell Pacheco; Eric Plutzer

2008-01-01

37

A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social–emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered analysis of 207 Hispanic American preschoolers (ages 4 and 5 years) yielded 6 distinct profiles, 2

Geraldine V. Oades-Sese; Giselle B. Esquivel; Pamela K. Kaliski; Lisette Maniatis

2011-01-01

38

Intelligence of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families: Role of Parental Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of parental education status on the intelligence of children from economically disadvantaged families was examined.\\u000a One-hundred school going children aged 4 to 8 years from low income families were divided into 3 groups based on the level\\u000a of their parental education. The main outcome measure was the intelligence of the child. Significant differences (p?

Manjit Sidhu; Prahbhjot Malhi; Jagat Jerath

2010-01-01

39

DoD Science and Engineering Apprenticeship Program for Socially and Economically Disadvantaged High School Students. 1991-1992 Activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The year 1991 represented the tenth successful DOD Science and Engineering Summer Apprenticeship Program for Socially and Economically Disadvantaged Students, sponsored by the Office of Naval Research at Florida State University. The program this year was...

R. L. Pfeffer

1992-01-01

40

34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false ...economically disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program? 403.114 Section 403.114...

2013-07-01

41

Longitudinal predictors of frequent vegetable and fruit consumption among socio-economically disadvantaged Australian adolescents.  

PubMed

Adequate vegetable and fruit consumption is necessary for preventing nutrition-related diseases. Socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume relatively few vegetables and fruits. However, despite nutritional challenges associated with socio-economic disadvantage, a minority of adolescents manage to eat vegetables and fruit in quantities that are more in line with dietary recommendations. This investigation aimed to identify predictors of more frequent intakes of fruits and vegetables among adolescents over a 2-year follow-up period. Data were drawn from 521 socio-economically disadvantaged (maternal education ?Year 10 of secondary school) Australian adolescents aged 12-15 years. Participants were recruited from 37 secondary schools and were asked to complete online surveys in 2004/2005 (baseline) and 2006/2007 (follow-up). Surveys comprised a 38-item FFQ and questions based on Social Ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental influences on diet. At baseline and follow-up, respectively, 29% and 24% of adolescents frequently consumed vegetables (?2 times/day); 33% and 36% frequently consumed fruit (?1 time/day). In multivariable logistic regressions, baseline consumption strongly predicted consumption at follow-up. Frequently being served vegetables at dinner predicted frequent vegetable consumption. Female sex, rarely purchasing food or drink from school vending machines, and usually being expected to eat all foods served predicted frequent fruit consumption. Findings suggest nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving eating behaviours among this at-risk population and should focus on younger adolescents, particularly boys; improving adolescent eating behaviours at school; and encouraging families to increase home availability of healthy foods and to implement meal time rules. PMID:24685764

Stephens, Lena D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

2014-07-01

42

Troubled Times, Troubled Relationships: How Economic Resources, Gender Beliefs, and Neighborhood Disadvantage Influence Intimate Partner Violence  

PubMed Central

We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV), and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N=1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mother’s reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age three, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women’s risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the race/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women’s economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV.

Golden, Shelley D.; Perreira, Krista M.; Durrance, Christine Piette

2013-01-01

43

Behavioral Predictors of Low Fat Intake Among Economically Disadvantaged African-American Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine whether five behaviors shown to predict low fat intake in adults predicted low fat intake among economically disadvantaged African-American adolescents. Design Cross-sectional. Subjects and Measures Recruited through youth services agencies serving low-income communities in New York and New Jersey, participants were 265 African-American adolescents aged 10 to 14 years. Participants completed the Block Fat Screener and scales for measuring the following behaviors: avoiding fat as a seasoning, modifying meat to make it lower in fat, substituting high-fat foods with manufactured low-fat equivalents, replacing high-fat foods with fruits and vegetables, and replacing high-fat foods with low-fat foods other than fruits and vegetables. Analysis The reliability and construct validity of the scales were assessed using internal consistency reliability and correlation analyses. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine behavioral predictors of low fat intake. Results Scale coefficient alphas ranged from .60 to .80. Fat avoidance, substitution, and replacement with fruits and vegetables were significantly associated with fat intake. The regression equation containing these behaviors accounted for 12% of the variance in intake. All three behaviors were significant predictors of low fat intake. Conclusions Fewer behaviors have salience for predicting low fat intake among economically disadvantaged African-American adolescents than among adults. Interventions to lower youths' intake should emphasize fat avoidance, substitution, and replacement with fruits and vegetables.

Di Noia, Jennifer; Contento, Isobel R.

2010-01-01

44

[The long-term influence of socio-economic disadvantage on the psychosocial adjustment of women].  

PubMed

On the basis of a prospective longitudinal study of over 15,000 women this paper examines the long-term influences of socio-economic disadvantages on psychosocial adjustment. The study draws on data from two British cohort studies carried out 12 years apart from each other. A contextual developmental perspective is adopted to analyse the pathways linking childhood experiences to adult functioning in a changing socio-historical context. The study suggests a causal chain process linking the early and persisting experience of socio-economic adversity to behavioural maladjustment of girls during childhood and adolescence. Socio-economic adversity and behavioural maladjustment in adolescence, in turn, predict the development of depressive symptoms in adulthood. The influence of socio-economic adversity on individual development, however, also depends on the wider socio-historical context in which development takes place. It is concluded that for a better understanding of psychosocial adjustment across the lifespan we have to consider the interactions of a changing individual in a changing context. PMID:12407496

Schoon, Ingrid

2002-01-01

45

Economic value of safe water for the infrastructurally disadvantaged urban household: A case study in Delhi, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delhi has witnessed rapid urbanization during the past 50 years, with ever increasing growth in population and economic activity leading to water stress in several parts of the city. This paper looks at the valuation of water as an economic resource in the context of a low-income, infrastructurally disadvantaged urban household, through the results of a primary survey. In doing

Purnamita Dasgupta; Rajib Dasgupta

2004-01-01

46

Does the measure of economic disadvantage matter? Exploring the effect of individual and relative deprivation on intrauterine growth restriction  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the relation between health, individual income, and relative deprivation. Three alternative measures of relative deprivation are described, Yitzhaik relative deprivation, Deaton relative deprivation, and log income difference relative deprivation, with attention to problems in measuring permanent disadvantage when the underlying income distribution is changing over time. We used data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth, a US-based longitudinal survey, to examine the associations between disadvantage, measured cross-sectionally and aggregated over the life course, and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We reject the hypotheses that any of the economic measures, whether permanent/contemporaneous or individual/relative, have different associations with IUGR in terms of sign and significance. There was some evidence that permanent economic disadvantage was associated with greater risk of IUGR than those on the corresponding contemporaneous measures. The fitted values from logistic regressions on each measure of disadvantage were compared with the two-way plots of the observed IUGR-income pattern. Deaton relative deprivation and log income difference tracked the observed probability of IUGR as a function of income more closely than the other two measures of relative deprivation. Finally, we examined the determinants of each measure of disadvantage. Observed characteristics in childhood and adulthood explained more of the variance in log income difference and Deaton relative deprivation than in the other two measures of disadvantage. They also explained more of the variance in permanent disadvantage than in the contemporaneous counterpart.

Salsberry, Pamela J.; Olsen, Randall J.

2007-01-01

47

A longitudinal study of the social and academic competence of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered analysis of 207 Hispanic American preschoolers (ages 4 and 5 years) yielded 6 distinct profiles, 2 of which were socially competent and 1 of which was vulnerable. Findings revealed profile differences in social competence and a significant relationship between bilingualism and social-emotional development. In Study 2, the authors determined which profiles were associated with later academic achievement and growth of English proficiency. Findings indicated a significant relationship of early social-emotional development to later academic success and English acquisition, highlighting the role of bilingualism. PMID:21219064

Oades-Sese, Geraldine V; Esquivel, Giselle B; Kaliski, Pamela K; Maniatis, Lisette

2011-05-01

48

Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ?24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services.

Hu, Yu; Li, Qian; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Yaping; Qi, Xiaohua

2013-01-01

49

The Relationship between Teachers' Collective Efficacy and Student Achievement at Economically Disadvantaged Middle School Campuses in Texas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the collective efficacy of teachers and student achievement at economically disadvantaged middle school campuses. Schools of today are expected to show continuous improvement in student achievement from year to year, regardless of the students' family background, ethnicity, or…

Sandoval, Juan Manuel

2010-01-01

50

Ethnic Group, Sex and Economic Disadvantage: associations with pupils’ educational progress from Baseline to the end of Key Stage 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very few studies have explored the associations between ethnic group, sex, economic disadvantage and school attended on pupils’ progress during their earliest years at school (age 4?7). The present study reports an analysis of the educational progress made by over 5000 pupils between Baseline assessment at age 4 and national end of Key Stage 1 (KS1) tests at age 7.

Steve Strand

1999-01-01

51

Ethnic Group, Sex and Economic Disadvantage: Associations with Pupils' Educational Progress from Baseline to the End of Key Stage 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the educational progress made by students between Baseline assessment at age 4 and national end of Key Stage 1 tests at age 7. Focuses on the effects background factors have on students' progress, the interactions between ethnic group, sex, and economic disadvantage on progress, and evidence of school effectiveness. Discusses the…

Strand, Steve

1999-01-01

52

Risk factors for low birth weight in a socio-economically disadvantaged population: Parity, marital status, ethnicity and cigarette smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low birth weight (LBW) is a public health problem, because it is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The principal aim of this study was to assess risk factors for LBW in a large multi-ethnic and socio-economically disadvantaged population. Data from 3242 mothers, who attended the Well Baby Clinic (Southwestern Sydney, Australia) for the first time, were analysed

H. Phung; A. Bauman; T. V. Nguyen; L. Young; M. Tran; K. Hillman

2003-01-01

53

Growing up as "Man of the House": Adultification and Transition into Adulthood for Young Men in Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field…

Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

2014-01-01

54

Contextual Risk, Maternal Negative Emotionality, and the Negative Emotion Dysregulation of Preschool Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: This study examined relations between contextual risk, maternal negative emotionality, and preschool teacher reports of the negative emotion dysregulation of children from economically disadvantaged families. Contextual risk was represented by cumulative indexes of family and neighborhood adversity. The results showed a direct…

Brown, Eleanor D.; Ackerman, Brian P.

2011-01-01

55

Adherence to combined montelukast and fluticasone treatment in economically disadvantaged african american youth with asthma.  

PubMed

High rates of asthma treatment nonadherence have been reported, particularly in economically disadvantaged African American youth. The relationship between adherence to combined medication treatment and asthma outcomes has potential clinical significance but is not well understood. Using electronic monitoring, we describe the pattern of adherence to daily corticosteroid (fluticasone) and leukotriene receptor antagonist (montelukast) medication over the course of 1 year in a population of African American youth with moderate to severe asthma. On average, adherence to montelukast was higher than adherence to fluticasone (p < 0.01); however, for both medications, adherence rates significantly declined over the course of the study. After 1 year, participants took only 31% of prescribed doses of montelukast and 23% of prescribed doses of fluticasone. The decline in adherence to both fluticasone (p < 0.05) and montelukast (p < 0.001) was related to increased healthcare utilization. Furthermore, asthma symptom ratings were related montelukast (p < 0.001), but not fluticasone adherence. These results suggest that adherence promotion intervention strategies are warranted to improve health-related outcomes in families who are at-risk for treatment nonadherence. PMID:19905919

McNally, Kelly A; Rohan, Jennifer; Schluchter, Mark; Riekert, Kristin A; Vavrek, Pamela; Schmidt, Amy; Redline, Susan; Kercsmar, Carolyn; Drotar, Dennis

2009-11-01

56

Learning when School is Not in Session: A Reading Summer Day-Camp Intervention to Improve the Achievement of Exiting First-Grade Students Who are Economically Disadvantaged  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the summer vacation children who are economically disadvantaged experience declines in reading achievement, while middle- and high-income children improve. Previous research has demonstrated that the most widely implemented intervention -- sending economically disadvantaged students to summer school -- has not led to increases in reading…

Schacter, John; Jo, Booil

2005-01-01

57

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Social disadvantage must stem from circumstances beyond...recipients will consider education, employment and business...the business world. (1) Education. Recipients will consider...access to institutions of higher education and vocational...

2010-10-01

58

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Social disadvantage must stem from circumstances beyond...recipients will consider education, employment and business...the business world. (1) Education. Recipients will consider...access to institutions of higher education and vocational...

2009-10-01

59

Growing up as "man of the house": adultification and transition into adulthood for young men in economically disadvantaged families.  

PubMed

Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field work and life-history interviews with low-income, young African American men and Salvadoran men in the Washington, DC/Baltimore region to illustrate how adultification may deliver contradictory expectations for adolescents. The findings also show how the accelerated responsibilities that accompany the experience of adultification create difficulties in the young men's transition into adulthood. These findings indicate that the age period of emerging adulthood may begin earlier for economically disadvantaged young men. PMID:24677648

Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

2014-03-01

60

Treatment Effects of a Relationship-Strengthening Intervention for Economically Disadvantaged New Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the treatment effects of a relationship skills and family strengthening intervention for n = 726 high-risk, disadvantaged new parents. Method: Hierarchical linear modeling and regression models were used to assess intervention treatment effects. These findings were subsequently verified…

Charles, Pajarita; Jones, Anne; Guo, Shenyang

2014-01-01

61

Geographic remoteness, area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and inequalities in colorectal cancer survival in Queensland: a multilevel analysis  

PubMed Central

Background To explore the impact of geographical remoteness and area-level socioeconomic disadvantage on colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. Methods Multilevel logistic regression and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations were used to analyze geographical variations in five-year all-cause and CRC-specific survival across 478 regions in Queensland Australia for 22,727 CRC cases aged 20–84 years diagnosed from 1997–2007. Results Area-level disadvantage and geographic remoteness were independently associated with CRC survival. After full multivariate adjustment (both levels), patients from remote (odds Ratio [OR]: 1.24, 95%CrI: 1.07-1.42) and more disadvantaged quintiles (OR?=?1.12, 1.15, 1.20, 1.23 for Quintiles 4, 3, 2 and 1 respectively) had lower CRC-specific survival than major cities and least disadvantaged areas. Similar associations were found for all-cause survival. Area disadvantage accounted for a substantial amount of the all-cause variation between areas. Conclusions We have demonstrated that the area-level inequalities in survival of colorectal cancer patients cannot be explained by the measured individual-level characteristics of the patients or their cancer and remain after adjusting for cancer stage. Further research is urgently needed to clarify the factors that underlie the survival differences, including the importance of geographical differences in clinical management of CRC.

2013-01-01

62

Perceived quality and availability of fruit and vegetables are associated with perceptions of fruit and vegetable affordability among socio-economically disadvantaged women. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Williams LK, Thornton L, Crawford D, Ball K. Perceived quality and availability of fruit and vegetables are associated with perceptions of fruit and vegetable affordability among socio-economically disadvantaged women.

63

Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors of American Youth with an Emphasis on Youth from Disadvantaged Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Environmental Education and Training Foundation commissioned a survey on environmental attitudes and behaviors of disadvantaged youth in America to identify the critical gaps in environmental education so that resources can be targeted more effectively. Phase 1 consisted of qualitative research among disadvantaged students through…

Roper Starch Worldwide Inc.

64

Health Inequalities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Lower Healthy Life Expectancy in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Areas  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated deprivation and inequalities in life expectancy and healthy life expectancy by location in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods. We conducted a health survey of 576 adults in 2006. Census tracts were stratified by income level and categorization as a slum. We determined health status by degree of functional limitation, according to the approach proposed by the World Health Organization. We calculated healthy life expectancies by Sullivan's method with abridged life table. Results. We found the worst indicators in the slum stratum. The life expectancy at birth of men living in the richest parts of the city was 12.8 years longer than that of men living in deprived areas. For both men and women older than age 65 years, healthy life expectancy was more than twice as high in the richest sector as in the slum sector. Conclusions. Our analysis detailed the excess burden of poor health experienced by disadvantaged populations of Rio de Janeiro. Policy efforts are needed to reduce social inequalities in health in this city, especially among the elderly.

Correa da Mota, Jurema; Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Sardinha Pereira, Tatiana Guimaraes

2011-01-01

65

Same landscape, different lens: variations in young people's socio-economic experiences and perceptions in their disadvantaged working-class community  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I compare socio-economic experiences and community perceptions expressed by socially and economically disadvantaged young people with those of university students living in the same post-industrial community. I consider markers of distinction among these young people in relation to their family and educational experiences. I also critique overlaps in their perceptions of their community with specific focus on

Mary Tanya Brann-Barrett

2011-01-01

66

Identifying solutions to increase participation in physical activity interventions within a socio-economically disadvantaged community: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background There is an urgent need to increase population levels of physical activity, particularly amongst those who are socio-economically disadvantaged. Multiple factors influence physical activity behaviour but the generalisability of current evidence to such ‘hard-to-reach’ population subgroups is limited by difficulties in recruiting them into studies. Also, rigorous qualitative studies of lay perceptions and perceptions of community leaders about public health efforts to increase physical activity are sparse. We sought to explore, within a socio-economically disadvantaged community, residents’ and community leaders’ perceptions of physical activity (PA) interventions and issues regarding their implementation, in order to improve understanding of needs, expectations, and social/environmental factors relevant to future interventions. Methods Within an ongoing regeneration project (Connswater Community Greenway), in a socio-economically disadvantaged community in Belfast, we collaborated with a Community Development Agency to purposively sample leaders from public- and voluntary-sector community groups and residents. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 leaders. Residents (n?=?113), of both genders and a range of ages (14 to 86 years) participated in focus groups (n?=?14) in local facilities. Interviews and focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic framework. Results Three main themes were identified: awareness of PA interventions; factors contributing to intervention effectiveness; and barriers to participation in PA interventions. Participants reported awareness only of interventions in which they were involved directly, highlighting a need for better communications, both inter- and intra-sectoral, and with residents. Meaningful engagement of residents in planning/organisation, tailoring to local context, supporting volunteers, providing relevant resources and an ‘exit strategy’ were perceived as important factors related to intervention effectiveness. Negative attitudes such as apathy, disappointing experiences, information with no perceived personal relevance and limited access to facilities were barriers to people participating in interventions. Conclusions These findings illustrate the complexity of influences on a community’s participation in PA interventions and support a social-ecological approach to promoting PA. They highlight the need for cross-sector working, effective information exchange, involving residents in bottom-up planning and providing adequate financial and social support. An in-depth understanding of a target population’s perspectives is of key importance in translating PA behaviour change theories into practice.

2014-01-01

67

Influence of Schools on Economically Disadvantageous Attitudes: A Solomon Islands Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the economically detrimental attitude of regionalism in a Solomon Islands secondary school and measures changes in regionalism with exposure to school experience that stressed regional integration. Significant decreases in regionalism were recorded. (Available from Plenum Publishing Corporation, 227 West 17 Street, New York, NY…

MacBeth, Alastair M.

1976-01-01

68

Equitable Learning Outcomes: Supporting Economically and Culturally Disadvantaged Students in "Formative Learning Environments"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central and distinguishing thesis of social and cultural perspectives on outcome equity is that public school classrooms are culturally biased environments. Such environments disaffect children who arrive at school from the economic or cultural margin. The "formative learning environment" (FoLE) establishes and sustains legitimate…

Clark, Ian

2014-01-01

69

Cortisol and Anti-social Behavior in Early Adolescence: The Role of Gender in an Economically Disadvantaged Sample  

PubMed Central

This study examines the relation between adolescents’ anti-social behaviors and adrenocortical activity during a laboratory visit in a sample of economically disadvantaged families (N = 116, ages 12 – 14, 51% female). Pre-task cortisol levels indexed adolescents’ pre-challenge response to the lab visit, while adolescents’ response to a conflict discussion with their caregivers was indexed with residualized change in pre- to post- conflict cortisol levels. A trait measure of anti-social behavior (derived from parent, teacher, and self-reports) was associated with lower pre-task cortisol levels but greater cortisol response to the conflict discussion. Gender moderated anti-social adolescents’ cortisol response to the conflict discussion with girls who reported more covert risky problem behaviors showing an increased cortisol response. The findings suggest that, while anti-social adolescents had lower pre-task cortisol levels, conflict discussions with caregivers present a unique challenge to anti-social girls compared with anti-social boys.

Kobak, Roger; Zajac, Kristyn; Levine, Seymour

2014-01-01

70

Education in Disadvantaged Urban Areas; an In-Service Course, January-March 1964.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet contains the lectures delivered during an inservice course for staff in the Boston public schools to acquaint them with the characteristics of their Negro students. The contents include: Rev. Edward L. Murphy, S.J., "The Urbanization of America"; Catherine M. Maney, "Preventive and Remedial Programs for the Disadvantaged Child";…

Boston Public Schools, MA.

71

Beyond income: Material resources among drug users in economically-disadvantaged New York City neighborhoods  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about material resources among drug users beyond income. Income measures can be insensitive to variation among the poor, do not account for variation in cost-of-living, and are subject to non-response bias and underreporting. Further, most do not include illegal income sources that may be relevant to drug-using populations. Methods We explored the reliability and validity of an 18-item material resource scale and describe correlates of adequate resources among 1593 current, former and non-drug users recruited in New York City. Reliability was determined using coefficient ?, ?h, and factor analysis. Criterion validity was explored by comparing item and mean scores by income and income source using ANOVA; content validity analyses compared scores by drug use. Multiple linear regression was used to describe correlates of adequate resources. Results The coefficient ? and ?h for the overall scale were 0.91 and 0.68, respectively, suggesting reliability was at least adequate. Legal income >$5000 (vs. ? $5000) and formal (vs. informal) income sources were associated with more resources, supporting criterion validity. We observed decreasing resources with increasing drug use severity, supporting construct validity. Three factors were identified: basic needs, economic resources and services. Many did not have their basic needs met and few had adequate economic resources. Correlates of adequate material resources included race/ethnicity, income, income source, and homelessness. Conclusions The 18-item material resource scale demonstrated reliability and validity among drug users. These data provide a different view of poverty, one that details specific challenges faced by low-income communities.

Ompad, Danielle C.; Nandi, Vijay; Cerda, Magdalena; Crawford, Natalie; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

2011-01-01

72

Structural disadvantage and the concentration of environmental hazards in school areas: a research note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research shows that environmental hazards are disproportionately located in poor and minority communities, but most of these\\u000a studies examine the association between community demographics and the presence (and\\/or frequency) of one type of environmental\\u000a hazard at a time. The current study extends the prior research by examining the concentration of multiple forms of environmental\\u000a hazards and structural disadvantage of school

Carole Gibbs; Jennifer L. Melvin

2008-01-01

73

Moving beyond the residential neighborhood to explore social inequalities in exposure to area-level disadvantage: Results from the Interdisciplinary Study on Inequalities in Smoking.  

PubMed

The focus, in place and health research, on a single, residential, context overlooks the fact that individuals are mobile and experience other settings in the course of their daily activities. Socio-economic characteristics are associated with activity patterns, as well as with the quality of places where certain groups conduct activities, i.e. their non-residential activity space. Examining how measures of exposure to resources, and inequalities thereof, compare between residential and non-residential contexts is required. Baseline data from 1890 young adults (18-25 years-old) participating in the Interdisciplinary Study of Inequalities in Smoking, Montreal, Canada (2011-2012), were analyzed. Socio-demographic and activity location data were collected using a validated, self-administered questionnaire. Area-level material deprivation was measured within 500-m road-network buffer zones around participants' residential and activity locations. Deprivation scores in the residential area and non-residential activity space were compared between social groups. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate associations between individual- and area-level characteristics and non-residential activity space deprivation, and to explore whether these characteristics attenuated the education-deprivation association. Participants in low educational categories lived and conducted activities in more disadvantaged areas than university students/graduates. Educational inequalities in exposure to area-level deprivation were larger in the non-residential activity space than in the residential area for the least educated, but smaller for the intermediate group. Adjusting for selected covariates such as transportation resources and residential deprivation did not significantly attenuate the education-deprivation associations. Results support the existence of social isolation in residential areas and activity locations, whereby less educated individuals tend to be confined to more disadvantaged areas than their more educated counterparts. They also highlight the relevance of investigating both residential and non-residential contexts when studying inequalities in health-relevant exposures. PMID:24632055

Shareck, Martine; Kestens, Yan; Frohlich, Katherine L

2014-05-01

74

Molecular Identification of Human Hookworm Infections in Economically Disadvantaged Communities in Peninsular Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Species identification of human hookworm infections among eight communities in rural areas of Peninsular Malaysia was determined during 2009–2011. Fecal samples were examined by microscopy and subsequently, the internal transcribed spacer 2 and 28S ribosomal RNA region of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp. were sequenced. Overall, 9.1% (58 of 634) were identified positive by microscopy for hookworm infection, and 47 (81.0%) of 58 were successfully amplified and sequenced. Sequence comparison found that N. americanus (87.2%) was the most predominant hookworm identified, followed by Ancylostoma ceylanicum (23.4%). No A. duodenale infection was detected in this study. Detection of A. ceylanicum in humans highlighted the zoonotic transmission among humans living near dogs. Thus, implementation of effective control measures for hookworm infections in future should seriously consider this zoonotic implication.

Ngui, Romano; Ching, Lee Soo; Kai, Tan Tiong; Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Lim, Yvonne A. L.

2012-01-01

75

The Healthy Toddlers Trial Protocol: An Intervention to Reduce Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity in Economically and Educationally Disadvantaged Populations  

PubMed Central

Background The number of overweight children in America has doubled to an estimated 10 million in the past 20 years. Establishing healthy dietary behaviors must begin early in childhood and include parents. The Healthy Toddlers intervention focuses on promoting healthy eating habits in 1- to 3-year-old children utilizing the Social Cognitive Theory and a learner-centered approach using Adult Learning principles. This Healthy Toddlers Trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial of an in-home intervention with economically and educationally disadvantaged mothers of toddlers. The intervention focuses on: (a) promoting healthy eating behaviors in toddlers while dietary habits are forming; and (b) providing initial evidence for the potential of Healthy Toddlers as a feasible intervention within existing community-based programs. Methods/Design This describes the study protocol for a randomized control trial, a multi-state project in Colorado, Michigan, and Wisconsin with economically and educationally disadvantaged mother-toddler dyads; toddlers are between 12 and 36 months. The Healthy Toddlers intervention consists of eight in-home lessons and four reinforcement telephone contacts, focusing on fruit, vegetable, and sweetened beverage consumption and parental behaviors, taught by paraprofessional instructors. Healthy Toddlers uses a randomized, experimental, short-term longitudinal design with intervention and control groups. In-home data collection (anthropometric measurements, feeding observations, questionnaires, 3-day dietary records) occurs at baseline, immediately following the intervention, and 6 months after the intervention. Main toddler outcomes include: a) increased fruit and vegetable consumption and decreased sweetened beverage consumption; and b) improved toddler-eating skills (self-feeding and self-serving). Main parent outcomes include: a) improved psychosocial attributes (knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, feeding style) related to child feeding; b) provision of a more positive mealtime physical environment (turning off the TV); and c) creation of a more positive mealtime social environment (sitting down together for meals). Discussion If this project is successful, the expected outcomes are that the intervention will be effective in helping toddlers develop healthy eating skills that contribute to improve overall health and development and to the prevention of obesity. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ACTRN12610000981022

2011-01-01

76

Delivery of primary health care to persons who are socio-economically disadvantaged: does the organizational delivery model matter?  

PubMed Central

Background As health systems evolve, it is essential to evaluate their impact on the delivery of health services to socially disadvantaged populations. We evaluated the delivery of primary health services for different socio-economic groups and assessed the performance of different organizational models in terms of equality of health care delivery in Ontario, Canada. Methods Cross sectional study of 5,361 patients receiving care from primary care practices using Capitation, Salaried or Fee-For-Service remuneration models. We assessed self-reported health status of patients, visit duration, number of visits per year, quality of health service delivery, and quality of health promotion. We used multi-level regressions to study service delivery across socio-economic groups and within each delivery model. Identified disparities were further analysed using a t-test to determine the impact of service delivery model on equity. Results Low income individuals were more likely to be women, unemployed, recent immigrants, and in poorer health. These individuals were overrepresented in the Salaried model, reported more visits/year across all models, and tended to report longer visits in the Salaried model. Measures of primary care services generally did not differ significantly between low and higher income/education individuals; when they did, the difference favoured better service delivery for at-risk groups. At-risk patients in the Salaried model were somewhat more likely to report health promotion activities than patients from Capitation and Fee-For-Service models. At-risk patients from Capitation models reported a smaller increase in the number of additional clinic visits/year than Fee-For-Service and Salaried models. At-risk patients reported better first contact accessibility than their non-at-risk counterparts in the Fee-For-Service model only. Conclusions Primary care service measures did not differ significantly across socio-economic status or primary care delivery models. In Ontario, capitation-based remuneration is age and sex adjusted only. Patients of low socio-economic status had fewer additional visits compared to those with high socio-economic status under the Capitation model. This raises the concern that Capitation may not support the provision of additional care for more vulnerable groups. Regions undertaking primary care model reforms need to consider the potential impact of the changes on the more vulnerable populations.

2013-01-01

77

Rethinking the Curriculum To Meet the Needs of Underprepared, Underrepresented, and Economically Disadvantaged Students: Majors and Courses for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attracting and assuring the success of students of color requires the rethinking of curricula to meet the needs of underrepresented, underprepared, and economically disadvantaged students. General education offerings should be restructured to give students the skills and resources needed to make sense out of their particular gender and ethnicity,…

Glock, Nancy Clover

78

Bluegrass Area Economic and Industrial Development Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project was conceived due to the fact that the seventeen county region of Central Kentucky has experienced unprecedented economic growth during the previous seven years. The growth in this area has been magnified by the announcement in late 1985 that ...

1992-01-01

79

Validity and Reliability of a Dietary Stages of Change Measure Among Economically Disadvantaged African-American Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the construct validity and 2-month test-retest reliability of a staging measure for assessing readiness to consume five or more daily servings of fruits and vegetables among economically disadvantaged African-American adolescents. Design Longitudinal survey. Setting Youth services agencies serving low-income communities in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Subjects African-American adolescents (N = 390) aged 11 to 14 years. Measures Self-report measures of stage of change and fruit and vegetable consumption. Analysis Correlation analysis and analysis of covariance were used to examine, cross-sectionally, whether fruit and vegetable consumption differed by stage of change (validity assessment). Correlation analysis and Cohen's kappa (?) were used to assess the degree of association and level of agreement between stages longitudinally (test-retest reliability assessment). Results Fruit and vegetable consumption was moderately correlated with stage of change (r ? .54, p = .000). Consistent with the transtheoretical model, youths’ consumption increased from earlier to later stages (p = .000). Forty-six percent of youths were in the same stage at both measurements. The correlation between stages was .26, and Cohen's ? was .20 (p = .000). Conclusions Despite preliminary evidence of construct validity, the low test-retest reliability found suggests that further research and testing are needed to improve the stability of the measure.

Di Noia, Jennifer; Mauriello, Leanne; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Thompson, Debbe

2013-01-01

80

Electronic Monitoring of Oral Therapies in Ethnically Diverse and Economically Disadvantaged Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Consequences of Low Adherence  

PubMed Central

Background To quantify adherence to oral therapies in ethnically diverse and economically disadvantaged patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using electronic medication monitoring, and to evaluate the clinical consequences of low adherence. Methods 107 patients with RA enrolled in a 2-year prospective cohort study agreed to have their oral RA drug therapy intake electronically monitored, with the Medication Events Monitoring System (MEMS®). Adherence to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and prednisone were determined as the percentage of days (or weeks for methotrexate) in which the patient took the correct dose as prescribed by the physician. Patient outcomes were assessed including the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ), the Disease Activity Index 28 (DAS28), quality of life and radiological damage using Sharp-van der Heijde scores. Results Adherence to the treatment regimen as determined by percent of correct doses was 64% for DMARDs and 70% for prednisone. Patients who had better mental health were statistically more likely to be adherent. Only 23 (21%) of the patients had an average adherence to DMARDs ? 80%. These patients showed significantly better disease activity scores across 2 years of follow-up than those who were less adherent (DAS28 3.3±1.3 vs. 4.1±1.2, p<0.02). Radiological scores were also worse in non-adherent patients at baseline and 12 months. Conclusions Only one fifth of the RA patients had an overall adherence of at least 80%. Less than two thirds of the prescribed DMARD doses were correctly taken. Adherent patients had lower disease activity and radiological damage scores across the 2 years of follow-up.

Waimann, Christian A.; Marengo, Maria F.; de Achaval, Sofia; Cox, Vanessa L.; Garcia-Gonzalez, Araceli; Reveille, John D.; Richardson, Marsha N.; Almazor, Maria E. Suarez

2013-01-01

81

An Economic Analysis of the Iowa Rural Renewal Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economic trends in the 1960's in the Iowa rural renewal area, Appanoose and Monroe counties, show that the level of economic activity increased in the area but was clearly below the level for the state. Economic trends suggest that to provide economic opportunities in the area, by 1980, comparable to those available on the average to all residents…

1970

82

[Re-establishing access to care for the most disadvantaged in rural areas].  

