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1

Learning to (Dis)Engage? The Socialising Experiences of Young People Living in Areas of Socio-Economic Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young people are increasingly required to demonstrate civic engagement in their communities and help deliver the aspirations of localism and Big Society. Using an ecological systems approach this paper explores the experiences of different groups of young people living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage. Using volunteering as an example of…

Mason, Carolynne; Cremin, Hilary; Warwick, Paul; Harrison, Tom

2011-01-01

2

Learning to (Dis)Engage? The Socialising Experiences of Young People Living in Areas of SocioEconomic Disadvantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young people are increasingly required to demonstrate civic engagement in their communities and help deliver the aspirations of localism and Big Society. Using an ecological systems approach this paper explores the experiences of different groups of young people living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage. Using volunteering as an example of civic engagement it is shown that barriers and motivators for

Carolynne Mason; Hilary Cremin; Paul Warwick; Tom Harrison

2011-01-01

3

Developmental Levels of Economically Disadvantaged College Freshmen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The personal developmental levels of students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds were studied; and the hypothesis that students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds would be less mature than other students in the developmental levels of autonomy, purpose, and interpersonal relationships was assessed. The effects of participation in…

Yarbrough, Stephen L.

4

How Children from Disadvantaged Areas Keep Safe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The paper sets out to describe how children from disadvantaged areas perceive their communities and actively negotiate threats in their lives. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 60 interviews and 16 discussions groups were held with 8 to 14-year-olds sampled from four deprived communities located in the West of Scotland. Participants…

Turner, Katrina M.; Hill, Malcolm; Stafford, Anne; Walker, Moira

2006-01-01

5

The "Collateral Impact" of Pupil Behaviour and Geographically Concentrated Socio-Economic Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools in areas of concentrated disadvantage tend to have below-average attainment, but there is no consensus on why. Mental and behavioural disorders in children are correlated with socio-economic disadvantage. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the first phenomenon can at least partly be accounted for by the second phenomenon through…

David, Alex Hugh

2010-01-01

6

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. 1400.4...ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. (a) The...requesting formal designation should establish social or economic disadvantage by a...

2012-01-01

7

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. 1400.4...ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. (a) The...requesting formal designation should establish social or economic disadvantage by a...

2014-01-01

8

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. 1400.4...ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. (a) The...requesting formal designation should establish social or economic disadvantage by a...

2011-01-01

9

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. 1400.4...ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. (a) The...requesting formal designation should establish social or economic disadvantage by a...

2013-01-01

10

Book Selections of Economically Disadvantaged Black Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author identified books most often selected among a sample of economically disadvantaged Black 8- to 12-year-old participants (N = 293) and investigated reasons participants offered for choosing specific books. Participants self-selected books at a book fair providing 412 books. The most commonly selected books supplied descriptive data.…

Williams, Lunetta M.

2008-01-01

11

49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? 26.67...Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption...When an individual's presumption of social and/or economic disadvantage has...

2012-10-01

12

Access to health care for economically disadvantaged Canadians: a model.  

PubMed

In Canada, cultural, physical and structural barriers to the poor's accessibility to health care persist. The economically disadvantaged are clearly identified as a national high-risk target group because of poorer health status and health behaviours than higher-income Canadians. A four-component model is proposed to describe the complex, multivariate nature of access to health care for the economically disadvantaged. The mutual effects of characteristics of access and poverty are outlined and strategies to facilitate improved access are delineated and exemplified. Education, comprehensive and personalized care, consumer participation, and environmental strategies, while not uniquely applicable to the needs of the poor, may collectively constitute a reasonable approach to removing barriers to access to care for this vulnerable group. Furthermore, these four strategies are consistent with premises of primary health care and health promotion. While the model encompasses many relevant variables, it is neither exclusive nor all-inclusive. Further research is required to assess the linkage between specific elements of these four components and to conduct monetary and human cost-benefit analyses of recommended approaches. PMID:2282608

Stewart, M J

1990-01-01

13

Universe Awareness . An inspirational programme for economically disadvantaged young children.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beauty of the sky and its connection with the human development have inspired generations with wonder. Astronomy conveys the excitement of science to the public. Considerable resources are devoted to outreach in developed countries, with spectacular images produced by modern astronomical facilities and astronomical discoveries that change our views of the Universe. Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is a programme for children between 4 and 10 years old. The formative ages of 4 to 10 years are crucial in child development. Children of that age can appreciate the beauty of astronomical objects and develop a ``feeling'' for the vastness of the Universe. Exposing young children to such material is likely to broaden their minds and stimulate their world-view. The programme concentrates on economically disadvantaged young children because most other children will be exposed to some knowledge about the Universe and disparities between advantaged and disadvantaged children increase with age. Venezuela hosted a successful pilot project in 2006. From spontaneous observation of the sky to a teacher-training workshop in the "Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía" in Mérida, this was a wonderful experience for participants and organisers alike. This shows how successful the UNAWE programme can be.

Ödman, C. J.; Scorza, C.; Miley, G. K.; Madsen, C.

14

Neighborhood Disadvantage, Individual Economic Distress and Violence Against Women in Intimate Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuing debate in sociological criminology involves the association of crime with economic disadvantage at both aggregate and individual levels of analysis. At the aggregate level, data from law enforcement sources suggest that rates of intimate violence are higher in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience higher rates of intimate violence for compositional or contextual reasons, or rates may only

Michael L. Benson; Greer L. Fox; Alfred DeMaris; Judy Van Wyk

2003-01-01

15

Sexual Responsibility, Fatherhood and Discourses of Masculinity among Socially and Economically Disadvantaged Young Men in Ireland  

E-print Network

Disadvantaged Young Men in Ireland Elizabeth Nixon, Pádraic Whyte, Joe Buggy and Sheila Greene JUN2010RESEARCH in Ireland PAGE 1 Sexual responsibility, fatherhood and discourses of masculinity among socially and economically disadvantaged young men in Ireland Elizabeth Nixon, Pádraic Whyte, Joe Buggy and Sheila Greene

O'Mahony, Donal E.

16

"Mindstorms" and "Mindtools" Aren't Happening: Digital Streaming of Students via Socio-Economic Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers the possibility that school-based uses of new technologies might actually exacerbate the educational disadvantage of already disadvantaged social groups--particularly, learners from low socio-economic status populations. It draws on some recent international studies that indicate how minority, poor and urban students may be…

Anderson, Neil

2005-01-01

17

Training the Socio-Economically Disadvantaged; A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography presents a collection of readings which should be of interest to persons charged with the responsibility of planning programs dealing with the education, counseling, and socialization of the socioeconomically disadvantaged. Taken from various sources, this collection contains: (1) current readings, (2) a listing of…

Holcomb, Beverly J.

18

An Exploratory Study of Radical Mindfulness Training with Severely Economically Disadvantaged People: Findings of a Canadian Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a two-phased research project that piloted a modified mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention developed specifically for a severely economically disadvantaged population. The terms severely economically disadvantaged (SED) and “severely marginalised” were used to describe the participants who experience socioeconomic disadvantage and social isolation as well as significant medical, psychological, physical, and learning challenges. Phase one of the

Steven F. Hick; Charles Furlotte

2010-01-01

19

Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED) population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: The primary prevention element

Christopher Harkins; Rebecca Shaw; Michelle Gillies; Heather Sloan; Kate MacIntyre; Anne Scoular; Caroline Morrison; Fiona MacKay; Heather Cunningham; Paul Docherty; Paul MacIntyre; Iain N Findlay

2010-01-01

20

How Does Childhood Economic Disadvantage Lead to Crime?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study sought to examine the associations between indices of socio-economic deprivation in childhood and later involvement in crime. Method: Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study. In this project a cohort of 1,265 children born in Christchurch in 1977 have been studied from birth to age 21…

Fergusson, David; Swain-Campbell, Nicola; Horwood, John

2004-01-01

21

Addressing Summer Reading Setback among Economically Disadvantaged Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much research has established the contribution of summer reading setback to the reading achievement gap that is present between children from more and less economically advantaged families. Likewise, summer reading activity, or the lack of it, has been linked to summer setback. Finally, family socioeconomic status has been linked to the access…

Allington, Richard L.; McGill-Franzen, Anne; Camilli, Gregory; Williams, Lunetta; Graff, Jennifer; Zeig, Jacqueline; Zmach, Courtney; Nowak, Rhonda

2010-01-01

22

Addressing Summer Reading Setback Among Economically Disadvantaged Elementary Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research has established the contribution of summer reading setback to the reading achievement gap that is present between children from more and less economically advantaged families. Likewise, summer reading activity, or the lack of it, has been linked to summer setback. Finally, family socioeconomic status has been linked to the access children have to books in their homes and

Richard L. Allington; Anne McGill-Franzen; Gregory Camilli; Lunetta Williams; Jennifer Graff; Jacqueline Zeig; Courtney Zmach; Rhonda Nowak

2010-01-01

23

Parental Depression and Economic Disadvantage: The Role of Parenting in Associations with Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effects of parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and parenting behaviors in 180 children and adolescents of depressed parents (ages 9–15 years-old). Analyses revealed that while parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and disrupted parenting behaviors were related to children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms, disrupted parenting (e.g., intrusive, neglectful parenting) accounted for the association of parental depressive symptoms and economic disadvantage with children’s symptoms. This study provides evidence that disrupted parenting may be a common or shared process through which both parental depression and economic disadvantage are associated with children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. PMID:24244085

Watson, Kelly H.; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E.

2013-01-01

24

Families of Economically Disadvantaged Backgrounds and Children's School Performance: Challenges and Opportunities. Family Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that economic and social disadvantage experienced very early is more damaging than poverty experienced later in life. Asserts that poor children will perform better in school if the condition of their education and families is improved and questions whether the political will exists to change public policies to improve the circumstances of…

Lindjord, Denise

2001-01-01

25

WWC Quick Review of the Report "Addressing Summer Reading Setback among Economically Disadvantaged Elementary Students"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined whether providing summer reading books to economically disadvantaged first- and second-grade students for three consecutive summers improved reading achievement. The study analyzed data on about 1,300 students from 17 high-poverty elementary schools in two large districts in Florida. Student-level reading achievement was…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

2010-01-01

26

The Impact of an Economically Disadvantaged Student Population on School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between student poverty levels, defined by the number of students identified as economically disadvantaged by qualifying for free and reduced lunch and school climate. The literature review examined school climate and culture, effects of student socioeconomic (SES) status on education,…

Null, Curtis F.

2012-01-01

27

Predictors of Quality of Life in Economically Disadvantaged Populations in Montreal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most epidemiological studies agree that economically disadvantaged populations are the groups most vulnerable to mental health problems and report lower quality of life among these populations. However, it appears that access to social support plays a role in protecting against the chronic stress resulting from conditions such as poverty. This…

Caron, Jean

2012-01-01

28

Economic Disadvantage and Young Children's Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Mechanisms of Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home…

Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

2013-01-01

29

Predicting Parental Involvement in Children's Schooling within an Economically Disadvantaged African American Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Predictors of parental school involvement were examined within a sample of 159 economically disadvantaged, African American parents living in an urban setting. School involvement was defined in terms of parent activity within the school. Parent demographics, attitudes about education, and community engagement behaviors as well as parent…

Overstreet, Stacy; Devine, Joel; Bevans, Katherine; Efreom, Yael

2005-01-01

30

The Achievement of Economically Disadvantaged Fifth Graders in Summer Enrichment Camp  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The achievement gap between economically disadvantaged students and their traditional counterparts has continued to be a problem in education. Based on cognitive constructivist theory and enrichment theory, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between scores on a high-stakes achievement test and participation in a summer…

Boulden, Laurie

2013-01-01

31

Case Studies of Success: Supporting Academic Success for Students with High Potential from Ethnic Minority and Economically Disadvantaged Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The underrepresentation of ethnic minority and economically disadvantaged students in gifted education must be understood in terms of broader school contexts and practices. This qualitative study investigated how teachers and schools contributed to the academic success of minority students of high potential from economically disadvantaged

Tomlinson, Carol Ann; Jarvis, Jane M.

2014-01-01

32

Morbidity and Irish Catholic descent in Britain. Relating health disadvantage to socio-economic position.  

PubMed

In common with some other ethnic and religious minorities whose forebears migrated from their country of origin, Irish Catholics in Britain are less well off than the host population in terms of socio-economic position and health. Results are presented from a Scottish study, where Catholic religion of origin mainly indicates Irish ancestry, and it is estimated that about one-third of the population is of significant Irish descent. In this study, excess of physical and mental health problems and disability have previously been reported for those of Catholic background, particularly in the eldest cohort (aged 56 in 1988), and have not been fully explained by health-related behaviour. In this paper, we examine a number of key health measures, namely self-assessed health, number of symptoms in the month prior to interview, sadness or depression, disability and lung function, and various indicators of socio-economic position (head of household social class, main source of income, car ownership, housing tenure and school-leaving age), which all show Catholic disadvantage. Using longitudinal results from the 723 respondents who completed interviews both at sweeps one (1988) and three (1995), it is estimated that about half of the morbidity excess amongst middle-aged Catholics in Glasgow can be explained by socio-economic disadvantage. The health and socio-economic position of white minorities and disadvantaged religious minorities like Catholics in Scotland should be monitored by a co-ordinated information strategy. PMID:11266057

Abbotts, J; Williams, R; Ford, G

2001-04-01

33

Intelligence of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families: Role of Parental Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of parental education status on the intelligence of children from economically disadvantaged families was examined.\\u000a One-hundred school going children aged 4 to 8 years from low income families were divided into 3 groups based on the level\\u000a of their parental education. The main outcome measure was the intelligence of the child. Significant differences (p?

Manjit Sidhu; Prahbhjot Malhi; Jagat Jerath

2010-01-01

34

A Comparison of Affective Changes Between Economically Disadvantaged and Advantaged Sixth Graders at a Resident Outdoor Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining the differences in affective outcomes of economically advantaged and disadvantaged 6th grade students attending a 5-day residential outdoor education program in the Toledo Ohio Public Schools, pre- and post-tests were administered to randomly selected samples of 25 advantaged males and females and 25 disadvantaged males and females.…

Fletcher, Sarah Ann

35

34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false ...economically disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program? 403.114 Section 403.114...

2010-07-01

36

Longitudinal predictors of frequent vegetable and fruit consumption among socio-economically disadvantaged Australian adolescents.  

PubMed

Adequate vegetable and fruit consumption is necessary for preventing nutrition-related diseases. Socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume relatively few vegetables and fruits. However, despite nutritional challenges associated with socio-economic disadvantage, a minority of adolescents manage to eat vegetables and fruit in quantities that are more in line with dietary recommendations. This investigation aimed to identify predictors of more frequent intakes of fruits and vegetables among adolescents over a 2-year follow-up period. Data were drawn from 521 socio-economically disadvantaged (maternal education ?Year 10 of secondary school) Australian adolescents aged 12-15 years. Participants were recruited from 37 secondary schools and were asked to complete online surveys in 2004/2005 (baseline) and 2006/2007 (follow-up). Surveys comprised a 38-item FFQ and questions based on Social Ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental influences on diet. At baseline and follow-up, respectively, 29% and 24% of adolescents frequently consumed vegetables (?2 times/day); 33% and 36% frequently consumed fruit (?1 time/day). In multivariable logistic regressions, baseline consumption strongly predicted consumption at follow-up. Frequently being served vegetables at dinner predicted frequent vegetable consumption. Female sex, rarely purchasing food or drink from school vending machines, and usually being expected to eat all foods served predicted frequent fruit consumption. Findings suggest nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving eating behaviours among this at-risk population and should focus on younger adolescents, particularly boys; improving adolescent eating behaviours at school; and encouraging families to increase home availability of healthy foods and to implement meal time rules. PMID:24685764

Stephens, Lena D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

2014-07-01

37

Troubled Times, Troubled Relationships: How Economic Resources, Gender Beliefs, and Neighborhood Disadvantage Influence Intimate Partner Violence  

PubMed Central

We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV), and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N=1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mother’s reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age three, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women’s risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the race/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women’s economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV. PMID:23300198

Golden, Shelley D.; Perreira, Krista M.; Durrance, Christine Piette

2013-01-01

38

Troubled times, troubled relationships: how economic resources, gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence intimate partner violence.  

PubMed

We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N = 1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mothers' reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age 3, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women's risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women's economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV. PMID:23300198

Golden, Shelley D; Perreira, Krista M; Durrance, Christine Piette

2013-07-01

39

Marine protected areas: emerging economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental economics provides one perspective on managing multiple and alternative uses of marine areas. Recent work is identified to suggest substantive research that can better focus benefit-cost analyses on issues specific to marine protected areas. Issues discussed include: the conditions for limited use of an area, determinants of the size of a protected area including species diversity, whether access restrictions

Scott Farrow

1996-01-01

40

Urban area disadvantage and physical activity: a multilevel study in Melbourne, Australia  

PubMed Central

Objective: To estimate variation between small areas in the levels of walking, cycling, jogging, and swimming and overall physical activity and the importance of area level socioeconomic disadvantage in predicting physical activity participation. Methods: All census collector districts (CCDs) in the 20 innermost local government areas in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia, were identified and ranked by the percentage of low income households (<$400/week) living in the CCD. Fifty CCDs were randomly selected from the least, middle, and most disadvantaged septiles of the ranked CCDs and 2349 residents (58.7% participation rate) participated in a cross sectional postal survey about physical activity. Multilevel logistic regression (adjusted for extrabinomial variation) was used to estimate area level variation in walking, cycling, jogging, and swimming and in overall physical activity participation, and the importance of area level socioeconomic disadvantage in predicting physical activity participation. Results: There were significant variations between CCDs in all activities and in overall physical participation in age and sex adjusted models; however, after adjustment for individual SES (income, occupation, education) and area level socioeconomic disadvantage, significant differences remained only for walking (p = 0.004), cycling (p = 0.003), and swimming (p = 0.024). Living in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged areas was associated with a decreased likelihood of jogging and of having overall physical activity levels that were sufficiently active for health; these effects remained after adjustment for individual socioeconomic status (sufficiently active: OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.90 and jogging: OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.94). Conclusion: These research findings support the need to focus on improving local environments to increase physical activity participation. PMID:16234420

Kavanagh, A.; Goller, J.; King, T.; Jolley, D.; Crawford, D.; Turrell, G.

2005-01-01

41

Mobile Technologies & Socio-Economic Opportunities for Disadvantaged Women: A Study of Information Behavior in a Developing Nation Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been championed by the United Nations and others as one of the key media to open up socio-economic opportunities for disadvantaged populations. Studies lead us to believe that after being introduced to ICTs, users' information behavior changes, enabling them to benefit from socio-economic

Potnis, Devendra Dilip

2010-01-01

42

Incredible Years Parent Training Support for Nursery Staff Working within a Disadvantaged Flying Start Area in Wales: A Feasibility Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parenting programmes are effective interventions for preventing and treating conduct problems in young children. Up to 20% of children in disadvantaged areas have conduct disorder. Recent government initiatives such as targeting early years services to designated disadvantaged Flying Start areas in Wales have resulted in increased nursery-care…

Bywater, Tracey Jane; Hutchings, Judith Mary; Gridley, Nicole; Jones, Karen

2011-01-01

43

Planning for empowerment in health promotion with socio-economically disadvantaged communities: Experiences with a small group approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socio-economically disadvantaged people seldom have influence on the decision making processes which affect their health. Health promo- tion interventions targeted towards these groups should therefore involve a process of empowerment, enabling these persons to increase control over the determinants of their health and to participate in actions that create a health-facilitating social environment. The present study examines the possibilities to

Van den Broucke; Hennion W; Vernaillen N

44

Core Attributes of Giftedness: A Foundation for Recognizing the Gifted Potential of Minority and Economically Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report explores the characteristics of giftedness in minority, language minority, and economically disadvantaged student populations and ways to assess giftedness in these populations. A qualitative content analysis is used to analyze gifted literature to determine characteristics of gifted children in general (n=262) and characteristics of…

Frasier, Mary M.; And Others

45

Growing up as "Man of the House": Adultification and Transition into Adulthood for Young Men in Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field…

Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

2014-01-01

46

Personal, social and environmental correlates of resilience to physical inactivity among women from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

While sex and socio-economic disparities in physical activity have been well documented, not all disadvantaged women are inactive. This study aimed to examine correlates of achieving recommended levels of physical activity among women of low socio-economic position. In 2005, a population-based sample of 291 women with low educational attainment provided survey data on leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Participants reported

Verity J. Cleland; Kylie Ball; Jo Salmon; Anna F. Timperio; David A. Crawford

2008-01-01

47

Health care workers' knowledge, attitudes and practices on tobacco use in economically disadvantaged dominican republic communities.  

PubMed

Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR) where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW) interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153) in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted with anonymous surveys. Approximately 70% (N = 107) completed the primary outcome item, asking about tobacco use at each encounter. Despite >85% strongly agreeing that they should ask about tobacco use at each encounter, only 48.6% reported doing so. While most (94.39%) strongly agreed that smoking is harmful, knowledge of specific health consequences varied from 98.13% for lung cancer to 41.12% for otitis media. Few received training in tobacco intervention (38.32%). Exploratory analyses revealed that always asking even if patients are healthy, strongly agreeing that tobacco causes cardiac disease, and always advising smoke-free homes were associated with always asking. Overall, results demonstrate a disconnect between HCW belief and practice. Though most agreed that always asking about tobacco was important, fewer than half did so. Gaps in HCW knowledge and practices suggest a need for education and policy/infrastructure support. To our knowledge, this is the first reported survey of DR HCWs regarding tobacco, and provides a foundation for future tobacco control in the DR. PMID:25872018

Prucha, Michael G; Fisher, Susan G; McIntosh, Scott; Grable, John C; Holderness, Heather; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; de Monegro, Zahíra Quiñones; Sánchez, José Javier; Bautista, Arisleyda; Díaz, Sergio; Ossip, Deborah J

2015-01-01

48

Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to provide greater access and support to academically talented students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Originally intended to provide financial support to lower income students, this NSF program also advocated that additional professional development and advising would be strategies to increase undergraduate persistence to graduation. This innovative program for economically disadvantaged students was extended in 2004 to include students from other disciplines including the physical and life sciences as well as the technology fields, and the new name of the program was Scholarships for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (S-STEM). The implementation of these two programs in Louisiana State University (LSU) has shown significant and measurable success since 2000, making LSU a Model University in providing support to economically disadvantaged students within the STEM disciplines. The achievement of these programs is evidenced by the graduation rates of its participants. This report provides details on the educational model employed through the CSEMS/S-STEM projects at LSU and provides a path to success for increasing student retention rates in STEM disciplines. While the LSU's experience is presented as a case study, the potential relevance of this innovative mentoring program in conjunction with the financial support system is discussed in detail.

Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

2012-10-01

49

Economically Disadvantaged Children’s Transitions Into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy  

PubMed Central

Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify family-based mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential school-based remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation of markers of economic disadvantage reduced math and reading testing gains across the primary grades. Such disparities were partially mediated by corresponding differences in children’s socioemotional problems, parenting stress, and parents’ human capital investments. These patterns appeared to be robust to observed and unobserved confounds. Various teacher qualifications and classroom practices were assessed as moderators of these family mediators, revealing teacher experience in grade level as a fairly consistent buffer against family-based risks for reading. PMID:20711417

Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.

2010-01-01

50

The social-emotional impact of instrumental music performance on economically disadvantaged South African students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent these findings hold true for disadvantaged students. The purpose of this study

Karendra Devroop

2012-01-01

51

Feasibility and validity of the structured attention module among economically disadvantaged preschool-age children.  

PubMed

Rooted in the theory of attention put forth by Mirsky, Anthony, Duncan, Ahearn, and Kellam (1991), the Structured Attention Module (SAM) is a developmentally sensitive, computer-based performance task designed specifically to assess sustained selective attention among 3- to 6-year-old children. The current study addressed the feasibility and validity of the SAM among 64 economically disadvantaged preschool-age children (mean age = 58 months; 55% female); a population known to be at risk for attention problems and adverse math performance outcomes. Feasibility was demonstrated by high completion rates and strong associations between SAM performance and age. Principal Factor Analysis with rotation produced robust support for a three-factor model (Accuracy, Speed, and Endurance) of SAM performance, which largely corresponded with existing theorized models of selective and sustained attention. Construct validity was evidenced by positive correlations between SAM Composite scores and all three SAM factors and IQ, and between SAM Accuracy and sequential memory. Value-added predictive validity was not confirmed through main effects of SAM on math performance above and beyond age and IQ; however, significant interactions by child sex were observed: Accuracy and Endurance both interacted with child sex to predict math performance. In both cases, the SAM factors predicted math performance more strongly for girls than for boys. There were no overall sex differences in SAM performance. In sum, the current findings suggest that interindividual variation in sustained selective attention, and potentially other aspects of attention and executive function, among young, high-risk children can be captured validly with developmentally sensitive measures. PMID:24564761

Bush, Hillary H; Eisenhower, Abbey; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Carter, Alice S

2015-01-01

52

Tobacco use in six economically disadvantaged communities in the Dominican Republic.  

PubMed

The Dominican Republic is a tobacco-growing country, and tobacco control efforts there have been virtually nonexistent. This study provides a first systematic surveillance of tobacco use in six economically disadvantaged Dominican Republic communities (two small urban, two peri-urban, two rural; half were tobacco growing). Approximately 175 households were randomly selected in each community (total N = 1,048), and an adult household member reported on household demographics and resources (e.g., electricity), tobacco use and health conditions of household members, and household policies on tobacco use. Poverty and unemployment were high in all communities, and significant gaps in access to basic resources such as electricity, running water, telephones/cell phones, and secondary education were present. Exposure to tobacco smoke was high, with 38.4% of households reporting at least one tobacco user, and 75.5% allowing smoking in the home. Overall, 22.5% reported using tobacco, with commercial cigarettes (58.0%) or self-rolled cigarettes (20.1%) the most commonly used types. Considerable variability in prevalence and type of use was found across communities. Overall, tobacco use was higher in males, illiterate groups, those aged 45 or older, rural dwellers, and tobacco-growing communities. Based on reported health conditions, tobacco attributable risks, and World Health Organization mortality data, it is estimated that at least 2,254 lives could potentially be saved each year in the Dominican Republic with tobacco cessation. Although it is expected that the reported prevalence of tobacco use and health conditions represent underestimates, these figures provide a starting point for understanding tobacco use and its prevalence in the Dominican Republic. PMID:18569759

Ossip-Klein, Deborah J; Fisher, Susan; Diaz, Sergio; Quiñones, Zahira; Sierra, Essie; Dozier, Ann; McIntosh, Scott; Guido, Joseph; Winters, Paul; Diaz, Omar; Armstrong, LaToya

2008-05-01

53

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN DEPARTMENT OF...ethnic origin, gender, disability, long-term residence in an environment...in the business world because of the...employment and business history, where applicable...shows disadvantage in entering into or...in the business world. (1)...

2011-10-01

54

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN DEPARTMENT OF...ethnic origin, gender, disability, long-term residence in an environment...in the business world because of the...employment and business history, where applicable...shows disadvantage in entering into or...in the business world. (1)...

2010-10-01

55

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN DEPARTMENT OF...ethnic origin, gender, disability, long-term residence in an environment...in the business world because of the...employment and business history, where applicable...shows disadvantage in entering into or...in the business world. (1)...

2014-10-01

56

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN DEPARTMENT OF...ethnic origin, gender, disability, long-term residence in an environment...in the business world because of the...employment and business history, where applicable...shows disadvantage in entering into or...in the business world. (1)...

2013-10-01

57

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN DEPARTMENT OF...ethnic origin, gender, disability, long-term residence in an environment...in the business world because of the...employment and business history, where applicable...shows disadvantage in entering into or...in the business world. (1)...

2012-10-01

58

Engaging Women Who Are Depressed and Economically Disadvantaged in Mental Health Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women disadvantaged by poverty, as well as racial or ethnic minority status, are more likely to experience depression than the rest of the U.S. population. At the same time, they are less likely to seek or remain in treatment for depression in traditional mental health settings. This article explores a therapeutic, psychosocial engagement strategy…

Grote, Nancy K.; Zuckoff, Allan; Swartz, Holly; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Geibel, Sharon

2007-01-01

59

Perceived quality and availability of fruit and vegetables are associated with perceptions of fruit and vegetable affordability among socio-economically disadvantaged women. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Williams LK, Thornton L, Crawford D, Ball K. Perceived quality and availability of fruit and vegetables are associated with perceptions of fruit and vegetable affordability among socio-economically disadvantaged women.

60

Environmental perceptions as mediators of the relationship between the objective built environment and walking among socio-economically disadvantaged women  

PubMed Central

Background Women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods are at increased risk for physical inactivity and associated health outcomes and are difficult to reach through personally tailored interventions. Targeting the built environment may be an effective strategy in this population subgroup. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating role of environmental perceptions in the relationship between the objective environment and walking for transportation/recreation among women from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Baseline data of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality (READI) study were used. In total, 4139 women (18–46 years) completed a postal survey assessing physical environmental perceptions (aesthetics, neighbourhood physical activity environment, personal safety, neighbourhood social cohesion), physical activity, and socio-demographics. Objectively-assessed data on street connectivity and density of destinations were collected using a Geographic Information System database and based on the objective z-scores, an objective destinations/connectivity score was calculated. This index was positively scored, with higher scores representing a more favourable environment. Two-level mixed models regression analyses were conducted and the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients test was used to examine the mediating effects. Results The destinations/connectivity score was positively associated with transport-related walking. The perceived physical activity environment mediated 6.1% of this positive association. The destinations/connectivity score was negatively associated with leisure-time walking. Negative perceptions of aesthetics, personal safety and social cohesion of the neighbourhood jointly mediated 24.1% of this negative association. Conclusion For women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, environmental perceptions were important mediators of the relationship between the objective built environment and walking. To increase both transport-related and leisure-time walking, it is necessary to improve both objective walkability-related characteristics (street connectivity and proximity of destinations), and perceptions of personal safety, favourable aesthetics and neighbourhood social cohesion. PMID:24050686

2013-01-01

61

Engaging women who are depressed and economically disadvantaged in mental health treatment.  

