Science.gov

Sample records for economically disadvantaged areas

  1. Development of Human Resources Through a Vocationally Oriented Educational Program for Disadvantaged Families in Depressed Rural Areas. Degree to Which Families are Satisfied with Selected Aspects of Family Life in an Economically Depressed Rural Area. Interim Report 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Gerald R.; Phipps, Lloyd J.

    To identify aspects of family living which were satisfying to residents of low income areas 84 families representative of the total population of an economically depressed rural area and 31 severely disadvantaged families were interviewed. Some findings were: (1) Approximately 87 percent of families living in the area and 74 percent of the…

  2. Cognitive aspects of young children's experience of economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Heberle, Amy E; Carter, Alice S

    2015-07-01

    Economic disadvantage is a well-studied risk factor for poorer behavioral and academic functioning in young children. Although the mechanisms by which disadvantage impacts children have long been of interest to researchers, studies to date have predominantly focused on mechanisms that are external to the child (e.g., parental depression, marital conflict). Very few studies have examined the internal, cognitive aspects of the experience of economic disadvantage, and almost none have considered how the effects of disadvantage on children's functioning might be mediated through cognitive processes. This article provides a framework for research into cognitive and social-cognitive mediators of economic disadvantage operating in early-to-middle childhood. The initial section of the article briefly reviews and summarizes the extant literature on childhood poverty and its effects. The second section reviews the evidence that preschool-aged children have the requisite cognitive abilities to recognize social inequality in their environments, to be aware of stereotypes related to social class, and to connect these social concepts to their own experience. The third section reviews and evaluates the small literature on children's appraisals, attributions, stereotypes, and perceptions of or about poverty and inequality. The fourth section defines and evaluates the literature on 2 social-cognitive processes-stereotype threat and status anxiety-that are hypothesized to mediate the effects of economic disadvantage on children's functioning. The article concludes with a series of proposed questions and hypotheses for future research, and elaborates on the potential implications of the proposed area of research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25822131

  3. How Children from Disadvantaged Areas Keep Safe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Katrina M.; Hill, Malcolm; Stafford, Anne; Walker, Moira

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper sets out to describe how children from disadvantaged areas perceive their communities and actively negotiate threats in their lives. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 60 interviews and 16 discussions groups were held with 8 to 14-year-olds sampled from four deprived communities located in the West of Scotland. Participants…

  4. How Children from Disadvantaged Areas Keep Safe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Katrina M.; Hill, Malcolm; Stafford, Anne; Walker, Moira

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper sets out to describe how children from disadvantaged areas perceive their communities and actively negotiate threats in their lives. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 60 interviews and 16 discussions groups were held with 8 to 14-year-olds sampled from four deprived communities located in the West of Scotland. Participants

  5. Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This article reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate…

  6. Peer-mentoring for first-time mothers from areas of socio-economic disadvantage: A qualitative study within a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Christine A; Cupples, Margaret E; Percy, Andrew; Halliday, Henry L; Stewart, Moira C

    2008-01-01

    Background Non-professional involvement in delivering health and social care support in areas of socio-economic deprivation is considered important in attempting to reduce health inequalities. However, trials of peer mentoring programmes have yielded inconsistent evidence of benefit: difficulties in implementation have contributed to uncertainty regarding their efficacy. We aimed to explore difficulties encountered in conducting a randomised controlled trial of a peer-mentoring programme for first-time mothers in socially disadvantaged areas, in order to provide information relevant to future research and practice. This paper describes the experiences of lay-workers, women and health professionals involved in the trial. Methods Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with women (n = 11) who were offered peer mentor support, lay-workers (n = 11) who provided mentoring and midwives (n = 2) who supervised the programme, which provided support, from first hospital antenatal visit to one year postnatal. Planned frequency of contact was two-weekly (telephone or home visit) but was tailored to individuals' needs. Results Despite lay-workers living in the same locality, they experienced difficulty initiating contact with women and this affected their morale adversely. Despite researchers' attempts to ensure that the role of the mentor was understood clearly it appeared that this was not achieved for all participants. Mentors attempted to develop peer-mentor relationships by offering friendship and sharing personal experiences, which was appreciated by women. Mentors reported difficulties developing relationships with those who lacked interest in the programme. External influences, including family and friends, could prevent or facilitate mentoring. Time constraints in reconciling flexible mentoring arrangements with demands of other commitments posed major personal difficulties for lay-workers. Conclusion Difficulties in initiating contact, developing peer-mentor relationships and time constraints pose challenges to delivering lay-worker peer support. In developing such programmes, awareness of potential difficulties and of how professional support may help resolve these should improve uptake and optimise evaluation of their effectiveness. Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN55055030 PMID:18304334

  7. The Engagement in Schooling of Economically Disadvantaged Parents and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Carey E.; Crosnoe, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This study considers academic risk and resilience in the context of economic disadvantage, examining the associations among such disadvantage, parental involvement in education, and children's academic orientation in a sample of 489 inner-city families. Neither parents' nor children's engagement in the educational system was significantly…

  8. 13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who is economically disadvantaged? 124.104 Section 124.104 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS 8(a) Business Development Eligibility Requirements for Participation in the...

  9. 13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Who is economically disadvantaged? 124.104 Section 124.104 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS 8(a) Business Development Eligibility Requirements for Participation in the...

  10. 13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who is economically disadvantaged? 124.104 Section 124.104 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS 8(a) Business Development Eligibility Requirements for Participation in the...

  11. The "Collateral Impact" of Pupil Behaviour and Geographically Concentrated Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Alex Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Schools in areas of concentrated disadvantage tend to have below-average attainment, but there is no consensus on why. Mental and behavioural disorders in children are correlated with socio-economic disadvantage. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the first phenomenon can at least partly be accounted for by the second phenomenon through…

  12. Developing Latent Mathematics Abilities in Economically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Michele A.; Hollingsworth, Patricia L.; Barnes, Laura L. B.

    2005-01-01

    The current study was undertaken as an effort to attend to the potential giftedness of economically disadvantaged students, to give opportunities for mathematics acceleration, and to provide a sequential, individualized mathematics program for students of high mobility. The authors evaluated the Project SAIL (Students' Active Interdisciplinary…

  13. Childhood Adultification in Economically Disadvantaged Families: A Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an emergent conceptual model of childhood adultification and economic disadvantage derived from 5 longitudinal ethnographies of children and adolescents growing up in low-income families. Childhood adultification involves contextual, social, and developmental processes in which youth are prematurely, and often…

  14. 34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Economically disadvantaged appeals. 668.194 Section 668... selected under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, have an expected family contribution, as defined in 34 CFR... Human Services poverty guidelines for the size of the student's family unit. (2) The students who...

  15. 34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Economically disadvantaged appeals. 668.213 Section 668... selected under paragraph (c)(2) of this section, have an expected family contribution, as defined in 34 CFR... Human Services poverty guidelines for the size of the student's family unit. (2) The students who...

  16. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT AMONG ECONOMICALLY AND EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GREEN, ROBERT L.

    CURRENT RESEARCH INDICATES THAT SCHOOL AND HOME ENVIRONMENTS STRONGLY INFLUENCE AN INDIVIDUAL'S INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT, ALTHOUGH CERTAIN VERY BROAD HEREDITARY LIMITATIONS MAY ALSO AFFECT IT. THE ECONOMICALLY AND EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH EXPERIENCES AN ENVIRONMENT WHICH LACKS STIMULI ESSENTIAL TO POSITIVE INTELLECTUAL GROWTH AND…

  17. Book Selections of Economically Disadvantaged Black Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lunetta M.

    2008-01-01

    The author identified books most often selected among a sample of economically disadvantaged Black 8- to 12-year-old participants (N = 293) and investigated reasons participants offered for choosing specific books. Participants self-selected books at a book fair providing 412 books. The most commonly selected books supplied descriptive data.…

  18. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual Determinations of Social and Economic... Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage The following...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual Determinations of Social and Economic... Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage The following...

  20. Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This paper reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate diversity and instability. This expansion would be particularly relevant for research among low-income ethnic minority families and families with young children. This line of research would highlight specific pathways to target to prevent the onset of early parental and child dysfunction. PMID:18491229

  1. Comparing homeless smokers to economically disadvantaged domiciled smokers.

    PubMed

    Businelle, Michael S; Cuate, Erica L; Kesh, Anshula; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Kendzor, Darla E

    2013-12-01

    We compared characteristics of homeless smokers and economically disadvantaged domiciled smokers (Dallas, TX; August 2011-November 2012). Although findings indicated similar smoking characteristics across samples, homeless smokers (n = 57) were exposed to more smokers and reported lower motivation to quit, lower self-efficacy for quitting, more days with mental health problems, and greater exposure to numerous stressors than domiciled smokers (n = 110). The sample groups reported similar scores on measures of affect, perceived stress, and interpersonal resources. Results may inform novel cessation interventions for homeless smokers. PMID:24148069

  2. Universe Awareness . An inspirational programme for economically disadvantaged young children.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ödman, C. J.; Scorza, C.; Miley, G. K.; Madsen, C.

    The beauty of the sky and its connection with the human development have inspired generations with wonder. Astronomy conveys the excitement of science to the public. Considerable resources are devoted to outreach in developed countries, with spectacular images produced by modern astronomical facilities and astronomical discoveries that change our views of the Universe. Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is a programme for children between 4 and 10 years old. The formative ages of 4 to 10 years are crucial in child development. Children of that age can appreciate the beauty of astronomical objects and develop a ``feeling'' for the vastness of the Universe. Exposing young children to such material is likely to broaden their minds and stimulate their world-view. The programme concentrates on economically disadvantaged young children because most other children will be exposed to some knowledge about the Universe and disparities between advantaged and disadvantaged children increase with age. Venezuela hosted a successful pilot project in 2006. From spontaneous observation of the sky to a teacher-training workshop in the "Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía" in Mérida, this was a wonderful experience for participants and organisers alike. This shows how successful the UNAWE programme can be.

  3. Learning Disability and Cultural-Economic Disadvantage: The Case for a Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavale, Kenneth A.

    1988-01-01

    The article presents evidence suggesting a relationship between learning disabilities, brain dysfunction, and cultural-economic disadvantage. The inclusion of disadvantaged children within the learning disability framework of services is recommended. (Author/DB)

  4. Structural Impediments to Success: A Look at Disadvantaged Young Men in Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sarah E.

    This paper explores how recent economic, demographic, and social changes have created the conditions that are presently constricting the opportunities and future expectations of today's urban young men. While research indicates that all disadvantaged youth in urban areas are facing impediments to their success, the paper focuses on the realities…

  5. New Labour and Educational Disadvantage: The Limits of Area-Based Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Sally; Rees, Gareth; Taylor, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Since coming to power in 1997, New Labour has adopted area-based initiatives (ABIs) as a key strategy to combat economic, social and (especially) educational disadvantage. This paper briefly outlines the history of ABIs within the UK and explores the discontinuities and continuities between recent initiatives and their earlier counterparts. It…

  6. An Investigation of the Sustained Effects of Reading Recovery ® on Economically Disadvantaged Fifth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redding, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the long-term benefits of the Reading Recovery ® program for economically disadvantaged students who were successfully discontinued after the first grade. The hypothesis was tested that students exiting first grade with grade-level reading abilities and with similar low socio-economic status (economically disadvantaged), who…

  7. An Investigation of the Sustained Effects of Reading Recovery on Economically Disadvantaged Fifth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redding, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the long-term benefits of the Reading Recovery program for economically disadvantaged students who were successfully discontinued after the first grade. The hypothesis was tested that students exiting first grade with grade-level reading abilities and with similar low socio-economic status (economically disadvantaged), who

  8. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... distributed at the present time. (iv) Notwithstanding any provision of Federal or state law, you must...

  9. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1...) Notwithstanding any provision of Federal or state law, you must not release an individual's personal net...

  10. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... support it with a signed, notarized statement of personal net worth, with appropriate...

  11. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... support it with a signed, notarized statement of personal net worth, with appropriate...

  12. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... support it with a signed, notarized statement of personal net worth, with appropriate...

  13. Training the Socio-Economically Disadvantaged; A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Beverly J.

    This annotated bibliography presents a collection of readings which should be of interest to persons charged with the responsibility of planning programs dealing with the education, counseling, and socialization of the socioeconomically disadvantaged. Taken from various sources, this collection contains: (1) current readings, (2) a listing of…

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK AND IMPACT IN COMMUNITIES OF COLOR AND ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that communities of color and economically/educationally disadvantaged communities are at a greater risk of impact from environmental hazards. In many past studies in environmental justice (EJ) communities, scientists have used surrogate measures of exposure b...

  15. Targeting Educational Disadvantage by Area: Continuity and Change in Urban Areas in England, 1968-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, George; Smith, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on data and policies from England, trends in educational disadvantage by area are traced from the late 1960s when the first pilot projects were established in the UK, to the present. The origins of these developments and the subsequent rises and falls of such area-based policies in England are reviewed. Specially collected data for the…

  16. Social characteristics of psychological distress in a disadvantaged urban area of Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Ignatyev, Yuriy; Assimov, Marat; Dochshanov, Dauren; Ströhle, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas; Mundt, Adrian P

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to systematically assess the association of socio-economic characteristics and psychological distress in a disadvantaged urban area of a post-Soviet Republic. Psychological distress was assessed in a random sample of 200 persons, aged 18-57, living in a disadvantaged urban area of Kazakhstan using the General Health Questionnaire with 28 items (GHQ-28). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the association of social characteristics and psychological distress. Female gender (P < 0.05), living without a partner (P < 0.01), higher age (P < 0.01), unemployment (P < 0.01), and low perceived income (P < 0.05) were associated with psychological distress in multivariate analyses. Non-Kazakh ethnicity (P < 0.05) was linked with psychological distress in bivariate analyses. The educational level was not significantly associated with psychological distress. Women, aged 38-57, living without partner and with low access to financial resources, were at a very high risk of psychological distress. Possibly due to social drift or status inconsistency, higher educational levels were not associated with lower levels of psychological distress in the disadvantaged area. PMID:23712308

  17. Economically Disadvantaged Children's Transitions into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.

    2010-01-01

    Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify "family-based" mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential "school-based" remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation of…

  18. Temperament Influences on Parenting and Child Psychopathology: Socio-Economic Disadvantage as Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini

    2008-01-01

    Despite calls for research on how the socio-economic environment may be related to temperament, we still do not know enough about the relationship between temperament and socio-economic disadvantage (SED). A particularly under-researched question in temperament research is how SED may moderate the temperament-parenting and the temperament-child…

  19. How Does Childhood Economic Disadvantage Lead to Crime?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David; Swain-Campbell, Nicola; Horwood, John

    2004-01-01

    Background: This study sought to examine the associations between indices of socio-economic deprivation in childhood and later involvement in crime. Method: Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study. In this project a cohort of 1,265 children born in Christchurch in 1977 have been studied from birth to age 21

  20. How Does Childhood Economic Disadvantage Lead to Crime?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David; Swain-Campbell, Nicola; Horwood, John

    2004-01-01

    Background: This study sought to examine the associations between indices of socio-economic deprivation in childhood and later involvement in crime. Method: Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study. In this project a cohort of 1,265 children born in Christchurch in 1977 have been studied from birth to age 21…

  1. Promotion of Primary Education for Girls and Children in Disadvantaged Areas in Gansu Province, China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Tiedao; Jing, Min

    Universalizing primary education for girls and children in disadvantaged areas remains the most challenging task for developing countries in Asia and the Pacific. This evaluation report reviews the processes and outcomes of the Pilot Project on Promotion of Primary Education for Girls and Children in Disadvantaged Areas in Gansu Province, China, a

  2. Processes of change for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study sought to identify Transtheoretical model processes of change associated with consumption of >=5 daily servings of fruit and vegetables in a sample of economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (N=549; mean (SD) age=12.44 (.99) years; 61% female; 15% African American Hispanic...

  3. Process of change for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study sought to identify Transtheoretical Model processes of change associated with consumption of = 5 daily servings of FVs in a sample of economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (N = 549; mean (SD) age = 12.44 (.99) years; 61% female; 15% African American Hispanic). Participan...

  4. A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…

  5. Predictors of Parenting among Economically Disadvantaged Latina Mothers: Mediating and Moderating Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Bowman, Marvella A.; Swenson, Rebecca R.

    2010-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role of ecological risk factors, maternal psychological distress, and social network support on the parenting behaviors of 535 economically disadvantaged Latina mothers, who were surveyed for the Welfare Children, & Families: A Three City Study. We predicted that ecological risk would influence

  6. Is an Intervention Program Necessary in Order to Improve Economically Disadvantaged Children's IQ Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The hypothesis was investigated that alleviation of negative motivational factors underlies much of the 10-point IQ increase commonly found in economically disadvantaged children's performance following a preschool intervention program. Head Start and non-Head Start groups were tested on IQ and motivational measures three times before and during…

  7. A Special Friend: Adolescent Mentors for Young, Economically Disadvantaged, Potentially Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Lisa; Borland, James H.

    1992-01-01

    The mentorship component of Project Synergy at Teachers College, Columbia University (New York), develops the talent of potentially gifted, economically disadvantaged urban kindergarten children, by matching them with mentors from a school for gifted urban minority middle school students. This paper describes training, the mentoring relationship…

  8. Learning Disability and Cultural-Economic Disadvantage: The Case for a Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavale, Kenneth A.

    1980-01-01

    A case is presented to reveal the existence of a relationship between learning disabilities and cultural-economic disadvantage. Evidence from a variety of sources is presented suggesting that the problem is most properly viewed as a complex interrelationship among the phenomena of learning disabilities, brain dysfunction, and cultural-economic…

  9. Predictors of Quality of Life in Economically Disadvantaged Populations in Montreal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caron, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Most epidemiological studies agree that economically disadvantaged populations are the groups most vulnerable to mental health problems and report lower quality of life among these populations. However, it appears that access to social support plays a role in protecting against the chronic stress resulting from conditions such as poverty. This…

  10. Predictors of Parenting among Economically Disadvantaged Latina Mothers: Mediating and Moderating Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Bowman, Marvella A.; Swenson, Rebecca R.

    2010-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role of ecological risk factors, maternal psychological distress, and social network support on the parenting behaviors of 535 economically disadvantaged Latina mothers, who were surveyed for the Welfare Children, & Families: A Three City Study. We predicted that ecological risk would influence…

  11. Economic Disadvantage and Young Children's Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Mechanisms of Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home…

  12. Educators' Use of Cognitively Challenging Questions in Economically Disadvantaged Preschool Classroom Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Susan L.; Pence, Khara L.; Justice, Laura M.; Bowles, Ryan P.

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated the complexity of teacher questions in 14 preschool classrooms serving economically disadvantaged 4-year-olds. The purposes were to explore the frequency and complexity of teacher questions and to determine the extent to which question types varied for different classroom contexts. Using teacher…

  13. African Americans, Economically Disadvantaged, or Attendance Rate Effects on Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sheena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, nonexperimental study was to determine if and to what extent a difference existed in the percentage of African American students, percentage of economically disadvantaged students, and students' attendance rate in elementary schools that made adequate yearly progress (AYP) and those that did not make AYP in one…

  14. The Impact of an Economically Disadvantaged Student Population on School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, Curtis F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between student poverty levels, defined by the number of students identified as economically disadvantaged by qualifying for free and reduced lunch and school climate. The literature review examined school climate and culture, effects of student socioeconomic (SES) status on education,…

  15. Effect of Dropout Prevention Programs on the Attitudes toward School of Economically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, Earl F., II.

    2012-01-01

    Every year, students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds drop out of school and attempt to enter the work force without any specialized training. The purpose of this study was to understand if dropout prevention programs change a potential dropout's attitude toward school in a public school district. A quantitative, quasi-experimental…

  16. Persistence in the Face of Academic Challenge for Economically Disadvantaged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eleanor D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined persistence in the face of academic challenge for economically disadvantaged children. Participants included 103 children attending Head Start preschools, as well as their caregivers and teachers. Child tasks measured persistence in the face of academic challenge as well as emergent implicit theories of intelligence. Caregiver…

  17. The Achievement of Economically Disadvantaged Fifth Graders in Summer Enrichment Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulden, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    The achievement gap between economically disadvantaged students and their traditional counterparts has continued to be a problem in education. Based on cognitive constructivist theory and enrichment theory, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between scores on a high-stakes achievement test and participation in a summer…

  18. 15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. 1400.4 Section 1400.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) MINORITY BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT AGENCY DETERMINATION OF GROUP ELIGIBILITY FOR MBDA ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or...

  19. 15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. 1400.4 Section 1400.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) MINORITY BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT AGENCY DETERMINATION OF GROUP ELIGIBILITY FOR MBDA ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or...

  20. Predicting Parental Involvement in Children's Schooling within an Economically Disadvantaged African American Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overstreet, Stacy; Devine, Joel; Bevans, Katherine; Efreom, Yael

    2005-01-01

    Predictors of parental school involvement were examined within a sample of 159 economically disadvantaged, African American parents living in an urban setting. School involvement was defined in terms of parent activity within the school. Parent demographics, attitudes about education, and community engagement behaviors as well as parent…

  1. 13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section 127.203 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT ASSISTANCE... the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?...

  2. 48 CFR 6.207 - Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women-owned small business (WOSB... After Exclusion of Sources 6.207 Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible under the WOSB Program. (a)...

  3. 48 CFR 18.117 - Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns... Flexibilities 18.117 Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and...

  4. 48 CFR 6.207 - Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women-owned small business (WOSB... After Exclusion of Sources 6.207 Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible under the WOSB Program. (a)...

  5. 48 CFR 18.117 - Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns... Flexibilities 18.117 Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and...

  6. 48 CFR 6.207 - Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women-owned small business (WOSB... After Exclusion of Sources 6.207 Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible under the WOSB Program. (a)...

  7. 48 CFR 6.207 - Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women-owned small business (WOSB... After Exclusion of Sources 6.207 Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible under the WOSB Program. (a)...

  8. 48 CFR 18.117 - Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns... Flexibilities 18.117 Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and...

  9. 48 CFR 18.117 - Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns... Flexibilities 18.117 Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and...

  10. Case Studies of Success: Supporting Academic Success for Students with High Potential from Ethnic Minority and Economically Disadvantaged Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Carol Ann; Jarvis, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    The underrepresentation of ethnic minority and economically disadvantaged students in gifted education must be understood in terms of broader school contexts and practices. This qualitative study investigated how teachers and schools contributed to the academic success of minority students of high potential from economically disadvantaged

  11. Violent behavior in Chinese adolescents with an economic disadvantage. Psychological, family and interpersonal correlates.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T; Tang, Vera

    2003-01-01

    Two studies investigating the psychological, family and interpersonal correlates of adolescent violent behavior are reported in this paper. In Study 1, secondary school students (N = 1,519) responded to established scales assessing their psychological attributes, family functioning, parenting qualities and psychosocial support and conflict. Results of Study 1 showed that: a) adolescents who showed higher levels of perceived stress and psychological symptoms displayed more signs of adolescent violence; b) adolescents who had a higher sense of mastery and existential mental health displayed less signs of violence; c) adolescents' attitudes towards poverty and traditional Chinese beliefs about adversity were significantly related to adolescent violence; d) higher levels of family functioning, positive parenting styles as well as interpersonal support and lower levels of interpersonal conflicts were associated with a lower level of adolescent violence. Results further showed that some of the above factors were more strongly related to adolescent violence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage than in adolescents who did not experience economic disadvantage. Some of the findings of Study 1 were replicated in Study 2, where adolescents from 229 families (either families on welfare or low income families) were recruited. These studies suggested that several psychological, family and interpersonal factors are related to adolescent violent behavior, particularly in adolescents with economic disadvantage. PMID:12964444

  12. Does living in a disadvantaged area mean fewer opportunities to purchase fresh fruit and vegetables in the area? Findings from the Brisbane food study.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Elisabeth; Turrell, Gavin; Patterson, Carla

    2006-09-01

    Understanding the particularly low intake of fruits and vegetables among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups is an important issue for public health. This study investigated whether access to retail outlets is similar across areas of varying socioeconomic disadvantage in an Australian urban setting, in terms of distance, the numbers of local shops, and their opening hours. This ecological cross-sectional study used 50 randomly sampled census collection districts and their nearby shopping environment (i.e. within 2.5 km), and generally found minimal or no socioeconomic differences in shopping infrastructure. Important methodological and social/economic issues may explain this contrast with overseas findings. PMID:16546696

  13. Relation between reading problems and internalizing behavior in school for preadolescent children from economically disadvantaged families.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Brian P; Izard, Carroll E; Kobak, Roger; Brown, Eleanor D; Smith, Clare

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 105 economically disadvantaged children examined the relation between reading problems and internalizing behavior in 3rd- and 5th-grade assessments (8- to 12-year olds). The variable-centered results showed that reading problems predicted change in internalizing behavior in the context of child and family predictors. The person-centered results showed that children with reading problems in both grades had higher internalizing scores in 5th grade but not in 3rd grade than children with reading problems in 3rd grade or no problems. Child-reported negative emotion experiences varied similarly across grade. The results tie reading problems to emotional distress in school and support conclusions about the direction of effects and the internalization of academic difficulty for disadvantaged children. PMID:17381791

  14. Validity and reliability of a dietary stages of change measure among economically disadvantaged African-American adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of theoretically prescribed behavior change strategies associated with adequate fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption are lacking. This study sought to identify Transtheoretical Model processes of change associated with consumption of five daily servings of FVs among economically disadvantage...

  15. Longitudinal predictors of frequent vegetable and fruit consumption among socio-economically disadvantaged Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Lena D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2014-07-01

    Adequate vegetable and fruit consumption is necessary for preventing nutrition-related diseases. Socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume relatively few vegetables and fruits. However, despite nutritional challenges associated with socio-economic disadvantage, a minority of adolescents manage to eat vegetables and fruit in quantities that are more in line with dietary recommendations. This investigation aimed to identify predictors of more frequent intakes of fruits and vegetables among adolescents over a 2-year follow-up period. Data were drawn from 521 socio-economically disadvantaged (maternal education ≤Year 10 of secondary school) Australian adolescents aged 12-15 years. Participants were recruited from 37 secondary schools and were asked to complete online surveys in 2004/2005 (baseline) and 2006/2007 (follow-up). Surveys comprised a 38-item FFQ and questions based on Social Ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental influences on diet. At baseline and follow-up, respectively, 29% and 24% of adolescents frequently consumed vegetables (≥2 times/day); 33% and 36% frequently consumed fruit (≥1 time/day). In multivariable logistic regressions, baseline consumption strongly predicted consumption at follow-up. Frequently being served vegetables at dinner predicted frequent vegetable consumption. Female sex, rarely purchasing food or drink from school vending machines, and usually being expected to eat all foods served predicted frequent fruit consumption. Findings suggest nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving eating behaviours among this at-risk population and should focus on younger adolescents, particularly boys; improving adolescent eating behaviours at school; and encouraging families to increase home availability of healthy foods and to implement meal time rules. PMID:24685764

  16. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... employment; retaliatory or discriminatory behavior by an employer or labor union; and social patterns...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... employment; retaliatory or discriminatory behavior by an employer or labor union; and social patterns...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... employment; retaliatory or discriminatory behavior by an employer or labor union; and social patterns...

  19. Troubled Times, Troubled Relationships: How Economic Resources, Gender Beliefs, and Neighborhood Disadvantage Influence Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Shelley D.; Perreira, Krista M.; Durrance, Christine Piette

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV), and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N=1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mother’s reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age three, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women’s risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the race/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women’s economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV. PMID:23300198

  20. Local Area Disadvantage and Gambling Involvement and Disorder: Evidence for Gene-Environment Correlation and Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Slutske, Wendy S.; Deutsch, Arielle R.; Statham, Dixie B.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that local area characteristics (such as disadvantage and gambling outlet density) and genetic risk factors are associated with gambling involvement and disordered gambling. These two lines of research were brought together in the present study by examining the extent to which genetic contributions to individual differences in gambling involvement and disorder contributed to being exposed to, and were also accentuated by, local area disadvantage. Participants were members of the national community-based Australian Twin Registry who completed a telephone interview in which the past-year frequency of gambling and symptoms of disordered gambling were assessed. Indicators of local area disadvantage were based on census data matched to the participants' postal codes. Univariate biometric model-fitting revealed that exposure to area disadvantage was partially explained by genetic factors. Bivariate biometric model-fitting was conducted to examine the evidence for gene-environment interaction while accounting for gene-environment correlation. These analyses demonstrated that: (a) a small portion of the genetic propensity to gamble was explained by moving to or remaining in a disadvantaged area, and (b) the remaining genetic and unique environmental variation in the frequency of participating in electronic machine gambling (among men and women) and symptoms of disordered gambling (among women) was greater in more disadvantaged localities. As the gambling industry continues to grow, it will be important to take into account the multiple contexts in which problematic gambling behavior can emerge -- from genes to geography -- as well as the ways in which such contexts may interact with each other. PMID:26147321

  1. [The long-term influence of socio-economic disadvantage on the psychosocial adjustment of women].

    PubMed

    Schoon, Ingrid

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of a prospective longitudinal study of over 15,000 women this paper examines the long-term influences of socio-economic disadvantages on psychosocial adjustment. The study draws on data from two British cohort studies carried out 12 years apart from each other. A contextual developmental perspective is adopted to analyse the pathways linking childhood experiences to adult functioning in a changing socio-historical context. The study suggests a causal chain process linking the early and persisting experience of socio-economic adversity to behavioural maladjustment of girls during childhood and adolescence. Socio-economic adversity and behavioural maladjustment in adolescence, in turn, predict the development of depressive symptoms in adulthood. The influence of socio-economic adversity on individual development, however, also depends on the wider socio-historical context in which development takes place. It is concluded that for a better understanding of psychosocial adjustment across the lifespan we have to consider the interactions of a changing individual in a changing context. PMID:12407496

  2. Mobile Technologies & Socio-Economic Opportunities for Disadvantaged Women: A Study of Information Behavior in a Developing Nation Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potnis, Devendra Dilip

    2010-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been championed by the United Nations and others as one of the key media to open up socio-economic opportunities for disadvantaged populations. Studies lead us to believe that after being introduced to ICTs, users' information behavior changes, enabling them to benefit from socio-economic

  3. Case Studies of Success: Supporting Academic Success for Students with High Potential from Ethnic Minority and Economically Disadvantaged Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Carol Ann; Jarvis, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    The underrepresentation of ethnic minority and economically disadvantaged students in gifted education must be understood in terms of broader school contexts and practices. This qualitative study investigated how teachers and schools contributed to the academic success of minority students of high potential from economically disadvantaged…

  4. Enhancing Motivation to Reduce the Risk of HIV Infection for Economically Disadvantaged Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Forsyth, Andrew D.; Wright, Ednita M.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2008-01-01

    This research evaluated a motivation-based HIV-risk-reduction intervention for economically disadvantaged urban women. Participants completed a survey that assessed HIV-related knowledge, risk perceptions, behavioral intentions, sexual communication, substance use, and risk behavior. A total of 102 at-risk women (76% African-American) were randomly assigned to either the risk-reduction intervention or to a waiting list. Women were reassessed at three and twelve weeks. Results indicated that treated women increased their knowledge and risk awareness, strengthened their intentions to adopt safer sexual practices, communicated their intentions with partners, reduced substance use proximal to sexual activities, and engaged in fewer acts of unprotected vaginal intercourse. These effects were observed immediately and most were maintained at follow-up. PMID:9256553

  5. A longitudinal study of the social and academic competence of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children.

    PubMed

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V; Esquivel, Giselle B; Kaliski, Pamela K; Maniatis, Lisette

    2011-05-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered analysis of 207 Hispanic American preschoolers (ages 4 and 5 years) yielded 6 distinct profiles, 2 of which were socially competent and 1 of which was vulnerable. Findings revealed profile differences in social competence and a significant relationship between bilingualism and social-emotional development. In Study 2, the authors determined which profiles were associated with later academic achievement and growth of English proficiency. Findings indicated a significant relationship of early social-emotional development to later academic success and English acquisition, highlighting the role of bilingualism. PMID:21219064

  6. Cortisol and antisocial behavior in early adolescence: the role of gender in an economically disadvantaged sample.

    PubMed

    Kobak, Roger; Zajac, Kristyn; Levine, Seymour

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relation between adolescents' antisocial behaviors and adrenocortical activity during a laboratory visit in a sample of economically disadvantaged families (N = 116, ages 12-14, 51% female). Pretask cortisol levels indexed adolescents' prechallenge response to the lab visit, whereas adolescents' response to a conflict discussion with their caregivers was indexed with residualized change in pre- to postconflict cortisol levels. A trait measure of antisocial behavior (derived from parent, teacher, and self-reports) was associated with lower pretask cortisol levels but greater cortisol response to the conflict discussion. Gender moderated antisocial adolescents' cortisol response to the conflict discussion with girls who reported more covert risky problem behaviors showing an increased cortisol response. The findings suggest that, although antisocial adolescents had lower pretask cortisol levels, conflict discussions with caregivers present a unique challenge to antisocial girls compared with antisocial boys. PMID:19338699

  7. Family functioning and psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior in chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2002-12-01

    Using an indigenously developed measure of family functioning, the author examined the association between family functioning and adolescent adjustment in 1,519 Chinese adolescents. Results showed that family functioning was significantly related to measures of adolescent psychological well-being (existential well-being, life satisfaction, self-esteem, sense of mastery, general psychiatric morbidity), school adjustment (perceived academic performance, satisfaction with academic performance, and school conduct), and problem behavior (delinquent and substance abuse behavior). Family functioning was generally more strongly related to measures of adolescent adjustment for adolescents with economic disadvantage than for adolescents without economic disadvantage. PMID:12495233

  8. Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu; Li, Qian; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Yaping; Qi, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ≤24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services. PMID:23839061

  9. The Disadvantaged Country Areas Program: A Program Designed to Increase Social and Educational Equity for Rural Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Shirley K.