PubMed

Inhabitants of rural areas are not spared deprivation. In May 2013 Médecins du Monde created a Health and Coordination Support Network in Auvergne with the aim of reintegrating them into the general healthcare system. PMID:24881237

El Khoury, Hala; Dessenne, Pascal

2014-04-01

83

Measuring disadvantage: changes in the underprivileged area, Townsend, and Carstairs scores 1981-91  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To compare the intercensal change for each of the underprivileged area (UPA), Townsend, and Carstairs scores calculated from 1981 and 1991 census data. SETTING--England and Wales. METHODS--The method described enables comparison of change in composite scores such as the UPA, Townsend, and Carstairs scores which are derived from normalised variables. The national values of equivalent variables derived from the censuses

S A Dolan; B Jarman; M Bajekal; P M Davies; D Hart

1995-01-01

84

Area-Level Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Severe Pulmonary Tuberculosis: U.S., 2000-2008  

PubMed Central

Objectives Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with increased risk of tuberculosis (TB) and diagnostic delays, but the extent to which this association reflects an underlying gradient in advanced status of pulmonary TB is unknown. We conducted a multilevel retrospective cohort analysis examining the relationship between socioeconomic characteristics and pulmonary TB disease status, as measured via sputum smears and chest radiography results. Methods We included 862 incident TB patients reported in King County, Washington, from 2000–2008. We abstracted patient-level measures from charts and surveillance data. We obtained socioeconomic characteristics of TB patients, as well as those of the areas where TB patients lived, from the 2000 U.S. Census. A socioeconomic position (SEP) index was derived to measure SES. Results Of those with known results, 814 of 849 patients (96%) displayed abnormal radiography findings. A total of 239 graded patients (39%) had positive smears, 136 (57%) of whom had grades of moderate (3+) or numerous (4+) acid-fast bacilli. In unadjusted analyses, patients living in lower SEP areas did not appear to have higher probabilities of more advanced disease. In multivariate models adjusting for individual demographic and socioeconomic measures, as well as area-based demographic variables, block-group SEP was not significantly associated with more advanced pulmonary disease. Conclusions Lower SEP was not significantly associated with greater pulmonary disease severity after controlling for individual age, race, sex, and origin, and block-group race, ethnicity, and origin. These findings suggest that the severity of pulmonary TB at diagnosis is not synonymous with delayed diagnosis.

Narita, Masahiro; Nolan, Charles; Mayer, Jonathan

2013-01-01

85

INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO PREPARING HOME ECONOMICS LEADERS FOR EMERGING PROGRAMS SERVING DISADVANTAGED YOUTH AND ADULTS. FINAL REPORT, APPENDIX C.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SIXTY-FIVE SELECTIONS, IN NOTE OR OUTLINE FORM, FROM PRESENTATIONS BY CONSULTANTS AIDING IN PREPARING LEADERS FOR EMERGING PROGRAMS SERVING THE DISADVANTAGED ARE INCLUDED IN THIS APPENDIX. THE SUBJECT MATTER RANGES FROM SPECIFIC TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING SUCH SKILLS AS READING TO GENERAL INFORMATION SUCH AS BASIC UNDERSTANDINGS NECESSARY FOR…

GARRETT, PAULINE GILLETTE

86

Work in a World of High Technology: Problems and Prospects for Economically Disadvantaged Workers. State-of-the-Art Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to analyze the changing nature of work in today's economy and to investigate employment problems and mobility opportunities for disadvantaged workers. Principal dimensions of employment opportunities in the "old economy" of the 1950s and 1960s are highlighted, and the impact of the emergence of the "new economy" on the…

Noyelle, Thierry J.

87

Protected Area Economics and Policy: Linking Conservation and Sustainable Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Economic and Policy Issues in Natural Habitats and Protected Areas; Conservation, Protected Areas, and the Global Economic System: How Debt, Trade, Exchange Rates, Inflation, and Macroeconomic Policy Affect Biological Diversity; Conservation in ...

M. Munasinghe J. A. McNeely

1994-01-01

88

Updating the Process and Content of Teacher Education Curriculum to Research Disadvantaged Youth in Western Metropolitan Areas. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central purpose of this report is to help teachers, teacher educators, supervisors, and local directors to be more aware of the problems and needs of disadvantaged urban youth. Focus is directed toward existing teacher education programs to determine needed changes which will help teachers to better serve the education needs of disadvantaged…

Haas, Mary Helen; Wood, Marcile

89

The Do-Well study: protocol for a randomised controlled trial, economic and qualitative process evaluations of domiciliary welfare rights advice for socio-economically disadvantaged older people recruited via primary health care  

PubMed Central

Background Older people in poor health are more likely to need extra money, aids and adaptations to allow them to remain independent and cope with ill health, yet in the UK many do not claim the welfare benefits to which they are entitled. Welfare rights advice interventions lead to greater welfare income, but have not been rigorously evaluated for health benefits. This study will evaluate the effects on health and well-being of a domiciliary welfare rights advice service provided by local government or voluntary organisations in North East England for independent living, socio-economically disadvantaged older people (aged ?60?yrs), recruited from general (primary care) practices. Methods/Design The study is a pragmatic, individually randomised, single blinded, wait-list controlled trial of welfare rights advice versus usual care, with embedded economic and qualitative process evaluations. The qualitative study will examine whether the intervention is delivered as intended; explore responses to the intervention and examine reasons for the trial findings; and explore the potential for translation of the intervention into routine policy and practice. The primary outcome is the effect on health-related quality of life, measured using the CASP 19 questionnaire. Volunteer men and women aged ?60?years (1/household) will be identified from general practice patient registers. Patients in nursing homes or hospitals at the time of recruitment will be excluded. General practice populations will be recruited from disadvantaged areas of North East England, including urban, rural and semi-rural areas, with no previous access to targeted welfare rights advice services delivered to primary care patients. A minimum of 750 participants will be randomised to intervention and control arms in a 1:1 ratio. Discussion Achieving a trial design that is both ethical and acceptable to potential participants, required methodological compromises. The choice of follow-up length required a trade-off between sufficient time to demonstrate health impact and the need to allow the control group access to the intervention as early as possible. The study will have implications for fundamental understanding of social inequalities and how to tackle them, and provides a model for similar evaluations of health-orientated social interventions. If the health benefits of this intervention are proven, targeted welfare rights advice services should be extended to ensure widespread provision for older people and other vulnerable groups. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN Number ISRCTN37380518

2012-01-01

90

Pupil Disaffection in Areas of Socio-Economic Disadvantage: Implications for Effective School Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines specific elements of a much wider study that attempted to ascertain the reasons for under-achievement in a large comprehensive school in the Welsh valleys. Specific Academic performance at General Certificate of Secondary Education (G.C.S.E.) level was poor in Randall, the main case school, in relation to other schools with…

Lloyd-Nesling, Norma

2006-01-01

91

Schools and Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three books reviewed in this essay all have a similar theme: the role that schools and other institutions can play in improving the life-chances of young people and breaking the cycle of socio-economic disadvantage and low educational attainment that is characteristic of school systems around the world. Through an evaluation of the Academies…

Smith, Emma

2011-01-01

92

The Efficacy of a Mathematics Readiness Program for Inducing Conservation of Number, Weight, Area, Mass, and Volume in Disadvantaged Preschool Children in the Southern United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was designed to determine whether conservation of number, weight, volume, area, and mass could be learned and retained by disadvantaged preschool children when taught by an inexperienced classroom teacher. An instructional sequence of 10-minute lessons was presented on alternate days over a 3 1/2 week period by preservice…

Young, Beverly S.

93

New Schools for the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines the types of schooling programs that will build on the strengths of educationally disadvantaged students to bring them into the educational mainstream as well as to prepare them for economic, political, and social participation. Without intervention on behalf of the disadvantaged, the following results may occur: (1) a dual…

Levin, Henry M.

94

Reaching the Disadvantaged Adult  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An area vocational school teacher responsible for working one-third time with disadvantaged and handicapped adults describes techniques and procedures used in assessing needs of the mountain people in a rural area of northern Georgia and in marshalling resources of various state and community agencies to develop an appropriate program in consumer…

Cagle, Eliza

1977-01-01

95

A Procedure for Determining Optimal Subsidies and Economic Activity Levels in an Economically Depressed Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In many developed countries there are areas with serious employment problems. Factor prices in such economically depressed areas are typically determined outside the area. Wage rates, for example, are given by nationwide bargaining by labor unions and are...

T. Hansen

1977-01-01

96

Project SOUL: Computer Training Program for High School Students from Disadvantaged Areas. Part I, General Report. Technical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents a general description of the 1970 "Project SOUL" summer program. The computer training course, intended for disadvantaged high school students, provides both training for immediate jobs and fundamental mathematical and scientific training for students going on to college. Included in this document are a description of the…

Bellman, Richard E.; And Others

97

Health Services & Economics Branch Areas of Research  

Cancer.gov

The most favorable outcomes for cancer patients can be achieved only when cancer treatments of proven efficacy are effectively delivered in the general community. The Health Services and Economics Branch monitors the dissemination of recommended cancer treatment and conducts studies that describe clinical and quality-of-life outcomes of cancer treatment in large, diverse, and representative patient populations.

98

Economic Impacts of a Wide Area Release of Anthrax  

SciTech Connect

This analysis explores economic impacts that might result from a wide-area release of anthrax. The intent is not to provide a quantitative analysis of such a disaster, but to: 1. Define the general categories of economic impacts that the region should be concerned about; and, 2. Explore what types of private sector businesses or industries, if any, may have the greatest impact on speeding the economic recovery of the region.

Judd, Kathleen S.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.

2009-05-29

99

An Economic Development Study of the Rockbridge Area of Virginia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examines the economic problems of the community, analyzes the area's economy. A program for the long-term orderly growth and development of the community was established. The report also projects future employment requirements of the Rockbridge ...

1979-01-01

100

Self-reported depression is increasing among socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents - repeated cross-sectional surveys from Finland from 2000 to 2011  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescent depression is more common in lower socio-economic groups. Whether this pattern has changed over time, is not known. We examined the prevalence of self-reported depression and its changes in socio-economic groups from 2000 to 2011 among Finnish adolescents. Methods Data were based on classroom surveys every second year from 2000–2001 to 2010–2011 using nationwide samples of 14–16-year old Finns (n?=?618,084). Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires including questions on health, health behaviours, and school experiences. Depression was measured with a Finnish modification of the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory, and divided into no, mild, moderate and severe depression. The association between depression and the social background (parents’ education and employment) over time was studied using a multinomial regression analysis. Results The prevalence of self-reported severe depression slightly increased from 2000–2001 to 2010–2011 in girls. In boys a slight increase was observed when adjusting for background variables. The differences in the prevalence of depression between the social background groups persisted over the entire study period. In both sexes, severe depression nearly doubled among those adolescents whose parents were unemployed and had a low education level; among boys, the prevalence was 6.5% in 2000–2001 and 12.8% in 2010–2011, and among girls 6.4% and 11.4% respectively. Conclusion The largest increases in prevalence of severe depression are seen among socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents. This suggests that inequalities in mental health may become an increasing concern.

2014-01-01

101

Multiple Literacies and Social Transformation: A Case Study of Perceptions of Literacy Needs and Social Transformation By Service Providers of Low Skilled Disadvantaged Clients in an Outer Urban Area of Brisbane.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The different perceptions of literacy that inform the work of various groups working with disadvantaged groups within society were explored in a case study in which individuals providing services to low-skilled, disadvantaged clients in an outer urban area of Brisbane, Australia, were interviewed regarding their perceptions of their clients'…

Castleton, Geraldine; McDonald, Marya

102

Are social relationships a healthy influence on obesogenic behaviors among racially/ethnically diverse and socio-economically disadvantaged residents?  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine associations between social support and ties (family, friend, neighbors) individually and jointly with diet and physical activity among an ethnically-diverse, low-income population. Methods The Health in Common study (2005–2009) was designed to examine risk factors among individuals residing in low-income housing in the Boston, MA area. Cross-sectional surveys (n = 828) were administered in residents’ homes. Linear/logistic multivariable analyses were employed with clustering of individuals within housing sites controlled as a random effect. Results In multivariable analyses, total social support was significantly associated with higher red meat consumption per day (p = 0.029). Having more friends was significantly associated with more daily fruit and vegetable intake (p = 0.007) and higher levels of daily vigorous physical activity (p = 0.011). Those who reported having a greater number of family ties also reported higher daily consumption of sugary drinks (p = 0.013) and fast food (p = 0.011). More neighbor social ties was associated with more fast food per day (p = 0.024). Conclusions Social relationships can have both positive and negative associations with health behaviors. Understanding these relationships could help to inform the design of interventions that promote healthy behavior change among vulnerable populations.

Tamers, Sara L.; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Allen, Jennifer; Yang, May; Stoddard, Anne; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald; Sorensen, Glorian

2012-01-01

103

An Examination of the First/Second-Grade Form of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance: Factor Structure and Stability by Grade and Gender across Groups of Economically Disadvantaged Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested the structure of the Pictorial Scale of Competence and Social Acceptance (PSPCSA) across groups of first and second grade children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. We used confirmatory factor analysis, including latent mean structures analysis, to test the fit of competing PSPCSA factor models and examined invariance across…

French, Brian F.; Mantzicopoulos, Panayota

2007-01-01

104

Exploring disparities in acute myocardial infarction events between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: Roles of age, gender, geography and area-level disadvantage.  

PubMed

We investigated disparities in rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in the 199 Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) in New South Wales, Australia. Using routinely collected and linked hospital and mortality data from 2002 to 2007, we developed multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the relative rates of first AMI events in the study period accounting for area of residence. Rates of AMI in Aboriginal people were more than two times that in non-Aboriginal people, with the disparity greatest in more disadvantaged and remote areas. AMI rates in Aboriginal people varied significantly by SLA, as did the Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal rate ratio. We identified almost 30 priority areas for universal and targeted preventive interventions that had both high rates of AMI for Aboriginal people and large disparities in rates. PMID:24751666

Randall, D A; Jorm, L R; Lujic, S; Eades, S J; Churches, T R; O'Loughlin, A J; Leyland, A H

2014-07-01

105

Self-Concept and the Disadvantaged  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study to empirically assess the relationship of economic disadvantage to self-concept utilized toe Miskimins Self-Goal-Other Discrepancy Scale (MSGO) with a sample of urban economically disadvantaged adults to evolve a multidimensional description of self-concept. Findings are related to counseling and vocational variables. A final section…

Miskimins, R. W.; Baker, B. R.

1973-01-01

106

Three-year change in diet quality and associated changes in BMI among schoolchildren living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.  

PubMed

Findings from research that has assessed the influence of dietary factors on child obesity have been equivocal. In the present study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that a positive change in diet quality is associated with favourable changes in BMI z-scores (zBMI) in schoolchildren from low socio-economic backgrounds and to examine whether this effect is modified by BMI category at baseline. The present study utilised data from a subsample (n 216) of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, a longitudinal cohort study with data collected in 2007-8 (T1) and 2010-11 (T2) in socio-economically disadvantaged women and children (5-12 years at T1). Dietary data were collected using a FFQ and diet quality index (DQI) scores derived at both time points. The objective measures of weight, height and physical activity (accelerometers) were included. The other variables were reported in the questionnaires. We examined the association between change in DQI and change in zBMI, using linear regression analyses adjusted for physical activity, screen sedentary behaviour and maternal education level both in the whole sample and in the sample stratified by overweight status at baseline. After accounting for potential covariates, change in diet quality was found to be inversely associated with change in zBMI only in children who were overweight at baseline (P= 0·035), thus supporting the hypothesis that improvement in diet quality is associated with a concurrent improvement in zBMI among already overweight children, but not among those with a normal BMI status. The identification of modifiable behaviours such as diet quality that affect zBMI longitudinally is valuable to inform future weight gain prevention interventions in vulnerable groups. PMID:24775601

Lioret, Sandrine; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cameron, Adrian J; Crawford, David; Campbell, Karen J; Cleland, Verity J; Ball, Kylie

2014-07-01

107

Individual, social and environmental factors influencing physical activity levels and behaviours of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged urban mothers in Canada: A mixed methods approach  

PubMed Central

Background Existing data provide little insight into the physical activity context of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged mothers in Canada. Our primary objectives were: (1) to use focus group methodology to develop tools to identify the individual, social, and environmental factors influencing utilitarian and leisure time physical activities (LTPA) of multiethnic SED mothers; and (2) to use a women specific physical activity survey tool to assess psychosocial barriers and supports and to quantify individual physical activity (PA) levels of multi-ethnic SED mothers in Canada. Methods Qualitative focus group sessions were conducted in West, Central and Eastern Canada with multiethnic SED mothers (n?=?6 focus groups; n?=?42 SED mothers) and with health and recreation professionals (HRPs) (n?=?5 focus groups; n?=?25 HRPs) involved in community PA programming for multiethnic SED mothers. Administration of the women specific Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) tool was completed by consenting SED mothers (n?=?59). Results More than half of SED mothers were employed and had higher total PA scores with occupation included than unemployed mothers. However, nearly 60% of both groups were overweight or obese. Barriers to LTPA included the lack of available, affordable and accessible LTPA programs that responded to cultural and social needs. Concerns for safety, nonsupportive cultural and social norms and the winter climate were identified as key barriers to both utilitarian and LTPA. Conclusions Findings show that multiethnic SED mothers experience many barriers to utilitarian and LTPA opportunities within their communities. The varying LTPA levels among these multi-ethnic SED mothers and the occurrence of overweight and obesity suggests that current LTPA programs are likely insufficient to maintain healthy body weights.

2012-01-01

108

Remarks on Successful Economic Development Programs in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural economic development depends on implementation of strategies that capture the competitive edge of the total rural environment. It will not succeed by weak duplication of traditional urban development strategies. The historic dependence on the natural resource base that is the common denominator for rural areas must be regarded not as a…

Thomas, Margaret G.

109

Currency Misalignments and Trade Asymmetries among Major Economic Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large exchange rate misalignments are the most serious asymmetry in the world economy today because they interfere with international specialization and trade based on comparative advantage, and it leads to protectionism. The paper examines the extent to which these asymmetries are a reflection of fundamental disequilibria in the world's major economic areas (the United States, the European Monetary Union, Japan

Dominick Salvatore

2005-01-01

110

Merit Systems: Hiring the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared under authority of the Economic Opportunity Act, this New Careers manual deals largely with specific personnel functions in which manpower project directors and staff members can work closely with government officials--state and local as well as Federal--to alter public service merit system requirements as they affect disadvantaged…

Wilson, Michael

111

Cost-effectiveness of a telephone-delivered education programme to prevent early childhood caries in a disadvantaged area: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Early childhood caries is a highly destructive dental disease which is compounded by the need for young children to be treated under general anaesthesia. In Australia, there are long waiting periods for treatment at public hospitals. In this paper, we examined the costs and patient outcomes of a prevention programme for early childhood caries to assess its value for government services. Design Cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov model. Setting Public dental patients in a low socioeconomic, socially disadvantaged area in the State of Queensland, Australia. Participants Children aged 6?months to 6?years received either a telephone prevention programme or usual care. Primary and secondary outcome measures A mathematical model was used to assess caries incidence and public dental treatment costs for a cohort of children. Healthcare costs, treatment probabilities and caries incidence were modelled from 6?months to 6?years of age based on trial data from mothers and their children who received either a telephone prevention programme or usual care. Sensitivity analyses were used to assess the robustness of the findings to uncertainty in the model estimates. Results By age 6?years, the telephone intervention programme had prevented an estimated 43 carious teeth and saved £69?984 in healthcare costs per 100 children. The results were sensitive to the cost of general anaesthesia (cost-savings range £36?043–£97?298) and the incidence of caries in the prevention group (cost-savings range £59?496–£83?368) and usual care (cost-savings range £46?833–£93?328), but there were cost savings in all scenarios. Conclusions A telephone intervention that aims to prevent early childhood caries is likely to generate considerable and immediate patient benefits and cost savings to the public dental health service in disadvantaged communities.

Pukallus, Margaret; Plonka, Kathryn; Kularatna, Sanjeewa; Gordon, Louisa; Barnett, Adrian G; Walsh, Laurence; Seow, W Kim

2013-01-01

112

Special Counseling for the Disadvantaged Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to aid teachers and administrators who have not had special training in counseling and who are working in educational programs for the disadvantaged adult. Subject areas discussed are: The Counselor and the Client (Duties of the Counselor; Areas of Assistance for the Client); Who Are the Disadvantaged (Characteristics of the…

Kaple, Donald J.; Kaple, Marion Keeler

113

Do places affect the probability of death in Australia? A multilevel study of area-level disadvantage, individual-level socioeconomic position and all-cause mortality, 1998-2000  

PubMed Central

Background In Australia, studies finding an association between area?level socioeconomic disadvantage and mortality are often based on aggregate?ecological designs which confound area?level and individual?level sources of socioeconomic variation. Area?level socioeconomic differences in mortality therefore may be an artefact of varying population compositions and not the characteristics of areas as such. Objective To examine the associations between area?level disadvantage and all?cause mortality before and after adjustment for within?area variation in individual?level socioeconomic position (SEP) using unlinked census and mortality?register data in a multilevel context. Setting, participants and design The study covers the total Australian continent for the period 1998–2000 and is based on decedents aged 25–64?years (n?=?43?257). The socioeconomic characteristics of statistical local areas (SLA, n?=?1317) were measured using an index of relative socioeconomic disadvantage, and individual?level SEP was measured by occupation. Results Living in a disadvantaged SLA was associated with higher all?cause mortality after adjustment for within?SLA variation in occupation. Death rates were highest for blue?collar workers and lowest among white?collar employees. Cross?level interactions showed no convincing evidence that SLA disadvantage modified the extent of inequality in mortality between the occupation groups. Conclusions Multilevel analysis can be used to examine area variation in mortality using unlinked census and mortality data, therefore making it less necessary to use aggregate?ecological designs. In Australia, area?level and individual?level socioeconomic factors make an independent contribution to the probability of premature mortality. Policies and interventions to improve population health and reduce mortality inequalities should focus on places as well as people.

Turrell, Gavin; Kavanagh, Anne; Draper, Glenn; Subramanian, S V

2007-01-01

114

Assessing economic activity in coastal areas: A shift?share approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

An essential aspect of economic analysis associated with planning efforts is identifying the composition of existing economic activity and understanding historical trends in economic change. The shift?share model is a useful and inexpensive tool for this purpose. Shift?share analysis evaluates changes in local economic activities relative to changes in a reference area (usually the state or nation). Economic change is

David Mulkey; William B. Hackett; John R. Gordon

1982-01-01

115

A Quantitative and Qualitative Investigation of Variability and Contextual Sources Related to the Academic Engagement of Minority and Economically Disadvantaged Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research consistently has indicated that academic achievement outcomes for most minority students, and for students from economically impoverished backgrounds, are marginal as compared with the achievement of their Asian and Caucasian classmates and of individuals with higher socio-economic status (STS). Academic engagement has been linked to…

Schilling, Joan Carlin

2009-01-01

116

Preventive intervention programs for disadvantaged children.  

PubMed

This paper describes a 6-year effort aimed at developing educational interventions for a group of economically disadvantaged children. The program provided an opportunity for psychologists and student paraprofessionals to join with personnel at urban health care facilities in responding to a serious identified community problem--disadvantaged youngsters, ages 1 and 2, who are vulnerable to later school and life difficulties. The intervention succeeded in enhancing academic skills among six groups of disadvantaged toddlers. As ongoing research results indicated the need for new program elements, the university personnel piloted innovations and the health centers gradually incorporated effective components into the existing program. PMID:729347

Jason, L A; De Amicis, L; Carter, B

1978-01-01

117

Identification of the Disadvantaged Areas on the Island of Montreal with a View to Intervention Programmes being Initiated by the School Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Federal census district data for 1974 are used to produce a global index showing the relative degree to which each of the census districts of the island of Montreal is disadvantaged. The internal dynamics and characteristics peculiar to the different local communities within are not specified and necessitate additional data sources such as health,…

Depatie, Raymond; And Others

118

Monitoring in Disadvantaged Grids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In disadvantaged grids, communication resources are scarce and variable. Thus, it is important that middleware and applications are able to adapt to the available capacity. This means that knowledge of the networking environment the C2 software is operati...

F. T. Johnsen G. Salberg T. H. Bloebaum

2013-01-01

119

A Randomized Trial of a Diet and Exercise Intervention for Overweight and Obese Women from Economically Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: Sisters Taking Action for Real Success (STARS)  

PubMed Central

Background Lower socioeconomic status at both the individual and neighborhood level is associated with increased health risks. Weight loss can reduce this risk, but few high quality weight loss studies target this population. Objectives STARS tests a culturally-appropriate, group-based behavioral and social support intervention on body weight and waist circumference in women from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods. Design A stratified (by BMI) randomized trial. Randomization to group was generated by a random numbers table with allocation concealment by opaque envelopes. Methods Participants 25–50 years who had a BMI ? 25 kg/m2 and a waist circumference ? 88 cm were recruited from 18 census tracts in Columbia, SC with high rates of poverty between November 2008 and November 2010. All participants received a dietary and exercise counseling session. Intervention participants then receive 16 theoretically-based and tailored weekly group sessions followed by 8 weeks of telephone maintenance counseling. Control participants receive 16 weekly health education mailings. Measurements correspond to baseline, post-group intervention, and post-telephone counseling, and for intervention participants, after a 12-week no-contact period. Measurement staff was blinded to group assignment. Results Participants (N=155; n=80 intervention, n=75 minimal intervention control) were primarily African American (86.5%) and averaged 38.9 years with a mean BMI of 40.1 kg/m2 and waist circumference of 115.4 cm. Food insecurity was reported by 43% of participants. Summary STARS targets an underserved population with an innovative, tailored, and theoretically-grounded, group-based intervention followed by telephone maintenance. If effective, the approach has the potential to be feasible and cost-effective for community delivery.

Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Granner, Michelle; Hutto, Brent

2011-01-01

120

Measuring the Determinants of Relative Economic Performance of Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the determinants of economic performance of 149 English rural Local Authority Districts (LADs). A Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) estimation procedure was employed to jointly determine the influence of a wide range of indicators representing economic, human, cultural and environmental capital, as well as less tangible or "soft"…

Agarwal, Sheela; Rahman, Sanzidur; Errington, Andrew

2009-01-01

121

Economic Census 2002: Florida. Finance and Insurance. Geographic Area Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. Title 13 of the United States Code (Sections 131, 1...

2005-01-01

122

The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Detroit, Michigan, Metro Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

123

Economic Impacts of Recreational Spending on Rural Areas: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers, planners, and policymakers are becoming increasingly interested in the rural economic development potentials of outdoor recreation. Empirical evidence evaluating this economic development potential, however, is almost nonexistent. In this article, results of a study that examined local economic effects of spending associated with outdoor recreation in selected rural areas are reported. Recreational expenditures were collected as part of the

John C. Bergstrom; H. Ken Cordell; Gregory A. Ashley; Alan E. Watson

1990-01-01

124

Work Environment and Disadvantagement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a series of empirical evaluations of the work environment and its relation to the disadvantaged worker. Data were collected on 530 subjects in five different industries at both the supervisory and non-supervisory level, using a total ...

D. Searls R. W. Miskimins

1971-01-01

125

Reconnecting Disadvantaged Young Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By several recent counts, the United States is home to 2 to 3 million youth age 16 through 24 who are out of school and out of work. Much has been written on disadvantaged youth, and government policy has gone through many incarnations, yet questions remain unanswered. Why are so many young people "disconnected," and what can public policy do…

Holzer, Harry; Edelman, Peter; Offner, Paul

2006-01-01

126

Economic Census of Island Areas 2002: American Samoa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. Title 13 of the United States Code (Sections 131, 191, and 2...

2005-01-01

127

Cycles of Discrimination: Older Women, Cumulative Disadvantages, and Retirement Consequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article identifies typical life course situations that women experience, which contribute to a cycle of discrimination or a recurrence of disadvantages simply because of their sex, race, or age. Although men suffer social, health, psychological, and economic disadvantages as they age, this article focuses primarily on women as a more deprived…

Davis, Nanette J.

2005-01-01

128

Technical and economic comparison of electric generators for rural areas  

SciTech Connect

The cost effectiveness of photovoltaic systems, internal combustion engine generator units and extending the main electric utility network as sources of electric power for remote rural locations have been compared by means of mathematical model incorporating the principal technical and economic features of these systems. Plant investment and maintenance costs were determined for each of the systems by including all of the identifiable principal costs in the model. The model does not, however, take into account failure modes, mean time between failures and mean time for repairs which are very different for the three types of systems and can affect the results of the analysis. The results of the parametric analysis on the most significant parameters are presented in charts which permit quick comparison of the principal features of each of the three kinds of power sources.

Abenavoli, R.I. (Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy))

1991-01-01

129

Theme: Teaching Academically Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Will We Serve the Academically Disadvantaged?" (Iverson); "Using Centers of Learning to Reach Academically Disadvantaged Students" (Gentry); "Georgia's Special Lamb Project Adoption Program" (Farmer); "Teacher Expectations" (Powers); "Providing Instruction for Special Populations" (Jewell); and "The Educational Reform Movement and…

Iverson, Maynard J.; And Others

1993-01-01

130

Talent Development in Economically Disadvantaged Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to summarize what is generally known about talent development and schooling by stating some propositions about the way such programs are structured. This article sets the stage for a series of stories of programs that attempt to address the challenge of talent development in diverse low-income populations. The…

Coleman, Laurence

2006-01-01

131

An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations. Volume 2: Appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An economic assessment of short takeoff aircraft for short haul air transportation applications is presented. The economic viability and environmental compatibility of short takeoff aircraft service in high density areas were evaluated. The subjects discussed are: (1) aircraft configurations and performance, (2) airfield and terminal requirements, and (3) direct and indirect operating costs.

Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

1973-01-01

132

A Study of Economic Education in St. Paul [Minnesota] and Area High Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Economic Education Center of the College of St. Thomas conducted this survey of social studies and business education programs in the St. Paul area high schools to procure information for determining (1) the types of services needed by classroom teachers in the field of economics and (2) the nature of programs which should be offered by the…

Selim, M.A.

133

A Program of Technical and Economic Extension Services for Designated Areas in Montana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report covers the activities and results of the program of technical and economic extension services for designated areas in Montana during the contract period ending May 15, 1968. The first section gives information on the approach and philosophy use...

D. L. Brelsford H. L. Huffman

1968-01-01

134

Assessment of industrial land use intensity: A case study of Beijing economic-technological development area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, great economic output of land has been achieved in economic-technological development areas in China, but\\u000a the intensity of land use in some of these areas is very low. The degree of the low intensity of land use needs to be evaluated.\\u000a The current method of comprehensive evaluation and grading by one index system has the limitations due

Daquan Huang; Wei Wan; Teqi Dai; Jinshe Liang

2011-01-01

135

A GENERAL TECHNICIAN PROGRAM FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 2-YEAR GENERAL TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM HAS BEEN PLANNED BY RUTGERS UNIVERSITY AND THE NEWARK SCHOOL SYSTEM AS A MEANS OF PREPARING DISADVANTAGED YOUTH TO ENTER GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT AND ENHANCE THEIR OPPORTUNITY TO IMPROVE THEIR STATION IN LIFE. THE STUDENTS WILL BE DEPRIVED AREA YOUTH WHO ARE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES OR THE EQUIVALENT, GENERALLY FROM THE…

GILLIE, ANGELO C.

136

SocioEconomics Factors Affecting Poultry Farmers in Ejigbo Local Government Area of Osun State  

Microsoft Academic Search

KEYWORDS Poultry. Productivity. Constraints. Household Food. Socio-economics ABSTRACT The study investigated factors affecting poultry farmers in Ejigbo Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire were used in interviewing 80 poultry farmers randomly selected in the study area. Frequency distribution and Pearson correlation technique were used to analyse the data. The study revealed that a national support to strengthen

O. O. Adebayo; R. G. Adeola

137

‘I am reading to her and she loves it’: benefits of engaging fathers from disadvantaged areas in their children’s early learning transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Findings presented here relate to the evaluation of a one-year father-inclusion project, which took place in an area of multiple deprivation in the North of England. The project’s goal was to engage fathers and male carers in their children’s transition from an early years setting to a reception class and to maintain that involvement in the mainstream school setting. The

Carol Potter; Gary Walker; Bev Keen

2012-01-01

138

Towards the comparison of competence of typical Chinese economic development zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviewing the history and background of 4 typical Chinese economic development zone (new area), this paper reveals the 4 new areas' differences in the regional economic growth and its driving factors based on Shift-Share model, as well compares the competitive advantages and disadvantages of the 4 cities' new area. Moreover, based on the processed data, we have offer corresponding conclusions

Yonghong Zhan; Yanchao Xiong

2011-01-01

139

Kidney disease in disadvantaged populations.  

PubMed

Disadvantaged populations across the globe exhibit a disproportionate burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) because of differences in CKD occurrence and outcomes. Although many CKD risk factors can be managed and modified to optimize clinical outcomes, the prevailing socioeconomic and cultural factors in disadvantaged populations, more often than not, militate against optimum clinical outcomes. In addition, disadvantaged populations exhibit a broader spectrum of CKD risk factors and may be genetically predisposed to an earlier onset and a more rapid progression of chronic kidney disease. A basic understanding of the vulnerabilities of the disadvantaged populations will facilitate the adaptation and adoption of the kidney disease treatment and prevention guidelines for these vulnerable populations. The purpose of this paper is to examine recent discoveries and data on CKD occurrence and outcomes in disadvantaged populations and explore strategies for the prevention and treatment of CKD in these populations based on the established guidelines. PMID:22567281

Martins, David; Agodoa, Lawrence; Norris, Keith

2012-01-01

140

Economics of electricity production and distribution in rural areas of Nepal  

SciTech Connect

This paper aims at providing the comparative economics from a national perspective (economic analysis) and a users perspective (financial analysis) of low capacity (5-15 KW) electrical add-on systems and medium capacity (25-50 KW) electrical systems to provide electrical energy from various energy sources at three villages of Nepal, each from a different physiographic zone. In general, the increasing economic price of traditional energies coupled with deforestation in rural areas of developing countries and the increasing need for foreign exchange for import of fossil fuels, favors the judicial exploitation of renewable energy for electricity generation. The load factor is one of the most important factors that dictate the economic and financial supply price of electricity production and distribution. It is recommended that a detailed site-specific electricity demand analysis be carried out with appropriate end-use planning for decentralized rural electrification schemes.