PubMed

Women disadvantaged by poverty, as well as racial or ethnic minority status, are more likely to experience depression than the rest of the U.S. population. At the same time, they are less likely to seek or remain in treatment for depression in traditional mental health settings. This article explores a therapeutic, psychosocial engagement strategy developed to address the barriers to treatment engagement and the application of this strategy to a special population--women of color and white women who are depressed and living on low incomes. The conceptual foundations of this intervention-ethnographic and motivational interviewing--as well as its key techniques and structure are reviewed. Finally, a case example description and promising pilot data demonstrate the usefulness of this strategy. PMID:18232240

Grote, Nancy K; Zuckoff, Allan; Swartz, Holly; Bledsoe, Sarah E; Geibel, Sharon

2007-10-01

62

Marine Protected Areas: Economic and Social Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a guide for citizens, scientists, resource managers, and policy makers, who are interested in understanding the economic and social value of marine protected areas (MPAs). We discuss the potential benefits and costs associated with MPAs as a means of illustrating the economic and social tradeoffs inherent in implementation decisions. In general, the effectiveness of a protected area

James N. Sanchirico; Kathryn A. Cochran; Peter M. Emerson

2002-01-01

63

Same Landscape, Different Lens: Variations in Young People's Socio-Economic Experiences and Perceptions in Their Disadvantaged Working-Class Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I compare socio-economic experiences and community perceptions expressed by socially and economically disadvantaged young people with those of university students living in the same post-industrial community. I consider markers of distinction among these young people in relation to their family and educational experiences. I also…

Brann-Barrett, Mary Tanya

2011-01-01

64

Identifying solutions to increase participation in physical activity interventions within a socio-economically disadvantaged community: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background There is an urgent need to increase population levels of physical activity, particularly amongst those who are socio-economically disadvantaged. Multiple factors influence physical activity behaviour but the generalisability of current evidence to such ‘hard-to-reach’ population subgroups is limited by difficulties in recruiting them into studies. Also, rigorous qualitative studies of lay perceptions and perceptions of community leaders about public health efforts to increase physical activity are sparse. We sought to explore, within a socio-economically disadvantaged community, residents’ and community leaders’ perceptions of physical activity (PA) interventions and issues regarding their implementation, in order to improve understanding of needs, expectations, and social/environmental factors relevant to future interventions. Methods Within an ongoing regeneration project (Connswater Community Greenway), in a socio-economically disadvantaged community in Belfast, we collaborated with a Community Development Agency to purposively sample leaders from public- and voluntary-sector community groups and residents. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 leaders. Residents (n?=?113), of both genders and a range of ages (14 to 86 years) participated in focus groups (n?=?14) in local facilities. Interviews and focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic framework. Results Three main themes were identified: awareness of PA interventions; factors contributing to intervention effectiveness; and barriers to participation in PA interventions. Participants reported awareness only of interventions in which they were involved directly, highlighting a need for better communications, both inter- and intra-sectoral, and with residents. Meaningful engagement of residents in planning/organisation, tailoring to local context, supporting volunteers, providing relevant resources and an ‘exit strategy’ were perceived as important factors related to intervention effectiveness. Negative attitudes such as apathy, disappointing experiences, information with no perceived personal relevance and limited access to facilities were barriers to people participating in interventions. Conclusions These findings illustrate the complexity of influences on a community’s participation in PA interventions and support a social-ecological approach to promoting PA. They highlight the need for cross-sector working, effective information exchange, involving residents in bottom-up planning and providing adequate financial and social support. An in-depth understanding of a target population’s perspectives is of key importance in translating PA behaviour change theories into practice. PMID:24886604

2014-01-01

65

A study of participatory action research as professional development for educators in areas of educational disadvantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the final analysis of a mixed methodological study of participatory action research (PAR) as professional development. The participants were administrators and teachers studying extreme educational disadvantage caused by homeless and transient living conditions. Two questions are answered: 1. What was the experience of educators with the PAR process?2. Why might PAR be a useful tool in addressing

E. Alana James

2006-01-01

66

Equitable Learning Outcomes: Supporting Economically and Culturally Disadvantaged Students in "Formative Learning Environments"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central and distinguishing thesis of social and cultural perspectives on outcome equity is that public school classrooms are culturally biased environments. Such environments disaffect children who arrive at school from the economic or cultural margin. The "formative learning environment" (FoLE) establishes and sustains legitimate…

Clark, Ian

2014-01-01

67

An Assessment of Cognitive Behavior of Economically Disadvantaged Young Adults in North Mississippi.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to determine the appropriateness of two conventional intelligence tests for assessing the ability of economically deprived young adults participating in job training programs by comparing their test results with those of the test standardization groups. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), and the Langmuir Oral Direction…

Wolfe, Lillian S.; And Others

68

Building Lectures and Building Bridges with Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is an empirical analysis of the first stage of an ongoing effort to introduce technology to enhance student learning in introductory corporate finance within a multi-campus and multi-mode regional Australian University. The engagement and performance of low socio-economic status (SES) students is of particular interest because…

Phillips, Peter; Loch, Birgit

2011-01-01

69

Economic disadvantage and transitional outcomes: a study of young people from low-income families in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

This study draws on data from focus groups involving 50 young people from low-income families in Hong Kong to investigate their school-to-work experiences. In line with the ecological–developmental perspective, our results show that contextual influences, including lower levels of parental involvement and lack of opportunities for further education or skill development, constrain both the formulation and pursuit of educational and career goals. In contrast, service use and supportive interactions with parents and non-family adults were found to help young people find a career direction and foster more adaptive transition. Furthermore, our results indicate a striking difference in intrapersonal agency and coping styles between youths who were attending further education or engaged in jobs with career advancement opportunities and those who were not. We discuss the implications of our findings, both for future research and for policy development to enhance the school-to-work transition of economically disadvantaged young people. PMID:25364087

Ngai, Steven Sek Yum; Cheung, Jacky Chau-Kiu; To, Siu-ming; Luan, Hui; Zhao, Ruiling

2014-01-01

70

Structural disadvantage and the concentration of environmental hazards in school areas: a research note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research shows that environmental hazards are disproportionately located in poor and minority communities, but most of these\\u000a studies examine the association between community demographics and the presence (and\\/or frequency) of one type of environmental\\u000a hazard at a time. The current study extends the prior research by examining the concentration of multiple forms of environmental\\u000a hazards and structural disadvantage of school

Carole Gibbs; Jennifer L. Melvin

2008-01-01

71

Early Intervention for Childhood Anxiety in a School Setting: Outcomes for an Economically Disadvantaged Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate a school-based early intervention program for the reduction of anxious symptoms in at-risk children from low socioeconomic status neighborhoods. Method: A total of 425 children (8-11 years old) from nine schools in low socioeconomic status areas were screened to identify children with high-level anxious symptoms. Ninety-one…

Mifsud, Cynthia; Rapee, Ronald M.

2005-01-01

72

Immigration, Economic Disadvantage, and HomicideA Community-level Analysis of Austin, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the effect of recent immigration on homicide rates across city of Austin, Texas census tracts is examined. Since 1980, Austin's recent immigrant population increased by more than 580% across the metropolitan area and it is now considered a “pre-emerging” immigrant gateway city to the United States. Therefore the changing population dynamics in Austin provide an excellent opportunity

Scott Akins; Rubén G. Rumbaut; Richard Stansfield

2009-01-01

73

Effects of service use, family social capital and school social capital on psychosocial development among economically disadvantaged secondary school students in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates factors conducive to the success of young people growing up with economic disadvantage. Previous studies often focused on the risks and difficulties experienced by this cohort of young people; however, little attempt has been made to examine factors that help them thrive or escape from adversity. It is with this consideration in mind that this study examines

Steven Sek-yum Ngai; Chau-kiu Cheung; Ngan-pun Ngai

2012-01-01

74

The medication Adherence and Blood Pressure Control (ABC) trial: A multi-site randomized controlled trial in a hypertensive, multi-cultural, economically disadvantaged population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Medication Adherence and BP Control Trial (ABC Trial) is a randomized, controlled, multi-site, medication adherence and blood pressure (BP) control trial in an economically disadvantaged and multi-cultural population of hypertensive patients followed in primary care practices. To date, no other such trial has been published in which objective measures of adherence (electronic pill bottles) were used to assess the

William Gerin; Jonathan N. Tobin; Joseph E. Schwartz; William Chaplin; Nina Rieckmann; Karina W. Davidson; Tanya M. Goyal; Juhee Jhalani; Andrea Cassells; Karina Feliz; Chamanara Khalida; Marleny Diaz-Gloster; Gbenga Ogedegbe

2007-01-01

75

The Healthy Toddlers Trial Protocol: An Intervention to Reduce Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity in Economically and Educationally Disadvantaged Populations  

PubMed Central

Background The number of overweight children in America has doubled to an estimated 10 million in the past 20 years. Establishing healthy dietary behaviors must begin early in childhood and include parents. The Healthy Toddlers intervention focuses on promoting healthy eating habits in 1- to 3-year-old children utilizing the Social Cognitive Theory and a learner-centered approach using Adult Learning principles. This Healthy Toddlers Trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial of an in-home intervention with economically and educationally disadvantaged mothers of toddlers. The intervention focuses on: (a) promoting healthy eating behaviors in toddlers while dietary habits are forming; and (b) providing initial evidence for the potential of Healthy Toddlers as a feasible intervention within existing community-based programs. Methods/Design This describes the study protocol for a randomized control trial, a multi-state project in Colorado, Michigan, and Wisconsin with economically and educationally disadvantaged mother-toddler dyads; toddlers are between 12 and 36 months. The Healthy Toddlers intervention consists of eight in-home lessons and four reinforcement telephone contacts, focusing on fruit, vegetable, and sweetened beverage consumption and parental behaviors, taught by paraprofessional instructors. Healthy Toddlers uses a randomized, experimental, short-term longitudinal design with intervention and control groups. In-home data collection (anthropometric measurements, feeding observations, questionnaires, 3-day dietary records) occurs at baseline, immediately following the intervention, and 6 months after the intervention. Main toddler outcomes include: a) increased fruit and vegetable consumption and decreased sweetened beverage consumption; and b) improved toddler-eating skills (self-feeding and self-serving). Main parent outcomes include: a) improved psychosocial attributes (knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, feeding style) related to child feeding; b) provision of a more positive mealtime physical environment (turning off the TV); and c) creation of a more positive mealtime social environment (sitting down together for meals). Discussion If this project is successful, the expected outcomes are that the intervention will be effective in helping toddlers develop healthy eating skills that contribute to improve overall health and development and to the prevention of obesity. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ACTRN12610000981022 PMID:21777452

2011-01-01

76

Molecular identification of human hookworm infections in economically disadvantaged communities in Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

Species identification of human hookworm infections among eight communities in rural areas of Peninsular Malaysia was determined during 2009-2011. Fecal samples were examined by microscopy and subsequently, the internal transcribed spacer 2 and 28S ribosomal RNA region of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp. were sequenced. Overall, 9.1% (58 of 634) were identified positive by microscopy for hookworm infection, and 47 (81.0%) of 58 were successfully amplified and sequenced. Sequence comparison found that N. americanus (87.2%) was the most predominant hookworm identified, followed by Ancylostoma ceylanicum (23.4%). No A. duodenale infection was detected in this study. Detection of A. ceylanicum in humans highlighted the zoonotic transmission among humans living near dogs. Thus, implementation of effective control measures for hookworm infections in future should seriously consider this zoonotic implication. PMID:22556084

Ngui, Romano; Ching, Lee Soo; Kai, Tan Tiong; Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Lim, Yvonne A L

2012-05-01

77

The Relationship between Residential Land Use Patterns and the Educational Outcomes of Economically Disadvantaged Students in Texas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disparate outcomes resulting from economic segregation in public primary schools have been the subject of much debate and litigation. Little research, however, examines whether negative outcomes may be exacerbated by inequities in the distribution of housing across metropolitan areas. This article explores connections between residential land use…

Van Zandt, Shannon; Wunneburger, Douglas F.

2011-01-01

78

A school-based strategy to assess children's environmental exposures and related health effects in economically disadvantaged urban neighborhoods.  

PubMed

The School Health Initiative: Environment, Learning, Disease (SHIELD) study is a novel school-based investigation of children's environmental health in economically disadvantaged urban neighborhoods of Minneapolis. This article describes the study design and summarizes lessons learned about recruiting and monitoring this historically understudied population. The SHIELD study focused on measuring children's exposures to multiple environmental stressors [volatile organic chemicals (VOCs), environmental tobacco smoke, allergens, bioaerosols, metals, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), phthalates] and exploring related effects on respiratory health (e.g., lung function) and learning outcomes (e.g., standardized test scores, academic achievement). It involved intensive exposure monitoring, including environmental measurements inside and outside the children's schools and inside their homes, personal measurements with passive dosimeters worn by the children, and biological marker measurements in blood and urine. The SHIELD participants comprised a stratified random sample of 153 "index" children and 51 of their siblings enrolled in grades 2-5 at two adjacent elementary schools. The Minneapolis Public Schools (MPS) assisted with identifying, contacting, recruiting, and monitoring this population, which traditionally is difficult to study because families/children are highly mobile, speak a diversity of languages, frequently do not have a telephone, endure economic hardships, often do not trust researchers, and have a spectrum of unconventional lifestyles and living arrangements. Using a school-based approach, the overall SHIELD enrollment (response) rate was 56.7%, with a wide disparity between English-speaking (41.7%) and non-English-speaking (71.0%) families/children. Most children remained involved in the study through both monitoring sessions and exhibited an acceptable degree of compliance with study protocols, including providing blood and urine samples. Results indicate that it is both practical and affordable to conduct probability-based exposure studies in this population, but that it is also important to improve our understanding of factors (e.g., cultural, economic, psychological, social) affecting the willingness of families/children to participate in such studies, with special emphasis on developing cost-effective recruitment methods. PMID:11138660

Sexton, K; Greaves, I A; Church, T R; Adgate, J L; Ramachandran, G; Tweedie, R L; Fredrickson, A; Geisser, M; Sikorski, M; Fischer, G; Jones, D; Ellringer, P

2000-01-01

79

Electronic Monitoring of Oral Therapies in Ethnically Diverse and Economically Disadvantaged Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Consequences of Low Adherence  

PubMed Central

Background To quantify adherence to oral therapies in ethnically diverse and economically disadvantaged patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using electronic medication monitoring, and to evaluate the clinical consequences of low adherence. Methods 107 patients with RA enrolled in a 2-year prospective cohort study agreed to have their oral RA drug therapy intake electronically monitored, with the Medication Events Monitoring System (MEMS®). Adherence to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and prednisone were determined as the percentage of days (or weeks for methotrexate) in which the patient took the correct dose as prescribed by the physician. Patient outcomes were assessed including the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ), the Disease Activity Index 28 (DAS28), quality of life and radiological damage using Sharp-van der Heijde scores. Results Adherence to the treatment regimen as determined by percent of correct doses was 64% for DMARDs and 70% for prednisone. Patients who had better mental health were statistically more likely to be adherent. Only 23 (21%) of the patients had an average adherence to DMARDs ? 80%. These patients showed significantly better disease activity scores across 2 years of follow-up than those who were less adherent (DAS28 3.3±1.3 vs. 4.1±1.2, p<0.02). Radiological scores were also worse in non-adherent patients at baseline and 12 months. Conclusions Only one fifth of the RA patients had an overall adherence of at least 80%. Less than two thirds of the prescribed DMARD doses were correctly taken. Adherent patients had lower disease activity and radiological damage scores across the 2 years of follow-up. PMID:23728826

Waimann, Christian A.; Marengo, Maria F.; de Achaval, Sofia; Cox, Vanessa L.; Garcia-Gonzalez, Araceli; Reveille, John D.; Richardson, Marsha N.; Almazor, Maria E. Suarez

2013-01-01

80

Examining Alternative Measures of Social Disadvantage Among Asian Americans: The Relevance of Economic Opportunity, Subjective Social Status, and Financial Strain for Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socioeconomic position is often operationalized as education, occupation, and income. However, these measures may not fully\\u000a capture the process of socioeconomic disadvantage that may be related to morbidity. Economic opportunity, subjective social\\u000a status, and financial strain may also place individuals at risk for poor health outcomes. Data come from the Asian subsample\\u000a of the 2003 National Latino and Asian American

A. B. de Castro; Gilbert C. Gee; David T. Takeuchi

2010-01-01

81

An Economic Analysis of the Iowa Rural Renewal Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economic trends in the 1960's in the Iowa rural renewal area, Appanoose and Monroe counties, show that the level of economic activity increased in the area but was clearly below the level for the state. Economic trends suggest that to provide economic opportunities in the area, by 1980, comparable to those available on the average to all residents…

1970

82

Types of Social Capital and Mental Disorder in Deprived Urban Areas: A Multilevel Study of 40 Disadvantaged London Neighbourhoods  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the extent to which individual and ecological-level cognitive and structural social capital are associated with common mental disorder (CMD), the role played by physical characteristics of the neighbourhood in moderating this association, and the longitudinal change of the association between ecological level cognitive and structural social capital and CMD. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of 40 disadvantaged London neighbourhoods. We used a contextual measure of the physical characteristics of each neighbourhood to examine how the neighbourhood moderates the association between types of social capital and mental disorder. We analysed the association between ecological-level measures of social capital and CMD longitudinally. Participants 4,214 adults aged 16-97 (44.4% men) were randomly selected from 40 disadvantaged London neighbourhoods. Main Outcome Measures General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Results Structural rather than cognitive social capital was significantly associated with CMD after controlling for socio-demographic variables. However, the two measures of structural social capital used, social networks and civic participation, were negatively and positively associated with CMD respectively. ‘Social networks’ was negatively associated with CMD at both the individual and ecological levels. This result was maintained when contextual aspects of the physical environment (neighbourhood incivilities) were introduced into the model, suggesting that ‘social networks’ was independent from characteristics of the physical environment. When ecological-level longitudinal analysis was conducted, ‘social networks’ was not statistically significant after controlling for individual-level social capital at follow up. Conclusions If we conceptually distinguish between cognitive and structural components as the quality and quantity of social capital respectively, the conclusion of this study is that the quantity rather than quality of social capital is important in relation to CMD at both the individual and ecological levels in disadvantaged urban areas. Thus, policy should support interventions that create and sustain social networks. One of these is explored in this article. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN68175121 http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN68175121 PMID:24312459

Bertotti, Marcello; Watts, Paul; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Yu, Ge; Schmidt, Elena; Tobi, Patrick; Lais, Shahana; Renton, Adrian

2013-01-01

83

The NASA Plan: To award eight percent of prime and subcontracts to socially and economically disadvantaged businesses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is NASA's intent to provide small disadvantaged businesses, including women-owned, historically black colleges and universities and minority education institutions the maximum practicable opportunity to receive a fair proportion of NASA prime and subcontracted awards. Annually, NASA will establish socioeconomic procurement goals including small disadvantaged business goals, with a target of reaching the eight percent level by the end of FY 1994. The NASA Associate Administrators, who are responsible for the programs at the various NASA Centers, will be held accountable for full implementation of the socioeconomic procurement plans. Various aspects of this plan, including its history, are discussed.

1990-01-01

84

INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO PREPARING HOME ECONOMICS LEADERS FOR EMERGING PROGRAMS SERVING DISADVANTAGED YOUTH AND ADULTS. FINAL REPORT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PROJECT AIMED TO PREPARE PROFESSIONAL LEADERS TO DEVELOP FUNCTIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS FOR PERSONS HANDICAPPED BY SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS DIFFERENCES. PHASE I, THE PROFESSIONAL LEADER'S RESPONSIBILITIES WERE ANALYZED ACCORDING TO WHAT HE IS CURRENTLY DOING AND WHAT HE SHOULD DO. SUPERVISORS AND LEADERS OF PROGRAMS FOR THE DISADVANTAGED RATED…

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Coll. of Agriculture.

85

Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to…

Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

2012-01-01

86

Updating the Process and Content of Teacher Education Curriculum to Research Disadvantaged Youth in Western Metropolitan Areas. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central purpose of this report is to help teachers, teacher educators, supervisors, and local directors to be more aware of the problems and needs of disadvantaged urban youth. Focus is directed toward existing teacher education programs to determine needed changes which will help teachers to better serve the education needs of disadvantaged

Haas, Mary Helen; Wood, Marcile

87

An Analysis of the Emerging Roles of the Paraprofessional School-Community Aide with Implications for Strategies of Social Change in Disadvantaged Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed the use of paraprofessionals as school-community workers (Community Counselors) by the Flint (Michigan) Community Schools. The purpose was to examine perceptions and expectations of this position in order to: organize a framework for the emerging role of the indigenous school-community worker in urban disadvantaged areas; make…

Hadden, Marise Alvena Tabor Bell

88

Incentives as connectors: insights into a breastfeeding incentive intervention in a disadvantaged area of North-West England  

PubMed Central

Background Incentive or reward schemes are becoming increasingly popular to motivate healthy lifestyle behaviours. In this paper, insights from a qualitative and descriptive study to investigate the uptake, impact and meanings of a breastfeeding incentive intervention integrated into an existing peer support programme (Star Buddies) are reported. The Star Buddies service employs breastfeeding peer supporters to support women across the ante-natal, intra-partum and post-partum period. Methods In a disadvantaged area of North West England, women initiating breastfeeding were recruited by peer supporters on the postnatal ward or soon after hospital discharge to participate in an 8 week incentive (gifts and vouchers) and breastfeeding peer supporter intervention. In-depth interviews were conducted with 26 women participants who engaged with the incentive intervention, and a focus group was held with the 4 community peer supporters who delivered the intervention. Descriptive analysis of routinely collected data for peer supporter contacts and breastfeeding outcomes before and after the incentive intervention triangulated and retrospectively provided the context for the qualitative thematic analysis. Results A global theme emerged of 'incentives as connectors', with two sub-themes of 'facilitating connections' and 'facilitating relationships and wellbeing'. The incentives were linked to discussion themes and gift giving facilitated peer supporter access for proactive weekly home visits to support women. Regular face to face contacts enabled meaningful relationships and new connections within and between the women, families, peer supporters and care providers to be formed and sustained. Participants in the incentive scheme received more home visits and total contact time with peer supporters compared to women before the incentive intervention. Full participation levels and breastfeeding rates at 6-8 weeks were similar for women before and after the incentive intervention. Conclusion The findings suggest that whilst the provision of incentives might not influence women's intentions or motivations to breastfeed, the connections forged provided psycho-social benefits for both programme users and peer supporters. PMID:22458841

2012-01-01

89

Public perception and economic implications of bottled water consumption in underprivileged urban areas.  

PubMed

This paper presents a comparative assessment of public perception of drinking water quality in two underprivileged urban areas in Lebanon and Jordan with nearly similar cultural and demographic characteristics. It compares the quality of bottled water to the quality of the drinking water supplied through the public network and examines the economic implications of bottled water consumption in the two study areas. Participants' perception of the quality of drinking water provided via the public network was generally negative, and bottled water was perceived to be of better quality in both areas, thus affecting drinking water preferences and consumption patterns. The results reveal that the quality of bottled water is questionable in areas that lack enforcement of water quality standards, thus adding to the burden of an already disadvantaged community. Both areas demonstrated a considerable cost incurred for purchasing bottled water in low income communities reaching up to 26 % of total income. PMID:22828978

Massoud, M A; Maroun, R; Abdelnabi, H; Jamali, I I; El-Fadel, M

2013-04-01

90

Gaps in the Digital Divide in Higher Education: Economically Disadvantaged Students and a Lack of Access and Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The digital divide between students who have access to and skills with information technology resources and those who do not is growing wider. This dissertation documents a quantitative study on the effect and relationship between age, gender, ethnicity and low economic status on students' access to computers and the Internet, as well as…

Chappell, Timothy P.

2012-01-01

91

It Doesn't Happen Here: Eating Disorders in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Economically Disadvantaged, Urban College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulk of eating disorder studies have focused on white, middle-upper class women, excluding ethnically and economically diverse women and men. Accordingly, our knowledge of prevalence rates and risk factors is reliant on this narrow literature. To expand upon the current literature, we examined eating disorders in ethnically diverse low-income, urban college students. We surveyed 884 incoming freshmen during an

Katie Gentile; Chitra Raghavan; Valli Rajah; Katie Gates

2007-01-01

92

METROPOLITAN REPORT Economic Indicators for the New Orleans Area  

E-print Network

METROPOLITAN REPORT Economic Indicators for the New Orleans Area Division of Business and Economic was down to 51% of what it had been before the storm hit. 216,900 jobs had been lost to bring-Katrina, and the area's population is at 75% of its former level. · The sectors that have regained or even surpassed

Kulp, Mark

93

METROPOLITAN REPORT Economic Indicators for the New Orleans Area  

E-print Network

METROPOLITAN REPORT Economic Indicators for the New Orleans Area Division of Business and Economic · The New Orleans metropolitan area has achieved significant recovery during the past five years. Despite%, respectively). Residential construction has slowed and is one of the lowest ranking indicators at 51% of pre

Kulp, Mark

94

METROPOLITAN REPORT Economic Indicators for the New Orleans Area  

E-print Network

METROPOLITAN REPORT Economic Indicators for the New Orleans Area Division of Business and Economic HIGHLIGHTS Just after Katrina, employment fell to 70% while population dropped by almost half to 51%. After six years, New Orleans employment stands at 87% of pre-Katrina jobs, while 90% of the area population

Kulp, Mark

95

The impact of socio-economic disadvantage on rates of hospital separations for diabetes-related foot disease in Victoria, Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Information describing variation in health outcomes for individuals with diabetes related foot disease, across socioeconomic strata is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate variation in rates of hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease and the relationship with levels of social advantage and disadvantage. Methods Using the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD) each local government area (LGA) across Victoria was ranked from most to least disadvantaged. Those LGAs ranked at the lowest end of the scale and therefore at greater disadvantage (Group D) were compared with those at the highest end of the scale (Group A), in terms of total and per capita hospital separations for peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, foot ulceration, cellulitis and osteomyelitis and amputation. Hospital separations data were compiled from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Database. Results Total and per capita separations were 2,268 (75.3/1,000 with diabetes) and 2,734 (62.3/1,000 with diabetes) for Group D and Group A respectively. Most notable variation was for foot ulceration (Group D, 18.1/1,000 versus Group A, 12.7/1,000, rate ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.3, 1.6) and below knee amputation (Group D 7.4/1,000 versus Group A 4.1/1,000, rate ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.5, 2.2). Males recorded a greater overall number of hospital separations across both socioeconomic strata with 66.2% of all separations for Group D and 81.0% of all separations for Group A recorded by males. However, when comparing mean age, males from Group D tended to be younger compared with males from Group A (mean age; 53.0 years versus 68.7 years). Conclusion Variation appears to exist for hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease across socioeconomic strata. Specific strategies should be incorporated into health policy and planning to combat disparities between health outcomes and social status. PMID:21682928

2011-01-01

96

CKD in disadvantaged populations.  

PubMed

The increased burden of CKD in disadvantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health-care disparities and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biologic predisposition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expansion of the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expansion of deceased-donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of WKD 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to ESRD, by increased community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities. PMID:25635713

Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Jha, Vivekanand

2015-02-01

97

Multiple Literacies and Social Transformation: A Case Study of Perceptions of Literacy Needs and Social Transformation By Service Providers of Low Skilled Disadvantaged Clients in an Outer Urban Area of Brisbane.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The different perceptions of literacy that inform the work of various groups working with disadvantaged groups within society were explored in a case study in which individuals providing services to low-skilled, disadvantaged clients in an outer urban area of Brisbane, Australia, were interviewed regarding their perceptions of their clients'…

Castleton, Geraldine; McDonald, Marya

98

Economic Valuation and Cultural Roles of Marine Protected Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation outlines the plans of the Conservation International - Marine Management Area Science (CI-MMAS), for undertaking economic valuation and investigation of socio-cultural roles of marine management areas and\\/or marine protected areas (MPAs) in four locations. While the ecological benefits of MPAs have largely been demonstrated, information on the value of MPAs from social and economic perspectives remains limited.? Yet

Giselle Samonte-Tan; Leah Bunce; John Reid

99

Self-reported depression is increasing among socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents – repeated cross-sectional surveys from Finland from 2000 to 2011  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescent depression is more common in lower socio-economic groups. Whether this pattern has changed over time, is not known. We examined the prevalence of self-reported depression and its changes in socio-economic groups from 2000 to 2011 among Finnish adolescents. Methods Data were based on classroom surveys every second year from 2000–2001 to 2010–2011 using nationwide samples of 14–16-year old Finns (n?=?618,084). Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires including questions on health, health behaviours, and school experiences. Depression was measured with a Finnish modification of the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory, and divided into no, mild, moderate and severe depression. The association between depression and the social background (parents’ education and employment) over time was studied using a multinomial regression analysis. Results The prevalence of self-reported severe depression slightly increased from 2000–2001 to 2010–2011 in girls. In boys a slight increase was observed when adjusting for background variables. The differences in the prevalence of depression between the social background groups persisted over the entire study period. In both sexes, severe depression nearly doubled among those adolescents whose parents were unemployed and had a low education level; among boys, the prevalence was 6.5% in 2000–2001 and 12.8% in 2010–2011, and among girls 6.4% and 11.4% respectively. Conclusion The largest increases in prevalence of severe depression are seen among socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents. This suggests that inequalities in mental health may become an increasing concern. PMID:24775269

2014-01-01

100

Economic Impacts of a Wide Area Release of Anthrax  

SciTech Connect

This analysis explores economic impacts that might result from a wide-area release of anthrax. The intent is not to provide a quantitative analysis of such a disaster, but to: 1. Define the general categories of economic impacts that the region should be concerned about; and, 2. Explore what types of private sector businesses or industries, if any, may have the greatest impact on speeding the economic recovery of the region.

Judd, Kathleen S.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.

2009-05-29

101

Can marine protected areas enhance both economic and biological situations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates impacts of the creation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), in both economic and biological perspectives. The economic indicator is defined as the sum of discounted benefits derived from exploitation of the resource in the fishery sector, assumed to be optimally managed. The biological indicator is taken as the stock density of the resource. The basic fishery model

Dominique Ami; Pierre Cartigny; Alain Rapaport

2005-01-01

102

Social and economic imbalances in the metropolitan area of Monterrey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes social and economic differences between Monterrey’s eight municipalities, including housing conditions and basic service provision, and how these changed between 1970 and 1990. It also describes the social and economic differences for 1990 between the 710 micro-areas into which Monterrey was divided, which allows a more precise and detailed picture of intra-urban inequalities. It also reveals the

Gustavo Garza

1996-01-01

103

Exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and associated health risks of socio-economically disadvantaged population in a "hot spot" in Camden, New Jersey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To address disparities in health risks associated with ambient air pollution for racial/ethnic minority groups, this study characterized personal and ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a suspected hot spot of air pollution - the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), and an urban reference community - the Copewood/Davis Streets (CDS) neighborhood in Camden, New Jersey. Both are minority-dominant, impoverished communities. We collected 24-h integrated personal air samples from 54 WFS residents and 53 CDS residents, with one sample on a weekday and one on a weekend day during the summer and winter seasons of 2004-2006. Ambient air samples from the center of each community were also collected simultaneously during personal air sampling. Toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (TEX) presented higher (p < 0.05) ambient levels in WFS than in CDS, particularly during weekdays. A stronger association between personal and ambient concentrations of MTBE and TEX was found in WFS than in CDS. Fourteen to forty-two percent of the variation in personal MTBE, hexane, benzene, and TEX was explained by local outdoor air pollution. These observations indicated that local sources impacted the community air pollution and personal exposure in WFS. The estimated cancer risks resulting from two locally emitted VOCs, benzene and ethylbenzene, and non-cancer neurological and respiratory effects resulting from hexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes exceeded the US EPA risk benchmarks in both communities. These findings emphasized the need to address disparity in health risks associated with ambient air pollution for the socio-economically disadvantaged groups. This study also demonstrated that air pollution hot spots similar to WFS can provide robust setting to investigate health effects of ambient air pollution.

Wu, Xiangmei (May); Fan, Zhihua (Tina); Zhu, Xianlei; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Weisel, Clifford P.; Lioy, Paul J.