    The Schools Commission's Disadvantaged Country Areas Program, an important strategy in promoting social and educational equity for rural children in Australia, is the focus of this paper. After a brief consideration of the historical background of the establishment of the Disadvantaged Country Areas Program, the objectives and operation of the…

  10. Incredible Years Parent Training Support for Nursery Staff Working within a Disadvantaged Flying Start Area in Wales: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bywater, Tracey Jane; Hutchings, Judith Mary; Gridley, Nicole; Jones, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Parenting programmes are effective interventions for preventing and treating conduct problems in young children. Up to 20% of children in disadvantaged areas have conduct disorder. Recent government initiatives such as targeting early years services to designated disadvantaged Flying Start areas in Wales have resulted in increased nursery-care…

  11. Incredible Years Parent Training Support for Nursery Staff Working within a Disadvantaged Flying Start Area in Wales: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bywater, Tracey Jane; Hutchings, Judith Mary; Gridley, Nicole; Jones, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Parenting programmes are effective interventions for preventing and treating conduct problems in young children. Up to 20% of children in disadvantaged areas have conduct disorder. Recent government initiatives such as targeting early years services to designated disadvantaged Flying Start areas in Wales have resulted in increased nursery-care

  12. Nicotine dependence more strongly correlates with psychological distress in disadvantaged areas of Kazakhstan than Germany.

    PubMed

    Ignatyev, Yuriy; Mundt, Adrian P

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the association of current smoking and nicotine dependence with psychological distress in socially disadvantaged urban areas of Germany and Kazakhstan. Random samples of people living in disadvantaged areas of Berlin, Germany, and Almaty, Kazakhstan, were assessed using the General Health Questionnaire with 28 items and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. The association of both current smoking and nicotine dependence with psychological distress was assessed for each sample using linear regression analyses and compared between the two samples calculating t-values for the comparison of B-coefficients. Current smoking was equally associated with psychological distress in both countries, whereas the association of nicotine dependence and psychological distress was only seen for the Kazakh sample and significantly stronger than for the German sample. The results could not be explained by social characteristics. Possibly due to the lack of outpatient community mental health services for the treatment of common mental disorders, nicotine dependence was associated with psychological distress in the disadvantaged area of Kazakhstan. PMID:23807567

  13. Growing up as "Man of the House": Adultification and Transition into Adulthood for Young Men in Economically Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field…

  14. Career Information Systems: Guidelines and Considerations for Agencies Assisting the Economically Disadvantaged, Unemployed or Underemployed. Second Edition, Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartz, John; Lambert, Roger

    Developed to aid agencies assisting the economically disadvantaged, unemployed, or underemployed in selecting good career information and the most useful career/occupational information systems, these guidelines present basic background on and criteria for evaluating career information and the systems which deliver the information. Preliminary…

  15. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program? 403.114 Section 403.114 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of...

  16. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program? 403.114 Section 403.114 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of...

  17. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program? 403.114 Section 403.114 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of...

  18. Mobile Technologies & Socio-Economic Opportunities for Disadvantaged Women: A Study of Information Behavior in a Developing Nation Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potnis, Devendra Dilip

    2010-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been championed by the United Nations and others as one of the key media to open up socio-economic opportunities for disadvantaged populations. Studies lead us to believe that after being introduced to ICTs, users' information behavior changes, enabling them to benefit from socio-economic…

  19. 13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section 127.203 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT...

  20. The Relationship between Teachers' Collective Efficacy and Student Achievement at Economically Disadvantaged Middle School Campuses in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Juan Manuel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the collective efficacy of teachers and student achievement at economically disadvantaged middle school campuses. Schools of today are expected to show continuous improvement in student achievement from year to year, regardless of the students' family background, ethnicity, or…

  1. 48 CFR 52.219-29 - Notice of Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... who are economically disadvantaged in accordance with 13 CFR part 127. It automatically qualifies as a... affiliation applies pursuant to 13 CFR 121.103(h)(3); (2) The EDWOSB participant of the joint venture is... venture. (f) Nonmanufacturer. An EDWOSB concern that is a non-manufacturer, as defined in 13 CFR...

  2. Core Attributes of Giftedness: A Foundation for Recognizing the Gifted Potential of Minority and Economically Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Mary M.; And Others

    This report explores the characteristics of giftedness in minority, language minority, and economically disadvantaged student populations and ways to assess giftedness in these populations. A qualitative content analysis is used to analyze gifted literature to determine characteristics of gifted children in general (n=262) and characteristics of…

  3. Reducing Risk for Substance Use by Economically Disadvantaged Young Men: Positive Family Environments and Pathways to Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Monica J.; Conger, Rand D.; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Masarik, April S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Using prospective, longitudinal data spanning 10 years (age = 10-20) from a study of 295 economically disadvantaged males, the current investigation evaluated a developmental model that links early family environment and later educational aspirations, extracurricular activities, and educational attainment to substance use in early adulthood. The…

  4. Reducing Risk for Substance Use by Economically Disadvantaged Young Men: Positive Family Environments and Pathways to Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Monica J.; Conger, Rand D.; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Masarik, April S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Using prospective, longitudinal data spanning 10years (age=10-20) from a study of 295 economically disadvantaged males, the current investigation evaluated a developmental model that links early family environment and later educational aspirations, extracurricular activities, and educational attainment to substance use in early adulthood. The

  5. Contextual Risk, Maternal Negative Emotionality, and the Negative Emotion Dysregulation of Preschool Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Ackerman, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined relations between contextual risk, maternal negative emotionality, and preschool teacher reports of the negative emotion dysregulation of children from economically disadvantaged families. Contextual risk was represented by cumulative indexes of family and neighborhood adversity. The results showed a direct…

  6. 48 CFR 52.219-29 - Notice of Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... who are economically disadvantaged in accordance with 13 CFR part 127. It automatically qualifies as a... affiliation applies pursuant to 13 CFR 121.103(h)(3); (2) The EDWOSB participant of the joint venture is... 13 CFR 121.406(b) or FAR 19.102(f), may submit an offer on an EDWOSB requirement with a NAICS...

  7. 48 CFR 52.219-29 - Notice of Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... who are economically disadvantaged in accordance with 13 CFR part 127. It automatically qualifies as a... affiliation applies pursuant to 13 CFR 121.103(h)(3); (2) The EDWOSB participant of the joint venture is... 13 CFR 121.406(b) or FAR 19.102(f), may submit an offer on an EDWOSB requirement with a NAICS...

  8. 48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Status Protest. SBA's protest regulations are found in subpart F Protests at 13 CFR 127.600 through 127... unless overturned on appeal by SBA's Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) pursuant to 13 CFR part 134. (1... as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern or women-owned...

  9. A Comprehensive Partnership Approach Increasing High School Graduation Rates and College Enrollment of Urban Economically Disadvantaged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Yvette; Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Described is a 4-year model of a Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Program (GEAR UP) offered to 294 academically and economically disadvantaged students and their parents during in- and out-of-school time activities through partnerships forged with school personnel and community-based agencies. In an urban high school where…

  10. 13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section 127.203 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements To Qualify as...

  11. The Positive Impact of Project-Based Learning on Attendance of an Economically Disadvantaged Student Population: A Multiyear Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creghan, Casey; Adair-Creghan, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Students who do not regularly attend high school are at an increased risk of failure in the classroom and may eventually contribute to a higher dropout rate. More specifically, the attendance rates of students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds have traditionally been lower than those with average means. Therefore, the purpose of this…

  12. Growing up as "Man of the House": Adultification and Transition into Adulthood for Young Men in Economically Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field

  13. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational...

  14. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational...

  15. Health care workers' knowledge, attitudes and practices on tobacco use in economically disadvantaged dominican republic communities.

    PubMed

    Prucha, Michael G; Fisher, Susan G; McIntosh, Scott; Grable, John C; Holderness, Heather; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; de Monegro, Zahíra Quiñones; Sánchez, José Javier; Bautista, Arisleyda; Díaz, Sergio; Ossip, Deborah J

    2015-04-01

    Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR) where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW) interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153) in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted with anonymous surveys. Approximately 70% (N = 107) completed the primary outcome item, asking about tobacco use at each encounter. Despite >85% strongly agreeing that they should ask about tobacco use at each encounter, only 48.6% reported doing so. While most (94.39%) strongly agreed that smoking is harmful, knowledge of specific health consequences varied from 98.13% for lung cancer to 41.12% for otitis media. Few received training in tobacco intervention (38.32%). Exploratory analyses revealed that always asking even if patients are healthy, strongly agreeing that tobacco causes cardiac disease, and always advising smoke-free homes were associated with always asking. Overall, results demonstrate a disconnect between HCW belief and practice. Though most agreed that always asking about tobacco was important, fewer than half did so. Gaps in HCW knowledge and practices suggest a need for education and policy/infrastructure support. To our knowledge, this is the first reported survey of DR HCWs regarding tobacco, and provides a foundation for future tobacco control in the DR. PMID:25872018

  16. Exposure to Interpersonal Violence and Socioemotional Adjustment in Economically Disadvantaged Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Hillary H.; Eisenhower, Abbey

    2014-01-01

    Focusing specifically on the experiences of economically disadvantaged preschoolers, the relations between interpersonal violence exposure, behavior problems, and social skills were examined in both the home and school settings. In this racially and ethnically diverse sample of preschoolers from poor, urban households (N = 64; 3-6 years old; 56% female), many children (33%) had been exposed to at least one type of interpersonal violence, and even more (70%) had been exposed to any type of potentially traumatic event (PTE). Although exposure to interpersonal violence was not directly associated with parent- or teacher-reported behavior problems or social skills, a significant interaction effect was observed between exposure to interpersonal violence and teacher-reported internalizing problems in predicting teacher-reported social skills; specifically, for children with the highest levels of internalizing problems, a positive relation between interpersonal violence exposure and social skills was observed. This indirect effect was observed only in the school setting, whereas children in this high-risk sample appeared to demonstrate resilience in the home setting. Given these high rates of exposure, additional, clinically-relevant research is needed to inform interventions for this vulnerable population. PMID:25175528

  17. Health Care Workers’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Tobacco Use in Economically Disadvantaged Dominican Republic Communities

    PubMed Central

    Prucha, Michael G.; Fisher, Susan G.; McIntosh, Scott; Grable, John C.; Holderness, Heather; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Quiñones de Monegro, Zahíra; Sánchez, José Javier; Bautista, Arisleyda; Díaz, Sergio; Ossip, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR) where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW) interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153) in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted with anonymous surveys. Approximately 70% (N = 107) completed the primary outcome item, asking about tobacco use at each encounter. Despite >85% strongly agreeing that they should ask about tobacco use at each encounter, only 48.6% reported doing so. While most (94.39%) strongly agreed that smoking is harmful, knowledge of specific health consequences varied from 98.13% for lung cancer to 41.12% for otitis media. Few received training in tobacco intervention (38.32%). Exploratory analyses revealed that always asking even if patients are healthy, strongly agreeing that tobacco causes cardiac disease, and always advising smoke-free homes were associated with always asking. Overall, results demonstrate a disconnect between HCW belief and practice. Though most agreed that always asking about tobacco was important, fewer than half did so. Gaps in HCW knowledge and practices suggest a need for education and policy/infrastructure support. To our knowledge, this is the first reported survey of DR HCWs regarding tobacco, and provides a foundation for future tobacco control in the DR. PMID:25872018

  18. Time horizons and substance use among African American youths living in disadvantaged urban areas.

    PubMed

    Cheong, JeeWon; Tucker, Jalie A; Simpson, Cathy A; Chandler, Susan D

    2014-04-01

    Transitioning from adolescence to full-fledged adulthood is often challenging, and young people who live in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods face additional obstacles and experience disproportionately higher negative outcomes, including substance abuse and related risk behaviors. This study investigated whether substance use among African Americans ages 15 to 25 (M=18.86 years) living in such areas was related to present-dominated time perspectives and higher delay discounting. Participants (N=344, 110 males, 234 females) living in Deep South disadvantaged urban neighborhoods were recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling, an improved peer-referral sampling method suitable for accessing this hard-to-reach target group. Structured field interviews assessed alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use and risk/protective factors, including time perspectives (Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory [ZTPI]) and behavioral impulsivity (delay discounting task). As predicted, substance use was positively related to a greater ZTPI orientation toward present pleasure and a lower tendency to plan and achieve future goals. Although the sample as a whole showed high discounting of delayed rewards, discount rates did not predict substance use. The findings suggest that interventions to lengthen time perspectives and promote enriched views of future possible selves may prevent and reduce substance use among disadvantaged youths. Discontinuities among the discounting and time perspective variables in relation to substance use merit further investigation. PMID:24531637

  19. Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

    2012-10-01

    Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to provide greater access and support to academically talented students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Originally intended to provide financial support to lower income students, this NSF program also advocated that additional professional development and advising would be strategies to increase undergraduate persistence to graduation. This innovative program for economically disadvantaged students was extended in 2004 to include students from other disciplines including the physical and life sciences as well as the technology fields, and the new name of the program was Scholarships for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (S-STEM). The implementation of these two programs in Louisiana State University (LSU) has shown significant and measurable success since 2000, making LSU a Model University in providing support to economically disadvantaged students within the STEM disciplines. The achievement of these programs is evidenced by the graduation rates of its participants. This report provides details on the educational model employed through the CSEMS/S-STEM projects at LSU and provides a path to success for increasing student retention rates in STEM disciplines. While the LSU's experience is presented as a case study, the potential relevance of this innovative mentoring program in conjunction with the financial support system is discussed in detail.

  20. Economically Disadvantaged Children’s Transitions Into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy

    PubMed Central

    Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.

    2010-01-01

    Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify family-based mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential school-based remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation of markers of economic disadvantage reduced math and reading testing gains across the primary grades. Such disparities were partially mediated by corresponding differences in children’s socioemotional problems, parenting stress, and parents’ human capital investments. These patterns appeared to be robust to observed and unobserved confounds. Various teacher qualifications and classroom practices were assessed as moderators of these family mediators, revealing teacher experience in grade level as a fairly consistent buffer against family-based risks for reading. PMID:20711417

  1. Cohort study of smoke-free homes in economically disadvantaged communities in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Dozier, Ann M.; Diaz, Sergio; Guido, Joseph; de Monegro, Zahira Quiñones; McIntosh, Scott; Fisher, Susan G.; Ossip, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze household smoking bans over time and predictors of bans among communities in the Dominican Republic, historically a significant tobacco-growing country with few tobacco control regulations. Methods Baseline (2004) and follow-up surveillance surveys (2006, 2007) (each n > 1 000 randomly selected households) conducted in six economically disadvantaged communities (three tobacco-growing and two each urban, peri-urban, and rural) assessed household members’ demographics, health status, and household characteristics, including smoking restrictions. Results Between 2004 and 2007, household smoking-ban prevalence increased in all communities (24%–45%). Households with smokers (versus those without) adopted bans at lower rates (6%–17%; 35%–58%). Logistic regression models demonstrated that allowing smoking in nonsmoking households was more likely in tobacco-growing communities, Catholic households, and those with a member with a cardiovascular problem. Having a child under age 5 or a member with a respiratory condition was not significantly related to establishing smoking bans. Conclusions Prevalence of households banning smoking increased in all communities but remained well below rates in industrialized countries. For low- and middle-income countries or those early in tobacco control, small awareness-raising measures (including surveillance activities) may lead to significant increases in household-ban adoption, particularly among nonsmoking households. Increasing household-ban prevalence may affect community norms that can lead to greater adoption. Having household members who smoke and being in a tobacco-growing community may mitigate the establishment of household bans. Increasing individuals’ knowledge about the far-reaching health effects of secondhand smoke exposure on children and nonsmoking adults (healthy or unhealthy) may help overcome these obstacles. PMID:24626445

  2. Feasibility and validity of the structured attention module among economically disadvantaged preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Bush, Hillary H; Eisenhower, Abbey; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Carter, Alice S

    2015-01-01

    Rooted in the theory of attention put forth by Mirsky, Anthony, Duncan, Ahearn, and Kellam (1991), the Structured Attention Module (SAM) is a developmentally sensitive, computer-based performance task designed specifically to assess sustained selective attention among 3- to 6-year-old children. The current study addressed the feasibility and validity of the SAM among 64 economically disadvantaged preschool-age children (mean age = 58 months; 55% female); a population known to be at risk for attention problems and adverse math performance outcomes. Feasibility was demonstrated by high completion rates and strong associations between SAM performance and age. Principal Factor Analysis with rotation produced robust support for a three-factor model (Accuracy, Speed, and Endurance) of SAM performance, which largely corresponded with existing theorized models of selective and sustained attention. Construct validity was evidenced by positive correlations between SAM Composite scores and all three SAM factors and IQ, and between SAM Accuracy and sequential memory. Value-added predictive validity was not confirmed through main effects of SAM on math performance above and beyond age and IQ; however, significant interactions by child sex were observed: Accuracy and Endurance both interacted with child sex to predict math performance. In both cases, the SAM factors predicted math performance more strongly for girls than for boys. There were no overall sex differences in SAM performance. In sum, the current findings suggest that interindividual variation in sustained selective attention, and potentially other aspects of attention and executive function, among young, high-risk children can be captured validly with developmentally sensitive measures. PMID:24564761

  3. Reducing Risk for Substance Use by Economically Disadvantaged Young Men: Positive Family Environments and Pathways to Educational Attainment.

    PubMed

    Martin, Monica J; Conger, Rand D; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Masarik, April S; Forbes, Erika E; Shaw, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    Using prospective, longitudinal data spanning 10 years (age = 10-20) from a study of 295 economically disadvantaged males, the current investigation evaluated a developmental model that links early family environment and later educational aspirations, extracurricular activities, and educational attainment to substance use in early adulthood. The results indicate that a positive family environment during adolescence (low family conflict, high family warmth, and effective child management) predicted educational involvements during adolescence that promoted educational attainment during early adulthood. Finally, higher levels of educational attainment were associated with less substance use in early adulthood, even after controlling for adolescent substance use. These findings suggest that positive parenting promotes educational achievements that increase resilience to substance use for economically disadvantaged males. PMID:26307026

  4. Treatment Effects of a Relationship-Strengthening Intervention for Economically Disadvantaged New Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Pajarita; Jones, Anne; Guo, Shenyang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the treatment effects of a relationship skills and family strengthening intervention for n = 726 high-risk, disadvantaged new parents. Method: Hierarchical linear modeling and regression models were used to assess intervention treatment effects. These findings were subsequently verified

  5. Engaging Women Who Are Depressed and Economically Disadvantaged in Mental Health Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Nancy K.; Zuckoff, Allan; Swartz, Holly; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Geibel, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    Women disadvantaged by poverty, as well as racial or ethnic minority status, are more likely to experience depression than the rest of the U.S. population. At the same time, they are less likely to seek or remain in treatment for depression in traditional mental health settings. This article explores a therapeutic, psychosocial engagement strategy…

  6. The Social-Emotional Impact of Instrumental Music Performance on Economically Disadvantaged South African Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devroop, Karendra

    2012-01-01

    Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent these

  7. Treatment Effects of a Relationship-Strengthening Intervention for Economically Disadvantaged New Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Pajarita; Jones, Anne; Guo, Shenyang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the treatment effects of a relationship skills and family strengthening intervention for n = 726 high-risk, disadvantaged new parents. Method: Hierarchical linear modeling and regression models were used to assess intervention treatment effects. These findings were subsequently verified…

  8. Development of Human Resources Through a Vocationally Oriented Educational Program for Disadvantaged Families in Depressed Rural Areas. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Lloyd J.; And Others

    The study was designed to develop and evaluate a vocationally oriented, family-centered educational program for use by local educators in helping severely disadvantaged rural families overcome the social, economic, and psychological pressures which inhibit their advancement in American society. The chapters are entitled (1) Overview of Project

  9. Access to primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas: a realist review

    PubMed Central

    Ford, John A; Wong, Geoff; Jones, Andy P; Steel, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this review is to identify and understand the contexts that effect access to high-quality primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas. Design A realist review. Data sources MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases and grey literature (from inception to December 2014). Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Broad inclusion criteria were used to allow articles which were not specific, but might be relevant to the population of interest to be considered. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed for rigour and relevance and coded for concepts relating to context, mechanism or outcome. Analysis An overarching patient pathway was generated and used as the basis to explore contexts, causal mechanisms and outcomes. Results 162 articles were included. Most were from the USA or the UK, cross-sectional in design and presented subgroup data by age, rurality or deprivation. From these studies, a patient pathway was generated which included 7 steps (problem identified, decision to seek help, actively seek help, obtain appointment, get to appointment, primary care interaction and outcome). Important contexts were stoicism, education status, expectations of ageing, financial resources, understanding the healthcare system, access to suitable transport, capacity within practice, the booking system and experience of healthcare. Prominent causal mechanisms were health literacy, perceived convenience, patient empowerment and responsiveness of the practice. Conclusions Socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas face personal, community and healthcare barriers that limit their access to primary care. Initiatives should be targeted at local contextual factors to help individuals recognise problems, feel welcome, navigate the healthcare system, book appointments easily, access appropriate transport and have sufficient time with professional staff to improve their experience of healthcare; all of which will require dedicated primary care resources. PMID:27188809

  10. School-level economic disadvantage and obesity in middle school children in central Texas, USA: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Although children of lower socio-economic status (SES) in the United States have generally been found to be at greater risk for obesity, the SES-obesity association varies when stratified by racial/ethnic groups-with no consistent association found for African American and Hispanic children. Research on contextual and setting-related factors may provide further insights into ethnic and SES disparities in obesity. We examined whether obesity levels among central Texas 8th grade students (n=2682) vary by school-level economic disadvantage across individual-level family SES and racial/ethnicity groups. As a secondary aim, we compared the association of school-level economic disadvantage and obesity by language spoken with parents (English or Spanish) among Hispanic students. Methods Multilevel regression models stratified by family SES and ethnicity were run using cross-sectional baseline data from five school districts participating in the Central Texas CATCH Middle School project. For family SES, independent multi-level logistic regression models were run for total sample and by gender for each family SES stratum (poor/near poor/just getting by, living comfortably, and very well off), adjusting for age, ethnicity, and gender. Similarly, multi-level regression models were run by race/ethnic group (African American, Hispanic, and White), adjusting for age, family SES, and gender. Results Students attending highly economically disadvantaged (ED) schools were between 1.7 (95% CI: 1.1-2.6) and 2.4 (95% CI: 1.2-4.8) times more likely to be obese as students attending low ED schools across family SES groups (p<.05). African American (ORAdj =3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-11.4), Hispanic (ORAdj=1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.0) and White (ORAdj=3.8, 95% CI: 1.6-8.9) students attending high ED schools were more likely to be obese as counterparts at low ED schools (p<.05). Gender-stratified findings were similar to findings for total sample, although fewer results reached significance. While no obesity differences across school ED categories were found for Hispanic Spanish-speaking students, Hispanic English-speaking students (HES) attending high ED schools were 2.4 times more likely to be obese as HES students at low ED schools (p=.003). Conclusion Findings support the need to prioritize economically disadvantaged schools for obesity prevention efforts and support further exploration of school SES context in shaping children’s physical activity and dietary behaviors. PMID:26222099

  11. Environmental perceptions as mediators of the relationship between the objective built environment and walking among socio-economically disadvantaged women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods are at increased risk for physical inactivity and associated health outcomes and are difficult to reach through personally tailored interventions. Targeting the built environment may be an effective strategy in this population subgroup. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating role of environmental perceptions in the relationship between the objective environment and walking for transportation/recreation among women from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Baseline data of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality (READI) study were used. In total, 4139 women (18–46 years) completed a postal survey assessing physical environmental perceptions (aesthetics, neighbourhood physical activity environment, personal safety, neighbourhood social cohesion), physical activity, and socio-demographics. Objectively-assessed data on street connectivity and density of destinations were collected using a Geographic Information System database and based on the objective z-scores, an objective destinations/connectivity score was calculated. This index was positively scored, with higher scores representing a more favourable environment. Two-level mixed models regression analyses were conducted and the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients test was used to examine the mediating effects. Results The destinations/connectivity score was positively associated with transport-related walking. The perceived physical activity environment mediated 6.1% of this positive association. The destinations/connectivity score was negatively associated with leisure-time walking. Negative perceptions of aesthetics, personal safety and social cohesion of the neighbourhood jointly mediated 24.1% of this negative association. Conclusion For women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, environmental perceptions were important mediators of the relationship between the objective built environment and walking. To increase both transport-related and leisure-time walking, it is necessary to improve both objective walkability-related characteristics (street connectivity and proximity of destinations), and perceptions of personal safety, favourable aesthetics and neighbourhood social cohesion. PMID:24050686

  12. Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors of American Youth with an Emphasis on Youth from Disadvantaged Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper Starch Worldwide Inc.

    The National Environmental Education and Training Foundation commissioned a survey on environmental attitudes and behaviors of disadvantaged youth in America to identify the critical gaps in environmental education so that resources can be targeted more effectively. Phase 1 consisted of qualitative research among disadvantaged students through…

  13. Giving Economically Disadvantaged, Minority Food Pantry Patrons' a Voice: Implications for Equitable Access to Sufficient, Nutritious Food.

    PubMed

    Greer, Anna E; Cross-Denny, Bronwyn; McCabe, Michelle; Castrogivanni, Brianna

    2016-01-01

    This study provides economically disadvantaged, minority food pantry patrons (hereafter, patrons) a meaning-ful voice by examining their experiences trying to obtain sufficient, nutritious food. Five focus groups were conducted using a semistructured discussion guide. Atlast.ti software was used to manage and analyze the data. Patrons reported that pantry staff who preserved their dignity by showing compassion were highly valued. Stigma and shame associated with pantry use were major concerns. Patrons suggested environmental and policy changes to improve their food acquisition experiences. These findings suggest that multilevel interventions addressing food access, food distribution policies, and patron-staff interactions are warranted. PMID:27214675

  14. Lessons from black-thicket jungle: What is feasible in village schools of disadvantaged areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Victoria J.

    1989-06-01

    Comparative examination of the national goals of education as presented by various developing countries shows such goals to be often abstract and overly idealistic: a long way from the harsh reality of most rural village schools. Drawing on the results of a lengthy field study in a disadvantaged area of Sri Lanka, this article discusses the matter of feasibility in the shadow of too high expectations. It is concluded that ambitious goals should be operationalized at a practicable level, and recommendations are put forward for feasible action. As a rigidly ordered system of schooling may be an inevitable stage in a progressive evolution of schooling types, patience is needed before criticizing schools which lack creative teaching and problem-solving approaches. It is emphasised that the most important raw materials of the educational system are abundantly present, i.e., human resources. Children are eager to learn; parents are potentially supportive and want education for the sake of learning as well as for jobs. And most importantly for the success of the schools, dedicated principals and teachers are present in unexpectedly high numbers considering the constraints they face. The importance of such educators is stressed, along with implications for selection, training and remuneration.

  15. Health Inequalities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Lower Healthy Life Expectancy in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Areas

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa da Mota, Jurema; Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Sardinha Pereira, Tatiana Guimarães

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated deprivation and inequalities in life expectancy and healthy life expectancy by location in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods. We conducted a health survey of 576 adults in 2006. Census tracts were stratified by income level and categorization as a slum. We determined health status by degree of functional limitation, according to the approach proposed by the World Health Organization. We calculated healthy life expectancies by Sullivan's method with abridged life table. Results. We found the worst indicators in the slum stratum. The life expectancy at birth of men living in the richest parts of the city was 12.8 years longer than that of men living in deprived areas. For both men and women older than age 65 years, healthy life expectancy was more than twice as high in the richest sector as in the slum sector. Conclusions. Our analysis detailed the excess burden of poor health experienced by disadvantaged populations of Rio de Janeiro. Policy efforts are needed to reduce social inequalities in health in this city, especially among the elderly. PMID:21233437

  16. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-03-01

    On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage in Hong Kong (N = 199) responded to instruments measuring perceived parental parenthood qualities (indexed by perceived parenting styles, support and help from parents, and conflict and relationship with the parents) and psychosocial adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency). Results showed that parental parenthood variables were concurrently associated with different measures of adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. While paternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in existential well-being and delinquency in adolescent boys, but not in adolescent girls, at Time 2, maternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in the mental health and problem behavior in adolescent girls, but not in adolescent boys, at Time 2. There is no strong support for the thesis that adolescent adjustment influences perceived parental parenthood qualities over time. The present study suggests that the influences of fathers and mothers on the adjustment of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage vary with the gender of adolescent children. PMID:15515041

  17. Minimally Supervised Multi-Modal Exercise to Reduce Falls Risk among Economically and Educationally Disadvantaged Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Taís L.; Alexander, Neil B.; Nyquist, Linda V.; Montagnini, Marcos L.; Santos, Angela C. S.; Rodrigues, Giselle H. P.; Negrão, Carlos E.; Trombetta, Ivani C.; Wajngarten, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the benefit of providing exercise to underprivileged older adults at risk for falls. Economically and educationally disadvantaged older adults with previous falls (mean age 79.06, SD= 4.55) were randomized to four months of multi-modal exercise provided as fully supervised center-based (FS, n =45) or as minim ally supervised home-based (MS, n = 42) or to non-exercise controls (C, n= 32). Comparing groups on the mean change in fall-relevant mobility task performance between baseline and four months and compared to the change in C, both FS and MS had significantly greater reduction in Timed Up and Go F(2,73)= 5.82, p =.004, η2partial = 0.14 and increase in Tandem Walk Speed F (2,73)= 7.71, p <.001 η2partial = 0.17. Change in performance did not statistically differ between FS and MS. In community dwelling economically and educationally disadvantaged older adults with a history of falls, minimally supervised home-based and fully supervised center-based exercise programs may be equally effective in improving fall-relevant functional mobility. PMID:22952201

  18. Exploring the Utility of the Simple View of Reading in Irish Children Attending Schools in Areas Designated as Socially Disadvantaged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Rena; Fives, Allyn; Kearns, Noreen; Canavan, John; Devaney, Carmel; Eaton, Pat

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that children living in areas designated as socially disadvantaged may be at risk for literacy difficulties. The Simple View of Reading (Gough & Tunmer, 1986; Hoover &Gough, 1986) is a theoretical model that sets out to describe the processes that children need to develop to become proficient readers, that is word…

  19. Long-Term Investments in Youth: The Need for Comprehensive Programs for Disadvantaged Young Men in Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sarah E.

    New programs taking a comprehensive approach to disadvantaged young men in urban areas have met with some success. This paper attempts to define the issues that will influence the development of comprehensive programs and examines the qualities that have made them a promising alternative for the future. Issues that shape the lives of youth include…

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluation of an After-School Prosocial Behavior Program in an Area of Socioeconomic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Liam; Biggart, Andy; Kerr, Karen; Connolly, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate the effects of a prosocial behavior after-school program called Mate-Tricks for 9- and 10-year-old children and their parents living in an area of significant socioeconomic disadvantage. The children were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 220) or a control group (n = 198). Children were…

  1. Same Landscape, Different Lens: Variations in Young People's Socio-Economic Experiences and Perceptions in Their Disadvantaged Working-Class Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brann-Barrett, Mary Tanya

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I compare socio-economic experiences and community perceptions expressed by socially and economically disadvantaged young people with those of university students living in the same post-industrial community. I consider markers of distinction among these young people in relation to their family and educational experiences. I also

  2. Same Landscape, Different Lens: Variations in Young People's Socio-Economic Experiences and Perceptions in Their Disadvantaged Working-Class Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brann-Barrett, Mary Tanya

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I compare socio-economic experiences and community perceptions expressed by socially and economically disadvantaged young people with those of university students living in the same post-industrial community. I consider markers of distinction among these young people in relation to their family and educational experiences. I also…

  3. Identifying solutions to increase participation in physical activity interventions within a socio-economically disadvantaged community: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need to increase population levels of physical activity, particularly amongst those who are socio-economically disadvantaged. Multiple factors influence physical activity behaviour but the generalisability of current evidence to such ‘hard-to-reach’ population subgroups is limited by difficulties in recruiting them into studies. Also, rigorous qualitative studies of lay perceptions and perceptions of community leaders about public health efforts to increase physical activity are sparse. We sought to explore, within a socio-economically disadvantaged community, residents’ and community leaders’ perceptions of physical activity (PA) interventions and issues regarding their implementation, in order to improve understanding of needs, expectations, and social/environmental factors relevant to future interventions. Methods Within an ongoing regeneration project (Connswater Community Greenway), in a socio-economically disadvantaged community in Belfast, we collaborated with a Community Development Agency to purposively sample leaders from public- and voluntary-sector community groups and residents. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 leaders. Residents (n = 113), of both genders and a range of ages (14 to 86 years) participated in focus groups (n = 14) in local facilities. Interviews and focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic framework. Results Three main themes were identified: awareness of PA interventions; factors contributing to intervention effectiveness; and barriers to participation in PA interventions. Participants reported awareness only of interventions in which they were involved directly, highlighting a need for better communications, both inter- and intra-sectoral, and with residents. Meaningful engagement of residents in planning/organisation, tailoring to local context, supporting volunteers, providing relevant resources and an ‘exit strategy’ were perceived as important factors related to intervention effectiveness. Negative attitudes such as apathy, disappointing experiences, information with no perceived personal relevance and limited access to facilities were barriers to people participating in interventions. Conclusions These findings illustrate the complexity of influences on a community’s participation in PA interventions and support a social-ecological approach to promoting PA. They highlight the need for cross-sector working, effective information exchange, involving residents in bottom-up planning and providing adequate financial and social support. An in-depth understanding of a target population’s perspectives is of key importance in translating PA behaviour change theories into practice. PMID:24886604

  4. Building Lectures and Building Bridges with Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Peter; Loch, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an empirical analysis of the first stage of an ongoing effort to introduce technology to enhance student learning in introductory corporate finance within a multi-campus and multi-mode regional Australian University. The engagement and performance of low socio-economic status (SES) students is of particular interest because…

  5. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Interactions of Disadvantages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veland, Jarmund; Midthassel, Unni Vere; Idsoe, Thormod

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on a study of 7,372 students in grades 5-10 (aged 11-16) in a representative sample of Norwegian compulsory schools. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between students' reported socio-economic status (SES) and their perceived social inclusion (SI) in school in the whole sample. We also considered separately a…

  6. Influence of Schools on Economically Disadvantageous Attitudes: A Solomon Islands Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeth, Alastair M.