Rijal, K.; Bansal, N.K.; Grover, P.D. (Center for Energy Studies, Indian Inst. of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (IN))

1990-01-01

141

Economic development, marine protected areas and gendered access to fishing resources in a Polynesian lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the potential socio-spatial impacts of a new series of marine protected areas (MPAs) on fishers in Moorea, French Polynesia. The establishment of the MPAs is contextualized within recent and historical processes of economic development and theories of women in development and gender, culture and development. Seventy adults from three neighborhoods in Moorea were interviewed. Analysis of the

Barbara Louise Endemaño Walker; Michael A. Robinson

2009-01-01

142

Economic Dimensions of Major Metropolitan Areas, Population, Housing, Employment and Income. Technical Paper Number 18.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of an effort to develop a body of internally consistent economic data which facilitate comparison of the population, housing, employment, and income characteristics of 56 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas with a population of over 500,000 are reported in this publication. Part of a continuing research program on local government…

de Torres, Juan

143

Economic relations with regions neighbouring the euro area in the ‘euro time zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the economic, monetary and financial relations between the EU and the euro area and a set of countries in a broad set of neighbouring regions. The 80 or so countries are mostly classified as transition, emerging or developing economies and belong to four main regions: the Western Balkans; the European part of the Commonwealth of Independent States;

Francesco Mazzaferro; Arnaud Mehl; Michael Sturm; Christian Thimann; Adalbert Winkler

2002-01-01

144

An Economic Analysis of Out-Migration from a Depressed Rural Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to estimate some of the components of the net social costs and benefits of rural-to-urban migration, 161 Lexington, Kentucky migrants (randomly selected via census data) who had migrated from the rural, economically depressed area of Eastern Kentucky were surveyed in 1971 to gather information re: their last year in Eastern Kentucky…

Morgan, Larry Clinton

145

Infrastructure for Reaching Disadvantaged Consumers  

PubMed Central

Both consumers and health service providers need access to up-to-date information, including patient and practice guidelines, that allows them to make decisions in partnership about individual and public health in line with the primary health care model of health service delivery. Only then is it possible for patient preferences to be considered while the health of the general population is improved. The Commonwealth Government of Australia has allocated $250 million over five years, starting July 1, 1997, to support activities and projects designed to meet a range of telecommunication needs in regional, rural, and remote Australia. This paper defines rural and remote communities, then reviews rural and remote health services, information, and telecommunication technology infrastructures and their use in Australia to establish the current state of access to information tools by rural and remote communities and rural health workers in Australia today. It is argued that a suitable telecommunication infrastructure is needed to reach disadvantaged persons in extremely remote areas and that intersectoral support is essential to build this infrastructure. In addition, education will make its utilization possible.

Hovenga, Evelyn J. S.; Hovel, Joe; Klotz, Jeanette; Robins, Patricia

1998-01-01

146

Socio-economic driving forces of land-use change in Kunshan, the Yangtze River Delta economic area of China.  

PubMed

This paper analyzes characteristics, major driving forces and alternative management measures of land-use change in Kunshan, Jiangsu province, China. The study used remote sensing (RS) maps and socio-economic data. Based on RS-derived maps, two change matrices were constructed for detecting land-use change between 1987 and 1994, and between 1994 and 2000 through pixel-to-pixel comparisons. The outcomes indicated that paddy fields, dryland, and forested land moderately decreased by 8.2%, 29% and 2.6% from 1987 to 1994, and by 4.1%, 7.6% and 8% from 1994 to 2000, respectively. In contrast, the following increased greatly from 1987 to 1994: artificial ponds by 48%, urban settlements by 87.6%, rural settlements by 41.1%, and construction land by 511.8%. From 1994 to 2000, these land covers increased by 3.6%, 28.1%, 23.4% and 47.1%, respectively. For the whole area, fragmentation of land cover was very significant. In addition, socio-economic data were used to analyze major driving forces triggering land-use change through bivariate analysis. The results indicated that industrialization, urbanization, population growth, and China's economic reform measures are four major driving forces contributing to land-use change in Kunshan. Finally, we introduced some possible management measures such as urban growth boundary (UGB) and incentive-based policies. We pointed out that, given the rapidity of the observed changes, it is critical that additional studies be undertaken to evaluate these suggested policies, focusing on what their effects might be in this region, and how these might be implemented. PMID:16824673

Long, Hualou; Tang, Guoping; Li, Xiubin; Heilig, Gerhard K

2007-05-01

147

Effects of Employment-Based Programs on Families by Prior Levels of Disadvantage  

PubMed Central

This study examines how welfare and employment policies affect subpopulations of low-income families that have different levels of initial disadvantage. Education, prior earnings, and welfare receipt are used to measure disadvantage. The analysis of data from experiments suggests that employment-based programs have no effects on economic well-being among the least-disadvantaged low-income, single-parent families, but they have positive effects on employment and income for the most-disadvantaged and moderately disadvantaged families. These programs increase school achievement and enrollment in center-based child care of children only in moderately disadvantaged families. The most-disadvantaged families are found to increase use of child care that is not center based. Parents in these families experience depressive symptoms and aggravation. The findings raise questions about how to support families at the lowest end of the economic spectrum.

Alderson, Desiree Principe; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Imes, Amy; Huston, Aletha C.

2011-01-01

148

Seroprevalence and risk factors for dengue infection in socio-economically distinct areas of Recife, Brazil.  

PubMed

Brazil currently accounts for the majority of dengue cases reported in the Americas, with co-circulation of DENV 1-3. Striking variation in the epidemiological pattern of infection within cities has been observed. Therefore, investigation of dengue transmission in small areas is important to formulate control strategies. A population-based household survey was performed in three diverse socio-economic and environmental areas of Recife, a large urban center of Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Dengue serostatus and individual- and household-level risk factors for infection were collected in residents aged between 5 and 64 years. A total of 2833 individuals were examined, and their residences were geo-referenced. Anti-dengue IgG antibodies were measured using commercial ELISA. The dengue seroprevalence and the force of infection were estimated in each area. Individual and household variables associated with seropositivity were assessed by multilevel models for each area. A spatial analysis was conducted to identify risk gradients of dengue seropositivity using Generalized Additive Models (GAM). The dengue seroprevalence was 91.1%, 87.4% 74.3%, respectively, in the deprived, intermediate and high socio-economic areas, inversely related to their socio-economic status. In the deprived area, 59% of children had already been exposed to dengue virus by the age of 5 years and the estimated force of infection was three times higher than that in the privileged area. The risk of infection increased with age in the three areas. Not commuting away from the area was a risk factor for seropositivity in the deprived area (OR=2.26; 95% CI: 1.18-4.30). Number of persons per room was a risk factor for seropositivity in the intermediate (OR=3.00; 95% CI: 3.21-7.37) and privileged areas (OR=1.81; 95% CI: 1.07-3.04). Living in a house, as opposed to an apartment, was a risk factor for seropositivity in the privileged area (OR=3.62; 95% CI: 2.43-5.41). The main difference between the privileged and other areas could be attributed to the much larger proportion of apartment dwellers. Intensive vector control, surveillance and community education should be considered in deprived urban areas where a high proportion of children are infected by an early age. PMID:19896921

Braga, Cynthia; Luna, Carlos Feitosa; Martelli, Celina Mariaturchi; de Souza, Wayner Vieira; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; Alexander, Neal; de Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão; Júnior, José Constantino Silveira; Marques, Ernesto T

2010-03-01

149

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Puget Sound Area, Washington). Part 1. Volume 2 of 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Puget Sound Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Puget Sound Area includes Whatcom, Skagit, Snohomish, King, Pierce, Thurston, Mason, and Kitsap counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

150

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Puget Sound Area, Washington) Part 1. Volume 1 of 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Puget Sound Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Puget Sound Area includes Whatcom, Skagit, Snohomish, King, Pierce, Thurston, Mason, and Kitsap counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

151

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Puget Sound Area, Washington) Part 2. Volume 1 of 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Puget Sound Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Puget Sound Area includes Whatcom, Skagit, Snohomish, King, Pierce, Thurston, Mason, and Kitsap counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

152

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Puget Sound Area, Washington). Part 2. Volume 2 of 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Puget Sound Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Puget Sound Area includes Whatcom, Skagit, Snohomish, King, Pierce, Thurston, Mason, and Kitsap counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

153

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

Online-Offline, 1998

1998-01-01

154

Does the Orphan Disadvantage "Spill Over?" An analysis of whether living in an area with a higher concentration of orphans is associated with children's school enrollment in sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Despite considerable concern regarding the social consequences of sub-Saharan Africa’s high orphan prevalence, no research investigates how living in a community densely populated with orphans is more broadly associated with children’s—including nonorphans’—acquisition of human capital. OBJECTIVE We provide a new look at the implications of widespread orphanhood in sub-Saharan Africa by examining whether living in an area with a high concentration of orphans is associated with children’s likelihood of school enrollment. METHODS We use data from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and the Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey (MICS) to estimate multilevel logistic regression models to assess whether living in a setting with a higher concentration of orphans is associated with school enrollment among 383,010 children in 336 provinces in 34 sub-Saharan African countries. RESULTS Orphan concentration has a curvilinear association with children’s school enrollment in western and eastern Africa: the initially positive association becomes negative at higher levels. In central and southern Africa, orphan concentration has a positive linear association with children’s school enrollment. CONCLUSION In western and eastern Africa, the negative association between living in a setting more densely populated with orphans and children’s school enrollment provides suggestive evidence that the orphan disadvantage “spills over” in the communities most heavily affected. Conversely, in central and southern Africa, the positive association between living in a setting more densely populated with orphans and children’s school enrollment highlights the resiliency of these relatively wealthier communities with high levels of orphans. Although longitudinal research is needed to confirm these findings and clarify the underlying mechanisms, this study lays the groundwork for a new body of research aimed at understanding the broader social implications of widespread orphanhood in sub-Saharan Africa.

Smith-Greenaway, Emily; Heckert, Jessica

2013-01-01

155

Preparing Elementary Teachers for Culturally Disadvantaged Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two major considerations are involved in successfully educating culturally disadvantaged youth at the elementary school level. First, it is necessary to determine the characteristics of effective teachers of the disadvantaged. Teachers of the disadvantaged must have good mental health, want to teach the disadvantaged, and be creative, curious,…

O'Brien, Nancy

156

Ping-Pong and the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everyone experiences disadvantages in life. Some disadvantages are the result of forces largely beyond the control of any one individual, including genetic, political, social, and historical disadvantages which no amount of trying is apt to overcome. Some disadvantages are self-inflicted, including being deliberately narrow in viewpoint; avoiding…

Looper, Travis

157

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

158

An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an economic and environmental study of short haul airline systems using short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft are presented. The STOL system characteristics were optimized for maximum patronage at a specified return on investment, while maintaining noise impact compatibility with the terminal area. Supporting studies of aircraft air pollution and hub airport congestion relief were also performed. The STOL concept specified for this study was an Augmentor Wing turbofan aircraft having a field length capability of 2,000 ft. and an effective perceived noise level of 95 EPNdB at 500 ft. sideline distance. An economic and environmental assessment of the defined STOL system and a summary of the methodology, STOL system characteristics and arena characteristics are provided.

Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

1974-01-01

159

Do Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Affect Children's Verbal Skills? Evaluation Science Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Evaluation Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study evaluating the effects of an early childhood program or environment. This Brief evaluates the study "Durable Effects of Concentrated Disadvantage on Verbal Ability Among African-American Children" (R. Sampson; R. Sharkey; and S. Raudenbush.) Racial and economic…

National Forum on Early Childhood Program Evaluation, 2008

2008-01-01

160

The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response.…

Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

2013-01-01

161

Industry Hiring Requirements and the Employment of Disadvantaged Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to improve the economic well-being of the disadvantaged, this study investigated the possibility that excessive hiring requirements might be a major factor in unemployment of particular groups in the population. This was accomplished by surveying a random sample of employers in 10 major entry and near-entry level occupations in the…

Diamond, Daniel E.; Bedrosian, Hrach

162

Emergy evaluation and economic analysis of three wetland fish farming systems in Nansi Lake area, China.  

PubMed

Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare three fish production models, i.e., cage fish farming system, pond intensive fish rearing system and semi-natural extensive pond fish rearing system, in Nansi Lake area in China in the year 2007. The goal of this study was to understand the benefits and driving forces of selected fish production models from ecological and economic points of view. The study considered input structure, production efficiency, environmental impacts, economic viability and sustainability. Results show that the main difference among the three production systems was the emergy cost for fish feed associated with their feeding system, i.e., feeding on natural biomass such as plankton and grass or on commercial feedstock. As indicated by EYR, ELR and ESI, it can be clearly shown that the intensive production model with commercial feed is not a sustainable pattern. However, the point is that more environmentally sound patterns do not seem able to provide a competitive net profit in the short run. The intensive pond fish farming system had a net profit of 2.57E+03 $/ha, much higher than 1.27E+03 $/ha for cage fish farming system and slightly higher than 2.37E+03 $/ha for semi-natural fish farming system. With regard to the drivers of local farmer's decisions, the accessibility of land for the required use and investment ability determine the farmer's choice of the production model and the scale of operation, while other factors seem to have little effect. Theoretically, the development of environmentally sustainable production patterns, namely water and land conservation measures, greener feed as well as low waste systems is urgently needed, to keep production activities within the carrying capacity of ecosystems. Coupled emergy and economic analyses can provide better insight into the environmental and economic benefits of fish production systems and help solve the problems encountered during policy making. PMID:20970243

Zhang, L X; Ulgiati, S; Yang, Z F; Chen, B

2011-03-01

163

Evaluating Resources for Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The stated purpose of these materials is to help educators accomplish four tasks: (1) identify "appropriate" instructional resources for disadvantaged students in vocational classes; (2) use an objective checklist to evaluate a resource's "usefulness" (a sample checklist is provided); (3) use criteria to evaluate a resource's "outstandingness" (a…

Hafen, Susan; DeGrey, Gwen-Ellen

164

BOARDING SCHOOLS FOR THE DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SUGGESTED IS THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PUBLIC ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY BOARDING SCHOOLS FOR URBAN DISADVANTAGED AND DISTURBED OR DELINQUENT CHILDREN. THE INSTITUTIONAL FAMILY LIFE OF RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS CAN OFFER THESE CHILDREN AN ESCAPE FROM THE DESTRUCTIVE ENVIRONMENT OF THE URBAN GHETTO. MOREOVER, URBAN SCHOOLS SHOULD INSTITUTE SUMMER PROGRAMS OUT…

CLATWORTHY, F. JAMES

165

Self Concept and the Disadvantaged.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a series of studies which make inquiry into the self-concept of 660 adult disadvantaged workers, in relation to: (a) demographic data on age, sex, marital status, education, and ethnic group status; (b) personal social variables as th...

R. W. Miskimins B. R. Baker

1973-01-01

166

Education and Training Strategies for Disadvantaged Groups in Thailand. Strategies of Education and Training for Disadvantaged Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book looks at the current spectrum of programs dealing with education for disadvantaged youth in Thailand. In spite of a lack of literature on the subject, it presents a diversity of information collected from various public and private organizations. The first chapter brings into focus the negative effects of the recent economic crisis,…

Piromruen, Smarnjit; Keoyote, Sen

167

Economic Planning for Multicounty Rural Areas: Application of a Linear Programming Model in Northwest Arkansas. Technical Bulletin No. 1653.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Planners in multicounty rural areas can use the Rural Development, Activity Analysis Planning (RDAAP) model to try to influence the optimal growth of their areas among different general economic goals. The model implies that best industries for rural areas have: high proportion of imported inputs; low transportation costs; high value added/output…

Williams, Daniel G.

168

The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…

Maroto, Michelle

2012-01-01

169

Socio-economic level, farming activities and risk of cancer in small areas of Southern Spain.  

PubMed

An ecological design was used to study the relationship between cancer incidence and both socioeconomic and environmental features in Southern Spain. Twenty-four sites and 26,380 cases diagnosed in 1985--1996 were analysed. Generalised Additive Models were used for data analysis. Except for lip cancer, the urban areas showed an increase in cancer risk for all sites. The relative risks among urban and rural municipalities ranges between 1.09 for skin non-melanoma (95% CI: 1.00-1.18) and 1.64 for cervix cancer (95% CI: 1.28-2.12). The relative risk among areas with high and low unemployment was 1.29 for stomach cancer (95% CI: 1.07-1.57), 1.45 for oral cavity cancer (95% CI: 1.10-1.93) and 1.77 for oesophagus cancer (95% CI: 1.02-3.05). Areas with highest unemployment showed the lowest incidence of melanoma. Risk for leukaemia, gall bladder, breast and prostate cancer showed a significant decreases by approximately 28% in the municipalities with the highest illiteracy score. A high percentage of land under cultivation was related to uterine tumours, larynx, rectum, lung, skin non-melanoma and brain cancers. For these sites, the risk had a significant increase by between 23% (skin non-melanoma) and 70% (rectum). Areas with high intensive farming showed a significant increase in cancer risk for lip, oral cavity, larynx, oesophagus, colon, lung, and bladder cancer. The relative risks ranges between 1.16 for colon cancer (95% CI: 1.04-1.29) and 1.47 for oesophagus cancer (95% CI: 1.15-1.87). The results of this study reveal how important socio-economic and environmental factors are for the analysis of cancer incidence in small areas of Southern Spain. PMID:15461195

Ocaña-Riola, Ricardo; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Carmen; Rosell, Jorge; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Daponte, Antonio

2004-01-01

170

Tourism routes as a tool for the economic development of rural areas—vibrant hope or impossible dream?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both eulogised and reviled as a development option, rural tourism is increasingly viewed as a panacea, increasing the economic viability of marginalised areas, stimulating social regeneration and improving the living conditions of rural communities. Less developed countries, afflicted by debilitating rural poverty, have considerable potential in attracting tourists in search of new, authentic experiences in areas of unexploited natural and

Jenny Briedenhann; Eugenia Wickens

2004-01-01

171

Pathways of disadvantage and smoking careers: evidence and policy implications  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate in older industrialised societies (a) how social disadvantage contributes to smoking risk among women (b) the role of social and economic policies in reducing disadvantage and moderating wider inequalities in life chances and living standards. Methods Review and analysis of (a) the effects of disadvantage in childhood and into adulthood on women's smoking status in early adulthood (b) policy impacts on the social exposures associated with high smoking risk. Main results (a) Smoking status—ever smoking, current smoking, heavy smoking, and cessation—is influenced not only by current circumstances but by longer term biographies of disadvantage (b) social and economic policies shape key social predictors of women's smoking status, including childhood circumstances, educational levels and adult circumstances, and moderate inequalities in the distribution of these dimensions of life chances and living standards. Together, the two sets of findings argue for a policy toolkit that acts on the distal determinants of smoking, with interventions targeting the conditions in which future and current smokers live. Conclusions An approach to tobacco control is advocated that combines changing smoking habits with reducing inequalities in the social trajectories in which they are embedded. Policies to level up opportunities and living standards across the lifecourse should be championed as part of an equity oriented approach to reducing the disease burden of cigarette smoking.

Graham, Hilary; Inskip, Hazel M; Francis, Brian; Harman, Juliet

2006-01-01

172

Macroeconomic Performance and the Disadvantaged  

Microsoft Academic Search

A LONG-STANDING, positive relationship between the economic well- being of the poor and the growth of the economy has changed. In the 1960s rapid economic growth and a relatively stable macrpeconomy were associated with a 10 percentage point reduction in the proportion of people living below the official poverty line. Unstable macroeco- nomic conditions in the 1970s were associated with

David M. Cutler; Lawrence F. Katz

1991-01-01

173

Incorporation of spatial and economic analyses of human-use data in the design of marine protected areas.  

PubMed

Social, economic, and ecological criteria contribute to the successful design, implementation, and management of marine protected areas (MPAs). In the context of California's Marine Life Protection Act Initiative, we developed a set of methods for collecting, compiling, and analyzing data about the spatial extent and relative economic importance of commercial and recreational fishing. We interviewed 174 commercial fishers who represented the major fisheries in the initiative's north-central coast region, which extends from Point Arena south to Pigeon Point. These fishers provided data that we used to map the extent of each of the fishing grounds, to weight the relative importance of areas within the grounds, to characterize the operating costs of each fishery, and to analyze the potential economic losses associated with proposed marine protected areas. A regional stakeholder group used the maps and impact analyses in conjunction with other data sets to iteratively identify economic and ecological trade-offs in designations of different areas as MPAs at regional, port, and fishery extents. Their final proposed MPA network designated 20% of state waters as MPAs. Potential net economic loss ranged from 1.7% to 14.2% in the first round of network design and totaled 6.3% in the final round of design. This process is a case study in the application of spatial analysis to validate and integrate local stakeholder knowledge in marine planning. PMID:21175829

Scholz, Astrid J; Steinback, Charles; Kruse, Sarah A; Mertens, Mike; Silverman, Howard

2011-06-01

174

Geographic variation in participation for physically disabled adults: The contribution of area economic factors to employment after spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

This study investigates that role of area economic characteristics in predicting employment, a key aspect of social participation for adults with physical disabilities, using data from a national registry of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI results in chronic impairment and most commonly occurs during young adulthood when working is a key aspect of the adult social role. Geocoded data was collected from two of the 14 SCI Model Systems (SCIMS) centers involved in the National SCIMS database and used to link individual-level data with area-level measures extracted from the 2000 US Census. The analysis included participants of working age (18–64 years) and living in the community (N=1,013). Hierarchical generalized linear modeling was used to estimate area-level variation in participation and the relative contribution of area-level economic indicators, adjusted for individual-level health, functioning, and background characteristics. The likelihood of employment for adults with SCI varied by area and was associated with area SES and ubanicity, but not area unemployment. These findings suggest that variation in area economic conditions may affect the feasibility of employment for persons who experience chronic physical disability during adulthood, thus limiting full participation in society.

Botticello, Amanda L.; Chen, Yuying; Tulsky, David S.

2012-01-01

175

Urban disadvantage and delayed nephrology referral in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the relationship between area level measures of social disadvantage and the late referral of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) to a nephrologist. Patients who were referred late were those who needed to commence dialysis within 3 months of referral to a nephrologist. Late referral has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We studied 3334 patients

Alan Cass; Joan Cunningham; Paul Snelling; Zhiqiang Wang; Wendy Hoy

2003-01-01

176

A Study of Four Library Programs for Disadvantaged Persons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a study of four projects in New York City which were established with federal grants to offer library service to the disadvantaged in the area. The four programs studied are the Preschool Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the Community Coordinator Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the North Manhattan Project of the New York…

Winsor, Charlotte B.; Burrows, Lodema

177

A network description on geometry and economics of Yangtze drainage area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drainage basin of large rivers can be viewed as a network. This is well known in geomorphology. Recently, Dodds and Rothman performed an investigation of detailed geometry of river networks [1]. After them, we have investigated geometry and economics of drainage area of Yangtze, the largest river in China. In our first-degree network, we define all the anabranches of Yangtze as the nodes, and the flowing water as the directed edges. A statistics has been performed with 2332 anabranches. Six statistical properties have been obtained, which are in a good agreement with the conclusions reported in Ref. [1] and show that the drainage basin of Yangtze is a scale-free network. In our second-degree network, we define all the open ports along the anabranches as the nodes, and the trade relationship between each pair of nodes as an edge. Population, GDP, berth number, and the large quantities of goods taken in and sent out of 229 open ports have been investigated. A simple model has been suggested to describe the trade process. The results are in a good agreement with the statistical data and show that our second-degree network is also scale-free. [1] P. S. Dodds and D. H. Rothman, Phys. Rev. E 63, (2000) 016115; 016116; 016117.

Wang, Binbin; Xu, Tian; He, Da-Ren

2004-03-01

178

Economic Potential of CHP in Detroit Edison Service Area: the Customer Perspective  

SciTech Connect

DOE's mission under the Distributed Energy and Electricity Reliability (DEER) Program is to strengthen America's electric energy infrastructure and provide utilities and consumers with a greater array of energy-efficient technology choices for generating, transmitting, distributing, storing, and managing demand for electric power and thermal energy. DOE recognizes that distributed energy technologies can help accomplish this mission. Distributed energy (DE) technologies have received much attention for the potential energy savings and electric power reliability assurances that may be achieved by their widespread adoption. Fueling the attention has been the desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and concern about easing power transmission and distribution system capacity limitations and congestion. However, these benefits may come at a cost to the electric utility companies in terms of lost revenue and other potential impacts on the distribution system. It is important to assess the costs and benefits of DE to consumers and distribution system companies. DOE commissioned this study to assess the costs and benefits of DE technologies to consumers and to better understand the effect of DE on the grid. Current central power generation units vent more waste heat (energy) than the entire transportation sector consumes and this wasted thermal energy is projected to grow by 45% within the next 20 years. Consumer investment in technologies that increase power generation efficiency is a key element of the DOE Energy Efficiency program. The program aims to increase overall cycle efficiency from 30% to 70% within 20 years as well. DOE wants to determine the impact of DE in several small areas within cities across the U.S. Ann Arbor, Michigan, was chosen as the city for this case study. Ann Arbor has electric and gas rates that can substantially affect the market penetration of DE. This case study analysis was intended to: (1) Determine what DE market penetration can realistically be expected, based on consumer investment in combined heat and power systems (CHP) and the effect of utility applied demand response (DR). (2) Evaluate and quantify the impact on the distribution utility feeder from the perspective of customer ownership of the DE equipment. (3) Determine the distribution feeder limits and the impact DE may have on future growth. For the case study, the Gas Technology Institute analyzed a single 16-megawatt grid feeder circuit in Ann Arbor, Michigan to determine whether there are economic incentives to use small distributed power generation systems that would offset the need to increase grid circuit capacity. Increasing circuit capacity would enable the circuit to meet consumer's energy demands at all times, but it would not improve the circuit's utilization factor. The analysis spans 12 years, to a planning horizon of 2015. By 2015, the demand for power is expected to exceed the grid circuit capacity for a significant portion of the year. The analysis was to determine whether economically acceptable implementation of customer-owned DE systems would reduce the peak power demands enough to forestall the need to upgrade the capacity of the grid circuit. The analysis was based on economics and gave no financial credit for improved power reliability or mitigation of environmental impacts. Before this study was completed, the utility expanded the capacity of the circuit to 22 MW. Although this expansion will enable the circuit to meet foreseeable increases in peak demand, it also will significantly decrease the circuit's overall utilization factor. The study revealed that DE penetration on the selected feeder is not expected to forestall the need to upgrade the grid circuit capacity unless interconnection barriers are removed. Currently, a variety of technical, business practice, and regulatory barriers discourage DE interconnection in the US market.

Kelly, J.

2003-10-10

179

Concept Area Two Objectives and Test Items (Rev.) Part One, Part Two. Economic Analysis Course. Segments 17-49.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multimedia course in economic analysis was developed and used in conjunction with the United States Naval Academy. (See ED 043 790 and ED 043 791 for final reports of the project evaluation and development model.) This report deals with the second concept area of the course and focuses on macroeconomics. Segments 17 through 49 are presented,…

Sterling Inst., Washington, DC. Educational Technology Center.

180

Concept Area Three Objectives and Test Items (Rev.). Part One and Part Two. Economic Analysis Course. Segments 50 - 84.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multimedia course in economic analysis was developed and used in conjunction with the United States Naval Academy. (See ED 043 790 and ED 043 791 for final reports of the project evaluation and development model.) This report deals with concept area three of the course, which focuses on microeconomics. The behavioral objectives, hierarchy…

Sterling Inst., Washington, DC. Educational Technology Center.

181

The Changing Economic Standing of Minorities and Women in the Chicago Metropolitan Area 1970-1990. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report uses figures from the 1990 Census to present a detailed and comprehensive picture of the changes that occurred in the economic standing of women and minorities during the 1970s and 1980s in the six-county Chicago (Illinois) metropolitan area. The terms African American, Asian American, Latino, and White are used to describe the city's…

Latino Inst., Chicago, IL.

182

The Economic Impact of Universities in Non-Metropolitan Areas of the Great Plains, USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public universities cite their economic impact to help justify state financial support, but the literature offers no comprehensive theory that can guide analysis of such claims. This research used qualitative methodology to complement the ubiquitous economic impact studies, and showed that mission, leadership and geography determine how public…

Falconer, John

2007-01-01

183

Multifunctionality and Sustainability of Agriculture and Rural Areas: A Welfare Economics Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite accord about the existence of multiple benefits of agriculture to society, there is a diversity of views when it comes to actual policy implications. This can be explained by differences in agricultural and rural economic structures, different positions in agricultural trade and different stages of societal and socio-economic development. In addition, it can be attributed to differences in epistemological

Werner Hediger; Karlheinz Knickel

2009-01-01

184

Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

1995-03-01

185

Tips for Teachers of the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A variety of teaching materials, developed at an institute for training teachers of disadvantaged youth in rural (predominately Indian) schools, is provided in this handbook designed for teachers of disadvantaged youth. Ideas for bulletin boards are discussed in the first 25 pages of the document, followed by lesson plans (for kindergarten and…

Northeastern State Univ., Tahlequah, OK.

186

HANDBOOK, TEACHING SCIENCE TO EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DESCRIBED ARE PROCEDURES AND LABORATORY MATERIALS WHICH ARE OUTGROWTHS OF A RESEARCH PROJECT OF THE SOUTHEASTERN EDUCATION LABORATORY FOR THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE TO DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS IN GRADES 7, 8, AND 9. PART 1 DEALS WITH THE CRITERIA USED IN DEVELOPING PROCEDURES AND MATERIALS FOR USE WITH EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED. INCLUDED ARE (1) THE…

BINGHAM, N.E.; AND OTHERS

187

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages and disadvantages of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) as compared to alternative irrigation systems are conceptually discussed. Each category (advantages and disadvantages) is subdivided into three groups: 1) Water and soil issues; 2) Cropping and cultural practices, and 3) System infrastructure issues. The adaptation and adoption of SDI systems into diverse cropping systems, geographical regions, soils and climate depends,

Freddie R. Lamm

188

Promising Practices: Teaching the Disadvantaged Gifted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for teachers, the document offers 10 articles on educating the disadvantaged gifted student. Included are the following titles: "Four Promising Practices for Teaching Gifted Disadvantaged Students" (which describes a workshop with problem solving and creative expressive activities) by E. Paul Torrance; "Cultural Diversity and the…

Miley, James F., Comp.; And Others

189

Planting the SEED: Towards a Spatial Economic Ecological Database for a shared understanding of the Dutch Wadden area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we address the characteristics of a publicly accessible Spatial Economic Ecological Database (SEED) and its ability to support a shared understanding among planners and experts of the economy and ecology of the Dutch Wadden area. Theoretical building blocks for a Wadden SEED are discussed. Our SEED contains a comprehensive set of stakeholder validated spatially explicit data on key economic and ecological indicators. These data extend over various spatial scales. Spatial issues relevant to the specification of a Wadden-SEED and its data needs are explored in this paper and illustrated using empirical data for the Dutch Wadden area. The purpose of the SEED is to integrate basic economic and ecologic information in order to support the resolution of specific (policy) questions and to facilitate connections between project level and strategic level in the spatial planning process. Although modest in its ambitions, we will argue that a Wadden SEED can serve as a valuable element in the much debated science-policy interface. A Wadden SEED is valuable since it is a consensus-based common knowledge base on the economy and ecology of an area rife with ecological-economic conflict, including conflict in which scientific information is often challenged and disputed.

Daams, Michiel N.; Sijtsma, Frans J.

2013-09-01

190

Economic Census 1997: Illinois. Administrative and Support and Waste Management and Remediation Services. Geographic Area Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the Nations economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. Title 13 of the United States Code (Sections 131, 19...

1999-01-01

191

Strategic Plan for the Economic Development, Diversification, and Revitalization of the Lufkin-Angelina County Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project developed an Economic Adjustment Strategy for the City of Lufkin. The narrative report summarized the results of a detailed research endeavor which encompasses a complete assessment of recent layoffs and plant closings on the economy of Lufkin...

M. R. Perryman

1988-01-01

192

Increasing Social and Economic Inequalities among Suburban Schools: A Study in Educational Administration and Finance. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of five metropolitan areas indicates increasing social and economic inequalities among suburban schools. In addition, the metropolitan areas seemed to be developing contiguous sectors of "advantaged" school districts and "disadvantaged" school districts. Financial differences are at the base of the inequalities, with high income/low tax…

Hickrod, G. Alan; Sabulao, Cesar M.

193

Non-Economic Determinants of Energy Use in Rural Areas of South Africa  

SciTech Connect

This project will begin to determine the forces and dimensions in rural energy-use patterns and begin to address policy and implementation needs for the future. This entails: Forecasting the social and economic benefits that electrification is assumed to deliver regarding education and women's lives; Assessing negative perceptions of users, which have been established through the slow uptake of electricity; Making recommendations as to how these perceptions could be addressed in policy development and in the continuing electrification program; Making recommendations to policy makers on how to support and make optimal use of current energy-use practices where these are socio-economically sound; Identifying misinformation and wasteful practices; and Other recommendations, which will significantly improve the success of the rural electrification program in a socio-economically sound manner, as identified in the course of the work.

Annecke, W. (Energy and Development Research Center, University of Cape Town, South Africa)

1999-03-29

194

Father Absence and Self-Esteem Amongst Economically Disadvantaged Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children begin to build self-esteem in early childhood based on social and emotional development. Previous research has shown that children inhabiting homes where the biological, adoptive, or step father are present have shown to exhibit higher levels of self esteem and social functioning. However, further information regarding the positive male influence, lesbian parenting, or the absence of “paternal absence” stigmas

Casey Kevorkian

2010-01-01

195

34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or more and— (1) You offer an associate, baccalaureate, graduate, or professional...more; or (2) You do not offer an associate, baccalaureate, graduate, or professional...2, that is equal to or less than the largest expected family contribution...

2010-07-01

196

34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or more and— (1) You offer an associate, baccalaureate, graduate, or professional...more; or (2) You do not offer an associate, baccalaureate, graduate, or professional...2, that is equal to or less than the largest expected family contribution that...

2010-07-01

197

Economic Effects of Land Subsidence Due to Excessive Groundwater Withdrawal in the Texas Gulf Coast Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Texas Gulf Coast area is experiencing subsidence of the land surface due to excessive withdrawals of groundwater. Damages and property losses are significant, especially along the upper Galveston Bay area, including Houston, Baytown, Clear Lake City a...

L. L. Jones J. Larson

1975-01-01

198

Omaha-Council Bluffs Metropolitan Area Comprehensive Plan. Phase II. Housing Study and Economic Base Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phase Two of the areawide comprehensive plan for the Omaha-Council Bluffs three-county SMSA consists of a housing study and economic base survey. The housing study presents a current housing inventory for the SMSA, housing condition analysis, and an analy...