2012-09-01

104

Exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and associated health risks of socio-economically disadvantaged population in a “hot spot” in Camden, New Jersey  

PubMed Central

To address disparities in health risks associated with ambient air pollution for racial/ethnic minority groups, this study characterized personal and ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a suspected hot spot of air pollution – the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), and an urban reference community – the Copewood/Davis Streets (CDS) neighborhood in Camden, New Jersey. Both are minority-dominant, impoverished communities. We collected 24-h integrated personal air samples from 54 WFS residents and 53 CDS residents, with one sample on a weekday and one on a weekend day during the summer and winter seasons of 2004–2006. Ambient air samples from the center of each community were also collected simultaneously during personal air sampling. Toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (TEX) presented higher (p < 0.05) ambient levels in WFS than in CDS, particularly during weekdays. A stronger association between personal and ambient concentrations of MTBE and TEX was found in WFS than in CDS. Fourteen to forty-two percent of the variation in personal MTBE, hexane, benzene, and TEX was explained by local outdoor air pollution. These observations indicated that local sources impacted the community air pollution and personal exposure in WFS. The estimated cancer risks resulting from two locally emitted VOCs, benzene and ethylbenzene, and non-cancer neurological and respiratory effects resulting from hexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes exceeded the US EPA risk benchmarks in both communities. These findings emphasized the need to address disparity in health risks associated with ambient air pollution for the socio-economically disadvantaged groups. This study also demonstrated that air pollution hot spots similar to WFS can provide robust setting to investigate health effects of ambient air pollution. PMID:25674036

Wu, Xiangmei (May); Fan, Zhihua (Tina); Zhu, Xianlei; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Weisel, Clifford P.; Lioy, Paul J.

2015-01-01

105

METROPOLITAN REPORT Economic Indicators for the New Orleans Area  

E-print Network

in the New Orleans area was 5.3%. This rate compared favorably to the unemployment rate for the US of 8 to be somewhat insulated during 2008 from the national economic downturn. · The February 2009 unemployment rate. With low levels of unemployment and the stimulus of the rebuilding effort, New Orleans has managed

Kulp, Mark

106

Micro Chart For Concept Area One. Economic Analysis Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multimedia course in economic analysis was developed and used in conjunction with the United States Naval Academy. (See ED 043 790 and ED 043 791 for the final reports of the project evaluation and development model.) This report covers the microsequencing developed for concept area one. It represents the initial segmentation of the macro…

Sterling Inst., Washington, DC. Educational Technology Center.

107

Economic Shocks and Public Health Protections in US Metropolitan Areas.  

PubMed

Objectives. We examined public health system responses to economic shocks using longitudinal observations of public health activities implemented in US metropolitan areas from 1998 to 2012. Methods. The National Longitudinal Survey of Public Health Systems collected data on the implementation of 20 core public health activities in a nationally representative cohort of 280 metropolitan areas in 1998, 2006, and 2012. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate how local economic shocks relate to the scope of activities implemented in communities, the mix of organizations performing them, and perceptions of the effectiveness of activities. Results. Public health activities fell by nearly 5% in the average community between 2006 and 2012, with the bottom quintile of communities losing nearly 25% of their activities. Local public health delivery fell most sharply among communities experiencing the largest increases in unemployment and the largest reductions in governmental public health spending. Conclusions. Federal resources and private sector contributions failed to avert reductions in local public health protections during the recession. New financing mechanisms may be necessary to ensure equitable public health protections during economic downturns. PMID:25689201

Mays, Glen P; Hogg, Rachel A

2015-04-01

108

Economic Shocks and Public Health Protections in US Metropolitan Areas  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined public health system responses to economic shocks using longitudinal observations of public health activities implemented in US metropolitan areas from 1998 to 2012. Methods. The National Longitudinal Survey of Public Health Systems collected data on the implementation of 20 core public health activities in a nationally representative cohort of 280 metropolitan areas in 1998, 2006, and 2012. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate how local economic shocks relate to the scope of activities implemented in communities, the mix of organizations performing them, and perceptions of the effectiveness of activities. Results. Public health activities fell by nearly 5% in the average community between 2006 and 2012, with the bottom quintile of communities losing nearly 25% of their activities. Local public health delivery fell most sharply among communities experiencing the largest increases in unemployment and the largest reductions in governmental public health spending. Conclusions. Federal resources and private sector contributions failed to avert reductions in local public health protections during the recession. New financing mechanisms may be necessary to ensure equitable public health protections during economic downturns. PMID:25689201

Hogg, Rachel A.

2015-01-01

109

Particulate matter in urban areas: health-based economic assessment.  

PubMed

The interest in the association between human health and air pollution has grown substantially in recent years. Based on epidemiological studies in several countries, there is conclusive evidence of a link between particulate air pollution and adverse health effects. Considering that particulate matter may be the most serious pollutant in urban areas and that pollution-related illness results in financial and non-financial welfare losses, the main objective of this study is to assess the economic benefits of reducing particulate air pollution in Lebanese urban areas. Accordingly, the extent and value of health benefits due to decreasing levels of particulate in the air are predicted. Health impacts are expressed in both physical and monetary terms for saved statistical lives, and productivity due to different types of morbidity endpoints. Finally, the study concludes with a range of policy options available to mitigate particulate air pollution in urban areas. PMID:10989923

El-Fadel, M; Massoud, M

2000-08-10

110

A Parent-Based Book-Reading Intervention for Disadvantaged Children with Language Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with delayed language skills, who were from a socio-economic area defined as disadvantaged, made significant improvements in language skills after their parents were trained in easily learned strategies, enabling them to make simple changes in the way they interacted with their children. The 36 children, mean age five years, were…

Colmar, Susan Hilary

2014-01-01

111

Insider participatory action research in disadvantaged post-industrial areasThe experiences of community members as they become Community Based Action Researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the authentic experience of those who live in a community categorized as disadvantaged as they enter into a radical action research process that entails them adopting a changed role while remaining community members and how they manage the tensions involved in this process. It explores, in their own words, the experience of these researchers as they encounter

Rhonda Braithwaite; Sarah Cockwill; Martin O’Neill; Deanne Rebane

2007-01-01

112

Decision-Making and Communication Patterns of Disadvantaged Farm Families in the North Carolina Coastal Plains Area. Technical Bulletin No. 245.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine the decisionmaking and communication patterns of disadvantaged farm families (DFF) and the linkage between interpersonal sources of information used by them and research-based information sources, a pilot study was conducted with the following focus questions: (1) Who are North Carolina's DFF and what are their characteristics? (2)…

White, Estelle E.; Boone, Edgar J.

113

Artificial Immune System for Multi-Area Economic Dispatch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents artificial immune system for solving multi-area economic dispatch (MAED) problem with tie line constraints considering transmission losses, multiple fuels, valve-point loading and prohibited operating zones. Artificial immune system is based on the clonal selection principle which implements adaptive cloning, hyper mutation, aging operator and tournament selection. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been verified on three different test systems, both small and large, involving varying degree of complexity. Compared with differential evolution, evolutionary programming and real-coded genetic algorithm, considering the quality of the solution obtained, the proposed algorithm seems to be a promising alternative approach for solving the MAED problems in practical power system.

De, Shankha Suvra; Hazra, Abhik; Basu, Mousumi

2013-09-01

114

Process evaluation for the FEeding Support Team (FEST) randomised controlled feasibility trial of proactive and reactive telephone support for breastfeeding women living in disadvantaged areas  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the feasibility, acceptability and fidelity of a feeding team intervention with an embedded randomised controlled trial of team-initiated (proactive) and woman-initiated (reactive) telephone support after hospital discharge. Design Participatory approach to the design and implementation of a pilot trial embedded within a before-and-after study, with mixed-method process evaluation. Setting A postnatal ward in Scotland. Sample Women initiating breast feeding and living in disadvantaged areas. Methods Quantitative data: telephone call log and workload diaries. Qualitative data: interviews with women (n=40) with follow-up (n=11) and staff (n=17); ward observations 2?weeks before and after the intervention; recorded telephone calls (n=16) and steering group meetings (n=9); trial case notes (n=69); open question in a telephone interview (n=372). The Framework approach to analysis was applied to mixed-method data. Main outcome measures Quantitative: telephone call characteristics (number, frequency, duration); workload activity. Qualitative: experiences and perspectives of women and staff. Results A median of eight proactive calls per woman (n=35) with a median duration of 5?min occurred in the 14?days following hospital discharge. Only one of 34 control women initiated a call to the feeding team, with women undervaluing their own needs compared to others, and breast feeding as a reason to call. Proactive calls providing continuity of care increased women's confidence and were highly valued. Data demonstrated intervention fidelity for woman-centred care; however, observing an entire breast feed was not well implemented due to short hospital stays, ward routines and staff–team–woman communication issues. Staff pragmatically recognised that dedicated feeding teams help meet women's breastfeeding support needs in the context of overstretched and variable postnatal services. Conclusions Implementing and integrating the FEeding Support Team (FEST) trial within routine postnatal care was feasible and acceptable to women and staff from a research and practice perspective and shows promise for addressing health inequalities. Trial registration ISRCTN27207603. The study protocol and final report is available on request. PMID:22535794

Craig, Leone; MacLennan, Graeme; Boyers, Dwayne; Vale, Luke

2012-01-01

115

Local decentralization and local economic growth: A cross-sectional examination of US metropolitan areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper builds on the growing empirical literature that explores the relationship between government structure and economic growth. It uses a new data set of 314 US metropolitan areas to examine the relationship between local decentralization and local economic growth. The results indicate a negative relationship between the central-city share of metro area population and economic growth and a positive

Dean Stansel

2005-01-01

116

ECONOMIC BASES AND POTENTIALS OF RURAL COMMUNITIES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AN ECONOMIC APPROACH TO RURALITY IS PRESENTED. THERE HAS BEEN A STEADY REDUCTION IN THE IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT. MANY RURAL AREAS ARE DISADVANTAGED. ECONOMIC DIFFICULTIES CONTRIBUTE TO OUTMIGRATION AND POPULATION LOSSES IN RURAL AREAS AND ARE REFLECTED IN HIGHER PERCAPITA COSTS FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENTAL EXPENDITURE. OUTMIGRATION HAS…

BACHMURA, F.T.; SOUTHERN, J.H.

117

The Effects of a School-Family-Community Partnership on the Academic Achievement, High School Graduation, and College Enrollment Rate of Economically Disadvantaged Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A school-family-community partnership to improve student achievement was examined at a comprehensive high school located in a low income urban community in Long Island City, New York. In this causal comparative analyses study, the researcher examines the effect of a school-family-community partnership on the educational outcomes of economically

Morgan, Yvette

2012-01-01

118

A Randomized Trial of a Diet and Exercise Intervention for Overweight and Obese Women from Economically Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: Sisters Taking Action for Real Success (STARS)  

PubMed Central

Background Lower socioeconomic status at both the individual and neighborhood level is associated with increased health risks. Weight loss can reduce this risk, but few high quality weight loss studies target this population. Objectives STARS tests a culturally-appropriate, group-based behavioral and social support intervention on body weight and waist circumference in women from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods. Design A stratified (by BMI) randomized trial. Randomization to group was generated by a random numbers table with allocation concealment by opaque envelopes. Methods Participants 25–50 years who had a BMI ? 25 kg/m2 and a waist circumference ? 88 cm were recruited from 18 census tracts in Columbia, SC with high rates of poverty between November 2008 and November 2010. All participants received a dietary and exercise counseling session. Intervention participants then receive 16 theoretically-based and tailored weekly group sessions followed by 8 weeks of telephone maintenance counseling. Control participants receive 16 weekly health education mailings. Measurements correspond to baseline, post-group intervention, and post-telephone counseling, and for intervention participants, after a 12-week no-contact period. Measurement staff was blinded to group assignment. Results Participants (N=155; n=80 intervention, n=75 minimal intervention control) were primarily African American (86.5%) and averaged 38.9 years with a mean BMI of 40.1 kg/m2 and waist circumference of 115.4 cm. Food insecurity was reported by 43% of participants. Summary STARS targets an underserved population with an innovative, tailored, and theoretically-grounded, group-based intervention followed by telephone maintenance. If effective, the approach has the potential to be feasible and cost-effective for community delivery. PMID:21864718

Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Granner, Michelle; Hutto, Brent

2011-01-01

119

Reconnecting Disadvantaged Young Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By several recent counts, the United States is home to 2 to 3 million youth age 16 through 24 who are out of school and out of work. Much has been written on disadvantaged youth, and government policy has gone through many incarnations, yet questions remain unanswered. Why are so many young people "disconnected," and what can public policy do…

Holzer, Harry; Edelman, Peter; Offner, Paul

2006-01-01

120

ENGLISH AND THE DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PART 1 OF THIS COLLECTION OF ARTICLES BY THE STAFF AND PARTICIPANTS OF AN NDEA SUMMER INSTITUTE IN ENGLISH FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH DESCRIBES ATTITUDES AND VIEWPOINTS ON THE PLACE OF ENGLISH IN THE DAILY LIVES OF STUDENTS AND CONTAINS ARTICLES ON "ENGLISH FOR WHAT" BY CHARLES WEINGARTNER, "ENGLISH TEACHING AND DROP-OUTS" AND "ENGLISH AND THE…

FAGAN, EDWARD R., ED.

121

Measuring the Determinants of Relative Economic Performance of Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the determinants of economic performance of 149 English rural Local Authority Districts (LADs). A Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) estimation procedure was employed to jointly determine the influence of a wide range of indicators representing economic, human, cultural and environmental capital, as well as less tangible or "soft"…

Agarwal, Sheela; Rahman, Sanzidur; Errington, Andrew

2009-01-01

122

METROPOLITAN REPORT Economic Indicators for the New Orleans Area  

E-print Network

at an average annual rate of 1.7%. After a slowdown in the fourth quarter of 2012, the US economic activity to reach a total of 534,000 jobs. As of the first quarter in 2013, the unemployment rate in the New of 2013, the US economic activity increased at annual rate of 2.5% and is expected to improve throughout

Kulp, Mark

123

Perceived quality and availability of fruit and vegetables are associated with perceptions of fruit and vegetable affordability among socio-economically disadvantaged women. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

124

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: West Virginia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

125

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: Ohio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

126

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: North Carolina  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

127

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: Kentucky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

128

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: Georgia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

129

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: Alabama  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

130

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: South Carolina  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

131

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: Mississippi  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

132

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: Tennessee  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

133

Research of Coastal Area Ecological Economic System Based on Stochastic Gradient Regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal area was defined as the conjunction of land and sea and it had very important ecological, economic and social value. Because the economy developed fast and demand of resource increased heavily, there were serious pressures on the ecological economic system of coastal area, such as large amount land-sourced pollutant and unreasonable fishing. The gross output value of fishery at

Guo Jialiang; Wang Hongli

2009-01-01

134

The Advantages and Disadvantages of  

E-print Network

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Electronic Health Records Electronic health records. Research has shown that the potential benefits of EHRs are tremendous. With electronic health records picked 6 articles that included recommendations, advantages, and disadvantages of electronic health

von der Heydt, Rüdiger

135

Disadvantaged populations in maternal health in China who and why?  

PubMed Central

Background China has made impressive progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for maternal and reproductive health, but ensuring that progress reaches all segments of the population remains a challenge for policy makers. The aim of this review is to map disadvantaged populations in terms of maternal health in China, and to explain the causes of these inequities to promote policy action. Methods We searched PUBMED, Popline, Proquest and WanFang and included primary studies conducted in mainland China. Experts were also contacted to identify additional studies. Disadvantaged populations in terms of MDG 5 and the reasons for this disadvantage explored by authors were identified and coded based on the conceptual framework developed by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Results In China, differences in maternal health service utilization and the maternal mortality ratio among different income groups, and among regions with different socio-economic development still exist, although these differences are narrowing. Groups with low levels of education and ethnic minorities utilize maternal health care less frequently and experience higher maternal mortality, although we could not determine whether these differences have changed in the last decade. Rural-to-urban migrants use maternal health care and contraception to a lower extent than permanent residents of cities, and differential maternal mortality shows a widening trend among these groups. Gender inequity also contributes to the disadvantaged position of women. Intermediary factors that explain these inequities include material circumstances such as long distances to health facilities for women living in remote areas, behavioral factors such as traditional beliefs that result in reduced care seeking among ethnic minorities, and health system determinants such as out-of-pocket payments posing financial barriers for the poor. Conclusions Inequity in maternal health continues to be an issue worthy of greater programmatic and monitoring efforts in China. PMID:23561030

Yuan, Beibei; Qian, Xu; Thomsen, Sarah

2013-01-01

136

Community College Accessibility to the Economically Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was made to determine the socioeconomic status of junior college students, to analyze certain characteristics of those in the poverty class, and to see which factors prevent so many of them from attending college. Representing both vocational and academic programs, a random sample of 315 Vancouver City College students answered a…

Jones, Gordon

137

An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations. Volume 2: Appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An economic assessment of short takeoff aircraft for short haul air transportation applications is presented. The economic viability and environmental compatibility of short takeoff aircraft service in high density areas were evaluated. The subjects discussed are: (1) aircraft configurations and performance, (2) airfield and terminal requirements, and (3) direct and indirect operating costs.

Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

1973-01-01

138

Profiles in Rural Economic Development: A Guidebook of Selected Successful Rural Area Initiatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook presents 64 profiles of successful economic development initiatives in the small towns and rural areas of 37 states. Intended for use by rural and small town leaders and rural economic development specialists, the guide provides ideas, encouragement, and an "insider perspective" on alternative rural development strategies. Each…

Thomas, Margaret G.

139

METROPOLITAN REPORT Economic Indicators for the New Orleans Area  

E-print Network

.5% but still compares favorably to the unemployment rate for the US of 9.4% in July 2009. · The steepest. · The July 2009 unemployment rate in the New Orleans area was 7.4%. This is a steep rise from last July's 4

Kulp, Mark

140

METROPOLITAN REPORT Economic Indicators for the New Orleans Area  

E-print Network

below). The nation's unemployment rate during the third quarter of 2010 was 9.6%, nearly double compared occupancy and room rates up substantially from similar months in 2009. · Employment in retail trade was up in the metro area, total taxable sales were down by 4.7% year-to-date. · Despite the cheap US dollar, the value

Kulp, Mark

141

School Libraries and Outcomes Based Education: A study of factors impacting on the development of school libraries with focus on disadvantaged areas in the Western Cape Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this Master's thesis was to examine different factors influencing the process of establishing and developing school libraries in relation to the implementation of a new outcome based curriculum, Curriculum 2005. The main focus was on under resourced areas and a field study was conducted in 1998 in the Western Cape Province during the first year of implementation.

Författare Cecilia Johansson

142

Chronic kidney disease in disadvantaged populations.  

PubMed

The increased burden of CKD in disadvantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to healthcare disparities and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biologic predisposition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expanding the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expanding both deceased donor transplant programs and the use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of WKD 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to ESRD, by increasing community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities. PMID:25395360

Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Jha, Vivekanand

2015-02-01

143

The Economic Impact of Johnson County Community College on the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, 1988-89.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to estimate the economic impact of Johnson County Community College (JCCC) on the Kansas City Metropolitan Area for 1988-89, the Ryan-New Jersey model was used to examine both direct and indirect economic influences of the college. Direct economic impact was assessed by examining institutional expenditures in the metropolitan area;…

Seybert, Jef

144

48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...a small disadvantaged business, unless the Contractor...Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Report...accomplished through using the Electronic Subcontracting Reporting...System's Small Disadvantaged Business Participation...

2012-10-01

145

48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a small disadvantaged business, unless the Contractor...Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Report...accomplished through using the Electronic Subcontracting Reporting...System's Small Disadvantaged Business Participation...

2013-10-01

146

48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...a small disadvantaged business, unless the Contractor...Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Report...accomplished through using the Electronic Subcontracting Reporting...System's Small Disadvantaged Business Participation...

2014-10-01

147

48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Small Disadvantaged Business Certification and Eligibility...Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Report...accomplished through using the Electronic Subcontracting Reporting...System's Small Disadvantaged Business Participation...

2010-10-01

148

48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...a small disadvantaged business, unless the Contractor...Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Report...accomplished through using the Electronic Subcontracting Reporting...System's Small Disadvantaged Business Participation...

2011-10-01

149

THE READING OF THE CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ASPECTS OF READING RELATED TO CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED ADULTS AND CHILDREN ARE SURVEYED. THE MAIN TOPICS OF DISCUSSION BASED ON RESEARCH AND LITERATURE ARE READING ABILITY OF DISADVANTAGED ADULTS, READING ABILITY OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN, CAUSES OF READING PROBLEMS AMONT THE DISADVANTAGED, READING INTERESTS, LIBRARY USE BY DISADVANTAGED ADULTS,…

MCCROSSAN, JOHN

150

13 CFR 123.600 - Are economic injury disaster loans under this subpart limited to the geographic areas contiguous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Economic Injury Disaster Loans as a Result of the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks § 123.600 Are economic injury disaster loans under this subpart limited to the geographic areas contiguous...

2010-01-01

151

The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth  

PubMed Central

Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response. This research examines the relationship between exposure to neighborhood stressors and salivary cortisol reactivity in a sample of 163 at-risk African American adolescents (average age 21; 50% female) living in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. More specifically, the relationship between neighborhood stressors and physiological stress, measured by baseline cortisol and cortisol reactivity is assessed. This research also examines several moderating pathways between exposure to neighborhood disadvantage and cortisol reactivity including substance use, high effort coping, psychological stress and social support. Results indicate that both individual and neighborhood-level factors influence adolescent cortisol. High effort coping and psychological stress were associated with cortisol in the sample, and exposure to neighborhood socio-economic disadvantage resulted in an atypical cortisol response. In addition, neighborhood disadvantage interacted with intra- and interpersonal factors to affect cortisol indirectly. Thus, living in disadvantaged neighborhoods may take a psychological and physiological toll on adolescents, and it also may exert synergistic effects through individual coping and vulnerabilities. PMID:23086016

Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

2012-01-01

152

Establishment of a Common European Economic Area as a Factor of Russia's Sustainable Growth  

E-print Network

The idea of integration between the European Union and Russia within a "Common European Economic Area " is now at the top of the agenda in the dialogue between the EU and Russia. This confirms the fact that the EU considers Russia as a strategic partner. What this Common European Economic Area (CEEA) could be remains largely to be defined. This paper aims to argue that the CEEA is not only a positive development for the economic growth of Russia, but that it is a condition for the country’s sustainable growth and productivity increase. The paper then discusses the options for defining the CEEA in the most relevant way for Russia and the main conditions for succeeding in this strategy.

Ivan Samson; Jel Classification E

153

The economic feasibility of small solar MED seawater desalination plants for remote arid areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to compare the economics of using solar energy to operate small multiple effect seawater distillation systems in remote areas with the conventional method of using fossil fuels. The particular multiple effect system used is an advanced horizontal tube, falling film system called “multiple effect stack”, MES, in which the pumping energy requirement is relatively

Ali M. El-Nashar

2001-01-01

154

An economical large area touch panel utilizing a compact optical configuration and linear optical sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economical large area touch panel was presented. Through a new type of optical path constituted by specially arranged mirrors and other optical devices, the one-dimensional imaging of an object on top of the touch panel surface can be captured by one-dimensional optical sensors such as CCD, CMOS or PSD and its position can be located. Simple optical structure, less

Zhang Song; Ma Jianshe; Zhou Qian; Guo Hongfend; Cheng Xuemin

2009-01-01

155

Economic integration and market structure: An empirical analysis of the Morocco-EU Free Trade Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research offers an empirical analysis of the economic effects on Morocco from implementing a Free Trade Area (FTA) with the European Union (EU) signed in 1996. Since the FTA translates largely into unilateral discriminatory tariff elimination against EU imports, there are concerns about the substantial negative fiscal implications while the welfare and employment effects of the FTA are not

Aziz Elbehri

1999-01-01

156

Protected areas in marine resource management: another look at the economics and research issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the research to date that relates to the economics of marine protected areas (MPAs). A special effort is made to examine the evidence on the benefits and costs of MPAs in terms of consumptive and nonconsumptive marine resource interests. General observations are made regarding the net effects of MPAs on these two stakeholder categories and the potential

David W. Carter

2003-01-01

157

Economic development, marine protected areas and gendered access to fishing resources in a Polynesian lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the potential socio-spatial impacts of a new series of marine protected areas (MPAs) on fishers in Moorea, French Polynesia. The establishment of the MPAs is contextualized within recent and historical processes of economic development and theories of women in development and gender, culture and development. Seventy adults from three neighborhoods in Moorea were interviewed. Analysis of the

Barbara Louise Endemaño Walker; Michael A. Robinson

2009-01-01

158

Polders, Deltas and Basins: Their Significance as Economic Areas for Regional Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article explains the possibilities for incorporating hydrological areas in regional planning. The explanation is based on theory and history. Purpose of the study is to explain that hydrological regions have potential to integrate different aspects of human activity while used in the planning process. Therefore, the paper gives a description of the theory of an economic region as a

Wojciech Szymalski

159

Poverty-Stricken Schools: What We Can Learn from the Rest of the World and from Successful Schools in Economically Disadvantaged Areas in the US  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses how much of the gap in learning between poverty-stricken students and advantaged students in the US is related to a lack of educational resources and poor teaching quality. It discusses how some school systems have been able to overcome the challenges of poverty and how high-quality teaching can alleviate the effects of…

Morgan, Hani

2012-01-01

160

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Puget Sound Area, Washington) Part 1. Volume 1 of 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Puget Sound Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Puget Sound Area includes Whatcom, Skagit, Snohomish, King, Pierce, Thurston, Mason, and Kitsap counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

161

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Puget Sound Area, Washington). Part 2. Volume 2 of 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Puget Sound Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Puget Sound Area includes Whatcom, Skagit, Snohomish, King, Pierce, Thurston, Mason, and Kitsap counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

162

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Puget Sound Area, Washington). Part 1. Volume 2 of 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Puget Sound Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Puget Sound Area includes Whatcom, Skagit, Snohomish, King, Pierce, Thurston, Mason, and Kitsap counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

163

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Puget Sound Area, Washington) Part 2. Volume 1 of 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Puget Sound Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Puget Sound Area includes Whatcom, Skagit, Snohomish, King, Pierce, Thurston, Mason, and Kitsap counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

164

The disadvantaged student at a liberal arts college  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fall of 1969, a program to expand educational opportunities (EEO) for economically disadvantaged students was initiated at Macalester College. During the first three years of the program, the percentage of non-white students at the College rose from 3% to approximately 15%.

Charles B. Johansson; Jack E. Rossmann

1974-01-01

165

Combating Educational Disadvantage through Early Years and Primary School Investment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1965, following a review of second-level education in Ireland, the report "Investment in Education" was published. While a concern with educational inequality and disadvantage pre-dates this report, it clearly identified the significant socio-economic disparities in educational participation at the time and emphasised an urgent need…

Frawley, Denise

2014-01-01

166

Against the Odds: Disadvantaged Students Who Succeed in School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report explores the factors and conditions that could help more students succeed at school despite challenging socio-economic backgrounds. It does this by studying resilient students and what sets them apart from their less successful peers. Understanding how educational systems can support disadvantaged students and help them "beat the odds"…

OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

2011-01-01

167

Transport and accessibility; the perspectives of disadvantaged groups and communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an ongoing piece of research, which aims to locate the role of transport in the lives of socially and\\/or economically disadvantaged individuals, groups and communities. From this position, the research explores the impacts of transport policy and of decisions relating to the provision of transport in the UK, in the broader context of people's quality of life..It

Karen Lucas; Roona Simpson

2000-01-01

168

The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response.…

Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

2013-01-01

169

The Early Childhood Education of Disadvantaged Children in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2010, the Chinese government has adopted a series of services and policies to provide early childhood education for disadvantaged children. The rapid economic development and urbanisation process since the mid-1980s have led to great changes in social structure and demographics in China. This creates new challenges for the education of…

Song, Zhanmei; Zhu, Jiaxiong; Xia, Zhuyun; Wu, Xin

2014-01-01

170

Virtues of SIN: Can Intensified Public Efforts Help Disadvantaged Immigrants?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The labor market integration of immigrants is a top political priority throughout the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Social and fiscal gains, as well as sustained future labor supply make governments search for effective policies to increase employment among the mostly disadvantaged. The author studies SIN,…

Aslund, Olof; Johansson, Per

2011-01-01

171

Trends in Educational Disadvantage in Dutch Primary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central question in this study is whether the language and math delays of the different socio-economic and ethnic minority groups targeted by Dutch educational disadvantage policy have diminished or not. Data are from the years 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2008. Information from a total of 90,000 pupils in Grades 2 and 8 was selected to represent the…

Driessen, Geert; Merry, Michael S.

2014-01-01

172

Does the Orphan Disadvantage “Spill Over?” An analysis of whether living in an area with a higher concentration of orphans is associated with children’s school enrollment in sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Despite considerable concern regarding the social consequences of sub-Saharan Africa’s high orphan prevalence, no research investigates how living in a community densely populated with orphans is more broadly associated with children’s—including nonorphans’—acquisition of human capital. OBJECTIVE We provide a new look at the implications of widespread orphanhood in sub-Saharan Africa by examining whether living in an area with a high concentration of orphans is associated with children’s likelihood of school enrollment. METHODS We use data from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and the Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey (MICS) to estimate multilevel logistic regression models to assess whether living in a setting with a higher concentration of orphans is associated with school enrollment among 383,010 children in 336 provinces in 34 sub-Saharan African countries. RESULTS Orphan concentration has a curvilinear association with children’s school enrollment in western and eastern Africa: the initially positive association becomes negative at higher levels. In central and southern Africa, orphan concentration has a positive linear association with children’s school enrollment. CONCLUSION In western and eastern Africa, the negative association between living in a setting more densely populated with orphans and children’s school enrollment provides suggestive evidence that the orphan disadvantage “spills over” in the communities most heavily affected. Conversely, in central and southern Africa, the positive association between living in a setting more densely populated with orphans and children’s school enrollment highlights the resiliency of these relatively wealthier communities with high levels of orphans. Although longitudinal research is needed to confirm these findings and clarify the underlying mechanisms, this study lays the groundwork for a new body of research aimed at understanding the broader social implications of widespread orphanhood in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24062628

Smith-Greenaway, Emily; Heckert, Jessica

2013-01-01

173

Instructional Resources for Disadvantaged Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Criteria and suggestions for the development and selection of instructional materials for culturally disadvantaged youth are discussed from the point of view of the textbook publisher. Materials should be educationally valid (any subject can be taught intellectually and honestly to a child), should teach fundamental concepts, and should suggest…

Smith, Richard W.

174

Demography of Disadvantage in Tennessee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this report, demography conceptualizes significant characteristics to serve as a basis for more intensive study, planning, and procedures focusing on the target group. A compilation of the latest reports available and primarily tabular in form, identifies and locates Tennessee's disadvantaged people, ranking the 95 counties on each of 8…

Jones, Lewis W., Comp.; And Others

175

Does living in a disadvantaged area mean fewer opportunities to purchase fresh fruit and vegetables in the area? Findings from the Brisbane food study. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

176

Evaluation of the Special Services for Disadvantaged Students (SSDS) Program: Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of a 1983 followup survey to assess the long-term impact of the federally-funded Special Services for Disadvantaged Students (SSDS) program are presented. Educationally or economically disadvantaged students who enrolled in the program during their freshman year, 1979-1980, were studied. Questionnaires investigated respondents'…

Coulson, John E.; Bradford, Clarence

177

Effect of neighborhood stigma on economic transactions.  