    1976-01-01

    This study examines the economically detrimental attitude of regionalism in a Solomon Islands secondary school and measures changes in regionalism with exposure to school experience that stressed regional integration. Significant decreases in regionalism were recorded. (Available from Plenum Publishing Corporation, 227 West 17 Street, New York, NY

  7. Equitable Learning Outcomes: Supporting Economically and Culturally Disadvantaged Students in "Formative Learning Environments"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The central and distinguishing thesis of social and cultural perspectives on outcome equity is that public school classrooms are culturally biased environments. Such environments disaffect children who arrive at school from the economic or cultural margin. The "formative learning environment" (FoLE) establishes and sustains legitimate…

  8. An Assessment of Cognitive Behavior of Economically Disadvantaged Young Adults in North Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Lillian S.; And Others

    This study sought to determine the appropriateness of two conventional intelligence tests for assessing the ability of economically deprived young adults participating in job training programs by comparing their test results with those of the test standardization groups. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), and the Langmuir Oral Direction…

  9. Human rights violations among economically disadvantaged women with mental illness: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Ramachandra; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Globally women confront manifold violations of human rights and women with poverty and mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. Aim: The aim was to examine the influence of poverty in meeting human rights needs among recovered women with mental illness at family and community level. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study carried out among randomly selected (n = 100) recovered women with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data were collected through face-to-face interview using structured needs assessment questionnaire. Results: Our findings revealed that below poverty line (BPL) participants were not satisfied in meeting their physical needs such as access to safe drinking water (?2 = 8.994, P < 0.02), served in the same utensils (?2 = 13.648, P < 0.00), had adequate food (?2 = 11.025, P < 0.02), and allowed to use toilet facilities (?2 = 13.565, P < 0.00). The human rights needs in emotional dimension, that is, afraid of family members (?2 = 8.233, P < 0.04) and hurt by bad words (?2 = 9.014, P < 0.02) were rated higher in above poverty line (APL) participants. Similarly, 88.9% of women from APL group expressed that they were discriminated and exploited by the community members (?2 = 17.490, P < 0.00). More than three-fourths of BPL participants (76.1%) believed that there were wondering homeless mentally ill in their community (?2 = 11.848, P < 0.01). Conclusion: There is an urgent need to implement social welfare programs to provide employment opportunities, disability allowance, housing and other social security for women with mental illness. Further, mental health professionals play an essential role in educating the family and public regarding human rights of people with mental illness. PMID:26124524

  10. Economic disadvantage and transitional outcomes: a study of young people from low-income families in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Ngai, Steven Sek Yum; Cheung, Jacky Chau-Kiu; To, Siu-ming; Luan, Hui; Zhao, Ruiling

    2014-01-01

    This study draws on data from focus groups involving 50 young people from low-income families in Hong Kong to investigate their school-to-work experiences. In line with the ecological–developmental perspective, our results show that contextual influences, including lower levels of parental involvement and lack of opportunities for further education or skill development, constrain both the formulation and pursuit of educational and career goals. In contrast, service use and supportive interactions with parents and non-family adults were found to help young people find a career direction and foster more adaptive transition. Furthermore, our results indicate a striking difference in intrapersonal agency and coping styles between youths who were attending further education or engaged in jobs with career advancement opportunities and those who were not. We discuss the implications of our findings, both for future research and for policy development to enhance the school-to-work transition of economically disadvantaged young people. PMID:25364087

  11. Life Coping Skills Categories and Sub-Categories. Areas of the Information Needs of Disadvantaged Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehead State Univ., KY. Appalachian Adult Education Center.

    The major categories and subcategories of the information needs of disadvantaged adults are listed. The list was compiled by the Appalachian Adult Education Center (AAEC) in its research and demonstration projects and by consultants to the center from other projects working with adult information needs. The list can be used 1) to assess library…

  12. Beyond income: Material resources among drug users in economically-disadvantaged New York City neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Ompad, Danielle C.; Nandi, Vijay; Cerdá, Magdalena; Crawford, Natalie; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about material resources among drug users beyond income. Income measures can be insensitive to variation among the poor, do not account for variation in cost-of-living, and are subject to non-response bias and underreporting. Further, most do not include illegal income sources that may be relevant to drug-using populations. Methods We explored the reliability and validity of an 18-item material resource scale and describe correlates of adequate resources among 1593 current, former and non-drug users recruited in New York City. Reliability was determined using coefficient α, ωh, and factor analysis. Criterion validity was explored by comparing item and mean scores by income and income source using ANOVA; content validity analyses compared scores by drug use. Multiple linear regression was used to describe correlates of adequate resources. Results The coefficient α and ωh for the overall scale were 0.91 and 0.68, respectively, suggesting reliability was at least adequate. Legal income >$5000 (vs. ≤ $5000) and formal (vs. informal) income sources were associated with more resources, supporting criterion validity. We observed decreasing resources with increasing drug use severity, supporting construct validity. Three factors were identified: basic needs, economic resources and services. Many did not have their basic needs met and few had adequate economic resources. Correlates of adequate material resources included race/ethnicity, income, income source, and homelessness. Conclusions The 18-item material resource scale demonstrated reliability and validity among drug users. These data provide a different view of poverty, one that details specific challenges faced by low-income communities. PMID:21835561

  13. Recruitment, retention, and compliance results from a probability study of children's environmental health in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Ken; Adgate, John L; Church, Timothy R; Greaves, Ian A; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Fredrickson, Ann L; Geisser, Mindy S; Ryan, Andrew D

    2003-05-01

    The School Health Initiative: Environment, Learning, and Disease (SHIELD) study used a probability sample of children (second through fifth grades) from two low-income and racially mixed neighborhoods of Minneapolis, Minnesota, to assess childhood environmental health. Children were eligible to participate in SHIELD regardless of whether they or their families spoke a foreign language, their household had a telephone, or they were enrolled in a special education program. The overall enrollment rate in year 1 was 57%, with a substantial disparity between children from English-speaking (42%) versus non-English-speaking (71%) families. At the end of year 1, 85% were retained in the study. A relatively high percentage of children provided the two requested blood (82%) and urine (86%) samples in year 1, and 90% provided a valid spirometry sample. Eighty-two percent provided both requested volatile organic chemical badge samples, and both time-activity logs were obtained from 66%. However, only 32% provided both peak flow measurements. All percentages increased for those participating in the second year of the study. Results indicate that a school-based research design makes it feasible and practical to conduct probability-based assessments of children's environmental health in economically disadvantaged and ethnically diverse neighborhoods. There is an ongoing need, however, to improve understanding of the cultural, economic, psychologic, and social determinants of study participation among this population. PMID:12727602

  14. The Healthy Toddlers Trial Protocol: An Intervention to Reduce Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity in Economically and Educationally Disadvantaged Populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The number of overweight children in America has doubled to an estimated 10 million in the past 20 years. Establishing healthy dietary behaviors must begin early in childhood and include parents. The Healthy Toddlers intervention focuses on promoting healthy eating habits in 1- to 3-year-old children utilizing the Social Cognitive Theory and a learner-centered approach using Adult Learning principles. This Healthy Toddlers Trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial of an in-home intervention with economically and educationally disadvantaged mothers of toddlers. The intervention focuses on: (a) promoting healthy eating behaviors in toddlers while dietary habits are forming; and (b) providing initial evidence for the potential of Healthy Toddlers as a feasible intervention within existing community-based programs. Methods/Design This describes the study protocol for a randomized control trial, a multi-state project in Colorado, Michigan, and Wisconsin with economically and educationally disadvantaged mother-toddler dyads; toddlers are between 12 and 36 months. The Healthy Toddlers intervention consists of eight in-home lessons and four reinforcement telephone contacts, focusing on fruit, vegetable, and sweetened beverage consumption and parental behaviors, taught by paraprofessional instructors. Healthy Toddlers uses a randomized, experimental, short-term longitudinal design with intervention and control groups. In-home data collection (anthropometric measurements, feeding observations, questionnaires, 3-day dietary records) occurs at baseline, immediately following the intervention, and 6 months after the intervention. Main toddler outcomes include: a) increased fruit and vegetable consumption and decreased sweetened beverage consumption; and b) improved toddler-eating skills (self-feeding and self-serving). Main parent outcomes include: a) improved psychosocial attributes (knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, feeding style) related to child feeding; b) provision of a more positive mealtime physical environment (turning off the TV); and c) creation of a more positive mealtime social environment (sitting down together for meals). Discussion If this project is successful, the expected outcomes are that the intervention will be effective in helping toddlers develop healthy eating skills that contribute to improve overall health and development and to the prevention of obesity. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ACTRN12610000981022 PMID:21777452

  15. Delivery of primary health care to persons who are socio-economically disadvantaged: does the organizational delivery model matter?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As health systems evolve, it is essential to evaluate their impact on the delivery of health services to socially disadvantaged populations. We evaluated the delivery of primary health services for different socio-economic groups and assessed the performance of different organizational models in terms of equality of health care delivery in Ontario, Canada. Methods Cross sectional study of 5,361 patients receiving care from primary care practices using Capitation, Salaried or Fee-For-Service remuneration models. We assessed self-reported health status of patients, visit duration, number of visits per year, quality of health service delivery, and quality of health promotion. We used multi-level regressions to study service delivery across socio-economic groups and within each delivery model. Identified disparities were further analysed using a t-test to determine the impact of service delivery model on equity. Results Low income individuals were more likely to be women, unemployed, recent immigrants, and in poorer health. These individuals were overrepresented in the Salaried model, reported more visits/year across all models, and tended to report longer visits in the Salaried model. Measures of primary care services generally did not differ significantly between low and higher income/education individuals; when they did, the difference favoured better service delivery for at-risk groups. At-risk patients in the Salaried model were somewhat more likely to report health promotion activities than patients from Capitation and Fee-For-Service models. At-risk patients from Capitation models reported a smaller increase in the number of additional clinic visits/year than Fee-For-Service and Salaried models. At-risk patients reported better first contact accessibility than their non-at-risk counterparts in the Fee-For-Service model only. Conclusions Primary care service measures did not differ significantly across socio-economic status or primary care delivery models. In Ontario, capitation-based remuneration is age and sex adjusted only. Patients of low socio-economic status had fewer additional visits compared to those with high socio-economic status under the Capitation model. This raises the concern that Capitation may not support the provision of additional care for more vulnerable groups. Regions undertaking primary care model reforms need to consider the potential impact of the changes on the more vulnerable populations. PMID:24341530

  16. Corporate Career Demonstration Project: Impact of a Thirteen-Week Training Program on the Personal, Interpersonal, and Academic Skills of Economically Disadvantaged Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berneman, Louis P.; And Others

    The Corporate Career Demonstration Project is a Federally funded program designed to provide economically disadvantaged young adults with specialized training, counseling and educational experiences. The project's major goal is to prepare these youth for entry level corporate career positions they would otherwise be unable to obtain. Applicants…

  17. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities, and psychological well-being in chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-06-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques to control their behavior; (b) the extent to which their parents attempted to control them in a way that undermined their psychological development; (c) the parent-child relational qualities, such as the child's readiness to communicate with the parents and perceived mutual trust; and (d) the child's psychological well-being. Although adolescents with economic disadvantage did not differ from adolescents without economic disadvantage on the maternal variables (except on parental knowledge and parental monitoring), adolescents whose families were receiving public assistance generally perceived paternal behavioral control and father-child relational qualities to be more negative than did adolescents who were not receiving public assistance. The author found psychological well-being (shown by hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, self-esteem) of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage to be weaker than that of adolescents not experiencing economic disadvantage. PMID:15906930

  18. A Comparison Group Study of Teaching with the Interactive Whiteboard and Its Impact on Student Achievement Outcomes for Grade 5 Students of Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines teaching with the interactive whiteboard and its impact on student achievement outcomes for grade 5 students of economic disadvantage. It is a quantitative retrospective posttest only comparison group study. State assessment scores of low SES students at two grade 5 centers were compared. The scores that were compared…

  19. Rethinking the Curriculum To Meet the Needs of Underprepared, Underrepresented, and Economically Disadvantaged Students: Majors and Courses for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glock, Nancy Clover

    Attracting and assuring the success of students of color requires the rethinking of curricula to meet the needs of underrepresented, underprepared, and economically disadvantaged students. General education offerings should be restructured to give students the skills and resources needed to make sense out of their particular gender and ethnicity,…

  20. Inclusive Transition Processes--Considering Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Parents' Views and Actions for Their Child's Successful School Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothe, Antje; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has noted that the transition to primary school is important for future school success. As a result, an inclusive transition process to school has become increasingly important. However, this process is particularly difficult for socio-economically disadvantaged children in Germany. The study considers parents' views and…

  1. A Transagency Approach to Enabling Access to Parent-Based Intervention for Language Delay in Areas of Social Disadvantage: A Service Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbard, Deborah; Smith, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Primary language delay remains one of the most prevalent developmental delays in early childhood, particularly in disadvantaged areas. Previous research has established language difficulties and social disadvantage being particular risk factors for adverse outcomes later in life. To help prevent low educational achievement and poorer outcomes,…

  2. A Transagency Approach to Enabling Access to Parent-Based Intervention for Language Delay in Areas of Social Disadvantage: A Service Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbard, Deborah; Smith, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Primary language delay remains one of the most prevalent developmental delays in early childhood, particularly in disadvantaged areas. Previous research has established language difficulties and social disadvantage being particular risk factors for adverse outcomes later in life. To help prevent low educational achievement and poorer outcomes,

  3. The Relationship between Residential Land Use Patterns and the Educational Outcomes of Economically Disadvantaged Students in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zandt, Shannon; Wunneburger, Douglas F.

    2011-01-01

    Disparate outcomes resulting from economic segregation in public primary schools have been the subject of much debate and litigation. Little research, however, examines whether negative outcomes may be exacerbated by inequities in the distribution of housing across metropolitan areas. This article explores connections between residential land use…

  4. The Relationship between Residential Land Use Patterns and the Educational Outcomes of Economically Disadvantaged Students in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zandt, Shannon; Wunneburger, Douglas F.

    2011-01-01

    Disparate outcomes resulting from economic segregation in public primary schools have been the subject of much debate and litigation. Little research, however, examines whether negative outcomes may be exacerbated by inequities in the distribution of housing across metropolitan areas. This article explores connections between residential land use

  5. Validity and Reliability of a Dietary Stages of Change Measure Among Economically Disadvantaged African-American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Di Noia, Jennifer; Mauriello, Leanne; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Thompson, Debbe

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the construct validity and 2-month test-retest reliability of a staging measure for assessing readiness to consume five or more daily servings of fruits and vegetables among economically disadvantaged African-American adolescents. Design Longitudinal survey. Setting Youth services agencies serving low-income communities in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Subjects African-American adolescents (N = 390) aged 11 to 14 years. Measures Self-report measures of stage of change and fruit and vegetable consumption. Analysis Correlation analysis and analysis of covariance were used to examine, cross-sectionally, whether fruit and vegetable consumption differed by stage of change (validity assessment). Correlation analysis and Cohen's kappa (κ) were used to assess the degree of association and level of agreement between stages longitudinally (test-retest reliability assessment). Results Fruit and vegetable consumption was moderately correlated with stage of change (r ≥ .54, p = .000). Consistent with the transtheoretical model, youths’ consumption increased from earlier to later stages (p = .000). Forty-six percent of youths were in the same stage at both measurements. The correlation between stages was .26, and Cohen's κ was .20 (p = .000). Conclusions Despite preliminary evidence of construct validity, the low test-retest reliability found suggests that further research and testing are needed to improve the stability of the measure. PMID:22747321

  6. Predictors of Co-Occurring Risk Behavior Trajectories among Economically Disadvantaged African American Youth: Contextual and Individual Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Henry, David; Byck, Gayle; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose African American youth, particularly those from low-income backgrounds, evidence high rates of negative outcomes associated with three problem behaviors, conduct problems, risky sexual behavior, and substance use. This study used a contextually-tailored version of Problem Behavior Theory (PBT) to examine predictors of the simultaneous development of problem behaviors in this specific cultural group. Methods Socio-contextual and individual variables representing four PBT predictor categories, controls protection, support protection, models risk, and vulnerability risk, were examined as predictors of co-occurring problem behaviors among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (n = 949). Specifically, the likelihood of following three classes of multiple problem behavior trajectories spanning ages 12 to 18, labeled the “early experimenters,” “increasing high risk-takers,” and “adolescent-limited” classes, as opposed to a “normative” class was examined. Results Among other findings, controls protection in the form of a more stringent household curfew at age 12 was related to a lower likelihood of being in the “early experimenters” and “increasing high risk-takers” classes. Conversely, vulnerability risk manifested as stronger attitudes of violence inevitability was associated with a higher likelihood of being in the “early experimenters” class. However, the PBT category of support protection was not associated with risk trajectory class. More distal neighborhood-level manifestations of PBT categories also did not predict co-occurring behavior problems. Conclusion Guided by an incorporation of contextually-salient processes into PBT, prevention programs aiming to decrease co-occurring problem behaviors among low-income African American adolescents would do well to target both proximal systems and psychological constructs related to perceived security throughout adolescence. PMID:24755141

  7. Culturally relevant treatment services for perinatal depression in socio-economically disadvantaged women: The design of the MOMCare study*

    PubMed Central

    Grote, Nancy K.; Katon, Wayne J.; Lohr, Mary Jane; Carson, Kathy; Curran, Mary; Galvin, Erin; Russo, Joan E.; Gregory, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression during pregnancy has been demonstrated to be predictive of low birthweight, prematurity, and postpartum depression. These adverse outcomes potentially have lasting effects on maternal and child well-being. Socio-economically disadvantaged women are twice as likely as middle-class women to meet diagnostic criteria for antenatal major depression (MDD), but have proven difficult to engage and retain in treatment. Collaborative care treatment models for depression have not been evaluated for racially/ethnically diverse, pregnant women on Medicaid receiving care in a public health system. This paper describes the design, methodology, culturally relevant enhancements, and implementation of a randomized controlled trial of depression care management compared to public health Maternity Support Services(MSS). Methods Pregnant, public health patients, ≥18 years with a likely diagnosis of MDD or dysthymia, measured respectively by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9(PHQ-9) or the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview(MINI), were randomized to the intervention or to public health MSS. The primary outcome was reduction in depression severity from baseline during pregnancy to 18-months post-baseline(one-year postpartum). Baseline Results 168 women with likely MDD (96.4%) and/or dysthymia (24.4%) were randomized. Average age was 27.6 years and gestational age was 22.4 weeks; 58.3% racial/ethnic minority; 71.4% unmarried; 22% no high school degree/GED; 65.3% unemployed; 42.1% making ≤$10,000 annually; 80.4% having recurrent depression; 64.6% PTSD, and 72% an unplanned pregnancy. Conclusions A collaborative care team, including a psychiatrist, psychologist, project manager, and 3 social workers, met weekly, collaborated with the patients' obstetrics providers, and monitored depression severity using an electronic tracking system. Potential sustainability of the intervention within a public health system requires further study. PMID:25016216

  8. The Rural Disadvantage: Growing Income Disparities between Rural and Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barancik, Scott

    Growing income disparities between wealthy Americans and those in low or moderate income brackets are contributing to a widening income gap between rural and urban areas. Proposed federal tax policy changes would primarily benefit upper income brackets and would likely widen the gap further. An analysis of census data indicates that since the…

  9. Virgin Islands Demonstration Library Network Study: Exploring Library Networking in Remote, Disadvantaged Areas. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Henry C.; And Others

    The Virgin Islands Demonstration Library Network Study (VIDLNS) seeks to determine whether the development of either local or regional library networks would be the key to optimal organization of small library collections in isolated areas. This report describes the research and demonstration components of the exploratory phase of the project: (1)…

  10. The NASA Plan: To award eight percent of prime and subcontracts to socially and economically disadvantaged businesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    It is NASA's intent to provide small disadvantaged businesses, including women-owned, historically black colleges and universities and minority education institutions the maximum practicable opportunity to receive a fair proportion of NASA prime and subcontracted awards. Annually, NASA will establish socioeconomic procurement goals including small disadvantaged business goals, with a target of reaching the eight percent level by the end of FY 1994. The NASA Associate Administrators, who are responsible for the programs at the various NASA Centers, will be held accountable for full implementation of the socioeconomic procurement plans. Various aspects of this plan, including its history, are discussed.

  11. Economic Development for Small Communities and Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Phillip D.

    This book is designed to provide an introductory understanding of challenges, goals, processes, and procedures for economic developers, particularly economic development volunteers, in rural areas and small towns. Chapter 1 defines economic development and basic terms. Chapter 2 describes major economic, social, and demographic trends that…

  12. Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to…

  13. Perceived discrimination amongst young people in socio-economically disadvantaged communities: Parental support and community identity buffer (some) negative impacts of stigma.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Daragh; Jay, Sarah; McNamara, Namh; Stevenson, Clifford; Muldoon, Orla T

    2016-06-01

    There is increasing acceptance that children are not unaware of when they are targets of discrimination. However, discrimination as a consequence of socio-economic disadvantage remains understudied. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of perceived discrimination on well-being, perceptions of safety and school integration amongst children growing up within socio-economically disadvantaged communities in Limerick, Ireland. Mediation analysis was used to explore these relationships and to examine the potential role of parental support and community identity in boys and girls in the 6th to 9th year of compulsory education (N = 199). Results indicate perceived discrimination contributed to negative outcomes in terms of school integration, perceptions of safety and levels of well-being. Age and gender differences were observed which disadvantaged boys and younger children. All negative outcomes were buffered by parental support. Community identity also protected young people in terms of feelings of school integration and risk but not in terms of psychological well-being. Findings are discussed in terms of the different role of family and community supports for children negotiating negative social representations of their community. PMID:26490256

  14. Housing conditions and mental health in a disadvantaged area in Scotland.

    PubMed Central

    Hopton, J L; Hunt, S M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the mental health impact of different aspects of poor housing. DESIGN: This was a post hoc analysis of data from a household interview survey. SETTING: A public sector housing estate on the outskirts of Glasgow. SUBJECTS: These comprised 114 men and 333 women aged between 17 and 65 from 451 households. MEASURES: Dependent variable: scoring > or = 5 on the 30 item general health questionnaire (GHQ30). Independent variables: self reported data on household composition, whether ill health was a factor in the move to the current dwelling, length of time at address, household income, whether the respondent was employed, chronic illness, and 6 problems with the dwelling. RESULTS: Reporting a problem with dampness was significantly and independently associated with scores of > or = 5 on the GHQ30 after controlling for possible confounding variables. CONCLUSION: Initiatives to tackle housing dampness may be important in developing a strategy to improve mental health for the study area. More research on the mental health impact of different aspects of poor housing is required. PMID:8762355

  15. Public perception and economic implications of bottled water consumption in underprivileged urban areas.

    PubMed

    Massoud, M A; Maroun, R; Abdelnabi, H; Jamali, I I; El-Fadel, M

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a comparative assessment of public perception of drinking water quality in two underprivileged urban areas in Lebanon and Jordan with nearly similar cultural and demographic characteristics. It compares the quality of bottled water to the quality of the drinking water supplied through the public network and examines the economic implications of bottled water consumption in the two study areas. Participants' perception of the quality of drinking water provided via the public network was generally negative, and bottled water was perceived to be of better quality in both areas, thus affecting drinking water preferences and consumption patterns. The results reveal that the quality of bottled water is questionable in areas that lack enforcement of water quality standards, thus adding to the burden of an already disadvantaged community. Both areas demonstrated a considerable cost incurred for purchasing bottled water in low income communities reaching up to 26 % of total income. PMID:22828978

  16. Examining alternative measures of social disadvantage among Asian Americans: the relevance of economic opportunity, subjective social status, and financial strain for health.

    PubMed

    de Castro, A B; Gee, Gilbert C; Takeuchi, David T

    2010-10-01

    Socioeconomic position is often operationalized as education, occupation, and income. However, these measures may not fully capture the process of socioeconomic disadvantage that may be related to morbidity. Economic opportunity, subjective social status, and financial strain may also place individuals at risk for poor health outcomes. Data come from the Asian subsample of the 2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (n = 2095). Regression models were used to examine the associations between economic opportunity, subjective social status, and financial strain and the outcomes of self-rated health, body mass index, and smoking status. Education, occupation, and income were also investigated as correlates of these outcomes. Low correlations were observed between all measures of socioeconomic status. Economic opportunity was robustly negatively associated with poor self-rated health, higher body mass index, and smoking, followed by financial strain, then subjective social status. Findings show that markers of socioeconomic position beyond education, occupation, and income are related to morbidity among Asian Americans. This suggests that potential contributions of social disadvantage to poor health may be understated if only conventional measures are considered among immigrant and minority populations. PMID:19434494

  17. NEW PASS: Nontraditional Education for Women, Paths to Economic Self-Sufficiency. A Career Awareness Program for Economically Disadvantaged Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Judith

    This manual is designed for social service agencies, educational institutions, and other organizations who want to strengthen their programming for economicaly disadvantaged teenage girls and young women. It provides materials for the development and implementation of NEW PASS, a unique career awareness program that uses nontraditional employment…

  18. An Analysis of the Emerging Roles of the Paraprofessional School-Community Aide with Implications for Strategies of Social Change in Disadvantaged Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadden, Marise Alvena Tabor Bell

    This study analyzed the use of paraprofessionals as school-community workers (Community Counselors) by the Flint (Michigan) Community Schools. The purpose was to examine perceptions and expectations of this position in order to: organize a framework for the emerging role of the indigenous school-community worker in urban disadvantaged areas; make

  19. An Analysis of the Emerging Roles of the Paraprofessional School-Community Aide with Implications for Strategies of Social Change in Disadvantaged Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadden, Marise Alvena Tabor Bell

    This study analyzed the use of paraprofessionals as school-community workers (Community Counselors) by the Flint (Michigan) Community Schools. The purpose was to examine perceptions and expectations of this position in order to: organize a framework for the emerging role of the indigenous school-community worker in urban disadvantaged areas; make…

  20. The Efficacy of a Mathematics Readiness Program for Inducing Conservation of Number, Weight, Area, Mass, and Volume in Disadvantaged Preschool Children in the Southern United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Beverly S.

    The present study was designed to determine whether conservation of number, weight, volume, area, and mass could be learned and retained by disadvantaged preschool children when taught by an inexperienced classroom teacher. An instructional sequence of 10-minute lessons was presented on alternate days over a 3 1/2 week period by preservice…

  1. Incentives as connectors: insights into a breastfeeding incentive intervention in a disadvantaged area of North-West England

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Incentive or reward schemes are becoming increasingly popular to motivate healthy lifestyle behaviours. In this paper, insights from a qualitative and descriptive study to investigate the uptake, impact and meanings of a breastfeeding incentive intervention integrated into an existing peer support programme (Star Buddies) are reported. The Star Buddies service employs breastfeeding peer supporters to support women across the ante-natal, intra-partum and post-partum period. Methods In a disadvantaged area of North West England, women initiating breastfeeding were recruited by peer supporters on the postnatal ward or soon after hospital discharge to participate in an 8 week incentive (gifts and vouchers) and breastfeeding peer supporter intervention. In-depth interviews were conducted with 26 women participants who engaged with the incentive intervention, and a focus group was held with the 4 community peer supporters who delivered the intervention. Descriptive analysis of routinely collected data for peer supporter contacts and breastfeeding outcomes before and after the incentive intervention triangulated and retrospectively provided the context for the qualitative thematic analysis. Results A global theme emerged of 'incentives as connectors', with two sub-themes of 'facilitating connections' and 'facilitating relationships and wellbeing'. The incentives were linked to discussion themes and gift giving facilitated peer supporter access for proactive weekly home visits to support women. Regular face to face contacts enabled meaningful relationships and new connections within and between the women, families, peer supporters and care providers to be formed and sustained. Participants in the incentive scheme received more home visits and total contact time with peer supporters compared to women before the incentive intervention. Full participation levels and breastfeeding rates at 6-8 weeks were similar for women before and after the incentive intervention. Conclusion The findings suggest that whilst the provision of incentives might not influence women's intentions or motivations to breastfeed, the connections forged provided psycho-social benefits for both programme users and peer supporters. PMID:22458841

  2. Economic Impacts of a Wide Area Release of Anthrax

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2009-05-29

    This analysis explores economic impacts that might result from a wide-area release of anthrax. The intent is not to provide a quantitative analysis of such a disaster, but to: 1. Define the general categories of economic impacts that the region should be concerned about; and, 2. Explore what types of private sector businesses or industries, if any, may have the greatest impact on speeding the economic recovery of the region.

  3. Closing the Achievement Gap: A Summer School Program to Accelerate the Academic Performance of Economically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Ramon Michael

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing disparity in educational outcomes among economically and racially different groups of students, summer school has received attention from school reformers as a means to close the achievement gap. Given the interest in this topic by educators, researchers, and policymakers, there is little research on the impact of summer school…

  4. Closing the Achievement Gap: A Summer School Program to Accelerate the Academic Performance of Economically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Ramon Michael

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing disparity in educational outcomes among economically and racially different groups of students, summer school has received attention from school reformers as a means to close the achievement gap. Given the interest in this topic by educators, researchers, and policymakers, there is little research on the impact of summer school

  5. Gaps in the Digital Divide in Higher Education: Economically Disadvantaged Students and a Lack of Access and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    The digital divide between students who have access to and skills with information technology resources and those who do not is growing wider. This dissertation documents a quantitative study on the effect and relationship between age, gender, ethnicity and low economic status on students' access to computers and the Internet, as well as…

  6. Updating the Process and Content of Teacher Education Curriculum to Research Disadvantaged Youth in Western Metropolitan Areas. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Mary Helen; Wood, Marcile

    The central purpose of this report is to help teachers, teacher educators, supervisors, and local directors to be more aware of the problems and needs of disadvantaged urban youth. Focus is directed toward existing teacher education programs to determine needed changes which will help teachers to better serve the education needs of disadvantaged…

  7. Economic Development Program, St. Louis. Volume 2. An Economic Profile of a St. Louis Poverty Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Management and Economics Research, Inc., Palo Alto, CA.

    Volume 2 of a larger study to formulate an economic development program for St. Louis, this is a comprehensive economic profile of an inner city poverty zone designated as the Target Area (TA). Data are presented on age, sex, race, income, education, and other socioeconomic characteristics of the TA population, together with information on the…

  8. Socio-economic benefits from protected areas in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Heagney, E C; Kovac, M; Fountain, J; Conner, N

    2015-12-01

    International case studies of protected area performance increasingly report that conservation and socio-economic outcomes are interdependent. Effective conservation requires support and cooperation from local governments and communities, which in turn requires that protected areas contribute to the economic well-being of the communities in which they are sited. Despite increasing recognition of their importance, robust studies that document the socio-economic impacts of protected areas are rare, especially in the developed world context. We proposed 3 potential pathways through which protected areas might benefit local communities in the developed world: the improved local housing value, local business stimulus, and increased local funding pathways. We examined these pathways by undertaking a statistical longitudinal analysis of 110 regional and rural communities covering an area of approximately 600,000 km(2) in southeastern Australia. We compared trends in 10 socio-economic indicators describing employment, income, housing, business development and local government revenue from 2000 to 2010. New protected areas acquisitions led to an increased number of new dwelling approvals and associated developer contributions, increased local business numbers, and increased local government revenue from user-pays services and grants. Longer-term effects of established protected areas included increased local council revenue from a variety of sources. Our findings provide support for each of our 3 proposed benefit pathways and contribute new insights into the cycling of benefits from protected areas through the economy over time. The business and legislative models in our study are typical of those operating in many other developed countries; thus, the benefit pathways reported in our study are likely to be generalizable. By identifying and communicating socio-economic benefits from terrestrial protected areas in a developed world context, our findings represent an important step in securing local support and ongoing high-level protection for key components of the world's biodiversity. PMID:26183708

  9. It doesn't happen here: eating disorders in an ethnically diverse sample of economically disadvantaged, urban college students.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Katie; Raghavan, Chitra; Rajah, Valli; Gates, Katie

    2007-01-01

    The bulk of eating disorder studies have focused on white, middle-upper class women, excluding ethnically and economically diverse women and men. Accordingly, our knowledge of prevalence rates and risk factors is reliant on this narrow literature. To expand upon the current literature, we examined eating disorders in ethnically diverse low-income, urban college students. We surveyed 884 incoming freshmen during an orientation class to assess the frequency of eating disorder diagnosis and the risk factors of child physical abuse and sexual abuse before and after age 13. We found 10% of our sample received an eating disorder diagnosis, 12.2% of the women and 7.3% of the men. The majority of these students were Latino/a or "other," with White women receiving the fewest diagnoses. For all women, both child physical abuse and both indices of sexual abuse contributed equally to the development of an eating disorder. For men only the sexual abuse indices contributed to an eating disorder diagnosis. These results indicate that ethnic minority populations do suffer from relatively high rates of self-reported eating disorders and that a history of trauma is a significant risk factor for eating disorders in these diverse populations of both women and men. PMID:17987450

  10. Self-reported depression is increasing among socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents – repeated cross-sectional surveys from Finland from 2000 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent depression is more common in lower socio-economic groups. Whether this pattern has changed over time, is not known. We examined the prevalence of self-reported depression and its changes in socio-economic groups from 2000 to 2011 among Finnish adolescents. Methods Data were based on classroom surveys every second year from 2000–2001 to 2010–2011 using nationwide samples of 14–16-year old Finns (n = 618,084). Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires including questions on health, health behaviours, and school experiences. Depression was measured with a Finnish modification of the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory, and divided into no, mild, moderate and severe depression. The association between depression and the social background (parents’ education and employment) over time was studied using a multinomial regression analysis. Results The prevalence of self-reported severe depression slightly increased from 2000–2001 to 2010–2011 in girls. In boys a slight increase was observed when adjusting for background variables. The differences in the prevalence of depression between the social background groups persisted over the entire study period. In both sexes, severe depression nearly doubled among those adolescents whose parents were unemployed and had a low education level; among boys, the prevalence was 6.5% in 2000–2001 and 12.8% in 2010–2011, and among girls 6.4% and 11.4% respectively. Conclusion The largest increases in prevalence of severe depression are seen among socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents. This suggests that inequalities in mental health may become an increasing concern. PMID:24775269

  11. Multiple Literacies and Social Transformation: A Case Study of Perceptions of Literacy Needs and Social Transformation By Service Providers of Low Skilled Disadvantaged Clients in an Outer Urban Area of Brisbane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleton, Geraldine; McDonald, Marya

    The different perceptions of literacy that inform the work of various groups working with disadvantaged groups within society were explored in a case study in which individuals providing services to low-skilled, disadvantaged clients in an outer urban area of Brisbane, Australia, were interviewed regarding their perceptions of their clients'…

  12. Remarks on Successful Economic Development Programs in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret G.

    Rural economic development depends on implementation of strategies that capture the competitive edge of the total rural environment. It will not succeed by weak duplication of traditional urban development strategies. The historic dependence on the natural resource base that is the common denominator for rural areas must be regarded not as a

  13. Remarks on Successful Economic Development Programs in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret G.

    Rural economic development depends on implementation of strategies that capture the competitive edge of the total rural environment. It will not succeed by weak duplication of traditional urban development strategies. The historic dependence on the natural resource base that is the common denominator for rural areas must be regarded not as a…

  14. Study on mobility-disadvantage group' risk perception and coping behaviors of abrupt geological hazards in coastal rural area of China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Anping

    2016-07-01

    China is a country highly vulnerable to abrupt geological hazards. The present study aims to investigate disaster preparedness and perception of abrupt geological disasters (such as rock avalanches, landslide, mud-rock flows etc) in mobility-disadvantage group living in coastal rural area of China. This research is to take into account all factors regarding disasters and to design the questionnaires accordingly. Two debris flow vulnerable townships are selected as study areas including Hedi Township in Qinyuan County and Xianxi Township in Yueqing City which are located in East China's Zhejiang Province. SPSS was applied to conduct descriptive analysis, which results in an effective empirical model for evacuation behavior of the disable groups. The result of this study shows mobility-disadvantage groups' awareness on disaster prevention and mitigation is poor and their knowledge about basic theory and emergency response is limited. Errors and distortions in public consciousness on disaster prevention and mitigation stimulate the development of areas with frequent disasters, which will expose more life and property to danger and aggravate the vulnerability of hazard bearing body. In conclusion, before drafting emergency planning, the government should consider more the disable group's expectations and actual evacuation behavior than the request of the situation to ensure the planning is good to work. PMID:27174691

  15. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Core. Module III-A-3: Community Resources for Economically Depressed Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Fresno. Dept. of Home Economics.