1970-01-01

199

Economic Benefits of Potable Water Supplies in Rural Areas of Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

That rural populations of Third World countries are in many cases unable to pay the full costs of water-distribution systems has led to an increased effort to identify quantifiable benefits of the systems. Experience thus far has shown that the level of economic benefits resulting from improved rural water supplies depends upon how local health and employment are affected, which

Robert J. Saunders

1975-01-01

200

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE ARTS ON THE OKLAHOMA CITY AREA ECONOMY FOR 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the type and magnitude of economic impacts on the Oklahoma City economy by 34 arts agencies, organizations, festivals, shows, programs, and other events. The direct and secondary impacts on the Oklahoma City economy in terms of spending and employment were significant. Further analysis indicated that the industry was in need of state,

James V. Pinto

1980-01-01

201

Summer Reading Program for Disadvantaged Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the summer of 1969, Vicore, Inc. simultaneously conducted four classes in reading improvement skills for disadvantaged youth employed as Summer Aids at the Naval Weapons Laboratory in Dahlgren, Virginia. (Author/EB)

Ramig, Robert R.

1971-01-01

202

Virtues of SIN: can intensified public efforts help disadvantaged immigrants?  

PubMed

The labor market integration of immigrants is a top political priority throughout the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Social and fiscal gains, as well as sustained future labor supply make governments search for effective policies to increase employment among the mostly disadvantaged. The author studies SIN, a Swedish pilot workplace introduction program targeting these groups, using very detailed individual data and allowing for effects through several channels. The results show increased transitions from unemployment to work experience schemes and improved future employment probabilities for those who entered these schemes. A rough calculation suggests that each job year created cost about Euro 30,000. PMID:22020008

Åslund, Olof; Johansson, Per

2011-08-01

203

Young smokers' narratives: public health, disadvantage and structural violence.  

PubMed

This research article on youth smoking in disadvantaged communities is the product of a qualitative study to understand the issues faced by young smokers--and those trying not to be smokers--in such communities. Environmental factors and peer influence are widely recognised influences on adolescents' take-up and continuation of smoking but less is known about whether, what, how and why circumstances in disadvantaged communities affect young people's pathways towards and away from smoking. Focusing on a youth club in a disadvantaged neighbourhood in the North East of England, narratives about young people's relationships with tobacco provide an ethnographically rich, thick description of the experiences of a group that is too often easily ignored. We argue that young people are caught between competing domains that together exert a form of structural violence. These are, first, the economic and political structures that have overseen de-industrialisation; second, the media structures that create desire for what they cannot afford; third the structures of international organised crime that conspire to provide them with the means to consume from which 'legitimate' structures effectively exclude them. Rather than expecting young people to comply with the health imperative, interventions need to bridge issues of agency and critical consciousness, which structural violence otherwise insidiously erodes. PMID:23145793

Lewis, Sue; Russell, Andrew

2013-06-01

204

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Coastal Washington). Volume 2 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Washington Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Washington Area includes Jefferson, Clallam, Island, San Juan, Grays Harbor, Pacific, and Wahkiakum counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

205

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area. (Coastal Washington) Volume 4 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Washington Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Washington Area includes Jefferson, Clallam, Island, San Juan, Grays Harbor, Pacific, and Wahkiakum counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

206

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area. (Coastal Washington). Volume 1 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Washington Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Washington Area includes Jefferson, Clallam, Island, San Juan, Grays Harbor, Pacific, and Wahkiakum counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

207

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Coastal Oregon) Volume 3 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Oregon Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Oregon Area includes Clatsop, Tillamook, Lincoln, Lane, Douglas, Coos, and Curry counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Oregon, Washington, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

208

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Coastal Oregon) Volume 2 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Oregon Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Oregon Area includes Clatsop, Tillamook, Lincoln, Lane, Douglas, Coos, and Curry counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Oregon, Washington, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

209

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Coastal Oregon). Volume 4 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Oregon Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Oregon Area includes Clatsop, Tillamook, Lincoln, Lane, Douglas, Coos, and Curry counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Oregon, Washington, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

210

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Coastal Washington) Volume 3 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Washington Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Washington Area includes Jefferson, Clallam, Island, San Juan, Grays Harbor, Pacific, and Wahkiakum counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

211

ANALYSIS OF THE ECONOMICS OF WATER SUPPLY IN THE WASHINGTON METROPOLITAN AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of a controversy arising over available water supply in the Washington Metropolitan Area, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, administrator for Region III, requested that a cost analysis of the water supply system in the Washington, D.C. area be made. The analys...

212

Social and economic sustainability of urban systems: comparative analysis of metropolitan statistical areas in Ohio, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

This article presents a general and versatile methodology for assessing sustainability with Fisher Information as a function of dynamic changes in urban systems. Using robust statistical methods, six Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in Ohio were evaluated to comparatively as...

213

Geography and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Location and climate have large effects on income levels and income growth through their effects on transport costs, disease burdens, and agricultural productivity, among other channels. Geography also seems to affect economic policy choices. Many geographic regions that have not been conducive to modern economic growth have high population densities and are experiencing rapid increases in population. At particular disadvantage

John Luke Gallup; Jeffrey D. Sachs; Andrew D. Mellinger

1999-01-01

214

Climate change and socio-economic scenarios, land use modelling implications on water resources in an inner alpine area, Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MontanAqua project aims to study the water resources management in the region Sierre-Montana (Valais, Switzerland). Land use is known to have an influence on the water resources (soil moisture dynamic, soil sealing, surface runoff and deep percolation). Thus land use modelling is of importance for the water resources management. An actual land use map was produced using infrared imagery (Niklaus 2012, Fig.1). Land use changes are known to be mainly drived by socio-economic factors as well as climatic factors (Dolman et al. 2003). Potential future Land uses was separatly predicted according to 1-. socio-economic and 2-. climatic/abiotic drivers : 1. 4 socio-economic scenarios were developped with stakeholders (Schneider et al. 2013) between 2010 and 2012. We modeled those socio-economic scenarios into a GIS application using Python programming (ModelBuilder in ArcGIS 10) to get a cartographic transcription of the wishes of the stakeholders for their region in 2050. 2. Uncorrelated climatic and abiotic drivers were used in a BIOMOD2 (Georges et al. 2013) framework. 4 models were used: Maximum Entropy (MAXENT), Multiple Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Classification Tree Analysis (CTA) and the Flexible Discriminant Analysis (FDA) to predict grassland, alpine pasture, vineyards and forest in our study region. Climatic scenarios were then introduced into the models to predict potential land use in 2050 driven only by climatic and abiotic factors The comparison of all the outputs demonstrates that the socio-economic drivers will have a more important impact in the region than the climatic drivers (e.g. -70% grassland surface for the worst socio-economic scenario vs. -40% of grassland surface for the worst climatic models). Further analysis also brings out the sensitivity of the grassland/alpine pasture system to the climate change and to socio-economic changes. Future work will be to cross the different land use maps obtained by the two model types and to use them to implement soil moisture and evaporation data for the near-future in the region Sierre-Montana. REFERENCES Niklaus M. 2012. An Object-oriented Approach for Mapping Current Land Use/Land Cover in the Study Area Crans-Montana-Sierre, Valais. MSc, Geography Institute, University of Bern Dolman A.J., Verhagen A. & Rovers C.A. 2003. Global environmental change and land use. Kluwer Academic Publisher. Dordrecht. Schneider F. & Rist S. 2013. Envisioning sustainable water futures in a transdisciplinary learning process: combining normative, explorative, and participatory scenario approaches. Sustainability Science, in press. Georges D. & Thuiller W. 2012. An example of species distribution modelling with biomod2. biomod2 version : 2.0.17

Rey, Emmanuel; Schneider, Flurina; Liniger, Hanspeter; Weingartner, Rolf; Herweg, Karl

2014-05-01

215

Teaching the Disadvantaged: A Curriculum Guide for Classes of Disadvantaged Students in Agricultural Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide begins with some observations on teaching disadvantaged students, a list of successful types of learning activities, and recommendations for planning and conducting an effective classroom situation. Also included are 13 general objectives of a program for the disadvantaged. The guide, intended as a source of ideas and directions in…

Crunkilton, John R.

216

Advantage: Disadvantaged Gifted. Presentations from the Third National Conference on Disadvantaged Gifted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The presentations in this volume deal with various aspects of education for the gifted disadvantaged. Maija Blaubergs describes disadvantages experienced by gifted and talented girls in obtaining access to opportunities for achievement congruent with their potentialities. Some of the topics examined are sexist barriers, marriage, institutional and…

Rivlin, Harry N.; And Others

217

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area. (Coastal Oregon) Volume 1 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Oregon Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Oregon Area includes Clatsop, Tillamook, Lincoln, Lane, Douglas, Coos, and Curry counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Oregon, Washington, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socioeconomic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

218

The Belgian Industrial Confidence Indicator: Leading Indicator of Economic Activity in the Euro Area?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international press has recently reported on the widely-held view in the financial markets that the movement of the Belgian industrial confidence indicator might precede the euro area business cycles. The initial purpose of this paper is to assess whether this market perception is more than a simple optical illusion, resulting from the inspection of graphical representations of the data.

Jean-Jacques Vanhaelen; Luc Dresse; Jan De Mulder

2000-01-01

219

[MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Management. Module III-F-3: Marketing Practices in Relation to Low Income Clientele.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on marketing practices in relation to low income clientele is the third in a set of three modules on management in economically depressed areas (EDAs). (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking…

California State Univ., Fresno. Dept. of Home Economics.

220

The Risk Group: Education and Training Policies for Disadvantaged Young People in Sweden and Denmark.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sweden and Denmark are becoming aware that the "at risk" group of unemployed young people present a double-edged risk in that they are economically and socially disadvantaged and constitute a risk for society at large. Sweden and Denmark differ in their responses to the problem. (BRR)

Plunkett, Dudley

1982-01-01

221

The Displaced vs. the Disadvantaged: A Necessary Dichotomy? Occasional Paper 1994-2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current displaced worker initiative towers over the 30-year effort to bring the economically disadvantaged into the mainstream of the labor market. The Congressional Budget Office defines displacement as all workers 18 years of age and older who lose full-time employment due to slack work, job abolition, or plant closure. Major displaced…

Levitan, Sar A.; Mangum, Stephen L.

222

Rehabilitation, Sheltered Workshops, and the Disadvantaged: An Exploration in Manpower Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains presentations and summary of a conference designed to explore the potential of the rehabilitation model in providing rehabilitation and manpower services to the disadvantaged through sheltered workshops. Presented by scholars and practitioners in the fields of manpower economics, psychology, social psychology, sociology,…

State Univ. of New York, Ithaca. School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell Univ.

223

Resources for Working with Disadvantaged Students and Limited English Speaking Students: An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Resources are enumerated for community college personnel working with economically and/or academically disadvantaged students and with students who speak limited English. The document first provides operational definitions for these groups and then lists and discusses resources under the following headings: (1) needs assessment, (2) instruction…

Miller, Susan W., Comp.

224

Maternal Relationship Instability and the School Behavior of Children from Disadvantaged Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examined the relation between the instability of maternal intimate relationships and school behavior of economically disadvantaged third-graders. After ecological correlates were controlled, chronic relationship instability was found to predict externalizing behavior for boys and girls and internalizing behavior for girls,…

Ackerman, Brian P.; Brown, Eleanor D.; D'Eramo, Kristen Schoff; Izard, Carroll E.

2002-01-01

225

Enhancing the Phonological Awareness and Language Skills of Socially Disadvantaged Preschoolers: An Interdisciplinary Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research reported investigated the efficacy of intervention, developed by a speech-language therapist and implemented by a teacher, for the language and phonological awareness (PA) abilities of pre-school, socially disadvantaged children. One study established that children from low socio-economic (SES) backgrounds had poorer skills on both…

McIntosh, Beth; Crosbie, Sharon; Holm, Alison; Dodd, Barbara; Thomas, Sian

2007-01-01

226

Special Environmental Education Project for Disadvantaged Gifted Primary Grade Students: 1980-81.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Outdoor Activity Center (Atlanta, Georgia) provides enriched experiences in a natural environment for economically disadvantaged gifted primary grade students and has developed materials incorporating creative activities used at the Center to expand the elementary science curriculum of the Atlanta Public Schools. Fifty-eight gifted students…

Ballagas, Linda D.

227

Education and the Disadvantaged 20 Years Later.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflects on the rationale for federal involvement in education (particularly on behalf of the disadvantaged), considers the Reagan Administration's efforts to diminish the federal role, discusses research on the effectiveness of federal initiatives, proposes an appropriate federal role, and examines the impact of existing legislation. (Author/PGD)

Stickney, Benjamin D.; Marcus, Laurence R.

1985-01-01

228

Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from Add Health, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community and school controls. Neighborhood violence…

Harding, David J.

2009-01-01

229

Teenage Childbearing and Social Disadvantage: Unprotected Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Continues dialogue begun with two articles on teenage pregnancy and childbearing published in Family Relations in 1991 ("As the Pendulum Swings: Teenage Childbearing and Social Concern" and "Teenage Childbearing and Social and Reproductive Disadvantage: The Evolution of Complex Questions and the Demise of Simple Answers") and responds to previous…

Geronimus, Arline T.

1992-01-01

230

The Leftouts; Disadvantaged Children in Heterogeneous Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work by a social psychologist is concerned with the consequences of the values, attitudes, and behavior of teachers and more advantaged peers for the educational experience of disadvantaged youngsters in heterogeneous schools. The academic, social, and emotional factors in these schools are interdependent and equally important for the…

Warden, Sandra A.

231

LIMITATIONS OF ADMISSIONS TESTING FOR THE DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE USE OF STANDARD ADMISSIONS TESTS HAS OFTEN BEEN CALLED DISCRIMINATORY TOWARDS DISADVANTAGED YOUTHS. TO EXAMINE THE VALIDITY OF THESE COLLEGE ENTRANCE EXAMINATIONS, THE AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION (ACE) TEST SCORES OF 66 HONOR GRADUATES AT NORTH CAROLINA COLLEGE BETWEEN 1954 AND 1959 WERE EXAMINED. IT WAS FOUND THAT 58 OF THEM WOULD NOT HAVE…

BROWN, WALTER M.; RUSSELL, ROGER D.

232

Neighborhood Disadvantage and Reliance on the Police  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary theories suggest that, due to limited access and generalized distrust, residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods are relatively unlikely to report matters to police. Although existing studies reveal few ecological differences in crime reporting, findings may be limited to victim/offense subsets represented in aggregated victimization…

Schaible, Lonnie M.; Hughes, Lorine A.

2012-01-01

233

Lightning protection systems: advantages and disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanics and interaction of lightning producing thunder clouds and earth, are discussed. Compared to the Franklin Air Terminal (rod) and Faraday Cage, the debatable advantages and disadvantages of the Early Streamer Emission Enhanced Ionizing Air Terminal, and Multipoint Discharge Systems, are examined along with conceptual future methods of lightning protection

D. W. Zipse

1993-01-01

234

Pre-testing Orientation for the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pre-testing orientation was incorporated into the Work Incentives Program, a pre-vocational program for disadvantaged youth. Test-taking skills were taught in seven and one half hours of instruction and a variety of methods were used to provide a sequential experience with distributed learning, positive reinforcement, and immediate feedback of…

Mihalka, Joseph A.

235

Children--An Educationally Disadvantaged Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the issue of educational disadvantage in relation to each sex, discusses the dehumanizing effect of sexist education on people in general, and outlines a new concept of humanness, totally divorced from our stereotyped notions of appropriate masculine and feminine behavior. (Author/AJM)

Cust, Marlene A.

1976-01-01

236

Educational Issues of the Socially Disadvantaged Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though enrollment in elementary schools and national literacy rates have increased greatly in India since its independence in 1949, the number of dropouts and illiterate individuals will also continue to increase unless the needs of the socially disadvantaged are identified and met. The majority of the dropouts and the illiterates belong to…

Sreedhar, M. V.

237

Nurturing the Potential of the Gifted Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper traces the concept of the "gifted disadvantaged" child and reviews the development of educational resources for this special population. The National Merit Scholarship Program is described as an example of a program which, though designed to provide opportunities for students from all social strata, until 1964, did not initiate a…

Passow, A. Harry

238

Academic Enrichment Project for Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the project is to facilitate academically disadvantaged nursing students' success in a baccalaureate nursing program. The program's three main components are student support services, faculty development, and peer tutoring. Student services include diagnostic testing, group sessions, individual tutoring as needed, special workshops…

Burris, Berlean M.

239

Collective Bargaining, Transfer Rights, and Disadvantaged Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collective bargaining is common in American public education, but its consequences are poorly understood. We focus here on key contractual provisions--seniority-based transfer rights--that affect teacher assignments, and we show that these transfer rights operate to burden disadvantaged schools with higher percentages of inexperienced teachers. We…

Anzia, Sarah F.; Moe, Terry M.

2014-01-01

240

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED STATUS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE RECENT CONCERN FOR THE PROBLEMS OF THE POOR IS BEING REFLECTED IN CHANGES IN EDUCATIONAL THEORY AND PRACTICES. EDUCATORS NOW FEEL THAT THE DISADVANTAGED YOUTH IS EDUCABLE AND THAT IT IS THE SCHOOL'S RESPONSIBILITY TO EDUCATE HIM. THERE IS, HOWEVER, THE DANGER THAT THIS PRESENT CONCERN IS ONLY A "FAD" AND THUS WILL PASS. IN THEIR INCREASED…

RIESSMAN, FRANK

241

Thermal disadvantage factor; An efficient calculation  

SciTech Connect

A method is described where reactor cell flux and the disadvantage factor are calculated by using diffusion theory in the moderator and integral transport in the fuel. The method is efficient (noniterative) and provides results that agree well with Monte Carlo, P{sub 5} and ABH results.

Abdullah, K.M.S.; Loyalka, S.K. (Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

1990-01-01

242

Advantages and disadvantages of a municipal solid waste collection service for citizens of Hanoi City, Vietnam.  

PubMed

Governments of municipalities in Vietnam experiencing dynamic economic growth and dramatic population increases have been struggling to manage increased amounts of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study aimed to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of the current MSW collection service for citizens of the four central districts of Hanoi city, Vietnam, by conducting interviews with 200 households and 200 business entities regarding their satisfaction with the service. The survey results showed that Hanoi city provides an economical collection service with sufficient frequency and at appropriate times for citizens. However, a number of citizens complained about unsanitary conditions in the area surrounding their residence. Business entities had sufficient motivation to sell recyclable waste (RW) to the informal sector, not only to derive revenue from selling RW, but also to reduce the amount of MSW generated, thus reducing the MSW collection fee. Households were not motivated to reduce MSW by selling RW to the informal sector because they paid a fixed collection fee. As a result, an improvement in living standards in the near future is expected to contribute to increasing the amount of MSW generated from households. PMID:23315363

Kawai, Kosuke; Osako, Masahiro

2013-03-01

243

Child restraint use in low socio-economic areas of urban Sydney during transition to new legislation.  

PubMed

Child restraints protect a young child against injury in crashes but best practice child restraint use is low in Australia, particularly among lower socio-economic groups. We investigated factors associated with restraint use to inform the development of education and distribution programmes to support new Australian legislation on child passengers among families in low socio-economic areas of metropolitan Sydney. We interviewed a parent or carer of 1160 children aged 2-5 years enrolled at one of 28 early childhood centres in low socio-economic areas of urban Sydney. Appropriate child restraint use was defined as a forward facing child restraint (FFCR) for 2-3 year olds and a FFCR or booster seat for children aged 4 years or more. Predictors of self-reported appropriate use were explored using logistic regression. Analysis was conducted on one child from each family in the target age range (2-5 years): 586 (51%) were male and the mean age was 3.5 (Standard Deviation 0.8) years. There were 432 (45%) families with annual income below $60,000, 248 (22%) spoke a language other than English at home and 360 (33%) had 3 or more children. Fifty-four percent of carers indicated that their 2-3 year old children travelled in a FFCR. Inappropriate use among children in this age group was more likely when the carer was <36 years (odds ratio (OR) 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-2.45), in families with ?3 children (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.10-2.44) and when the carer believed that a booster seat was just as safe as a FFCR (OR 2.98, 2.05-4.32). Eight-eight percent of carers of 4-5 year olds reported use of a booster seat or FFCR. Non-use was associated with low household income (OR 3.10, 95% CI 1.67-5.75), in families with ?3 children (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.09-3.76) and families where a language other than English is spoken at home (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.10-5.21). Non-English speaking families had less awareness of the new law and poorer knowledge of safety benefits of child restraints. They also had lower household incomes and more concerns about cost of child restraints and booster seats. These findings can inform development of interventions to promote best practice child restraint use, which will reach non-English speaking families in this region. They also confirm the importance of economic and logistic barriers to best practice child restraint use. PMID:22921907

Keay, Lisa; Hunter, Kate; Brown, Julie; Bilston, Lynne E; Simpson, Judy M; Stevenson, Mark; Ivers, Rebecca Q

2013-01-01

244

The intergenerational transmission of inequality: maternal disadvantage and health at birth.  

PubMed

Health at birth is an important predictor of long-term outcomes, including education, income, and disability. Recent evidence suggests that maternal disadvantage leads to worse health at birth through poor health behaviors; exposure to harmful environmental factors; worse access to medical care, including family planning; and worse underlying maternal health. With increasing inequality, those at the bottom of the distribution now face relatively worse economic conditions, but newborn health among the most disadvantaged has actually improved. The most likely explanation is increasing knowledge about determinants of infant health and how to protect it along with public policies that put this knowledge into practice. PMID:24855261

Aizer, Anna; Currie, Janet

2014-05-23

245

The Economic and Social Condition of Rural America in the 1970's. Part 2: Impact of Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Programs on Nonmetropolitan Areas. Fiscal 1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared by the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (DHEW) for the Senate Committee on Government Operations hearings on S.10, a bill to revitalize rural and other economically distressed areas, this report relates to the impact on nonmetropolitan areas of DHEW programs. The report contains (1) an analysis of the DHEW programs which…

Department of Health , Education, and Welfare, Washington., DC. Office of the Secretary.

246

Lightning protection systems: advantages and disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful 200-year-old method of using a (Franklin) rod to collect, control, and convey to earth the awesome and destructive power of lightning has produced other controversial, potential alternate methods. The mechanics and interaction of lightning-producing thunderclouds and earth are discussed. Compared to the Franklin air terminal (rod) and Faraday cage method, the debatable advantages and disadvantages of the early

Donald W. Zipse

1994-01-01

247

Lessons from Successful Schools in Disadvantaged Settings: It's Both What You Do and the Way That You Do It, That's What Gets Results!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the UK, and elsewhere in the world, schools with a higher level of pupil socio-economic disadvantage generally have lower levels of pupil attainment. However, some primary schools in Wales buck this trend. They have both high levels of disadvantage and high levels of attainment. The authors studied 18 of these schools to answer the questions:…

James, Chris; Dunning, Gerald; Connolly, Michael; Elliott, Tony

2006-01-01

248

Economic evaluation of Chagas disease screening of pregnant Latin American women and of their infants in a non endemic area.  

PubMed

Migration is a channel through which Chagas disease is imported, and vertical transmission is a channel through which the disease is spread in non-endemic countries. This study presents the economic evaluation of Chagas disease screening in pregnant women from Latin America and in their newborns in a non endemic area such as Spain. The economic impact of Chagas disease screening is tested through two decision models, one for the newborn and one for the mother, against the alternative hypothesis of no screening for either the newborn or the mother. Results show that the option "no test" is dominated by the option "test". The cost effectiveness ratio in the "newborn model" was 22€/QALYs gained in the case of screening and 125€/QALYs gained in the case of no screening. The cost effectiveness ratio in the "mother model" was 96€/QALYs gained in the case of screening and 1675€/QALYs gained in the case of no screening. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis highlighted the reduction of uncertainty in the screening option. Threshold analysis assessed that even with a drop in Chagas prevalence from 3.4% to 0.9%, a drop in the probability of vertical transmission from 7.3% to 2.24% and with an increase of screening costs up to €37.5, "test" option would still be preferred to "no test". The current study proved Chagas screening of all Latin American women giving birth in Spain and of their infants to be the best strategy compared to the non-screening option and provides useful information for health policy makers in their decision making process. PMID:21396345

Sicuri, Elisa; Muñoz, José; Pinazo, Maria Jesús; Posada, Elizabeth; Sanchez, Joan; Alonso, Pedro L; Gascon, Joaquim

2011-05-01

249

Evolution of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Disadvantaged  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the scope, function, and history of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Disadvantaged (ERIC-UD). This clearinghouse was formerly the Information Retrieval Center on the Disadvantaged (IRCD). (DE)

Smith, Paul M., Jr.; Jablonsky, Adelaide

1970-01-01

250

77 FR 36924 - Airport Concessions Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OST-2011-0101] RIN 2105-AE10 Airport Concessions Disadvantaged Business Enterprise...amends the Department of Transportation's Airport Concessions Disadvantaged Business Enterprise...DBE) rule for highway, transit, and airport financial assistance programs. This...

2012-06-20

251

48 CFR 52.219-22 - Small Disadvantaged Business Status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...certification as a small disadvantaged business concern or submission of its...authorized small disadvantaged business procurement mechanisms and...http://www.acquisition.gov/References/sdbadjustments...offeror as listed on the Small Business Administrations register...

2013-10-01

252

48 CFR 1519.204 - Small disadvantaged business participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Small disadvantaged business participation. 1519.204 Section...AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.204 Small disadvantaged business participation. (a) The...

2013-10-01

253

The impact of disadvantage on the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Background Disadvantaged people include those experiencing economic, social or educational deprivation and, in some cases, those undergoing rapid transition from subsistence to industrial economies. Disadvantaged people worldwide are affected disproportionately by the global epidemic of diabetes. They are also at increased risk of kidney disease attributable to diabetes, and for many, the cost of managing their kidney disease far exceeds their available resources. Methods We review factors associated with disadvantage that may increase the risk of diabetic kidney disease, and the barriers to care that hinder attempts to provide an adequate therapeutic response. Results and conclusions A rapidly rising prevalence and magnitude of obesity among children and adults, increasing frequency of intrauterine exposure to diabetes, and inadequate access to healthcare are responsible, in part, for a surge in the frequency of diabetes and, in turn, diabetic kidney disease among disadvantaged people. These factors may also predispose to an earlier onset of diabetes and kidney disease, thereby perpetuating the disadvantage by reducing the earning potential of those affected through illness and disability.

Weil, E.J.; Curtis, J.M.; Hanson, R.L.; Knowler, W.C.; Nelson, R.G.

2012-01-01

254

Reading Instruction for the Disadvantaged: Is It Adequate?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that some progress has been made in teaching the socially disadvantaged to read, defines the socially disadvantaged, lists the causes of reading retardation among disadvantaged children, and suggests actions to overcome present inadequacies. Includes a pro-reaction and a con-reaction paper. Bibliography. (WB)

Lloyd, Helene M.

1968-01-01

255

Genetic structure of the rattan Calamus thwaitesii in core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in central Western Ghats, India: do protected areas serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants?  

PubMed

Given the increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, the various protected areas--national parks, sanctuaries, and biosphere reserves--serve as the last footholds for conserving biological diversity. However, because protected areas are often targeted for the conservation of selected species, particularly charismatic animals, concerns have been raised about their effectiveness in conserving nontarget taxa and their genetic resources. In this paper, we evaluate whether protected areas can serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants that are threatened due to extraction pressures. We examine the population structure and genetic diversity of an economically important rattan, Calamus thwaitesii, in the core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in the central Western Ghats, southern India. Our results indicate that in all the three protected areas, the core and buffer regions maintain a better population structure, as well as higher genetic diversity, than the peripheral regions of the protected area. Thus, despite the escalating pressures of extraction, the protected areas are effective in conserving the genetic resources of rattan. These results underscore the importance of protected areas in conservation of nontarget species and emphasize the need to further strengthen the protected-area network to offer refugia for economically important plant species. PMID:17656844

Ramesha, B T; Ravikanth, G; Nageswara Rao, M; Ganeshaiah, K N; Uma Shaanker, R

2007-04-01

256

Overcoming Disadvantage through the Innovative Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australia is a high performing but low equity country with regards to educational attainment. Low socio-economic background students and schools with large numbers of these students perform less well than higher socio-economic background students and schools. Yet some schools are turning around student learning outcomes despite the impact of…

Black, Rosalyn

2006-01-01

257

Epidemiologic and Economic Burden of Influenza in the Outpatient Setting: A Prospective Study in a Subtropical Area of China  

PubMed Central

Objectives To understand the incidence of outpatient influenza cases in a subtropical area of China and the associated economic burden on patients' families. Methods A hospital-based prospective study was conducted in Zhuhai City during 2008–2009. All outpatient influenza-like illness (ILI) cases were identified in 28 sentinel hospitals. A representative sample of throat swabs from ILI cases were collected for virus isolation using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The incidence of outpatient influenza cases in Zhuhai was estimated on the basis of the number of influenza patients detected by the sentinel sites. A telephone survey on the direct costs associated with illness was conducted as a follow-up. Results The incidence of influenza was estimated to be 4.1 per 1,000 population in 2008 and 19.2 per 1,000 population in 2009. Children aged <5 years were the most-affected population, suffering from influenza at the highest rates (34.3 per 1,000 population in 2008 and 95.3 per 1,000 population in 2009). A high incidence of 29.2–40.9 per 1000 population was also seen in young people aged 5–24 years in 2009. ILI activity and influenza virus isolations adopted a consistent seasonal pattern, with a summer peak in July 2008 and the longest epidemic period lasting from July–December 2009. The medical costs per episode of influenza among urban patients were higher than those for rural patients. A total of $1.1 million in direct economic losses were estimated to be associated with outpatient influenza during 2008–2009 in Zhuhai community. Conclusions Influenza attacks children aged <5 years in greater proportions than children in other age groups. Seasonal influenza 2008 and Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 had different epidemiological and etiological characteristics. Direct costs (mostly medical costs) impose an enormous burden on the patient family. Vaccination strategies for high-risk groups need to be further strengthened.

Guo, Ru-ning; Zheng, Hui-zhen; Huang, Li-qun; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Chan-kun; Lin, Jin-yan; He, Jian-feng; Zhang, Jin-qing

2012-01-01

258

Area terrace pit coal mining systems: volume 1technical and economic evaluation of terrace pit mining systems. Open file report (final) Sep 1977Jul 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is principally concerned with the engineering and economic feasibility of area surface coal mining systems other than draglines. This analysis evaluates shovel-trucks, shovel-crusher-conveyors, and shovel-rail excavation and haulage systems for an assortment of geologic environments and production rates in the Powder River Basin (PRB). Shovel-trucks, front-end loader-trucks, and shovel-crusher conveyors were studied in a multiseam, dipping geologic area

F. Leonard; C. Simon; M. Stoddard; M. Verma; M. White

1980-01-01

259

Quality in general practice consultations; a qualitative study of the views of patients living in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Inequality in health and health care services is an important policy issue internationally as well as in the UK, and is closely linked to socio-economic deprivation, which in Scotland is concentrated in and around Glasgow. Patients views on primary care in deprived areas are not well documented. In the present study we explore the views of patients living in

Stewart W Mercer; Peter G Cawston; Annemieke P Bikker

2007-01-01

260

Assessment of the impact of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain on the economic development potential of Las Vegas, Clark County, and the surrounding area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth Strategies Organization has completed an assessment of the Las Vegas MSA`s competitiveness in the attraction of new business facilities to the area. That report found that under current business climate conditions and in the present economic development market place, the region is a competitive site for about one hundred of the six hundred types of primary businesses studied. It

Boyle

1989-01-01

261

A SURVEY OF THE SPEECH AND HEARING NEEDS OF RESIDENTS IN FOUR COUNTIES OF AN ECONOMICALLY DEPRESSED AREA. FINAL REPORT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THE SURVEY CONDUCTED BY THE SPEECH AND HEARING CLINIC, NORTHEASTERN STATE COLLEGE, TAHLEQUAH, OKLAHOMA, WAS TO DETERMINE THE NEED FOR SPEECH AND HEARING SERVICES IN FOUR ECONOMICALLY DEPRESSED OKLAHOMA COUNTIES AND TO FIND ECONOMICAL AND EFFECTIVE WAYS OF PROVIDING THE SERVICES. COUNTY SCHOOLS AND DEPARTMENTS OF PUBLIC HEALTH AND…

BLANK, EARL W.; BLANK, GEORGIANA D.

262

Adjustment to university and academic performance among disadvantaged students in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adjustment to the university environment is regarded as an important factor in predicting university outcomes. This study explores the pathways taken by adjustment and other psychosocial variables (help?seeking, academic motivation, self?esteem, perceived stress, and perceived academic overload), in relation to the success of economically and educationally disadvantaged students at university. Participants were 194 first?year students on need?based financial aid at

Johann Louw; Kitty Dumont

2009-01-01

263

Role of self-sufficiency, productivity and diversification on the economic sustainability of farming systems with autochthonous sheep breeds in less favoured areas in Southern Europe.  