PubMed

The hypothesis of neighborhood stigma predicts that individuals who reside in areas known for high crime, poverty, disorder, and/or racial isolation embody the negative characteristics attributed to their communities and experience suspicion and mistrust in their interactions with strangers. This article provides an experimental test of whether neighborhood stigma affects individuals in one domain of social life: economic transactions. To evaluate the neighborhood stigma hypothesis, this study adopts an audit design in a locally organized, online classified market, using advertisements for used iPhones and randomly manipulating the neighborhood of the seller. The primary outcome under study is the number of responses generated by sellers from disadvantaged relative to advantaged neighborhoods. Advertisements from disadvantaged neighborhoods received significantly fewer responses than advertisements from advantaged neighborhoods. Results provide robust evidence that individuals from disadvantaged neighborhoods bear a stigma that influences their prospects in economic exchanges. The stigma is greater for advertisements originating from disadvantaged neighborhoods where the majority of residents are black. This evidence reveals that residence in a disadvantaged neighborhood not only affects individuals through mechanisms involving economic resources, institutional quality, and social networks but also affects residents through the perceptions of others. PMID:25848041

Besbris, Max; Faber, Jacob William; Rich, Peter; Sharkey, Patrick

2015-04-21

178

Chronic kidney disease in disadvantaged populations.  

PubMed

The increased burden of CKD in disadavantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health care disparities, and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biologic predisposition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expanding the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expanding deceased donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of WKD 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to ESRD, by increasing community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities. PMID:25525919

Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Jha, Vivekanand

2015-01-01

179

An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an economic and environmental study of short haul airline systems using short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft are presented. The STOL system characteristics were optimized for maximum patronage at a specified return on investment, while maintaining noise impact compatibility with the terminal area. Supporting studies of aircraft air pollution and hub airport congestion relief were also performed. The STOL concept specified for this study was an Augmentor Wing turbofan aircraft having a field length capability of 2,000 ft. and an effective perceived noise level of 95 EPNdB at 500 ft. sideline distance. An economic and environmental assessment of the defined STOL system and a summary of the methodology, STOL system characteristics and arena characteristics are provided.

Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

1974-01-01

180

Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twelfth edition of this classic text has built upon the success of previous editions and has been thoroughly updated and revised to give students a deeper understanding and appreciation of the core principles of Economics. Suitable for beginners, Economics is accessible but has a rigour that will stretch readers to achieve their full potential. In-depth explanations of key theoretical

Richard G. Lipsey; Gordon R. Sparks; Peter O. Steiner

1979-01-01

181

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

Online-Offline, 1998

1998-01-01

182

Economic Planning for Multicounty Rural Areas: Application of a Linear Programming Model in Northwest Arkansas. Technical Bulletin No. 1653.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Planners in multicounty rural areas can use the Rural Development, Activity Analysis Planning (RDAAP) model to try to influence the optimal growth of their areas among different general economic goals. The model implies that best industries for rural areas have: high proportion of imported inputs; low transportation costs; high value added/output…

Williams, Daniel G.

183

California High-Speed Rail and Economic Development: Station-Area Market Profiles and Public Policy Responses  

E-print Network

1 California High-Speed Rail and Economic Development: Station-Area Market Profiles and Public;2 Abstract Investment in California's proposed High-Speed Rail (HSR) system has been justified partly-Speed Rail (HSR) systems as an economic stimulus. Following the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA

Kammen, Daniel M.

184

A contribution to the development of an economic atlas of the Houston Area Test Site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An outine description of the Houston Area Test Site was prepared, in the form of an atlas-catalog of Universal Transverse Mercator grid coordinate locations, building on the manufacturing sector and expanding along agreed lines as far as possible. It was concluded that (1) the effort expended in securing and verifying the locations of larger manufacturing plants yielded 5,000-plus usable entries, in addition to certain valuable conclusions about the general feasibility of obtaining ground information by economic sector; (2) on the basis of the number and the quality of the usable entries obtained, the resources expended on nonmanufacturing sectors and on historical data cannot be wholly justified; and (3) even without the 5,000-odd locations of completely satisfactory quality, the relatively modest cost of this pilot study secured enough data to provide a sound basis for obtaining feasibly and systematically some appropriate ground information on almost any economic or social activity, together with some indication of their relative areal and economic significance.

1972-01-01

185

75 FR 71045 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Western Regulatory Area...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska...SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in the...

2010-11-22

186

[Spatial coupling characteristics of eco-environment quality and economic poverty in Lüliang area].  

PubMed

It is one of the important strategies during the poverty alleviation to maintain a basic balance between the eco-environment and economic development in poor areas. Taking the whole 20 counties in Lüliang national contiguous special poverty-stricken areas and the surrounding 36 counties as multi-type and multi-scale typical study areas, the relationship between eco-environment quality and poverty in the poverty-stricken areas was explored in this paper. Firstly, the region's ecological poverty index system was systematically built, and by integrated use of the subjective and objective weighting method, the ecological environment quality was evaluated in the perspective of natural environment. Then, the coupling coordination degree was calculated by coupling the ecological environment quality index and the average disposable income. Finally, the spatial variation was analyzed in detail respectively at provincial, city and county scales. Results showed that as a whole, the spatial autocorrelation coefficient of coupling coordination degree was relatively higher in the study area, and the coupling coordination degree in the eastern part was higher than that in the western part; the whole coupling coordination degree in Shanxi Province was slightly higher than in Shaanxi Province; the national poverty counties presented a state of recession, and their coordinated development degrees were far lower than that of non-national poverty counties. PMID:25223029

Li, Jing-Yi; Wang, Yan-Hui

2014-06-01

187

Child Participation and Family Engagement with Early Childhood Education and Care Services in Disadvantaged Australian Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To support national policy initiatives in early childhood education and to determine reasons for low enrolment in services from families in disadvantaged areas, the authors investigated the views and practices of 101 families from disadvantaged communities. Families with a child aged 3-5 years were recruited from urban, rural and remote areas of…

Grace, Rebekah; Bowes, Jennifer; Elcombe, Emma

2014-01-01

188

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

189

Health impacts and economic losses assessment of the 2013 severe haze event in Beijing area.  

PubMed

Haze is a serious air pollution problem in China, especially in Beijing and surrounding areas, affecting visibility, public health and regional climate. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was used to simulate PM2.5 (particulate matters with aerodynamic diameter ?2.5?m) concentrations during the 2013 severe haze event in Beijing, and health impacts and health-related economic losses were calculated based on model results. Compared with surface monitoring data, the model results reflected pollution concentrations accurately (correlation coefficients between simulated and measured PM2.5 were 0.7, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 in Beijing, Tianjin, Xianghe and Xinglong stations, respectively). Health impacts assessments show that the PM2.5 concentrations in January might cause 690 (95% confidence interval (CI): (490, 890)) premature deaths, 45,350 (95% CI: (21,640, 57,860)) acute bronchitis and 23,720 (95% CI: (17,090, 29,710)) asthma cases in Beijing area. Results of the economic losses assessments suggest that the haze in January 2013 might lead to 253.8 (95% CI: (170.2, 331.2)) million US$ losses, accounting for 0.08% (95% CI: (0.05%, 0.1%)) of the total 2013 annual gross domestic product (GDP) of Beijing. PMID:25585158

Gao, Meng; Guttikunda, Sarath K; Carmichael, Gregory R; Wang, Yuesi; Liu, Zirui; Stanier, Charles O; Saide, Pablo E; Yu, Man

2015-04-01

190

Music Education and the Educationally Disadvantaged Gifted Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a literature review comparing the characteristics and needs of the average gifted child with the disadvantaged gifted child in four areas: (1) cognitive; (2) affective; (3) psycho-motor; and (4) special aptitudes. Numbered items indicate those comparisons that may be contrasted directly between the two groups. All other items are…

Buchanan, Janice Chapin

191

A Study of Four Library Programs for Disadvantaged Persons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a study of four projects in New York City which were established with federal grants to offer library service to the disadvantaged in the area. The four programs studied are the Preschool Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the Community Coordinator Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the North Manhattan Project of the New York…

Winsor, Charlotte B.; Burrows, Lodema

192

Perspectives in the Education of Disadvantaged Children; A Multidisciplinary Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of original papers presents an interdisciplinary approach to the education of disadvantaged children. The volume, prepared especially for preservice and inservice teachers, is divided into three sections--poverty and its effects, the children of poverty, and educational implications. The first two parts deal with such areas as…

Cowles, Milly, Ed.

193

Barriers to Healthier Eating in a Disadvantaged Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The research objective was to identify how healthy eating was understood in a disadvantaged community and how barriers to healthy eating might be overcome. Design: Participatory action research. Setting: Communities in Gurnos, Merthyr Tydfil, one of the most deprived areas in the UK. Method: Trainees on a participative methods course…

O'Neill, Martin; Rebane, Deanne; Lester, Carolyn

2004-01-01

194

Economic Insights into Providing Access to Improved Groundwater Sources in Remote, Low-Resource Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is often the most or only feasible drinking water source in remote, low-resource areas. Yet the economics of its development have not been systematically outlined. We applied CBARWI (Cost-Benefit Analysis for Remote Water Improvements), a recently developed Decision Support System, to investigate the economic, physical and management factors related to the costs and benefits of non-networked groundwater supply in remote areas. Synthetic profiles of community water services (n = 17,962), defined across 14 parameters' values and ranges relevant to remote areas, were imputed into the decision framework, and the parameter effects on economic outcomes were investigated through regression analysis (Table 1). Several approaches were included for financing the improvements, after Abramson et al, 2011: willingness-to -pay (WTP), -borrow (WTB) and -work (WTW) in community irrigation (';water-for-work'). We found that low-cost groundwater development approaches are almost 7 times more cost-effective than conventional boreholes fitted with handpumps. The costs of electric, submersible borehole pumps are comparable only when providing expanded water supplies, and off-grid communities pay significantly more for such expansions. In our model, new source construction is less cost-effective than improvement of existing wells, but necessary for expanding access to isolated households. The financing approach significantly impacts the feasibility of demand-driven cost recovery; in our investigation, benefit exceeds cost in 16, 32 and 48% of water service configurations financed by WTP, WTB and WTW, respectively. Regressions of total cost (R2 = 0.723) and net benefit under WTW (R2 = 0.829) along with analysis of output distributions indicate that parameters determining the profitability of irrigation are different from those determining costs and other measures of net benefit. These findings suggest that the cost-benefit outcomes associated with groundwater-based water supply improvements vary considerably by many parameters. Thus, a wide variety of factors should be included to inform water development strategies. Abramson, A. et al (2011), Willingness to pay, borrow and work for water service improvements in developing countries, Water Resour Res, 47Table 1: Descriptions, investigated values and regression coefficients of parameters included in our analysis. Rank of standardized ? indicates relative importance. Regression dependent variables are in [($ household-1) y-1]. * Parameters relevant to water-for-work program only.† p <.0001‡ p <.05

Abramson, A.; Lazarovitch, N.; Adar, E.

2013-12-01

195

75 FR 3180 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543 AGENCY...assignments for the 2010 A season Atka mackerel fishery in harvest limit area (HLA...trawl gear for directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the HLA are required to register...

2010-01-20

196

75 FR 49422 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543 AGENCY...assignments for the 2010 B season Atka mackerel fishery in harvest limit area (HLA...trawl gear for directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the HLA are required to register...

2010-08-13

197

Tourism routes as a tool for the economic development of rural areas—vibrant hope or impossible dream?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both eulogised and reviled as a development option, rural tourism is increasingly viewed as a panacea, increasing the economic viability of marginalised areas, stimulating social regeneration and improving the living conditions of rural communities. Less developed countries, afflicted by debilitating rural poverty, have considerable potential in attracting tourists in search of new, authentic experiences in areas of unexploited natural and

Jenny Briedenhann; Eugenia Wickens

2004-01-01

198

An evolutionary perspective on leaf economics: phylogenetics of leaf mass per area in vascular plants  

PubMed Central

In plant leaves, resource use follows a trade-off between rapid resource capture and conservative storage. This “worldwide leaf economics spectrum” consists of a suite of intercorrelated leaf traits, among which leaf mass per area, LMA, is one of the most fundamental as it indicates the cost of leaf construction and light-interception borne by plants. We conducted a broad-scale analysis of the evolutionary history of LMA across a large dataset of 5401 vascular plant species. The phylogenetic signal in LMA displayed low but significant conservatism, that is, leaf economics tended to be more similar among close relatives than expected by chance alone. Models of trait evolution indicated that LMA evolved under weak stabilizing selection. Moreover, results suggest that different optimal phenotypes evolved among large clades within which extremes tended to be selected against. Conservatism in LMA was strongly related to growth form, as were selection intensity and phenotypic evolutionary rates: woody plants showed higher conservatism in relation to stronger stabilizing selection and lower evolutionary rates compared to herbaceous taxa. The evolutionary history of LMA thus paints different evolutionary trajectories of vascular plant species across clades, revealing the coordination of leaf trait evolution with growth forms in response to varying selection regimes. PMID:25165520

Flores, Olivier; Garnier, Eric; Wright, Ian J; Reich, Peter B; Pierce, Simon; Dìaz, Sandra; Pakeman, Robin J; Rusch, Graciela M; Bernard-Verdier, Maud; Testi, Baptiste; Bakker, Jan P; Bekker, Renée M; Cerabolini, Bruno E L; Ceriani, Roberta M; Cornu, Guillaume; Cruz, Pablo; Delcamp, Matthieu; Dolezal, Jiri; Eriksson, Ove; Fayolle, Adeline; Freitas, Helena; Golodets, Carly; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Hodgson, John G; Brusa, Guido; Kleyer, Michael; Kunzmann, Dieter; Lavorel, Sandra; Papanastasis, Vasilios P; Pérez-Harguindeguy, Natalia; Vendramini, Fernanda; Weiher, Evan

2014-01-01

199

GIS: Geographic Information System An application for socio-economical data collection for rural area  

E-print Network

The country India follows the planning through planning commission. This is on the basis of information collected by traditional, tedious and manual method which is too slow to sustain. Now we are in the age of 21th century. We have seen in last few decades that the progress of information technology with leaps and bounds, which have completely changed the way of life in the developed nations. While internet has changed the established working practice and opened new vistas and provided a platform to connect, this gives the opportunity for collaborative work space that goes beyond the global boundary. We are living in the global economy and India leading towards Liberalize Market Oriented Economy (LMOE). Considering this things, focusing on GIS, we proposed a system for collection of socio economic data and water resource management information of rural area via internet.

Nayak, S K; Kalyankar, N V

2010-01-01

200

Mechanisms Linking Socioeconomic Disadvantage and BMI in Smokers  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate a conceptual model of the psychosocial pathways linking socioeconomic status and body mass index (BMI) among smokers. Methods A latent variable modeling approach was used to evaluate the interrelationships among socioeconomic status, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, negative affect, and BMI among smokers recruited from the Houston metropolitan area (N = 424). Results A total of 42.4% of participants were obese, with the highest prevalence of obesity among Latinos followed by African Americans. Across all racial/ethnic groups, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, and negative affect functioned as pathways linking socioeconomic status and BMI. Conclusions Findings indicate the need for interventions that target obesity among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers and provide potential intervention targets for the prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:23985281

Kendzor, Darla E.; Businelle, Michael S.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Castro, Yessenia; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

2014-01-01

201

Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Winter Tourism: Challenges for Ski Area Operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing temperatures and snow scarce winter seasons pose a big challenge for the winter tourism industry. Changing natural snow reliability influences tourism demand and ski area operators are faced with an enhanced need of technical snow production. The goal of the present research work is to analyze the economic effects of technical snow production under future climate conditions. Snowmaking as an adaptation strategy to climate change impacts on the ski tourism industry is already taken into consideration in several studies from a scientific perspective concerning snowmaking potentials under future climate conditions and the impacts on ski season length (e.g. Scott et al. 2003; Scott & McBoyle 2007; Hennessy et al. 2008; Steiger 2010). A few studies considered economic aspects of technical snowmaking (e.g. Teich et al. 2007; Gonseth 2008). However, a detailed analysis of the costs and benefits of snowmaking under future climate and snow conditions based on sophisticated climate and snow models has not been carried out yet. The present study addresses the gap of knowledge concerning the economic profitability of prospective snowmaking requirements under future climate scenarios. We carry out a detailed cost-revenue analysis of snowmaking under current and future climate conditions for a case study site in Styria (Austria) using dynamic investment models. The starting point of all economic calculations is the daily demand for artificial snow that determines the requirements for additional snowmaking investments and additional operating costs. The demand for artificial snow is delivered by the snow cover model AMUNDSEN (see Strasser et al. 2011) and is driven by four climate scenarios. Apart from future climate conditions the profitability of snowmaking depends on changes in costs and visitor numbers. The results of a ski tourism demand model analyzing daily visitor numbers and their dependencies of prevailing weather conditions enter the cost-revenue analysis of snowmaking and enable the determination of the immediate benefits in terms of additional revenues of ski ticket sales. Furthermore, we conduct an econometric analysis of how snowmaking investments changed ski ticket prices in previous years, as the positive effects of snowmaking on snow reliability could be offset in the longer term by the effects of higher prices for skiing, possibly resulting in lower demand.

Damm, A.; Köberl, J.; Prettenthaler, F.; Töglhofer, C.

2012-04-01

202

[Family structures: social disadvantage of women].  

PubMed

A perspective on the family, based on scientific knowledge and on its appreciation as a unit for health care, is suggested. The contemporary family because of its independent links with society has lived and resisted the consequences of a series of economic, political, technological, cultural and ideological transformations. These forces act as influential forces in the family and it responds adopting new forms to temper to these new times. For these reasons, society at present is characterized by a plurality of family structures. As part of that diversity in families, at present, there are families: nuclear biological, nuclear in series, father or mother alone, extended, and those that share the same sexual orientation. The term family should be redefined to enclose all those types of cohabitation. Is imperative that support is given to families with the greatest social disadvantages such as those families made up of women alone as they are expected to continue growing in all societies both developed and underdeveloped. PMID:10343988

Irizarry Castro, A

1999-03-01

203

Take the money and run: Economic segregation in U.S. metropolitan areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared to racial segregation, economic segregation has received little attention in recent empirical literature. Yet a heated debate has arisen concerning Wilson's hypothesis (1987) that increasing economic segregation plays a role in the formation of urban ghettos. This paper presents a methodological critique of the measure of economic segregation used by Massey and Eggers (1990) and finds that it confounds

Paul A. Jargowsky

204

HANDBOOK, TEACHING SCIENCE TO EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DESCRIBED ARE PROCEDURES AND LABORATORY MATERIALS WHICH ARE OUTGROWTHS OF A RESEARCH PROJECT OF THE SOUTHEASTERN EDUCATION LABORATORY FOR THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE TO DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS IN GRADES 7, 8, AND 9. PART 1 DEALS WITH THE CRITERIA USED IN DEVELOPING PROCEDURES AND MATERIALS FOR USE WITH EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED. INCLUDED ARE (1) THE…

BINGHAM, N.E.; AND OTHERS

205

The Irish health disadvantage in England: contribution of structure and identity components of Irish ethnicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Irish people living in Britain face a significant health disadvantage when compared to the white British host population.Objectives. Using recent survey data, determine whether there is an ‘Irish health disadvantage’ independent of socio-economic factors and explore whether there is an Irish ethnic identity effect which operates on health.Design. Data from the Census 2001 Individual Licensed SARs was analysed using

Marie Clucas

2009-01-01

206

The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

207

A zero-sum economic game Walmart and KMart are each planning to build a store in an area with  

E-print Network

A zero-sum economic game Walmart and KMart are each planning to build a store in an area with three will choose Walmart. If shoppers have to choose between a nearby Walmart and a further away KMart, 90% will choose Walmart. If KMart is closer, 40% will still choose Walmart. Because it is too small, Walmart

Galvin, David

208

Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and ...

209

Assessing rural community resources for health care: The use of health services catchment area economic marketing studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relatively simple method for estimating the ability of rural communities to support health provider personnel services, the utilization of this tool is described and illustrated. Special aspects of the approach include: (1) its application on a systematic basis to an entire state, utilizing identified economic marketing areas and local determination of data; (2) the use of the finished product,

Beverley Davies Rowley; DeWitt C. Baldwin

1984-01-01

210

Economic Potential of CHP in Detroit Edison Service Area: the Customer Perspective  

SciTech Connect

DOE's mission under the Distributed Energy and Electricity Reliability (DEER) Program is to strengthen America's electric energy infrastructure and provide utilities and consumers with a greater array of energy-efficient technology choices for generating, transmitting, distributing, storing, and managing demand for electric power and thermal energy. DOE recognizes that distributed energy technologies can help accomplish this mission. Distributed energy (DE) technologies have received much attention for the potential energy savings and electric power reliability assurances that may be achieved by their widespread adoption. Fueling the attention has been the desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and concern about easing power transmission and distribution system capacity limitations and congestion. However, these benefits may come at a cost to the electric utility companies in terms of lost revenue and other potential impacts on the distribution system. It is important to assess the costs and benefits of DE to consumers and distribution system companies. DOE commissioned this study to assess the costs and benefits of DE technologies to consumers and to better understand the effect of DE on the grid. Current central power generation units vent more waste heat (energy) than the entire transportation sector consumes and this wasted thermal energy is projected to grow by 45% within the next 20 years. Consumer investment in technologies that increase power generation efficiency is a key element of the DOE Energy Efficiency program. The program aims to increase overall cycle efficiency from 30% to 70% within 20 years as well. DOE wants to determine the impact of DE in several small areas within cities across the U.S. Ann Arbor, Michigan, was chosen as the city for this case study. Ann Arbor has electric and gas rates that can substantially affect the market penetration of DE. This case study analysis was intended to: (1) Determine what DE market penetration can realistically be expected, based on consumer investment in combined heat and power systems (CHP) and the effect of utility applied demand response (DR). (2) Evaluate and quantify the impact on the distribution utility feeder from the perspective of customer ownership of the DE equipment. (3) Determine the distribution feeder limits and the impact DE may have on future growth. For the case study, the Gas Technology Institute analyzed a single 16-megawatt grid feeder circuit in Ann Arbor, Michigan to determine whether there are economic incentives to use small distributed power generation systems that would offset the need to increase grid circuit capacity. Increasing circuit capacity would enable the circuit to meet consumer's energy demands at all times, but it would not improve the circuit's utilization factor. The analysis spans 12 years, to a planning horizon of 2015. By 2015, the demand for power is expected to exceed the grid circuit capacity for a significant portion of the year. The analysis was to determine whether economically acceptable implementation of customer-owned DE systems would reduce the peak power demands enough to forestall the need to upgrade the capacity of the grid circuit. The analysis was based on economics and gave no financial credit for improved power reliability or mitigation of environmental impacts. Before this study was completed, the utility expanded the capacity of the circuit to 22 MW. Although this expansion will enable the circuit to meet foreseeable increases in peak demand, it also will significantly decrease the circuit's overall utilization factor. The study revealed that DE penetration on the selected feeder is not expected to forestall the need to upgrade the grid circuit capacity unless interconnection barriers are removed. Currently, a variety of technical, business practice, and regulatory barriers discourage DE interconnection in the US market.

Kelly, J.

2003-10-10

211

Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

1995-03-01

212

The Delineation of Economic and Health Service Areas and the Location of Health Manpower Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research reported pertains to the interrelationships of the economic system, the health-care delivery system, and the health manpower education systems. In this research it was learned that in a part of the intermountain region predominately rural in nature, the economic and the health systems are closely related. Challenge is given to the…

Leyes, John M.; And Others

213

Territorial Manifestations of the Economical Influence Areas of Global Warming and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic space is structured by the relationship between the anthropogenic and economic factors, with a dynamical evolution defined by the financial flows around the world and technology evolution. The global warming and the climate change are two different processes associated on the planet, due to different etiologies: the global warming is produced principally by anthropogenic effects, whereas the climate change

Y. G. Garcia Lopez; J. A. Perez-Peraza; V. M. Velasco Herrera

2007-01-01

214

Planting the SEED: Towards a Spatial Economic Ecological Database for a shared understanding of the Dutch Wadden area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we address the characteristics of a publicly accessible Spatial Economic Ecological Database (SEED) and its ability to support a shared understanding among planners and experts of the economy and ecology of the Dutch Wadden area. Theoretical building blocks for a Wadden SEED are discussed. Our SEED contains a comprehensive set of stakeholder validated spatially explicit data on key economic and ecological indicators. These data extend over various spatial scales. Spatial issues relevant to the specification of a Wadden-SEED and its data needs are explored in this paper and illustrated using empirical data for the Dutch Wadden area. The purpose of the SEED is to integrate basic economic and ecologic information in order to support the resolution of specific (policy) questions and to facilitate connections between project level and strategic level in the spatial planning process. Although modest in its ambitions, we will argue that a Wadden SEED can serve as a valuable element in the much debated science-policy interface. A Wadden SEED is valuable since it is a consensus-based common knowledge base on the economy and ecology of an area rife with ecological-economic conflict, including conflict in which scientific information is often challenged and disputed.

Daams, Michiel N.; Sijtsma, Frans J.

2013-09-01

215

Optimizing secure communication standards for disadvantaged networks  

E-print Network

We present methods for optimizing standardized cryptographic message protocols for use on disadvantaged network links. We first provide an assessment of current secure communication message packing standards and their ...

Okano, Stephen Hiroshi

2009-01-01

216

Children's Perspectives on Economic Adversity: A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews some of the recent qualitative literature on children's perspectives on economic disadvantage. The idea of asking people who experience disadvantage about their own situations is still a relatively new one in the social sciences, and the idea of asking children about their own perceptions of economic and social disadvantage is even more recent. Nine analyses, all published

Gerry Redmond

2008-01-01

217

13 CFR 124.1009 - Who decides disadvantaged status protests?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...disadvantaged status protests? In response to a protest challenging the disadvantaged status of a concern, the SBA's AA/BD, or designee, will determine whether the concern is disadvantaged. [76 FR 8264, Feb. 11,...

2014-01-01

218

13 CFR 124.1009 - Who decides disadvantaged status protests?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Who decides disadvantaged status protests? 124.1009 Section 124...DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification...124.1009 Who decides disadvantaged status protests? In response to a...

2010-01-01

219

13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...application for participation in the 8(a) BD program or within two years of a Participant's... (2) Net worth. For initial 8(a) BD eligibility, the net worth of an individual...than $250,000. For continued 8(a) BD eligibility after admission to the...

2013-01-01

220

13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...application for participation in the 8(a) BD program or within two years of a Participant's... (2) Net worth. For initial 8(a) BD eligibility, the net worth of an individual...than $250,000. For continued 8(a) BD eligibility after admission to the...

2012-01-01

221

13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...application for participation in the 8(a) BD program or within two years of a Participant's... (2) Net worth. For initial 8(a) BD eligibility, the net worth of an individual...than $250,000. For continued 8(a) BD eligibility after admission to the...

2011-01-01

222

13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...application for participation in the 8(a) BD program or within two years of a Participant's... (2) Net worth. For initial 8(a) BD eligibility, the net worth of an individual...than $250,000. For continued 8(a) BD eligibility after admission to the...

2010-01-01

223

13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...application for participation in the 8(a) BD program or within two years of a Participant's... (2) Net worth. For initial 8(a) BD eligibility, the net worth of an individual...than $250,000. For continued 8(a) BD eligibility after admission to the...

2014-01-01

224

Relational and behavioral interventions with economically disadvantaged toddlers.  

PubMed

Matched groups of children, ages 12-24 months, referred for early social or verbal developmental lags or home-environment problems, participated either in a center-based "relational" or a home-based "behavior modification" intervention. Although both programs accelerated youngsters' intellectual development, there were few differences between groups on the criterion change measures. PMID:1266950

Jason, L A; Gesten, E; Yock, T

1976-04-01

225

34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...expected family contribution, as defined in 34 CFR 690.2, that...enrollment status or cost of attendance; or (ii) For a...year after their last date of attendance at your institution. (2...year after their last date of attendance at your institution;...

2010-07-01

226

34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...expected family contribution, as defined in 34 CFR 690.2, that...enrollment status or cost of attendance; or (ii) For a...year after their last date of attendance at your institution. (2...year after their last date of attendance at your institution;...

2010-07-01

227

Social and economic aspects of the introduction of gasification technology in rural areas of developing countries (Tanzania)  

SciTech Connect

According to the evaluation criteria presented, the gasification of corn cobs is acceptable from the economical and agricultural point of view in the rural areas around Arusha (Tanzania). The gasification system is of relatively simple construction and local maintenance is possible. If the system is connected to the already existing corn mills in the villages, it is appropriate to the existing socio-cultural system. The economic calculations made clear that the use of gasification is attractive for both the owners of the corn mill and the government. The advantages for the government are the savings on imported oil and the extra income created for the users of the corn mill (inhabitants of the rural villages). The government loses income from taxes and from the production and transport of diesel oil. Evaluation methods presented can and should be used for gasification projects in other areas.

Groeneveld, M.J.; Westerterp, K.R.

1980-01-01

228

Surveillance status and recent data for Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in the European Union and European Economic Area, January 2012.  

PubMed

In January 2012, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) conducted an email based survey of European Union and European Economic Area countries to describe the existing surveillance activities for Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, recent findings and existence of clinical guidelines for the treatment of M. pneumoniae infection. Of the 20 countries that participated in the survey, seven reported increases in M. pneumoniae infections observed during the autumn and winter of 2011. PMID:22321134

Lenglet, A; Herrador, Z; Magiorakos, A P; Leitmeyer, K; Coulombier, D

2012-01-01

229

Does living in a disadvantaged area entail limited opportunities to purchase fresh fruit and vegetables in terms of price, availability, and variety? Findings from the Brisbane Food Study. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

230

Social and economic aspects of the introduction of gasification technology in rural areas of developing countries (Tanzania)  

SciTech Connect

The development of third world rural areas depends largely on the availability of energy and for an improvement in agricultural production; an increase in energy consumption is required. It seems attractive to replace the fossil liquid fuels needed for machinery by locally produced fuels. The thermal gasification of agricultural waste which produces gas that can be used directly to drive engines is suggested. A study to identify the social and economic advantages of this process and its applicability in rural areas of Tanzania has been made.

Groeneveld, M.J.; Westerterp, K.R.

1980-01-01

231

Non-Economic Determinants of Energy Use in Rural Areas of South Africa  

SciTech Connect

This project will begin to determine the forces and dimensions in rural energy-use patterns and begin to address policy and implementation needs for the future. This entails: Forecasting the social and economic benefits that electrification is assumed to deliver regarding education and women's lives; Assessing negative perceptions of users, which have been established through the slow uptake of electricity; Making recommendations as to how these perceptions could be addressed in policy development and in the continuing electrification program; Making recommendations to policy makers on how to support and make optimal use of current energy-use practices where these are socio-economically sound; Identifying misinformation and wasteful practices; and Other recommendations, which will significantly improve the success of the rural electrification program in a socio-economically sound manner, as identified in the course of the work.