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on community resources for economically depressed areas is the third in a set of four core modules on teaching home economics in economically depressed areas. (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and…

  16. Economics and terminal area environmental impact of STOL transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, E. C.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of short takeoff and landing aircraft in meeting the needs of short haul transportation systems is analyzed. The objectives of the short haul system are evaluated on the basis of the following criteria: (1) service to the passenger, (2) economic viability, and (3) terminal area environment conditions caused by community noise, ground and air decongestion, and air pollution. Data are presented in the forms of tables, charts, and graphs. An itemization of the conclusions reached after the preliminary investigation is included.

  17. Individual, social and environmental factors influencing physical activity levels and behaviours of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged urban mothers in Canada: A mixed methods approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Existing data provide little insight into the physical activity context of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged mothers in Canada. Our primary objectives were: (1) to use focus group methodology to develop tools to identify the individual, social, and environmental factors influencing utilitarian and leisure time physical activities (LTPA) of multiethnic SED mothers; and (2) to use a women specific physical activity survey tool to assess psychosocial barriers and supports and to quantify individual physical activity (PA) levels of multi-ethnic SED mothers in Canada. Methods Qualitative focus group sessions were conducted in West, Central and Eastern Canada with multiethnic SED mothers (n = 6 focus groups; n = 42 SED mothers) and with health and recreation professionals (HRPs) (n = 5 focus groups; n = 25 HRPs) involved in community PA programming for multiethnic SED mothers. Administration of the women specific Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) tool was completed by consenting SED mothers (n = 59). Results More than half of SED mothers were employed and had higher total PA scores with occupation included than unemployed mothers. However, nearly 60% of both groups were overweight or obese. Barriers to LTPA included the lack of available, affordable and accessible LTPA programs that responded to cultural and social needs. Concerns for safety, nonsupportive cultural and social norms and the winter climate were identified as key barriers to both utilitarian and LTPA. Conclusions Findings show that multiethnic SED mothers experience many barriers to utilitarian and LTPA opportunities within their communities. The varying LTPA levels among these multi-ethnic SED mothers and the occurrence of overweight and obesity suggests that current LTPA programs are likely insufficient to maintain healthy body weights. PMID:22500882

  18. Exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and associated health risks of socio-economically disadvantaged population in a "hot spot" in Camden, New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiangmei (May); Fan, Zhihua (Tina); Zhu, Xianlei; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Weisel, Clifford P.; Lioy, Paul J.

    2012-09-01

    To address disparities in health risks associated with ambient air pollution for racial/ethnic minority groups, this study characterized personal and ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a suspected hot spot of air pollution - the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), and an urban reference community - the Copewood/Davis Streets (CDS) neighborhood in Camden, New Jersey. Both are minority-dominant, impoverished communities. We collected 24-h integrated personal air samples from 54 WFS residents and 53 CDS residents, with one sample on a weekday and one on a weekend day during the summer and winter seasons of 2004-2006. Ambient air samples from the center of each community were also collected simultaneously during personal air sampling. Toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (TEX) presented higher (p < 0.05) ambient levels in WFS than in CDS, particularly during weekdays. A stronger association between personal and ambient concentrations of MTBE and TEX was found in WFS than in CDS. Fourteen to forty-two percent of the variation in personal MTBE, hexane, benzene, and TEX was explained by local outdoor air pollution. These observations indicated that local sources impacted the community air pollution and personal exposure in WFS. The estimated cancer risks resulting from two locally emitted VOCs, benzene and ethylbenzene, and non-cancer neurological and respiratory effects resulting from hexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes exceeded the US EPA risk benchmarks in both communities. These findings emphasized the need to address disparity in health risks associated with ambient air pollution for the socio-economically disadvantaged groups. This study also demonstrated that air pollution hot spots similar to WFS can provide robust setting to investigate health effects of ambient air pollution.

  19. The relationship between out-of-home care and the quality of infant-mother attachment in an economically disadvantaged population.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, B E; Gove, F L; Egeland, B

    1980-12-01

    The effects of routine daily separations occasioned by out-of-home care on the formation and maintenance of infant-mother attachment relationships were examined in a population of economically disadvantaged mothers. 3 groups were constituted on the basis of the time in the infant's life when out-of-home care began: (1) before 12 months; (2) between 12 and 18 months; (3) home-care controls. The infant-mother pairs were observed in the Ainsworth strange situation at both 12 and 18 months, and were classified as secure, anxious-avoidant, or anxious-resistant. Because previous research has implicated the psychological accessibility of the mother to the infant in the development of anxious-avoidant attachments during the first year of life, the hypothesis that physical inaccessibility due to out-of-home care would also be associated with anxious-avoidant attachments was tested. The data support this hypothesis. At 12 months 47% of the infants whose mothers had returned to work/school were classified in the anxious-avoidant group, while the other 2 groups did not differ significantly in the proportions of infants assigned to the 3 attachment classifications. At 18 months, differences among the 3 work status groups also showed a large portion of anxious-avoidant infants (41%) in this early working group. However, infants whose out-of-home care began after 12 months did not show an increase in the proportion of anxious attachments. Additional analyses of variables related to mother's return to work indicated that single mothers were more likely to return to work/school, that mothers who worked reported higher levels of life stress than mothers who stayed home with the infants, and that, by 18 months, both anxious-avoidant and anxious-resistant attachments were also associated with non-intact families. PMID:7471924

  20. Increasing Levels of Urban Malnutrition with Rapid Urbanization in Informal Settlements of Katutura, Windhoek: Neighbourhood Differentials and the Effect of Socio-Economic Disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Nickanor, Ndeyapo; Kazembe, Lawrence N

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing urban poverty characterize much of Southern Africa, resulting in poor urban health. This study investigates inter-urban differences and determinants of undernutrition among marginalized communities. Using the 1992, 2000 and 2006/2007 Namibia Demographic and Health Survey data, we fitted hierarchical random intercept logit models, applied at 52 enumeration areas in the capital city (Windhoek), to estimate trends in undernutrition, and investigate risk factors associated with stunting and underweight. Findings demonstrate that undernutrition among children has risen (7.4% to 25.1%, p<0.001 for stunting; and 9.7% to 17.6%, p<0.001 for underweight, between 1992 and 2006/2007). The risk was pronounced for children from socioeconomically disadvantaged households (OR=1.53, 95% CI:[1.01, 2.31] for stunting and OR=2.16, 95% CI:[1.03, 4.89]for underweight). Evidence emerged of intra-urban variation in undernutrition. We argue that with increasing urbanization, comes the challenge of food insecurity and, consequently, malnutrition. For improved child health, urban planners should have targeted interventions for poor urban households and deprived neighbourhoods. PMID:27009767

  1. Economic Shocks and Public Health Protections in US Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined public health system responses to economic shocks using longitudinal observations of public health activities implemented in US metropolitan areas from 1998 to 2012. Methods. The National Longitudinal Survey of Public Health Systems collected data on the implementation of 20 core public health activities in a nationally representative cohort of 280 metropolitan areas in 1998, 2006, and 2012. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate how local economic shocks relate to the scope of activities implemented in communities, the mix of organizations performing them, and perceptions of the effectiveness of activities. Results. Public health activities fell by nearly 5% in the average community between 2006 and 2012, with the bottom quintile of communities losing nearly 25% of their activities. Local public health delivery fell most sharply among communities experiencing the largest increases in unemployment and the largest reductions in governmental public health spending. Conclusions. Federal resources and private sector contributions failed to avert reductions in local public health protections during the recession. New financing mechanisms may be necessary to ensure equitable public health protections during economic downturns. PMID:25689201

  2. Pneumatic vs. door-to-door waste collection systems in existing urban areas: a comparison of economic performance.

    PubMed

    Teerioja, Nea; Moliis, Katja; Kuvaja, Eveliina; Ollikainen, Markku; Punkkinen, Henna; Merta, Elina

    2012-10-01

    Pneumatic waste collection systems are becoming increasingly popular in new urban residential areas, and an attractive alternative to conventional vehicle-operated municipal solid waste (MSW) collection also in ready-built urban areas. How well pneumatic systems perform in ready-built areas is, however, an unexplored topic. In this paper, we analyze how a hypothetical stationary pneumatic waste collection system compares economically to a traditional vehicle-operated door-to-door collection system in an existing, densely populated urban area. Both pneumatic and door-to-door collection systems face disadvantages in such areas. While buildings and fixed city infrastructure increase the installation costs of a pneumatic system in existing residential areas, the limited space for waste transportation vehicles and containers cause problems for vehicle-operated waste collection systems. The method used for analyzing the cost effects of the compared waste collection systems in our case study takes into account also monetized environmental effects of both waste collection systems. As a result, we find that the door-to-door collection system is economically almost six times more superior. The dominant cost factor in the analysis is the large investment cost of the pneumatic system. The economic value of land is an important variable, as it is able to reverse the results, if the value of land saved with a pneumatic system is sufficiently high. PMID:22721607

  3. Artificial Immune System for Multi-Area Economic Dispatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Shankha Suvra; Hazra, Abhik; Basu, Mousumi

    2013-09-01

    This article presents artificial immune system for solving multi-area economic dispatch (MAED) problem with tie line constraints considering transmission losses, multiple fuels, valve-point loading and prohibited operating zones. Artificial immune system is based on the clonal selection principle which implements adaptive cloning, hyper mutation, aging operator and tournament selection. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been verified on three different test systems, both small and large, involving varying degree of complexity. Compared with differential evolution, evolutionary programming and real-coded genetic algorithm, considering the quality of the solution obtained, the proposed algorithm seems to be a promising alternative approach for solving the MAED problems in practical power system.

  4. Adverse life events, area socioeconomic disadvantage, and psychopathology and resilience in young children: the importance of risk factors' accumulation and protective factors' specificity.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos; Kallis, Constantinos

    2010-06-01

    Few studies on resilience in young children model risk appropriately and test theory-led hypotheses about its moderation. This study addressed both issues. Our hypothesis was that for preschool children's emotional/behavioral adjustment in the face of contextual risk protective factors should be located in the cognitive domain. Data were from the first two sweeps of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study. The final study sample was 4,748 three-year-old children clustered in 1,549 Lower layer Super Output Areas in nine strata. Contextual risk was measured at both area (with the Index of Multiple Deprivation) and family (with proximal and distal adverse life events experienced) level. Moderator variables were parenting, verbal and non-verbal ability, developmental milestones, and temperament. Multivariate multilevel models-that allowed for correlated residuals at both individual and area level-and univariate multilevel models estimated risk effects on specific and broad psychopathology. At baseline, proximal family risk, distal family risk and area risk were all associated with broad psychopathology, although the most parsimonious was the proximal family risk model. The area risk/broad psychopathology association remained significant even after family risk was controlled but not after family level socioeconomic disadvantage was controlled. The cumulative family risk was more parsimonious than the specific family risks model. Non-verbal ability moderated the effect of proximal family risk on conduct and emotional problems, and developmental milestones moderated the effect of proximal family risk on conduct problems. The findings highlight the importance of modeling contextual risk appropriately and of locating in the cognitive domain factors that buffer its effect on young children's adjustment. PMID:19820985

  5. Politics and patriarchy: barriers to health screening for socially disadvantaged women.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kathleen

    2012-10-01

    Health screening and early detection of cancer results in significantly better health outcomes and lower mortality. However barriers to such screening are multiple and complex. This paper specifically addresses barriers to women's health screening for socially disadvantaged women in an economically and service disadvantaged area. In this qualitative study, women's healthcare workers and consumers of women's health screening were interviewed and data related to issues for women who had special needs were analysed. Findings indicate there is a lack of access to appropriate services for socially disadvantaged women which affects their screening uptake rates. This study also highlights the difficulties socially disadvantaged women encountered when they were able to access these services which also influenced their decisions regarding subsequent health screening. Implications for nurses and other healthcare professionals are manifold and include advocating for greater access to services and more sensitive care in the delivery of health screening services for socially disadvantaged women. PMID:23181371

  6. Special Counseling for the Disadvantaged Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaple, Donald J.; Kaple, Marion Keeler

    This book is designed to aid teachers and administrators who have not had special training in counseling and who are working in educational programs for the disadvantaged adult. Subject areas discussed are: The Counselor and the Client (Duties of the Counselor; Areas of Assistance for the Client); Who Are the Disadvantaged (Characteristics of the…

  7. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Louisville, Kentucky, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The model allows various economic projections to be

  8. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Washington, DC Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The model allows various economic projections to be

  9. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Indianapolis, Indiana, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The model allows various economic projections to be

  10. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Nashville, Tennessee, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The model allows various economic projections to be

  11. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Oakland, California, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The model allows various economic projections to be

  12. Improving access to high-quality primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas: a mixed method study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Ford, John A; Jones, Andrew P; Wong, Geoff; Clark, Allan B; Porter, Tom; Shakespeare, Tom; Swart, Ann Marie; Steel, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The UK has an ageing population, especially in rural areas, where deprivation is high among older people. Previous research has identified this group as at high risk of poor access to healthcare. The aim of this study is to generate a theory of how socioeconomically disadvantaged older people from rural areas access primary care, to develop an intervention based on this theory and test it in a feasibility trial. Methods and analysis On the basis of the MRC Framework for Developing and Evaluating Complex Interventions, three methods will be used to generate the theory. First, a realist review will elucidate the patient pathway based on existing literature. Second, an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing will be completed using structural equation modelling. Third, 15 semistructured interviews will be undertaken with patients and four focus groups with health professionals. A triangulation protocol will be used to allow each of these methods to inform and be informed by each other, and to integrate data into one overall realist theory. Based on this theory, an intervention will be developed in discussion with stakeholders to ensure that the intervention is feasible and practical. The intervention will be tested within a feasibility trial, the design of which will depend on the intervention. Lessons from the feasibility trial will be used to refine the intervention and gather the information needed for a definitive trial. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval from the regional ethics committee has been granted for the focus groups with health professionals and interviews with patients. Ethics approval will be sought for the feasibility trial after the intervention has been designed. Findings will be disseminated to the key stakeholders involved in intervention development, to researchers, clinicians and health planners through peer-reviewed journal articles and conference publications, and locally through a dissemination event. PMID:26384728

  13. Measuring the Determinants of Relative Economic Performance of Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Sheela; Rahman, Sanzidur; Errington, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of economic performance of 149 English rural Local Authority Districts (LADs). A Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) estimation procedure was employed to jointly determine the influence of a wide range of indicators representing economic, human, cultural and environmental capital, as well as less tangible or "soft"

  14. New Mexico: 2002 Economic Census. Educational Services, Geographic Area Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. The economic census furnishes an important part of the framework for such composite measures as the gross domestic product estimates,…

  15. New Mexico: 2002 Economic Census. Educational Services, Geographic Area Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. The economic census furnishes an important part of the framework for such composite measures as the gross domestic product estimates,

  16. Alaska: 2002 Economic Census. Educational Services, Geographic Area Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. The economic census furnishes an important part of the framework for such composite measures as the gross domestic product estimates, input…

  17. Measuring the Determinants of Relative Economic Performance of Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Sheela; Rahman, Sanzidur; Errington, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of economic performance of 149 English rural Local Authority Districts (LADs). A Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) estimation procedure was employed to jointly determine the influence of a wide range of indicators representing economic, human, cultural and environmental capital, as well as less tangible or "soft"…

  18. A Parent-Based Book-Reading Intervention for Disadvantaged Children with Language Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colmar, Susan Hilary

    2014-01-01

    Children with delayed language skills, who were from a socio-economic area defined as disadvantaged, made significant improvements in language skills after their parents were trained in easily learned strategies, enabling them to make simple changes in the way they interacted with their children. The 36 children, mean age five years, were

  19. Behavioral economics: areas of cooperative research between economics and applied behavioral analysis1

    PubMed Central

    Kagel, John H.; Winkler, Robin C.

    1972-01-01

    The current research methods of behavioral economics are characterized by inadequate empirical foundations. Psychologists involved in the experimental analysis of behavior with their research strategies and their experimental technology, particularly that of the Token Economy, can assist in providing empirical foundations for behavioral economics. Cooperative research between economists and psychologists to this end should be immediately fruitful and mutually beneficial. PMID:16795356

  20. Economics and Education: Instrumentalism and the Dilemma of Learning in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.

    While most economists agree that educational attainment contributes to national economic performance, studies have not generally confirmed a similar conclusion with respect to rural areas. This paper examines the relationships between rural education and economics. The new aim of American education, restoration of national economic

  1. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Atlanta, Georgia, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  2. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the New York City Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The

  3. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Atlanta, Georgia, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The

  4. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the New Orleans, Louisiana, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The

  5. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Chicago, Illinois, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed, with the generous support of State Farm[R], a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The

  6. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Houston, Texas, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The

  7. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Jackson, Mississippi, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The

  8. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Detroit, Michigan, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The

  9. 24 CFR 599.105 - Economic condition requirements for a nominated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Economic condition requirements for... Requirements for Nomination of Renewal Communities § 599.105 Economic condition requirements for a nominated area. (a) Certification for economic requirements. An official or officials authorized to do so by...

  10. Process evaluation for the FEeding Support Team (FEST) randomised controlled feasibility trial of proactive and reactive telephone support for breastfeeding women living in disadvantaged areas

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Leone; MacLennan, Graeme; Boyers, Dwayne; Vale, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility, acceptability and fidelity of a feeding team intervention with an embedded randomised controlled trial of team-initiated (proactive) and woman-initiated (reactive) telephone support after hospital discharge. Design Participatory approach to the design and implementation of a pilot trial embedded within a before-and-after study, with mixed-method process evaluation. Setting A postnatal ward in Scotland. Sample Women initiating breast feeding and living in disadvantaged areas. Methods Quantitative data: telephone call log and workload diaries. Qualitative data: interviews with women (n=40) with follow-up (n=11) and staff (n=17); ward observations 2 weeks before and after the intervention; recorded telephone calls (n=16) and steering group meetings (n=9); trial case notes (n=69); open question in a telephone interview (n=372). The Framework approach to analysis was applied to mixed-method data. Main outcome measures Quantitative: telephone call characteristics (number, frequency, duration); workload activity. Qualitative: experiences and perspectives of women and staff. Results A median of eight proactive calls per woman (n=35) with a median duration of 5 min occurred in the 14 days following hospital discharge. Only one of 34 control women initiated a call to the feeding team, with women undervaluing their own needs compared to others, and breast feeding as a reason to call. Proactive calls providing continuity of care increased women's confidence and were highly valued. Data demonstrated intervention fidelity for woman-centred care; however, observing an entire breast feed was not well implemented due to short hospital stays, ward routines and staff–team–woman communication issues. Staff pragmatically recognised that dedicated feeding teams help meet women's breastfeeding support needs in the context of overstretched and variable postnatal services. Conclusions Implementing and integrating the FEeding Support Team (FEST) trial within routine postnatal care was feasible and acceptable to women and staff from a research and practice perspective and shows promise for addressing health inequalities. Trial registration ISRCTN27207603. The study protocol and final report is available on request. PMID:22535794

  11. The FEeding Support Team (FEST) randomised, controlled feasibility trial of proactive and reactive telephone support for breastfeeding women living in disadvantaged areas

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Leone; Maclennan, Graeme; Boyers, Dwayne; Vale, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility of implementing a dedicated feeding support team on a postnatal ward and pilot the potential effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of team (proactive) and woman-initiated (reactive) telephone support after discharge. Design Randomised controlled trial embedded within a before-and-after study. Participatory approach and mixed-method process evaluation. Setting A postnatal ward in Scotland. Sample Women living in disadvantaged areas initiating breast feeding. Methods Eligible women were recruited to a before-and-after intervention study, a proportion of whom were independently randomised after hospital discharge to intervention: daily proactive and reactive telephone calls for ≤14 days or control: reactive telephone calls ≤ day 14. Intention-to-treat analysis compared the randomised groups on cases with complete outcomes at follow-up. Main outcome measures Primary outcome: any breast feeding at 6–8 weeks assessed by a telephone call from a researcher blind to group allocation. Secondary outcomes: exclusive breast feeding, satisfaction with care, NHS costs and cost per additional woman breast feeding. Results There was no difference in feeding outcomes for women initiating breast feeding before the intervention (n=413) and after (n=388). 69 women were randomised to telephone support: 35 intervention (32 complete cases) and 34 control (26 complete cases). 22 intervention women compared with 12 control women were giving their baby some breast milk (RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.92 to 2.40) and 17 intervention women compared with eight control women were exclusively breast feeding (RR 1.73, 95% CI 0.88 to 3.37) at 6–8 weeks after birth. The incremental cost of providing proactive calls was £87 per additional woman breast feeding and £91 per additional woman exclusively breast feeding at 6–8 weeks; costs were sensitive to service organisation. Conclusions Proactive telephone care delivered by a dedicated feeding team shows promise as a cost-effective intervention for improving breastfeeding outcomes. Integrating the FEeding Support Team (FEST) intervention into routine postnatal care was feasible. Trial registration number ISRCTN27207603. The study protocol and final report are available on request. PMID:22535790

  12. Guidebook for Home Economics Cooperative Education Occupational Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    This guidebook is designed to assist teacher-coordinators in promoting home economics cooperative education programs in the school and the community. It is intended to be a tool for teachers working with prospective employers of students, recruiting students for the program, and interpreting the program to parents, administrators, and others.…

  13. Neighborhood Economic Disadvantage and Children’s Cognitive and Social-Emotional Development: Exploring Head Start Classroom Quality as a Mediating Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Connors, Maia C.; Morris, Pamela A.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Friedman-Krauss, Allison H.

    2015-01-01

    Past research has shown robust relationships between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and children’s school achievement and social-emotional outcomes, yet the mechanisms for explaining these relationships are poorly understood. The present study uses data from 1,904 Head Start participants enrolled in the Head Start Impact Study to examine the role that classroom structural and relational quality play in explaining the association between neighborhood poverty and children’s developmental gains over the preschool year. Results suggest that neighborhood poverty is directly related to lower levels of classroom quality, and lower gains in early literacy and math scores. Indirect relationships were also found between neighborhood poverty and children’s social-emotional outcomes (i.e., approaches to learning and behavior problems) via differences in the physical resources and negative student-teacher relationships within classrooms. These findings highlight the need for policy initiatives to consider community characteristics as potential predictors of disparities in classroom quality and children’s cognitive and social-emotional development in Head Start. PMID:25937703

  14. ECONOMIC BASES AND POTENTIALS OF RURAL COMMUNITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BACHMURA, F.T.; SOUTHERN, J.H.

    AN ECONOMIC APPROACH TO RURALITY IS PRESENTED. THERE HAS BEEN A STEADY REDUCTION IN THE IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT. MANY RURAL AREAS ARE DISADVANTAGED. ECONOMIC DIFFICULTIES CONTRIBUTE TO OUTMIGRATION AND POPULATION LOSSES IN RURAL AREAS AND ARE REFLECTED IN HIGHER PERCAPITA COSTS FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENTAL EXPENDITURE. OUTMIGRATION HAS…

  15. A Randomized Trial of a Diet and Exercise Intervention for Overweight and Obese Women from Economically Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: Sisters Taking Action for Real Success (STARS)

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Granner, Michelle; Hutto, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Background Lower socioeconomic status at both the individual and neighborhood level is associated with increased health risks. Weight loss can reduce this risk, but few high quality weight loss studies target this population. Objectives STARS tests a culturally-appropriate, group-based behavioral and social support intervention on body weight and waist circumference in women from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods. Design A stratified (by BMI) randomized trial. Randomization to group was generated by a random numbers table with allocation concealment by opaque envelopes. Methods Participants 25–50 years who had a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and a waist circumference ≥ 88 cm were recruited from 18 census tracts in Columbia, SC with high rates of poverty between November 2008 and November 2010. All participants received a dietary and exercise counseling session. Intervention participants then receive 16 theoretically-based and tailored weekly group sessions followed by 8 weeks of telephone maintenance counseling. Control participants receive 16 weekly health education mailings. Measurements correspond to baseline, post-group intervention, and post-telephone counseling, and for intervention participants, after a 12-week no-contact period. Measurement staff was blinded to group assignment. Results Participants (N=155; n=80 intervention, n=75 minimal intervention control) were primarily African American (86.5%) and averaged 38.9 years with a mean BMI of 40.1 kg/m2 and waist circumference of 115.4 cm. Food insecurity was reported by 43% of participants. Summary STARS targets an underserved population with an innovative, tailored, and theoretically-grounded, group-based intervention followed by telephone maintenance. If effective, the approach has the potential to be feasible and cost-effective for community delivery. PMID:21864718

  16. Risk behaviors of 15–21 year olds in Mexico lead to a high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections: results of a survey in disadvantaged urban areas

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Juan-Pablo; Bertozzi, Stefano M; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Sanchez-Aleman, Miguel-Angel

    2006-01-01

    Background Due to the fact that adolescents are more likely to participate in high-risk behaviors, this sector of the population is particularly vulnerable to contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and resultant health problems. Methods A survey was carried out among adolescents from poor homes in 204 small-urban areas of Mexico. Information was collected in relation to risk behaviors and socio-economic environment. A sub-group of the participants also provided blood and urine samples which were analyzed to detect sexually transmitted infections. Results The presence of Chlamydia was detected in nearly 8% of participants who had stated that they were sexually active (18%) and approximately 12% were positive for herpes type 2-specific antibodies. For both, a greater proportion of girls resulted positive compared to boys. The presence of these biological outcomes of sexual risk behavior was associated with other risk behaviors (smoking), but not with self-reported indicators of protected sex (reported use of condom during most recent sexual activity). Conclusion The results presented in this study show a startlingly high prevalence of HSV-2 among sexually active Mexican adolescents in poor urban areas, suggesting that this group has participated to a great extent in risky sexual practices. The relationships between socioeconomic environment and adolescent risk behavior need to be better understood if we are to design preventive interventions that modify the determinants of risk behaviors. PMID:16504147

  17. National parks and protected areas: Appoaches for balancing social, economic, and ecological values

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prato, Tony; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2005-01-01

    National Parks and Protected Areas: Approaches for Balancing Social, Economic and Ecological Values is peerless in its unified treatment of the issues surrounding this subject. From decision-making for planning and management to the principles of ecology and economics, this text examines the analytical methods, information technologies, and planning and management problems associated with protected area planning and management. Protected area managers and students in undergraduate and graduate courses in natural resource management will appreciate this highly readable book.

  18. Instructional Materials for Occupational Home Economics; Food Service Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Materials were developed by subject matter specialists at an Indiana State University workshop for teacher use when planning a cooperative occupational training program for supervised food service workers. Content areas, each printed on a different color paper, include: (1) Grooming and Public Relations, (2) Counter and Cafeteria Service, (3)…

  19. Implications of Social and Economic Changes on Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Edward J.; Bradshaw, Ted K.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses implications of population turnaround, reverse migration for societal polarization, human resources based economy, and rural/urban segmentation on the new socioeconomic role of rural areas. Identifies an interrelated public policy model composed of local community, human resources, technical inputs, and integrating institutions to…

  20. The Disadvantaged Worker: Readings in Developing Minority Manpower.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimpel, Lloyd, Ed.

    This document examines the efforts made by American business to make employment opportunities available to the disadvantaged minority worker. Ten major areas are discussed, including the following: changing social attitudes, Negro work attitudes, patterns for disadvantaged programs, management views of hard-core hiring, testing the disadvantaged,…

  1. Educational Interests of Disadvantaged and Non-Disadvantaged Iowa Household Heads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendt, Donald Philip

    A study was made of 538 disadvantaged and 247 non-disadvantaged household heads in Iowa -- their occupation, training desired, material possessions, membership and participation. The sample included 643 males and 142 females and was distributed in zones from open country to large urban areas. According to the prescribed criteria 14% of the…

  2. Profiles in Rural Economic Development: A Guidebook of Selected Successful Rural Area Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret G.

    This guidebook presents 64 profiles of successful economic development initiatives in the small towns and rural areas of 37 states. Intended for use by rural and small town leaders and rural economic development specialists, the guide provides ideas, encouragement, and an "insider perspective" on alternative rural development strategies. Each…

  3. An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

    1973-01-01

    An economic assessment of short takeoff aircraft for short haul air transportation applications is presented. The economic viability and environmental compatibility of short takeoff aircraft service in high density areas were evaluated. The subjects discussed are: (1) aircraft configurations and performance, (2) airfield and terminal requirements, and (3) direct and indirect operating costs.

  4. Economic growth analysis system (E-GAS) for EPA region 1 - northeast area (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The E - Gas modeling system is a forecast model used to predict National and regional economic activity in order to estimate attainment of ozone and photochemical air quality standards. Since growth in source emissions largely depends on the amount of economic activity growth in an area, a consistent set of growth factors requires forecasts using consistent Gross National Product (GNP) forecasts and a consistent methodology for estimating economic activity in Urban Airshed Model (UAM) and Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) modeling regions. The need for consistent economic growth facts, however, must be satisfied in a way that allows States to use their own estimates of National and regional economic activity. The Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) is an economic and activity forecast model which satisfies both of these standards. The E-GAS modeling system contains three tiers. The first tier includes available national economic forecasts which are used to drive the regional economic models. The second tier includes regional economic models for the UAM modeling areas, as well as the States in the ROM modeling regions. The third tier estimates fuel consumption, physical output, and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) based on the second tier`s regional economic forecasts. The tiers must be sequentially executed, since data are created by and passed from early tiers for transfers to later tiers. The three-tiered structure of E-GAS allows users flexibility in modeling. Although a tier must be run before preceding to later tiers, the system allows the models to be rerun at the user`s discretion. For example, users may run the National model using either BLS or WEFA forecasts before performing regional modeling on the last national model run. E-GAS is designed such that growth factor projection scenarios for each nonattainment area and attainment portion of States can be made using a common assumption about future U.S. economic activity.

  5. PROVIDING OPPORTUNITIES FOR DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    POTTS, ALFRED M.; AND OTHERS

    THE TERM "DISADVANTAGED" IS USED TO REPRESENT ENVIRONMENTS THAT ARE INADEQUATE FOR A FULL LIFE. INCLUDED WOULD BE GROUPS IDENTIFIED AS MIGRANTS, LINGUALLY DISADVANTAGED, CULTURALLY DEPRIVED, AND EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED. A CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILD IS UNABLE TO CONFORM TO PRESENT GROUP EXPECTANCIES. THIS WORKSHOP REPORT IS THE RESULT OF…

  6. Barriers to Parental Involvement for Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify obstacles which prevent active participation at home and at school for economically disadvantaged families. Parental involvement has been recognized as one of the most important variables influencing student academic achievement (Henrich & Gadaire, 2008; Jeynes, 2007; Stewart, 2008). Recent history…

  7. Barriers to Parental Involvement for Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify obstacles which prevent active participation at home and at school for economically disadvantaged families. Parental involvement has been recognized as one of the most important variables influencing student academic achievement (Henrich & Gadaire, 2008; Jeynes, 2007; Stewart, 2008). Recent history

  8. ENGLISH AND THE DISADVANTAGED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FAGAN, EDWARD R., ED.

    PART 1 OF THIS COLLECTION OF ARTICLES BY THE STAFF AND PARTICIPANTS OF AN NDEA SUMMER INSTITUTE IN ENGLISH FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH DESCRIBES ATTITUDES AND VIEWPOINTS ON THE PLACE OF ENGLISH IN THE DAILY LIVES OF STUDENTS AND CONTAINS ARTICLES ON "ENGLISH FOR WHAT" BY CHARLES WEINGARTNER, "ENGLISH TEACHING AND DROP-OUTS" AND "ENGLISH AND THE…

  9. Reconnecting Disadvantaged Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Harry; Edelman, Peter; Offner, Paul

    2006-01-01

    By several recent counts, the United States is home to 2 to 3 million youth age 16 through 24 who are out of school and out of work. Much has been written on disadvantaged youth, and government policy has gone through many incarnations, yet questions remain unanswered. Why are so many young people "disconnected," and what can public policy do

  10. Reconnecting Disadvantaged Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Harry; Edelman, Peter; Offner, Paul

    2006-01-01

    By several recent counts, the United States is home to 2 to 3 million youth age 16 through 24 who are out of school and out of work. Much has been written on disadvantaged youth, and government policy has gone through many incarnations, yet questions remain unanswered. Why are so many young people "disconnected," and what can public policy do…

  11. Measuring Students' Self-Perceived Competence in Home Economics Core Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Frances M.