PubMed

Traditional mixed livestock cereal- and pasture-based sheep farming systems in Europe are threatened by intensification and specialisation processes. However, the intensification process does not always yield improved economic results or efficiency. This study involved a group of farmers that raised an autochthonous sheep breed (Ojinegra de Teruel) in an unfavourable area of North-East Spain. This study aimed to typify the farms and elucidate the existing links between economic performance and certain sustainability indicators (i.e. productivity, self-sufficiency and diversification). Information was obtained through direct interviews with 30 farms (73% of the farmers belonging to the breeders association). Interviews were conducted in 2009 and involved 32 indicators regarding farm structure, management and economic performance. With a principal component analysis, three factors were obtained explaining 77.9% of the original variance. This factors were named as inputs/self-sufficiency, which included the use of on-farm feeds, the amount of variable costs per ewe and economic performance; productivity, which included lamb productivity and economic autonomy; and productive orientation, which included the degree of specialisation in production. A cluster analysis identified the following four groups of farms: high-input intensive system; low-input self-sufficient system; specialised livestock system; and diversified crops-livestock system. In conclusion, despite the large variability between and within groups, the following factors that explain the economic profitability of farms were identified: (i) high feed self-sufficiency and low variable costs enhance the economic performance (per labour unit) of the farms; (ii) animal productivity reduces subsidy dependence, but does not necessarily imply better economic performance; and (iii) diversity of production enhances farm flexibility, but is not related to economic performance. PMID:23552287

Ripoll-Bosch, R; Joy, M; Bernués, A

2013-04-01

264

Gender and Socio-economic Differences in Daily Smoking and Smoking Cessation Among Adult Residents in a Greek Rural Area  

PubMed Central

Despite the well-known health risks, smoking is still highly prevalent worldwide. Greece has the highest level of adult smoking rate (40%) across the European Union. We investigated gender and socio-economic differences in daily smoking and smoking cessation among Greek adults. We conducted a cross-sectional survey between October and November 2009 in 434 adults residing in a Greek rural area. Data were collected with the use of the World Health Organization Global Adult Tobacco Survey (WHO GATS) Core Questionnaire. Respondents were classified into smokers (if they had smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and continued to smoke) or non-smokers. Overall, 58.1% (n=252) were smokers (58.5% male, n=127 and 57.8% female, n=125); 51.2% (n=222) were younger than 18 years-old when they started smoking. Men tended to start smoking at a younger age, to smoke more cigarettes/day and to have smoked a greater average of cigarettes during the last 5 days. Overall, 82.5% of smokers attempted to stop smoking a year prior to the study, with women having a greater difficulty in quitting smoking. The main source of information on smoking was the mass media (73.5%) and books (53.7%), whereas doctors and other health professionals were the least listed source of relative information (27.7 and 8.1%, respectively). Smoking rates among Greek adults were high, but a considerable number of individuals who smoked, wished to quit and had attempted to do so. Smoking cessation clinics are not perceived as a valuable support in quitting effort.

Birmpili, Evangelia; Katsiki, Niki; Malhotra, Aseem; Dimopoulou, Evelina; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Tsiligiroglou-Fachantidou, Anna

2012-01-01

265

World's women: making gains but still disadvantaged.  

PubMed

This article briefly summarizes the progress made by women globally and points out that women are still disadvantaged. The article is based on statistics compiled in a wall chart on Women in 1998 by the Population Reference Bureau. Women have progressed in education, the labor force, and health. Women's life expectancy has increased from 49 to 68 years since the 1950s. Women's participation in the labor force has increased from 33% to 54%. Literacy has risen from 54% to 64% since the 1970s. The gender gap in secondary school enrollment has narrowed since the 1980s. The ratio of girl-to-boy secondary school enrollment is 80 or 90 girls/100 boys. However, women still experience major disadvantages. In 1997, women became HIV-infected at a rate of almost 6000 women/day. 41% of people living with HIV/AIDS are women. In sub-Saharan Africa, women with HIV account for 50% of the nearly 20 million adults infected with HIV. The proportion of HIV-infected women in other regions ranges 20-33%. 4 million of the 11.7 million people who have died of AIDS were women. Nearly 600,000 women die every year from maternal mortality and abortion. Maternal mortality rates range from under 8 deaths/100,000 live births in European countries to 1400 deaths/100,000 live births in some sub-Saharan countries. Family planning and access to and services for prenatal, delivery, and postpartum care can help reduce maternal deaths. Maternal care has improved, but not sufficiently to offset the increased number of pregnancies. The number of female-headed households has grown, and these households tend to be poor. PMID:12293548

1998-04-01

266

Overlapping and distinct representations of advantageous and disadvantageous inequality.  

PubMed

Advantageous inequality (AI) aversion, or paying at a personal cost to achieve equal reward distribution, represents a unique feature of human behavior. Here, we show that individuals have strong preferences for fairness in both disadvantageous (DI) and advantageous inequality (AI) situations, such that they alter others' payoff at a personal financial cost. At the neural level, we found that both types of inequality activated the putamen, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula, regions implicated in motivation. Individual difference analyses found that those who spent more money to increase others' payoff had stronger activity in putamen when they encountered AI and less functional connectivity between putamen and both orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula. Conversely, those who spent more money to reduce others' payoff had stronger activity in amygdala in response to DI and less functional connectivity between amygdala and ventral anterior cingulate cortex. These dissociations suggest that both types of inequality are processed by similar brain areas, yet modulated by different neural pathways. PMID:25050425

Yu, Rongjun; Calder, Andrew J; Mobbs, Dean

2014-07-01

267

Jobs for Disadvantaged Workers: The Economics of Employment Subsidies. Studies in Social Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These nine papers are from a conference held at Brookings Institution on April 3-4, 1980, focusing on subsidizing private sector job creation for workers with structural employment problems. Chapter 1 summarizes the papers and conference proceedings. The remaining nine chapters are divided into three parts consisting of three papers each. Part 1…

Haveman, Robert H., Ed.; Palmer, John L., Ed.

268

Crossing the Bridge: Overcoming Entrenched Disadvantage through Student-centred Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quality school education is essential if young people are to have access to the greatest possible opportunities in life, but it is not a universal experience in Australia. Instead, too many young people are disengaged from school, especially those in the middle years of schooling and those living in disadvantaged areas. This study examined the…

Black, Rosalyn

2007-01-01

269

Disadvantaged but Different: Variation among Deprived Communities in Relation to Child and Family Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Disadvantaged communities are increasingly the target for interventions. Sure Start was launched in England in 1999 to tackle child poverty and improve child and family services, with Sure Start Local Programmes (SSLPs) targeted at relatively small areas of marked deprivation. However, they are located in a range of different types of…

Barnes, Jacqueline; Belsky, Jay; Broomfield, Kate A.; Dave, Sapna; Frost, Martin; Melhuish, Edward

2005-01-01

270

STTEPping in the Right Direction? Western Classical Music in an Orchestral Programme for Disadvantaged African Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article looks at STTEP, an outreach project currently housed at the University of Pretoria, which concentrates on the teaching of western orchestral instruments, plus background areas such as music theory, to disadvantaged children and youth from a variety of townships around Pretoria, South Africa. STTEP's direction can well be described as…

van Niekerk, Caroline; Salminen, Sanna

2008-01-01

271

Perceived Training Needs of Urban 4-H Agents Working with Disadvantaged Audiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted of the perceived training needs and the importance of these needs for job effectiveness of urban extension agents working with disadvantaged audiences. The questionnaire was based largely on nine general areas of competency. Most of the respondents were younger than 35 and had less than 5 years' experience. Among the training…

Soobitsky, Joel R.; Cunningham, Clarence J.

272

Drugs, Guns, and Disadvantaged Youths: Co-Occurring Behavior and the Code of the Street  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guided by Anderson's theory of the code of the street, this study explored social mechanisms linking individual-level disadvantage factors with the adoption of beliefs grounded in the code of the street and with drug trafficking and gun carrying--the co-occurring behavior shaping violence among young men in urban areas. Secondary data were…

Allen, Andrea N.; Lo, Celia C.

2012-01-01

273

An Experimental and Demonstration Manpower Program for Disadvantaged Youths. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The job counseling center initiated an experimental and demonstration program to test the thesis that an urban school could provide a manpower training program to out-of-school, unemployed, and disadvantaged youth. Licensed school personnel were used in four centers in areas having high unemployment rates and a concentration of Negro and Puerto…

Greenfield, Richard

274

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the southern California planning area. Final report, 1970-2020  

SciTech Connect

The report presents baseline socio-economic profiles of Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego Counties in southern California. It is one of six reports prepared under the contract to develop baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in California, Oregon, and Washington. The profiles cover demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and port capacity, marine traffic, and fishing. Secondary sources were used to prepare the profiles. The focus of the profiles is 1980, but 1970 to 2020 is covered to the extent possible with existing data.

Brown, G.; Kolp, P.; Wallace, B.

1987-10-01

275

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the central California planning area. Final report, 1970-2020  

SciTech Connect

The report presents baseline socio-economic profiles of Sonoma, Marin, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties in central California. It is one of six reports prepared under the contract to develop baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in California, Oregon, and Washington. The profiles cover demographics, economics, housing public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and port capacity, marine traffic, and fishing. Secondary sources were used to prepare the profiles. The focus of the profiles is 1980, but 1970 to 2020 is covered to the extent possible with existing data.

Brown, G.; Kolp, P.; Wallace, B.

1987-10-01

276

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the northern California planning area. Final report, 1970-2020  

SciTech Connect

The report presents baseline socio-economic profiles of Del Norte, Humboldt, and Mendocino Counties in northern California. It is one of six reports prepared under the contract to develop baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in California, Oregon and Washington. The profiles cover demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and port capacity, marine traffic, and fishing. Secondary sources were used to prepare the profiles. The focus of the profiles is 1980, but 1970 to 2020 is covered to the extent possible with existing data.

Brown, G.; Kolp, P.; Wallace, B.

1987-10-01

277

Economic Census 1997: New York. Administrative and Support and Waste Management and Remediation Services. Geographic Area Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the Nations economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. Title 13 of the United States Code (Sections 131, 19...

1999-01-01

278

13 CFR 123.600 - Are economic injury disaster loans under this subpart limited to the geographic areas contiguous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...contiguous to the declared disaster areas? No. Notwithstanding...outside the declared disaster areas and the contiguous geographic areas to small business concerns...Center or the damage to the Pentagon on September 11, 2001,...

2009-01-01

279

13 CFR 123.600 - Are economic injury disaster loans under this subpart limited to the geographic areas contiguous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...contiguous to the declared disaster areas? No. Notwithstanding...outside the declared disaster areas and the contiguous geographic areas to small business concerns...Center or the damage to the Pentagon on September 11, 2001,...

2010-01-01

280

Population and Economic Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Population and Economic Study is an analysis of past, present, and future trends in population and economic growth. The Study presents a brief discussion of the historical, geographic, and socio-economic characteristics of the area. The population sec...

1972-01-01

281

Adjustment to Parenthood Among a Select Group of Disadvantaged Parents: An Affective Evaluation Study. Parent Involvement Report No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty disadvantaged couples are compared with a cross-sectional norm group from a previous study in order to determine if socio-economic status is a significant variable in the difficulty experienced in adjusting to first time parenthood, and to determine if there is a statistical significant difference between selected variables such as sex, pre-…

Tooke, Sharon K.; Lind, Robert W.

282

No Gift Wasted: Effective Strategies for Educating Highly Able, Disadvantaged Students in Mathematics and Science. Volume I: Findings. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

General findings from an analysis of district-wide and school-level efforts to develop highly able, economically disadvantaged students' academic skills and creative talents in mathematics and science are described. Data were collected from 29 school districts or schools located throughout the United States. Telephone interviews were conducted…

Alamprese, Judith A.; Erlanger, Wendy J.

283

Prevalence of behavioral and emotional disturbance and specific problem types in a sample of disadvantaged preschool?aged children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goals of this study were to document the prevalence of behavioral and emotional disturbance in a sample of economically disadvantaged preschool?aged children, and to establish base rates of specific problem types through a method of systematic categorization. In conjunction with a large screening project, 462 Head Start children were rated by their teachers on the Preschool Behavior Questionnaire

David R. Anderson

1983-01-01

284

Nuclear reactor operator training for disadvantaged Americans  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics Department of the University of Virginia was awarded a grant by the US Department of Energy in 1984 to establish and administer a reactor operator training program for disadvantaged Americans. Stipends were provided by the US DOE for five trainees with the anticipation that four other educational facilities would participate in the program. Sub-contracts were awarded to four other Universities: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The University of Missouri at Columbia, Oregon State University, and The State University of New York at Buffalo. The initial two year program was very successful and the grant was renewed in late 1986 for another two years. MIT declined to participate in the second program and was replaced by Ohio State University. U.VA. was notified in September, 1987 that new funding would no longer be provided for this program after December, 1987. U.VA. requested and was granted a no cost extention for the program through December, 1990, since sufficient funds remained in the initial grant to pursue the program further. DOE subsequently approved a no cost extension through November, 1992.

Farrar, J.P.; Mulder, R.U.

1992-12-01

285

Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.  

PubMed

The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

Porter, M E

1992-01-01

286

Newer antiepileptic drugs: advantages and disadvantages.  

PubMed

The choice of an antiepileptic drug depends firstly on its efficacy in specific seizure types and epilepsies. However, it is imperative to consider whether possible adverse events will outweigh any benefits. The advantages and disadvantages of vigabatrin, lamotrigine, gabapentin, topiramate, tiagabine and felbamate are considered in some detail, and oxcarbazepine, stiripentol, remacemide, zonisamide and levetiracetam more briefly. Vigabatrin is effective for partial seizures and infantile spasms, but visual field defects are limiting its use. Lamotrigine has a wide spectrum, needs to be prescribed with care. Gabapentin is unlikely to cause adverse effects, but has relatively poor efficacy. Topiramate is widely effective, but can be poorly tolerated. Tiagabine is relatively untried in childhood epilepsies. The use of felbamate is restricted to severe refractory epilepsies. Stiripentol can be effective in severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy. Zonisamide has a special place in the progressive myoclonus epilepsies. Levetiracetam, remacemide and oxcarbazepine have been used mainly for partial seizures: further studies of their roles in other circumstances are required. PMID:11504596

Wallace, S J

2001-08-01

287

Are associations between socio-economic characteristics and exposure to air pollution a question of study area size? An example from Scania, Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous studies have shown that exposure to air pollutants in the area of residence and the socio-economic status of an individual may be related. Therefore, when conducting an epidemiological study on the health effect of air pollution, socio-economy may act as a confounding factor. In this paper we examine to what extent socio-economic status and concentrations of NO2 in the county/region of Scania, southern Sweden, are associated and if such associations between these factors differ when studying them at county or city level. To perform this study we used high-resolution census data and modelled the annual exposure to NO2 using an emission database, a dispersion modelling program and a geographical information system (GIS). Results The results from this study confirm that socio-economic status and the levels of NO2 in the area of residence are associated in some cities. The associations vary considerably between cities within the same county (Scania). Even for cities of similar sizes and population bases the associations observed are different. Studying the cities together or separately yields contradictory results, especially when education is used as a socio-economic indicator. Conclusion Four conclusions have been drawn from the results of this study. 1) Adjusting for socio-economy is important when investigating the health effects of air pollution. 2) The county of Scania seems to be heterogeneous regarding the association between air pollution and socio-economy. 3) The relationship between air pollution and socio-economy differs in the five cities included in our study, depending on whether they are analysed separately or together. It is therefore inadvisable to determine and analyse associations between socio-economy and exposure to air pollutants on county level. This study indicates that the size and choice of study area is of great importance. 4) The selection of socio-economic indices (in this study: country of birth and education level) is important.

Stroh, Emilie; Oudin, Anna; Gustafsson, Susanna; Pilesjo, Petter; Harrie, Lars; Stromberg, Ulf; Jakobsson, Kristina

2005-01-01

288

The Impact of the 2008-2009 Economic Recession on Acute Myocardial Infarction Occurrences in Various Socioeconomic Areas of Raritan Bay Region, New Jersey  

PubMed Central

Background: Psychosocial stress is one important risk factor for myocardial infarction. Aim: The study was to assess the impact of the 2008-2009 economic recession on myocardial infarction occurrences in different socioeconomic areas of Raritan Bay region, New Jersey. Materials and Methods: The patients, who were treated for acute myocardial infarction from January 2006 to June 2012, were grouped based on the average incomes of their residence districts in the Raritan Bay region. The Spearman Rank Correlation test was used to assess the correlation between the monthly occurrences of myocardial infarction and Dow Jones stock averages, as well as the correlation between the myocardial infarction occurrences and NJ State unemployment rates. Results: Among 1,491 cases that were identified, 990 cases resided in areas with income below the state average and 477 were from areas above the average. After the onset of the recession, the myocardial infarction occurrences trended up in the low-income area group but not in the high-income area group; and this increasing trend is correlated with the rise in NJ State unemployment rates but not with the changes in stock averages. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that unemployment contributed to an increased risk of myocardial infarction among the residents in low socioeconomic areas after the 2008-2009 economic recession.

Li, Yulong; Rukshin, Iris; Pan, Fangfang; Sen, Shuvendu; Islam, Mohammed; Yousif, Abdalla; Rukshin, Vladimir

2014-01-01

289

BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

HALF A MILLION PERSONS, REPRESENTING 7.5 PERCENT OF THE POVERTY AREA WORK FORCE, WERE UNEMPLOYED IN THE POVERTY AREAS OF LARGE STANDARD METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREAS IN MARCH 1966. HOWEVER, A REASONABLE, AND PROBABLY MINIMAL, ESTIMATE OF "SUBEMPLOYMENT" (A COMPOSITE MEASURE OF BOTH JOBLESSNESS AND EMPLOYMENT AT SUBSTANDARD WAGES) IN THESE POVERTY…

Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

290

The Economic history and the economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author attempts to show areas in which historical research and historical facts affected economic thinking and knowledge in economics. We may meet with a similarity of an historical approach to reality at some schools of economic thinking based on empirical inductive research approach and on historicism in the sense of evolutionary character of economic laws. History in this sense

Ji?í Schwarz

2005-01-01

291

Affiliation to youth gangs during adolescence: the interaction between childhood psychopathic tendencies and neighborhood disadvantage.  

PubMed

Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join. In this study, we tested whether a combination of individual propensity and facilitating neighborhood conditions amplifies the probabilities of youth gang affiliation. A subset of 3,522 adolescents was selected from a nationally representative, prospective sample of Canadian youth. Psychopathic tendencies (i.e., a combination of high hyperactivity, low anxiety, and low prosociality as compared to national norms) were assessed through parent reports, while neighborhood characteristics (i.e., concentrated economic disadvantage and residential instability) were derived from the 2001 Census of Canada. Our results indicated that neighborhood residential instability, but not neighborhood concentrated economic disadvantage, interacted with individual propensity to predict youth gang membership. Adolescents with preexisting psychopathic tendencies appeared especially vulnerable mainly if they were raised in residentially unstable neighborhoods. PMID:17610153

Dupéré, Véronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

2007-12-01

292

78 FR 62005 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2013 total allowable catch of pollock for Statistical Area 630 in the...

2013-10-11

293

OPTIMIZED INTEGRAL CONTROLLER FOR ECONOMIC LOAD DISPATCH IN A TWO AREA SYSTEM BASED ON HOOKE-JEEVES ALGORITHM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical approach to the Economic Load Dispatch Problem (ELDP) seeks to minimize the cost of generation subject to the usual constraints. If the transmission losses are to be taken care of, a common method (?-iteration procedure) involves adding the cost of transmission losses charged at incremental cost of received power to the cost of generation. Hooke-Jeeves method offers a

C. Srinivasa Rao; S. Siva Nagaraju; P. Sangameswara Raju; M. Rajender Reddy

2007-01-01

294

On the interpretation of local economic development in the lagging areas: The case of the Southern Great Plain region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing localisation represents one of the most spectacular processes of the economies that develop and transform as a result of globalisation processes: while the (relative) importance of national economies is decreasing, the economic role of regions and cities seems to grow. Global competition has intensified also in space, especially with the growing importance of the knowledge-based economy. Territorial com- petition,

Imre LENGYEL

2008-01-01

295

77 FR 60649 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the Herring Savings Areas of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pollock by vessels using trawl gear in the Winter Herring Savings Area of the Bering Sea and...pollock by vessels using trawl gear in the Winter Herring Savings Areas of the BSAI. The Winter Herring Savings Area of the BSAI is that...

2012-10-04

296

75 FR 63104 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...exceeding the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of pollock for Statistical Area 610 in...part 600 and 50 CFR part 679. The 2010 TAC of pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the...Administrator has determined that the 2010 TAC of pollock in Statistical Area 610 of...

2010-10-14

297

76 FR 11394 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...allowance of the 2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in...679. The A season allowance of the 2011 TAC of pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the...that the A season allowance of the 2011 TAC of pollock in Statistical Area 620 of...

2011-03-02

298

75 FR 11749 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...allowance of the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of pollock for Statistical Area 630 in...679. The B season allowance of the 2010 TAC of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the...that the B season allowance of the 2010 TAC of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of...

2010-03-12

299

76 FR 14319 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...allowance of the 2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of pollock for Statistical Area 630 in...679. The B season allowance of the 2011 TAC of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the...that the B season allowance of the 2011 TAC of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of...

2011-03-16

300

75 FR 62482 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...exceeding the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in...part 600 and 50 CFR part 679. The 2010 TAC of pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the...Administrator has determined that the 2010 TAC of pollock in Statistical Area 620 of...

2010-10-12

301

75 FR 9534 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...allowance of the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of pollock for Statistical Area 610 in...679. The A season allowance of the 2010 TAC of pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the...that the A season allowance of the 2010 TAC of pollock in Statistical Area 610 of...

2010-03-03

302

Characterizing the Bilingual Disadvantage in Noun Phrase Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Up to now, evidence on bilingual disadvantages in language production comes from tasks requiring single word retrieval. The present study aimed to assess whether there is a bilingual disadvantage in multiword utterances, and to determine the extent to which such effect is present in onset latencies, articulatory durations, or both. To do so, we…

Sadat, Jasmin; Martin, Clara D.; Alario, F. Xavier; Costa, Albert

2012-01-01

303

Language Development of Socially Disadvantaged Preschool Children. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between various aspects of mother-child interaction and the language performance of young disadvantaged Negro children is assessed in this study. An exploratory survey was conducted to determine if mothers in socially disadvantaged families were willing to enter a parent participation preschool program. Subjects for this study,…

Leler, Hazel

304

Does Female Disadvantage Mean Lower Access to Food?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on gender differentials in nutrition demonstrates that the calorie intake of females is generally as adequate as that of males at all ages. Female disadvantage in micronutrient intake is, however, frequent. Pregnant and lactating women are disadvantaged relative to both men and other women. In South Asia there is evidence that boys are advantaged over girls in food

Laurie F. DeRose; Maitreyi Das; Sara R. Millman

2000-01-01

305

Fathers' accounts of struggle and growth in early adulthood: an exploratory study of disadvantaged men.  

PubMed

This chapter explores how fatherhood prompts struggle and growth in the psychological, social, and economic changes associated with the transition to adulthood. Little is known about these connections, especially for disadvantaged Latino and White fathers who live in small and mid-sized American communities. We draw on eight in-depth focus groups with 48 fathers (27 Latino and 21 White) who have children in low-income schools in a small and mid-sized American community. These men face significant challenges in establishing themselves at work-a central task of both adulthood and fatherhood-and in balancing these demands alongside the strong expectation that they also be involved fathers. Involved fathering is key to understanding dynamics related to identity and meaning and to relationships with spouses and friends, which are also intertwined with the process of becoming adult. The discussion considers how fatherhood can promote and constrain adult development for disadvantaged men. PMID:24677649

Settersten, Richard A; Day, Jack K; Cancel-Tirado, Doris; Driscoll, Debra Minar

2014-03-01

306

Disadvantaged and Non-Disadvantaged Urban High School Students' Perceptions of Work within General Merchandise Retail Department Stores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identifies the perceptions of urban disadvantaged 10th grade students toward employment in distributive education occupations within general merchandise department stores, and compares these perceptions with those held by urban 10th grade students not considered disadvantaged and with those already employed in department stores. Based…

Bennett, James Gordon, Jr.

307

Relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in a water-scarce area in China: A quantitative analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern China has been facing severe water scarcity as a result of vigorous economic growth, population expansion and changing lifestyles. A typical case is Shandong province whose water resources per capita is approximately only a sixth of the national average and a twentieth of the global average. It is useful to assess the implications of the province’s growth and trade patterns for water use and water conservation strategies. This study quantitatively analyses relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in Shandong using an input-output model for virtual water resources. The changes in key indicators for 1997-2007 are tracked and the effects of water-saving policies on these changes are examined. The results highlight the benefits of applying a virtual water trade analysis on a water-scarce region where water resources exhibit highly heterogeneous temporal and geographical distributions. The net export of virtual water in Shandong was initially large, but this declined over the years and the province has recently become a net importer. Between 1997 and 2002, water use in most sectors increased due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Since then, water use in all Shandong economic sectors exhibit a downward trend despite continued increases in goods and services net exports, a trend which can be attributed to the vigorous implementation of water-saving policies and measures, especially water use quotas. Economic sectors consume water directly and indirectly and understanding the pattern of virtual water trade implied by sectoral relationships is important for managing water scarcity problems. This study fills the knowledge gap in the existing literature created by the lack of case studies that dynamically assess virtual water trade and analyse the effects of water-saving policies and measures. The study draws policy recommendations that are relevant for future water planning in Shandong and other regions in northern China.

Wang, Weiping; Gao, Lei; Liu, Pin; Hailu, Atakelty

2014-07-01

308

Socioeconomic driving forces of land-use change in Kunshan, the Yangtze River Delta economic area of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes characteristics, major driving forces and alternative management measures of land-use change in Kunshan, Jiangsu province, China. The study used remote sensing (RS) maps and socio-economic data. Based on RS-derived maps, two change matrices were constructed for detecting land-use change between 1987 and 1994, and between 1994 and 2000 through pixel-to-pixel comparisons. The outcomes indicated that paddy fields,

Hualou Long; Guoping Tang; Xiubin Li; Gerhard K. Heilig

2007-01-01

309

Development of an open source network management & monitoring platform for wireless broadband service provider in rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

People in rural areas are less likely to obtain broadband Internet access due to a combination of economic disadvantage, technical difficulties, and lack of service providers. There is a great need to develop robust, low-cost and easy-to-maintain network management platform for Wireless Internet Service Providers (WISP) in rural areas. The goal of this project is to partner with a small

Yu Cai

2010-01-01

310

75 FR 55288 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...allowance of the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in...679. The C season allowance of the 2010 TAC of pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the...mt to reflect the total amount of pollock TAC that has been caught prior to the C...

2010-09-10

311

75 FR 52891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...allowance of the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of pollock for Statistical Area 630 in...679. The C season allowance of the 2010 TAC of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the...to reflect the total amount of pollock TAC that has been caught prior to the C...

2010-08-30

312

Economic Recession and Emergence of an HIV-1 Outbreak among Drug Injectors in Athens Metropolitan Area: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background During 2011, a dramatic increase (1600%) of reported HIV-1 infections among injecting drug users (IDUs) was noted in Athens, Greece. We herein assess the potential causal pathways associated with this outbreak. Methods Our study employed high resolution HIV-1 phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses. We examined also longitudinal data of ecological variables such as the annual growth of gross domestic product (GDP) of Greece in association with HIV-1 and HCV sentinel prevalence in IDUs, unemployment and homelessness rates and HIV transmission networks in Athens IDUs before and during economic recession (2008–2012). Results IDU isolates sampled in 2011 and 2012 suggested transmission networks in 94.6% and 92.7% of the cases in striking contrast with the sporadic networking (5%) during 1998–2009. The geographic origin of most HIV-1 isolates was consistent with the recently documented migratory waves in Greece. The decline in GDP was inversely correlated with annual prevalence rates of HIV and HCV and with unemployment and homelessness rates in IDUs (all p<0.001). The slope of anti-HCV prevalence in the sentinel populations of IDUs and in “new” drug injectors was found 120 and 1.9-fold (p?=?0.007, p?=?0.08 respectively) higher in 2008–2012 (economic recession) compared with 2002–2006. The median (25th, 75th) size of transmission networks were 34 (12, 58) and 2 (2, 2) (p?=?0.057) in 2008–2012 and 1998–2007, respectively. The coverage of harm reduction services was low throughout the study period. Conclusions Scaling-up harm reduction services and addressing social and structural factors related to the current economic crisis should be urgently considered in environments where HIV-1 outbreaks may occur.

Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Fotiou, Anastasios; Tsiara, Chrissa; Paraskeva, Dimitra; Sypsa, Vana; Lazanas, Marios; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Psichogiou, Mina; Skoutelis, Athanasios; Wiessing, Lucas; Friedman, Samuel R.; Jarlais, Don C. d. e. s.; Terzidou, Manina; Kremastinou, Jenny; Malliori, Meni; Hatzakis, Angelos

2013-01-01

313

Problems and Potentials of Individualized Instruction for Disadvantaged Students.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the operation and results of an individualized center funded under an Office of Education grant for the provision of special services to disadvantaged students. This center is designed to apply individualized instructional techniques ...

H. R. Boylan

1976-01-01

314

Review of ADHD Pharmacotherapies: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Clinical Pearls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advantages, disadvantages, as well as helpful hints on when to use several drug therapies against attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are discussed. The drugs discussed are methylphenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, and bupropion.

Daughton, Joan M.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

2009-01-01

315

76 FR 5083 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the follow-on NPRM the Department is planning to issue. Miscellaneous Comments Several...cause recipients to expend significant resources on program modifications. For these...PARTICIPATION BY DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

2011-01-28

316

Advantages and Disadvantages of Greek Universities: Implications for Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the present situation in Greek universities, their goals and characteristics, and the conditions under which these goals can be accomplished. The advantages and disadvantages and legislative framework and internal regulations of Greek universities are discussed. (Author/VWL)

Spyrou, Nicholas K.

1997-01-01

317

Rethinking the Issues Regarding the Culturally Disadvantaged Gifted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aspects covered include definitions, identification, and appropriate educational programing. Several programing strategies are briefly described, and attention is given to the problem of creating an effective learning environment for the disadvantaged gifted child. (DLS)

Frasier, Mary M.

1979-01-01

318

48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disadvantaged business status. 19.304 Section 19.304 ...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs...

2013-10-01

319

Social disadvantage, genetic sensitivity, and children's telomere length  

PubMed Central

Disadvantaged social environments are associated with adverse health outcomes. This has been attributed, in part, to chronic stress. Telomere length (TL) has been used as a biomarker of chronic stress: TL is shorter in adults in a variety of contexts, including disadvantaged social standing and depression. We use data from 40, 9-y-old boys participating in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to extend this observation to African American children. We report that exposure to disadvantaged environments is associated with reduced TL by age 9 y. We document significant associations between low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure, and harsh parenting and TL. These effects were moderated by genetic variants in serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways. Consistent with the differential susceptibility hypothesis, subjects with the highest genetic sensitivity scores had the shortest TL when exposed to disadvantaged social environments and the longest TL when exposed to advantaged environments.

Mitchell, Colter; Hobcraft, John; McLanahan, Sara S.; Siegel, Susan Rutherford; Berg, Arthur; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Garfinkel, Irwin; Notterman, Daniel

2014-01-01

320

Quality in general practice consultations; a qualitative study of the views of patients living in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Scotland  

PubMed Central

Background Inequality in health and health care services is an important policy issue internationally as well as in the UK, and is closely linked to socio-economic deprivation, which in Scotland is concentrated in and around Glasgow. Patients views on primary care in deprived areas are not well documented. In the present study we explore the views of patients living in a high deprivation area on the quality of consultations in general practice. Methods Qualitative focus group study set in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in a large peripheral housing estate in Glasgow, Scotland. 11 focus groups were conducted; 8 with local community groups and 3 with other local residents. In total 72 patients took part. Grounded theory was used to analyse the data. Results Patients' perceptions of the quality of the consultation with GPs consisted of two broad, inter-relating themes; (1) the GPs' competence, and (2) the GPs empathy or ' caring'. Competence was often assumed but many factors coloured this assumption, in particular whether patients had experienced (directly or indirectly with a close family member) 'successful' outcomes with that doctor previously or not. 'Caring' related to patients feeling (a) listened to by the doctor and being able to talk; (b) valued as an individual by the doctor (c) that the doctor understood 'the bigger picture', and (d) the doctors' explanations were clear and understandable. Relational continuity of care (being able to see the same GP and having a good relationship), and having sufficient time in the consultation were closely linked with perceptions of consultation quality. Conclusion Patients from deprived areas want holistic GPs who understand the realities of life in such areas and whom they can trust as both competent and genuinely caring. Without this, they may judge doctors as socially distant and emotionally detached. Relational continuity, empathy and sufficient time in consultations are key factors in achieving this.

Mercer, Stewart W; Cawston, Peter G; Bikker, Annemieke P

2007-01-01

321

SocioEconomic Aspects Influencing Food Consumption Patterns Among Children under Age of Five in Rural Area of Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: A secondary analysis of data for 150 children under the age of five was carried out in three villages of El Fau rural area of Gadarif state. The community mainly consists of farmers of a semi nomadic nature who own different sizes of herds and agricultural lands; they are the farmers of the Arabic pedigree. The rest of

Muna A. Abdalla; Saad A. Sulieman; Abdullahi H. El Tinay; Abdul Gader H. Khattab

2009-01-01

322

Economics of Scholarly Publishing: Exploring the Causes of Subscription Price Variations of Scholarly Journals in Business Subject-Specific Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This empirical research investigates subscription price variations of scholarly journals in five business subject-specific areas using the semilogarithmic regression model. It has two main purposes. The first is to address the unsettled debate over whether or not and to what extent commercial publishers reap monopoly profits by overcharging…

Liu, Lewis G.

2011-01-01

323

Area terrace pit coal mining systems: volume 1--technical and economic evaluation of terrace pit mining systems. Open file report (final) Sep 1977-Jul 1980  

SciTech Connect

This report is principally concerned with the engineering and economic feasibility of area surface coal mining systems other than draglines. This analysis evaluates shovel-trucks, shovel-crusher-conveyors, and shovel-rail excavation and haulage systems for an assortment of geologic environments and production rates in the Powder River Basin (PRB). Shovel-trucks, front-end loader-trucks, and shovel-crusher conveyors were studied in a multiseam, dipping geologic area of the Four Corners region. The Texas lignite engineering and economic research involved bucket-wheel excavators (BWE), BWE-backhoes, and scraper-backhoe combinations for overburden and coal excavation. The PRB truck-shovel study utilized the most recent computer simulation available in both the design and cost analysis. Detailed engineering analysis, followed by in-depth operating costs result in a complete evaluation of each mining system. Cost comparisons of the different mining systems under similar geologic and production constraints are presented to illustrate the estimated capital investment and production costs per ton of coal and bank cubic yard of overburden.