Annecke, W. (Energy and Development Research Center, University of Cape Town, South Africa)

1999-03-29

232

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area. (Coastal Washington) Volume 4 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Washington Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Washington Area includes Jefferson, Clallam, Island, San Juan, Grays Harbor, Pacific, and Wahkiakum counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

233

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Coastal Oregon) Volume 3 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Oregon Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Oregon Area includes Clatsop, Tillamook, Lincoln, Lane, Douglas, Coos, and Curry counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Oregon, Washington, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

234

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Coastal Washington) Volume 3 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Washington Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Washington Area includes Jefferson, Clallam, Island, San Juan, Grays Harbor, Pacific, and Wahkiakum counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

235

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Coastal Oregon). Volume 4 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Oregon Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Oregon Area includes Clatsop, Tillamook, Lincoln, Lane, Douglas, Coos, and Curry counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Oregon, Washington, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

236

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area. (Coastal Washington). Volume 1 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Washington Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Washington Area includes Jefferson, Clallam, Island, San Juan, Grays Harbor, Pacific, and Wahkiakum counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

237

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Coastal Washington). Volume 2 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Washington Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Washington Area includes Jefferson, Clallam, Island, San Juan, Grays Harbor, Pacific, and Wahkiakum counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Washington, Oregon, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

238

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area (Coastal Oregon) Volume 2 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Oregon Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Oregon Area includes Clatsop, Tillamook, Lincoln, Lane, Douglas, Coos, and Curry counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Oregon, Washington, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socio-economic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

239

©Wilolud Online Journals, 2007. ECONOMIC POTENTIALS OF THE PEGMATITES OF ERUKU AREA, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA.  

E-print Network

The close proximity of the pegmatites of Eruku area to the strongly mineralized pegmatites of Egbe area and lack of published work on those from the former formed the basis of this research. Sub-parallel, steeply-dipping, lenticular/podlike pegmatite bodies occur in the Eruku area, southwestern

unknown authors

240

Colorado: 2002 Economic Census. Educational Services, Geographic Area Series, EC02-61A-CO.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. This document contains statistical census data from 2002 for the state of Colorado. Statistical information is presented in table form, on the…

US Department of Commerce, 2005

2005-01-01

241

76 FR 32950 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2012 Economic Census of Island Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Islands, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. The economic census...Islands, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or American Samoa. III. Data OMB Control...1,500. U.S. Virgin Islands: 3,000. American Samoa: 600. Estimated...

2011-06-07

242

Analysis of socio-economic driving forces on built-up area expansion in Xiamen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on grey relational analysis and stepwise regression, this study analysed the socio-economic driving forces of Xiamen since the reform and opening of China. The research aimed to explore the deep dynamic mechanism of urban space expansion of Xiamen and provide scientific support for its sustainable development. The results indicate resource consumption factors and population factors have had a significant

Kai Yin; Xuanqi Li; Guoqin Zhang; Lishan Xiao

2010-01-01

243

The Economic Importance of Air Travel in High-Amenity Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The western United States offers a case study on the importance of access to large population centers and their markets, via road and air travel, for economic development. The vast distances between towns and cities in the American West can be a detriment to business, yet they also serve to attract technology and knowledge-based workers seeking to…

Rasker, Ray; Gude, Patricia H.; Gude, Justin A.; van den Noort, Jeff

2009-01-01

244

Academically Disadvantaged Minority Group Students in Public Two-Year Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of disadvantaged students in 2-year colleges concludes that they usually come from minority groups, are underrepresented in institutions of higher education, have little economic support and are characterized by marginal traditional academic qualifications. A number of classification schemes used by social scientists are discussed…

Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Planning and Evaluation.

245

Quantifying Access Disadvantage and Gathering Information in Rural and Remote Localities: The Griffith Service Access Frame.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A purely geographic classification is not the best way to measure rural disadvantage in Australia. A service access model is described that incorporates the following elements: population center size; distance, time, and cost of travel to the service center; and a measure of the economic capacity of residents to overcome the cost of travel.…

Griffith, Dennis A.

2003-01-01

246

Modification of the Classroom Behavior of a "Disadvantaged" Kindergarten Boy by Social Reinforcement and Isolation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the investigation was to eliminate the disruptive, resistant and assaultive behaviors and increase the appropriate peer interaction of an economically disadvantaged kindergarten white boy. The treatment program involved presentation of adult (teacher) attention contingent upon desirable classroom behavior, withholding of attention…

Sibley, Sally A.; And Others

247

Gaining Access or Losing Ground? Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students in Undergraduate Engineering, 1994-2003  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expanding access to engineering for underrepresented groups has by and large focused on ethnicity/race and gender, with little understanding of socioeconomic disadvantages. In this study, we use economic, human, and cultural capital theories to frame and then describe access to undergraduate engineering degree programs and bachelor's degrees.…

Lundy-Wagner, Valerie C.; Veenstra, Cindy P.; Orr, Marisa K.; Ramirez, Nichole M.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Long, Russell A.

2014-01-01

248

Everybody's Problem: Novice Teachers in Disadvantaged Mexican Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the difficulties that novice teachers confront at two economically, socially, and academically disadvantaged schools in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The researchers employed the action research tradition. Problems were identified using participant observation during reflexive workshops conducted with novice teachers and…

Martínez, Nora H.

2014-01-01

249

DiTV and e-commerce among disadvantaged community groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing concern about the role of technological exclusion on deepening economic, political and social inequalities. Many people do not have PC-based Internet access either through geography, lack of money or other disadvantages. At the same time there is continued growth in the use of digital interactive television (DiTV) in the home, suggesting the potential for an alternative channel

Kathy Keeling; Linda A. Macaulay; Peter Mcgoldrick

2007-01-01

250

Geography and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Location and climate have large effects on income levels and income growth through their effects on transport costs, disease burdens, and agricultural productivity, among other channels. Geography also seems to affect economic policy choices. Many geographic regions that have not been conducive to modern economic growth have high population densities and are experiencing rapid increases in population. At particular disadvantage

John Luke Gallup; Jeffrey D. Sachs; Andrew D. Mellinger

1999-01-01

251

Pathways of disadvantage? Walking as a mode of transport among low-income mothers.  

PubMed

Research shows that lack of car ownership is associated with poorer health. It is often assumed that the reason for this observed relationship is that access to a car--or not--reflects access to household assets. Consequently, lack of car ownership is used as a standard marker of low socio-economic status. However, little attention has been paid to the experience of carlessness in the context of disadvantaged lives. This paper argues that "no access to a car" is not only an indicator of low socio-economic status but of walking as a mode of transport. These arguments are illustrated by data from a study of 30 low-income mothers with young children. Although walking is promoted as both an excellent and inexpensive form of exercise, these data suggest that reliance on walking can have negative effects on the welfare of families. The paper draws on qualitative data to describe the ways in which carlessness restricts access to health and social care resources such as food shops, health-care services and social networks. It also explores the impact of walking on the well being of mothers and their day-to-day relationships with children. This is compounded by walking through areas that are neglected and depressed. The paper concludes that strategies to reduce social exclusion must recognise the contradictory health effects of walking and aim to regenerate the physical fabric of social housing estates as well as improve public transport options. PMID:11560717

Bostock, L

2001-01-01

252

An Economic Impact Study of Liberty Baptist College on the Lynchburg Metropolitan Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine Liberty Baptist College's impact on the Lynchburg area in the 1980 fiscal year. Three impact areas were studied: local businesses, governments, and individuals. Local construction expenditures of $5.6 million, additional college-related expenditures of other affiliated organizations, and several other peripheral…

Moisan, Leonard J.

253

ANALYSIS OF THE ECONOMICS OF WATER SUPPLY IN THE WASHINGTON METROPOLITAN AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of a controversy arising over available water supply in the Washington Metropolitan Area, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, administrator for Region III, requested that a cost analysis of the water supply system in the Washington, D.C. area be made. The analys...

254

Policies for Universal Access to Telecommunications in Rural Areas of Developing Countries - An Institutional Economics Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical element of most national telecom policy objectives in developing countries is advancing universal access. Due to specific characteristics, rural areas in developing countries are of the most challenging regions. It is widely recognized that there are limits to how well the market can or will function in extending service in these areas. Therefore telecom policy has to intervene

Thorsten Scherf

2006-01-01

255

SOME ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF RECOMBINATION  

E-print Network

SOME ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF RECOMBINATION SARAH P. OTTO Department of Integrative Biology Abstract: Theory for the evolutionary properties of recombination is reviewed, both in terms of modi er mutant chromosome is advantageous, it will appear for the rst time faster with recombination than without

Otto, Sarah

256

LANGUAGE LEARNING ACTIVITIES FOR THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS BOOKLET DESCRIBES SEVERAL GAMELIKE ACTIVITIES WHICH ARE DESIGNED TO FACILITATE LANGUAGE LEARNING AMONG DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN. THE INTRODUCTORY DISCUSSION EMPHASIZES (1) THE IMPORTANT ROLE OF LANGUAGE IN COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AND (2) THE NEED FOR A STRUCTURED PROGRAM OF LANGUAGE LEARNING ACTIVITIES FOR YOUNG CHILDREN. FOURTEEN ACTIVITIES (FOR…

BEREITER, CARL; ENGELMANN, SIEGFRIED

257

Lightning protection systems: advantages and disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanics and interaction of lightning producing thunder clouds and earth, are discussed. Compared to the Franklin Air Terminal (rod) and Faraday Cage, the debatable advantages and disadvantages of the Early Streamer Emission Enhanced Ionizing Air Terminal, and Multipoint Discharge Systems, are examined along with conceptual future methods of lightning protection

D. W. Zipse

1993-01-01

258

Mentoring Disadvantaged Gifted Children and Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spite of increasing amounts of attention given to mentoring in recent years, it appears that the disadvantaged child is not being mentored, and that his or her educational needs are not being addressed. Some possible reasons why so little mentoring of minority students occurs, or reasons why so little is heard about what does occur, are…

Shaughnessy, Michael F.

259

LIMITATIONS OF ADMISSIONS TESTING FOR THE DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE USE OF STANDARD ADMISSIONS TESTS HAS OFTEN BEEN CALLED DISCRIMINATORY TOWARDS DISADVANTAGED YOUTHS. TO EXAMINE THE VALIDITY OF THESE COLLEGE ENTRANCE EXAMINATIONS, THE AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION (ACE) TEST SCORES OF 66 HONOR GRADUATES AT NORTH CAROLINA COLLEGE BETWEEN 1954 AND 1959 WERE EXAMINED. IT WAS FOUND THAT 58 OF THEM WOULD NOT HAVE…

BROWN, WALTER M.; RUSSELL, ROGER D.

260

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED STATUS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE RECENT CONCERN FOR THE PROBLEMS OF THE POOR IS BEING REFLECTED IN CHANGES IN EDUCATIONAL THEORY AND PRACTICES. EDUCATORS NOW FEEL THAT THE DISADVANTAGED YOUTH IS EDUCABLE AND THAT IT IS THE SCHOOL'S RESPONSIBILITY TO EDUCATE HIM. THERE IS, HOWEVER, THE DANGER THAT THIS PRESENT CONCERN IS ONLY A "FAD" AND THUS WILL PASS. IN THEIR INCREASED…

RIESSMAN, FRANK

261

Neighborhood Disadvantage and Reliance on the Police  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary theories suggest that, due to limited access and generalized distrust, residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods are relatively unlikely to report matters to police. Although existing studies reveal few ecological differences in crime reporting, findings may be limited to victim/offense subsets represented in aggregated victimization…

Schaible, Lonnie M.; Hughes, Lorine A.

2012-01-01

262

Collective Bargaining, Transfer Rights, and Disadvantaged Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collective bargaining is common in American public education, but its consequences are poorly understood. We focus here on key contractual provisions--seniority-based transfer rights--that affect teacher assignments, and we show that these transfer rights operate to burden disadvantaged schools with higher percentages of inexperienced teachers. We…

Anzia, Sarah F.; Moe, Terry M.

2014-01-01

263

Climate change and socio-economic scenarios, land use modelling implications on water resources in an inner alpine area, Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MontanAqua project aims to study the water resources management in the region Sierre-Montana (Valais, Switzerland). Land use is known to have an influence on the water resources (soil moisture dynamic, soil sealing, surface runoff and deep percolation). Thus land use modelling is of importance for the water resources management. An actual land use map was produced using infrared imagery (Niklaus 2012, Fig.1). Land use changes are known to be mainly drived by socio-economic factors as well as climatic factors (Dolman et al. 2003). Potential future Land uses was separatly predicted according to 1-. socio-economic and 2-. climatic/abiotic drivers : 1. 4 socio-economic scenarios were developped with stakeholders (Schneider et al. 2013) between 2010 and 2012. We modeled those socio-economic scenarios into a GIS application using Python programming (ModelBuilder in ArcGIS 10) to get a cartographic transcription of the wishes of the stakeholders for their region in 2050. 2. Uncorrelated climatic and abiotic drivers were used in a BIOMOD2 (Georges et al. 2013) framework. 4 models were used: Maximum Entropy (MAXENT), Multiple Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Classification Tree Analysis (CTA) and the Flexible Discriminant Analysis (FDA) to predict grassland, alpine pasture, vineyards and forest in our study region. Climatic scenarios were then introduced into the models to predict potential land use in 2050 driven only by climatic and abiotic factors The comparison of all the outputs demonstrates that the socio-economic drivers will have a more important impact in the region than the climatic drivers (e.g. -70% grassland surface for the worst socio-economic scenario vs. -40% of grassland surface for the worst climatic models). Further analysis also brings out the sensitivity of the grassland/alpine pasture system to the climate change and to socio-economic changes. Future work will be to cross the different land use maps obtained by the two model types and to use them to implement soil moisture and evaporation data for the near-future in the region Sierre-Montana. REFERENCES Niklaus M. 2012. An Object-oriented Approach for Mapping Current Land Use/Land Cover in the Study Area Crans-Montana-Sierre, Valais. MSc, Geography Institute, University of Bern Dolman A.J., Verhagen A. & Rovers C.A. 2003. Global environmental change and land use. Kluwer Academic Publisher. Dordrecht. Schneider F. & Rist S. 2013. Envisioning sustainable water futures in a transdisciplinary learning process: combining normative, explorative, and participatory scenario approaches. Sustainability Science, in press. Georges D. & Thuiller W. 2012. An example of species distribution modelling with biomod2. biomod2 version : 2.0.17

Rey, Emmanuel; Schneider, Flurina; Liniger, Hanspeter; Weingartner, Rolf; Herweg, Karl

2014-05-01

264

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the Washington-Oregon Planning Area. (Coastal Oregon) Volume 1 of 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents socio-economic profiles of the counties in the Coastal Oregon Area of the Washington-Oregon Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service. The Coastal Oregon Area includes Clatsop, Tillamook, Lincoln, Lane, Douglas, Coos, and Curry counties. It presents baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in Oregon, Washington, and California which may be potentially affected by offshore oil and gas development. Each profile includes socio-economic characteristics organized under the following eight headings: demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and other characteristics. The focus of each socioeconomic profile is 1980, but the time period 1970 to 2000 is covered, to the extent possible with existing data, to provide a historical context and an understanding of expected trends. Each county's socio-economic profile was prepared using time-series data from secondary sources obtained primarily from federal, state, and local government agencies.

Not Available

1988-12-01

265

Social and economic sustainability of urban systems: comparative analysis of metropolitan statistical areas in Ohio, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

This article presents a general and versatile methodology for assessing sustainability with Fisher Information as a function of dynamic changes in urban systems. Using robust statistical methods, six Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in Ohio were evaluated to comparatively as...

266

An Economic Study of a Typical Ranching Area on the Edwards Plateau of Texas.  

E-print Network

. INTRODUCTIO CHAPTER I. THE RESPECTIVE DOMAINS OE ~nb SARMER AND THE GRAZIER ..................................... 23-32 ................................... Historical Development 23 ....................... Area and Extent of Grazing Lands 30... ................................... 49 ................................................. Altitude 51 Soils ................................................. 51 ..................................... Water Resources 51 People .............................................. 53 Land...

Youngblood, B. (Bonney); Cox, Alonzo B. (Alonzo Bettis)

1922-01-01

267

The intergenerational transmission of inequality: maternal disadvantage and health at birth.  

PubMed

Health at birth is an important predictor of long-term outcomes, including education, income, and disability. Recent evidence suggests that maternal disadvantage leads to worse health at birth through poor health behaviors; exposure to harmful environmental factors; worse access to medical care, including family planning; and worse underlying maternal health. With increasing inequality, those at the bottom of the distribution now face relatively worse economic conditions, but newborn health among the most disadvantaged has actually improved. The most likely explanation is increasing knowledge about determinants of infant health and how to protect it along with public policies that put this knowledge into practice. PMID:24855261

Aizer, Anna; Currie, Janet

2014-05-23

268

An Economic Study of Farm Organization in the Piney Woods Farming Area of Texas.  

E-print Network

' sponsibility of being creditor or is held responsible by a merchant for , his croppers' accounts. The family farms typical of the area are small in size. The acreage ' of land in cotton that can be handled per family is largely limited by the amount... are not considered in any great detail because of the relatively small place they occupy in the farm organizations of the area. Sufficient information pertaining to labor distribution is presented, however, to in- dicate how these enterprises may be coordinated...

Bonnen, C. A. (Clarence Alfred); Thibodeaux, B. H.; Criswell, J. F.

1932-01-01

269

Economic Effects of Land Subsidence Due to Excessive Groundwater Withdrawal in the Texas Gulf Coast Area  

E-print Network

of the property. Most damages and losses in property value occur in those areas in close proximity to Galveston bay and/or major waterways. Temporary flooding, permanent inundation, bulkheading and landfilling were the major subsidence-related causes of cost and...

Jones, L. L.; Larson, J.

270

Lightning protection systems: advantages and disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful 200-year-old method of using a (Franklin) rod to collect, control, and convey to earth the awesome and destructive power of lightning has produced other controversial, potential alternate methods. The mechanics and interaction of lightning-producing thunderclouds and earth are discussed. Compared to the Franklin air terminal (rod) and Faraday cage method, the debatable advantages and disadvantages of the early

Donald W. Zipse

1994-01-01

271

The advantages and disadvantages of being introduced  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced species, those dispersed outside their natural ranges by humans, now cause almost all biological invasions, i.e.,\\u000a entry of organisms into habitats with negative effects on organisms already there. Knowing whether introduction tends to give\\u000a organisms specific ecological advantages or disadvantages in their new habitats could help understand and control invasions.\\u000a Even if no specific species traits are associated with

Peter Alpert

2006-01-01

272

Sustainability and economic consequences of creating marine protected areas in multispecies multiactivity context.  

PubMed

The present study deals with harvesting of prey species in the presence of predator in a multispecies marine fishery. The total habitat is divided into two patches: one is reserve area where fishing is completely banned and other zone is called fishing area where only prey is exploited. We assume that the prey fish possesses heterogeneous intrinsic growth rate with uniform carrying capacity where as predator has constant intrinsic growth rate with prey dependent carrying capacity. The analytical conditions are derived to prevent the species extinction for larger employed effort in single (only prey) species fishery. Optimal equilibrium premium are presented for both monospecies and multispecies fishery for all degree of protection. Increasing standing stock (ISS) and protected standing stock (PSS) are measured in the presence of prey-predator interaction. PMID:23149287

Kar, T K; Ghosh, Bapan

2013-02-01

273

Economics of Mechanical Cotton Harvesting in the High Plains Cotton Area of Texas.  

E-print Network

in the High Plains cotton area of Texas is highly mechanized except for some hand hoeing and much of the harvesting. Some growers rely on mechanical strippers to harvest their entire crop. Others use hand labor to harvest cotton that matures before frost... operation and harvesting conditions. Mechanical stripping is confined to the period after frost has killed the plants. Open cotton left standing in the field is subject to weather damage. Therefore, hand harvested cotton before frost grades higher than...

Rogers, Ralph H.; Morgan, Quevedo Martin; Williamson, M. N. (Marion Newton)

1951-01-01

274

An analysis of the economic importance of cotton to the Central Gulf Coast area of Texas  

E-print Network

Printing Offioe, 1965), p. 13. 3 carry-over is expected on August 1, 1966. In an attempt to correct the continuing problem, a new cotton bill was enacted in 1965 which provides for further acreage reductions and a lowering of the level 4 at which... corrective aotion was again necessary, and acreage allotments were reimposed in 1950. As a result, harvested acreage in the area 1 Murry R. Benediot and Oscar C. Stine, The ricultural Commodit P~ (Btltdt: 2 td tt 2 tppp l 6, 1556, p. 26. 14 declined 33...

Prochaska, Fred J

1966-01-01

275

Wind Energy Development as an Economic Development Strategy for Rural Areas  

E-print Network

Why does wind development make sense for rural areas? In many rural areas, utility scale wind energy developments can be a great way to expand and grow the economy through direct investment and job creation, in addition to significant potential spinoff development activities. Because of renewable state standards and incentives, including the Federal Production Tax Credit (PTC) and the Ohio SB 232 (which levels the playing field for wind projects by setting a property tax ceiling), more wind companies view Ohio as a new and exciting market for investment. Siting requirements for wind are also prevalent in Ohio, including good transmission lines and available land and wind resources. Ohio also has a skilled workforce that can construct and provide maintenance on wind systems as well as manufacture component parts for the industry. Utility Wind Basics Utility scale wind developments are large “wind farms ” that generate 5 megawatts per hour or greater. They are governed by the Ohio Power Siting Board (OPSB) under provisions found in House Bill 562, 2008

Nancy Bowen-ellzey

276

48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Disadvantaged business status. 19.304 Section 19.304 Federal...PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs 19.304 Disadvantaged business status. (a) To be eligible to...

2010-10-01

277

Aboriginal premature mortality within South Australia 1999-2006: a cross-sectional analysis of small area results  

PubMed Central

Background This paper initially describes premature mortality by Aboriginality in South Australia during 1999 to 2006. It then examines how these outcomes vary across area level socio-economic disadvantage and geographic remoteness. Methods The retrospective, cross-sectional analysis uses estimated resident population by sex, age and small areas based on the 2006 Census, and Unit Record mortality data. Premature mortality outcomes are measured using years of life lost (YLL). Subsequent intrastate comparisons are based on indirect sex and age adjusted YLL results. A multivariate model uses area level socio-economic disadvantage rank, geographic remoteness, and an interaction between the two variables to predict premature mortality outcomes. Results Aboriginal people experienced 1.1% of total deaths but 2.2% of YLL and Aboriginal premature mortality rates were 2.65 times greater than the South Australian average. Premature mortality for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people increased significantly as area disadvantage increased. Among Aboriginal people though, a significant main effect for area remoteness was also observed, together with an interaction between disadvantage and remoteness. The synergistic effect shows the social gradient between area disadvantage and premature mortality increased as remoteness increased. Conclusions While confirming the gap in premature mortality rates between Aboriginal South Australians and the rest of the community, the study also found a heterogeneity of outcomes within the Aboriginal community underlie this difference. The results support the existence of relationship between area level socio-economic deprivation, remoteness and premature mortality in the midst of an affluent society. The study concludes that vertically equitable resourcing according to population need is an important response to the stark mortality gap and its exacerbation by area socio-economic position and remoteness. PMID:21554738

2011-01-01

278

Education and Social Crisis; Perspectives on Teaching Disadvantaged Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of readings presents 49 papers published between 1959 and 1965. The volume is organized into three parts: (1) cultural values and family life of disadvantaged youth; (2) problems facing disadvantaged youth in the schools; and (3) programs and progress in meeting the educational needs of disadvantaged youth. Introductions by the…

Keach, Everett T., Jr., Ed.; And Others

279

GLORIA sidescan-sonar imagery for parts of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone and adjacent areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1983, President Ronald Reagan signed a Proclamation establishing the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the United States extending its territory 200 nautical miles from the coasts of the United States, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, and other U.S. territories and possessions. The charter of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) places the primary responsibility for mapping the territories of the United States within the USGS. Upon declaration of the EEZ, the territory of the United States was enlarged by more than 13 million square kilometers, all of which are under water. The USGS EEZ-SCAN program to systematically map the EEZ began in 1984 and continued through 1991. This digital publication contains all the GLORIA sidescan imagery of the deep-water (greater than 200 meters) portion of the EEZ mapped during those 8 years of data collection. For each EEZ area, we describe the data collection surveys and provide downloads of the GLORIA data and metadata.

Paskevich, Valerie F.; Wong, Florence L.; O'Malley, John J.; Stevenson, Andrew J.; Gutmacher, Christina E.

2011-01-01

280

Social Disadvantage and Asthma Control in Children  

PubMed Central

Summary This review discusses various aspects of social disadvantage and their association with poor asthma control, including socioeconomic status, exposure to psychosocial stress and violence, minority affiliation, environmental concerns such as allergens and pollution, and poverty in rural settings. Each of these elements has been linked with worsened asthma outcomes in children. Known and hypothesized mechanisms behind these associations are described in an effort to further understand the complex entity of poorly controlled asthma among socially deprived children. Intervention studies to improve asthma outcomes in these vulnerable populations are also described. PMID:24928775

Kopel, Lianne S.; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Gaffin, Jonathan M.

2014-01-01

281

Overcoming Disadvantage through the Innovative Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australia is a high performing but low equity country with regards to educational attainment. Low socio-economic background students and schools with large numbers of these students perform less well than higher socio-economic background students and schools. Yet some schools are turning around student learning outcomes despite the impact of…

Black, Rosalyn

2006-01-01

282

Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and adult disorders Why do children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families suffer  

E-print Network

was associated with an increased risk of substance dependence and poor physical health in adulthood (sex), or cardiovascular health (18-20). These studies relied on different methods and it is difficult to combine disadvantaged families suffer from poor health when they reach adulthood? A lifecourse study. Maria Melchior, Sc

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

283

Economic evaluation of Chagas disease screening of pregnant Latin American women and of their infants in a non endemic area.  

PubMed

Migration is a channel through which Chagas disease is imported, and vertical transmission is a channel through which the disease is spread in non-endemic countries. This study presents the economic evaluation of Chagas disease screening in pregnant women from Latin America and in their newborns in a non endemic area such as Spain. The economic impact of Chagas disease screening is tested through two decision models, one for the newborn and one for the mother, against the alternative hypothesis of no screening for either the newborn or the mother. Results show that the option "no test" is dominated by the option "test". The cost effectiveness ratio in the "newborn model" was 22€/QALYs gained in the case of screening and 125€/QALYs gained in the case of no screening. The cost effectiveness ratio in the "mother model" was 96€/QALYs gained in the case of screening and 1675€/QALYs gained in the case of no screening. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis highlighted the reduction of uncertainty in the screening option. Threshold analysis assessed that even with a drop in Chagas prevalence from 3.4% to 0.9%, a drop in the probability of vertical transmission from 7.3% to 2.24% and with an increase of screening costs up to €37.5, "test" option would still be preferred to "no test". The current study proved Chagas screening of all Latin American women giving birth in Spain and of their infants to be the best strategy compared to the non-screening option and provides useful information for health policy makers in their decision making process. PMID:21396345

Sicuri, Elisa; Muñoz, José; Pinazo, Maria Jesús; Posada, Elizabeth; Sanchez, Joan; Alonso, Pedro L; Gascon, Joaquim

2011-05-01

284

Economic Evaluation of an Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Program to Control the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey  

PubMed Central

Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control) from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY). The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008) and the intervention years (2009-2011) declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8. PMID:25338065

Shepard, Donald S.; Halasa, Yara A.; Fonseca, Dina M.; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P.; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A.; Clark, Gary G.

2014-01-01

285

A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF NURSERY SCHOOL EXPERIENCE ON THE LATER SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT OF CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE WAS TO DETERMINE WHETHER CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN IN AN URBAN AREA WITH PRESCHOOL EXPERIENCE ARE BETTER ADJUSTED IN THE PRIMARY GRADES THAN ARE SIMILAR CHILDREN WITHOUT SUCH EXPERIENCE. A SECONDARY OBJECTIVE WAS TO DETERMINE WHETHER THERE ARE DIFFERENCES IN ADJUSTMENT BETWEEN THOSE HAVING NURSERY SCHOOL AS OPPOSED TO…

CHOROST, SHERWOOD B.; GOLDSTEIN, KENNETH M.

286

Drugs, Guns, and Disadvantaged Youths: Co-Occurring Behavior and the Code of the Street  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guided by Anderson's theory of the code of the street, this study explored social mechanisms linking individual-level disadvantage factors with the adoption of beliefs grounded in the code of the street and with drug trafficking and gun carrying--the co-occurring behavior shaping violence among young men in urban areas. Secondary data were…

Allen, Andrea N.; Lo, Celia C.

2012-01-01

287

Crossing the Bridge: Overcoming Entrenched Disadvantage through Student-centred Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quality school education is essential if young people are to have access to the greatest possible opportunities in life, but it is not a universal experience in Australia. Instead, too many young people are disengaged from school, especially those in the middle years of schooling and those living in disadvantaged areas. This study examined the…

Black, Rosalyn

2007-01-01

288

Overlapping and distinct representations of advantageous and disadvantageous inequality.  

PubMed

Advantageous inequality (AI) aversion, or paying at a personal cost to achieve equal reward distribution, represents a unique feature of human behavior. Here, we show that individuals have strong preferences for fairness in both disadvantageous (DI) and advantageous inequality (AI) situations, such that they alter others' payoff at a personal financial cost. At the neural level, we found that both types of inequality activated the putamen, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula, regions implicated in motivation. Individual difference analyses found that those who spent more money to increase others' payoff had stronger activity in putamen when they encountered AI and less functional connectivity between putamen and both orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula. Conversely, those who spent more money to reduce others' payoff had stronger activity in amygdala in response to DI and less functional connectivity between amygdala and ventral anterior cingulate cortex. These dissociations suggest that both types of inequality are processed by similar brain areas, yet modulated by different neural pathways. PMID:25050425

Yu, Rongjun; Calder, Andrew J; Mobbs, Dean

2014-07-01

289

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations  

PubMed Central

Twelve March 2015 will mark the 10th anniversary of World Kidney Day (WKD), an initiative of the International Society of Nephrology and the International Federation of Kidney Foundations. Since its inception in 2006, WKD has become the most successful effort ever mounted to raise awareness among decision-makers and the general public about the importance of kidney disease. Each year WKD reminds us that kidney disease is common, harmful and treatable. The focus of WKD 2015 is on chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations. This article reviews the key links between poverty and CKD and the consequent implications for the prevention of kidney disease and the care of kidney patients in these populations. PMID:25713703

Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Jha, Vivekanand; Tao Li, Philip Kam; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Couser, William G.; Erk, Timur; Zakharova, Elena; Segantini, Luca; Shay, Paul; Riella, Miguel C.; Osafo, Charlotte; Dupuis, Sophie; Kernahan, Charles

2015-01-01

290

Disadvantages of Preferential Dispersals in Fluctuating Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of a bet-hedging system is an important problem in fluctuating environments. However, the adaptability of preferential dispersal is not yet known. We have investigated preferential and random dispersals in bet-hedging systems using a discrete-time stochastic matrix model, in which each site fluctuates between good and bad environments with a temporal correlation. To explore the optimal migration pattern, an analytical estimation of the total growth was derived by mean-field approximation. We clarified the effect of the time correlation of environments and found that the preference for fertile sites is disadvantageous when transportation among sites has a cost or when the sensitivity of preference is superlinear.