    1990-01-01

    Using the self-efficacy concept from Bandura's social learning theory, researchers developed an instrument to measure students' self-perceived competence in home economics core areas. Administration to all graduate students at a midwestern university during 1982-88 verified eight original competence areas and added a ninth. (SK)

  12. Composite Measures of Individual and Area-Level Socio-Economic Status Are Associated with Visual Impairment in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Wah, Win; Earnest, Arul; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Wong, Tien Y.; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the independent relationship of individual- and area-level socio-economic status (SES) with the presence and severity of visual impairment (VI) in an Asian population. Methods Cross-sectional data from 9993 Chinese, Malay and Indian adults aged 40–80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of eye Diseases (2004–2011) in Singapore. Based on the presenting visual acuity (PVA) in the better-seeing eye, VI was categorized into normal vision (logMAR≤0.30), low vision (logMAR>0.30<1.00), and blindness (logMAR≥1.00). Any VI was defined as low vision/blindness in the PVA of better-seeing eye. Individual-level low-SES was defined as a composite of primary-level education, monthly income<2000 SGD and residing in 1 or 2-room public apartment. An area-level SES was assessed using a socio-economic disadvantage index (SEDI), created using 12 variables from the 2010 Singapore census. A high SEDI score indicates a relatively poor SES. Associations between SES measures and presence and severity of VI were examined using multi-level, mixed-effects logistic and multinomial regression models. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of any VI was 19.62% (low vision = 19%, blindness = 0.62%). Both individual- and area-level SES were positively associated with any VI and low vision after adjusting for confounders. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of any VI was 2.11(1.88–2.37) for low-SES and 1.07(1.02–1.13) per 1 standard deviation increase in SEDI. When stratified by unilateral/bilateral categories, while low SES showed significant associations with all categories, SEDI showed a significant association with bilateral low vision only. The association between low SES and any VI remained significant among all age, gender and ethnic sub-groups. Although a consistent positive association was observed between area-level SEDI and any VI, the associations were significant among participants aged 40–65 years and male. Conclusion In this community-based sample of Asian adults, both individual- and area-level SES were independently associated with the presence and severity of VI. PMID:26555141

  13. 48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... businesses. 706.302-71 Section 706.302-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Small disadvantaged businesses. (a) Authority. (1) Citations: Sec. 579, Pub. L. 101-167 (Fiscal Year (FY... business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals...

  14. 48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... businesses. 706.302-71 Section 706.302-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Small disadvantaged businesses. (a) Authority. (1) Citations: Sec. 579, Pub. L. 101-167 (Fiscal Year (FY... business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals...

  15. 48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... businesses. 706.302-71 Section 706.302-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Small disadvantaged businesses. (a) Authority. (1) Citations: Sec. 579, Pub. L. 101-167 (Fiscal Year (FY... business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals...

  16. 48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... businesses. 706.302-71 Section 706.302-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Small disadvantaged businesses. (a) Authority. (1) Citations: Sec. 579, Pub. L. 101-167 (Fiscal Year (FY... business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals...

  17. Residential Segregation,Spatial Mismatch and Economic Growth across US Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Dr Harrison; Li, Huiping

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the detrimental influence of residential segregation on poor inner-city residents. This study examines the impact of residential segregation on the welfare of populations in US metropolitan areas using economic growth as the indicator. Panel data of US metropolitan areas spanning 25 years, 1980 2005, are used to analyze the effect of segregation on economic growth. The results show that both racial and skill segregation have a negative impact on short and long-term economic growth, which have increased over time. Further, the negative impact of the variables associated with spatial mismatch is also revealed. The results clearly point to the need for mobility policies that favor non-White households and comprehensive strategies that promote economic opportunities in low-resource communities in the US.

  18. 13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...); Subcontinent Asian Americans (persons with origins from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, the..., bias, or discriminatory practices; (ii) Those conditions have resulted in economic deprivation for the... DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS 8(a) Business Development...

  19. Disadvantaged populations in maternal health in China who and why?

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Beibei; Qian, Xu; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background China has made impressive progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for maternal and reproductive health, but ensuring that progress reaches all segments of the population remains a challenge for policy makers. The aim of this review is to map disadvantaged populations in terms of maternal health in China, and to explain the causes of these inequities to promote policy action. Methods We searched PUBMED, Popline, Proquest and WanFang and included primary studies conducted in mainland China. Experts were also contacted to identify additional studies. Disadvantaged populations in terms of MDG 5 and the reasons for this disadvantage explored by authors were identified and coded based on the conceptual framework developed by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Results In China, differences in maternal health service utilization and the maternal mortality ratio among different income groups, and among regions with different socio-economic development still exist, although these differences are narrowing. Groups with low levels of education and ethnic minorities utilize maternal health care less frequently and experience higher maternal mortality, although we could not determine whether these differences have changed in the last decade. Rural-to-urban migrants use maternal health care and contraception to a lower extent than permanent residents of cities, and differential maternal mortality shows a widening trend among these groups. Gender inequity also contributes to the disadvantaged position of women. Intermediary factors that explain these inequities include material circumstances such as long distances to health facilities for women living in remote areas, behavioral factors such as traditional beliefs that result in reduced care seeking among ethnic minorities, and health system determinants such as out-of-pocket payments posing financial barriers for the poor. Conclusions Inequity in maternal health continues to be an issue worthy of greater programmatic and monitoring efforts in China. PMID:23561030

  20. Preschool Child Development Program (Head Start) in Disadvantaged Areas of New York City-Summer 1967. Evaluation of New York City Title I Educational Projects 1966-67.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplan, Abraham A.; Platoff, Joan

    This program evaluation of the 1967 summer Head Start Program examines data in these areas: (1) program functioning; (2) student gains and school readiness; (3) parent involvement; and (4) ancillary services. The report evaluates 720 classrooms which contained 23,000 children and utilized 51 supervisors, 260 head teachers, 728 group teachers, and…

  1. Economic Dimensions of Major Metropolitan Areas, Population, Housing, Employment and Income. Technical Paper Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Torres, Juan

    The results of an effort to develop a body of internally consistent economic data which facilitate comparison of the population, housing, employment, and income characteristics of 56 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas with a population of over 500,000 are reported in this publication. Part of a continuing research program on local government…

  2. Social and Economic Effects of Large-Scale Energy Development in Rural Areas: An Assessment Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Steve H.; Leistritz, F. Larry

    General development, structure, and uses of a computerized impact projection model, the North Dakota Regional Environmental Assessment Program (REAP) Economic-Demographic Assessment Model, were studied not only to describe a model developed to meet informational needs of local decision makers (especially in a rural area undergoing development),…

  3. 24 CFR 599.105 - Economic condition requirements for a nominated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Economic condition requirements for a nominated area. 599.105 Section 599.105 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  4. Clothing and Related Areas--Grades 9-12. Home Economics Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Marguerite; And Others

    GRADES OR AGES: 9-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Home economics; clothing and related areas. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide provides for four semesters with special provision for high school boys and adults. There are six main sections: 1) basic clothing and grooming for the teenager; 2) clothing construction and consumer education for the…

  5. The Economic Impact of Community College of Philadelpia on the Philadelphia Area. Report #18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia Community Coll., PA. Office of Institutional Research.

    This report presents results of a study of the economic impact of the Community College of Philadelphia (CCP) on the Philadelphia area. After introductory material highlights the origin of the study in a survey of the collective impact of all two- and four-year colleges and universities on the economy of the state, the paper discusses the role and…

  6. A GENERAL TECHNICIAN PROGRAM FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GILLIE, ANGELO C.

    A 2-YEAR GENERAL TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM HAS BEEN PLANNED BY RUTGERS UNIVERSITY AND THE NEWARK SCHOOL SYSTEM AS A MEANS OF PREPARING DISADVANTAGED YOUTH TO ENTER GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT AND ENHANCE THEIR OPPORTUNITY TO IMPROVE THEIR STATION IN LIFE. THE STUDENTS WILL BE DEPRIVED AREA YOUTH WHO ARE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES OR THE EQUIVALENT, GENERALLY FROM THE…

  7. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business... ASSISTANCE RULES General 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a) DOE... socially and economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges, and...

  8. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business... ASSISTANCE RULES General 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a) DOE... socially and economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges, and...

  9. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business... ASSISTANCE RULES General 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a) DOE... socially and economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges, and...

  10. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business... ASSISTANCE RULES General 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a) DOE... socially and economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges, and...

  11. Studies in Visual Perception and Reading in Disadvantaged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, S. Alan

    Two studies were carried out to measure the difficulties in visual perception which affect the reading abilities of disadvantaged children. The first study involved children in the first grades of eight poverty-area schools. Results reinforced earlier findings that urban disadvantaged children scored poorly on tests of visual perception.…

  12. Adolescents' Perceptions of Military Service as a Vehicle for Social Mobility: A Racial Comparison of Rural Youth from Economically Disadvantaged Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuvlesky, William P.; Dameron, Jane

    The hypotheses to be tested by this study were (1) that Negro youth are more positively oriented toward participation in military service than white youth and (2) that lower class youth with high aspirations are more positively oriented toward military service than other youth. Respondents were male high school sophomores from 3 schools located in…

  13. Poverty-Stricken Schools: What We Can Learn from the Rest of the World and from Successful Schools in Economically Disadvantaged Areas in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Hani

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how much of the gap in learning between poverty-stricken students and advantaged students in the US is related to a lack of educational resources and poor teaching quality. It discusses how some school systems have been able to overcome the challenges of poverty and how high-quality teaching can alleviate the effects of…

  14. An Example of an INPRO Assessment of an INS in the Area of Economics

    SciTech Connect

    Florido, P.; Allan, C.; Depisch, F.

    2006-07-01

    Following a resolution of the General Conference of the IAEA in the year 2000 an International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles, referred to as INPRO, was initiated. INPRO has defined requirements organized in a hierarchy of Basic Principles, User Requirements and Criteria (consisting of an indicator and an acceptance limit) to be met by innovative nuclear reactor systems (INS) in six areas, namely: economics, safety, waste management, environment, proliferation resistance, and infrastructure. If an INS meets all requirements in all areas it represents a sustainable system for the supply of energy, capable of making a significant contribution to meeting the energy needs of the 21. century. Draft manuals have been developed, for each INPRO area, to provide guidance for performing an assessment of whether an INS meets the INPRO requirements in a given area. This paper discusses the example presented in the manual for performing an INPRO assessment in the area of economics. The example considers a private utility, operating in a liberalized market that is planning for an additional supply of power of about 600 MWe within a time frame of 10 years. Two nuclear options, an LWR and a HWR, are considered as well as a gas-fired plant using liquefied gas as fuel. (authors)

  15. Social and economic conditions in two newly reclaimed areas in Egypt: implications for schistosomiasis control strategies.

    PubMed

    Mehanna, S; Rizkalla, N H; el-Sayed, H F; Winch, P J

    1994-10-01

    Reclamation of land from the desert is currently taking place in all parts of Egypt. A side-effect of many of these projects has been the introduction of schistosome parasites and their snail intermediate hosts, sometimes among Bedouin population with no previous exposure to the disease. The purpose of the present study was to describe social, environmental and economic conditions which can affect the transmission and control of schistosomiasis in reclaimed areas, and to investigate how residents of these areas view local conditions. Two areas were found to have high rates of internal and external migration, many different social groups with widely divergent priorities and minimal contact with each other, and inadequate infrastructure in terms of roads, transport, water and sanitation and health services. As a result of these conditions, control strategies which are effective for the population living in the Nile Valley will have to be modified considerably if schistosomiasis is to be brought under control in reclaimed areas. PMID:7932925

  16. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2015-10-01

    A review of literature during calendar year 2014 focused on environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation. PMID:26420109

  17. 75 FR 61638 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) 36 hours after opening directed... economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP)...

  18. A Pilot Project Using a Language Development Program with Preschool Disadvantaged Children. Part of the Final Report on Head Start Evaluation and Research: 1968-69 to the Office of Economic Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Grover; Pierce-Jones, John

    A 3-month pilot project was undertaken at the University of Texas to gain experience in administering the Cynthia Buchanan Language Program (Buchanan, 1967) and to test its effectiveness in making meaningful changes in the language development of disadvantaged Mexican-American preschoolers. A group of 114 Mexican-American children were chosen as…

  19. Secondary Boarding Schools for Gifted Students from Disadvantaged Strata. Technical Report No. 2, the Socio-Economic Background of the Students and Their Success in Secondary School. A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smilansky, M.; And Others

    This report is one of a series on the results of studies conducted with the aim of understanding and assisting culturally disadvantaged pupils in the Israeli school system. A brief educational history of the country and the theoretical basis of the research introduces this report. A detailed description of the socioeconomic background of students…

  20. Educational Progress of Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astin, Helen S.

    The primary effort of the study described is an examination of the effects of college environments on the aspirations, achievements, and attrition rates of disadvantaged students at the end of their freshman year. Subjects were 180 students all of whom were classified as being disadvantaged. The various variables in the study are presented and

  1. Teaching Literature to the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachner, Saul

    This dissertation proposes a strategy for teaching literature to disadvantaged students. These students are characterized by an inadequate self-concept, a lack of social skills, restricted language development, and behavior motivated by immediate needs. Most of the disadvantaged are Negroes, Puerto Ricans, Mexicans, and Appalachian whites. A

  2. Chronic kidney disease in disadvantaged populations

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Garcia, G.; Jha, V.

    2015-01-01

    The increased burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health care disparities and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biological predisposition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expanding the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expansion of deceased donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of World Kidney Day 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to end-stage renal disease, by increasing community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities. PMID:25760025

  3. Chronic kidney disease in disadvantaged populations.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Garcia, G; Jha, V

    2015-05-01

    The increased burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health care disparities and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biological predisposition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expanding the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expansion of deceased donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of World Kidney Day 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to end-stage renal disease, by increasing community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities. PMID:25760025

  4. Socio-economic and ecological impacts of global protected area expansion plans.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Smith, Robert J; Joppa, Lucas; Sykes, Rachel E

    2015-11-01

    Several global strategies for protected area (PA) expansion have been proposed to achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi target 11 as a means to stem biodiversity loss, as required by the Aichi target 12. However, habitat loss outside PAs will continue to affect habitats and species, and PAs may displace human activities into areas that might be even more important for species persistence. Here we measure the expected contribution of PA expansion strategies to Aichi target 12 by estimating the extent of suitable habitat available for all terrestrial mammals, with and without additional protection (the latter giving the counterfactual outcome), under different socio-economic scenarios and consequent land-use change to 2020. We found that expanding PAs to achieve representation targets for ecoregions under a Business-as-usual socio-economic scenario will result in a worse prognosis than doing nothing for more than 50% of the world's terrestrial mammals. By contrast, targeting protection towards threatened species can increase the suitable habitat available to over 60% of terrestrial mammals. Even in the absence of additional protection, an alternative socio-economic scenario, adopting progressive changes in human consumption, leads to positive outcomes for mammals globally and to the largest improvements for wide-ranging species. PMID:26460136

  5. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  6. An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an economic and environmental study of short haul airline systems using short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft are presented. The STOL system characteristics were optimized for maximum patronage at a specified return on investment, while maintaining noise impact compatibility with the terminal area. Supporting studies of aircraft air pollution and hub airport congestion relief were also performed. The STOL concept specified for this study was an Augmentor Wing turbofan aircraft having a field length capability of 2,000 ft. and an effective perceived noise level of 95 EPNdB at 500 ft. sideline distance. An economic and environmental assessment of the defined STOL system and a summary of the methodology, STOL system characteristics and arena characteristics are provided.

  7. Economic Comparison of Heating Facilities: 75 Unit Apartment, Stewart-Lennox Area, Klamath Falls, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-31

    The apartment building would consist of about 75 units of about 900 square feet each. Also included would be an outdoor swimming pool and an enclosed activity wing of about 11,000 square feet. Though no deep geothermal wells have been drilled in the immediate area, opinions were obtained that 150/sup 0/F water would be present at 2500 feet and 80/sup 0/F water at about 1000 feet. Based on this information the comparative economics of using geothermal as a heat source versus conventional electrical heating was developed. The purpose of this comparison is to determine if there is economic incentive for the expenditure necessary to define and prove the extent of the geothermal resource. Four systems were compared, each would provide space heating, supply domestic hot water, and heat the swimming pool. A brief description of each of the systems is given. (MHR)

  8. Emergy evaluation and economic analysis of three wetland fish farming systems in Nansi Lake area, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L X; Ulgiati, S; Yang, Z F; Chen, B

    2011-03-01

    Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare three fish production models, i.e., cage fish farming system, pond intensive fish rearing system and semi-natural extensive pond fish rearing system, in Nansi Lake area in China in the year 2007. The goal of this study was to understand the benefits and driving forces of selected fish production models from ecological and economic points of view. The study considered input structure, production efficiency, environmental impacts, economic viability and sustainability. Results show that the main difference among the three production systems was the emergy cost for fish feed associated with their feeding system, i.e., feeding on natural biomass such as plankton and grass or on commercial feedstock. As indicated by EYR, ELR and ESI, it can be clearly shown that the intensive production model with commercial feed is not a sustainable pattern. However, the point is that more environmentally sound patterns do not seem able to provide a competitive net profit in the short run. The intensive pond fish farming system had a net profit of 2.57E+03 $/ha, much higher than 1.27E+03 $/ha for cage fish farming system and slightly higher than 2.37E+03 $/ha for semi-natural fish farming system. With regard to the drivers of local farmer's decisions, the accessibility of land for the required use and investment ability determine the farmer's choice of the production model and the scale of operation, while other factors seem to have little effect. Theoretically, the development of environmentally sustainable production patterns, namely water and land conservation measures, greener feed as well as low waste systems is urgently needed, to keep production activities within the carrying capacity of ecosystems. Coupled emergy and economic analyses can provide better insight into the environmental and economic benefits of fish production systems and help solve the problems encountered during policy making. PMID:20970243

  9. Socio-economic & household risk factors of malaria in tribal areas of Madhya Pradesh, central India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ravendra K.; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Saha, Kalyan B.; Bharti, Praveen K.; Jain, Vidhan; Singh, P. P.; Silawat, Nipun; Patel, R.; Hussain, M.; Chand, S.K.; Pandey, Arvind; Singh, Neeru

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Malaria is a major public health problem in many States of the country, particularly, in Madhya Pradesh where both Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum are endemic. Although many studies have been conducted to investigate risk factors for malaria, but only a few have examined household and socio-economic risk factors. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to explore the relationship of different socio-demographic, socio-economic and behavioural risk factors with malaria prevalence in tribal areas of Madhya Pradesh, India. Methods: This study was undertaken in all 62 villages of Bargi Primary Health Centre from May 2005 to June 2008. These villages comprised 7117 households with an average family size of five members. Fortnightly fever surveys were conducted in all villages to assess prevalence of malaria infection in the community. The distinct univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted on the data set. Results: The important socio-demographic risk factors like age of household head, social group, occupation and family size; socio-economic factors like type of walls of house, place of drinking water source, irrigated land, cash crop; and behavioural variables like place of sleeping, use of bed nets, etc. were found significantly associated with malaria in univariate analyses. In multivariate analyses only social groups, family size, type of walls of house, and place of sleeping had strong significant association with prevalence of malaria. Interpretation & conclusions: The study shows that in tribal areas where people are living in poor quality of houses with no proper use of preventive measures, malaria is firmly established. We conclude that community based interventions which bring improvement in standard of living, access to healthcare facilities and health awareness, will have a significant impact on malaria prevention in these areas. PMID:26139773

  10. Infrastructure for Reaching Disadvantaged Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Hovenga, Evelyn J. S.; Hovel, Joe; Klotz, Jeanette; Robins, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Both consumers and health service providers need access to up-to-date information, including patient and practice guidelines, that allows them to make decisions in partnership about individual and public health in line with the primary health care model of health service delivery. Only then is it possible for patient preferences to be considered while the health of the general population is improved. The Commonwealth Government of Australia has allocated $250 million over five years, starting July 1, 1997, to support activities and projects designed to meet a range of telecommunication needs in regional, rural, and remote Australia. This paper defines rural and remote communities, then reviews rural and remote health services, information, and telecommunication technology infrastructures and their use in Australia to establish the current state of access to information tools by rural and remote communities and rural health workers in Australia today. It is argued that a suitable telecommunication infrastructure is needed to reach disadvantaged persons in extremely remote areas and that intersectoral support is essential to build this infrastructure. In addition, education will make its utilization possible. PMID:9609497

  11. Utilization of Primary and Secondary Medical Care among Disadvantaged Populations: A Log-Linear Model Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Din, Gregory Yom; Zugman, Zinaida; Alla, Khashper

    2014-01-01

    Aim: We examined how, where an overall population is covered by universal health insurance, characteristics of disadvantaged populations interact to influence inequality in primary and secondary medical care utilization. Subject and Methods: Disadvantaged populations, the focus of the study, were defined as populations who have lower socio-economic status (SES), who are elderly and/or reside in a peripheral area. Data from the 2009 Israeli National Health Survey were analysed using log-linear models to estimate utilization of medical care. Results: The main findings were: a) pro-poor utilization of primary medical care among elderly populations, with higher odds ratios for low SES populations in the periphery; (b) lack of interaction between SES and primary medical care utilization among younger populations, between SES and secondary medical care utilization among the elderly and pro-rich utilization of secondary medical care among younger populations who did not regularly visit general practitioners (GP); (c) the odds ratios of secondary medical care utilization increased as SES decreased for both elderly and younger populations who also regularly visited a GP. Conclusion: Potential policy implications for disadvantaged populations, regarding possible inequality in primary and secondary medical care utilization, can be drawn using log-linear model analysis of interactions among characteristics (SES, age, location) of disadvantaged populations. PMID:25168981

  12. Using GIS to develop socio-economic profiles of areas adjacent to DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.C.; Saraswatula, S.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of the research addressed in this paper is to identify and analyze the offsite effects of DOE activities at the Savannah River Site. The paper presents the socio-economic conditions of the areas surrounding the site in order to evaluate the possible effects of DOE activities. The study employed a geographic information system (GIS) in order to evaluate spatial relationships between otherwise unrelated factors. Socio-economic data used in the study are publicly available and were obtained mainly from the Bureau of the Census. The Department of Energy (DOE), currently dealing with the environmental management of a large number of sites throughout the United States, must consider the effects of its activities on surrounding populations and ensure compliance with the various federal regulations, such as the executive order on environmental justice. Environmental justice is the process of studying and achieving equal distribution of the effects of environmental pollution on populations across social and economic lines. An executive order signed by the President has directed federal agencies, including the Department of Energy, to make achieving environmental justice a part of the agency`s mission by identifying and addressing disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects of its programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations.

  13. A contribution to the development of an economic atlas of the Houston Area Test Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An outine description of the Houston Area Test Site was prepared, in the form of an atlas-catalog of Universal Transverse Mercator grid coordinate locations, building on the manufacturing sector and expanding along agreed lines as far as possible. It was concluded that (1) the effort expended in securing and verifying the locations of larger manufacturing plants yielded 5,000-plus usable entries, in addition to certain valuable conclusions about the general feasibility of obtaining ground information by economic sector; (2) on the basis of the number and the quality of the usable entries obtained, the resources expended on nonmanufacturing sectors and on historical data cannot be wholly justified; and (3) even without the 5,000-odd locations of completely satisfactory quality, the relatively modest cost of this pilot study secured enough data to provide a sound basis for obtaining feasibly and systematically some appropriate ground information on almost any economic or social activity, together with some indication of their relative areal and economic significance.

  14. [Spatial coupling characteristics of eco-environment quality and economic poverty in Lüliang area].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-Yi; Wang, Yan-Hui

    2014-06-01

    It is one of the important strategies during the poverty alleviation to maintain a basic balance between the eco-environment and economic development in poor areas. Taking the whole 20 counties in Lüliang national contiguous special poverty-stricken areas and the surrounding 36 counties as multi-type and multi-scale typical study areas, the relationship between eco-environment quality and poverty in the poverty-stricken areas was explored in this paper. Firstly, the region's ecological poverty index system was systematically built, and by integrated use of the subjective and objective weighting method, the ecological environment quality was evaluated in the perspective of natural environment. Then, the coupling coordination degree was calculated by coupling the ecological environment quality index and the average disposable income. Finally, the spatial variation was analyzed in detail respectively at provincial, city and county scales. Results showed that as a whole, the spatial autocorrelation coefficient of coupling coordination degree was relatively higher in the study area, and the coupling coordination degree in the eastern part was higher than that in the western part; the whole coupling coordination degree in Shanxi Province was slightly higher than in Shaanxi Province; the national poverty counties presented a state of recession, and their coordinated development degrees were far lower than that of non-national poverty counties. PMID:25223029

  15. An economical x-ray area detector based on an intensified CCD unit

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, T.; Li, Y.; Rousseau, J.; Linliu, K.; Chu, B. )

    1993-02-01

    An economical charge-coupled device (CCD) based area detector for x-ray experiments was developed and assembled. Although low in cost, careful evaluation shows that this detector consisting of an optical fiber taper, an image intensifier, a relay lens, and a cooled CCD unit has good overall features and is comparable with other reported CCD based x-ray area detectors. The detector is suitable for small-angle x-ray scattering and wide-angle x-ray diffraction experiments employing either synchrotron or conventional x-ray sources. It also has several options which we could utilize under different experimental conditions. The test result, its limitations, and possible improvements are discussed.

  16. Education for Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    The keynote address at the 1976 Farnham (England) Conference on the European Bureau of Adult Education examines educational needs of the "forgotten people": those who need basic education; those living in areas of multiple deprivation, especially in cities; workers, especially in factories; and immigrants or migrant workers. Some current trends in

  17. Health impacts and economic losses assessment of the 2013 severe haze event in Beijing area.

    PubMed

    Gao, Meng; Guttikunda, Sarath K; Carmichael, Gregory R; Wang, Yuesi; Liu, Zirui; Stanier, Charles O; Saide, Pablo E; Yu, Man

    2015-04-01

    Haze is a serious air pollution problem in China, especially in Beijing and surrounding areas, affecting visibility, public health and regional climate. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was used to simulate PM2.5 (particulate matters with aerodynamic diameter≤2.5 μm) concentrations during the 2013 severe haze event in Beijing, and health impacts and health-related economic losses were calculated based on model results. Compared with surface monitoring data, the model results reflected pollution concentrations accurately (correlation coefficients between simulated and measured PM2.5 were 0.7, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 in Beijing, Tianjin, Xianghe and Xinglong stations, respectively). Health impacts assessments show that the PM2.5 concentrations in January might cause 690 (95% confidence interval (CI): (490, 890)) premature deaths, 45,350 (95% CI: (21,640, 57,860)) acute bronchitis and 23,720 (95% CI: (17,090, 29,710)) asthma cases in Beijing area. Results of the economic losses assessments suggest that the haze in January 2013 might lead to 253.8 (95% CI: (170.2, 331.2)) million US$ losses, accounting for 0.08% (95% CI: (0.05%, 0.1%)) of the total 2013 annual gross domestic product (GDP) of Beijing. PMID:25585158

  18. Economic Planning for Multicounty Rural Areas: Application of a Linear Programming Model in Northwest Arkansas. Technical Bulletin No. 1653.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Daniel G.

    Planners in multicounty rural areas can use the Rural Development, Activity Analysis Planning (RDAAP) model to try to influence the optimal growth of their areas among different general economic goals. The model implies that best industries for rural areas have: high proportion of imported inputs; low transportation costs; high value added/output…

  19. The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response. This research examines the relationship between exposure to neighborhood stressors and salivary cortisol reactivity in a sample of 163 at-risk African American adolescents (average age 21; 50% female) living in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. More specifically, the relationship between neighborhood stressors and physiological stress, measured by baseline cortisol and cortisol reactivity is assessed. This research also examines several moderating pathways between exposure to neighborhood disadvantage and cortisol reactivity including substance use, high effort coping, psychological stress and social support. Results indicate that both individual and neighborhood-level factors influence adolescent cortisol. High effort coping and psychological stress were associated with cortisol in the sample, and exposure to neighborhood socio-economic disadvantage resulted in an atypical cortisol response. In addition, neighborhood disadvantage interacted with intra- and interpersonal factors to affect cortisol indirectly. Thus, living in disadvantaged neighborhoods may take a psychological and physiological toll on adolescents, and it also may exert synergistic effects through individual coping and vulnerabilities. PMID:23086016

  20. The Economic Impact of Higher Education on the Kansas City Metropolitan Area 1988-1989. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas City Regional Council for Higher Education, MO.

    A study was formally requested by the Kansas City Regional Council for Higher Education Institutional Research Directors' Group in the spring of 1990, to examine the economic impact of higher education on the Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas, metropolitan area. An economic impact model was used which includes the four major components of direct…

  1. 77 FR 64240 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2012 total allowable... exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska...

  2. 77 FR 64762 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2012 total allowable... exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska...

  3. Does the Orphan Disadvantage “Spill Over?” An analysis of whether living in an area with a higher concentration of orphans is associated with children’s school enrollment in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily; Heckert, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite considerable concern regarding the social consequences of sub-Saharan Africa’s high orphan prevalence, no research investigates how living in a community densely populated with orphans is more broadly associated with children’s—including nonorphans’—acquisition of human capital. OBJECTIVE We provide a new look at the implications of widespread orphanhood in sub-Saharan Africa by examining whether living in an area with a high concentration of orphans is associated with children’s likelihood of school enrollment. METHODS We use data from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and the Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey (MICS) to estimate multilevel logistic regression models to assess whether living in a setting with a higher concentration of orphans is associated with school enrollment among 383,010 children in 336 provinces in 34 sub-Saharan African countries. RESULTS Orphan concentration has a curvilinear association with children’s school enrollment in western and eastern Africa: the initially positive association becomes negative at higher levels. In central and southern Africa, orphan concentration has a positive linear association with children’s school enrollment. CONCLUSION In western and eastern Africa, the negative association between living in a setting more densely populated with orphans and children’s school enrollment provides suggestive evidence that the orphan disadvantage “spills over” in the communities most heavily affected. Conversely, in central and southern Africa, the positive association between living in a setting more densely populated with orphans and children’s school enrollment highlights the resiliency of these relatively wealthier communities with high levels of orphans. Although longitudinal research is needed to confirm these findings and clarify the underlying mechanisms, this study lays the groundwork for a new body of research aimed at understanding the broader social implications of widespread orphanhood in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24062628

  4. Economic Insights into Providing Access to Improved Groundwater Sources in Remote, Low-Resource Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, A.; Lazarovitch, N.; Adar, E.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater is often the most or only feasible drinking water source in remote, low-resource areas. Yet the economics of its development have not been systematically outlined. We applied CBARWI (Cost-Benefit Analysis for Remote Water Improvements), a recently developed Decision Support System, to investigate the economic, physical and management factors related to the costs and benefits of non-networked groundwater supply in remote areas. Synthetic profiles of community water services (n = 17,962), defined across 14 parameters' values and ranges relevant to remote areas, were imputed into the decision framework, and the parameter effects on economic outcomes were investigated through regression analysis (Table 1). Several approaches were included for financing the improvements, after Abramson et al, 2011: willingness-to -pay (WTP), -borrow (WTB) and -work (WTW) in community irrigation (';water-for-work'). We found that low-cost groundwater development approaches are almost 7 times more cost-effective than conventional boreholes fitted with handpumps. The costs of electric, submersible borehole pumps are comparable only when providing expanded water supplies, and off-grid communities pay significantly more for such expansions. In our model, new source construction is less cost-effective than improvement of existing wells, but necessary for expanding access to isolated households. The financing approach significantly impacts the feasibility of demand-driven cost recovery; in our investigation, benefit exceeds cost in 16, 32 and 48% of water service configurations financed by WTP, WTB and WTW, respectively. Regressions of total cost (R2 = 0.723) and net benefit under WTW (R2 = 0.829) along with analysis of output distributions indicate that parameters determining the profitability of irrigation are different from those determining costs and other measures of net benefit. These findings suggest that the cost-benefit outcomes associated with groundwater-based water supply improvements vary considerably by many parameters. Thus, a wide variety of factors should be included to inform water development strategies. Abramson, A. et al (2011), Willingness to pay, borrow and work for water service improvements in developing countries, Water Resour Res, 47Table 1: Descriptions, investigated values and regression coefficients of parameters included in our analysis. Rank of standardized β indicates relative importance. Regression dependent variables are in [($ household-1) y-1]. * Parameters relevant to water-for-work program only.† p <.0001‡ p <.05

  5. An evolutionary perspective on leaf economics: phylogenetics of leaf mass per area in vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Flores, Olivier; Garnier, Eric; Wright, Ian J; Reich, Peter B; Pierce, Simon; Dìaz, Sandra; Pakeman, Robin J; Rusch, Graciela M; Bernard-Verdier, Maud; Testi, Baptiste; Bakker, Jan P; Bekker, Renée M; Cerabolini, Bruno E L; Ceriani, Roberta M; Cornu, Guillaume; Cruz, Pablo; Delcamp, Matthieu; Dolezal, Jiri; Eriksson, Ove; Fayolle, Adeline; Freitas, Helena; Golodets, Carly; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Hodgson, John G; Brusa, Guido; Kleyer, Michael; Kunzmann, Dieter; Lavorel, Sandra; Papanastasis, Vasilios P; Pérez-Harguindeguy, Natalia; Vendramini, Fernanda; Weiher, Evan

    2014-07-01

    In plant leaves, resource use follows a trade-off between rapid resource capture and conservative storage. This "worldwide leaf economics spectrum" consists of a suite of intercorrelated leaf traits, among which leaf mass per area, LMA, is one of the most fundamental as it indicates the cost of leaf construction and light-interception borne by plants. We conducted a broad-scale analysis of the evolutionary history of LMA across a large dataset of 5401 vascular plant species. The phylogenetic signal in LMA displayed low but significant conservatism, that is, leaf economics tended to be more similar among close relatives than expected by chance alone. Models of trait evolution indicated that LMA evolved under weak stabilizing selection. Moreover, results suggest that different optimal phenotypes evolved among large clades within which extremes tended to be selected against. Conservatism in LMA was strongly related to growth form, as were selection intensity and phenotypic evolutionary rates: woody plants showed higher conservatism in relation to stronger stabilizing selection and lower evolutionary rates compared to herbaceous taxa. The evolutionary history of LMA thus paints different evolutionary trajectories of vascular plant species across clades, revealing the coordination of leaf trait evolution with growth forms in response to varying selection regimes. PMID:25165520