Leonard, F.; Simon, C.; Stoddard, M.; Verma, M.; White, M.

1980-10-01

324

The European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP)--a sentinel approach in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA).  

PubMed

Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is monitored in the European Union/European Economic Area through the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Euro-GASP includes a sentinel surveillance programme which aims to detect in a timely manner changes in resistance patterns and inform treatment guidelines. The programme aims to test a representative number of isolates from each European Union/European Economic Area member state per year for a range of therapeutically relevant antimicrobials through a biannual hybrid centralised/decentralised system. Testing is supported by an External Quality Assurance programme and a laboratory training programme. Participation in the programme has increased to 21 countries in 2012. Euro-GASP has been able to detect the rapid spread of isolates with decreased susceptibility to cefixime across Europe in 2010 and 2011. Results from the programme have informed changes in European treatment guidelines for gonorrhoea and led to the development of the 'Response plan to control and manage the threat of multidrug resistant gonorrhoea in Europe'. Future challenges for Euro-GASP include supporting countries to participate in Euro-GASP through decentralised testing, improving timeliness and epidemiological data quality, and increasing participation from Eastern Europe. PMID:24243874

Spiteri, Gianfranco; Cole, Michelle; Unemo, Magnus; Hoffmann, Steen; Ison, Catherine; van de Laar, Marita

2013-12-01

325

An Approach to Assessing Flood Risk in Low-lying Paddy Areas of Japan considering Economic Damage on Rice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hiroki Minakawa, Takao Masumoto National Institute for Rural Engineering (NIRE), NARO, Japan Flooding is one type of nature disaster, and is caused by heavy rainfall events. In the future, the risk of flooding is predicted to increase due to global climate change. Immediate measures such as strengthening drainage capacity are needed to minimize the damage caused by more frequent flooding, so a quantitative evaluation method of flood risks is needed to discuss countermeasure against these problems. At the same time, rice is an important crop for food production in Japan. However, paddy fields are often damaged by flooding because they are principally spread in lower part of the basin. Therefore, it is also important to assess the damages to paddy fields. This study discusses a method for evaluating a relationship between the risk of flood damage and the scale of heavy rainfall. We also developed a method of estimating the economic effect of a reduction in rice yield by flooding. First, we developed a drainage analysis model that incorporates kinematic and diffusive runoff models for calculating water level in channels and paddies. Next, heavy rainfall data for drainage analyses were generated by using a diurnal rainfall pattern generator. The generator can create hourly data of heavy rainfall, and internal pattern of them is different each. These data were input to the drainage model to estimate flood risk. Simultaneously, we tried to clarify economic losses of a rice yields caused by flooding. Here, the reduction scale in rice yield which shows relations between flooding situation (e.g. water level, duration of submersion etc.) and damage of rice is available to calculate reduction of rice yield. In this study, we created new reduction scales through a pseudo-flooding experiment under real inundation conditions. The methodology of the experiment was as follow: We chose the popular Japanese rice cultivar Koshihikari for this experiment. An experimental arena was constructed in a rice paddy plot, which consisted of two zones, one in which the rice was cultivated as usual with normal water levels, and a flood zone, which was used for submerging rice plants. The flood zone, which was designed to reproduce actual flood disaster conditions in paddy fields, can be filled with water to a depth of 0.3, 0.6 or 0.9 m above ground level, and is divided into two plots, a clean water part and a turbid water part. Thus, the experimental conditions can vary according to 1) the development stage of rice, 2) complete or incomplete submersion, 3) clean or turbid water, and 4) duration of submergence. Finally, the reduction scales were formulated by using the resultant data and it was found that rice is most sensitive to damage during the development stage. Flood risk was evaluated by using calculated water level on each paddy. Here, the averaged duration of inundation to a depth of more than 0.3 m was used as the criteria for flood occurrence. The results indicated that the duration increased with larger heavy rainfall amounts. Furthermore, the damage to rice was predicted to increase especially in low-lying paddy fields. Mitigation measures, such as revising drainage planning and/or changing design standards for the capacity of drainage pumps may be necessary in the future.

Minakawa, H.; Masumoto, T.

2013-12-01

326

48 CFR 3419.201-70 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). 3419... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 3419.201-70 Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). The...

2013-10-01

327

Assessment of the impact of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain on the economic development potential of Las Vegas, Clark County, and the surrounding area  

SciTech Connect

Growth Strategies Organization has completed an assessment of the Las Vegas MSA`s competitiveness in the attraction of new business facilities to the area. That report found that under current business climate conditions and in the present economic development market place, the region is a competitive site for about one hundred of the six hundred types of primary businesses studied. It is almost competitive as a location for another 80 to 90 types of businesses and is a marginal choice for another 200 business groups. In other words, Clark County, as is, fully satisfies the basic requirements of almost a sixth of the businesses in this study. With minor improvements in areas such as the skill mix of its work force and the quality of its educational facilities and with an effective campaign to improve the area`s image, the Las Vegas area could become a competitive location for about two-thirds of all business groups -- a very large shift in marketability. The proposed nuclear waste repository that he Federal government has proposed for siting at Yucca Mountain more than a hundred miles from Las Vegas would become operational after the turn of the century, more than fifteen years from now. Its influence on business investment decisions would be felt in the mid- to late-1990s if the final decision were made and announced. To measure that impact it would be desirable to establish a baseline that reflects Clark County`s competitiveness as a business facility location in the middle of the next decade. In constructing that baseline, several variables could be considered -- changes in business climate conditions in the area other than the nuclear waste repository; and changes in the location decision process itself resulting from changes in technology and in market pressures.

Boyle, M.R. [Growth Strategies Organization, Reston, VA (USA)

1989-01-01

328

Ecological Economics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taking as its starting point the interdependence of the economy and the natural environment, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field of ecological economics. The authors, who have written extensively on the economics of sustainability, build on insights from both mainstream economics and ecological sciences. Part I explores the interdependence of the modern economy and its environment, while Part II focuses mainly on the economy and on economics. Part III looks at how national governments set policy targets and the instruments used to pursue those targets. Part IV examines international trade and institutions, and two major global threats to sustainability - climate change and biodiversity loss. Assuming no prior knowledge of economics, this textbook is well suited for use on interdisciplinary environmental science and management courses. It has extensive student-friendly features including discussion questions and exercises, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, further reading and website addresses. A comprehensive introduction to a developing field which will interest students from science, economics and management backgrounds A global approach to the problems of sustainability and sustainable development, issues which are increasingly prominent in political debate and policy making Filled with student-friendly features including focus areas for each chapter, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, discussion questions and exercises, further reading and website addresses

Common, Michael; Stagl, Sigrid

2005-10-01

329

Adult cognitive ability and socioeconomic status as mediators of the effects of childhood disadvantage on salivary cortisol in aging adults.  

PubMed

In this longitudinal study we investigate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Two mechanisms by which early life stress may affect later pathophysiology are through its influence on cognitive functioning or later socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. We predicted that individual differences in young adult cognitive ability and midlife SES would mediate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife cortisol. On each of three nonconsecutive days, participants provided five salivary cortisol samples corresponding to their diurnal rhythm (N=727 men; mean age 55, SD=2.6). We calculated three measures of cortisol regulation (area-under-the curve cortisol reflecting total daytime cortisol output; cortisol-awakening-response; and wake-to-bed slope), averaging scores for each measure across multiple days. Childhood disadvantage combined four dichotomous indicators used previously by Rutter (1985): father low SES; mother education less than 12th grade; major family disruption/separation before age 18; and large family size (more than 5 siblings). The two mediators were a measure of general cognitive ability assessed at age 20 and highest achieved midlife SES. Men from more disadvantaged childhoods were significantly more likely to have dysregulated cortisol at midlife, with higher daytime cortisol levels decades after their childhood experience. Effects of childhood disadvantage were both direct and indirect. Cognitive ability and adult SES, however, only partially mediated the associations between early life stress and midlife cortisol. Specific indirect effects accounted for 33.8% of the total effect of childhood disadvantage [?=0.12 (0.05; 0.18)] on total daytime cortisol. Associations remained significant after accounting for ethnicity, smoking status, and self-reported depressive symptoms. PMID:23684478

Franz, Carol E; Spoon, Kelly; Thompson, Wesley; Hauger, Richard L; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Jacobson, Kristen C; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J; McCaffery, Jeanne; McKenzie, Ruth; Mendoza, Sally P; Panizzon, Matthew S; Ramundo, Ana; Shahroudi, Afrand; Kremen, William S

2013-10-01

330

Vocational Curriculum Resources for Disadvantaged Students. A Guide to Print and Non-Print Instructional Materials. Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume 1 of a three-volume guide to vocational curriculum resources for disadvantaged students consists of instructional checklists for resources identified in the following areas: agriculture, auto body repair, automobile mechanics, basic math skills, basic reading skills, business education, carpentry, cosmetology, custodial and maintenance,…

Mangano, R. Michael; And Others

331

Vocational Curriculum Resources for Disadvantaged Students. A Guide to Print and Non-Print Instructional Materials. Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume 2 of a three-volume guide to vocational curriculum resources for disadvantaged students consists of instructional checklists for resources identified in the following areas: agriculture, auto body repair, automobile mechanics, basic math skills, basic reading skills, business education, career education, carpentry, cosmetology, custodial…

Mangano, R. Michael; And Others

332

Summer Day 1969 Elementary School Program for Disadvantaged Pupils. Evaluation of State Urban Education Programs in New York City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a report which describes and evaluates a Summer Day Elementary School (SDES) program conducted in 1969 and involving 153 elementary schools in New York City. For six weeks, 37,502 children from disadvantaged areas attended voluntarily for a half day. Services provided included: (1) reading and arithmetic (Basic Component); (2) enrichment…

Fox, David J.; And Others

333

A Parenting Intervention for Childhood Behavioral Problems: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Disadvantaged Community-Based Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A community-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in urban areas characterized by high levels of disadvantage to test the effectiveness of the Incredible Years BASIC parent training program (IYBP) for children with behavioral problems. Potential moderators of intervention effects on child behavioral outcomes were also explored. Method: Families were included if the child (aged 32–88 months) scored above

Sinead McGilloway; Grainne Ni Mhaille; Tracey Bywater; Mairead Furlong; Yvonne Leckey; Paul Kelly; Catherine Comiskey; Michael Donnelly

2012-01-01

334

Online transaction logs, verbalization and the historically disadvantaged student's information searching behaviour: the case of two South African universities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports on the results of a study conducted among two groups of students who come from historically disadvantaged areas in South Africa. The study concentrated on 40 students who despite having had computer literacy skills only had access to computers at the institutions of higher education where they were studying. The two institutions in the study were the

Gavin R Davis

335

Behavioural therapy for smoking cessation: The effectiveness of different intervention types for disadvantaged and affluent smokers?  

PubMed Central

Background Disadvantaged smokers are less likely to be successful when trying to stop smoking than more affluent smokers. In the UK, NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSS) provide a range of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support, delivered by advisors with a range of backgrounds. Whether the types of support provided and who provides it influence differences in quit rates amongst low SES smokers compared with high SES smokers has not previously been examined. Methods 202,084 records of smokers in England who attended a NHS Stop Smoking Service between July 2010 and June 2011 were acquired. Smokers were followed-up by services at four weeks post quit date. Multilevel logistic regression models of CO validated quits were employed. Disadvantage was explored through the National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification (NS-SEC) and by eligibility for free prescriptions, an indicator of low income amongst adults aged between 19 and 59 in England. Results Affluent smokers were more likely to quit than disadvantaged smokers (OR 1.38 (1.35 to 1.42) for clients who paid for prescriptions compared to those eligible for free prescriptions). 80% of service clients received one-to-one counselling but open group forms of behavioural therapy were more successful (main effect OR 1.26 (1.12 to 1.41)) except amongst some of the most disadvantaged clients (long-term unemployed and prisoners). Closed groups were little deployed and they were not significantly more successful than one-to-one behavioural therapy after controls. Who delivered treatment did make a difference for some clients, with all but the most affluent less likely to be successful if they had been treated by a nurse compared with other types of advisers, including smoking cessation specialists (main effect OR 0.73 (0.65 to 0.83)). Conclusion This study provides further evidence that disadvantaged smokers find quitting more difficult even when they have attended a smoking cessation programme. The findings suggest that open groups should be promoted, although they may not be as effective as other forms of behavioural therapy for the long-term unemployed or prisoners. Further research is required to explore why most groups of smokers who attended services staffed by nurses were less likely to quit than those who received treatment from other types of advisors.

Hiscock, Rosemary; Murray, Susan; Brose, Leonie S.; McEwen, Andy; Bee, Jo Leonardi; Dobbie, Fiona; Bauld, Linda

2013-01-01

336

NASA Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) within NASA promotes the utilization of small, disadvantaged, and women-owned small businesses in compliance with Federal laws, regulations, and policies. We assist such firms in obtaining contracts and subcontracts with NASA and its prime contractors. The OSDBU also facilitates the participation of small businesses in NASA's technology transfer and commercialization activities. Our driving philosophy is to consider small businesses as our products. Our customers are the NASA Enterprises, Field Centers, Functional Staff Offices, major prime contractors, and other large institutions. We hone the skills of our products to make them marketable to our customers in the performance of NASA missions.

2001-01-01

337

New Strategies for Inner-City Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Revitalizing America's inner cities requires an economic strategy to build viable businesses that can provide sorely needed, nearby employment opportunities. Economic development in inner cities will come only from recognizing the potential advantages of an inner-city location and building on the base of existing companies, while dealing frontally with the present disadvantages of inner cities as business locations. The economic

Michael E. Porter

1997-01-01

338

The Early College Challenge: Navigating Disadvantaged Students' Transition to College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful early college high schools (ECHSs) are formed through partnerships between high schools and colleges (usually community colleges). Think of it as preparation through acceleration. ECHSs enroll disadvantaged students who have not excelled with ordinary grade-level academic content and have them take college courses while still in high…

Rosenbaum, James E.; Becker, Kelly Iwanaga

2011-01-01

339

Developmental Skills of Advantaged and Disadvantaged Children of Perceptual Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of perceptual and motor tests were administered to 155 advantaged and disadvantaged student. The results are discussed in terms of differential perceptual-motor and motor growth and need to structure educational experience that will contribute to growth. (Author)

Richmond, Bert O.; Aliotti, Nicholas C.

1977-01-01

340

The Effectiveness of Policy Programs for Disadvantaged Pupils  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dutch schools have to deal with policy programs that generally are aimed at the improvement of the cognitive and social functioning of 3 groups of disadvantaged students. These are (a) pupils with special educational needs, (b) pupils at risk, and (c) non-Dutch pupils. The Dutch Integrated School Policy Project examines the implementation and…

Hofman, Roelande H.; Steenbergen, Hilde

2004-01-01

341

Preventing Summer Reading Declines in Children Who Are Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined effects of a summer reading instruction program as part of an 8-week summer day camp experience for 61 disadvantaged first grade children. Two hours of direct explicit reading instruction daily were supplemented with a literacy-rich camping experience. Post-tests indicated the experimental group not only obviated usual summer…

Schacter, John

2003-01-01

342

What's in a Name: "Education and the Disadvantaged American" (1962)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Education and the Disadvantaged American" represented an attempt by the leaders of the American elementary and secondary education enterprise to come to terms with the failure to learn of a significant portion of the school population. The dimension of race surrounded the discussion leading to publication, but it was never addressed…

Urban, Wayne J.

2009-01-01

343

Living Conditions of Some Basic School Children: Pointers to Disadvantage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, conducted by the Bernard Van Leer Foundation Project for Early Childhood Education (PECE), presents the results of a survey which was carried out to identify home deficits in socioeconomically disadvantaged children's preparation for schooling. The study was conducted in Jamaica during July, August, and September, 1970, and was…

Grant, D. R. B.

344

Educational and Vocational Rehabilitation of Disadvantaged Handicapped Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some 276 handicapped and socially disadvantaged youth aged 16 to 18, who were likely to drop out of high school, received rehabilitation services from the Philadelphia Jewish Employment and Vocational Service (JEVS) and the Board of Education. The services included intense vocational and personal evaluation, work adjustment training, individual…

Leshner, Saul S.; Snyderman, George S.

345

From Disadvantaged Girls to Successful Women: Education and Women's Resiliency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is the result of a 2-year study of women who were disadvantaged as girls but who achieved highly in academics. The participants, all of whom had advanced degrees or had completed two years of graduate school, had been raised in low-income homes, were first-generation college students, and had faced stress as children. Most of these women…

LePage-Lees, Pamela

346

Advantages and Disadvantages of Weighted Grading. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the advantages and disadvantages of weighted grading? The primary purpose of weighted grading has been to encourage high school students to take more rigorous courses. This effort is then acknowledged by more weight being given to the grade for a specified class. There are numerous systems of weighted grading cited in the literature from…

Walker, Karen

2004-01-01

347

Disadvantages in mental health care among African Americans.  

PubMed

African Americans experience mental health disadvantages relative to European Americans with respect to financial barriers, barriers to help seeking, and poorer quality services. This paper provides an overview of these mental health inequalities, and offers recommendations for addressing them. PMID:19711490

Holden, Kisha Braithwaite; Xanthos, Clare

2009-05-01

348

Training teachers for the army disadvantaged in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Israeli army has an educational system in which disadvantaged soldiers who have not completed elementary school, receive some weeks or months of additional schooling. The teaching is mainly done by women soldiers, some qualified teachers, but most of them volunteers who have finished secondary schools, but are without training in education. All teachers go through a special 3?month course

Abraham Stahl

1982-01-01

349

Development through Sport: Building Social Capital in Disadvantaged Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional delivery of sport development programs, especially at the community level, faces particular challenges under neoliberal ideology. While several issues are evident, this paper addresses only the issue of development through sport for disadvantaged communities. It reviews models where sport was employed to develop better community and citizen life outcomes and to deal with social issues previously addressed through \\

James Skinner; Dwight H. Zakus; Jacqui Cowell

2008-01-01

350

A Summer Academic Research Experience for Disadvantaged Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience…

Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N.

2013-01-01

351

Programs for Disadvantaged Students in the California Community Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This in-depth study sought to identify effective programs for disadvantaged students through the use of student and faculty questionnaires. The shortage of evaluative research and criteria of effectiveness preclude making a qualitative judgment on the relative success of the programs or offering a model program. The commonest program is the series…

Berg, Ernest H.; Axtell, Dayton

352

Predicting Success among Prospective Disadvantaged Students in Natural Scientific Fields  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred and fifty-nine Grade 11 prospective disadvantaged students in the natural sciences at the University of Pretoria completed the Study Orientation Questionnaire in Mathematics and the Senior Aptitude Test (Advanced). Fifty-nine male students (M age = 16.05; SD = 0.57) and 100 females (M age = 16.02; SD = 0.512) scored significantly…

Maree, J. G.; Fletcher, L.; Sommerville, J.

2011-01-01

353

URBAN DISADVANTAGED PUPILS, A SYNTHESIS OF 99 RESEARCH REPORTS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS DESCRIPTION OF THE CHARACTERISTICS AND EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF URBAN DISADVANTAGED PUPILS IS A SYNTHESIS OF 99 RESEARCH REPORTS. THE RESEARCH SUGGESTS THAT SUCH CHILDREN LIVE IN A WORLD OF ISOLATION, LIMITED EXPERIENCE, AND REJECTION. HOUSING CONDITIONS, A DEMORALIZING NEIGHBORHOOD, AND A DISORGANIZED FAMILY LIFE ALL CONTRIBUTE TO THE…

MCCLOSKEY, ELINOR F.

354

Helping the Disadvantaged Choose Their Own Behavior Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project involved 50 members of a culturally disadvantaged group who had come to a neighborhood settlement house for help in obtaining and maintaining a job, and who were subsequently enrolled in a work preparation program at a large rehabilitation facility. The counselees were given the option of having or not having themselves videotaped…

Hartlage, Lawrence C.

355

Self-Employment Programs and Outcomes for Disadvantaged Jobseekers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation of Australia's New Enterprise Initiative Scheme, which provides job search information to disadvantaged job seekers, found the following: of 81 long-term unemployed, 76.5% were self-employed after participation; of 51 non-English speaking individuals, 65% were self-employed; and 84% of 400 participants overall were in some form of…

Kelly, Ross; Mulvey, Charles; Lewis, P. E. T.

2002-01-01

356

Childhood social disadvantage, cardiometabolic risk, and chronic disease in adulthood.  

PubMed

Adverse social environments in early life are hypothesized to become biologically embedded during the first few years of life, with potentially far-reaching implications for health across the life course. Using prospective data from a subset of a US birth cohort, the Collaborative Perinatal Project, started in 1959-1966 (n = 566), we examined associations of social disadvantage assessed in childhood with cardiometabolic function and chronic disease status more than 40 years later (in 2005-2007). Social disadvantage was measured with an index that combined information on adverse socioeconomic and family stability factors experienced between birth and age 7 years. Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) was assessed by combining information from 8 CMR biomarkers; an index of chronic disease status was derived by assessing 8 chronic diseases. Poisson models were used to investigate associations between social disadvantage and CMR or chronic disease scores while adjusting for childhood covariates and potential pathway variables. A high level of social disadvantage was significantly associated with both higher CMR (incident rate ratio = 1.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.39) and with a higher number of chronic diseases (incident rate ratio = 1.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.92) in minimally adjusted models. Associations with CMR persisted even after accounting for childhood and adult covariates. PMID:24970845

Non, Amy L; Rewak, Marissa; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gilman, Stephen E; Loucks, Eric B; Appleton, Allison A; Román, Jorge C; Buka, Stephen L; Kubzansky, Laura D

2014-08-01

357

78 FR 57336 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...should register at least five business days before the date of the...entitled, ``Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation...i.e., DBE and non-DBE quotes, DBE subcontracts) from the...of this notice at least five business days prior to the date of...

2013-09-18

358

SOME PSYCHOSOCIAL ASPECTS OF LEARNING IN THE DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PARTICULAR FACTORS INFLUENCE THE LEARNING OF THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS CAN INCREASE THE LIKELIHOOD OF LEARNING COGNITIVE STRATEGIES. VARIATIONS WITHIN THE ENVIRONMENT INFLUENCE VARIATIONS IN COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT. PARENTAL INFLUENCE MAY AFFECT THE LEARNING ABILITY OF THEIR CHILDREN. LOWER-CLASS PARENTS HAVE SELDOM SUBJECTED…

DEUTSCH, MARTIN

359

Nutritional Supplementation of Disadvantaged Elementary-School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined with 177 disadvantaged elementary school students (5-9 years old, 99 percent Blacks) were the effects of the provision of a nutritionally fortified low-lactose food supplement on hematocrit values (volume percentage of erythrocytes in whole blood), growth, absenteeism, and lunch consumption. (IM)

Paige, David M.; And Others

1976-01-01

360

An Experimental Engineering Technology Career Program for Disadvantaged Minority Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the six-year period (1975-80) the College of Technology of Temple University conducted an experimental project at the pre-college level aimed at the early identification of disadvantaged minority students seeking careers in engineering and/or engineering technology. The program was designed to encourage inner-city Philadelphia black and…

Vassallo, Theodore P.; And Others

361

HEALTH AND THE EDUCATION OF SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE POOR HEALTH OF THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD IS A PRIMARY VARIABLE IN HIS EDUCATIONAL FAILURE. AN EXTENSIVE REVIEW OF HEALTH STUDIES SHOWS THAT NEGROES, PUERTO RICANS, AND INDIANS SUFFER FROM THE GREATEST HEALTH PROBLEMS. THE HEALTH FACTORS WHICH THESE STUDIES FOUND TO RELATE SPECIFICALLY TO INTELLECTUAL AND EDUCATIONAL DEFICITS ARE PREMATURITY,…

BIRCH, HERBERT G.

362

The Use of Individually Prescribed Instruction for the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The adaptation and use of individually prescribed instruction (IPI) in adult basic education for the disadvantaged are discussed. The discussion describes a model IPI system (The Draper Model); recommends certain considerations if it is to be used successfully; and shows that programmed instructional (PI) materials work best in a learning system…

McKee, John M.; Seay, Donna M.

363

Educating Disadvantaged Urban Children in Suburban Schools: An Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A one-year experimental program that transported a total of 38 "volunteer" disadvantaged city children to schools in a nearby suburban community was evaluated in grades 1 and 2. Twenty-six of the 38 children were in a total of 12 different classes at these two grade levels. At the conclusion of the program, transported first graders displayed…

Zdep, S. M.

364

Programming Mathematics: A New Approach in Teaching the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of an instructional model for teaching formal mathematical concepts (probability concepts) to disadvantaged high school students through computer programming and some results from a field test are described in this document. The instructional model takes into account both learner characteristics (cognitive, affective, and…

Bar-On, Ehud; Or-Bach, Rachel

365

Are new entrants to the residential property market informationally disadvantaged?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sets out to test whether, as a consequence of being informationally disadvantaged, new entrants to residential property markets pay significantly higher prices for a hypothetical standardized property. The paper analyses data on house sales in Glasgow between April 1991 and March 1992. The transactions data are subdivided into mutually exclusive groups of households and the prices paid are

Craig Watkins

1998-01-01

366

Head Start Helps Disadvantaged Students Prepare for Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the correlation between the DIAL-3 scores of disadvantaged students from Head Start, students from other preschools, and students that did not attend a preschool. The study consisted of 110 students who were currently attending kindergarten at an elementary school in Rockland County. The instrument used for this study was the…

Seemungal, Emmeline

2009-01-01

367

Education and Training and the Avoidance of Financial Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Making use of the longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, this study examines the relationship between post-school qualifications and financial disadvantage among Australians during the period 2001 to 2008. Specifically, it is concerned with the extent that education and training, vis-a-vis…

Marks, Gary N.

2011-01-01

368

What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Individualized Instruction?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details extensively the advantages and disadvantages of the individualized approach to reading instruction, suggests combination programs as a means of phasing in the individualized approach and indicates the need for highly competent teachers to handle the complexities. Includes a pro-reaction and a con-reaction paper. Bibliography. (WB)

Sartain, Harry W.

1968-01-01

369

Do the Advantages of Ungraded Schools Outweigh the Disadvantages?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concludes that at present it is not possible to state whether the advantages of the nongraded school outweigh the disadvantages because lack of operational meaning has resulted in a wide variety of organizational programs labeled nongraded, and non conclusive data are available which favor either the nongraded or graded organizations. Includes a…

Kingston, Albert J.

1968-01-01

370

Teaching Culturally Disadvantaged Pupils (Grades K-12). Unit V: Teaching the Culturally Disadvantaged Student--Part I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fifth in a series of teacher education units emphasizes the specific problems of teaching disadvantaged students. Discussed are research and its relationship to classroom teachers, the need for research about pupils, the teacher-pupil relationship, and the instructional program. One section of the document is devoted to ways in which teachers…

Johnson, Kenneth R.

371

Iron, folacin, vitamin Bââ and zinc status and immune response in elderly subjects in the Washington D. C. metropolitan area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The iron, folacin, vitamin Bââ, and zinc status of a group of economically and socially disadvantaged elderly persons in the Washington Metropolitan Area was evaluated. Factors related to deficiencies of these nutrients, the relationships between the status of these nutrients and cell-mediated immunity, and the relationships of iron, folacin and vitamin Bââ status to hemoglobin levels in the subjects were

Henry-Christian

1986-01-01

372

Why don't they just get married? Barriers to marriage among the disadvantaged.  

PubMed

Kathryn Edin and Joanna Reed review recent research on social and economic barriers to marriage among the poor and discuss the efficacy of efforts by federal and state policymakers to promote marriage among poor unmarried couples, especially those with children, in light of these findings. Social barriers include marital aspirations and expectations, norms about childbearing, financial standards for marriage, the quality of relationships, an aversion to divorce, and children by other partners. Edin and Reed note that disadvantaged men and women highly value marriage but believe they are currently unable to meet the high standards of relationship quality and financial stability they believe are necessary to sustain a marriage and avoid divorce. Despite their regard for marriage, however, poor Americans do not view it as a prerequisite for childbearing, and it is typical for either or both parents in an unmarried-couple family to have a child by another partner. Economic barriers include men's low earnings, women's earnings, and the marriage tax. In view of these findings, Edin and Reed argue that public campaigns to convince poor Americans of the value of marriage are preaching to the choir. Instead, campaigns should emphasize the benefits for children of living with both biological parents and stress the harmful effects for children of high-conflict parental relationships. Programs to improve relationship quality must address head-on the significant problems many couple face. Because disadvantaged men and women view some degree of financial stability as a prerequisite for marriage, policymakers must address the instability and low pay of the jobs they typically hold as well as devise ways to promote homeownership and other asset development to encourage marriage. Moreover, programs need to help couples meet the challenges of parenting families where children are some combination of his, hers, and theirs. Encouraging more low-income couples to marry without giving them tools to help their marriages thrive may simply increase the divorce rate. PMID:16158733

Edin, Kathryn; Reed, Joanna M

2005-01-01

373

Family planning and contraceptive decision-making by economically disadvantaged, African-American women  

PubMed Central

Background Significant racial disparities exist in the US unplanned pregnancy rate. We conducted a qualitative study using the theory of planned behavior as a framework to describe how low-income, African-American women approach family planning. Study Design Structured focus groups were held with adult, low-income, non-pregnant, African-American women in Connecticut. Data were collected using a standardized discussion guide, and audio-taped and transcribed. Four, independent researchers coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method. Codes were organized into over-arching themes. Results Contraceptive knowledge was limited with formal education often occurring after sexual debut. Attitudes about contraception were overtly negative with method effectiveness being judged by the experience of side effects. Family and friends strongly influence contraceptive decisions while male partners are primarily seen as a barrier. Contraceptive pills are perceived as readily accessible although compliance is considered a barrier. Conclusions Contraception education should occur before sexual debut, should involve trusted family and community members, and should positively frame issues in terms of achieving life goals.

Hodgson, Eric J.; Collier, Charlene; Hayes, Laura; Curry, Leslie; Fraenkel, Liana

2013-01-01

374

An Analysis of Water Safety Behaviors among Migrant and Economically/Educationally Disadvantaged Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This water safety study was both descriptive and exploratory in nature. The purpose was for middle school students to assess their own water safety experiences and to help school decision-makers determine the extent of drowning/water accidents. In July 2009, a water safety survey was administered to 122 students participating in the local Summer…

Sbarbaro, Victor S.; Enyeart Smith, Theresa M.

2011-01-01

375

Beliefs about the Causes of Poverty in Parents and Adolescents Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 2 consecutive years, parents and their adolescent children from 199 poor families in Hong Kong responded to the Chinese Perceived Causes of Poverty Scale, which assesses beliefs about the causes of poverty. The author abstracted 4 factors from the scale. Analyses showed that these factors (personal problems, exploitation, lack of opportunity,…

Shek, Daniel T. L.

2004-01-01

376

English and socio-economic disadvantage: learner voices from rural Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

L2 education research has shown immense interest in learners and their views of L2 learning. Nevertheless, the different directions of learner-focused research have been inadequate in highlighting learners' learning experiences in relation to their social backgrounds, particularly in the developing world. Drawing on the first author's PhD research, this paper analyses school learners' perceptions and experiences of learning English in

M. Obaidul Hamid; Richard B. Baldauf Jr

2011-01-01

377

School Improvement Based on Effective Schools Research: A Promising Approach for Economically Disadvantaged and Minority Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay addresses the school improvement process based on Effective Schools Research (ESR) and its commitment to equitable and quality education for minority and poor children. After briefly discussing general attributes of ESR-based programs, the essay explains major premises of the effective school. The first premise sets teaching and…

Lezotte, Lawrence W.; Bancroft, Beverly A.

378

Extending the Purposes of Science Education: Addressing Violence within Socio-Economic Disadvantaged Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current discourses about science education show a wide concern towards humanisation and a more socio-cultural perspective of school science. They suggest that science education can serve diverse purposes and be responsive to social and environmental situations we currently face. However, these discourses and social approaches to science education…

Castano, Carolina

2012-01-01

379

English and Socio-Economic Disadvantage: Learner Voices from Rural Bangladesh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

L2 education research has shown immense interest in learners and their views of L2 learning. Nevertheless, the different directions of learner-focused research have been inadequate in highlighting learners' learning experiences in relation to their social backgrounds, particularly in the developing world. Drawing on the first author's PhD…

Hamid, M. Obaidul; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

2011-01-01

380

Mothers' Parenting and Young Economically Disadvantaged Children's Relational and Overt Bullying  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined links between mothers' parenting and children's relational bullying and overt bullying in a sample of children attending a Head Start program. Mothers completed surveys and face-to-face interviews. Head Start teachers completed assessments on children. Results indicated that a small percentage of children in the sample was rated by teachers as engaging in relational bullying “frequently to almost always,”

Mary E. Curtner-Smith; Anne M. Culp; Rex Culp; Carrie Scheib; Kelly Owen; Angela Tilley; Molly Murphy; Lauren Parkman; Peter W. Coleman

2006-01-01

381

An Afterschool Program for Economically Disadvantaged Youth: Perceptions of Parents, Staff, and Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated perceived effects of an afterschool program located in 6 Title 1 schools on students' achievement, self-esteem, and attitudes. Data sources comprised surveys (n = 257), 5 focus groups (n= 23), and an individual interview with the program director (n = 1). Survey data indicated overall satisfaction with the program.…

Hall, Katrina W.; Williams, Lunetta M.; Daniel, Larry G.

2010-01-01

382

Cardiovascular risk factors in economically disadvantaged women: a study of prevalence and awareness.  