Morita, Satoru; Yoshimura, Jin

2015-03-01

291

World's women: making gains but still disadvantaged.  

PubMed

This article briefly summarizes the progress made by women globally and points out that women are still disadvantaged. The article is based on statistics compiled in a wall chart on Women in 1998 by the Population Reference Bureau. Women have progressed in education, the labor force, and health. Women's life expectancy has increased from 49 to 68 years since the 1950s. Women's participation in the labor force has increased from 33% to 54%. Literacy has risen from 54% to 64% since the 1970s. The gender gap in secondary school enrollment has narrowed since the 1980s. The ratio of girl-to-boy secondary school enrollment is 80 or 90 girls/100 boys. However, women still experience major disadvantages. In 1997, women became HIV-infected at a rate of almost 6000 women/day. 41% of people living with HIV/AIDS are women. In sub-Saharan Africa, women with HIV account for 50% of the nearly 20 million adults infected with HIV. The proportion of HIV-infected women in other regions ranges 20-33%. 4 million of the 11.7 million people who have died of AIDS were women. Nearly 600,000 women die every year from maternal mortality and abortion. Maternal mortality rates range from under 8 deaths/100,000 live births in European countries to 1400 deaths/100,000 live births in some sub-Saharan countries. Family planning and access to and services for prenatal, delivery, and postpartum care can help reduce maternal deaths. Maternal care has improved, but not sufficiently to offset the increased number of pregnancies. The number of female-headed households has grown, and these households tend to be poor. PMID:12293548

1998-04-01

292

Selected Area Fishery Evaluation Project Economic Analysis Study Final Report, Final Draft Revision 4: November 10, 2006.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Study is to provide an economic review of current and proposed changes to the Select Area Fishery Evaluation Project (SAFE or Project). The Study results are the information requested in comments made on the Project by a joint review dated March 2005 by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) and Independent Economic Analysis Board (IEAB). North et al. (2006) addressed technical questions about operations and plans, and this report contains the response information for comments concerning Project economics. This report can be considered an economic feasibility review meeting guidelines for cost-effective analysis developed by the IEAB (2003). It also contains other economic measurement descriptions to illustrate the economic effects of SAFE. The SAFE is an expansion of a hatchery project (locally called the Clatsop Economic Development Council Fisheries Project or CEDC) started in 1977 that released an early run coho (COH) stock into the Youngs River. The Youngs River entrance to the Columbia River at River Mile 12 is called Youngs Bay, which is located near Astoria, Oregon. The purpose of the hatchery project was to provide increased fishing opportunities for the in-river commercial fishing gillnet fleet. Instead of just releasing fish at the hatchery, a small scale net pen acclimation project in Youngs Bay was tried in 1987. Hirose et al. (1998) found that 1991-1992 COH broodstock over-wintered at the net pens had double the smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) of traditional hatchery release, less than one percent stray rates, and 99 percent fishery harvests. It was surmised that smolts from other Columbia River hatcheries could be hauled to the net pens for acclimation and release to take advantage of the SAR's and fishing rates. Proposals were tendered to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other agencies to fund the expansion for using other hatcheries smolts and other off-channel release sites. The BPA, who had been providing funds to the Project since 1982, greatly increased their financial participation for the experimental expansion of the net pen operations in 1993. Instead of just being a funding partner in CEDC operations, the BPA became a major financing source for other hatchery production operations. The BPA has viewed the 10 plus years of funding since then as an explorative project with two phases: a 'research' phase ending in 1993, and a 'development' phase ending in 2006. The next phase is referred to in proposals to BPA for continued funding as an 'establishment' phase to be started in 2007. There are three components of SAFE: (1) The CEDC owns and operates the net pens in the Columbia River estuary on the Oregon side. The CEDC also owns and operates a hatchery on the South Fork Klaskanine River. (2) There are many other hatcheries contributing smolts to the net pen operations. The present suite of hatcheries are operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). The WDFW owns and operates the net pens at Deep River on the Washington side of the Columbia River. (3) The monitoring and evaluation (M&E) responsibilities are performed by employees of WDFW and ODFW. BPA provides funding for all three components as part of NPCC Project No. 199306000. The CEDC and other contributing hatcheries have other sources of funds that also support the SAFE. BPA's minor share (less than 10 percent) of CEDC funding in 1982 grew to about 55 percent in 1993 with the beginning of the development phase of the Project. The balance of the CEDC budget over the years has been from other federal, state, and local government programs. It has also included a 10 percent fee assessment (five percent of ex-vessel value received by harvesters plus five percent of purchase value made by processors) on harvests that take place in off-channel locations near the release sites. The CEDC total annual budget in the last several years has been in the $600 to $700 thousand range. The Project over

Bonneville Power Administration; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

2006-11-01

293

California Community College Home Economics Program Plan, 1992. Including: Directory of Professional and Trade Organizations and Directory of Home Economics and Related Program Areas and Instructional Staff.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assist local colleges/districts in assessing their existing home economics program, and in developing curricula that respond to the changing needs of students, communities, and the workforce, this plan presents the program guidelines of the California Community Colleges (CCCs). Introductory material describes the history of the program…

California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

294

Exploring situational factors shaping access in a laptop program for socially disadvantaged children in India: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-cost laptop programs attempt to address gaps in access to computers in developing countries. However, the translation of computing access from intention to actuality is mediated by many situational factors. This research presents a case study of how access to a set of laptops donated to a school for socially disadvantaged children in India was shaped by social, logistical, economic

Poornima Padmanabhan; Alyssa Friend Wise

2012-01-01

295

How Community Development Programmes Can Foster Re-Engagement with Learning in Disadvantaged Communities: Leadership as Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family and community capacity building projects in Tasmania are attempting to address the disadvantage of communities marginalised by socio-economic and other influences. Collaborations between the projects, community members and groups, and education and training organisations, have resulted in a leadership process which has fostered reengagement…

Millar, Pat; Kilpatrick, Sue

2005-01-01

296

Fathers' Accounts of Struggle and Growth in Early Adulthood: An Exploratory Study of Disadvantaged Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter explores how fatherhood prompts struggle and growth in the psychological, social, and economic changes associated with the transition to adulthood. Little is known about these connections, especially for disadvantaged Latino and White fathers who live in small and mid-sized American communities. We draw on eight in-depth focus groups…

Settersten, Richard A., Jr.; Day, Jack K.; Cancel-Tirado, Doris; Driscoll, Debra Minar

2014-01-01

297

Making the Most of the Mosaic: Facilitating Post-School Transitions to Higher Education of Disadvantaged Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research studies of post-school education and training conducted in Australia and internationally have revealed a mosaic of students' education and employment experiences, with a multiplicity of nonlinear pathways. These tend to be more fragmentary for disadvantaged students, especially those of low socio-economic background, rural students, and…

Abbott-Chapman, Joan

2011-01-01

298

The association of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with socioeconomic disadvantage: alternative explanations and evidence  

PubMed Central

Background Studies throughout Northern Europe, the United States and Australia have found an association between childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and family socioeconomic disadvantage. We report further evidence for the association and review potential causal pathways that might explain the link. Method Secondary analysis of a UK birth cohort (the Millennium Cohort Study, N = 19,519) was used to model the association of ADHD with socioeconomic disadvantage and assess evidence for several potential explanatory pathways. The case definition of ADHD was a parent-report of whether ADHD had been identified by a medical doctor or health professional when children were 7 years old. Results ADHD was associated with a range of indicators of social and economic disadvantage including poverty, housing tenure, maternal education, income, lone parenthood and younger motherhood. There was no evidence to suggest childhood ADHD was a causal factor of socioeconomic disadvantage: income did not decrease for parents of children with ADHD compared to controls over the 7-year study period. No clinical bias towards labelling ADHD in low SES groups was detected. There was evidence to suggest that parent attachment/family conflict mediated the relationship between ADHD and SES. Conclusion Although genetic and neurological determinants may be the primary predictors of difficulties with activity level and attention, aetiology appears to be influenced by socioeconomic situation. PMID:24274762

Russell, Ginny; Ford, Tamsin; Rosenberg, Rachel; Kelly, Susan

2014-01-01

299

Public perceptions of risk in criminality: the effects of mental illness and social disadvantage.  

PubMed

We examined how different types of mental illness elicited varying levels of predicted criminality and compared this with factors which might also elicit a negative response, specifically, a criminal history and social disadvantage. A sample of 243 participants undertook an anonymous, online experiment. Each participant was exposed to one of six vignettes: three involved mental illness (schizophrenia, depression/anxiety, or alcohol dependency); two in which socio-economic background was manipulated; and a control. The impact of mental illness, history of criminality and social disadvantage on the likelihood that the character in the vignette would commit future crime, and levels of sympathy, trust and potential for rehabilitation in the character were measured. Age and personal experience of mental illness and/or criminal behaviour in the participants was also examined. The sample were significantly more likely to think that a character would 'possibly' commit future crime if he had mental illness in comparison to the control, but crimes were expected to be minor. Significantly more discriminatory behaviour was reported towards the character with no mental illness but a disadvantaged background. Familiarity ameliorated this effect. Prejudice towards those with a criminal past and a disadvantaged background may be stronger than prejudice against those with mental illnesses. PMID:23473655

Nee, Claire; Witt, Clare

2013-10-30

300

Developing country experience with eco-industrial parks: a case study of the Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the pollution that accompanies rapid industrial growth in China, a National Eco-industrial Park Demonstration Program was launched in 2000. This article provides a case study of the Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area (TEDA). The emergence of an environmental institution in TEDA is used as a backdrop to assess how TEDA has transformed itself into one of the top three

Han Shi; Marian Chertow; Yuyan Song

2010-01-01

301

Report of Workshop for the Study of the Disadvantaged for Selected Teachers of Occupational Training (Texas Technological College, Lubbock, July 3-July 14, 1967).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-two teachers and supervisors, selected by the Texas Education Agency, participated in a 2-week workshop designed to provide an intensive study of the disadvantaged and to increase the effectiveness of teachers of culturally disadvantaged youth, primarily in the area of occupational training. Scholars in the fields of sociology and psychology…

Buntin, L. Ann

302

In these tighter economic times the University needs to look at all areas where costs can be reduced. One of these areas is that of `local printing'. This  

E-print Network

be reduced. One of these areas is that of `local printing'. This includes activities such as the printing of emails, printing of documents and draft documents, all of which are areas which could be reduced to provide savings. Another area is how you specify your print work to Printing Services there are many areas

Schnaufer, Achim

303

Wind Farms in Rural Areas: How Far Do Community Benefits from Wind Farms Represent a Local Economic Development Opportunity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the large-scale deployment of renewable technologies can bring significant, localised economic and environmental changes, there has been remarkably little empirical investigation of the rural development implications. This paper seeks to redress this through an analysis of the economic development opportunities surrounding wind energy…

Munday, Max; Bristow, Gill; Cowell, Richard

2011-01-01

304

Affiliation to youth gangs during adolescence: the interaction between childhood psychopathic tendencies and neighborhood disadvantage.  

PubMed

Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join. In this study, we tested whether a combination of individual propensity and facilitating neighborhood conditions amplifies the probabilities of youth gang affiliation. A subset of 3,522 adolescents was selected from a nationally representative, prospective sample of Canadian youth. Psychopathic tendencies (i.e., a combination of high hyperactivity, low anxiety, and low prosociality as compared to national norms) were assessed through parent reports, while neighborhood characteristics (i.e., concentrated economic disadvantage and residential instability) were derived from the 2001 Census of Canada. Our results indicated that neighborhood residential instability, but not neighborhood concentrated economic disadvantage, interacted with individual propensity to predict youth gang membership. Adolescents with preexisting psychopathic tendencies appeared especially vulnerable mainly if they were raised in residentially unstable neighborhoods. PMID:17610153

Dupéré, Véronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

2007-12-01

305

Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.  

PubMed

The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

Porter, M E

1992-01-01

306

Nuclear reactor operator training for disadvantaged Americans  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics Department of the University of Virginia was awarded a grant by the US Department of Energy in 1984 to establish and administer a reactor operator training program for disadvantaged Americans. Stipends were provided by the US DOE for five trainees with the anticipation that four other educational facilities would participate in the program. Sub-contracts were awarded to four other Universities: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The University of Missouri at Columbia, Oregon State University, and The State University of New York at Buffalo. The initial two year program was very successful and the grant was renewed in late 1986 for another two years. MIT declined to participate in the second program and was replaced by Ohio State University. U.VA. was notified in September, 1987 that new funding would no longer be provided for this program after December, 1987. U.VA. requested and was granted a no cost extention for the program through December, 1990, since sufficient funds remained in the initial grant to pursue the program further. DOE subsequently approved a no cost extension through November, 1992.

Farrar, J.P.; Mulder, R.U.

1992-12-01

307

13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...submit the information in writing to the Associate...socially disadvantaged in paragraph (b...ethnic origin, gender, physical handicap, long-term residence in an environment isolated...advancement in the business world because of the disadvantage...employment and business history, where...

2011-01-01

308

13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...submit the information in writing to the Associate...socially disadvantaged in paragraph (b...ethnic origin, gender, physical handicap, long-term residence in an environment isolated...advancement in the business world because of the disadvantage...employment and business history, where...

2014-01-01

309

13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...submit the information in writing to the Associate...socially disadvantaged in paragraph (b...ethnic origin, gender, physical handicap, long-term residence in an environment isolated...advancement in the business world because of the disadvantage...employment and business history, where...

2013-01-01

310

13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...submit the information in writing to the Associate...socially disadvantaged in paragraph (b...ethnic origin, gender, physical handicap, long-term residence in an environment isolated...advancement in the business world because of the disadvantage...employment and business history, where...

2010-01-01

311

13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...submit the information in writing to the Associate...socially disadvantaged in paragraph (b...ethnic origin, gender, physical handicap, long-term residence in an environment isolated...advancement in the business world because of the disadvantage...employment and business history, where...

2012-01-01

312

A Career Development Workshop for Emotionally Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The investigation described in this study was a two part procedure which attempted to answer the general question: "Do the constructs of indecision and indecisiveness adequately describe disadvantaged individuals who experience difficulties in making a career decision?" The sampling was from a population of disadvantaged high school and college…

Carney, Clarke G.

313

Social Disadvantage: Cause or Consequence of Impending Psychosis?  

PubMed Central

Background: An association between social disadvantage and established psychosis is well documented in the literature, but there remains a lack of data on the social circumstances of patients before they became ill. We investigated whether social disadvantage at, and prior to, first contact with psychiatric services, is associated with psychosis. Method: We collected information on social disadvantage in childhood and adulthood from 278 cases presenting with their first episode of psychosis to the South London and Maudsley National Health Service Foundation Trust and from 226 controls recruited from the local population. Three markers of childhood social disadvantage and 3 markers of disadvantage in adulthood were analyzed. Results: Long term separation from, and death of, a parent before the age of 17 years were both strongly associated with a 2- to 3-fold-increased odds of psychosis. Cases were also significantly more likely to report 2 or more markers of adult social disadvantage than healthy controls (OR = 9.03) at the time of the first presentation with psychosis, independent of a number of confounders. When we repeated these analyses for long-standing adult social disadvantage, we found that the strength of the association decreased but still remained significant for 1 year (OR = 5.67) and 5 years (OR = 2.57) prior to the first contact. Conclusions: Social disadvantage indexes exposure to factors operating prior to onset that increase the risk of psychosis, both during childhood and adulthood. PMID:23091267

Stilo, Simona A.

2013-01-01

314

Measures of Disadvantage: Is Car Ownership a Good Indicator?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A need to better understand the multidimensional nature of disadvantage is leading to the adoption of a wider range of measurement variables. One variable now commonly adopted is zero car ownership. This paper challenges the logic of including "not having a car" as an indicator of disadvantage. It argues that this can distort the real picture of…

Johnson, Victoria; Currie, Graham; Stanley, Janet

2010-01-01

315

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the southern California planning area. Final report, 1970-2020  

SciTech Connect

The report presents baseline socio-economic profiles of Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego Counties in southern California. It is one of six reports prepared under the contract to develop baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in California, Oregon, and Washington. The profiles cover demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and port capacity, marine traffic, and fishing. Secondary sources were used to prepare the profiles. The focus of the profiles is 1980, but 1970 to 2020 is covered to the extent possible with existing data.

Brown, G.; Kolp, P.; Wallace, B.

1987-10-01

316

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the northern California planning area. Final report, 1970-2020  

SciTech Connect

The report presents baseline socio-economic profiles of Del Norte, Humboldt, and Mendocino Counties in northern California. It is one of six reports prepared under the contract to develop baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in California, Oregon and Washington. The profiles cover demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and port capacity, marine traffic, and fishing. Secondary sources were used to prepare the profiles. The focus of the profiles is 1980, but 1970 to 2020 is covered to the extent possible with existing data.

Brown, G.; Kolp, P.; Wallace, B.

1987-10-01

317

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the central California planning area. Final report, 1970-2020  

SciTech Connect

The report presents baseline socio-economic profiles of Sonoma, Marin, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties in central California. It is one of six reports prepared under the contract to develop baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in California, Oregon, and Washington. The profiles cover demographics, economics, housing public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and port capacity, marine traffic, and fishing. Secondary sources were used to prepare the profiles. The focus of the profiles is 1980, but 1970 to 2020 is covered to the extent possible with existing data.

Brown, G.; Kolp, P.; Wallace, B.

1987-10-01

318

Is neighbourhood obesogenicity associated with body mass index in women? Application of an obesogenicity index in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.  

PubMed

An aggregate index is potentially useful to represent neighbourhood obesogenicity. We created a conceptually-based obesogenicity index and examined its association with body mass index (BMI) among 3786 women (age 18-45y) in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Victoria, Australia. The index included 3 items from each of 3 domains: food resources (supermarkets, green grocers, fast food restaurants), recreational activity resources (gyms, pools, park space), and walkability (4+ leg intersections, neighbourhood walking environment, neighbourhood safety), with a possible range from 0 to 18 reflecting 0-2 for each of the 9 items. Using generalised estimating equations, neighbourhood obesogenicity was not associated with BMI in the overall sample. However, stratified analyses revealed generally positive associations with BMI in urban areas and inverse associations in rural areas (interaction p=0.02). These analyses are a first step towards combining neighbourhood characteristics into an aggregate obesogenicity index that is transparent enough to be adopted elsewhere and to allow examination of the relevance of its specific components in different settings. PMID:25155451

Tseng, Marilyn; Thornton, Lukar E; Lamb, Karen E; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

2014-11-01

319

Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' understanding of the concepts of area and how it can relate to perimeter. The shapes explored in this lesson are constructed of adjacent squares on a coordinate plane. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to area as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, the reading level for this resource’s worksheet is at the grade 8 level.

2011-05-24

320

The Impact of the 2008-2009 Economic Recession on Acute Myocardial Infarction Occurrences in Various Socioeconomic Areas of Raritan Bay Region, New Jersey  

PubMed Central

Background: Psychosocial stress is one important risk factor for myocardial infarction. Aim: The study was to assess the impact of the 2008-2009 economic recession on myocardial infarction occurrences in different socioeconomic areas of Raritan Bay region, New Jersey. Materials and Methods: The patients, who were treated for acute myocardial infarction from January 2006 to June 2012, were grouped based on the average incomes of their residence districts in the Raritan Bay region. The Spearman Rank Correlation test was used to assess the correlation between the monthly occurrences of myocardial infarction and Dow Jones stock averages, as well as the correlation between the myocardial infarction occurrences and NJ State unemployment rates. Results: Among 1,491 cases that were identified, 990 cases resided in areas with income below the state average and 477 were from areas above the average. After the onset of the recession, the myocardial infarction occurrences trended up in the low-income area group but not in the high-income area group; and this increasing trend is correlated with the rise in NJ State unemployment rates but not with the changes in stock averages. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that unemployment contributed to an increased risk of myocardial infarction among the residents in low socioeconomic areas after the 2008-2009 economic recession. PMID:24926446

Li, Yulong; Rukshin, Iris; Pan, Fangfang; Sen, Shuvendu; Islam, Mohammed; Yousif, Abdalla; Rukshin, Vladimir

2014-01-01

321

Economic and Technical Feasibility Study of Utility-Scale Wind Generation for the New York Buffalo River and South Buffalo Brownfield Opportunity Areas  

SciTech Connect

Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing contaminated lands in the Buffalo, New York, area for utility-scale wind development is explored. The study found that there is available land, electrical infrastructure, wind resource, and local interest to support a commercial wind project; however, economies of scale and local electrical markets may need further investigation before significant investment is made into developing a wind project at the Buffalo Reuse Authority site.

Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.

2014-04-01

322

Disadvantages of VKA and requirements for novel anticoagulants.  

PubMed

Vitamin K antagonists have been in wide use for over 70 years. Warfarin, the most commonly used vitamin K antagonist, has been shown to be highly effective in treating and preventing thrombosis. Despite this, warfarin has many disadvantages, which has led to the development of a new class of oral anticoagulants targeted to specific coagulation factors designated as target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOAs). TSOAs include the thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran) and factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban). This chapter reviews the disadvantages of warfarin and evaluates both the advantages and disadvantages of the new oral anticoagulants. PMID:23953899

Shameem, Raji; Ansell, Jack

2013-06-01

323

Identifying the spatial and temporal variability of economic opportunity costs to promote the adoption of alternative land uses in grain growing agricultural areas: An Australian example.  

PubMed

Grain growers face many future challenges requiring them to adapt their land uses to changing economic, social and environmental conditions. To understand where to make on ground changes without significant negative financial repercussions, high resolution information on income generation over time is required. We propose a methodology which utilises high resolution yield data collected with precision agriculture (PA) technology, gross margin financial analysis and a temporal standardisation technique to highlight the spatial and temporal consistency of farm income. On three neighbouring farms in Western Australia, we found non-linear relationships between income and area. Spatio-temporal analysis on one farm over varying seasons found that between 37 and 49% (1082-1433ha) of cropping area consistently produced above the selected income thresholds and 43-32% (936-1257ha) regularly produced below selected thresholds. Around 20% of area showed inconsistent temporal variation in income generation. Income estimated from these areas represents the income forgone if a land use change is undertaken (the economic opportunity cost) and the average costs varied spatially from $190±114/ha to $560±108/ha depending on what scenario was chosen. The interaction over space and time showed the clustering of areas with similar values at a resolution where growers make input decisions. This new evidence suggests that farm area could be managed with two strategies: (a) one that maximises grain output using PA management in temporally stable areas which generate moderate to high income returns and (b) one that proposes land use change in low and inconsistent income returning areas where the financial returns from an alternative land use may be comparable. The adoption of these strategies can help growers meet the demand for agricultural output and offer income diversity and adaptive capacity to deal with the future challenges to agricultural production. PMID:25836353

Lyle, G; Bryan, B A; Ostendorf, B

2015-05-15

324

77 FR 38210 - Channel Spacing and Bandwidth Limitations for Certain Economic Area (EA)-Based 800 MHz...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Area (EA)-Based 800 MHz Specialized Mobile Radio Licensees AGENCY: Federal Communications...Area (EA)-based 800 MHz Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR) licensees to exceed a legacy...notice area will be able to monitor their networks for any increase in harmful...

2012-06-27

325

75 FR 14359 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-03-25

326

78 FR 9849 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2013-0032 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

2013-02-12

327

76 FR 11393 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2011-03-02

328

78 FR 17886 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2012-0180 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

2013-03-25

329

78 FR 63405 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2012-0180 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

2013-10-24

330

75 FR 57702 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch of pollock specified for Statistical Area 630 of the GOA...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-09-22

331

75 FR 9534 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-03-03

332

77 FR 65330 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2012-10-26

333

77 FR 60321 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2012-10-03

334

76 FR 10779 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2011-02-28

335

77 FR 9588 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2012-02-17

336

76 FR 55606 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2011-09-08

337

75 FR 64172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...of pollock specified for Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-10-19

338

78 FR 63899 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2012-0180 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

2013-10-25

339

77 FR 64917 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2012-10-24

340

77 FR 16950 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2012-03-23

341

76 FR 13097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2011-03-10

342

75 FR 64958 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...of pollock specified for Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-10-21

343

75 FR 61638 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...total allowable catch limit in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-10-06

344

78 FR 61990 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA is 51,444 metric tons (mt) as...the pollock TAC in Statistical Area 620 is 9,120 mt (7,600...revised 2013 TAC in Statistical Area 620 is 52,964 mt (51,444 mt plus 1,520...

2013-10-10

345

Threshold values for nature protection areas as indicators for bio-diversity—a regional evaluation of economic and ecological consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Threshold values for nature protection areas are used as indicators for their nature protection value. Several values related to a minimum share of the area in a region or a country have been proposed as basic conditions for a sound development of natural areas. Although the height of these thresholds is still a matter of extended scientific discussion (they range

Sylvia Herrmann; Stefan Dabbert; Hans-Georg Schwarz-von Raumer

2003-01-01

346

IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 30, NO. 6, JULY 2012 1061 Decentralized Economic Dispatch in Microgrids via  

E-print Network

]. In addition to the environmental benefit in terms of using more renewable energy sources, the microgrids can Economic Dispatch in Microgrids via Heterogeneous Wireless Networks Hao Liang, Student Member, IEEE, Bong) Shen, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--As essential building blocks of the future smart grid, microgrids can

Shen, Xuemin "Sherman"

347

The Economic Benefits from Halving the Dropout Rate: A Boom to Businesses in the Nation's Largest Metropolitan Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few people realize the impact that high school dropouts have on a community's economic, social, and civic health. Business owners and residents--in particular, those without school-aged children--may not be aware that they have much at stake in the success of their local high schools. Indeed, everyone--from car dealers and realtors to bank…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

348

Expanding Economic and Educational Opportunity in Distressed Rural Areas: A Conceptual Framework for the Rural Community College Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) collaborates with community colleges in rural communities that are racially, ethnically, culturally, and economically diverse by challenging them to think broadly about their potential as catalysts for regional development. RCCI is a national demonstration program that combines the goals of rural…

MDC, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

349

Review of ADHD Pharmacotherapies: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Clinical Pearls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advantages, disadvantages, as well as helpful hints on when to use several drug therapies against attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are discussed. The drugs discussed are methylphenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, and bupropion.

Daughton, Joan M.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

2009-01-01

350

48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disadvantaged business status. 19.304 Section 19.304 ...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs...

2014-10-01

351

The relation between disadvantaged groups: a social psychological approach  

E-print Network

in position and to an advantaged outgroup always high in position, and then subjects were given a chance to aggress against either the disadvantaged outgroup or the advantaged outgroup. Results supported hypotheses derived from social identity theory...

Rothgerber, Hank

1995-01-01

352

Social disadvantage, genetic sensitivity, and children’s telomere length  

PubMed Central

Disadvantaged social environments are associated with adverse health outcomes. This has been attributed, in part, to chronic stress. Telomere length (TL) has been used as a biomarker of chronic stress: TL is shorter in adults in a variety of contexts, including disadvantaged social standing and depression. We use data from 40, 9-y-old boys participating in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to extend this observation to African American children. We report that exposure to disadvantaged environments is associated with reduced TL by age 9 y. We document significant associations between low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure, and harsh parenting and TL. These effects were moderated by genetic variants in serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways. Consistent with the differential susceptibility hypothesis, subjects with the highest genetic sensitivity scores had the shortest TL when exposed to disadvantaged social environments and the longest TL when exposed to advantaged environments. PMID:24711381

Mitchell, Colter; Hobcraft, John; McLanahan, Sara S.; Siegel, Susan Rutherford; Berg, Arthur; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Garfinkel, Irwin; Notterman, Daniel

2014-01-01

353

48 CFR 1552.219-73 - Small Disadvantaged Business Targets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the following small disadvantaged business (SDB) participation targets proposed by the contractor... (b) The following specifically identified SDB(s) was (were) considered under the Section—SDB participation evaluation factor or...

2010-10-01

354

48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...in paragraph (a)(1) of this section for development assistance and for assistance for famine recovery and development in Africa shall be used only for activities of disadvantaged enterprises (as defined in 726.7002). In order to achieve...

2011-10-01

355

48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disadvantaged business status. 19.304 Section 19.304 ...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs...

2013-10-01

356

48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disadvantaged business status. 19.304 Section 19.304 ...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs...

2012-10-01

357

48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disadvantaged business status. 19.304 Section 19.304 ...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs...

2011-10-01

358

Ethnic identity, perceptions of disadvantage, and psychosis: findings from the ÆSOP study.  

PubMed

Many studies have shown that rates of psychosis are elevated in the Black and minority ethnic (BME) population in the UK. One important, but relatively less researched explanation of these high rates may be social adversity associated with acculturation processes. Strong identification with an ethnic minority group subjected to social disadvantage may exert adverse effects on individuals from BME groups. Using data from a large epidemiological case-control study of first-episode psychosis, we aimed to investigate whether strong ethnic identification is a factor contributing to the excess of psychosis in BME groups compared with the White British, after adjustment for perceptions of disadvantage. All cases with a first episode of psychosis presenting to specialist mental health services within tightly defined catchment areas in London and Nottingham, UK, and geographically matched community controls were included in the study. Data were collected on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, perceptions of disadvantage, and identification with one's own ethnic group. Analysis was performed on data from 139 cases and 234 controls. There was evidence that, as levels of ethnic identification increased, the odds of psychosis increased in the BME but not in the White British group, independent of potential confounders. However, the association between strong ethnic identity and psychosis in BME individuals was attenuated and non-significant when controlled for perceived disadvantage. Strong identification with an ethnic minority group may be a potential contributory factor of the high rates of psychosis in the BME population, the effects of which may be explained by perceptions of disadvantage. PMID:20855184

Reininghaus, Ulrich; Craig, Thomas K J; Fisher, Helen L; Hutchinson, Gerard; Fearon, Paul; Morgan, Kevin; Dazzan, Paola; Doody, Gillian A; Jones, Peter B; Murray, Robin M; Morgan, Craig

2010-12-01

359

Sexist humor: Local and systemic manifestations of privilege and disadvantage  

E-print Network

SEXIST HUMOR: LOCAL AND SYSTEMIC MANIFESTATIONS OF PRIVILEGE AND DISADVANTAGE BY Kate M. Pickett Submitted to the graduate degree program in Psychology and the Faculty of the Graduate School at the University of Kansas in partial fulfillment... committee for Kate Pickett certifies that this is the approved version of the following thesis: SEXIST HUMOR: LOCAL AND SYSTEMIC MANIFESTATIONS OF PRIVILEGE AND DISADVANTAGE Committee: ______________________________ Glenn Adams, Ph.D., Chair...

Pickett, Kate M.

2008-07-29

360

Family and neighborhood disadvantage, home environment, and children's school readiness.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine associations between family socioeconomic risk, neighborhood disadvantage, and children's school readiness. A sample of 420 children from 48 early childcare programs yielded multi-informant data. The average age was 55.3 months (SD = 6.4), with 38% of children being Black, non-Hispanic, Hispanic, or other minority race (American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander). One third (32.4%) of the parents had annual incomes less than $30,000. We used multilevel structural equation modeling to test direct and indirect associations among family socioeconomic risk and neighborhood disadvantage and children's cognitive and social-emotional development through home learning environment and parental depression. Children with a greater number of family socioeconomic risks and a higher level of neighborhood disadvantage demonstrated lower scores on cognitive skills. The degree of family socioeconomic risk was indirectly associated with children's cognitive ability through parents' cognitive stimulation at home. Parents who had more family socioeconomic risks and neighborhood disadvantage reported more depressive symptoms, which, in turn, suggested children's greater probability of having social-emotional problems. In other words, home learning environments explained associations between family socioeconomic disadvantage and children's cognitive skills, while parental depression explained associations between family/neighborhood disadvantages and children's social-emotional problems. Results suggest the importance of intervention or prevention strategies for parents to improve cognitive stimulation at home and to reduce depressive symptoms. PMID:25150370

Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K; Hur, Eunhye

2014-10-01

361

Competitive disadvantage makes attitudes towards rape less negative.  