  6. An evolutionary perspective on leaf economics: phylogenetics of leaf mass per area in vascular plants

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Olivier; Garnier, Eric; Wright, Ian J; Reich, Peter B; Pierce, Simon; Dìaz, Sandra; Pakeman, Robin J; Rusch, Graciela M; Bernard-Verdier, Maud; Testi, Baptiste; Bakker, Jan P; Bekker, Renée M; Cerabolini, Bruno E L; Ceriani, Roberta M; Cornu, Guillaume; Cruz, Pablo; Delcamp, Matthieu; Dolezal, Jiri; Eriksson, Ove; Fayolle, Adeline; Freitas, Helena; Golodets, Carly; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Hodgson, John G; Brusa, Guido; Kleyer, Michael; Kunzmann, Dieter; Lavorel, Sandra; Papanastasis, Vasilios P; Pérez-Harguindeguy, Natalia; Vendramini, Fernanda; Weiher, Evan

    2014-01-01

    In plant leaves, resource use follows a trade-off between rapid resource capture and conservative storage. This “worldwide leaf economics spectrum” consists of a suite of intercorrelated leaf traits, among which leaf mass per area, LMA, is one of the most fundamental as it indicates the cost of leaf construction and light-interception borne by plants. We conducted a broad-scale analysis of the evolutionary history of LMA across a large dataset of 5401 vascular plant species. The phylogenetic signal in LMA displayed low but significant conservatism, that is, leaf economics tended to be more similar among close relatives than expected by chance alone. Models of trait evolution indicated that LMA evolved under weak stabilizing selection. Moreover, results suggest that different optimal phenotypes evolved among large clades within which extremes tended to be selected against. Conservatism in LMA was strongly related to growth form, as were selection intensity and phenotypic evolutionary rates: woody plants showed higher conservatism in relation to stronger stabilizing selection and lower evolutionary rates compared to herbaceous taxa. The evolutionary history of LMA thus paints different evolutionary trajectories of vascular plant species across clades, revealing the coordination of leaf trait evolution with growth forms in response to varying selection regimes. PMID:25165520

  7. Effect of neighborhood stigma on economic transactions.

    PubMed

    Besbris, Max; Faber, Jacob William; Rich, Peter; Sharkey, Patrick

    2015-04-21

    The hypothesis of neighborhood stigma predicts that individuals who reside in areas known for high crime, poverty, disorder, and/or racial isolation embody the negative characteristics attributed to their communities and experience suspicion and mistrust in their interactions with strangers. This article provides an experimental test of whether neighborhood stigma affects individuals in one domain of social life: economic transactions. To evaluate the neighborhood stigma hypothesis, this study adopts an audit design in a locally organized, online classified market, using advertisements for used iPhones and randomly manipulating the neighborhood of the seller. The primary outcome under study is the number of responses generated by sellers from disadvantaged relative to advantaged neighborhoods. Advertisements from disadvantaged neighborhoods received significantly fewer responses than advertisements from advantaged neighborhoods. Results provide robust evidence that individuals from disadvantaged neighborhoods bear a stigma that influences their prospects in economic exchanges. The stigma is greater for advertisements originating from disadvantaged neighborhoods where the majority of residents are black. This evidence reveals that residence in a disadvantaged neighborhood not only affects individuals through mechanisms involving economic resources, institutional quality, and social networks but also affects residents through the perceptions of others. PMID:25848041

  8. Effect of neighborhood stigma on economic transactions

    PubMed Central

    Besbris, Max; Faber, Jacob William; Rich, Peter; Sharkey, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis of neighborhood stigma predicts that individuals who reside in areas known for high crime, poverty, disorder, and/or racial isolation embody the negative characteristics attributed to their communities and experience suspicion and mistrust in their interactions with strangers. This article provides an experimental test of whether neighborhood stigma affects individuals in one domain of social life: economic transactions. To evaluate the neighborhood stigma hypothesis, this study adopts an audit design in a locally organized, online classified market, using advertisements for used iPhones and randomly manipulating the neighborhood of the seller. The primary outcome under study is the number of responses generated by sellers from disadvantaged relative to advantaged neighborhoods. Advertisements from disadvantaged neighborhoods received significantly fewer responses than advertisements from advantaged neighborhoods. Results provide robust evidence that individuals from disadvantaged neighborhoods bear a stigma that influences their prospects in economic exchanges. The stigma is greater for advertisements originating from disadvantaged neighborhoods where the majority of residents are black. This evidence reveals that residence in a disadvantaged neighborhood not only affects individuals through mechanisms involving economic resources, institutional quality, and social networks but also affects residents through the perceptions of others. PMID:25848041

  9. Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Winter Tourism: Challenges for Ski Area Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damm, A.; Köberl, J.; Prettenthaler, F.; Töglhofer, C.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing temperatures and snow scarce winter seasons pose a big challenge for the winter tourism industry. Changing natural snow reliability influences tourism demand and ski area operators are faced with an enhanced need of technical snow production. The goal of the present research work is to analyze the economic effects of technical snow production under future climate conditions. Snowmaking as an adaptation strategy to climate change impacts on the ski tourism industry is already taken into consideration in several studies from a scientific perspective concerning snowmaking potentials under future climate conditions and the impacts on ski season length (e.g. Scott et al. 2003; Scott & McBoyle 2007; Hennessy et al. 2008; Steiger 2010). A few studies considered economic aspects of technical snowmaking (e.g. Teich et al. 2007; Gonseth 2008). However, a detailed analysis of the costs and benefits of snowmaking under future climate and snow conditions based on sophisticated climate and snow models has not been carried out yet. The present study addresses the gap of knowledge concerning the economic profitability of prospective snowmaking requirements under future climate scenarios. We carry out a detailed cost-revenue analysis of snowmaking under current and future climate conditions for a case study site in Styria (Austria) using dynamic investment models. The starting point of all economic calculations is the daily demand for artificial snow that determines the requirements for additional snowmaking investments and additional operating costs. The demand for artificial snow is delivered by the snow cover model AMUNDSEN (see Strasser et al. 2011) and is driven by four climate scenarios. Apart from future climate conditions the profitability of snowmaking depends on changes in costs and visitor numbers. The results of a ski tourism demand model analyzing daily visitor numbers and their dependencies of prevailing weather conditions enter the cost-revenue analysis of snowmaking and enable the determination of the immediate benefits in terms of additional revenues of ski ticket sales. Furthermore, we conduct an econometric analysis of how snowmaking investments changed ski ticket prices in previous years, as the positive effects of snowmaking on snow reliability could be offset in the longer term by the effects of higher prices for skiing, possibly resulting in lower demand.

  10. 13 CFR 124.1013 - How does SBA make disadvantaged status determinations in considering an SDB protest?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (e) Disadvantaged status. In evaluating the social and economic disadvantage of individuals claiming... status determinations in considering an SDB protest? 124.1013 Section 124.1013 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS...

  11. 13 CFR 124.1013 - How does SBA make disadvantaged status determinations in considering an SDB protest?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (e) Disadvantaged status. In evaluating the social and economic disadvantage of individuals claiming... status determinations in considering an SDB protest? 124.1013 Section 124.1013 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS...

  12. 13 CFR 124.1013 - How does SBA make disadvantaged status determinations in considering an SDB protest?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (e) Disadvantaged status. In evaluating the social and economic disadvantage of individuals claiming... status determinations in considering an SDB protest? 124.1013 Section 124.1013 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS...

  13. Trends in Educational Disadvantage in Dutch Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert; Merry, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    The central question in this study is whether the language and math delays of the different socio-economic and ethnic minority groups targeted by Dutch educational disadvantage policy have diminished or not. Data are from the years 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2008. Information from a total of 90,000 pupils in Grades 2 and 8 was selected to represent the…

  14. Virtues of SIN: Can Intensified Public Efforts Help Disadvantaged Immigrants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslund, Olof; Johansson, Per

    2011-01-01

    The labor market integration of immigrants is a top political priority throughout the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Social and fiscal gains, as well as sustained future labor supply make governments search for effective policies to increase employment among the mostly disadvantaged. The author studies SIN,

  15. Combating Educational Disadvantage through Early Years and Primary School Investment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frawley, Denise

    2014-01-01

    In 1965, following a review of second-level education in Ireland, the report "Investment in Education" was published. While a concern with educational inequality and disadvantage pre-dates this report, it clearly identified the significant socio-economic disparities in educational participation at the time and emphasised an urgent need

  16. The Early Childhood Education of Disadvantaged Children in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Zhanmei; Zhu, Jiaxiong; Xia, Zhuyun; Wu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010, the Chinese government has adopted a series of services and policies to provide early childhood education for disadvantaged children. The rapid economic development and urbanisation process since the mid-1980s have led to great changes in social structure and demographics in China. This creates new challenges for the education of

  17. Virtues of SIN: Can Intensified Public Efforts Help Disadvantaged Immigrants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslund, Olof; Johansson, Per

    2011-01-01

    The labor market integration of immigrants is a top political priority throughout the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Social and fiscal gains, as well as sustained future labor supply make governments search for effective policies to increase employment among the mostly disadvantaged. The author studies SIN,…

  18. The Early Childhood Education of Disadvantaged Children in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Zhanmei; Zhu, Jiaxiong; Xia, Zhuyun; Wu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010, the Chinese government has adopted a series of services and policies to provide early childhood education for disadvantaged children. The rapid economic development and urbanisation process since the mid-1980s have led to great changes in social structure and demographics in China. This creates new challenges for the education of…

  19. The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response.…

  20. Career Training: Strategies for Training Disadvantaged, Rural Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mote, Leona L.; And Others

    A career training program funded by the Job Training Partnership Act was developed in Loudon County, Tennessee, to alleviate the stresses that are described in the hypothesis that occupational aspirations and expectations are lower for rural, female, economically disadvantaged, and handicapped youth than they are for other youth. To participate,

  1. Trends in Educational Disadvantage in Dutch Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert; Merry, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    The central question in this study is whether the language and math delays of the different socio-economic and ethnic minority groups targeted by Dutch educational disadvantage policy have diminished or not. Data are from the years 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2008. Information from a total of 90,000 pupils in Grades 2 and 8 was selected to represent the

  2. Increasing the Earnings of Disadvantaged Women. Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission for Employment Policy (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The National Commission for Employment Policy has examined ways that the United States federal government could improve the economic situation of disadvantaged women. In particular, the Commission examined, during 1980, the role of education and employment and training programs in helping women to prepare for better paying occupations, and then…

  3. Combating Educational Disadvantage through Early Years and Primary School Investment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frawley, Denise

    2014-01-01

    In 1965, following a review of second-level education in Ireland, the report "Investment in Education" was published. While a concern with educational inequality and disadvantage pre-dates this report, it clearly identified the significant socio-economic disparities in educational participation at the time and emphasised an urgent need…

  4. The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response.

  5. Within Our Reach: Breaking the Cycle of Disadvantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schorr, Lisbeth B.; Schorr, Daniel

    This book discusses issues involved in the current debate over the nature and effectiveness of anti-poverty programs, and examines the high economic and social costs of, and the risk factors involved in, cyclical poverty. The book offers suggestions to help solve the problems of cyclical poverty and chronic disadvantage by highlighting effective

  6. Concept Area Four and Five Objectives, Hierarchy Charts, and Test Items. Economic Analysis Course. Segments 85-96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling Inst., Washington, DC. Educational Technology Center.

    A multimedia course in economic analysis was developed and used in conjunction with the United States Naval Academy. (See ED 043 790 and ED 043 791 for final reports of the project evaluation and development model.) This report deals with concept areas four and five, which focus on international trade and enrichment areas. The behavioral…

  7. 78 FR 63899 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to fully use the 2013 total... the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North...

  8. 77 FR 64917 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) for 96 hours. This action is necessary to fully use the 2012... (77 FR 64240, October 19, 2012). As of October 17, 2012, NMFS has determined that approximately...

  9. 77 FR 16950 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) for 72 hours. This action is necessary to fully use the B... FR 14698, March 13, 2012). As of March 15, 2012, NMFS has determined that approximately 1,389...

  10. 75 FR 57702 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to fully use the C season allowance... of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council under...

  11. 78 FR 63405 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... Statistical Area 620 of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to fully use the 2013 total... the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North...

  12. 75 FR 64172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) for 72 hours. This action is necessary to fully use the 2010... Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council under authority of...

  13. 75 FR 64958 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) for 72 hours. This action is necessary to fully use the 2010... Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council under authority of...

  14. 77 FR 65330 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... Statistical Area 620 of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to fully use the 2012 total... the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North...

  15. 78 FR 9849 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to fully use the 2013 total... (78 FR 5145, January 24, 2012). As of February 5, 2013, NMFS has determined that approximately...

  16. 76 FR 16699 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ...-XA319 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf... for pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent... Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  17. 76 FR 11393 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) for 24 hours. This action is necessary to fully use the A... Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council under authority of...

  18. 75 FR 14359 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) for 72 hours. This action is necessary to fully use the B... zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared...

  19. 76 FR 13097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to fully use the A season allowance... Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council under authority of...

  20. 77 FR 9588 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to fully use the A season allowance... of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council under...

  1. 78 FR 17886 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) for 96 hours. This action is necessary to fully use the 2013... FR 15643, March 12, 2012). As of March 18, 2013, NMFS has determined that approximately 2,400...

  2. Race, Employment Disadvantages, and Heavy Drinking: A Multilevel Model.

    PubMed

    Lo, Celia C; Cheng, Tyrone C

    2015-01-01

    We intended to determine (1) whether stress from employment disadvantages led to increased frequency of heavy drinking and (2) whether race had a role in the relationship between such disadvantages and heavy drinking. Study data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a prospective study that has followed a representative sample of youth since 1979. Our study employed data from 11 particular years, during which the survey included items measuring respondents' heavy drinking. Our final sample numbered 10,171 respondents, which generated 75,394 person-waves for data analysis. Both of our hypotheses were supported by results from multilevel mixed-effects linear regression capturing the time-varying nature of three employment disadvantages and of the heavy-drinking outcome. Results show that more-frequent heavy drinking was associated with employment disadvantages, and that disadvantages' effects on drinking were stronger for Blacks and Hispanics than for Whites. That worsening employment disadvantages have worse effects on minority groups' heavy drinking (compared to Whites) probably contributes to the racial health disparities in our nation. Policies and programs addressing such disparities are especially important during economic downturns. PMID:26121125

  3. Free Schools and Disadvantaged Intakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The Free Schools policy in England has led to the opening of a number of new autonomous state-funded schools. This article uses data from the Annual Schools Census to present the proportions of socioeconomically disadvantaged children attending the first three waves of these schools. It updates and builds on previous work that focused on the…

  4. Free Schools and Disadvantaged Intakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The Free Schools policy in England has led to the opening of a number of new autonomous state-funded schools. This article uses data from the Annual Schools Census to present the proportions of socioeconomically disadvantaged children attending the first three waves of these schools. It updates and builds on previous work that focused on the

  5. Demography of Disadvantage in Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lewis W., Comp.; And Others

    In this report, demography conceptualizes significant characteristics to serve as a basis for more intensive study, planning, and procedures focusing on the target group. A compilation of the latest reports available and primarily tabular in form, identifies and locates Tennessee's disadvantaged people, ranking the 95 counties on each of 8…

  6. SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED AMERICANS, SLOW LEARNERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COHEN, S. ALAN

    THIS PAPER DOCUMENTS THE GENERAL CONDITIONS OF DISADVANTAGED AMERICANS AND EXAMINES THE PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS WHICH GROW OUT OF THEM. SPECIFIC STATISTICS ARE REPORTED WHICH DESCRIBE INADEQUATE MEDICAL SERVICES FOR NEGROES, POOR HEALTH, POVERTY LEVEL INCOMES, AND EDUCATIONAL RETARDATION. THE PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL FACTORS DISCUSSED INCLUDE VISUAL…

  7. Education and Training Strategies for Disadvantaged Groups in Thailand. Strategies of Education and Training for Disadvantaged Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piromruen, Smarnjit; Keoyote, Sen

    This book looks at the current spectrum of programs dealing with education for disadvantaged youth in Thailand. In spite of a lack of literature on the subject, it presents a diversity of information collected from various public and private organizations. The first chapter brings into focus the negative effects of the recent economic crisis,…

  8. Social Disadvantage and Network Turnover

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Research shows that socially disadvantaged groups—especially African Americans and people of low socioeconomic status (SES)—experience more unstable social environments. I argue that this causes higher rates of turnover within their personal social networks. This is a particularly important issue among disadvantaged older adults, who may benefit from stable networks. This article, therefore, examines whether social disadvantage is related to various aspects of personal network change. Method. Social network change was assessed using longitudinal egocentric network data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a study of older adults conducted between 2005 and 2011. Data collection in Wave 2 included a technique for comparing respondents’ confidant network rosters between waves. Rates of network losses, deaths, and additions were modeled using multivariate Poisson regression. Results. African Americans and low-SES individuals lost more confidants—especially due to death—than did whites and college-educated respondents. African Americans also added more confidants than whites. However, neither African Americans nor low-SES individuals were able to match confidant losses with new additions to the extent that others did, resulting in higher levels of confidant network shrinkage. These trends are partly, but not entirely, explained by disadvantaged individuals’ poorer health and their greater risk of widowhood or marital dissolution. Discussion. Additional work is needed to shed light on the role played by race- and class-based segregation on group differences in social network turnover. Social gerontologists should examine the role these differences play in explaining the link between social disadvantage and important outcomes in later life, such as health decline. PMID:24997286

  9. The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroto, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…

  10. The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroto, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect

  11. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in big cities of the European Union and European Economic Area countries.

    PubMed

    de Vries, G; Aldridge, R W; Cayla, J A; Haas, W H; Sandgren, A; van Hest, N A; Abubakar, I

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional survey aimed to examine the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) cities with populations greater than 500,000. National TB programme managers were asked to provide data on big city population size, total number of notified TB cases in big cities and national notification rate for 2009. A rate ratio was calculated using the big city TB notification rate as a numerator and country TB notification rate, excluding big city TB cases and population, as a denominator. Twenty of the 30 EU/EEA countries had at least one big city. Pooled rate ratios were 2.5, 1.0, and 0.7 in low-, intermediate- and high-incidence countries respectively. In 15 big cities, all in low-incidence countries, rate ratios were twice the national notification rate. These data illustrate the TB epidemiology transition, a situation whereby TB disease concentrates in big cities as national incidence falls, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of risk groups found there. This situation requires targeted interventions and we recommend that big city TB data, including information about patients' risk factors, are collected and analysed systematically, and that successful interventions are shared. PMID:24626208

  12. Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area

    PubMed Central

    Tillmann, Taavi; Sandgren, Andreas; Williams, Gemma; Rechel, Bernd; Ingleby, David; Noori, Teymur; Mladovsky, Philipa; McKee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report ‘Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant Populations in the EU/EEA’ commissioned by The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Methods: We collected, critically appraised and summarized the available evidence on the TB burden in migrants in the EU/EEA. Data were collected through: (i) a comprehensive literature review; (ii) analysis of data from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) and (iii) evidence provided by TB experts during an infectious disease workshop in 2012. Results: In 2010, of the 73 996 TB cases notified in the EU/EEA, 25% were of foreign origin. The overall decrease of TB cases observed in recent years has not been reflected in migrant populations. Foreign-born people with TB exhibit different socioeconomic and clinical characteristics than native sufferers. Conclusion: This is one of the first studies to use multiple data sources, including the largest available European database on infectious disease notifications, to assess the burden and provide a comprehensive description and analysis of specific TB features in migrants in the EU/EEA. Strengthened information about health determinants and factors for migrants’ vulnerability is needed to plan, implement and evaluate targeted TB care and control interventions for migrants in the EU/EEA. PMID:25500265

  13. Measles among migrants in the European Union and the European Economic Area

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gemma A.; Bacci, Sabrina; Shadwick, Rebecca; Tillmann, Taavi; Rechel, Bernd; Noori, Teymur; Suk, Jonathan E.; Odone, Anna; Ingleby, Jonathan D.; Mladovsky, Philipa; Mckee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Progress towards meeting the goal of measles elimination in the EU and the European Economic Area (EEA) by 2015 is being obstructed, as some children are either not immunized on time or never immunized. One group thought to be at increased risk of measles is migrants; however, the extent to which this is the case is poorly understood, due to a lack of data. This paper addresses this evidence gap by providing an overview of the burden of measles in migrant populations in the EU/EEA. Methods: Data were collected through a comprehensive literature review, a country survey of EU/EEA member states and information from measles experts gathered at an infectious disease workshop. Results: Our results showed incomplete data on measles in migrant populations, as national surveillance systems do not systematically record migration-specific information; however, evidence from the literature review and country survey suggested that some measles outbreaks in the EU/EEA were due to sub-optimal vaccination coverage in migrant populations. Conclusions: We conclude that it is essential that routine surveillance of measles cases and measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination coverage become strengthened, to capture migrant-specific data. These data can help to inform the provision of preventive services, which may need to reach out to vulnerable migrant populations that currently face barriers in accessing routine immunization and health services. PMID:26563254

  14. Area under the curve as a novel metric of behavioral economic demand for alcohol.

    PubMed

    Amlung, Michael; Yurasek, Ali; McCarty, Kayleigh N; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G

    2015-06-01

    Behavioral economic purchase tasks can be readily used to assess demand for a number of addictive substances, including alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs. However, several methodological limitations associated with the techniques used to quantify demand may reduce the utility of demand measures. In the present study, we sought to introduce area under the curve (AUC), commonly used to quantify degree of delay discounting, as a novel index of demand. A sample of 207 heavy-drinking college students completed a standard alcohol purchase task and provided information about typical weekly drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems. Level of alcohol demand was quantified using AUC--which reflects the entire amount of consumption across all drink prices--as well as the standard demand indices (e.g., intensity, breakpoint, Omax, Pmax, and elasticity). Results indicated that AUC was significantly correlated with each of the other demand indices (rs = .42-.92), with particularly strong associations with Omax (r = .92). In regression models, AUC and intensity were significant predictors of weekly drinking quantity, and AUC uniquely predicted alcohol-related problems, even after controlling for drinking level. In a parallel set of analyses, Omax also predicted drinking quantity and alcohol problems, although Omax was not a unique predictor of the latter. These results offer initial support for using AUC as an index of alcohol demand. Additional research is necessary to further validate this approach and to examine its utility in quantifying demand for other addictive substances such as tobacco and illicit drugs. PMID:25895013

  15. Young Disadvantaged Men as Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Langton, Callie

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the existing literature on young disadvantaged fathers’ involvement with children. It first outlines the predominant theoretical perspectives regarding father involvement among resident (married and cohabiting) biological fathers, resident social fathers (unrelated romantic partners of children’s mothers), and nonresident biological fathers. Second, it presents a brief discussion of the ways in which fathers contribute to childrearing. Third, it describes the socioeconomic characteristics of men who enter fatherhood at a young age, highlighting that they tend to be socioeconomically disadvantaged. Fourth, it reviews the empirical research on both antecedents of father involvement and patterns of involvement across father types. Finally, it describes the limitations of existing research and provides suggestions for future research and policy. PMID:21643452

  16. 48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) (a) Disadvantaged status for joint venture partners, team members, and subcontractors. This clause addresses disadvantaged status for joint venture partners, teaming arrangement members, and subcontractors.... The Contractor shall obtain representations of small disadvantaged status from joint venture...

  17. State Disadvantaged Child Project. Evaluation Report, 1983-84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagi, Kan

    The State Disadvantaged Child Project provided support for students residing in the Portland Oregon core area. The focus of the project in both "sending" and "receiving" schools was achievement in basic skills. Three special programs received partial support for students largely residing within the core area. These included the Albina Youth…

  18. Economic Potential of CHP in Detroit Edison Service Area: the Customer Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.

    2003-10-10

    DOE's mission under the Distributed Energy and Electricity Reliability (DEER) Program is to strengthen America's electric energy infrastructure and provide utilities and consumers with a greater array of energy-efficient technology choices for generating, transmitting, distributing, storing, and managing demand for electric power and thermal energy. DOE recognizes that distributed energy technologies can help accomplish this mission. Distributed energy (DE) technologies have received much attention for the potential energy savings and electric power reliability assurances that may be achieved by their widespread adoption. Fueling the attention has been the desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and concern about easing power transmission and distribution system capacity limitations and congestion. However, these benefits may come at a cost to the electric utility companies in terms of lost revenue and other potential impacts on the distribution system. It is important to assess the costs and benefits of DE to consumers and distribution system companies. DOE commissioned this study to assess the costs and benefits of DE technologies to consumers and to better understand the effect of DE on the grid. Current central power generation units vent more waste heat (energy) than the entire transportation sector consumes and this wasted thermal energy is projected to grow by 45% within the next 20 years. Consumer investment in technologies that increase power generation efficiency is a key element of the DOE Energy Efficiency program. The program aims to increase overall cycle efficiency from 30% to 70% within 20 years as well. DOE wants to determine the impact of DE in several small areas within cities across the U.S. Ann Arbor, Michigan, was chosen as the city for this case study. Ann Arbor has electric and gas rates that can substantially affect the market penetration of DE. This case study analysis was intended to: (1) Determine what DE market penetration can realistically be expected, based on consumer investment in combined heat and power systems (CHP) and the effect of utility applied demand response (DR). (2) Evaluate and quantify the impact on the distribution utility feeder from the perspective of customer ownership of the DE equipment. (3) Determine the distribution feeder limits and the impact DE may have on future growth. For the case study, the Gas Technology Institute analyzed a single 16-megawatt grid feeder circuit in Ann Arbor, Michigan to determine whether there are economic incentives to use small distributed power generation systems that would offset the need to increase grid circuit capacity. Increasing circuit capacity would enable the circuit to meet consumer's energy demands at all times, but it would not improve the circuit's utilization factor. The analysis spans 12 years, to a planning horizon of 2015. By 2015, the demand for power is expected to exceed the grid circuit capacity for a significant portion of the year. The analysis was to determine whether economically acceptable implementation of customer-owned DE systems would reduce the peak power demands enough to forestall the need to upgrade the capacity of the grid circuit. The analysis was based on economics and gave no financial credit for improved power reliability or mitigation of environmental impacts. Before this study was completed, the utility expanded the capacity of the circuit to 22 MW. Although this expansion will enable the circuit to meet foreseeable increases in peak demand, it also will significantly decrease the circuit's overall utilization factor. The study revealed that DE penetration on the selected feeder is not expected to forestall the need to upgrade the grid circuit capacity unless interconnection barriers are removed. Currently, a variety of technical, business practice, and regulatory barriers discourage DE interconnection in the US market.

  19. The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

    Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

  20. Maine: 2002 Economic Census. Educational Services, Geographic Area Series. EC02-61A-ME.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. Title 13 of the United States Code (Sections 131, 191, and 224) directs the Census Bureau to take the economic census every 5 years, covering…

  1. Maine: 2002 Economic Census. Educational Services, Geographic Area Series. EC02-61A-ME.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. Title 13 of the United States Code (Sections 131, 191, and 224) directs the Census Bureau to take the economic census every 5 years, covering

  2. The Delineation of Economic and Health Service Areas and the Location of Health Manpower Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyes, John M.; And Others

    The research reported pertains to the interrelationships of the economic system, the health-care delivery system, and the health manpower education systems. In this research it was learned that in a part of the intermountain region predominately rural in nature, the economic and the health systems are closely related. Challenge is given to the…

  3. BASE Home Economics Curriculum Grades 5-8. Area 3.0 Foods/Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Martha Lee, Ed.

    This publication contains curriculum banks for teaching home economics in grades 5 through 8 in West Virginia. Rather than containing a complete curriculum guide for the home economics program, the banks provide ideas, sections, and lessons that can be drawn out and used with other materials. Four banks are provided in the guide. Bank 1 contains…

  4. The Economic Impact of Universities in Non-Metropolitan Areas of the Great Plains, USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falconer, John

    2007-01-01

    Public universities cite their economic impact to help justify state financial support, but the literature offers no comprehensive theory that can guide analysis of such claims. This research used qualitative methodology to complement the ubiquitous economic impact studies, and showed that mission, leadership and geography determine how public…

  5. 77 FR 75399 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Big Skate in the Central Regulatory Area of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... established by the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Big Skate in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of big skate in the Central Regulatory...

  6. 75 FR 73981 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Big Skate in the Central Regulatory Area of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010). In accordance... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Big Skate in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of big skate in the Central Regulatory...

  7. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and ...

  8. Concept Area One Objectives (Rev), Test Items (Rev), and Instructional Events. Economic Analysis Course. Segments 1 - 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling Inst., Washington, DC. Educational Technology Center.

    A multimedia course in economic analysis was prepared and used in conjunction with the United States Naval Academy. (See ED 043 790 and ED 043 791 for final reports of the project evaluation and the development model.) This report presents the first concept area--basic principles--in 24 segments, of which eight are "enrichment segments." The…

  9. Concept Area Three Objectives and Test Items (Rev.). Part One and Part Two. Economic Analysis Course. Segments 50 - 84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling Inst., Washington, DC. Educational Technology Center.

    A multimedia course in economic analysis was developed and used in conjunction with the United States Naval Academy. (See ED 043 790 and ED 043 791 for final reports of the project evaluation and development model.) This report deals with concept area three of the course, which focuses on microeconomics. The behavioral objectives, hierarchy…

  10. 75 FR 71045 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Western Regulatory Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(2), the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; prohibition of retention. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of Pacific cod by...

  11. Extension and Improvement of Psychological Services Provided to Children in Areas of Economic Deprivation, January 31, 1966 - June 17, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milwaukee Public Schools, WI. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The study is a project undertaken by the school psychologists of the Milwaukee Public Schools in order to evaluate the psychological services provided to primary and secondary school children from areas of economic deprivation who are experiencing learning or behavioral problems. Research design was of the test-retest variety; specifically, I.Q.…

  12. 75 FR 1723 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chiniak Gully Research Area for Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chiniak Gully Research Area for Vessels Using Trawl Gear AGENCY: National Marine... action is necessary to allow vessels using trawl gear to participate in directed fishing for groundfish... vessels using trawl gear from August 1 to a date no later than September 20 under regulations at Sec....

  13. Concept Area Two Objectives and Test Items (Rev.) Part One, Part Two. Economic Analysis Course. Segments 17-49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling Inst., Washington, DC. Educational Technology Center.

    A multimedia course in economic analysis was developed and used in conjunction with the United States Naval Academy. (See ED 043 790 and ED 043 791 for final reports of the project evaluation and development model.) This report deals with the second concept area of the course and focuses on macroeconomics. Segments 17 through 49 are presented,…

  14. Economic evaluation of area-wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus, which limit outdoor activities. While several evaluations of effectiveness exist, information on costs is lacking. Economic evaluation of such a program is important to help inform policy makers an...

  15. 78 FR 8985 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the A season allowance of... of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council under...

  16. 77 FR 20317 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(a)(5)(iv)(B), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the B season allowance...

  17. 75 FR 19562 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the B season allowance of... of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council under...

  18. 76 FR 11394 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the A season allowance of... of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council under...

  19. 75 FR 6589 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the A season allowance of... of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council under...

  20. 78 FR 17135 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the B season allowance of... of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council under...

  1. 75 FR 62482 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 total allowable... 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010). In accordance...

  2. 77 FR 16481 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the B season allowance of... of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council under...

  3. 76 FR 17793 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the B season allowance of... Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council under authority of...

  4. 75 FR 11749 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the B season allowance of... of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council under...

  5. 77 FR 56564 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the C season allowance of... of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council under...

  6. 78 FR 57097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the C season allowance of... of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council under...

  7. 77 FR 58505 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the C season allowance of... of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council under...

  8. 78 FR 20037 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the B season allowance of... of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council under...

  9. 78 FR 15643 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the B season allowance of... of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council under...

  10. 76 FR 53658 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the C season allowance of... of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council under...

  11. 76 FR 14319 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the B season allowance of... of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council under...

  12. 75 FR 52891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(a)(5)(iv)(B) the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the C season allowance...

  13. 77 FR 14698 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the B season allowance of... of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council under...

  14. 76 FR 58156 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the C season allowance of... of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council under...

  15. Schooling Disadvantaged Children: Racing against Catastrophe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natriello, Gary; And Others

    Educating disadvantaged students will demand a national commitment to increasing the resources devoted to the task, restructuring the schools in which the disadvantaged are educated, and conducting research needed to make those schools more effective. Educationally disadvantaged students have been exposed to insufficient educational experiences in…

  16. EDUCATING THE DISADVANTAGED--TRENDS AND PROSPECTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRAZZIEL, WILLIAM F.

    COMPENSATORY AND DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION IS EMPHASIZED AS THE MAJOR MOVING FORCE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED. THE DEVELOPMENT OF DISADVANTAGED PEOPLE IS NECESSARY FOR THE CONTINUED GROWTH OF THEIR COMMUNITIES, PROGRAMS SHOULD BE DEVELOPED WHICH INVOLVE DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AT EVERY STAGE OF THEIR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. TO THAT END,…

  17. Schooling Disadvantaged Children: Racing against Catastrophe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natriello, Gary; And Others

    Educating disadvantaged students will demand a national commitment to increasing the resources devoted to the task, restructuring the schools in which the disadvantaged are educated, and conducting research needed to make those schools more effective. Educationally disadvantaged students have been exposed to insufficient educational experiences in

  18. Pathways of disadvantage and smoking careers: evidence and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Hilary; Inskip, Hazel M; Francis, Brian; Harman, Juliet

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate in older industrialised societies (a) how social disadvantage contributes to smoking risk among women (b) the role of social and economic policies in reducing disadvantage and moderating wider inequalities in life chances and living standards. Methods Review and analysis of (a) the effects of disadvantage in childhood and into adulthood on women's smoking status in early adulthood (b) policy impacts on the social exposures associated with high smoking risk. Main results (a) Smoking status—ever smoking, current smoking, heavy smoking, and cessation—is influenced not only by current circumstances but by longer term biographies of disadvantage (b) social and economic policies shape key social predictors of women's smoking status, including childhood circumstances, educational levels and adult circumstances, and moderate inequalities in the distribution of these dimensions of life chances and living standards. Together, the two sets of findings argue for a policy toolkit that acts on the distal determinants of smoking, with interventions targeting the conditions in which future and current smokers live. Conclusions An approach to tobacco control is advocated that combines changing smoking habits with reducing inequalities in the social trajectories in which they are embedded. Policies to level up opportunities and living standards across the lifecourse should be championed as part of an equity oriented approach to reducing the disease burden of cigarette smoking. PMID:17708005

  19. Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

  20. Education and the Disadvantaged, Proceedings of a Conference on the Disadvantaged (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, June 8-9, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Harvey, Ed.