PubMed

This study examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among low-income women and assessed the level of awareness and attitudes about these risk factors in the community. A survey instrument was developed and administered by a single researcher to a convenience sample of women in health clinics and nonclinical community settings. These settings included: an academic clinic, community clinics, women's shelters, free meal sites, community centers, public housing units, and private homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Two hundred two women were selected without regard to age or race. The mean number of cardiovascular risk factors per subject was 2.6 (SD 1.4). Each of eight established cardiovascular risk factors was identified by 4% to 34% of subjects. Among those women with a specific risk factor, only 0% to 45% reported that they were at increased risk due to the presence of that factor. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among low-income women is substantial. Knowledge and understanding of these risk factors is suboptimal, particularly among women personally affected by risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:9770952

Poduri, A; Grisso, J A

1998-09-01

383

Predicting Kindergarten Success for Economically Disadvantaged Head Start Children: A Latent Curve Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to use data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 database for public use (version 2.9.2.1; Westat, 2000) to examine a sample of Head Start children and families to predict kindergarten and first grade success, The study controlled family variables of income level, family…

Jiang, Ying Hong; Mok, Doris; Weaver, Robert R.

384

Preschool Quality and the Development of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: The influence of preschool quality on the development of 67 4-year-old children from poor and rural families in South India was examined. Children's developmental status was assessed using a modified version of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and through physician ratings. Preschool quality was assessed through…

Rao, Nirmala

2010-01-01

385

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...factors as denial of equal access to institutions of higher education and vocational training, exclusion from social and professional association with students or teachers, denial of educational honors rightfully earned, and social patterns or...

2013-10-01

386

[Effects of water storage in deeper soil layers on the root growth, root distribution and economic yield of cotton in arid area with drip irrigation under mulch].  

PubMed

Taking cotton cultivar Xinluzao 13 as test material, a soil column culture expenment was conducted to study the effects of water storage in deeper (> 60 cm) soil layer on the root growth and its relations with the aboveground growth of the cultivar in arid area with drip irrigation under mulch. Two levels of water storage in 60-120 cm soil layer were installed, i. e., well-watered and no watering, and for each, the moisture content in 0-40 cm soil layer during growth period was controlled at two levels, i.e., 70% and 55% of field capacity. It was observed that the total root mass density of the cultivar and its root length density and root activity in 40-120 cm soil layer had significant positive correlations with the aboveground dry mass. When the moisture content in 0-40 cm soil layer during growth season was controlled at 70% of field capacity, the total root mass density under well-watered and no watering had less difference, but the root length density and root activity in 40-120 cm soil layer under well-watered condition increased, which enhanced the water consumption in deeper soil layer, increased the aboveground dry mass, and finally, led to an increased economic yield and higher water use efficiency. When the moisture content in 0-40 cm soil layer during growth season was controlled at 55% of field capacity and the deeper soil layer was well-watered, the root/shoot ratio and root length density in 40-120 cm soil layer and the root activity in 80-120 cm soil layer were higher, the water consumption in deeper soil layer increased, but it was still failed to adequately compensate for the negative effects of water deficit during growth season on the impaired growth of roots and aboveground parts, leading to a significant decrease in the economic yield, as compared with that at 70% of field capacity. Overall, sufficient water storage in deeper soil layer and a sustained soil moisture level of 65% -75% of field capacity during growth period could promote the downward growth of cotton roots, which was essential for achieving water-saving and high-yielding cultivation of cotton with drip irrigation under mulch. PMID:22586964

Luo, Hong-Hai; Zhang, Hong-Zhi; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhang, Wang-Feng

2012-02-01

387

The Economic Thinking on Low Carbon Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low carbon economy is the inevitable result of the capitalist production model, and is economic development model which mankind is forced to adopt. The measures to reduce carbon emissions mainly include laws and regulations, carbon taxes or carbon trading, subsidies or tax cuts on clean production, technological innovation and demand reduction. These measures have respective advantages and disadvantages. The paper

Niu Yongping

2011-01-01

388

Social and Economic Context. Trends and Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools are very sensitive to the rapid social, economic, and demographic changes that the United States is presently undergoing. They are at a disadvantage compared to most other social institutions because, in serving a younger population, they have less lead time to prepare for changes in the complexion of society. Young people in today's world…

Lumsden, Linda, Comp.; Coffey, Elizabeth, Comp.

389

Public Higher Education Performance Accountability Framework Report: Goal - Contributions to Economic, Civic, and Social Development; Measure: Workforce Preparation - Degrees Awarded in Selected Areas of Projected Workforce Demand. Commission Report 07-17  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is the third in a series of measure reports that examine the economic, civic, and social development of the state by its systems of higher education. This report measures degrees awarded in selected areas of employment against workforce demand. The report found: (1) California's postsecondary schools are not producing enough graduates…

California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2007

2007-01-01

390

48 CFR 52.219-23 - Notice of Price Evaluation Adjustment for Small Disadvantaged Business Concerns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Notice of Price Evaluation Adjustment for Small Disadvantaged...219-23 Notice of Price Evaluation Adjustment for Small Disadvantaged...following clause: Notice of Price Evaluation Adjustment for Small...

2013-10-01

391

76 FR 68026 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Small Disadvantaged Business Self-Certification  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION...Small Disadvantaged Business Self-Certification AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services...disadvantaged businesses (SDBs) to self-represent their SDB...

2011-11-02

392

48 CFR 419.201-70 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). 419.201-70... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 419.201-70 Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). The...

2013-10-01

393

48 CFR 719.271-2 - The USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB). 719.271-2...DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.271-2 The USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB). (a) SDB...

2013-10-01

394

48 CFR 1519.201-71 - Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 1519.201-71... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.201-71...Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. The...

2013-10-01

395

48 CFR 1519.201-72 - Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists. 1519...AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.201-72 Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists. (a)...

2013-10-01

396

Determination of 16 selected trace elements in children plasma from china economical developed rural areas using high resolution magnetic sector inductively coupled mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A rapid, accurate, and high performance method of high resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) combined with a small-size sample (0.1?mL) preparation was established. The method was validated and applied for the determination of 16 selected plasma trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, B, Al, Se, Sr, V, Cr, Mn, Co, As, Mo, Cd, and Pb). The linear working ranges were over three intervals, 0-1? ? g/L, 0-10? ? g/L and 0-100? ? g/L. Correlation coefficients (R (2)) ranged from 0.9957 to 0.9999 and the limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.02? ? g/L (Rb) to 1.89? ? g/L (Se). The trueness (or recovery) spanned from 89.82% (Al) to 119.15% (Se) and precision expressed by the relative standard deviation (RSD %) for intra-day ranging from 1.1% (Zn) to 9.0% (Se), while ranged from 3.7% (Fe) to 12.7% (Al) for interday. A total of 440 plasma samples were collected from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey Project 2002 (CNNHS 2002), which represented the status of plasma trace elements for the children aged 3-12 years from China economical developed rural areas. The concentrations of 16 trace elements were summarized and compared by age groups and gender, which can be used as one of the basic components for the formulation of the baseline reference values of trace elements for the children in 2002. PMID:24701366

Liu, Xiaobing; Piao, Jianhua; Huang, Zhenwu; Zhang, Shuang-Qing; Li, Weidong; Tian, Yuan; Yang, Xiaoguang

2014-01-01

397

Socio-economic status and oesophageal cancer: results from a population-based case-control study in a high-risk area  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer registries in the 1970s showed that parts of Golestan Province in Iran had the highest rate of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in the world. More recent studies have shown that while rates are still high, they are approximately half of what they were before, which might be attributable to improved socio-economic status (SES) and living conditions in this area. We examined a wide range of SES indicators to investigate the association between different SES components and risk of OSCC in the region. Methods Data were obtained from a population-based case–control study conducted between 2003 and 2007 with 300 histologically proven OSCC cases and 571 matched neighbourhood controls. We used conditional logistic regression to compare cases and controls for individual SES indicators, for a composite wealth score constructed using multiple correspondence analysis, and for factors obtained from factors analysis. Results We found that various dimensions of SES, such as education, wealth and being married were all inversely related to OSCC. The strongest inverse association was found with education. Compared with no education, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for primary education and high school or beyond were 0.52 (0.27–0.98) and 0.20 (0.06–0.65), respectively. Conclusions The strong association of SES with OSCC after adjustment for known risk factors implies the presence of yet unidentified risk factors that are correlated with our SES measures; identification of these factors could be the target of future studies. Our results also emphasize the importance of using multiple SES measures in epidemiological studies.

Islami, Farhad; Kamangar, Farin; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Aghcheli, Karim; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Merat, Shahin; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Semnani, Shahryar; Sepehr, Alireza; Wakefield, Jon; M?ller, Henrik; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

2009-01-01

398

Determination of 16 Selected Trace Elements in Children Plasma from China Economical Developed Rural Areas Using High Resolution Magnetic Sector Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

A rapid, accurate, and high performance method of high resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) combined with a small-size sample (0.1?mL) preparation was established. The method was validated and applied for the determination of 16 selected plasma trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, B, Al, Se, Sr, V, Cr, Mn, Co, As, Mo, Cd, and Pb). The linear working ranges were over three intervals, 0-1??g/L, 0–10??g/L and 0–100??g/L. Correlation coefficients (R2) ranged from 0.9957 to 0.9999 and the limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.02??g/L (Rb) to 1.89??g/L (Se). The trueness (or recovery) spanned from 89.82% (Al) to 119.15% (Se) and precision expressed by the relative standard deviation (RSD %) for intra-day ranging from 1.1% (Zn) to 9.0% (Se), while ranged from 3.7% (Fe) to 12.7% (Al) for interday. A total of 440 plasma samples were collected from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey Project 2002 (CNNHS 2002), which represented the status of plasma trace elements for the children aged 3–12 years from China economical developed rural areas. The concentrations of 16 trace elements were summarized and compared by age groups and gender, which can be used as one of the basic components for the formulation of the baseline reference values of trace elements for the children in 2002.

Liu, Xiaobing; Piao, Jianhua; Huang, Zhenwu; Zhang, Shuang-Qing; Li, Weidong; Tian, Yuan; Yang, Xiaoguang

2014-01-01

399

Hip Hopping the Gap – Performing Arts Approaches to Sexual Health Disadvantage In Young People in Remote Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Closing the gap in Indigenous health and wellbeing in remote settings in the Torres Strait and Northern Peninsula Area of Far North Queensland (FNQ) includes addressing a well-documented sexual health disadvantage among young people. Community mobilization around the underlying risk factors influencing sexual health is required.Method: Performing-arts-based workshops were conducted in schools and after-school venues in four remote Aboriginal

Alan Crouch; Heather Robertson; Patricia Fagan

2011-01-01

400

The Many Faces of the Economic Bulletin Board.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Economic Bulletin Board (EBB), a one-stop site for economic statistics and government-sponsored business information, can be accessed on the World Wide Web, gopher, telnet, file transfer protocol, dial-up, and fax. Each access method has advantages and disadvantages related to connections, pricing, depth of access, retrieval, and system…

Boettcher, Jennifer

1996-01-01

401

Contingency contracting with disadvantaged youths: Improving classroom performance  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the effects of a student-teacher contracting procedure on adolescent students' academic productivity. Participants were 13 youths enrolled in a vocational training program for disadvantaged youth and their classroom teacher. During the baseline conditions students were paid contingent on attendance alone, the system operating in the program prior to this research. During contracting conditions students were paid contingent on contract fulfillment of academic productivity goals set by mutual agreement between the student and teacher. Contracting and contingent pay procedures were developed with, and implemented by, the classroom teacher. A reversal experimental design showed that student's productivity more than doubled during contracting conditions as compared with their productivity during baseline.

Kelley, Mary Lou; Stokes, Trevor F.

1982-01-01

402

[Advantages and disadvantages of cervical esophageal anastomosis using a stapler].  

PubMed

The authors evaluate the advantages and shortcomings of cervical anastomosis of the oesophagus by means of stapler according to the following criteria: 1. difficulty of implementation, 2. immediate results--fistulae, 3. long-term results--stenoses, 4. costs. The authors operated, using a stapler, 26 patients who developed in four instances /15.4%/ a fistula. By comparison with a retrospective group of 21 patients with eight fistule /38%/ where the anastomosis was sutured manually, they found that by using a stapler the number of complications declined. A disadvantage is the high price of staplers. PMID:8629182

Král, V; Neoral, C; Aujeský, R

1995-12-01

403

Health improvement for disadvantaged people in Nepal - an evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background An evaluation of progress with participatory approaches for improvement of health knowledge and health experiences of disadvantaged people in eight Districts of Eastern Nepal has been undertaken. Methods A random selection of Village Development Committees and households, within the eight Districts where participation and a Rights-based Approach had been promoted specifically by local NGOs were compared with similar villages and households in eight Districts where this approach had not been promoted. Information was sought by structured interview and observation by experienced enumerators from both groups of householders. Health knowledge and experiences were compared between the two sets of households. Adjustments were made for demographic confounders. Results Complete data sets were available for 628 of the 640 households. Health knowledge and experiences were low for both sets of households. However, health knowledge and experiences were greater in the participatory households compared with the non-participatory households. These differences remained after adjustment for confounders. Conclusions The study was designed to evaluate progress with participatory processes delivered by non-governmental organisations over a five year period. Improvements in health knowledge and experiences of disadvantaged people were demonstrated in a consistent and robust manner where interventions had taken place.

2012-01-01

404

Economics and artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

This volume gives a overview of artificial intelligence and the use of computers in economics. Areas covered include statistics and macro economic forecasting, the use of automated techniques for economic studies and decision-making processes. The book looks at how much computers are used in business, and how far they will affect the design of markets and the structure of organizations in the future.

Roos, J.L.

1987-01-01

405

Nutritional impacts of a fruit and vegetable subsidy programme for disadvantaged Australian Aboriginal children.  

PubMed

Healthy food subsidy programmes have not been widely implemented in high-income countries apart from the USA and the UK. There is, however, interest being expressed in the potential of healthy food subsidies to complement nutrition promotion initiatives and reduce the social disparities in healthy eating. Herein, we describe the impact of a fruit and vegetable (F&V) subsidy programme on the nutritional status of a cohort of disadvantaged Aboriginal children living in rural Australia. A before-and-after study was used to assess the nutritional impact in 174 children whose families received weekly boxes of subsidised F&V organised through three Aboriginal medical services. The nutritional impact was assessed by comparing 24 h dietary recalls and plasma carotenoid and vitamin C levels at baseline and after 12 months. A general linear model was used to assess the changes in biomarker levels and dietary intake, controlled for age, sex, community and baseline levels. Baseline assessment in 149 children showed low F&V consumption. Significant increases (P< 0.05) in ?-cryptoxanthin (28.9 nmol/l, 18%), vitamin C (10.1 ?mol/l, 21%) and lutein-zeaxanthin (39.3 nmol/l, 11%) levels were observed at the 12-month follow-up in 115 children, although the self-reported F&V intake was unchanged. The improvements in the levels of biomarkers of F&V intake demonstrated in the present study are consistent with increased F&V intake. Such dietary improvements, if sustained, could reduce non-communicable disease rates. A controlled study of healthy food subsidies, together with an economic analysis, would facilitate a thorough assessment of the costs and benefits of subsidising healthy foods for disadvantaged Aboriginal Australians. PMID:23742751

Black, Andrew P; Vally, Hassan; Morris, Peter; Daniel, Mark; Esterman, Adrian; Karschimkus, Connie S; O'Dea, Kerin

2013-12-01

406

International Resource Book for Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons: 2001-2008. An Update to the International Resource Book for Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons: 1931-2001  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2001, the Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons (LSDP) Section of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA), published the "International Resource Book for Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons." This publication is a seventy year retrospective which chronicles the history of the Section from 1931 to 2001.…

Locke, Joanne; Panella, Nancy M.

2010-01-01

407

Economic Crisis in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sub-Saharan Africa is facing deep economic crisis. A situation has reached where there is total stagnation with zero per cent growth rate and no hope of recovery. Hunger is hovering over vast areas of Africa threatening the lives of 150 million people and every day people are dying of starvation. It is said, that nature and international economic relations are

Vijay Gupta

1985-01-01

408

Economic Analysis. Enrichment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multimedia course in economic analysis was prepared for the United States Naval Academy. (ED 043 790 and ED 043 791 are the final reports of the project evaluation and development model.) This report presents enrichment segments for selected core segments in concept areas one and two, covering a spectrum of economic systems, the influence of…

Sterling Inst., Washington, DC. Educational Technology Center.

409

A Spatial Analysis of Student Binge Drinking, Alcohol-Outlet Density, and Social Disadvantages  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives This paper examined whether and how student binge drinking at the individual level was influenced by population disadvantages, community instability, alcohol-outlet density, and protective factors generated by community and school. Methods We used a dataset collected in 2002 by the Alabama Department of Mental Health, with additional materials generated by the 2000 Census and from the Alabama State Department of Education. School-catchments were employed as geographic units of analysis. The final sample comprised 78,138 public-school students in grades 6–12 who attended schools located in the 566 school-catchments. Results We hypothesized the presence of spatial processes that, once identified, would enhance understanding of student binge drinking. Our results confirmed that student binge drinking in a focal area was affected by that area’s structural factors and also by individual-level risk and protective factors. The results did not support the hypothesized impact of surrounding areas’ characteristics on student binge drinking in the focal area. Conclusions and Scientific Significance The results of our study clearly indicate that both environment-based factors and individual-level risk and protective factors are important in explaining student binge drinking in Alabama.

Lo, Celia C.; Weber, Joe; Tyrone, C. Cheng

2013-01-01

410

Social stability and health: exploring multidimensional social disadvantage.  

PubMed

Social stability is an understudied construct in public health that offers a useful framework for understanding social disadvantage across multiple domains. This study investigated prevalence and patterns of cooccurrence among a hypothesized set of social stability characteristics (housing, residential transition, employment, income, incarceration, and partner relationship), evaluated the possibility of underlying subgroups of social stability, and investigated the association between social stability and health outcomes. Data were from comprehensive interviews with primarily African-American low income urban women and their female social network members (n?=?635) in Baltimore. Analysis included exploratory statistics, latent class analysis, and latent class regression accounting for clustered data using Stata and Mplus software. Social stability characteristics cooccurred in predictable directions, but with heterogeneity. Respondents had an average of three stability characteristics (S.D.: 1.4). Latent class analysis identified two classes of social stability: low (25%) and high (75%), with the higher class less likely to experience each of the included indicators. In controlled models, higher social stability was significantly correlated with social network characteristics and neighborhood integration. Higher social stability was independently associated with reduced risk of chronic illness (AOR: 0.54, 95% C.I.: 0.31, 0.94), mental illness history (AOR: 0.24, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.39), and current depressive symptoms (AOR: 0.35, 95% C.I.: 0.22, 0.57). The current set of social stability characteristics appears to represent a single construct with identifiable underlying subgroups and associated health disparities. Findings suggest a need for comprehensive policies and programs that address structural determinants of cooccurring social disadvantage and help to mitigate the likely spiral effect of instability experiences. PMID:22131164

German, Danielle; Latkin, Carl A

2012-02-01

411

Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and gestational weight gain and loss.  

PubMed

We explored the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage (NSED) and gestational weight gain and loss and if the association differed by race. A census tract level NSED index (categorized as low, mid-low, mid-high, and high) was generated from 12 measures from the 2000 US Census data. Gestational weight gain and other individual-level characteristics were derived from vital birth records for Allegheny County, PA for 2003-2010 (n = 55,608). Crude and adjusted relative risks were estimated using modified multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the association between NSED and excessive and inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) and weight loss (versus adequate GWG). Black women lived in neighborhoods that were more likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged compared to white women. Almost 55 % of women gained an excessive amount of weight during pregnancy, and 2 % lost weight during pregnancy. Black women were more likely than white women to have inadequate weight gain or weight loss. Mid-high (aRR = 1.3, 95 % CI 1.2, 1.3) and high (aRR = 1.5, 95 % CI 1.5, 1.6) NSED compared to low NSED was associated with inadequate weight gain while NSED was not associated with excessive weight gain. Among black women, high versus low NSED was associated with weight loss during pregnancy (RR = 1.6, 95 % CI 1.1, 2.5). Among white women, each level of NSED compared to low NSED was associated with weight loss during pregnancy. This study demonstrates how neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics can contribute to our understanding of inadequate weight gain and weight loss during pregnancy, having implications for future research and interventions designed to advance pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24026397

Mendez, Dara D; Doebler, Donna Almario; Kim, Kevin H; Amutah, Ndidi N; Fabio, Anthony; Bodnar, Lisa M

2014-07-01

412

The effects of mid-life socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived social support on trajectories of subsequent depressive symptoms among older Taiwanese women  

PubMed Central

Background Scant research has taken a life-course perspective to explore the longitudinal impact of socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived social support on the psychological well-being of older women. We sought to explore whether socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived social support in mid-life are associated with subsequent depressive symptomatology among older Taiwanese women. Methods This study was based on data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging conducted on a nationally representative sample (n?=?1,073) of women aged 50 and above with a 12-year follow up. Mid-life socioeconomic disadvantage was assessed by socioeconomic status (SES) (i.e., educational attainment, major lifetime occupation in adulthood, and employment status) and economic strain. Perceived social support included three dimensions: listening, caring, and sick care. We used the short form of the Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale that measures depressive symptomatology within two domains (negative affect and lack of positive affect). Growth curve models were employed to predict the relationships between mid-life socioeconomic disadvantage, perceived social support, and subsequent depressive trajectories, controlling for aging effects. Results Multivariate analyses demonstrated older women in a socioeconomic disadvantaged position are more likely to report higher initial levels of depressive symptoms in both domains; lack of formal education did not exacerbate depressive symptoms in the lack of positive affect domain over time. In addition, mid-life perceived positive social support in caring and sick care was associated with lower initial levels of depressive symptoms in both domains. Conclusions Our results suggest independent effects of mid-life socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived social support on subsequent depressive symptomatology among older Taiwanese women.

2014-01-01

413

Visualizing Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Taking a page from Adam Smith, the motto of this delightful site is "Making the 'Invisible Hand' Visible." Under the guidance of Catherine Mulbrandon, the site brings together economic data and the powerful techniques of information visualization. She does this quite effectively through such thematic maps as "Where do Britain's rich and poor live?" and the "United States Household Income Map". Visitors can make their way through the maps here at their leisure, and also post their comments as they see fit. Additionally, users can look through the "Most Popular Posts" area and sign up to receive updates about new maps via email. Overall, the site is quite a find, and could even be used to spark debate and discussion in the classroom or around the break room.

Mulbrandon, Catherine

414

Integrating School Transportation Resources into Coordinated Rural Public Transportation Programs: A Proposal To Increase Access to Community Services for Transportation-Disadvantaged Persons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inadequate public transportation in rural areas has long been a major impediment for rural residents' access to health care, jobs, and community activities and services. Particularly disadvantaged in transportation are the rural poor, elderly, and youth. This report highlights the benefits to be gained by passage of the Commission on Rural…

New York State Legislative Commission on Rural Resources, Albany.

415

Migrant Differentials: An Examination of Social, Political, and Economic Dynamics of Life in the Receiving Area for Black Rural-Urban Migrants, 1915-1950.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a report on a study of the motives of southern blacks for migrating to the North during the period 1915-50. In particular, the study examined whether attitudes that existed as a result of sentimental (rather than solely economic) factors involved in movement from the South encouraged an orientation toward the northern opportunity structure…

Cruthird, J. Robert L.; Goodwin, E. Marvin

416

Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Incidence of Abnormal Glucose Metabolism  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine the role of area-level socioeconomic status (SES) on the development of abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) using national, population-based data. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study is a national, population-based, longitudinal study of adults aged ?25 years. A sample of 4,572 people provided complete baseline (1999 to 2000) and 5-year follow-up (2004 to 2005) data relevant for these analyses. Incident AGM was assessed using fasting plasma glucose and 2-h plasma glucose from oral glucose tolerance tests, and demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data were collected by interview and questionnaire. Area SES was defined using the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the relationship between area SES and incident AGM, with adjustment for covariates and correction for cluster design effects. RESULTS Area SES predicted the development of AGM, after adjustment for age, sex, and individual SES. People living in areas with the most disadvantage were significantly more likely to develop AGM, compared with those living in the least deprived areas (odds ratio 1.53; 95% CI 1.07–2.18). Health behaviors (in particular, physical activity) and central adiposity appeared to partially mediate this relationship. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that characteristics of the physical, social, and economic aspects of local areas influence diabetes risk. Future research should focus on identifying the aspects of local environment that are associated with diabetes risk and how they might be modified.

Williams, Emily D.; Magliano, Dianna J.; Zimmet, Paul Z.; Kavanagh, Anne M.; Stevenson, Christopher E.; Oldenburg, Brian F.; Shaw, Jonathan E.

2012-01-01

417

Brazilian Electronic Journal of Economics (BEJE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Brazilian Electronic Journal of Economics is published by the Department of Economics, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil. The aim of the journal is to publish original articles in the areas of "economics of the Internet, network economics, and economics of information." The site provides the full text of the articles in the journal.

1997-01-01

418

What's so local about global climate change? Testing social theories of environmental degradation to quantify the demographic, economic, and governmental factors associated with energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in U.S. metropolitan areas and counties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research investigates the consequence of a crucial and not yet fully explored problem: the reluctance of the United States to sign and ratify international agreements, like Kyoto, that aim to mitigate climate change and its underlying social and ecological impacts. This unwillingness has inspired local governments, mayors, metropolitan area governance consortia, state governments, and governors to take on the climate challenge without the directive of the federal government. Local areas of the U.S. are experiencing climate-change-related impacts such as receding beach lines due to sea level rise and intense storms, fresh water shortages, and extreme weather events. As a result, researchers have begun to explore the human dimensions of climate change through an inquiry in: among many other topics, the vulnerability of local areas to the impacts of climate change and the forces shaping local areas' contribution to climate change. This study addresses the latter issue using the STIRPAT framework - a reformulated version of the I=(P)(A)(T) formulation that relates environmental impacts (I) to population growth (P), affluence (A), and technology (T). I address three questions that have thus far been poorly answered in prior research: "across the U.S., do local areas differ in the extent of their contribution to climate change?", "what are the causes of variation in energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions across local areas?" and "which social theories best explain the causes of variation in energy use and CO2 emissions across local areas?" To make strides in answering these questions and contribute to the understanding of local level drivers of energy consumption and emissions, this research analyzes the causes of variation in: energy use and CO2 emissions in the 100 largest U.S. metropolitan areas in chapter 4, the change in energy consumption between 2000 and 2005 for these metropolitan areas in chapter 5, and CO2 emissions in all U.S. counties in chapter 6. The STIRPAT method is used to test four social theories of environmental degradation -- the treadmill of production, ecological modernization, urban ecological transitions, and human ecology theories -- by quantifying variables associated with energy use and CO2 emissions drawn from each theory. The specific findings demonstrate that various demographic, economic, and governmental factors are related strongly to metropolitan area energy consumption and county-level CO2 emissions. The human ecology, treadmill of production, and urban ecological transitions theories are important to explaining how and why climate-related impacts differ for a wide variety of local areas in the United States. Related to human ecology and treadmill of production theory, environmental degradation is highest in metropolitan areas and counties with large populations and large economies that have various mechanisms in place to facilitate economic growth. By contrast, some U.S. counties are beginning to remedy their impact on the environment by applying economic and governmental resources toward the mitigation of CO2 emissions, which provides evidence of support for urban ecological transitions theory. However, because climate change is a complex cross-scale global environmental problem and the results in this dissertation confirm that this problem is locally driven by similar population and economic factors also affecting the climate at larger spatial scales, mitigation efforts to reduce energy use and emissions at the local level will be fruitless without a well-coordinated, cross-scale (local to global) ideological shift that puts less priority on economic goals and more on environmental sustainability. These results, and the methodological and theoretical framework applied in this dissertation, thus provide a useful platform for the successful application of future research that specifically addresses mitigation strategies to reduce local-level environmental impacts. This dissertation research, therefore, contributes to the environmental sociology, gen

Tribbia, John Luke

419

Develop the economy, initiate changes and promote the benign cycle of population and economic development: implications of the development of population and economy in the coastal areas of China.  

PubMed

The level of economic activity and social productivity have increased markedly in much of China over the past 10 years. Progress in these areas has impacted upon population norms and dynamics in the country. Theory holds that increases in educational quality lead to growth in labor productivity and lower fertility. This phenomenon has been observed especially in 12 coastal regions of China; the challenge is to replicate and extend this phenomenon throughout the country. Manual labor is absorbed as economies grow in countries in the most formative stages of economic development and technological advancement. Accordingly, parents value have significant numbers of children to help ensure familial economic advancement and personal old-age security. As economies develop, however, the productivity of labor increases and skilled workers grow in demand. Parents may therefore be better served by bearing fewer, but more highly educated. While fertility has declined overall in China as a result of strict population policy, fertility has declined at a comparatively greater extent in the more developed coastal regions of the country. These findings point to the combined influence of population policy and economic factors in shaping the fertility of China. To best encourage the transfer of parental interest from the number of offspring to the quality of offspring, this paper recommends adhering to national population policy, raising fines for those who bear unplanned children, raising benefits for those bearing only one child, and developing technology and the economy. PMID:12286122

Tian, X

1992-01-01

420

A pre-and-post study of an urban renewal program in a socially disadvantaged neighbourhood in Sydney, Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Urban renewal programs aim to target both the physical and social environments to improve the social capital, social connectedness, sense of community and economic conditions of residents of the neighbourhoods. We evaluated the impact of an urban renewal program on the health and well-being of residents of a socially disadvantaged community in south-western Sydney, Australia. Methods Pre- and post-urban renewal program surveys were conducted with householders by trained interviewers. The urban renewal program was conducted over 16?months and consisted of internal upgrades (including internal painting; replacement of kitchens, bathrooms and carpets; general maintenance), external upgrades (including property painting; new fencing, carports, letterboxes, concrete driveways, drainage and landscaping), general external maintenance, and social interventions such as community engagement activities, employment initiatives, and building a community meeting place. The questionnaire asked about demographic characteristics, self-reported physical activity, psychological distress, self-rated health, and perceptions of aesthetics, safety and walkability in the neighbourhood. We used the paired chi-square test (McNemars test) to compare paired proportions. A Bonferroni corrected p-value of <0.0013 denoted statistical significance. Results Following the urban renewal program we did not find statistically significant changes in perceptions of aesthetics, safety and walkability in the neighbourhood. However, post-urban renewal, more householders reported there were attractive buildings and homes in their neighbourhood (18% vs 64%), felt that they belonged to the neighbourhood (48% vs 70%), that their area had a reputation for being a safe place (8% vs 27%), that they felt safe walking down their street after dark (52% vs 85%), and that people who came to live in the neighbourhood would be more likely to stay rather than move elsewhere (13% vs 54%). Changes in psychological distress and self-rated health were not statistically significant. Conclusions We found an increase, in the short-term, in the proportion of householders reporting improvements in some aspects of their immediate neighbourhood following the urban renewal program. It will be important to repeat the survey in the future to determine whether these positive changes are sustained.

2012-01-01

421

Creating and sustaining disadvantage: the relevance of a social exclusion framework.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, public home-care services for elderly people have been subject to increased rationing and changes in resource allocation. We argue that a social exclusion framework can be used to explain the impacts of current policy priorities and organisational practices. In this paper, we use the framework of social exclusion to highlight the disadvantages experienced by elderly people, particularly those who cannot afford to supplement public care with private services. We illustrate our argument by drawing on examples from previous studies with persons giving and receiving care in the province of Québec. Our focus is on seven forms of exclusion: symbolic, identity, socio-political, institutional, economic, exclusion from meaningful relations, and territorial exclusion. These illustrations suggest that policy-makers, practitioners and researchers must address the various ways in which current policy priorities can create and sustain various types of exclusion of elderly people. They also highlight the need to reconsider the current decisions made regarding the allocation of services for elderly people. PMID:18700868

Grenier, Amanda M; Guberman, Nancy

2009-03-01

422

Behavioral Economics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albiet highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects ...

S. R. Hursh

1984-01-01

423

Acute kidney injury as a risk factor for chronic kidney diseases in disadvantaged populations.  

PubMed

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is considered to be a potential cause for developing chronic kidney disease (CKD); on the other hand, CKD predisposes to AKI. The lack of adequate epidemiological data makes it difficult to determine if AKI induces CKD in less developed countries. The etiology of AKI in rich populations, in whom sophisticated surgery, interventional radiology and oncology treatments are usually the cause of AKI, is very different from that of disadvantaged populations, where the origin of AKI is associated with endemic infections, obstetric problems, poisons, toxins and natural disasters. Any conclusions extrapolated from these two settings should be treated with caution. Moreover, people living in disadvantaged conditions are usually much younger than those in rich areas and this age factor could facilitate total recovery of renal function after AKI if treatment based on an adequate supply of water, rehydration and anti-infectious measures were provided. In the small segment of the population of less developed countries having an income per capita similar to that observed in the developed countries, the long-term outcome of AKI should also be expected to be similar. New data coming from two single centers analyzing only the long-term outcome of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) patients, with a normal or near normal renal function prior to the AKI episode, coincide in reporting a requirement for chronic dialysis among the surviving patients of 2%. If these data are confirmed, the importance of AKI as cause of CKD should be reconsidered, both in developed and less developed countries. PMID:20979971

Liaño, F; Tenorio, M T; Rodríguez-Mendiola, N; Ponte, B

2010-11-01

424

Advantages and disadvantages of killed and live poliomyelitis vaccines*  

PubMed Central

Decision-making on the use of poliomyelitis vaccines in the WHO Expanded Immunization Programme, and particularly in the developing nations, needs to be based on an understanding of the epidemiology of poliomyelitis in different parts of the globe. Even with two safe and effective kinds of poliomyelitis vaccine available, poliomyelitis has by no means been eradicated from the world. In developed countries that are considered well-vaccinated, certain sectors of the population may be inadequately protected against risk of infection by indigenous or imported wild polioviruses. In developing nations that are in transition toward an epidemic phase of poliomyelitis, wild polioviruses will continue to be a threat until thorough immunization is established and maintained. Killed-virus poliomyelitis vaccines have proved to be effective in certain countries that have used them exclusively; these are small countries with excellent public health systems, where coverage by the killed vaccine has been wide and frequent. Live vaccines, administered to hundreds of millions of persons during the past decade, have also been remarkably safe and effective. However, in certain warm-climate countries induction of antibodies in a satisfactorily high proportion of vaccinees has been difficult to accomplish. The advantages and disadvantages of each kind of poliomyelitis vaccine need to be weighed with respect to the particular setting in which a vaccine has been or will be used.