PubMed

Evolutionary theorists have argued that perceived competitive disadvantage may lead to more positive evaluation of, and greater likelihood of engaging in, risky and antisocial behavior. However, experimental studies have not yet examined the effects of competitive disadvantage on perceptions of rape. In the current study, we created a manipulation of perceived competitive status to test its effects on beliefs about rape. In one condition, participants were made to feel disadvantaged relative to male peers in terms of financial, physical, and intellectual power, whereas in the other condition they were made to feel advantaged. Participants were 120 heterosexual male undergraduate students. The manipulation was effective; compared to participants in the advantage condition, those in the disadvantage condition rated themselves as significantly worse off financially, shorter, in worse physical shape, and as having lower course marks than the average male student at the university. Compared to perceived competitive advantage, perceived disadvantage led to less negative attitudes towards rape. However, perceived competitive status did not significantly affect justifications and excuses for rape. Future studies using similar experimental manipulations can complement correlational studies and may contribute to greater clarity, precision, and sophistication of research and theory on the role of competitive disadvantage in rape. PMID:22947990

Nunes, Kevin L; Pettersen, Cathrine

2011-01-01

362

48 CFR 19.305 - Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...Programs 19.305 Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...apparently successful offeror's representation of disadvantaged status if the...

2014-10-01

363

48 CFR 19.305 - Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...Programs 19.305 Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...apparently successful offeror's representation of disadvantaged status if the...

2013-10-01

364

48 CFR 19.305 - Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...Programs 19.305 Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...apparently successful offeror's representation of disadvantaged status if the...

2011-10-01

365

48 CFR 19.305 - Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...Programs 19.305 Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...apparently successful offeror's representation of disadvantaged status if the...

2012-10-01

366

13 CFR 124.1010 - What procedures apply to disadvantaged status protests?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What procedures apply to disadvantaged status protests? 124.1010 Section 124...DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification...What procedures apply to disadvantaged status protests? (a) General....

2010-01-01

367

13 CFR 124.1007 - Who may protest the disadvantaged status of a concern?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Who may protest the disadvantaged status of a concern? 124.1007 Section...DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification...1007 Who may protest the disadvantaged status of a concern? (a) In...

2010-01-01

368

Relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in a water-scarce area in China: A quantitative analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern China has been facing severe water scarcity as a result of vigorous economic growth, population expansion and changing lifestyles. A typical case is Shandong province whose water resources per capita is approximately only a sixth of the national average and a twentieth of the global average. It is useful to assess the implications of the province’s growth and trade patterns for water use and water conservation strategies. This study quantitatively analyses relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in Shandong using an input-output model for virtual water resources. The changes in key indicators for 1997-2007 are tracked and the effects of water-saving policies on these changes are examined. The results highlight the benefits of applying a virtual water trade analysis on a water-scarce region where water resources exhibit highly heterogeneous temporal and geographical distributions. The net export of virtual water in Shandong was initially large, but this declined over the years and the province has recently become a net importer. Between 1997 and 2002, water use in most sectors increased due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Since then, water use in all Shandong economic sectors exhibit a downward trend despite continued increases in goods and services net exports, a trend which can be attributed to the vigorous implementation of water-saving policies and measures, especially water use quotas. Economic sectors consume water directly and indirectly and understanding the pattern of virtual water trade implied by sectoral relationships is important for managing water scarcity problems. This study fills the knowledge gap in the existing literature created by the lack of case studies that dynamically assess virtual water trade and analyse the effects of water-saving policies and measures. The study draws policy recommendations that are relevant for future water planning in Shandong and other regions in northern China.

Wang, Weiping; Gao, Lei; Liu, Pin; Hailu, Atakelty

2014-07-01

369

Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction  

E-print Network

and disadvantages associated with the decreased steam pressure 3. The economics of steam pressure reduction. Appropriate visual aids will be utilized as part of the discussion. ',: 566 I ESL-IE-85-05-112 Proceedings from the Seventh National Industrial...

Sylva, D. M.

370

75 FR 1723 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chiniak Gully Research Area for Vessels...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Gully Research Area for Vessels Using Trawl Gear AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...necessary to allow vessels using trawl gear to participate in directed fishing for...Research Area is closed to vessels using trawl gear from August 1 to a date no later than...

2010-01-13

371

A Qualitative Study of How Young Scottish Smokers Living in Disadvantaged Communities Get Their Cigarettes  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Reducing access to cigarettes is an important element of youth smoking prevention strategies. This is particularly so in disadvantaged communities that have high rates of youth smoking. In 2010, Scotland banned proxy sales of tobacco products to under 18-year-olds who were getting older people to purchase cigarettes on their behalf. Methods: A qualitative study using 24 small single-sex friendship groups. Eighty young people, mostly aged 14–16, of whom 57 were smokers, were recruited in 2012 from community youth groups in 3 socially disadvantaged areas of Scotland. Results: Participants’ main sources of cigarettes were proxy sales, family, and peers and friends. Younger smokers were more likely to purchase single cigarettes from older smokers at school and to steal cigarettes from family members. Older and regular smokers were more likely to obtain cigarettes through proxy purchases. Proxy purchases were often facilitated by problem drug users who were willing to buy cigarettes for a small monetary reward. Direct purchases in shops were less commonly reported but appeared to involve complicit action by some retailers. Few reported that they bought blackmarket cigarettes, although they were available in these communities. Conclusions: Young people in areas of deprivation are still able to circumvent the age-of-sale legislation on selling cigarettes. Even though proxy sales have been banned, they are an important source of cigarettes for disadvantaged young smokers. PMID:23911845

2013-01-01

372

Making the most of the mosaic: facilitating post-school transitions to higher education of disadvantaged students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research studies of post-school education and training conducted in Australia and internationally have revealed a mosaic of students’ education and employment experiences, with a multiplicity of nonlinear pathways. These tend to be more fragmentary\\u000a for disadvantaged students, especially those of low socio-economic background, rural students, and mature aged students seeking\\u000a a ‘second chance’ education. Challenges faced by students in their

Joan Abbott-Chapman

2011-01-01

373

Economic Recession and Emergence of an HIV-1 Outbreak among Drug Injectors in Athens Metropolitan Area: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background During 2011, a dramatic increase (1600%) of reported HIV-1 infections among injecting drug users (IDUs) was noted in Athens, Greece. We herein assess the potential causal pathways associated with this outbreak. Methods Our study employed high resolution HIV-1 phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses. We examined also longitudinal data of ecological variables such as the annual growth of gross domestic product (GDP) of Greece in association with HIV-1 and HCV sentinel prevalence in IDUs, unemployment and homelessness rates and HIV transmission networks in Athens IDUs before and during economic recession (2008–2012). Results IDU isolates sampled in 2011 and 2012 suggested transmission networks in 94.6% and 92.7% of the cases in striking contrast with the sporadic networking (5%) during 1998–2009. The geographic origin of most HIV-1 isolates was consistent with the recently documented migratory waves in Greece. The decline in GDP was inversely correlated with annual prevalence rates of HIV and HCV and with unemployment and homelessness rates in IDUs (all p<0.001). The slope of anti-HCV prevalence in the sentinel populations of IDUs and in “new” drug injectors was found 120 and 1.9-fold (p?=?0.007, p?=?0.08 respectively) higher in 2008–2012 (economic recession) compared with 2002–2006. The median (25th, 75th) size of transmission networks were 34 (12, 58) and 2 (2, 2) (p?=?0.057) in 2008–2012 and 1998–2007, respectively. The coverage of harm reduction services was low throughout the study period. Conclusions Scaling-up harm reduction services and addressing social and structural factors related to the current economic crisis should be urgently considered in environments where HIV-1 outbreaks may occur. PMID:24265730

Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Fotiou, Anastasios; Tsiara, Chrissa; Paraskeva, Dimitra; Sypsa, Vana; Lazanas, Marios; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Psichogiou, Mina; Skoutelis, Athanasios; Wiessing, Lucas; Friedman, Samuel R.; Jarlais, Don C. d. e. s.; Terzidou, Manina; Kremastinou, Jenny; Malliori, Meni; Hatzakis, Angelos

2013-01-01

374

1978 Annual Report to the President and Congress. The National Advisory Council on the Education of Disadvantaged Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a report of the Council's site visits, assessment activities, and recommendations concerning programs for the educationally disadvantaged. Although most of the programs examined are funded under Title I, other types of compensatory programs are also considered. Particular attention is given in the report to the areas of: funds allocation…

National Advisory Council on the Education of Disadvantaged Children, Washington, DC.

375

Policies for disadvantaged children under scrutiny: the Dutch policy compared with policies in France, England, Flanders and the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the policies for disadvantaged children in western countries since the mid?sixties. First, it analyses the design and results of the ‘classic programmes’ of positive discrimination such as the American Title I programme, and the English, Dutch, Flemish and French priority areas policies. It discusses the differences and similarities in approach and the disappointing results. Second, the article

Sjoerd Karsten

2006-01-01

376

A Parenting Intervention for Childhood Behavioral Problems: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Disadvantaged Community-Based Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A community-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in urban areas characterized by high levels of disadvantage to test the effectiveness of the Incredible Years BASIC parent training program (IYBP) for children with behavioral problems. Potential moderators of intervention effects on child behavioral outcomes were also explored. Method: Families were included if the child (aged 32–88 months) scored above

Sinead McGilloway; Grainne Ni Mhaille; Tracey Bywater; Mairead Furlong; Yvonne Leckey; Paul Kelly; Catherine Comiskey; Michael Donnelly

2012-01-01

377

A Parenting Intervention for Childhood Behavioral Problems: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Disadvantaged Community-Based Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: A community-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in urban areas characterized by high levels of disadvantage to test the effectiveness of the Incredible Years BASIC parent training program (IYBP) for children with behavioral problems. Potential moderators of intervention effects on child behavioral outcomes were also…

McGilloway, Sinead; Mhaille, Grainne Ni; Bywater, Tracey; Furlong, Mairead; Leckey, Yvonne; Kelly, Paul; Comiskey, Catherine; Donnelly, Michael

2012-01-01

378

Quality in general practice consultations; a qualitative study of the views of patients living in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Scotland  

PubMed Central

Background Inequality in health and health care services is an important policy issue internationally as well as in the UK, and is closely linked to socio-economic deprivation, which in Scotland is concentrated in and around Glasgow. Patients views on primary care in deprived areas are not well documented. In the present study we explore the views of patients living in a high deprivation area on the quality of consultations in general practice. Methods Qualitative focus group study set in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in a large peripheral housing estate in Glasgow, Scotland. 11 focus groups were conducted; 8 with local community groups and 3 with other local residents. In total 72 patients took part. Grounded theory was used to analyse the data. Results Patients' perceptions of the quality of the consultation with GPs consisted of two broad, inter-relating themes; (1) the GPs' competence, and (2) the GPs empathy or ' caring'. Competence was often assumed but many factors coloured this assumption, in particular whether patients had experienced (directly or indirectly with a close family member) 'successful' outcomes with that doctor previously or not. 'Caring' related to patients feeling (a) listened to by the doctor and being able to talk; (b) valued as an individual by the doctor (c) that the doctor understood 'the bigger picture', and (d) the doctors' explanations were clear and understandable. Relational continuity of care (being able to see the same GP and having a good relationship), and having sufficient time in the consultation were closely linked with perceptions of consultation quality. Conclusion Patients from deprived areas want holistic GPs who understand the realities of life in such areas and whom they can trust as both competent and genuinely caring. Without this, they may judge doctors as socially distant and emotionally detached. Relational continuity, empathy and sufficient time in consultations are key factors in achieving this. PMID:17442123

Mercer, Stewart W; Cawston, Peter G; Bikker, Annemieke P

2007-01-01

379

77 FR 18991 - Channel Spacing and Bandwidth Limitations for Certain Economic Area (EA)-Based 800 MHz...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...based 800 MHz Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR) licensees in...the spectrum into its CDMA network, which it claims requires...area licensees of commercial mobile services,'' it and Motorola...based 800 MHz specialized mobile radio (SMR) licensees....

2012-03-29

380

[ADVANCE: America`s economic Development Venture for Area Neighborhoods, Communities, and Enterprises]. Quarterly progress report -- Year two  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a mission to foster a secure and reliable energy system that is environmentally and economically sustainable, to be a responsible steward of the Nation`s nuclear weapons, to clean up decommissioned facilities, and to support continued US leadership in science and technology. To effectively utilize and integrate its mission, DOE has created the Regional Environmental Technology and Business Development Office (RETBDO) serving as a Community Reuse Organization, a stakeholder organization, which represents interests and economic concerns of communities surrounding DOE sites that are being closed or reconfigured. RETBDO is a branch office of ADVANCE, a 501(c) (3) non-profit organization established in 1994. The mission of RETBDO is to diversify the economy by creating an environment conductive to improve the representation of minorities and small businesses in the region and to assure fair business participation in major environmental decision-making, technology based start-ups, expansion management, and the attractive of new ventures to the Southwest region, including, bu not limited to, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. This report describes the RETBDO program and its implementation.

McDavid, R.A.

1998-12-01

381

An economical single to three phase converter for induction motors  

E-print Network

There are several different types of single to three phase converters for induction motors available today. However, many of the presently available phase converters suffer from disadvantages such as high cost or low performance. An economical...

Di Zerega, Philp Van Uytandaele

1994-01-01

382

Economics of Scholarly Publishing: Exploring the Causes of Subscription Price Variations of Scholarly Journals in Business Subject-Specific Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This empirical research investigates subscription price variations of scholarly journals in five business subject-specific areas using the semilogarithmic regression model. It has two main purposes. The first is to address the unsettled debate over whether or not and to what extent commercial publishers reap monopoly profits by overcharging…

Liu, Lewis G.

2011-01-01

383

Developing Generic Competences in the European Higher Education Area: A Proposal for Teaching the Principles of Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The participation of Spain in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) involves a number of important challenges for academics. Adapting to an educational model that is characterised by competence-based teaching is a difficult task, yet it is of paramount importance in the context of current reforms. In an educational system in which the…

Velasco, Manuel Salas; Sanchez Martinez, Maria Teresa; Ferrero, Noelina Rodriguez

2012-01-01

384

NASA Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) within NASA promotes the utilization of small, disadvantaged, and women-owned small businesses in compliance with Federal laws, regulations, and policies. We assist such firms in obtaining contracts and subcontracts with NASA and its prime contractors. The OSDBU also facilitates the participation of small businesses in NASA's technology transfer and commercialization activities. Our driving philosophy is to consider small businesses as our products. Our customers are the NASA Enterprises, Field Centers, Functional Staff Offices, major prime contractors, and other large institutions. We hone the skills of our products to make them marketable to our customers in the performance of NASA missions.

2001-01-01

385

Highline Public Schools Computer-Assisted Instruction Project: A Program to Meet Disadvantaged Students' Individual Needs for Basic Skill Development: Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This description of a computer-assisted instruction project, which provides an alternative approach to individual instruction in basic skills for economically and educationally disadvantaged students at the secondary level, includes the results of evaluations conducted at the end of each of three school years. Instruction in priority…

Maser, Arthur L.; And Others

386

Black carbon aerosols over an urban area in south-eastern Spain: Changes detected after the 2008 economic crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous measurements of black carbon (BC) concentrations performed at Granada, an urban location in southeast Spain, using a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer from December 2005 to November 2008, are analysed and discussed here. The daily mean BC concentrations showed considerable day-to-day variations and were found to vary from low values of 0.5 ?g m -3 to high values of 8.6 ?g m -3, with overall mean and standard deviation of 3.0 ± 1.5 ?g m -3. The annual mean BC concentrations were similar during 2006 and 2007 (3.2 ± 1.4 ?g m -3 and 3.1 ± 1.6 ?g m -3, respectively), but decreased by about 16-18% to 2.6 ± 1.4 ?g m -3 in 2008. This reduction is not only observed in the mean value, but also in the median, third and first quartiles. A Mann-Whitney test at 0.05 significance level confirms that the BC concentration difference between 2006 and 2007 is statistically no significant while the BC concentration in 2008 tends to be less than that in 2006-2007. Analysis of meteorological conditions suggested that although the day-to-day variations in BC concentrations were driven mostly by meteorology, the reduction in the use of fossil fuels due to economic slowdown contributed significantly to the observed decrease in BC concentrations in 2008. Under conditions dominated by local source emissions, the effect of the economic crisis on BC concentration was more pronounced. For the three analysed years, BC concentrations obtained during winter were higher than those measured during summer, probably due to increased emissions from domestic heating and less intense vertical mixing in winter season, which lead to the confinement of the BC particles near the surface. The monthly mean BC concentrations were lower in 2008 than in 2006-2007 for almost every month of the year. In all years BC concentrations exhibited a clear diurnal pattern, with two maxima and two minima within a day. There were no differences among the daily patterns for 2006, 2007 and 2008 except for a general reduction in BC concentrations on 2008, especially during morning and evening traffic hours. For every day of the week, BC concentrations were lower on 2008 than in 2006 and 2007 and this reduction was more pronounced on working days, when BC concentrations were high.

Lyamani, H.; Olmo, F. J.; Foyo, I.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

2011-11-01

387

Activating the Disadvantaged. Variations in Addressing Youth Transitions across Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term activation refers to a shift in social policies, through which individuals are given more responsibility for their own social inclusion. This article provides a comparative analysis of the different ways in which EU member states interpret and implement the concept of activation by addressing the transitions of disadvantaged young people…

Pohl, Axel; Walther, Andreas

2007-01-01

388

Why the Disadvantaged Drop Out: The Administrators' View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A report focusing on the academically disadvantaged minority group students is presented. Perceptions of administrators in public two-year colleges as to the major reasons for attrition of this group are examined. A pre-coded questionnaire was developed to gather information concerning programs of compensatory education in two-year colleges. It…

Morrison, James L.; Ferrante, Reynolds

389

Instructional Resources for Teachers of the Culturally Disadvantaged and Exceptional.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as a reference for general educators, a resource book for teachers of the disadvantaged and exceptional, a textbook, a tool for administrators, and a resource for librarians, the book contains a list of instructional resources which the authors or experienced others had used with positive impression, plus recent materials. An introduction…

Anderson, Robert M., Ed.; And Others

390

An afterschool intervention program for educationally disadvantaged young children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research investigated the premise that if educationally disadvantaged children experience increased instructional time combined with an educational setting that is sensitive to their culture and that provides perceptions of control, enhanced achievement and interest in learning will result. The research setting was the Hilltop Emergent Literacy Project (HELP), an afterschool educational program serving poor, mostly African American five- to

David A. Bergin; Lynne M. Hudson; Carolyn F. Chryst; Mark Resetar

1992-01-01

391

Missed Opportunities: A New Look at Disadvantaged College Aspirants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides a comprehensive portrait of educationally disadvantaged college aspirants, focusing on three important factors that hinder access to and success in postsecondary education. These factors--welfare participation, first-generation college student status, and parental divorce--exacerbate the obstacles that continue to confront…

Education Resources Inst., Boston, MA.

392

Coexpression of Linked Genes in Mammalian Genomes Is Generally Disadvantageous  

E-print Network

Coexpression of Linked Genes in Mammalian Genomes Is Generally Disadvantageous Ben-Yang Liao expression pattern between closely linked genes is known in several eukaryotes. Two models have been proposed of linked genes, but is neither advantageous nor detrimental. However, these models are incompatible

Zhang, Jianzhi

393

48 CFR 1519.204 - Small disadvantaged business participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...participation of Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB) concerns in the performance of a resulting...evaluate the extent of participation of SDB concerns in the performance of the contract...evaluate the extent of participation of SDB concerns in the performance of the...

2010-10-01

394

Students with Low-Incidence Disabilities in Disadvantaged, Rural Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive study examined the impact of special education policy on three disadvantaged, rural students with severe disabilities. Findings revealed a school day with little or no instruction and limited opportunities for peer interaction due to such factors as personnel shortages and lack of positive service examples. (Author/DB)

Capper, Colleen A.

1990-01-01

395

Access to Postsecondary Education: Can Schools Compensate for Socioeconomic Disadvantage?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While access to postsecondary education in Canada has increased over the past decade, a number of recent studies demonstrate that youth from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds are vulnerable to some degree of exclusion from postsecondary education. These studies tend to emphasize the lack of financial resources and social capital as the main…

Frempong, George; Ma, Xin; Mensah, Joseph

2012-01-01

396

Disentangling Disadvantage: Can We Distinguish Good Teaching from Classroom Composition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the use of teacher value-added estimates to assess the distribution of effective teaching across students of varying socioeconomic disadvantage in the presence of classroom composition effects. We examine, via simulations, how accurately commonly used teacher value-added estimators recover the rank correlation between…

Zamarro, Gema; Engberg, John; Saavedra, Juan Esteban; Steele, Jennifer

2015-01-01

397

Predicting Success among Prospective Disadvantaged Students in Natural Scientific Fields  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred and fifty-nine Grade 11 prospective disadvantaged students in the natural sciences at the University of Pretoria completed the Study Orientation Questionnaire in Mathematics and the Senior Aptitude Test (Advanced). Fifty-nine male students (M age = 16.05; SD = 0.57) and 100 females (M age = 16.02; SD = 0.512) scored significantly…

Maree, J. G.; Fletcher, L.; Sommerville, J.

2011-01-01

398

An empirical re-evaluation of consumer disadvantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer disadvantage, concerned with inequality in the market place, is a topic that has attracted waves of interest for over 30 years. Despite recent, renewed interest among academics in marketing and related disciplines, it remains to be clearly conceptualized, debated or extensively empirically tested. This paper aims to address these issues, using findings from a qualitative study (focus groups) on

Lucy Woodliffe

2007-01-01

399

Infusing Language Enhancement into the Reading Curriculum for Disadvantaged Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the collaborative instruction provided by a special education reading teacher and a speech-language pathologist to disadvantaged high school special education students, most with learning disabilities or mild-to-moderate mental retardation. It discusses teaching issues such as motivation, phonology, language use patterns, and…

Fleming, Jaci; Forester, Betsy

1997-01-01

400

Concrete vs. Abstract Problem Formats: A Disadvantage of Prior Knowledge  

E-print Network

Concrete vs. Abstract Problem Formats: A Disadvantage of Prior Knowledge Andrew F. Heckler experiments examine the effects of varying the relative concreteness of physics word problems on student performance.Previous studies have found that concrete representations benefit performance for relatively

Heckler, Andrew F.

401

Nutritional Supplementation of Disadvantaged Elementary-School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined with 177 disadvantaged elementary school students (5-9 years old, 99 percent Blacks) were the effects of the provision of a nutritionally fortified low-lactose food supplement on hematocrit values (volume percentage of erythrocytes in whole blood), growth, absenteeism, and lunch consumption. (IM)

Paige, David M.; And Others

1976-01-01

402

To Admit or Not to Admit the Academically Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If institutions of higher learning have admissions standards that admit the academically-disadvantaged student, then those same institutions should provide programs to assist the enrollee to be academically successful. The author cites an investigation made at Oklahoma State University, showing a significant relationship between provisional…

Lacy, Robin H.

1979-01-01

403

Education and Training and the Avoidance of Financial Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Making use of the longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, this study examines the relationship between post-school qualifications and financial disadvantage among Australians during the period 2001 to 2008. Specifically, it is concerned with the extent that education and training, vis-a-vis…

Marks, Gary N.

2011-01-01

404

The Competitive Disadvantage: Teacher Compensation in Rural America. Policy Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three components of the teacher shortage are the recruitment challenge, the retention problem, and the demand for teacher quality. Although the teacher shortage problem involves many factors, any solution must address salaries. Rural districts face a threefold disadvantage: teachers are not compensated as well as other rural professionals; rural…

Jimerson, Lorna

405

A Summer Academic Research Experience for Disadvantaged Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience…

Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N.

2013-01-01

406

THE LIGHTHOUSE DAY CAMP READING EXPERIMENT WITH DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A READING PROGRAM DESIGNED FOR DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AND CONDUCTED BY THE LIGHTHOUSE, A SETTLEMENT HOUSE IN NORTH PHILADELPHIA, AS PART OF ITS DAY CAMP PROGRAM WAS DESCRIBED AND ASSESSED. THE READING PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED (1) TO BOOST THE OPPORTUNITIES IN READING READINESS FOR CHILDREN ABOUT TO ENTER FIRST GRADE, (2) TO ENRICH LANGUAGE…

GOMBERG, ADELINE W.

407

Assessment in Programs for Disadvantaged Students: Lessons from Accelerated Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment was studied in two accelerated schools, the Daniel Webster Elementary School in San Francisco (California) and the Fairbanks Elementary School in Springfield (Missouri) from October 1990 to March 1991. The accelerated schools movement for disadvantaged children began in the mid-1980s when researchers at Stanford University (California)…

Meister, Gail R.

408

The Role of Support Services in Promoting Social Inclusion for the Disadvantaged Urban-dwelling Elderly  

PubMed Central

Background Disadvantaged older adults living in non-family situations in Toronto are more likely than older adults living in family situations to have less economic security, less social support, and less choice in housing. Older adults who live in poverty and are precariously housed are more likely to be chronically ill, to live with multiple illnesses, to have poor nutrition, high stress and loneliness, all of which are strongly associated with the determinant of health social exclusion. The aim of this study is to: 1) evaluate the level of social disadvantage and exclusion experienced by low-income older adults 65 years of age and older living alone or in non-family situations; 2) assess the level of dependency on government and community services (support services) to maintain a reasonable standard of living (minimize effects of social exclusion); and 3) identify consequences of social exclusion not addressed by current available services. Methods Fifteen male older adult members of the Good Neighbours’ Club in downtown Toronto were interviewed. Semi-structured questionnaires assessed barriers to, utility of, and perceived impact of support services available to disadvantaged older adults living in the central core of southeast Toronto. Results Support services for income, housing, food security, social support, and health care do mitigate the effects of social exclusion in the study participants. Data gathered from interviews identified factors that counter the efforts by support services to increase social inclusion in this population. Conclusions Support services reduce social isolation experienced by these older adults. Evidence of the detrimental impact of low financial literacy suggests a need to design and implement training programs to build the older adults’ capacity to manage their own finances effectively, and resist falling victim to financial fraud. PMID:24278093

Nguyen, Vicky P.K.H.; Sarkari, Feroz; MacNeil, Kate; Cowan, Laura; Rankin, Joyce

2013-01-01

409

Land use pattern, socio-economic development, and assessment of their impacts on ecosystem service value: study on natural wetlands distribution area (NWDA) in Fuzhou city, southeastern China.  

PubMed

This paper quantifies the allocation of ecosystem services value (ESV) associated with land use pattern and qualitatively examined impacts of land use changes and socio-economic factors on spatiotemporal variation of ESV in the Natural Wetland Distribution Area (NWDA), Fuzhou city, China. The results showed that total ESV of the study area decreased from 4,332.16 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 1989 to 3,697.42 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 2009, mainly due to the remarkable decreases in cropland (decreased by 55.3 %) and wetland (decreased by 74.2 %). Forest, water, and wetland played major roles in providing ecosystem services, accounting for over 90 % of the total ESV. Based on time series Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery, geographic information system, and historical data, analysis of the spatiotemporal variation of ESV from 1989 to 2009 was performed. It indicated that rapid expansion of urban areas along the Minjiang River resulted in significant changes in land use types, leading to a dramatic decline in ecosystem services. Meanwhile, because of land scarcity and unique ecosystem functions, the emergency of wetland and cropland protection in built-up area has become an urgent task of local authorities to the local government. Furthermore, there was still a significant negative correlation between ESV of cropland and wetland and the GDP. The results suggest that future planning of land use pattern should control encroachment of urban areas into cropland and wetland in addition to scientific and rational policies towards minimizing the adverse effects of urbanization. PMID:23054291

Cai, Yuan-Bin; Zhang, Hao; Pan, Wen-Bin; Chen, Yan-Hong; Wang, Xiang-Rong

2013-06-01

410

Effects of the Three Gorges Project on orange plantation, environments and socio-economic conditions in the backwater area of Xiangxi River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The construction of the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River has an extensive impact on agricultural structures in the backwater areas of the Yangtze River and its tributaries such as the Xiangxi River. In the backwater area of the Xiangxi River, orange plantation is the dominant land use and a very important source of income for the local population, since it was established in the later 1980's decade. Due to the rising water, land previously not used for agricultural purposes because of its high slope gradients, for example, is now being utilized. Investigations were carried out on agricultural adaptation of farmers guided by local authorities as well as on socio-economic effects on the local population. Results of these investigations will be conducted with currently evaluated data on land use change, soil-erosion and landslides, in order to give a contribution to sustainable land use strategies for the backwater area of the Xiangxi River. This research is done in the framework of "Land use classification and vulnerability analysis on elements at risk in terms of landslides in the watershed of Xiangxi River", a subproject of the Sino-German Yangtze-Project, which is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF).

Bissing-Olson, M. J.; Seeber, C.; Hartmann, H.; King, L.

2009-04-01

411

Modelling typhoid risk in Dhaka Metropolitan Area of Bangladesh: the role of socio-economic and environmental factors  

PubMed Central

Background Developing countries in South Asia, such as Bangladesh, bear a disproportionate burden of diarrhoeal diseases such as Cholera, Typhoid and Paratyphoid. These seem to be aggravated by a number of social and environmental factors such as lack of access to safe drinking water, overcrowdedness and poor hygiene brought about by poverty. Some socioeconomic data can be obtained from census data whilst others are more difficult to elucidate. This study considers a range of both census data and spatial data from other sources, including remote sensing, as potential predictors of typhoid risk. Typhoid data are aggregated from hospital admission records for the period from 2005 to 2009. The spatial and statistical structures of the data are analysed and Principal Axis Factoring is used to reduce the degree of co-linearity in the data. The resulting factors are combined into a Quality of Life index, which in turn is used in a regression model of typhoid occurrence and risk. Results The three Principal Factors used together explain 87% of the variance in the initial candidate predictors, which eminently qualifies them for use as a set of uncorrelated explanatory variables in a linear regression model. Initial regression result using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) were disappointing, this was explainable by analysis of the spatial autocorrelation inherent in the Principal factors. The use of Geographically Weighted Regression caused a considerable increase in the predictive power of regressions based on these factors. The best prediction, determined by analysis of the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) was found when the three factors were combined into a quality of life index, using a method previously published by others, and had a coefficient of determination of 73%. Conclusions The typhoid occurrence/risk prediction equation was used to develop the first risk map showing areas of Dhaka Metropolitan Area whose inhabitants are at greater or lesser risk of typhoid infection. This, coupled with seasonal information on typhoid incidence also reported in this paper, has the potential to advise public health professionals on developing prevention strategies such as targeted vaccination. PMID:23497202

2013-01-01

412

Stepchildren, community disadvantage, and physical injury in a child abuse incident: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

It is proffered that stepchildren are more likely than genetic children to be physically abused because they are unable to ensure the genetic survival of their adoptive parents. This abuse is theorized to be more pronounced in communities where social and economic resources are scarce. The salience of this cross-level interaction hinges on the assumption that the limited resources of a family are first allocated to genetic offspring because these children, unlike their nongenetic siblings, carry the genes of their parents. A multilevel analysis of child abuse incidents reported to police in 133 U.S. cities during 2005 shows that in cities with a high level of community disadvantage, stepchildren are much more apt than are genetic children to suffer a physical injury in a child abuse incident. Such a finding buttresses the position articulated by proponents of sociobiology. PMID:23393950

D'Alessio, Stewart J; Stolzenberg, Lisa

2012-01-01

413

The Joint Admission Medical Program: a statewide approach to expanding medical education and career opportunities for disadvantaged students.  