    This conference report is made up of six papers and related commentaries on the nature of disadvantagement and its implications. Most participants were from the Milwaukee, Wisconsin, area. Small group meetings and discussions followed each of the papers. The opening paper, "Education and the Disadvantaged" (E. Melby), examined a broad range of…

  1. Child Participation and Family Engagement with Early Childhood Education and Care Services in Disadvantaged Australian Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Rebekah; Bowes, Jennifer; Elcombe, Emma

    2014-01-01

    To support national policy initiatives in early childhood education and to determine reasons for low enrolment in services from families in disadvantaged areas, the authors investigated the views and practices of 101 families from disadvantaged communities. Families with a child aged 3-5 years were recruited from urban, rural and remote areas of

  2. Child Participation and Family Engagement with Early Childhood Education and Care Services in Disadvantaged Australian Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Rebekah; Bowes, Jennifer; Elcombe, Emma

    2014-01-01

    To support national policy initiatives in early childhood education and to determine reasons for low enrolment in services from families in disadvantaged areas, the authors investigated the views and practices of 101 families from disadvantaged communities. Families with a child aged 3-5 years were recruited from urban, rural and remote areas of…

  3. Planting the SEED: Towards a Spatial Economic Ecological Database for a shared understanding of the Dutch Wadden area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daams, Michiel N.; Sijtsma, Frans J.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we address the characteristics of a publicly accessible Spatial Economic Ecological Database (SEED) and its ability to support a shared understanding among planners and experts of the economy and ecology of the Dutch Wadden area. Theoretical building blocks for a Wadden SEED are discussed. Our SEED contains a comprehensive set of stakeholder validated spatially explicit data on key economic and ecological indicators. These data extend over various spatial scales. Spatial issues relevant to the specification of a Wadden-SEED and its data needs are explored in this paper and illustrated using empirical data for the Dutch Wadden area. The purpose of the SEED is to integrate basic economic and ecologic information in order to support the resolution of specific (policy) questions and to facilitate connections between project level and strategic level in the spatial planning process. Although modest in its ambitions, we will argue that a Wadden SEED can serve as a valuable element in the much debated science-policy interface. A Wadden SEED is valuable since it is a consensus-based common knowledge base on the economy and ecology of an area rife with ecological-economic conflict, including conflict in which scientific information is often challenged and disputed.

  4. Training in Managerial Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Hartley, Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Basic mathematical concepts of Managerial Economics, a way of quantitatively analyzing and structuring the making of a business decision, are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of its use in business are discussed and several recent applications are given. (DT)

  5. Area Consortium on Training. "Training for Technology" Project, 1982-1983. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moock, Lynn D.

    The Area Consortium on Training initiated the Training for Technology Project to fill industry needs for skilled personnel and job needs for economically disadvantaged persons. Major accomplishments included establishment of a training team for economic development and for development of training programs; contacting of more than 100 employers;…

  6. 24 CFR 599.105 - Economic condition requirements for a nominated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is an area of pervasive poverty, unemployment, and general distress, and that the nominated area... relate. (c) Poverty requirement. A nominated area meets the poverty requirement if the poverty rate for..., the poverty rate of the nominated area taken as a whole is considered for purposes of making...

  7. 24 CFR 599.105 - Economic condition requirements for a nominated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is an area of pervasive poverty, unemployment, and general distress, and that the nominated area... relate. (c) Poverty requirement. A nominated area meets the poverty requirement if the poverty rate for..., the poverty rate of the nominated area taken as a whole is considered for purposes of making...

  8. 24 CFR 599.105 - Economic condition requirements for a nominated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is an area of pervasive poverty, unemployment, and general distress, and that the nominated area... relate. (c) Poverty requirement. A nominated area meets the poverty requirement if the poverty rate for..., the poverty rate of the nominated area taken as a whole is considered for purposes of making...

  9. Economic values for health and feed efficiency traits of dual-purpose cattle in marginal areas.

    PubMed

    Krupová, Z; Krupa, E; Michaličková, M; Wolfová, M; Kasarda, R

    2016-01-01

    Economic values of clinical mastitis, claw disease, and feed efficiency traits along with 16 additional production and functional traits were estimated for the dairy population of the Slovak Pinzgau breed using a bioeconomic approach. In the cow-calf population (suckler cow population) of the same breed, the economic values of feed efficiency traits along with 15 further production and functional traits were calculated. The marginal economic values of clinical mastitis and claw disease incidence in the dairy system were -€ 70.65 and -€ 26.73 per case per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake were -€ 55.15 and -€ 54.64/kg of dry matter per day for cows and breeding heifers in the dairy system and -€ 20.45, -€ 11.30, and -€ 6.04/kg of dry matter per day for cows, breeding heifers, and fattened animals in the cow-calf system, respectively, all expressed per cow and year. The sums of the relative economic values for the 2 new health traits in the dairy system and for residual feed intake across all cattle categories in both systems were 1.4 and 8%, respectively. Within the dairy production system, the highest relative economic values were for milk yield (20%), daily gain of calves (20%), productive lifetime (10%), and cow conception rate (8%). In the cow-calf system, the most important traits were weight gain of calves from 120 to 210 d and from birth to 120 d (19 and 14%, respectively), productive lifetime (17%), and cow conception rate (13%). Based on the calculation of economic values for traits in the dual-purpose Pinzgau breed, milk production and growth traits remain highly important in the breeding goal, but their relative importance should be adapted to new production and economic conditions. The economic importance of functional traits (especially of cow productive lifetime and fertility) was sufficiently high to make the inclusion of these traits into the breeding goal necessary. An increased interest of consumers in animal welfare and quality of dairy farm products should probably lead to the incorporation of health traits (clinical mastitis incidence and somatic cells score) into the breeding goal. However, keeping carcass traits in the breeding goal of the Slovak Pinzgau breed does not seem to be relevant to the long-term market situation. PMID:26585480

  10. Non-Economic Determinants of Energy Use in Rural Areas of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Annecke, W.

    1999-03-29

    This project will begin to determine the forces and dimensions in rural energy-use patterns and begin to address policy and implementation needs for the future. This entails: Forecasting the social and economic benefits that electrification is assumed to deliver regarding education and women's lives; Assessing negative perceptions of users, which have been established through the slow uptake of electricity; Making recommendations as to how these perceptions could be addressed in policy development and in the continuing electrification program; Making recommendations to policy makers on how to support and make optimal use of current energy-use practices where these are socio-economically sound; Identifying misinformation and wasteful practices; and Other recommendations, which will significantly improve the success of the rural electrification program in a socio-economically sound manner, as identified in the course of the work.

  11. Guidelines for the Employment of the Culturally Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Sidney A.

    The "culturally disadvantaged" are men and women over 16, regardless of race, who live outside the mainstream of American life in urban ghettos and isolated rural areas. They are functionally illiterate people. The time for crash programs to employ these people has passed; the total involvement approach is necessary. These employment guidelines…

  12. Theorising Multiply Disadvantaged Young People's Challenges in Accessing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie; Mkwananzi, Faith

    2015-01-01

    This paper sketches an innovative conceptualisation of disadvantaged youth, shaped dialogically by the interactions of theorising and data from a case study at Orange Farm informal settlement in South Africa in 2013. The study focused on the challenges for the young people in this area in accessing higher education. Drawing on Sen's and Nussbaum's…

  13. Development of a Cooperative Retailing Program for the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litzinger, F. Donald; And Others.

    This report presents a two-year junior college retailing curriculum for the disadvantaged, proposed on the basis of answers to questionnaires sent to retailing industries in the Metropolitan Rochester area. The questionnaires were designed to assess the need and feasibility of such a retailing program and to ascertain qualifications required to…

  14. A Study of Four Library Programs for Disadvantaged Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsor, Charlotte B.; Burrows, Lodema

    This is a study of four projects in New York City which were established with federal grants to offer library service to the disadvantaged in the area. The four programs studied are the Preschool Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the Community Coordinator Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the North Manhattan Project of the New York…

  15. Barriers to Healthier Eating in a Disadvantaged Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Martin; Rebane, Deanne; Lester, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The research objective was to identify how healthy eating was understood in a disadvantaged community and how barriers to healthy eating might be overcome. Design: Participatory action research. Setting: Communities in Gurnos, Merthyr Tydfil, one of the most deprived areas in the UK. Method: Trainees on a participative methods course…

  16. Perspectives in the Education of Disadvantaged Children; A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Milly, Ed.

    A collection of original papers presents an interdisciplinary approach to the education of disadvantaged children. The volume, prepared especially for preservice and inservice teachers, is divided into three sections--poverty and its effects, the children of poverty, and educational implications. The first two parts deal with such areas as

  17. State Disadvantaged Child Project. Evaluation Report, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagi, Kan

    The State Disadvantaged Child Project provides supplementary support services for 6,000 children residing in a low income core area and attending 10 elementary schools and 1 high school in Portland, Oregon. The project also covers other children, allocating funds to the Albina Youth Opportunity School (AYOS), Early Childhood Education Centers, and…

  18. Perspectives in the Education of Disadvantaged Children; A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Milly, Ed.

    A collection of original papers presents an interdisciplinary approach to the education of disadvantaged children. The volume, prepared especially for preservice and inservice teachers, is divided into three sections--poverty and its effects, the children of poverty, and educational implications. The first two parts deal with such areas as…

  19. Music Education and the Educationally Disadvantaged Gifted Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Janice Chapin

    This paper is a literature review comparing the characteristics and needs of the average gifted child with the disadvantaged gifted child in four areas: (1) cognitive; (2) affective; (3) psycho-motor; and (4) special aptitudes. Numbered items indicate those comparisons that may be contrasted directly between the two groups. All other items are…

  20. Theorising Multiply Disadvantaged Young People's Challenges in Accessing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie; Mkwananzi, Faith

    2015-01-01

    This paper sketches an innovative conceptualisation of disadvantaged youth, shaped dialogically by the interactions of theorising and data from a case study at Orange Farm informal settlement in South Africa in 2013. The study focused on the challenges for the young people in this area in accessing higher education. Drawing on Sen's and Nussbaum's

  1. The Economic Importance of Air Travel in High-Amenity Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasker, Ray; Gude, Patricia H.; Gude, Justin A.; van den Noort, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The western United States offers a case study on the importance of access to large population centers and their markets, via road and air travel, for economic development. The vast distances between towns and cities in the American West can be a detriment to business, yet they also serve to attract technology and knowledge-based workers seeking to…

  2. Colorado: 2002 Economic Census. Educational Services, Geographic Area Series, EC02-61A-CO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. This document contains statistical census data from 2002 for the state of Colorado. Statistical information is presented in table form, on the…

  3. The Economic Role of Central Community College. [Impact] on the Area Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiser, Christine; And Others

    In 1988, a study was conducted to determine the economic impact of Central Community College (CCC) on the surrounding communities. Using a research model developed specifically for use by public rural community colleges, the study drew upon data compiled from college records, local government sources, as well as from a survey of CCC students,…

  4. The Economic Importance of Air Travel in High-Amenity Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasker, Ray; Gude, Patricia H.; Gude, Justin A.; van den Noort, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The western United States offers a case study on the importance of access to large population centers and their markets, via road and air travel, for economic development. The vast distances between towns and cities in the American West can be a detriment to business, yet they also serve to attract technology and knowledge-based workers seeking to

  5. Surveillance status and recent data for Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in the European Union and European Economic Area, January 2012.

    PubMed

    Lenglet, A; Herrador, Z; Magiorakos, A P; Leitmeyer, K; Coulombier, D

    2012-01-01

    In January 2012, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) conducted an email based survey of European Union and European Economic Area countries to describe the existing surveillance activities for Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, recent findings and existence of clinical guidelines for the treatment of M. pneumoniae infection. Of the 20 countries that participated in the survey, seven reported increases in M. pneumoniae infections observed during the autumn and winter of 2011. PMID:22321134

  6. 77 FR 33972 - Channel Spacing and Bandwidth Limitations for Certain Economic Area (EA)-based 800 MHz...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ...In this document the Commission amends its rules to allow Economic Area (EA)-based 800 MHz Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR) licensees to exceed a legacy channel spacing and bandwidth limitation, subject to conditions to protect 800 MHz public safety licensees from harmful interference. Licensees are permitted to exceed the channel spacing and bandwidth limitation in the 813.5-824/858.5-869 MHz......

  7. Mechanisms Linking Socioeconomic Disadvantage and BMI in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Businelle, Michael S.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Castro, Yessenia; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate a conceptual model of the psychosocial pathways linking socioeconomic status and body mass index (BMI) among smokers. Methods A latent variable modeling approach was used to evaluate the interrelationships among socioeconomic status, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, negative affect, and BMI among smokers recruited from the Houston metropolitan area (N = 424). Results A total of 42.4% of participants were obese, with the highest prevalence of obesity among Latinos followed by African Americans. Across all racial/ethnic groups, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, and negative affect functioned as pathways linking socioeconomic status and BMI. Conclusions Findings indicate the need for interventions that target obesity among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers and provide potential intervention targets for the prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:23985281

  8. Work or place? Assessing the concurrent effects of workplace exploitation and area-of-residence economic inequality on individual health.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Carles; Li, Yong; Ng, Edwin; Benach, Joan; Chung, Haejoo

    2011-01-01

    Building on previous multilevel studies in social epidemiology, this cross-sectional study examines, simultaneously, the contextual effects of workplace exploitation and area-of-residence economic inequality on social inequalities in health among low-income nursing assistants. A total of 868 nursing assistants recruited from 55 nursing homes in Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia were surveyed between 1999 and 2001. Using a cross-classified multilevel design, the authors tested the effects of area-of-residence (income inequality and racial segregation), workplace (type of nursing home ownership and managerial pressure), and individual-level (age, gender, race/ethnicity, health insurance, length of employment, social support, type of nursing unit, preexisting psychopathology, physical health, education, and income) variables on health (self-reported health and activity limitations) and behavioral outcomes (alcohol use and caffeine consumption). Findings reveal that overall health was associated with both workplace exploitation and area-of-residence income inequality; area of residence was associated with activity limitations and binge drinking; and workplace exploitation was associated with caffeine consumption. This study explicitly accounts for the multiple contextual structure and effects of economic inequality on health. More work is necessary to replicate the current findings and establish robust conclusions on workplace and area of residence that might help inform interventions. PMID:21319719

  9. 1975 Employment--Minnesota and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area and 11 Economic Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Manpower Services, St. Paul.

    The Bureau of Labor Statistics national industry-occupational matrix was used to project employment for 1975 by occupation and industry for Minnesota and several areas within the state. In addition to the 1975 projections, the report provides statewide and area employment data for 1960 and 1968, by occupation and industry, along with the…

  10. An Economic Impact Study of Liberty Baptist College on the Lynchburg Metropolitan Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moisan, Leonard J.

    A study was conducted to determine Liberty Baptist College's impact on the Lynchburg area in the 1980 fiscal year. Three impact areas were studied: local businesses, governments, and individuals. Local construction expenditures of $5.6 million, additional college-related expenditures of other affiliated organizations, and several other peripheral…

  11. [Family structures: social disadvantage of women].

    PubMed

    Irizarry Castro, A

    1999-03-01

    A perspective on the family, based on scientific knowledge and on its appreciation as a unit for health care, is suggested. The contemporary family because of its independent links with society has lived and resisted the consequences of a series of economic, political, technological, cultural and ideological transformations. These forces act as influential forces in the family and it responds adopting new forms to temper to these new times. For these reasons, society at present is characterized by a plurality of family structures. As part of that diversity in families, at present, there are families: nuclear biological, nuclear in series, father or mother alone, extended, and those that share the same sexual orientation. The term family should be redefined to enclose all those types of cohabitation. Is imperative that support is given to families with the greatest social disadvantages such as those families made up of women alone as they are expected to continue growing in all societies both developed and underdeveloped. PMID:10343988

  12. Results of a modeling workshop concerning economic and environmental trends and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, David B.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Johnson, Richard A.; Roelle, James E.; Staley, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    During the past decade, the southern regions of the U.S. have experienced rapid change which is expected to continue into the foreseeable future. Growth in population, industry, and resource development has been attributed to a variety of advantages such as an abundant and inexpensive labor force, a mild climate, and the availability of energy, water, land, and other natural resources. While this growth has many benefits for the region, it also creates the potential for increased air, water, and solid waste pollution, and modification of natural habitats. A workshop was convened to consider the Mobile Bay area as a site-specific case of growth and its environmental consequences in the southern region. The objectives of the modeling workshop were to: (1) identify major factors of economic development as they relate to growth in the area over the immediate and longer term; (2) identify major environmental and resource management issues associated with this expected growth; and (3) identify and characterize the complex interrelationships among economic and environmental factors. This report summarizes the activities and results of a modeling workshop concerning economic growth and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area. The workshop was organized around construction of a simulation model representing the relationships between a series of actions and indicators identified by participants. The workshop model had five major components. An Industry Submodel generated scenarios of growth in several industrial and transportation sectors. A Human Population/Economy Submodel calculated human population and economic variables in response to employment opportunities. A Land Use/Air Quality Submodel tabulated changes in land use, shoreline use, and air quality. A Water Submodel calculated indicators of water quality and quantity for fresh surface water, ground water, and Mobile Bay based on discharge information provided by the Industry and Human Population/Economy Submodels. Finally, a Fish Submodel calculated indicators of habitat quality for finfish and shellfish, utilizing information on water quality and wetlands acreage. The workshop was successful in identifying many of the critical interrelations between components of the Mobile area system. Not all of those interactions, such as the feedback of air quality as a limitation on development, could be incorporated into the workshop model because of the model's broad spatial scale and because of uncertainties or data gaps. Thus, the value of the modeling workshop was in the areas outlines below, rather than in the predictive power of the initial model developed at the workshop. First, participants developed a holistic perspective on the interactions which will determine future economic and environmental trends within the Mobile Bay area. Potential environmental consequences and limitations to grown identified at the workshop included: shoreline and water access; water quality of Mobile Bay; finfish and shellfish habitat quality with respect to dissolved oxygen and coliforms; air quality; and acreage of critical wetland habitat. Second, the model's requirements for specific, quantitative information stimulated supporting analyses, such as economic input-output calculations, which provide additional insight into the Mobile Bay area system. Third, the perspective of the Mobile area as an interacting system was developed in an open, cooperative forum which my provide a foundation for conflict resolution based on common understanding. Finally, the identification of model limitations and uncertainties should be useful in guiding the efficient allocation of future research effort.

  13. Emergy-based comparative analysis on industrial clusters: economic and technological development zone of Shenyang area, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Geng, Yong; Zhang, Pan; Dong, Huijuan; Liu, Zuoxi

    2014-09-01

    In China, local governments of many areas prefer to give priority to the development of heavy industrial clusters in pursuit of high value of gross domestic production (GDP) growth to get political achievements, which usually results in higher costs from ecological degradation and environmental pollution. Therefore, effective methods and reasonable evaluation system are urgently needed to evaluate the overall efficiency of industrial clusters. Emergy methods links economic and ecological systems together, which can evaluate the contribution of ecological products and services as well as the load placed on environmental systems. This method has been successfully applied in many case studies of ecosystem but seldom in industrial clusters. This study applied the methodology of emergy analysis to perform the efficiency of industrial clusters through a series of emergy-based indices as well as the proposed indicators. A case study of Shenyang Economic Technological Development Area (SETDA) was investigated to show the emergy method's practical potential to evaluate industrial clusters to inform environmental policy making. The results of our study showed that the industrial cluster of electric equipment and electronic manufacturing produced the most economic value and had the highest efficiency of energy utilization among the four industrial clusters. However, the sustainability index of the industrial cluster of food and beverage processing was better than the other industrial clusters. PMID:24788859

  14. Social and economic sustainability of urban systems: comparative analysis of metropolitan statistical areas in Ohio, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article presents a general and versatile methodology for assessing sustainability with Fisher Information as a function of dynamic changes in urban systems. Using robust statistical methods, six Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in Ohio were evaluated to comparatively as...

  15. The Disadvantaged Woman in America. How Adult Education Can Promote Her Growth and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploetz, Greta N.

    Educationally, economically, or psychologically disadvantaged women suffer from even more social and economic injustices than do other women. Although a woman's ability to provide for herself rises with her educational level, approximately half of all American women lack a high school diploma. Family relationships, religious tradition, school…

  16. Empowering Early Years Workers to Identify and Target Areas of Difficulty in Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, Helen E.; Smith, Chris D.; Hutchinson, Jane

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a project aimed at providing skills and resources to support nursery staff in identifying areas of strength and need in 3- to 5-year-old children. The six participating nurseries were all in areas of high socio-economic disadvantage. Staff were trained to administer, score and interpret a wide-ranging screening inventory.…

  17. Promising Practices: Teaching the Disadvantaged Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miley, James F., Comp.; And Others

    Intended for teachers, the document offers 10 articles on educating the disadvantaged gifted student. Included are the following titles: "Four Promising Practices for Teaching Gifted Disadvantaged Students" (which describes a workshop with problem solving and creative expressive activities) by E. Paul Torrance; "Cultural Diversity and the…

  18. HANDBOOK, TEACHING SCIENCE TO EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BINGHAM, N.E.; AND OTHERS

    DESCRIBED ARE PROCEDURES AND LABORATORY MATERIALS WHICH ARE OUTGROWTHS OF A RESEARCH PROJECT OF THE SOUTHEASTERN EDUCATION LABORATORY FOR THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE TO DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS IN GRADES 7, 8, AND 9. PART 1 DEALS WITH THE CRITERIA USED IN DEVELOPING PROCEDURES AND MATERIALS FOR USE WITH EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED. INCLUDED ARE (1) THE…

  19. THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD--ISSUES AND INNOVATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FROST, JOE L.; HAWKES, GLENN R.

    PART ONE OF THIS COLLECTION OF PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED ARTICLES CONTAINS DISCUSSIONS OF THE DEFINITIONS OF "THE DISADVANTAGED" AND OF THE SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM OF POVERTY. THE ARTICLES IN PART TWO DISCUSS THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DISADVANTAGED, THE ETIOLOGY OF SCHOOL DROPOUT, A SOCIOLOGICAL VIEWPOINT ON THE EDUCATION OF CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED…

  20. Incorporation of Socio-Economic Features' Ranking in Multicriteria Analysis Based on Ecosystem Services for Marine Protected Area Planning.

    PubMed

    Portman, Michelle E; Shabtay-Yanai, Ateret; Zanzuri, Asaf

    2016-01-01

    Developed decades ago for spatial choice problems related to zoning in the urban planning field, multicriteria analysis (MCA) has more recently been applied to environmental conflicts and presented in several documented cases for the creation of protected area management plans. Its application is considered here for the development of zoning as part of a proposed marine protected area management plan. The case study incorporates specially-explicit conservation features while considering stakeholder preferences, expert opinion and characteristics of data quality. It involves the weighting of criteria using a modified analytical hierarchy process. Experts ranked physical attributes which include socio-economically valued physical features. The parameters used for the ranking of (physical) attributes important for socio-economic reasons are derived from the field of ecosystem services assessment. Inclusion of these feature values results in protection that emphasizes those areas closest to shore, most likely because of accessibility and familiarity parameters and because of data biases. Therefore, other spatial conservation prioritization methods should be considered to supplement the MCA and efforts should be made to improve data about ecosystem service values farther from shore. Otherwise, the MCA method allows incorporation of expert and stakeholder preferences and ecosystem services values while maintaining the advantages of simplicity and clarity. PMID:27183224

  1. Resource assessment and economic analysis: A study of mineral resources in the Altay Mountains area, Xinjiang, China

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.L.; Dorian, J.P.; Otto, J.M.; Johnson, C.J.; Bozich, L.G. ); Songguan, Chen; Jian, Zhao; Yongquan, Dong; Jianguo, Dai )

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an integrated resource assessment-development planning study conducted on the Altay Mountains area of Xinjiang Autonomous Uygur Region, China. The project was initiated by local Chinese government officials in order to more effectively plan future minerals exploration and development activities in this remote part of China. The study is comprised of four basic components: an initial resource assessment to estimate the type, quality, and quantity of mineral deposits that may occur in the area; a preliminary financial analysis based on the resource assessment estimates to determine which of the predicted deposits would be economic to develop if discovered and developed; a market analysis of the estimated commodities to assess which commodities would be desirable to develop for local, national, and international markets; and an integration of all these data into a comprehensive long-term development plan. The final results indicated that although the Altay Mountains area is richly endowed in synorogenic-synvolcanic nickel, felsic-intermediate massive sulfide, skarn, and stratiform lead-zinc deposits, only two of these deposit types may be economic to develop due to the lack of infrastructure and high capital investment and transportation costs.

  2. Incorporation of Socio-Economic Features' Ranking in Multicriteria Analysis Based on Ecosystem Services for Marine Protected Area Planning

    PubMed Central

    Portman, Michelle E.; Shabtay-Yanai, Ateret; Zanzuri, Asaf

    2016-01-01

    Developed decades ago for spatial choice problems related to zoning in the urban planning field, multicriteria analysis (MCA) has more recently been applied to environmental conflicts and presented in several documented cases for the creation of protected area management plans. Its application is considered here for the development of zoning as part of a proposed marine protected area management plan. The case study incorporates specially-explicit conservation features while considering stakeholder preferences, expert opinion and characteristics of data quality. It involves the weighting of criteria using a modified analytical hierarchy process. Experts ranked physical attributes which include socio-economically valued physical features. The parameters used for the ranking of (physical) attributes important for socio-economic reasons are derived from the field of ecosystem services assessment. Inclusion of these feature values results in protection that emphasizes those areas closest to shore, most likely because of accessibility and familiarity parameters and because of data biases. Therefore, other spatial conservation prioritization methods should be considered to supplement the MCA and efforts should be made to improve data about ecosystem service values farther from shore. Otherwise, the MCA method allows incorporation of expert and stakeholder preferences and ecosystem services values while maintaining the advantages of simplicity and clarity. PMID:27183224

  3. Higher Education, The Health Care Industry, and Metropolitan Regional Economic Development: What Can "Eds & Meds" Do for the Economic Fortunes of a Metro Area's Residents? Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper No. 08-140

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.; Erickcek, George

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of expansions in higher educational institutions and the medical service industry on the economic development of a metropolitan area. This examination pulls together previous research and provides some new empirical evidence. We provide quantitative evidence of the magnitude of economic effects of higher education…

  4. Higher Education, The Health Care Industry, and Metropolitan Regional Economic Development: What Can "Eds & Meds" Do for the Economic Fortunes of a Metro Area's Residents? Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper No. 08-140

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.; Erickcek, George

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of expansions in higher educational institutions and the medical service industry on the economic development of a metropolitan area. This examination pulls together previous research and provides some new empirical evidence. We provide quantitative evidence of the magnitude of economic effects of higher education

  5. Climate change and socio-economic scenarios, land use modelling implications on water resources in an inner alpine area, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Emmanuel; Schneider, Flurina; Liniger, Hanspeter; Weingartner, Rolf; Herweg, Karl

    2014-05-01

    The MontanAqua project aims to study the water resources management in the region Sierre-Montana (Valais, Switzerland). Land use is known to have an influence on the water resources (soil moisture dynamic, soil sealing, surface runoff and deep percolation). Thus land use modelling is of importance for the water resources management. An actual land use map was produced using infrared imagery (Niklaus 2012, Fig.1). Land use changes are known to be mainly drived by socio-economic factors as well as climatic factors (Dolman et al. 2003). Potential future Land uses was separatly predicted according to 1-. socio-economic and 2-. climatic/abiotic drivers : 1. 4 socio-economic scenarios were developped with stakeholders (Schneider et al. 2013) between 2010 and 2012. We modeled those socio-economic scenarios into a GIS application using Python programming (ModelBuilder in ArcGIS 10) to get a cartographic transcription of the wishes of the stakeholders for their region in 2050. 2. Uncorrelated climatic and abiotic drivers were used in a BIOMOD2 (Georges et al. 2013) framework. 4 models were used: Maximum Entropy (MAXENT), Multiple Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Classification Tree Analysis (CTA) and the Flexible Discriminant Analysis (FDA) to predict grassland, alpine pasture, vineyards and forest in our study region. Climatic scenarios were then introduced into the models to predict potential land use in 2050 driven only by climatic and abiotic factors The comparison of all the outputs demonstrates that the socio-economic drivers will have a more important impact in the region than the climatic drivers (e.g. -70% grassland surface for the worst socio-economic scenario vs. -40% of grassland surface for the worst climatic models). Further analysis also brings out the sensitivity of the grassland/alpine pasture system to the climate change and to socio-economic changes. Future work will be to cross the different land use maps obtained by the two model types and to use them to implement soil moisture and evaporation data for the near-future in the region Sierre-Montana. REFERENCES Niklaus M. 2012. An Object-oriented Approach for Mapping Current Land Use/Land Cover in the Study Area Crans-Montana-Sierre, Valais. MSc, Geography Institute, University of Bern Dolman A.J., Verhagen A. & Rovers C.A. 2003. Global environmental change and land use. Kluwer Academic Publisher. Dordrecht. Schneider F. & Rist S. 2013. Envisioning sustainable water futures in a transdisciplinary learning process: combining normative, explorative, and participatory scenario approaches. Sustainability Science, in press. Georges D. & Thuiller W. 2012. An example of species distribution modelling with biomod2. biomod2 version : 2.0.17

  6. 76 FR 32950 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2012 Economic Census of Island Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ..., Transportation and Warehousing, Information; Finance and Insurance; Real Estate and Rental and Leasing..., Room 6616, 14th and Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230 (or via the Internet at dHynek@doc... Areas will be conducted using mailout/mailback procedures with an Internet reporting...

  7. Economic analysis for commingling effects of insect activity in the elevator boot area

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boot areas in commercial grain elevators and feed mills contribute to commingling of insects with grain that moves through the elevator leg. A partial budget and stochastic dominance model was developed to improve pest management decision-making and risk analysis assessment from commingling effects ...

  8. Migrant Response to Industrialization in Four Rural Areas, 1965-70. Agricultural Economic Report No. 270.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Duane A.; Kuehn, John A.

    Immigrants competed on a limited scale with residents for new jobs in four industrializing rural areas in Arizona, the Central Ozarks, Mississippi, and Arkansas during 1965-70. This study determined: (1) competition for jobs between residents and immigrants; (2) need for immigrants to staff industries; and (3) differences between attributes of…

  9. Development of Specialists to Serve the Family Life and Impact Home Economics Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational Education.

    The purpose of the project was to provide current and/or prospective impact home economics teachers with opportunities to develop the sensitivity and skills needed to work with disadvantaged populations in inner city and rural areas. Twenty-four participants completed a one-week orientation workshop and a six-week internship. The orientation…

  10. Challenging Change: Transformative Education for Economically Disadvantaged Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland-Russell, Tara; Syrnyk, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the results of a mixed-methods study of 13 participants in a Radical Humanities programme designed as a transformative learning space for low-income adults who have experienced barriers to learning. Using demographic questionnaires, semi-structured narrative interviews and course evaluations this study examined participants'

  11. Challenging Change: Transformative Education for Economically Disadvantaged Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland-Russell, Tara; Syrnyk, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the results of a mixed-methods study of 13 participants in a Radical Humanities programme designed as a transformative learning space for low-income adults who have experienced barriers to learning. Using demographic questionnaires, semi-structured narrative interviews and course evaluations this study examined participants'…

  12. 34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... used to determine your low income rate include only students who were enrolled on at least a half-time... completion rate include only regular students who were— (i) Initially enrolled on a full-time basis in an... for completion of the program by a full-time student; or (2) For a student who is initially...

  13. 34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... used to determine your low income rate include only students who were enrolled on at least a half-time... completion rate include only regular students who were— (i) Initially enrolled on a full-time basis in an... for completion of the program by a full-time student; or (2) For a student who is initially...

  14. 34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... selected under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, have an expected family contribution, as defined in 34 CFR... enrollment status or cost of attendance; or (ii) For a calendar year that overlaps the 12-month period... student is a married independent student), is less than the amount listed in the Department of Health...

  15. 34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... selected under paragraph (c)(2) of this section, have an expected family contribution, as defined in 34 CFR... enrollment status or cost of attendance; or (ii) For a calendar year that overlaps the 12-month period... student is a married independent student), is less than the amount listed in the Department of Health...

  16. 34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... selected under paragraph (c)(2) of this section, have an expected family contribution, as defined in 34 CFR... enrollment status or cost of attendance; or (ii) For a calendar year that overlaps the 12-month period... student is a married independent student), is less than the amount listed in the Department of Health...

  17. 34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... selected under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, have an expected family contribution, as defined in 34 CFR... enrollment status or cost of attendance; or (ii) For a calendar year that overlaps the 12-month period... student is a married independent student), is less than the amount listed in the Department of Health...

  18. 13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (including bonuses and the value of company stock received in lieu of cash), personal net worth, and the fair... market value, within two years prior to a concern's application for participation in the 8(a) BD program... individual's assets and net worth (e.g., transfers to charities). (2) Net worth. For initial 8(a)...

  19. 13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... personal income for the past two years (including bonuses and the value of company stock given in lieu of... market value, within two years prior to a concern's application for participation in the 8(a) BD program... individual's assets and net worth (e.g., transfers to charities). (2) Net worth. For initial 8(a)...