Melnick, Joseph L.

1978-01-01

425

Economic Sanctions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Institute for International Economics (IIE) (reviewed in the December 4, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics), this site is a useful resource for Economics or International Relations courses. Using testimony, speeches, articles, working papers, and an interesting case study (of Myanmar), the site explains and explores the economic and political goals and impact of sanctions. Additional Hot Topics features include the Japan Crisis, the Asian Financial Crisis, and the Euro Conversion.

1999-01-01

426

Boating Uses, Economic Significance, and Information Inventory for North Carolina's Offshore Area, 'The Point'. Volume II: Economic Analysis of 'The Point' and Adjacent Counties-Baseline Information, Valuation, and Potential Impacts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Chevron Corporation had planned to drill one or more exploratory wells in the Atlantic Ocean northeast of Cape Hatteras near an area known as 'The Point.' The State of North Carolina and particularly many coastal North Carolina residents were concerne...

R. B. Palmquist, P. W. Schumann, J. A. Michael

2002-01-01

427

Ricardo's Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book, together with Marx's Economic and Walras' Economics, completes a sequence of titles by Professor Morishima on the first generation of scientific economists. The author's assessment of Ricardo differs substantially from the established views adopted by economists and historians of economic thought. While economists such as Pasinetti, Caravale and Samuelson have concentrated on macroeconomic interpretations of Ricardo, and historians

Michio Morishima

428

Television Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended as an introduction to the economics of commercial television for the general reader, this volume considers the theory and analytical basis of television and the policy implications of those economics. Part I considers the economics of television markets with particular attention of the determinants of viewer markets; the supply of…

Owen, Bruce M.; And Others

429

The Effect of Incentives on Achievement & Behavior of Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mesa School District (Arizona) "Incentives Only" Project--carried out via a performance contract with the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity in 1970-71 through the Mesa Education Association (MEA)--is described in terms of rationale for the use of incentives, background, program procedures, the incentives model, the delivery system,…

Barnard, Douglas P.

430

ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES FOR ISCO METHODS IN-SITU FENTON OXIDATION IN-SITU PERMANGANATE OXIDATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ Fenton oxidation and in-situ permanganate oxidation will be presented. This presentation will provide a brief overview of each technology and a detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each technology. Included in the ...

431

The Effect of Social Disadvantage on Motor Development in Young Children: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Empirical research suggests that social disadvantage has a negative effect on the development of language, and related cognitive skills such as reading. There is, however, no corresponding body of research on the impact of social disadvantage on motor development. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of…

McPhillips, Martin; Jordan-Black, Julie-Anne

2007-01-01

432

Multiple Levels of Social Disadvantage and Links to Obesity in Adolescence and Young Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The rise in adolescent obesity has become a public health concern, especially because of its impact on disadvantaged youth. This article examines the role of disadvantage at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level, to determine which contexts are related to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. Methods: We analyzed…

Lee, Hedwig; Harris, Kathleen M.; Lee, Joyce

2013-01-01

433

Do Disadvantaged Students Have Equal Access to Effective Teaching? NCEE Study Snapshot. NCEE 2014-4001  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study snapshot offers a summary of "Access to Effective Teaching for Disadvantaged Students. NCEE 2014-4001," the first report from a study initiated by the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences to examine access to effective teaching for disadvantaged students in 29 diverse school districts. The study…

National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, 2013

2013-01-01

434

Access to Effective Teaching for Disadvantaged Students: Executive Summary. NCEE 2014-4002  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes disadvantaged students' access to effective teaching in grades 4 through 8 in 29 diverse school districts, using value-added analysis to measure effective teaching. Recent federal initiatives emphasize measuring teacher effectiveness and ensuring that disadvantaged students have equal access to effective teachers. These…

Isenberg, Eric; Max, Jeffrey; Gleason, Philip; Potamites, Liz; Santillano, Robert; Hock, Heinrich; Hansen, Michael

2013-01-01

435

Neighborhood Disadvantage, Residential Stability, and Perceptions of Instrumental Support among New Mothers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing survey (N = 4,211), this study examines neighborhood disadvantage and perceptions of instrumental support among mothers with young children. The authors find that (a) living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with less instrumental support, particularly financial…

Turney, Kristin; Harknett, Kristen

2010-01-01

436

State Planning for the Disadvantaged. A Report of the National Dissemination Project for Community Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major elements in a general process model for state and local planning for minority and disadvantaged education are discussed. These elements are: (1) needs assessment and public discussion of issues, (2) state goals and objectives for disadvantaged education, (3) local community college goals, objectives, and commitments, (4) provision of…

Carlson, Dennis; Das, Deb

437

Project P-BLISS: An Experiment in Curriculum for Gifted Disadvantaged High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can high schools counteract deterrents to achievement that disadvantaged students face? "Project P-BLISS: Problem-Based Learning in the Social Sciences" presents "hidden" disadvantaged gifted students with a curriculum that first captures their interest and challenges them to realize their true potential. (MLH)

Gallagher, Shelagh A.

2000-01-01

438

Hidden Educators and the Seduction of College Students: Higher Education's Competitive Disadvantage. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper suggests that undergraduate higher education is at a severe competitive disadvantage vis-a-vis other socializing and educating agencies in society and proposes some strategies to compensate for this disadvantage. First, the paper notes difficulties with mandated assessment as a major means of educational improvement. It then identifies…

Bess, James L.

439

Disadvantaged Former Miners' Perspectives on Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To explore disadvantaged former miners' perspectives in north Derbyshire, United Kingdom (UK) on smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: In-depth, audiotaped interviews with 16 disadvantaged former miners who smoked or had stopped smoking within six months. Results: Perceptions of being able to stop smoking with minimal difficulty…

White, Simon; Baird, Wendy

2013-01-01

440

Montessori for the Disadvantaged: An Application of Montessori Educational Principles to the War on Poverty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is devoted to a number of original articles on the application of the Montessori method for the education of the disadvantaged. The development of the method, its specific advantages for disadvantaged youngsters, special features of Montessori education, and integration into certain viewpoints about child development, learning, and…

Orem, R.C., Ed.

441

Designs for the Preparation of Vocational and Technical Teachers of Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Youth. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the inadequate supply of teachers willing to work with disadvantaged students, this project sought to dissipate the stereotypes and misconceptions of disadvantaged people held by prospective teachers. To accomplish this, four design and evaluation conferences were held to plan clinical experiences for prospective teachers and to…

Huffman, Harry; Welter, Clyde W.

442

Evaluating Quality of Health Care for the Disadvantaged. A Literature Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report brings together two issues: quality of care measurement and health care for the disadvantaged. The main question that is asked is whether an improvement in the quality of health care delivered to the disadvantaged will contribute to equalizing their health status. A review of the literature points to the following four conclusions: (1)…

Brook, Robert H.; Williams, Kathleen N.

443

Transport disadvantage and social status: a review of literature and methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research monograph reports on the preliminary investigations of a pilot project that examines the relationship between social status and transport disadvantage. The purpose is to review the literature relating to how social status is patterned and organised spatially within cities and to examine the links that have been iditified between social status and transport disadvantage

Jago Dodson; Brendan Gleeson; Neil Sipe

2004-01-01

444

The Nature and Extent of Programs for the Disadvantaged Gifted in the United States and Territories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports results of a study designed to assess the nature and extent of programs for disadvantaged gifted learners in the 50 states and the United States' territories. The primary purposes of the study were: 1) to determine the philosophical and definitional considerations utilized by states in addressing issues related to the disadvantaged gifted, 2) to ascertain the major

James M. Patton; Douglas Prillaman; Joyce VanTassel-Baska

1990-01-01

445

COLLIER COUNTY INSTITUTE FOR TEACHERS OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AND YOUTH (NAPLES, AUGUST 1-12, 1966).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS THE SPEECHES PRESENTED TO EDUCATORS AT A CONFERENCE ON DISADVANTAGED YOUTH OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA. THE SPEECHES ARE DIVIDED INTO SIX SECTIONS, DEALING WITH VARIOUS PROBLEMS FACED BY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH. SPEECH TOPICS INCLUDE MENTAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH, SELF CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT, THE PROBLEMS OF GROWING UP AS A MEMBER OF A…

PITTMAN, KENNETH C.

446

Harder than Expected: Increased Conflict in Clearly Disadvantageous Delayed Choices in a Computer Game  

PubMed Central

When choosing between immediate and temporally delayed goods, people sometimes decide disadvantageously. Here, we aim to provide process-level insight into differences between individually determined advantageous and disadvantageous choices. Participants played a computer game, deciding between two different rewards of varying size and distance by moving an agent towards the chosen reward. We calculated individual models of advantageous choices and characterized the decision process by analyzing mouse movements. The larger amount of participants’ choices was classified as advantageous and the disadvantageous choices were biased towards choosing sooner/smaller rewards. The deflection of mouse movements indicated more conflict in disadvantageous choices compared with advantageous choices when the utilities of the options differed clearly. Further process oriented analysis revealed that disadvantageous choices were biased by a tendency for choice-repetition and an undervaluation of the value information in favour of the delay information, making rather simple choices harder than could be expected from the properties of the decision situation.

Leiberg, Susanne; Goschke, Thomas

2013-01-01

447

Economics Lesson Plans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Creating interesting and compelling lessons in Economics can present several unique challenges. Fortunately, the Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning organization has brought together a number of fine instructional resources for use by educators. These lesson plans and other activities are divided into thematic areas, such as economic decision-making, goods and services, savings, along with fifteen other headings. The resources are culled from a variety of sources, including the National Council of Economic Education, community college professors, and the National Center for Supercomputing Applications.

448

NEP: New Economics Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New Economics Papers (NEP) is a working paper announcement service sponsored by RePEc (Research Papers in Economics) and the Electronic Library Programme. NEP aims to distribute, in the form of edited reports via email (to subscribers), up-to-date information on new releases of working papers. Conference announcements and professional information will also be disseminated through the reports. At the moment, users may subscribe to 15 different reports, each covering a different area of economics. Information about the various reports and subscription information is available at the site.

1998-01-01

449

'Faking til you make it': social capital accumulation of individuals on low incomes living in contrasting socio-economic neighbourhoods and its implications for health and wellbeing.  

PubMed

People on low-income living in low socio-economic neighbourhoods have poorer health in comparison with those living in advantaged neighbourhoods. To explore neighbourhood effects on health and social capital creation, the experiences of low-income people living in contrasting socio-economic neighbourhoods were compared, in order to examine how low-income status and differing levels of neighbourhood resources contributed to perceived health and wellbeing. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed: survey data from 601 individuals living in contrasting socio-economic areas and in-depth interviews with a new sample of 24 individuals on low-incomes. The study was guided by Bourdieu's theory of practice, which examines how social inequalities are created and reproduced through the relationship between individuals' varying resources of economic, social and cultural capital. This included an examination of individual life histories, cultural distinction and how social positions are reproduced. Participants' accounts of their early life experience showed how parental socio-economic position and socially patterned events taking place across the life course, created different opportunities for social network creation, choice of neighbourhood and levels of resources available throughout life, all of which can influence health and wellbeing. A definition of poverty by whether an individual or household has sufficient income at a particular point in time was an inadequate measure of disadvantage. This static measure of 'low income' as a category disguised a number of different ways in which disadvantage was experienced or, conversely, how life course events could mitigate the impact of low-income. This study found that the resources necessary to create social capital such as cultural capital and the ability to socially network, differed according to the socio-economic status of the neighbourhood, and that living in an advantaged area does not automatically guarantee access to potentially beneficial social networks. PMID:23540360

Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran

2013-05-01

450

Camping Opportunities for Disadvantaged Youth: A Planning and Coordinating Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although camps have made opportunities increasingly available to youth of poverty areas, little was reported about how successful their programs were. In addition, there persisted an uneasiness that the numbers of children and youth of poverty areas included in camping programs were not proportionate to the need. Local and national studies were…

Richards, Catharine V.

451

An investigation into the availability and economic accessibility of food items in rural and urban areas of Northern Ireland — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

452

Technical and Economic Feasibility of Establishing a Hardwood Pulp and Paper Mill in an Eight-County Area of Western Kentucky.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the major advantages of Western Kentucky as a site for a pulp and paper mill is its abundance of hardwood timber resources. There is sufficient hardwood volume in the Paradise area to support several pulp mills. Within a 50-mile radius of Paradise ...

C. B. Garrison M. W. Gildemeister W. J. Pratt

1964-01-01

453

Vocational Training for Economic Development: A Report on Business/Industry Relationships with Kansas Community Colleges and Area Vocational-Technical Schools, 1990-91 Academic Year.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to provide educational opportunities for entry into and advancement within the work force, Kansas' 19 public community colleges and 14 area vocational technical schools (AVTSs) have expanded their offerings to include customized training for businesses and industries within Kansas. Vocational training is also supported by the Kansas…

Kansas State Board of Education, Topeka. Lifelong Learning Div.

454

Economics Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economics Challenge is a economics competition for high school students living in the twelfth district -- Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Oregon, Utah, and Washington. The competition strives to "increase [high school students's] knowledge and understanding of economics." Winning team members will receive $1,000 US savings bonds. The site includes a description of the competition, registration forms for these states, and two sets of practice questions and answers.

2000-01-01

455

Socioeconomic disadvantage and changes in health risk behaviours in Australia: 1989-90 to 2001.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated in industrialized countries with unhealthy lifestyle characteristics, such as smoking, physical inactivity and being overweight or obese. This paper examines changes over time in the association between SES and smoking status, physical activity and being overweight or obese in Australia. METHODS: Data were taken from three successive national health surveys in Australia carried out in 1989-90 (n = 54,576), 1995 (n = 53,828) and 2001 (n = 26,863). Participants in these surveys were selected using a national probability sampling strategy, and aggregated data for geographical areas are used to determine the changing association between SES and lifestyle over time. FINDINGS: Overall, men had less healthy lifestyles. In 2001 inverse SES trends for both men and women showed that those living in lower SES areas were more likely to smoke and to be sedentary and obese. There were some important socioeconomic changes over the period 1989-90 to 2001. The least socioeconomically disadvantaged areas had the largest decrease in the percentage of people smoking tobacco (24% decrease for men and 12% for women) and the largest decrease in the percentage of people reporting sedentary activity levels (25% decrease for men and 22% for women). While there has been a general increase in the percentage over time of those who are overweight or obese, there is a modest trend for being overweight to have increased (by about 16% only among females) among those living in areas of higher SES. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic inequalities have been increasing for several key risk behaviours related to health; this suggests that specific population-based prevention strategies intended to reduce health inequalities are needed.

Najman, Jake M.; Toloo, Ghasem; Siskind, Victor

2006-01-01

456

Social and cultural factors in the etiology of low birthweight among disadvantaged blacks.  

PubMed

This report gives results from eight intensive, exploratory interviews with Black women who suffered infant deaths within one year after delivery. Interviews were conducted as a final step in a research project to discover the correlates of very low birthweight among disadvantaged women in a city which maintains among the highest low birthweight and infant mortality rates in the United States. Qualitative results are presented within the context of a case/control study based on an in-depth medical record review. Statistical results showed that prenatal care, alcoholism, migrant status, smoking, hypertension history and previous poor pregnancy outcome distinguished women with very low birthweight infants. The medical record review also implicated violence, weak social support systems, poor social and psychological adjustments and ineffective contraception. Interview results further explore the social and psychological context of pregnancy for the disadvantaged inner city Black woman. Three-quarters of all women are unmarried at the time of delivery, and interviewed women expressed bitterness and resentment toward the men in their livers for non-support. They received the most help from 'girlfriends', and not consistent support--as expected--from mothers and female kin. Answers to open-ended questions and responses to a specially designed interview section on attitudes and beliefs suggest that these women conceptually dissociate three important areas of cultural focus: relationships with men, pregnancy and childbirth; and, that they value the 'gestator' role as separate from the role of 'mother'. They espouse contradictory beliefs about men: they believe that men are predatory and not trustworthy, but also more mainstream beliefs that call for reliance on the opposite sex. Because of their unstable relationships with men and their long histories of poor pregnancy outcome and termination, they face frequent disappointment. Responses to items in the attitudes and beliefs section suggest that these women feel powerless, hopeless and that life is somewhat meaningless. However, items designed to test Lewis' 'culture of poverty' do not support the concept of a consistent intergenerational poverty lifestyle. The report closes with a section on program and policy development in several areas: public health recordkeeping, health style education programs, special training programs for physicians and other health personnel, and some type of program to combat the social alienation and psychological distress of inner city women during pregnancy. PMID:4012345

Boone, M S

1985-01-01

457

Infections and inequalities: anemia in AIDS, the disadvantages of poverty  

PubMed Central

Objective To study anemia in AIDS patients and its relation with socioeconomic, employment status and educational levels. Methods A total number of 442 patients who visited the Infectious Diseases University Hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina were included in the study. Patients were dividied into two groups, i.e. one with anemia and the other without anemia. Anemia epidemiology and its relationship with educational level, housing, job situation, monthly income, total daily caloric intake and weekly intake of meat were evaluated. Results Anemia was found in 228 patients (54%). Comparing patients with or without anemia, a statistically significant difference was found (P<0.000?1) in those whose highest educational level reached was primary school, who lived in a precarious home, who had no stable job or were unable to work, whose income was less than 30 dollars per month, whose meat consumption was less than twice a week or received less than 8?000 calories per day. Conclusions The high prevalence of anemia found in poor patients with AIDS suggests that poverty increases the risk to suffer from this hematological complication. The relationship between economic development policies and AIDS is complex. Our results seem to point to the fact that AIDS epidemic may affect economic development and in turn be affected by it. If we consider that AIDS affects the economically active adult population, despite recent medical progress it usually brings about fatal consequences, especially within the poorest sectors of society where the disease reduces the average life expectancy, increases health care demand and tends to exacerbate poverty and iniquity.

Gonzalez, Lucia; Seley, Celeste; Martorano, Julieta; Garcia-Moreno, Isabella; Troncoso, Alcides

2012-01-01

458

Economics (Program Description)  

NSF Publications Database

... SBE) SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC SCIENCES (SES) Economics The Program strengthens both empirical and ... economics, labor economics, public finance, macroeconomics, and mathematical economics. Target Dates ...

459

Economic Realities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerns relating to the economics of higher education, including inflation, are considered. It is suggested that future sources of rising costs are energy, equipment, books, and federal requirements, and that another major economic concern involves trends in enrollments and in tuition revenues. Projections of declining enrollments should be…

Van Alstyne, Carol

460

Economics 301.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this one-credit economics course for secondary schools in Manitoba (Canada) is to help students develop skills in business education and to provide them with basic information about how the Canadian economic system affects business, government, and the individual. The course requires 110 to 220 hours of instruction. Students study…

Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

461

Centre for Economic Performance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established by the Economic and Social Research Council in 1990, the Centre for Economic Performance CEP at the London School of Economics and Political Science is one of the most prominent and established economic research groups in Europe. By focusing on the major links between globalization, technology and institutions, the CEP studies the determinants of economic performance at the level of the company, the nation, and the global economy. Broadly, CEP's research programs are divided into five groups that include research into labor markets, technology and growth, and education and skills. From the prodigious site, visitors can read about CEP In the News, learn about the various staff members' research areas of expertise, and browse their related publications (including occasional papers, working papers, and the like) back to 1990. Overall, this site will merit more than one visit, as it will be of substantial interest to persons interested in the intersections between economics, education, and globalization, to name but a few of the topical areas covered under the remit of the CEP.

462

Money as an indicator: to make use of economic evaluation for biodiversity conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental economics has developed methods to use a common indicator (money) for environmental policy decisions. This indicator allows cost-benefit analyses (CBAs) for an objective and realistic evaluation of the economic consequences of different development options. The latter is necessary to avoid decisions in disfavour of nature. This paper gives a broad overview about the advantages and disadvantages of this kind

Ingo Bräuer

2003-01-01

463

The Use of Economic Incentives in Developing Countries: Lessons from International Experience with Industrial Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

To what extent should developing countries eschew conventional command and control regulation that is increasingly seen as inefficient and rely instead on economic incentives to control industrial air pollution? The article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various economic incentive instruments; presents in-depth case studies of their application in Sweden, the United States, China, and Poland; and proposes policy guidelines.

Allen Blackman; Winston Harrington

2000-01-01

464

Economic Statistical Control-Chart Designs With an Application to and R Charts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control charts are the primary tools of statistical process control. These charts may be designed by using a simple rule suggested by Shewhart, by a statistical criterion, or by an economic criterion. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. In this article, I place statistical constraints on economic models to provide designs that meet industry's demand for lowprocess variability and

Erwin M. Saniga

1989-01-01

465

K-12 Course Goals in Home Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large number of home economics program and course goals developed by outstanding teachers using available models and guides is presented in the document. The collection contains concise statements of what students can know and can do in the major content areas of home economics learning, and in the areas in which home economics relates to values…

Tri-County Goal Development Project, Portland, OR.

466

ECONOMIC SYSTEMS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The information you will explore is: List and categorize the four main types of Economic Systems in our world today. Create graphic Illustrations of thoughts and concepts. Express how economic system structures effect the lives of the people living in that system. Write to express an opinion or point of view. Experience a simulation of the marketplace. Research a country of your choice and find important factors about their economic system. Each country structures their economic system after one of the four main types or a combination of these. The assignments on this page will help you to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of the four main types of economic systems. Process: 1. Click on the following link Marketing Calendar Open the Global Economy power point. Use the Chapter 4 listening guide with the power point. chap4 listening guide 2. List the four main economic systems and find the main characterisitics of each. Compare strengths and weaknesses of each. Economic Systems Characteristics 3.Create a ...

Mrs.owen

2006-10-10

467

Swarm Economics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hamiltonian Method of Swarm Design is applied to the design of an agent based economic system. The method allows the design of a system from the global behaviors to the agent behaviors, with a guarantee that once certain derived agent-level conditions are satisfied, the system behavior becomes the desired behavior. Conditions which must be satisfied by consumer agents in order to bring forth the `invisible hand of the market' are derived and demonstrated in simulation. A discussion of how this method might be extended to other economic systems and non-economic systems is presented.

Kazadi, Sanza; Lee, John

468

Communication Based on Receptive Multilingualism: Advantages and Disadvantages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper tries to give answers for successful receptive multilingualism (RM) but also for its failure. It is mainly based on the results of two projects, one on inter-dialectal communication in the Baltic area during the era of the Hanseatic League and the other analyses inter-Scandinavian communication today. The main purpose of this survey is…

Braunmüller, Kurt

2013-01-01

469

75 FR 25815 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...involving the purchase of commodities like asphalt, concrete, or quarried rock, since...example, suppose Prime Contractor A has an asphalt plant--the only one in the area...Contractor A cannot count for DBE credit the asphalt that a DBE paving contractor buys,...

2010-05-10

470

Job Sprawl, Spatial Mismatch, and Black Employment Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the relationship between job sprawl and the spatial mismatch between blacks and jobs. Using data from a variety of sources, including the 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census and U.S. Department of Commerce's ZIP Code Business Patterns, I control extensively for metropolitan area characteristics and other factors. In addition, I use…

Stoll, Michael A.

2006-01-01

471

A Social Psychological Exploration of Power Motivation among Disadvantaged Workers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An extensive review of the literature on the social psychology of social power led to the conclusion that the area contains many un-related, non-cumulative theoretical and empirical works. Three conceptual distinctions were introduced to facilitate the sy...

T. E. Levitin

1971-01-01

472

Improving the Reading Comprehension Skills of Minority Adults from Educationally Disadvantaged Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a synergistic reading comprehension program to help minority adults from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds improve their reading skills in preparation for academics, standardized testing, and medical school. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

Paul, Gina; Verhulst, Steve

2010-01-01

473

Responses of Small and Disadvantaged Businesses to Defense Downsizing in New Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1994, the Department of Defense announced that New Mexico would experience a number of defense-related cutbacks over the next few years. This study examines the responses of small and disadvantaged business owners, nondefense vendors, professional busi...

M. Jiminez, A. Gutierrez, L. Barberena, R. Lopez-Gaston

1998-01-01

474

Turnover and Training: A Social-Phychological Study of Disadvantaged Workers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The experiences and personal characteristics of two groups of disadvantaged workers were studied. The first group consisted of hard core unemployed black men entering a vestibule training program conducted by a large manufacturing company. After completio...

R. P. Quinn B. D. Fine T. Levitin

1970-01-01

475

Violence, Older Peers, and the Socialization of Adolescent Boys in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods  

PubMed Central

Most theoretical perspectives on neighborhood effects on youth assume that neighborhood context serves as a source of socialization, but the exact sources and processes underlying adolescent socialization in disadvantaged neighborhoods are largely unspecified and unelaborated. This paper proposes that cross-cohort socialization by older neighborhood peers is one source of socialization for adolescent boys in such neighborhoods. Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey suggest that adolescents in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to spend time with older individuals. Qualitative interview data from 60 adolescent boys in three neighborhoods in Boston are analyzed to understand the causes and consequences of these interactions and relationships. I find that some of the strategies these adolescents employ to cope with violence in disadvantaged neighborhoods promote interaction with older peers, particularly those who are most disadvantaged, and that such interactions can expose adolescents to local, “unconventional,” or “alternative” cultural models.

Harding, David J.

2009-01-01

476

Exploring the Link between Caregiver Affect and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Does Neighborhood Disadvantage Matter?  

PubMed Central

In a sample of urban youth (N = 1,070), we examined the links between primary caregiver affect (i.e., warmth and hostility) and two measures of sexual behavior in adolescence – early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners. We also examined the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage moderated associations between caregiver affect and adolescent sexual behavior. We found that caregiver hostility was positively associated with early sex and sex with multiple partners in neighborhoods characterized by high levels of disadvantage, but inversely associated with both sex outcomes in neighborhoods characterized by low levels of disadvantage. Caregiver warmth, on the other hand, was inversely associated with early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners in all neighborhoods regardless of neighborhood disadvantage.

Gardner, Margo; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2011-01-01

477

77 FR 28237 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2011, to amend the 8(a) Business Development (BD) program...affecting Small Disadvantaged Businesses (SDBs). That rule was published...Associate Administrator, Office of Business Development, at (202) 205-5852...or LeAnn.Delaney@sba.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY...

2012-05-14

478

48 CFR 19.305 - Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status. 19.305 Section 19.305 ...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs...

2013-10-01

479

An Investigation of the Perceptual - Motor Ability of Small Town and Rural Disadvantaged Children. Final Report, Wisconsin CORD Grant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Purdue Perceptual-Motor Survey, a standardized test of perceptual-motor ability, was administered to 98 disadvantaged rural 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th graders. Comparisons between the mean scores of the disadvantaged sample and the norm group, and within the group of disadvantaged children, were made on the basis of both the total test scores and…

Kerfoot, James F.

480

Seeing the destination but not the path: Effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on school-focused possible self content and linked behavioral strategies  

PubMed Central

Low-income children perform better in school when school-focused future identities are a salient aspect of their possible self for the coming year and these school-focused future identities are linked to behavioral strategies (Oyserman et al., 2006). Hierarchical linear modeling of data from a four-state low-income neighborhood sample of eighth-graders suggests two central consequences of family and neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation on children’s school-focused possible identities and strategies. First, higher neighborhood disadvantage is associated with greater salience of school in children’s possible self for the coming year. Second, disadvantage clouds the path to school-success; controlling for salience of school-focused possible identities, children living in lower socioeconomic status families and boys living in more economically disadvantaged neighborhoods were less likely to have strategies to attain their school-focused possible identities. The influence of family socioeconomic status was seen particularly with regard to strategies to attain academic success and teacher engagement aspects of school-focused identities.

Oyserman, Daphna; Johnson, Elizabeth; James, Leah

2010-01-01

481

Childhood Disadvantage, Adolescent Development, and Pro-Social Behavior in Early Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do disadvantaged children and adolescents become socially responsible, productive, and civic-minded adults? In this study, we combine data from multiple waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) surveys to: (a) document young adults’ pro-social behavior; (b) estimate the long-term effects of childhood disadvantages on volunteerism; and (3) assess possible mediating effects of adolescent development on volunteerism. Delayed childbearing,

J. Brian Brown; Daniel T. Lichter

2006-01-01

482

Higher Education for the Disadvantaged in New York State: A Summary Report of Programs of Higher Education for the Disadvantaged at Colleges and Universities in New York State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey was undertaken to determine what programs are needed for disadvantaged students at the college level, what programs are underway in New York State, and the primary considerations of persons and institutions operating such programs. Of 167 schools contacted, 86 of the 134 that responded had programs at pre-college or college levels.…

Hood, Wenford L.

483

Public Reporting and Market Area Exit Decisions by Home Health Agencies  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine whether home health agencies selectively discontinue services to areas with socio-economically disadvantaged people after the introduction of Home Health Compare (HHC), a public reporting program initiated by Medicare in 2003. Study Design /Methods We focused on agencies' initial responses to HHC and examined selective market-area exits by agencies between 2002 and 2004. We measured HHC effects by the percentage of quality indicators reported in public HHC data in 2003. Socio-economic status was measured by per capita income and percent college-educated at the market-area level. Data Source(s) 2002 and 2004 Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS); 2000 US Census file; 2004 Area Resource File; and 2002 Provider of Service File. Principal Findings We found a small and weak effect of public reporting on selective exits: a 10-percent increase in reporting (reporting one more indicator) increased the probability of leaving an area with less-educated people by 0.3 percentage points, compared with leaving an area with high education. Conclusion The small level of market-area exits under public reporting is unlikely to be practically meaningful, suggesting that HHC did not lead to a disruption in access to home health care through selective exits during the initial year of the program.

Jung, Kyoungrae; Feldman, Roger

2012-01-01

484

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Structural Disadvantage and Crime: White, Black, and Hispanic Comparisons*  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this study is to advance knowledge on racial/ethnic disparities in violence and the structural sources of those disparities. We do so by extending scarce and limited research exploring the relationship between race/ethnic gaps in disadvantage and differences in violent crime across groups. Methods Using census place-level data from California and New York, we construct White, Black, and Hispanic “gap” measures that take as a given the existence of disparities across race/ethnic groups in structural disadvantage and crime and subsequently utilize seemingly unrelated regression models to assess the extent to which gaps in disadvantage are predictive of gaps in homicide and index violence. Results Our results suggest that (1) there is considerable heterogeneity in the size of White-Black, White-Hispanic, and Black-Hispanic gaps in structural disadvantage and crime and (2) that race/ethnic disparities in structural disadvantage, particularly poverty and female headship, are positively associated with race/ethnic gaps in homicide and index violence. Conclusion In light of recent scholarship on the racial invariance hypothesis and on the relationship between structural inequality and crime, the current study demonstrates that disparities in disadvantage, particularly family structure and poverty, are important in driving racial and ethnic disparities in crime.

Ulmer, Jeffery T.; Harris, Casey T.; Steffensmeier, Darrell

2014-01-01

485

Herd prevalence of bovine brucellosis and analysis of risk factors in cattle in urban and peri-urban areas of the Kampala economic zone, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Human brucellosis has been found to be prevalent in the urban areas of Kampala, the capital city of Uganda. A cross-sectional study was designed to generate precise information on the prevalence of brucellosis in cattle and risk factors for the disease in its urban and peri-urban dairy farming systems. Results The adjusted herd prevalence of brucellosis was 6.5% (11/177, 95% CI: 3.6%-10.0%) and the adjusted individual animal prevalence was 5.0% (21/423, 95% CI: 2.7% - 9.3%) based on diagnosis using commercial kits of the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA) for Brucella abortus antibodies. Mean within-herd prevalence was found to be 25.9% (95% CI: 9.7% - 53.1%) and brucellosis prevalence in an infected herd ranged from 9.1% to 50%. A risk factor could not be identified at the animal level but two risk factors were identified at the herd level: large herd size and history of abortion. The mean number of milking cows in a free-grazing herd (5.0) was significantly larger than a herd with a movement restricted (1.7, p < 0.001). Conclusions Vaccination should be targeted at commercial large-scale farms with free-grazing farming to control brucellosis in cattle in and around Kampala city.

2011-01-01

486

Wanting to attend isn't just wanting to quit: why some disadvantaged smokers regularly attend smoking cessation behavioural therapy while others do not: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Attendance of a behavioural support programme facilitates smoking cessation. Disadvantaged smokers have been shown to attend less than their more affluent peers. We need to gain in-depth insight into underlying reasons for differing attendance behaviour in disadvantaged smokers, to better address this issue. This study aims to explore the underlying motivations, barriers and social support of smokers exhibiting different patterns of attendance at a free smoking cessation behavioural support programme in a disadvantaged neighbourhood of The Netherlands. Methods In 29 smokers undertaking smoking cessation group therapy or telephone counselling in a disadvantaged neighbourhood, qualitative interviews were completed, coded and analysed. Major themes were motivations, barriers to attend and social support. Motivations and social support were analysed with reference to the self-determination theory. Results Two distinct patterns of attendance emerged: those who missed up to two sessions (“frequent attenders”), and those who missed more than two sessions (“infrequent attenders”). The groups differed in their motivations to attend, barriers to attendance, and in the level of social support they received. In comparison with the infrequent attenders, frequent attenders more often had intrinsic motivation to attend (e.g. enjoyed attending), and named more self-determined extrinsic motivations to attend, such as commitment to attendance and wanting to quit. Most of those mentioning intrinsic motivation did not mention a desire to quit as a motivation for attendance. No organizational barriers to attendance were mentioned by frequent attenders, such as misunderstandings around details of appointments. Frequent attenders experienced more social support within and outside the course. Conclusion Motivation to attend behavioural support, as distinct from motivation to quit smoking, is an important factor in attendance of smoking cessation courses in disadvantaged areas. Some focus on increasing motivation to attend may help to prevent participants missing sessions.

2014-01-01

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Edgecombe County, North Carolina, Economic Potential Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Economic Potential Study provides information about the county's economic structure as it relates to the welfare of the population. Background data is provided for such areas as characteristics of the population, housing conditions, farming traditions...