  20. Economic Analysis for Commingling Effects of Insect Activity in the Elevator Boot Area.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Dennis R; Casada, Mark E; Langemeier, Michael R; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Arthur, Frank H

    2015-12-01

    Boot areas in commercial grain elevators and feed mills contribute to commingling of insects with grain that moves through the elevator leg. A partial budget and stochastic dominance model were developed to improve pest management decision-making and risk analysis assessment from commingling effects of insect activity in the boot area. Modified pilot-scale bucket elevator legs, containing residual wheat or corn, were infested with varying insect pest densities prior to clean grain transfers. Appropriate grain discounts were applied to grain samples obtained from clean grain transfers over either: 1) insect-free and untreated boots, 2) infested and untreated boots, or 3) infested and chemical-treated (β-cyfluthrin) boots. The insect-free boots simulated performing clean-out of the boot area. Partial budget analysis and stochastic dominance modeling indicated that boot sanitation (cleanout) about every 30 d, avoiding costly grain discounts from insect commingling, is the preferred choice. Although chemical spray treatments of the empty boot may reduce insect populations of some boot residual grains, boot cleanout always had lower and usually zero insect pest populations in the boot residual grain, providing higher facility operational net income without the use of chemicals. PMID:26470368

  1. Estimating the economic value of cultural ecosystem services in an urbanizing area using hedonic pricing.

    PubMed

    Sander, Heather A; Haight, Robert G

    2012-12-30

    A need exists to increase both knowledge and recognition of the values associated with ecosystem services and amenities. This article explores the use of hedonic pricing as a tool for eliciting these values. We take a case study approach, valuing several services provided by ecosystems, namely aesthetic quality (views), access to outdoor recreation, and the benefits provided by tree cover in Dakota County, Minnesota, USA. Our results indicate that these services are valued by local residents and that hedonic pricing can be used to elicit at least a portion of this value. We find that many aspects of the aesthetic environment significantly impact home sale prices. Total view area as well as the areas of some land-cover types (water and lawn) in views positively influenced home sale prices while views of impervious surfaces generally negatively influenced home sale price. Access to outdoor recreation areas significantly and positively influenced home sale prices as did tree cover in the neighborhood surrounding a home. These results illustrate the ability of hedonic pricing to identify partial values for ecosystem services and amenities in a manner that is highly relevant to local and regional planning. These values could be used to increase policy-maker and public awareness of ecosystem services and could improve their consideration in planning and policy decisions. PMID:23025985

  2. [Socio-economic context in the Lower Iseo Lake area after World War II].

    PubMed

    Simoncini, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    In the second part of the 20th century, the Basso Sebino Area (Northern Italy) underwent a transformation into an industrial context. The first factories were engaged in the production of textiles, clothes and pasta. This was followed by a major development of mechanic, plastic and rubber industry. The latter activity was concentrated on the production of buttons. This text describes the evolution of the unions'activity in order to obtain a more decent salary and better working conditions in all productive areas. Within this reality, the production of asbestos goods started in 1950 in the Colombo enterprise, run by Rinaldo Colombo, The latter was also the manager of the chrysotile quarry in Balangero, province of Torino (the biggest asbestos mine in Western Europe). Through these connections, asbestos was conveyed from Balangero to the Basso Sebino Area in such a way that most of the asbestos chain (extraction, processing of asbestos goods and sales) was under the control of the same firm. PMID:18050851

  3. Child obesity associated with social disadvantage of children's neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Andrea J; Arterburn, David E; Saelens, Brian E; Drewnowski, Adam; Lozano, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Evidence suggests variability in adult obesity risk at a small-scale geographic area is associated with differences in neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES). However, the extent to which geographic variability in child obesity is associated with neighborhood SES is unknown. The objective of this paper was to estimate risk of child obesity associated with multiple census tract SES measures and race within a large urban U.S. county. Height, weight, age, sex, medical insurance type and census tract residence were obtained for 6–18 year old children (n = 8,616) who received medical care at a health plan in King County, Washington, in 2006. Spatial analyses examined the individual risk of obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile) with 2000 US census tract measures of median household income, home ownership, adult female education level, single parent households, and race as predictors. Conditional autoregressive regression models that incorporated adjacent census tracts (spatial autocorrelation) were applied to each census tract variable, adjusting for individual variables. We found that in adjusted spatial models, child obesity risk was significantly associated with each census tract variable in the expected direction: lower household income, lower home ownership, and for each 10% increase in less educated women, and single parent households, as well as non-white residents. In a spatial model including all variables, the SES/race variables explained approximately 24% of geographic variability in child obesity. Results indicated that living in census tracts with social disadvantage defined by multiple different measures was associated with child obesity among insured children in a large U.S. urban county. These results contribute new information on relationships between broader social and economic context and child obesity risk using robust spatial analyses. PMID:20541306

  4. Child obesity associated with social disadvantage of children's neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Grow, H Mollie Greves; Cook, Andrea J; Arterburn, David E; Saelens, Brian E; Drewnowski, Adam; Lozano, Paula

    2010-08-01

    Evidence suggests variability in adult obesity risk at a small-scale geographic area is associated with differences in neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES). However, the extent to which geographic variability in child obesity is associated with neighborhood SES is unknown. The objective of this paper was to estimate risk of child obesity associated with multiple census tract SES measures and race within a large urban U.S. county. Height, weight, age, sex, medical insurance type and census tract residence were obtained for 6-18 year old children (n=8616) who received medical care at a health plan in King County, Washington, in 2006. Spatial analyses examined the individual risk of obesity (BMI > or = 95th percentile) with 2000 US census tract measures of median household income, home ownership, adult female education level, single parent households, and race as predictors. Conditional autoregressive regression models that incorporated adjacent census tracts (spatial autocorrelation) were applied to each census tract variable, adjusting for individual variables. We found that in adjusted spatial models, child obesity risk was significantly associated with each census tract variable in the expected direction: lower household income, lower home ownership, and for each 10% increase in less educated women, and single parent households, as well as non-white residents. In a spatial model including all variables, the SES/race variables explained approximately 24% of geographic variability in child obesity. Results indicated that living in census tracts with social disadvantage defined by multiple different measures was associated with child obesity among insured children in a large U.S. urban county. These results contribute new information on relationships between broader social and economic context and child obesity risk using robust spatial analyses. PMID:20541306

  5. Economic impact study of regulations for activities within setback zones and regulated recharge areas (R89-5). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, D.; Scott, R.; Garbade, J.

    1991-04-01

    Spills and leaks near potable water wells have caused the contamination of groundwater, resulting in detrimental environmental and human health impacts. Conforming with the Illinois Groundwater Protection Act, regulations were offered prescribing standards for certain activities within setback zones and regulated recharge areas, including on-site landfills, land treatment units, surface impoundments, waste piles, underground storage tanks; and facilities for the storage and handling of pesticides, fertilizers, road oils, and de-icing agents. The economic impact study was developed to identify, quantify and evaluate the economic and environmental costs and benefits of the proposed regulations. Estimated costs for existing facilities are $36.3 million for those in minimum setback zones, between $8.4 and $43.3 million in potential maximum setback zones, and between $13.3 and $66 million in potential regulated recharge areas. For surface impoundments, agrichemical and on-site landfill facilities in minimum setback zones, the quantified benefits were estimated at between $2.3 and $4.0 million, while compliance costs would total about $30.0 million. Estimates do not include qualitative benefits such as avoided instances of environmental degradation, land value losses, diminished aesthetic value, or long-term neurological and reproductive effects. The report discussed the importance of such benefits, but quantified values could not be estimated.

  6. Economic viability of phytoremediation of a cadmium contaminated agricultural area using energy maize. Part II: economics of anaerobic digestion of metal contaminated maize in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Thewys, T; Witters, N; Meers, E; Vangronsveld, J

    2010-09-01

    This paper deals with remediation of the Campine soil, an agricultural area diffusely contaminated with metals where most farmers raise dairy cattle and grow fodder maize. In a previous study, we calculated the effect of switching from fodder to energy maize on the farmer's income. Selling this energy maize as feedstock for anaerobic digestion to produce renewable energy could lead to a significant increase in his income. This paper explores the economic opportunities for the farmer of digesting the harvested contaminated biomass himself, by performing a Net Present Value (NPV) analysis on the digestion activity and by calculating the probability of a positive NPV of income resulting from the digestion installation. We investigate the trade off between the maximum price for energy maize that can be paid by the digestion activity and the minimum price that the farming activity needs to compensate for covering its production costs. Integrating the previous study in the current analysis results in an increase of total extra income for the farmer (i.e., from both growing energy maize and performing digestion). PMID:21166275

  7. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Management. Module III-F-3: Marketing Practices in Relation to Low Income Clientele.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Fresno. Dept. of Home Economics.

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on marketing practices in relation to low income clientele is the third in a set of three modules on management in economically depressed areas (EDAs). (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking…

  8. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Housing. Module III-B-1: Low-Income Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennings, Patricia

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on low income housing is the first in a set of three modules on housing in economically depressed areas. (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education [MATCHE]--see CE 019 901-967.) Following…

  9. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Management Module III-F-1: Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Vaunden

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on management skills is the first in a set of three modules on management in economically depressed areas. (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education [MATCHE]--see CE 019 901-967.)

  10. Prevalence of developmental defects of enamel in areas with differing water fluoride levels and socio-economic groups in Sri Lanka and England.

    PubMed

    Nunn, J H; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Ekanayake, L; Saparamadu, K D

    1994-04-01

    Defects of dental enamel were recorded in 607 12-year-old children in Sri Lanka and north-east England in 1990/91. In each country, children were included from areas which received drinking water containing 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 ppm F. In some of these areas, children from both low and high socio-economic groups were examined. The index of Developmental Defects of Enamel (DDE) was recorded clinically for the undried buccal surfaces of 10 permanent teeth (maxillary incisors, canines and first premolars, and mandibular first molars). The results revealed a higher prevalence of enamel defects and more teeth affected per person in children in: the high socio-economic group than in the low socio-economic group in the 1.0 ppm F area in England: in the 1.0 ppm F area than in the 0.1 ppm F area in Sri Lanka (in the low socio-economic groups), and in the 1.0 ppm F area than in the 0.1 ppm F area in England (in the high socio-economic groups but not in the low socio-economic groups): in general in Sri Lanka than in England. The occurrence of diffuse opacities increased greatly with increasing water fluoride level. A high prevalence of hypoplastic lesions was recorded in Sri Lanka. PMID:8063439

  11. Economic geology of the Zipaquira quadrangle and adjoining area, Department of Cundinamarca, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Donald H., Jr.; Arce Herrera, Marino

    1970-01-01

    At least four evaporite sequences are interbedded with Cretaceous strata in the Bogotga area of the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia. The easternmost and oldest evaporite interval is of probable Berriasian-Valanglnian age; the next oldest is of probable late Barremian-early Aptian age, and is followed by a possible late Aptian sequence. The westernmost and best known sequence is Turonian-early Coniacian in age, in the Sabana de Bogota. This youngest sequence contains the thickest known salt deposits and is probably the most widespread geographically. Three gypsum deposits of probable Barremian-Valanginian age are in the eastern part of the area under investigation. These deposits may have been leached from former salt accumulations. No other evaporites are exposed, but numerous brine springs are known, That the sources of these brines are neither deep not distant is suggested by the generally high concentrations, of the brines, the local presence of rute (leached salt residue), and the commonly significant amounts of H2S gas emitted at these springs. The rock salt exposed in three accessible mines commonly has a characteristic lamination caused by alternating layers of relatively pure halite and very argillaceous halite. Ubiquitously scattered throughout all salt deposits are small clasts of black, commonly pyritic, marly claystone. This lithology is also present as large claystone bodies conformably interbedded in the salt strata. Anhydrite is rare and is apparently more abundant at the Zipaquira mine that at the Nemocon and Upin mine. Paleontologic evidence in the Sabana de Bogota demonstrates that the salt-claystone series, hematite impregnated strata, and carbonaceous to locally coaly claystone are coeval. The salt-claystone facies may have been deposited in shallow evaporite pans that were separated within the overall evaporite interval by barriers on which the locally hematitic strata were deposited. The carbonaceous facies may also have formed in barrier areas or on the edges of the evaporite basins. Whether or not this facies relationship prevails in the older evaporite intervals is not known; meager evidence suggests that it does. Nonmetallic mineral resources other than the evaporite minerals are phosphate rock, limestone, kaolinite, and emeralds. Metallic mineral deposits present in the Zone include hematite at Pericos, La Caldera, Tibirita, Nueva Vizcaya, and Cerro de Montecristo; chalcopyrite at Cerro do Cobre and at Farallones de Medina; galena in several places along the Rio Farallones and Rio Gacheta; and spahlerite in the Junin district.

  12. Obesity and Association with Area of Residence, Gender and Socio-Economic Factors in Algerian and Tunisian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Atek, Madjid; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila; Laid, Youcef; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Mézimèche, Nadia; Bougatef, Souha; Béji, Chiraz; Boutekdjiret, Leila; Martin-Prével, Yves; Lebcir, Hassiba; Gartner, Agnès; Kolsteren, Patrick; Delpeuch, Francis; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Maire, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The epidemiological transition has resulted in a major increase in the prevalence of obesity in North Africa. This study investigated differences in obesity and its association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic position among adults in Algeria and Tunisia, two countries with socio-economic and socio-cultural similarities. Methods Cross-sectional studies used stratified, three-level, clustered samples of 35–70 year old adults in Algeria, (women n = 2741, men n = 2004) and Tunisia (women n = 2964, men n = 2379). Thinness was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight/height <18.5 kg/m2, obesity as BMI ≥30, and abdominal obesity as waist circumference/height ≥0.6. Associations with area of residence, gender, age, education, profession and household welfare were assessed. Results Prevalence of thinness was very low except among men in Algeria (7.3% C.I.[5.9–8.7]). Prevalence of obesity among women was high in Algeria (30.1% C.I.[27.8–32.4]) and Tunisia (37.0% C.I.[34.4–39.6]). It was less so among men (9.1% C.I.[7.1–11.0] and 13.3% C.I.[11.2–15.4]).The results were similar for abdominal obesity. In both countries women were much more obesity-prone than men: the women versus men obesity Odds-Ratio was 4.3 C.I.[3.4–5.5] in Algeria and 3.8 C.I.[3.1–4.7] in Tunisia. Obesity was more prevalent in urban versus rural areas in Tunisia, but not in Algeria (e.g. for women, urban versus rural Odds-Ratio was 2.4 C.I.[1.9–3.1] in Tunisia and only 1.2 C.I.[1.0–5.5] in Algeria). Obesity increased with household welfare, but more markedly in Tunisia, especially among women. Nevertheless, in both countries, even in the lowest quintile of welfare, a fifth of the women were obese. Conclusion The prevention of obesity, especially in women, is a public health issue in both countries, but there were differences in the patterning of obesity according to area of residence and socio-economic position. These specificities must be taken into account in the management of obesity inequalities. PMID:24116063

  13. Simplified floor-area-based energy-moisture-economic model for residential buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Luis A.

    In the United States, 21% of all energy is used in residential buildings (40% of which is for heating and cooling homes). Promising improvements in residential building energy efficiency are underway such as the Building America Program and the Passive House Concept. The ability of improving energy efficiency in buildings is enhanced by building energy modeling tools, which are well advanced and established but lack generality (each building has to be modeled individually) and require high cost, which limits many residential buildings from taking advantage of such powerful tools. This dissertation attempts to develop guidelines based on a per-building-floor-area basis for designing residential buildings that achieve maximum energy efficiency and minimum life cycle cost. Energy and moisture-mass conservation principles were formulated for residential buildings on a per-building-floor-area basis. This includes thermal energy balance, moisture-mass conservation and life cycle cost. The analysis also includes the effects of day-lighting, initial cost estimation and escalation rates. The model was implemented on Excel so it is available for broader audiences and was validated using the standard BESTEST validation procedure for energy models yielding satisfactory results for different scenarios, within a 90% confidence interval. Using the model, parametric optimization studies were conducted in order to study how each variable affects energy and life cycle cost. An efficient whole-building optimization procedure was developed to determine the optimal design based on key design parameters. Whole-building optimization studies were conducted for 12 climate zones using four different criteria: minimum energy consumption, minimum life cycle cost (35 years) using constant energy costs and minimum life cycle cost (35 years) varying escalation rates (-5%, 10%). Conclusions and recommendations were inferred on how to design an optimal house, using each criterion and for all climate zones.

  14. Socioeconomic disadvantage and its implications for population health planning of obesity and overweight, using cross-sectional data from general practices from a regional catchment in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Abhijeet; Charlton, Karen E; Batterham, Marijka J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify smaller geographic and region-specific evidence to inform population health planning for overweight and obesity. Design Cross-sectional secondary analysis of data. Setting Primary healthcare—17 general practices located in the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of New South Wales (NSW). Participants A subset (n=36 674) of the Sentinel Practices Data Sourcing project adult persons data set (n=118 794) that included information on disease status of all adult patients who had height and weight measurements recorded in their electronic health records and had visited the included general practices within the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of NSW between September 2011 and September 2013. Main outcome measures Age-adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of overweight and obesity was determined for high and low levels of socioeconomic disadvantage based on Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA)—Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage (IRSD) scores of patients' residential statistical local area. Results In men, overweight was lowest in areas of highest socioeconomic disadvantage (aOR=0.910; 95% CI 0.830 to 0.998; p<0.001); but no statistically significant association with socioeconomic score was found for women. Overall obesity was associated with high socioeconomic disadvantage (aOR=1.292; 95% CI 1.210 to 1.379; p<0.001). Conclusions This type of data analysis reveals multiple layers of evidence that should be assessed for population health approaches to curb the epidemic of obesity and overweight. It strongly highlights the need for preventive health initiatives to be specific to gender and socioeconomic attributes of the target population. PMID:27142857

  15. Innovative strategies to improve diabetes outcomes in disadvantaged populations.

    PubMed

    Ruddock, J S; Poindexter, M; Gary-Webb, T L; Walker, E A; Davis, N J

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes disproportionately affects disadvantaged populations. Eighty percent of deaths directly caused by diabetes occurred in low- and middle-income countries. In high-income countries, there are marked disparities in diabetes control among racial/ethnic minorities and those with low socio-economic status. Innovative, effective and cost-effective strategies are needed to improve diabetes outcomes in these populations. Technological advances, peer educators and community health workers have expanded methodologies to reach, educate and monitor individuals with diabetes. In the present manuscript we review the outcomes of these strategies, and describe the barriers to and facilitators of these approaches for improving diabetes outcomes. PMID:27194172

  16. Creativity, Intelligence, and Achievement Among Disadvantaged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruininks, Robert H.; Feldman, David H.

    1970-01-01

    The major findings of the study was that Torrance's tests of creativity acted as a suppressor variable, increasing the relation between IQ and achievement among the disadvantaged children sampled. (Author)

  17. Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Harding, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from Addhealth, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community, and school controls. Neighborhood violence accounts for almost half the conditional association between neighborhood disadvantage and high school graduation among males and almost all of the association among females. Violence also accounts for about one fifth of the conditional association between disadvantage and teenage pregnancy among adolescents of both genders. Violence is a critical social characteristic of disadvantaged neighborhoods, one that explains a sizable portion of the effects of growing up in such neighborhoods. PMID:20676355

  18. Maslow's Theories and Educating the Disadvantaged Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Jerry

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes Abraham Maslow's concepts of the organization of the personality with implications for educating the disadvantaged adult learner. Special attention is given to personality syndromes and the effect they have on the expression of behavior. (JOW)

  19. Advantages and Disadvantages of Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Merriam A.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the use of individualized instruction, known as the personalized system of instruction (PSI), in teaching college physical science courses. Tables summarizing the advantages and disadvantages of PSI from the viewpoints of students, teachers, and administrators are presented. (HM)

  20. Socio-economic factors affecting the conservation of natural woodlands in Central Riyadh Area - Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Subaiee, Faisal Sultan

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to identify some socioeconomic factors affecting local people in central Riyadh area for the utilization of wood and other energy sources in cooking and heating in order to develop some recommendations for conserving woodlands. The study results revealed that gas is the most common energy source used for cooking with a mean usage level of 2.79 (SD = 0.58). On the other hand, wood ranked first for heating with the highest mean, usage level of 1.90 (SD = 1.06). However, electricity and gas as sources of energy for heating ranked second and third with mean usage level of 1.81 and 0.80 respectively. The study revealed that local people with the university education were significantly making higher use of electricity for both cooking and heating and those with no formal education ranked the highest on wood use for both cooking and heating. In addition, those living in traditional houses significantly used more wood for cooking than those living in villas and apartments. Also, local people with high income levels significantly were using more electricity for heating than others. The study recommended conducting extension and environmental awareness raising programs to enhance local residents' adoption of wood substitutes, promoting employment opportunities for unemployed locals, and subsidizing prices of alternative energy sources. PMID:27081355

  1. An integrated multi criteria approach for landfill siting in a conflicting environmental, economical and socio-cultural area.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Mahnaz; Homaee, Mehdi; Mahmodi, Shahla

    2012-08-01

    Landfill site selection is a complicated multi criteria land use planning that should convince all related stakeholders with different insights. This paper addresses an integrating approach for landfill siting based on conflicting opinions among environmental, economical and socio-cultural expertise. In order to gain optimized siting decision, the issue was investigated in different viewpoints. At first step based on opinion sampling and questionnaire results of 35 experts familiar with local situations, the national environmental legislations and international practices, 13 constraints and 15 factors were built in hierarchical structure. Factors divided into three environmental, economical and socio-cultural groups. In the next step, the GIS-database was developed based on the designated criteria. In the third stage, the criteria standardization and criteria weighting were accomplished. The relative importance weights of criteria and subcriteria were estimated, respectively, using analytical hierarchy process and rank ordering methods based on different experts opinions. Thereafter, by using simple additive weighting method, the suitability maps for landfill siting in Marvdasht, Iran, was evaluated in environmental, economical and socio-cultural visions. The importance of each group of criteria in its own vision was assigned to be higher than two other groups. In the fourth stage, the final suitability map was obtained after crossing three resulted maps in different visions and reported in five suitability classes for landfill construction. This map indicated that almost 1224 ha of the study area can be considered as best suitable class for landfill siting considering all visions. In the last stage, a comprehensive field visit was performed to verify the selected site obtained from the proposed model. This field inspection has confirmed the proposed integrating approach for the landfill siting. PMID:22503155

  2. Social organization of sexual-economic networks and the persistence of HIV in a rural area in the USA.

    PubMed

    Stratford, Dale; Ellerbrock, Tedd V; Chamblee, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    In order to determine why high rates of HIV transmission have persisted in a rural area despite community-wide HIV prevention since the mid-1980s, qualitative information was collected about the contexts and social organization of risk behaviour for HIV transmission from residents of a southern Florida community with high HIV prevalence. Original data were collected during 1995-1997 using individual interviews, observations, focus groups, and print media. The research findings were recently reviewed by community members, and the relevance of the data in the present day context was confirmed. We identified risk behaviours including multiple sex partners within heterosexual networks that cross socioeconomic strata and include adults and young people, sex workers, men who have sex with men, prison inmates, truckers, and migrant workers. Crack cocaine was an important feature of some networks. Financial support from multiple male or female sex partners was often part of a personal economic strategy and overlaid traditional social support networks. This type of relationship appears to be historically integrated into the economic fabric of the community and is not likely to receive social censure. Sexual reciprocity may explain, in part, why HIV transmission is rising among women in rural southern communities that have depressed economies. PMID:17364721

  3. GLORIA sidescan-sonar imagery for parts of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paskevich, Valerie F.; Wong, Florence L.; O'Malley, John J.; Stevenson, Andrew J.; Gutmacher, Christina E.

    2011-01-01

    In 1983, President Ronald Reagan signed a Proclamation establishing the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the United States extending its territory 200 nautical miles from the coasts of the United States, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, and other U.S. territories and possessions. The charter of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) places the primary responsibility for mapping the territories of the United States within the USGS. Upon declaration of the EEZ, the territory of the United States was enlarged by more than 13 million square kilometers, all of which are under water. The USGS EEZ-SCAN program to systematically map the EEZ began in 1984 and continued through 1991. This digital publication contains all the GLORIA sidescan imagery of the deep-water (greater than 200 meters) portion of the EEZ mapped during those 8 years of data collection. For each EEZ area, we describe the data collection surveys and provide downloads of the GLORIA data and metadata.

  4. Spatial, socio-economic, and ecological implications of incorporating minimum size constraints in marine protected area network design.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Kristian; Vaughan, Gregory; Vaz, Sandrine; Smith, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are the cornerstone of most marine conservation strategies, but the effectiveness of each one partly depends on its size and distance to other MPAs in a network. Despite this, current recommendations on ideal MPA size and spacing vary widely, and data are lacking on how these constraints might influence the overall spatial characteristics, socio-economic impacts, and connectivity of the resultant MPA networks. To address this problem, we tested the impact of applying different MPA size constraints in English waters. We used the Marxan spatial prioritization software to identify a network of MPAs that met conservation feature targets, whilst minimizing impacts on fisheries; modified the Marxan outputs with the MinPatch software to ensure each MPA met a minimum size; and used existing data on the dispersal distances of a range of species found in English waters to investigate the likely impacts of such spatial constraints on the region's biodiversity. Increasing MPA size had little effect on total network area or the location of priority areas, but as MPA size increased, fishing opportunity cost to stakeholders increased. In addition, as MPA size increased, the number of closely connected sets of MPAs in networks and the average distance between neighboring MPAs decreased, which consequently increased the proportion of the planning region that was isolated from all MPAs. These results suggest networks containing large MPAs would be more viable for the majority of the region's species that have small dispersal distances, but dispersal between MPA sets and spill-over of individuals into unprotected areas would be reduced. These findings highlight the importance of testing the impact of applying different MPA size constraints because there are clear trade-offs that result from the interaction of size, number, and distribution of MPAs in a network. PMID:26219669

  5. Beyond Income Poverty: Measuring Disadvantage in Terms of Material Hardship and Health.

    PubMed

    Neckerman, Kathryn M; Garfinkel, Irwin; Teitler, Julien O; Waldfogel, Jane; Wimer, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    The New York City (NYC) Longitudinal Study of Wellbeing, or "Poverty Tracker," is a survey of approximately 2300 NYC residents. Its purpose is to provide a multidimensional and dynamic understanding of economic disadvantage in NYC. Measures of disadvantage were collected at baseline and a 12-month follow-up, and include 3 types of disadvantage: 1) income poverty, using a measure on the basis of the new Supplemental Poverty Measure; 2) material hardship, including indicators of food insecurity, housing hardship, unmet medical needs, utility cutoffs, and financial insecurity; and 3) adult health problems, which can drain family time and resources. In this article initial results for NYC families with children younger than the age of 18 years are presented. At baseline, 56% of families with children had 1 or more type of disadvantage, including 28% with income poverty, 39% with material hardship, and 17% with an adult health problem. Even among nonpoor families, 33% experienced material hardship and 14% reported an adult health problem. Two-thirds of all families faced disadvantage at either baseline or follow-up, with 46% experiencing some kind of disadvantage at both time points. Respondents with a college education were much less likely to face disadvantage. Even after adjusting for educational attainment and family characteristics, the families of black and Hispanic respondents had increased rates of disadvantage. Considering income poverty alone the extent of disadvantage among families with children in NYC is greatly understated. These results suggest that in addition to addressing income poverty, policymakers should give priority to efforts to reduce material hardship and help families cope with chronic physical or mental illness. The need for these resources extends far above the poverty line. PMID:27044702

  6. Institutional Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Warren J.

    1984-01-01

    Institutional economics remains a viable alternative approach to economics. It stresses power, technology, and a holistic and evolutionary approach while critiquing the neoclassical approach. General features of institutional economics are examined, and the work of institutionalists in specific areas is discussed. (RM)

  7. Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent stress reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Hackman, Daniel A.; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Hurt, Hallam; Farah, Martha J.

    2012-01-01

    Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African–American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). We found that concentrated disadvantage was associated with cortisol reactivity and this relationship was moderated by gender, such that higher concentrated disadvantage predicted higher cortisol reactivity and steeper recovery in boys but not in girls. Parental education, alone or as moderated by gender, did not predict reactivity or recovery, while neither education nor concentrated disadvantage predicted estimates of baseline cortisol. This finding is consistent with animal literature showing differential vulnerability, by gender, to the effects of adverse early experience on stress regulation and the differential effects of neighborhood disadvantage in adolescent males and females. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying SES differences in brain development and particularly reactivity to environmental stressors may vary across genders. PMID:23091454

  8. The Effect of Three Reinforcement Systems on Spelling Achievement Among Disadvantaged and Non-Disadvantaged Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, Custer R., Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of three different types of reinforcement strategies on spelling achievement among a sample of disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged fourth grade public school pupils. The three reinforcement strategies employed involved a concrete reward (candy), a token or symbolic reward…

  9. 48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Small Disadvantaged... Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION... Registration database or by contacting the SBA's Office of Small Disadvantaged Business Certification...

  10. Teaching the Disadvantaged: A Curriculum Guide for Classes of Disadvantaged Students in Agricultural Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crunkilton, John R.

    The guide begins with some observations on teaching disadvantaged students, a list of successful types of learning activities, and recommendations for planning and conducting an effective classroom situation. Also included are 13 general objectives of a program for the disadvantaged. The guide, intended as a source of ideas and directions in…

  11. Economic evaluation of Chagas disease screening of pregnant Latin American women and of their infants in a non endemic area.

    PubMed

    Sicuri, Elisa; Muñoz, José; Pinazo, Maria Jesús; Posada, Elizabeth; Sanchez, Joan; Alonso, Pedro L; Gascon, Joaquim

    2011-05-01

    Migration is a channel through which Chagas disease is imported, and vertical transmission is a channel through which the disease is spread in non-endemic countries. This study presents the economic evaluation of Chagas disease screening in pregnant women from Latin America and in their newborns in a non endemic area such as Spain. The economic impact of Chagas disease screening is tested through two decision models, one for the newborn and one for the mother, against the alternative hypothesis of no screening for either the newborn or the mother. Results show that the option "no test" is dominated by the option "test". The cost effectiveness ratio in the "newborn model" was 22€/QALYs gained in the case of screening and 125€/QALYs gained in the case of no screening. The cost effectiveness ratio in the "mother model" was 96€/QALYs gained in the case of screening and 1675€/QALYs gained in the case of no screening. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis highlighted the reduction of uncertainty in the screening option. Threshold analysis assessed that even with a drop in Chagas prevalence from 3.4% to 0.9%, a drop in the probability of vertical transmission from 7.3% to 2.24% and with an increase of screening costs up to €37.5, "test" option would still be preferred to "no test". The current study proved Chagas screening of all Latin American women giving birth in Spain and of their infants to be the best strategy compared to the non-screening option and provides useful information for health policy makers in their decision making process. PMID:21396345

  12. Cumulative gender disadvantage in contract employment.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Mateo, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Women's wages do not grow with experience or tenure as much as men's do. Many accounts of this cumulative gender disadvantage attribute it to women's underinvestment in firm-specific skills. Yet if that were true, this disadvantage would not exist where firm-specific skills are not rewarded by the labor market. This article investigates this argument in the context of contract employment, where demand for firm specificity is minimal. Contrary to expectations, men still receive higher rewards than women over time. Drawing on quantitative evidence and qualitative fieldwork using job histories of high-skill contractors affiliated with a staffing firm, the author finds support for two sources of women's disadvantage: lower rates of movement across clients on the supply side and unmeasured demand-side factors by which similar levels of tenure and client transitions accrue lower rewards to women. Implications for research on gender stratification and career advancement in non-formalized labor markets are discussed. PMID:19824298

  13. A bilingual disadvantage in metacognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Folke, Tomas; Ouzia, Julia; Bright, Peter; De Martino, Benedetto; Filippi, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Recent research indicating that bilingualism is associated with enhanced executive function suggests that this enhancement may operate within a broader spectrum of cognitive abilities than previously thought (e.g., Stocco & Prat, 2014). In this study, we focus on metacognition or the ability to evaluate one's own cognitive performance (Flavell, 1979). Over the course of two experiments, we presented young healthy adult monolinguals and bilinguals with a perceptual two-alternative-forced-choice task followed by confidence judgements. Results from both experiments indicated that bilingual participants showed a disadvantage in metacognitive efficiency, determined through the calculation of Mratio (Maniscalco & Lau, 2014). Our findings provide novel insight into the potential differences in bilingual and monolingual cognition, which may indicate a bilingual disadvantage. Results are discussed with reference to the balance of advantages versus disadvantages associated with multilanguage learning. PMID:26896725

  14. Economic Evaluation of an Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Program to Control the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Donald S.; Halasa, Yara A.; Fonseca, Dina M.; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P.; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A.; Clark, Gary G.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control) from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY). The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008) and the intervention years (2009-2011) declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8. PMID:25338065

  15. Hawaii: 2002 Economic Census. 2002 Educational Services, Geographic Area Series. EC02-61A-HI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The economic census furnishes an important part of the framework for such composite measures as the gross domestic product estimates, input/output measures, production and price indexes, and other statistical series that measure short-term changes in economic conditions. Specific uses of economic census data include the following: Policymaking…

  16. Montana: 2002. 2002 Economic Census. Educational Services, Geographic Area Series. EC02-61A-MT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The economic census furnishes an important part of the framework for such composite measures as the gross domestic product estimates, input/output measures, production and price indexes, and other statistical series that measure short-term changes in economic conditions. Specific uses of economic census data include the following: Policymaking…

  17. 48 CFR 719.272 - Small disadvantaged business policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Small disadvantaged... DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.272 Small disadvantaged business... subcontracting with small disadvantaged businesses and other disadvantaged enterprises based on provisions of...

  18. Discriminant Analysis of Scholastic Aptitude and Critical Thinking Tests and Levels of "Disadvantagement."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follman, John; and Others

    Differences among school children are typically measured by achievement, aptitude and/or intelligence tests. This study investigates the use of critical thinking tests to differentiate between schools of varying racial, economic, and "disadvantagement" factors; the latter being determined by Title I ESEA qualifications and U. S. Office of…

  19. Gaining Access or Losing Ground? Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students in Undergraduate Engineering, 1994-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy-Wagner, Valerie C.; Veenstra, Cindy P.; Orr, Marisa K.; Ramirez, Nichole M.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Long, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Expanding access to engineering for underrepresented groups has by and large focused on ethnicity/race and gender, with little understanding of socioeconomic disadvantages. In this study, we use economic, human, and cultural capital theories to frame and then describe access to undergraduate engineering degree programs and bachelor's degrees.…

  20. Gaining Access or Losing Ground? Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students in Undergraduate Engineering, 1994-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy-Wagner, Valerie C.; Veenstra, Cindy P.; Orr, Marisa K.; Ramirez, Nichole M.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Long, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Expanding access to engineering for underrepresented groups has by and large focused on ethnicity/race and gender, with little understanding of socioeconomic disadvantages. In this study, we use economic, human, and cultural capital theories to frame and then describe access to undergraduate engineering degree programs and bachelor's degrees.