PubMed

In 2003, Texas initiated an experiment to address enrollment disparities in its medical schools. With bipartisan support from key Texas legislators, funding was allocated in 2002 to establish the Joint Admission Medical Program (JAMP). Texas' then eight medical schools created, through JAMP, a partnership with the state's 31 public and 34 private undergraduate colleges and universities. Cognizant of legal prohibitions against reliance solely on race or ethnicity in promoting diversity, JAMP is designed to enhance opportunities for economically disadvantaged students from across the state, including those from (1) rural and remote areas of the state, and (2) institutions that have historically sent few students to medical school. Now in its seventh year of operation, JAMP is overseen by a council with representatives from all nine Texas medical schools. For the six years-2003 to 2008-for which data are available, indicators of JAMP performance can be seen in (1) the numbers of applicants to JAMP (1,230 applicants in the first six years), (2) levels of JAMP participation (480 participants), and (3) matriculation of JAMP participants into medical schools (164 of 288 of those accepted into the program in the years 2003-2006).The authors provide a brief history of JAMP, describe its structure and operation, summarize objective performance data, and identify some of the challenges still faced. These include increasing the participation of students from underrepresented minority groups within the legal structure for the program, and fostering substantive participation in JAMP by all of Texas' undergraduate institutions. A focused effort is under way to strengthen the evaluative aspects of JAMP so that more comprehensive data, including subjective evaluation data from participants, can be shared with colleagues in the future. PMID:19881424

Dalley, Bernell; Podawiltz, Alan; Castro, Robert; Fallon, Kathleen; Kott, Marylee; Rabek, Jeffrey; Richardson, James; Thomson, William; Ferry, Pamela; Mabry, Budge; Hermesmeyer, Paul; Smith, Quentin

2009-10-01

414

Why don't they just get married? Barriers to marriage among the disadvantaged.  

PubMed

Kathryn Edin and Joanna Reed review recent research on social and economic barriers to marriage among the poor and discuss the efficacy of efforts by federal and state policymakers to promote marriage among poor unmarried couples, especially those with children, in light of these findings. Social barriers include marital aspirations and expectations, norms about childbearing, financial standards for marriage, the quality of relationships, an aversion to divorce, and children by other partners. Edin and Reed note that disadvantaged men and women highly value marriage but believe they are currently unable to meet the high standards of relationship quality and financial stability they believe are necessary to sustain a marriage and avoid divorce. Despite their regard for marriage, however, poor Americans do not view it as a prerequisite for childbearing, and it is typical for either or both parents in an unmarried-couple family to have a child by another partner. Economic barriers include men's low earnings, women's earnings, and the marriage tax. In view of these findings, Edin and Reed argue that public campaigns to convince poor Americans of the value of marriage are preaching to the choir. Instead, campaigns should emphasize the benefits for children of living with both biological parents and stress the harmful effects for children of high-conflict parental relationships. Programs to improve relationship quality must address head-on the significant problems many couple face. Because disadvantaged men and women view some degree of financial stability as a prerequisite for marriage, policymakers must address the instability and low pay of the jobs they typically hold as well as devise ways to promote homeownership and other asset development to encourage marriage. Moreover, programs need to help couples meet the challenges of parenting families where children are some combination of his, hers, and theirs. Encouraging more low-income couples to marry without giving them tools to help their marriages thrive may simply increase the divorce rate. PMID:16158733

Edin, Kathryn; Reed, Joanna M

2005-01-01

415

Access to postsecondary education: can schools compensate for socioeconomic disadvantage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

While access to postsecondary education in Canada has increased over the past decade, a number of recent studies demonstrate\\u000a that youth from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds are vulnerable to some degree of exclusion from postsecondary education.\\u000a These studies tend to emphasize the lack of financial resources and social capital as the main sources of this vulnerability.\\u000a Our paper employs multilevel framework

George Frempong; Xin Ma; Joseph Mensah

416

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/Maize (Zea mays L.) Intercropping Provides a Feasible Way to Improve Yield and Economic Incomes in Farming and Pastoral Areas of Northeast China  

PubMed Central

Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China. PMID:25329376

Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

2014-01-01

417

Determining Expressed Inservice Needs of Wisconsin Secondary and Post-Secondary Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education Teachers in Home Economics Related Areas. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine the felt needs of Wisconsin home economics teachers for inservice education as a basis for designing educational programs to meet these needs. The population consisted of 1,278 home economics public school teachers and 1,430 vocational, technical, and adult education (VTAE) teachers of home economics related…

Hughes, Lois; Dougherty, Barbara

418

41 CFR 105-53.130-4 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 105-53...Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. (a) Creation...and authority. Public Law 95-507, October 14...amendment to the Small Business Act and the Small...

2010-07-01

419

48 CFR 726.7007 - Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises...Program 726.7007 Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises...no realistic expectation of U.S. subcontracting opportunities and so documents...

2010-10-01

420

75 FR 77737 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Small Disadvantaged Business Self-Certification  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...participating as SDB concerns for subcontracting. This interim rule implements changes...disadvantaged business (SDB) for any Federal subcontracting program if it believes in good faith...disadvantaged business (SDB) for any Federal subcontracting program, and believes in good...

2010-12-13

421

48 CFR 19.1203 - Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business...Participation Program 19.1203 Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business...contracting officer may encourage increased subcontracting opportunities in the NAICS...

2010-10-01

422

48 CFR 219.1203 - Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business...Participation Program 219.1203 Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business...contracting officer shall encourage increased subcontracting opportunities for SDB...

2010-10-01

423

77 FR 16244 - Request for Comments on the Update of the Scholarships for Disadvantaged Students Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Request for Comments on the Update of the Scholarships for Disadvantaged Students Program...clarifies the implementation of the Scholarships for Disadvantaged Students (SDS...In addition, grantees provide scholarships to individuals who meet the...

2012-03-20

424

7 CFR 761.208 - Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged groups.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...participation rates for providing FO, CL, and OL loans to members of socially disadvantaged groups...of such socially disadvantaged groups. (c) OL loans based on ethnicity or race. The OL loan target participation rate based on...

2013-01-01

425

7 CFR 761.208 - Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged groups.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...participation rates for providing FO, CL, and OL loans to members of socially disadvantaged groups...of such socially disadvantaged groups. (c) OL loans based on ethnicity or race. The OL loan target participation rate based on...

2012-01-01

426

7 CFR 761.208 - Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged groups.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...participation rates for providing FO, CL, and OL loans to members of socially disadvantaged groups...of such socially disadvantaged groups. (c) OL loans based on ethnicity or race. The OL loan target participation rate based on...

2014-01-01

427

7 CFR 761.208 - Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged groups.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...target participation rates for providing FO and OL loans to members of socially disadvantaged groups...of such socially disadvantaged groups. (c) OL loans based on ethnicity or race. The OL loan target participation rate based on...

2010-01-01

428

7 CFR 761.208 - Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged groups.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...participation rates for providing FO, CL, and OL loans to members of socially disadvantaged groups...of such socially disadvantaged groups. (c) OL loans based on ethnicity or race. The OL loan target participation rate based on...

2011-01-01

429

48 CFR 19.305 - Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...representation of disadvantaged business status. 19.305 Section 19.305 Federal...PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs 19.305...representation of disadvantaged business status. (a) This section applies to...

2010-10-01

430

48 CFR 1519.201-72 - Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists. 1519...AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.201-72 Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists. (a)...

2013-10-01

431

48 CFR 719.271-2 - The USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB). 719.271-2...DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.271-2 The USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB). (a) SDB...

2012-10-01

432

48 CFR 719.271-2 - The USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB). 719.271-2...DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.271-2 The USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB). (a) SDB...

2014-10-01

433

48 CFR 1519.201-72 - Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists. 1519...AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.201-72 Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists. (a)...

2012-10-01

434

48 CFR 1519.201-72 - Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists. 1519...AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.201-72 Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists. (a)...

2011-10-01

435

48 CFR 1519.201-72 - Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists. 1519...AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.201-72 Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists. (a)...

2014-10-01

436

48 CFR 726.7006 - Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC...than full and open competition, the contractor...small disadvantaged business (as defined in...small disadvantaged business unless he or she determines...status by the Small Business Administration or...

2010-10-01

437

49 CFR 1.62 - Delegations to the Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Delegations to the Director of Small and Disadvantaged...DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Delegations § 1.62 Delegations to the Director of Small and Disadvantaged...Business Utilization. The Director of Small and Disadvantaged...execution of functions and duties under sections 8...

2010-10-01

438

Advantages and Disadvantages of Health Care Accreditation Mod­els  

PubMed Central

Background: This systematic review seeks to define the general advantages and disadvan­tages of accreditation programs to assist in choosing the most appropriate approach. Method: Systematic search of SID, Ovid Medline & PubMed databases was conducted by the keywords of accreditation, hospital, medical practice, clinic, accreditation models, health care and Persian meanings. From 2379 initial articles, 83 articles met the full inclusion criteria. From initial analysis, 23 attributes were identified which appeared to define advantages and disadvantages of different accreditation approaches and the available systems were compared on these. Results: Six systems were identified in the international literature including the JCAHO from USA, the Canadian program of CCHSA, and the accreditation programs of UK, Australia, New Zealand and France. The main distinguishing attributes among them were: quality improve­ment, patient and staff safety, improving health services integration, public’s confi­dence, effectiveness and efficiency of health services, innovation, influence global standards, information management, breadth of activity, history, effective relationship with stakeholders, agreement with AGIL attributes and independence from government. Conclusion: Based on 23 attributes of comprehensive accreditation systems we have defined from a systematic review, the JCAHO accreditation program of USA and then CCHSA of Can­ada offered the most comprehensive systems with the least disadvantages. Other programs such as the ACHS of Australia, ANAES of France, QHNZ of New Zealand and UK accredita­tion programs were fairly comparable according to these criteria. However the decision for any country or health system should be based on an assessment weighing up their specific objec­tives and needs. PMID:24688896

Tabrizi, Jafar S.; Gharibi, Farid; Wilson, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

439

Essays in development economics : incumbency disadvantage, political competition, and remedial education in India  

E-print Network

(cont.) The remedial education program hires young women from the community to provide remedial assistance to third and fourth grade children who have fallen behind their peers. The program is extremely cheap (five dollars ...

Linden, Leigh L., 1975-

2004-01-01

440

Interfirm information linkages in an economically disadvantaged region: an empirical perspective from metropolitan Buffalo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The external information linkages of industrial firms in two sectors of Buffalo's manufacturing base -- medical instruments, and chemicals -- are examined. Survey data are presented which indicate a positive role for imported technical services in local product innovation, export activity, and technology diffusion. The data reveal that firms which import a substantial proportion of their external technical inputs hold

A MacPherson

1991-01-01

441

An Analysis of Water Safety Behaviors among Migrant and Economically/Educationally Disadvantaged Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This water safety study was both descriptive and exploratory in nature. The purpose was for middle school students to assess their own water safety experiences and to help school decision-makers determine the extent of drowning/water accidents. In July 2009, a water safety survey was administered to 122 students participating in the local Summer…

Sbarbaro, Victor S.; Enyeart Smith, Theresa M.

2011-01-01

442

Breast Cancer Survival among Economically Disadvantaged Women: The Influences of Delayed Diagnosis and Treatment on Mortality  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer affects thousands each year in the United States, and disproportionately affects certain subgroups. For example, the incidence of breast cancer in South Carolina is lower in African American compared with European American women by ~12% to 15%, but their mortality rate is twice as high as in European American women. The purpose of the study was to assess factors associated with breast cancer mortality between African American and European American women. Participants (n = 314) in South Carolina's Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (SCBCCEDP), which provides breast cancer screening and treatment services, during the years 1996-2004 were included in the study. Data, including tumor characteristics, delay intervals, and race, were examined using the ?2 test and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Cox regression modeling was used to assess the relationship between delay intervals and other factors. No racial differences were found in age at diagnosis, tumor characteristics, or delay intervals. Time delay intervals did not explain differences and mortality rates by race. Survival, however, was affected by prognostic factors as well as by a significant interaction between hormone-receptor status and race. Despite the excellent record of the SCBCCEDP in screening and diagnostic or treatment referrals, the racial disparities in breast cancer mortality continue to exist in South Carolina. These findings highlight the need for future research into the etiology of racial differences, and their impact on breast cancer survival. PMID:18835941

Smith, Emily Rose; Adams, Swann Arp; Das, Irene Prabhu; Bottai, Matteo; Fulton, Jeanette; Hebert, James R.

2010-01-01

443

The relationship of parenting stress and child temperament to language development among economically disadvantaged preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral language skills in the preschool years are predictive of children's later reading success and literacy acquisition, and among these language skills, vocabulary and narrative ability play important roles. Children from low socioeconomic families face risks to their language develop- ment and because of threats to these skills it is important to identify factors that promote their development among high-risk

MELANIE NOEL; CAROLE PETERSON; BEULAH JESSO

2008-01-01

444

Early maternal employment and childhood obesity among economically disadvantaged families in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in low-income urban communities in the USA (n?=?322). Logistic regression and propensity

Rebekah Levine Coley; Caitlin McPherran Lombardi

2012-01-01

445

Early Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity among Economically Disadvantaged Families in the USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in…

Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

2012-01-01

446

English and socio-economic disadvantage: learner voices from rural Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

L2 education research has shown immense interest in learners and their views of L2 learning. Nevertheless, the different directions of learner-focused research have been inadequate in highlighting learners' learning experiences in relation to their social backgrounds, particularly in the developing world. Drawing on the first author's PhD research, this paper analyses school learners' perceptions and experiences of learning English in

M. Obaidul Hamid; Richard B. Baldauf Jr

2011-01-01

447

Extending the Purposes of Science Education: Addressing Violence within Socio-Economic Disadvantaged Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current discourses about science education show a wide concern towards humanisation and a more socio-cultural perspective of school science. They suggest that science education can serve diverse purposes and be responsive to social and environmental situations we currently face. However, these discourses and social approaches to science education…

Castano, Carolina

2012-01-01

448

Extending the purposes of science education: addressing violence within socio-economic disadvantaged communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current discourses about science education show a wide concern towards humanisation and a more socio-cultural perspective of school science. They suggest that science education can serve diverse purposes and be responsive to social and environmental situations we currently face. However, these discourses and social approaches to science education tend to focus on global issues. They do not respond to the immediate needs and local context of some communities. I discuss in this paper why the purposes of science education need to be extended to respond to the local issue of violence. For this, I present a case study with a group of 38 students from a poor population in Bogotá, Colombia, located in one of the suburbs with highest levels of crime in the city. I examine the ways that science education contributes to and embodies its own forms of violence and explore how a new approach to science education could contribute to break the cycle of violence.

Castano, Carolina

2012-09-01

449

Cardiovascular risk factors in economically disadvantaged women: a study of prevalence and awareness.  

PubMed Central

This study examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among low-income women and assessed the level of awareness and attitudes about these risk factors in the community. A survey instrument was developed and administered by a single researcher to a convenience sample of women in health clinics and nonclinical community settings. These settings included: an academic clinic, community clinics, women's shelters, free meal sites, community centers, public housing units, and private homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Two hundred two women were selected without regard to age or race. The mean number of cardiovascular risk factors per subject was 2.6 (SD 1.4). Each of eight established cardiovascular risk factors was identified by 4% to 34% of subjects. Among those women with a specific risk factor, only 0% to 45% reported that they were at increased risk due to the presence of that factor. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among low-income women is substantial. Knowledge and understanding of these risk factors is suboptimal, particularly among women personally affected by risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:9770952

Poduri, A.; Grisso, J. A.

1998-01-01

450

Cardiovascular risk factors in economically disadvantaged women: a study of prevalence and awareness.  

PubMed

This study examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among low-income women and assessed the level of awareness and attitudes about these risk factors in the community. A survey instrument was developed and administered by a single researcher to a convenience sample of women in health clinics and nonclinical community settings. These settings included: an academic clinic, community clinics, women's shelters, free meal sites, community centers, public housing units, and private homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Two hundred two women were selected without regard to age or race. The mean number of cardiovascular risk factors per subject was 2.6 (SD 1.4). Each of eight established cardiovascular risk factors was identified by 4% to 34% of subjects. Among those women with a specific risk factor, only 0% to 45% reported that they were at increased risk due to the presence of that factor. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among low-income women is substantial. Knowledge and understanding of these risk factors is suboptimal, particularly among women personally affected by risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:9770952

Poduri, A; Grisso, J A

1998-09-01

451

Household type, economic disadvantage, and residential segregation: empirical patterns and findings from simulation analysis  

E-print Network

an important research topic for many decades. The consistent finding has been that segregation along racial and ethnic lines continues to exist to a significant degree within the United States (Alba and Logan 1993; Charles 2003). While there is some... of segregation across different racial/ethnic groups. This research consistently finds that there are significant variations in the level of segregation 5 experienced by different groups (Fischer 2003; Frey and Farley 1996; Alba and Logan 1993...

Howden, Lindsay Michelle

2005-08-29

452

English and Socio-Economic Disadvantage: Learner Voices from Rural Bangladesh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

L2 education research has shown immense interest in learners and their views of L2 learning. Nevertheless, the different directions of learner-focused research have been inadequate in highlighting learners' learning experiences in relation to their social backgrounds, particularly in the developing world. Drawing on the first author's PhD…

Hamid, M. Obaidul; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

2011-01-01

453

Toward an Understanding of Unusually Successful Programs for Economically Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conceptual framework derived from previous research was used to evaluate successful compensatory programs for high-risk students. Program effectiveness standards, school culture, curriculum, and teaching were examined through site visits to three elementary and one middle school. (MMU)

Anderson, Lorin W.; Pellicer, Leonard O.

1998-01-01

454

Socio-economic effect on socially-deprived communities of developing drinking water quality problems in arid and semi-arid area of central Rajasthan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rajasthan is well known for its Great Thar desert. Central Rajasthan has an arid to semi-arid environment. The area faces either scarcity of water or poor quality of drinking water. In some areas water is transported 2 km or more, which uses time, energy and money. Rich people have their own sources, which is restricted for use by others. Such conditions are affecting socially-deprived communities, both socially and economically. Groundwater is a major source of drinking water due to the unavailability of surface water. There is a lack of groundwater quality knowledge in the community and the data available is hard to understand by consumers. The CCME Water Quality Index is a tool to simplify the water quality report by rating the water on quality standards. It provides meaningful summaries of overall water quality and trends, which is accessible to non-technical lay people. In the present study the objective is to examine the groundwater quality of six districts (Ajmer, Bhilwara, Pali, Rajasamand, Nagaur and Jodhpur), centrally located in Rajasthan, with arid and semi-arid conditions. CCME WQI is also evaluated to produce quality data in a form to be understood by the community. A total of 4369 groundwater sources in 1680 villages from six districts (76 546 km2) were collected and examined. Results are outlined in the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS: 10500, 2012) and 2952 sources are unsafe for drinking. According to CCME WQI groundwater of 93 villages is poor, 343 villages are marginal, and 369 villages are fair in quality. Toxicological studies of unsafe drinking water and their remedial measures are also discussed. A tentative correlation between prevailing water-borne diseases and quality parameter has also been shown

Husain, I.; Husain, J.; Arif, M.

2014-09-01

455

Globalisation, Women's Economic Rights and Forced Labour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalisation critics are concerned that increased trade openness and foreign direct investment exacerbate existing economic disadvantages of women and foster conditions for forced labour. Defenders of globalisation argue instead that as countries become more open and competition intensifies, discrimination against any group, including women, becomes more difficult to sustain and is therefore likely to recede. The same is argued with

Eric Neumayer; Indra de Soysa

2007-01-01

456

Social and Economic Context. Trends and Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools are very sensitive to the rapid social, economic, and demographic changes that the United States is presently undergoing. They are at a disadvantage compared to most other social institutions because, in serving a younger population, they have less lead time to prepare for changes in the complexion of society. Young people in today's world…

Lumsden, Linda, Comp.; Coffey, Elizabeth, Comp.

457

Economic impact  

SciTech Connect

In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

Technology Transfer Department

2001-06-01

458

Integration of data from censuses and remote sensing to measure the socio-economic and environmental evolution in urban areas: case of the city of Sherbrooke (1981-2006)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The urban environment is complex, heterogeneous and temporally changeable. Man is the main actor in the transformation of urban areas where he interacts with intensity. Spatial differentiation is a result of human occupation in the urban environment. This occupation may vary according to land use, population density, social and economic characteristics and environment. This leads us to say that the socio-economic and environmental indicators change according to the various locations in the urban area and through time. Our goal is to measure the socio-economic and environmental changes in the urban area of the city of Sherbrooke using remote sensing data synchronized with the censuses and that we will then integrate into the geographic information system (GIS). We have used data from the 1981 and 2006 censuses, 1983 aerial photos, 2007 orthophotos and 1983 MSS and 2006 Ikons satellite images to measure the socio-economic and environmental changes in the city of Sherbrooke. We have used spatial analysis tools to integrate image data with census data. The methods uses such as global indices, principal component analysis combined with the variation between the two dates have yielded interesting results. The first factor in principal component analysis with orthogonal rotation (Varimax) justified a substantial percentage of the variance in global indices. The use of dissemination areas resulted in detailed information on the change in the city. From the perspective of spatial distribution, we noted a major difference between the central areas and the peripheral areas in 1981 and 2006. From the perspective of evolution between 1981 and 2006, we observed that are positive and negative changes at various levels took place. We also observed the evolution of ethnicity in the Sherbrooke city and Lennoxville municipality. The study showed that the French population is prevalent in the old city of Sherbrooke as the English population is prevalent in Lennoxville. The European population is spread over the two cities. The aboriginal population is well distributed over the city of Sherbrooke. The population from Asian and Oceanic backgrounds are concentrated (sometimes on an exclusive basis) in the north and west-centre area of Jardins-Fleuris, in the eastern area of l'Assomption, the northeastern area of Sainte-Famille and the center area of Marie-Reine. We also find concentrations of immigrant populations from all backgrounds in areas such as in the southern part of the Immaculee-Conception and Saint-Joseph and in the south-eastern part of Sainte-Jeanne-d'Arc. This indicates that ethnic neighborhoods are taking roots in the city of Sherbrooke. Keywords : socio-economic and environmental, urban, remote sensing, multiple factor analysis, dissemination areas, the city of Sherbrooke, Lennoxville municipality.

Dari, Ouassini

459

The Many Faces of the Economic Bulletin Board.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Economic Bulletin Board (EBB), a one-stop site for economic statistics and government-sponsored business information, can be accessed on the World Wide Web, gopher, telnet, file transfer protocol, dial-up, and fax. Each access method has advantages and disadvantages related to connections, pricing, depth of access, retrieval, and system…

Boettcher, Jennifer

1996-01-01

460

Public Higher Education Performance Accountability Framework Report: Goal - Contributions to Economic, Civic, and Social Development; Measure: Workforce Preparation - Degrees Awarded in Selected Areas of Projected Workforce Demand. Commission Report 07-17  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is the third in a series of measure reports that examine the economic, civic, and social development of the state by its systems of higher education. This report measures degrees awarded in selected areas of employment against workforce demand. The report found: (1) California's postsecondary schools are not producing enough graduates…

California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2007

2007-01-01

461

A Summer Academic Research Experience for Disadvantaged Youth  

PubMed Central

Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience (SARE) program that provides an enriching academic internship to underrepresented youth. Our program has shown that to have a successful internship for these disadvantaged youth, several issues need to be addressed in addition to scientific mentoring. We have found that it is necessary to remediate and/or fortify basic academic skills for students to be successful. In addition, students need to be actively coached in the development of professional skills, habits, and attitudes necessary for success in the workplace. With all these factors in place, these youths can become better students, compete on a more level playing field in their internships, and increase their potential of participating actively in the sciences in the future. PMID:24006390

Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N.

2013-01-01

462

Neural Correlates of Advantageous and Disadvantageous Inequity in Sharing Decisions  

PubMed Central

Humans have a strong preference for fair distributions of resources. Neuroimaging studies have shown that being treated unfairly coincides with activation in brain regions involved in signaling conflict and negative affect. Less is known about neural responses involved in violating a fairness norm ourselves. Here, we investigated the neural patterns associated with inequity, where participants were asked to choose between an equal split of money and an unequal split that could either maximize their own (advantageous inequity) or another person’s (disadvantageous inequity) earnings. Choosing to divide money unequally, irrespective who benefited from the unequal distribution, was associated with activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Inequity choices that maximized another person’s profits were further associated with activity in the ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Taken together, our findings show evidence of a common neural pattern associated with both advantageous and disadvantageous inequity in sharing decisions and additional recruitment of neural circuitry previously linked to the computation of subjective value and reward when violating a fairness norm at the benefit of someone else. PMID:25238541

Crone, Eveline A.

2014-01-01

463

International Resource Book for Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons: 2001-2008. An Update to the International Resource Book for Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons: 1931-2001  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2001, the Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons (LSDP) Section of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA), published the "International Resource Book for Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons." This publication is a seventy year retrospective which chronicles the history of the Section from 1931 to 2001.…

Locke, Joanne; Panella, Nancy M.

2010-01-01

464

A Spatial Analysis of Student Binge Drinking, Alcohol-Outlet Density, and Social Disadvantages  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives This paper examined whether and how student binge drinking at the individual level was influenced by population disadvantages, community instability, alcohol-outlet density, and protective factors generated by community and school. Methods We used a dataset collected in 2002 by the Alabama Department of Mental Health, with additional materials generated by the 2000 Census and from the Alabama State Department of Education. School-catchments were employed as geographic units of analysis. The final sample comprised 78,138 public-school students in grades 6–12 who attended schools located in the 566 school-catchments. Results We hypothesized the presence of spatial processes that, once identified, would enhance understanding of student binge drinking. Our results confirmed that student binge drinking in a focal area was affected by that area’s structural factors and also by individual-level risk and protective factors. The results did not support the hypothesized impact of surrounding areas’ characteristics on student binge drinking in the focal area. Conclusions and Scientific Significance The results of our study clearly indicate that both environment-based factors and individual-level risk and protective factors are important in explaining student binge drinking in Alabama. PMID:23795880

Lo, Celia C.; Weber, Joe; Tyrone, C. Cheng

2013-01-01

465

Revitalization of Rural and Other Economically Distressed Areas. Part 1, Hearings Before the Committee on Government Operations, United States Senate, Ninety-Second Congress, First Session on S.10, A Bill to Establish a National Policy Relative to the Revitalization of Rural and Other Economically....  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Testimony given at the U.S. Senate Committee on Government Operations hearings--held on April 27-28, 1971, in Washington D.C.--centered on bill S.10 which is designed to revitalize rural and other economically distressed areas by (1) establishing incentives for a more even and practical geographic distribution of industrial growth and activity and…

Congress of the U.S. , Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Government Operations.

466

[Economics and equity in urgency and emergency care].  

PubMed

The financial sustainability of public health systems (PHS) is currently threatened by population growth, increased prevalence of chronic conditions and disabilities, inequality in access and use of resources, zero cost delivery and global economic crisis. The emergency department (ED) is one for which demand is highest--without relation to the health model--because disease becomes established in disadvantaged socio-demographic areas and inequalities, hyperconsumption and decision making more closely linked to the user are maintained. The medical device of ED is a multiple one and its diverse product lines make it difficult to measure. This review discusses the need to deploy measurement tools in ED, where there are high direct costs--primarily structural--and other variables related to the activity, where the marginal cost is higher than the average and there is no economy of scale in such interventions. The possible mechanisms of private copayment in financing the supply of EDs are also studied, showing their advantages and disadvantages, with the conclusion that they are not recommendable--due to their scarce fund raising and deterrent capacity, which is why fundamental strategic changes in the management of these resources are needed. PMID:20508674

Moreno-Millán, E; Tejedor-Fernández, M; Torres-Murillo, J M; García-Torrecillas, J M; Cid-Cumplido, M; Villegas-del Ojo, J; García-Fernández, A M

2010-01-01

467

Contingency contracting with disadvantaged youths: Improving classroom performance.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effects of a student-teacher contracting procedure on adolescent students' academic productivity. Participants were 13 youths enrolled in a vocational training program for disadvantaged youth and their classroom teacher. During the baseline conditions students were paid contingent on attendance alone, the system operating in the program prior to this research. During contracting conditions students were paid contingent on contract fulfillment of academic productivity goals set by mutual agreement between the student and teacher. Contracting and contingent pay procedures were developed with, and implemented by, the classroom teacher. A reversal experimental design showed that student's productivity more than doubled during contracting conditions as compared with their productivity during baseline. PMID:16795661

Kelley, M L; Stokes, T F

1982-01-01

468

Vacuum-assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass: advantages and disadvantages  

PubMed Central

Systematic review of vacuum assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass, demonstrating its advantages and disadvantages, by case reports and evidence about its effects on microcirculation. We conducted a systematic search on the period 1997-2012, in the databases PubMed, Medline, Lilacs and SciELO. Of the 70 selected articles, 26 were included in the review. Although the vacuum assisted drainage has significant potential for complications and requires appropriate technology and professionalism, prevailed in literature reviewed the concept that vacuum assisted drainage contributed in reducing the rate of transfusions, hemodilutions, better operative field, no significant increase in hemolysis, reduced complications surgical, use of lower prime and of smaller diameter cannulas. PMID:25140478

de Carvalho Filho, Élio Barreto; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; da Costa, Loredana Nilkenes Gomes; Antunes, Nilson

2014-01-01

469

Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy in Spain: advantages and disadvantages.  

PubMed

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an option for the treatment of actinic keratosis, Bowen disease, and certain types of basal cell carcinoma. It is also used to treat various other types of skin condition, including inflammatory and infectious disorders. The main disadvantages of PDT are the time it takes to administer (both for the patient and for health professionals) and the pain associated with treatment. Daylight-mediated PDT has recently been reported to be an alternative to the conventional approach. Several studies have shown it to be similar in efficacy to and better tolerated than classic PDT for the treatment of mild to moderate actinic keratosis. Nevertheless, most of these studies are from northern Europe, and no data have been reported from southern Europe. The present article reviews the main studies published to date, presents the treatment protocol, and summarizes our experience with a group of treated patients. PMID:24726043

Pérez-Pérez, L; García-Gavín, J; Gilaberte, Y

2014-09-01

470

Geo-statistical modeling to evaluate the socio-economic impacts of households in the context of low-lying areas conversion in Colombo metropolitan region-Sri Lanka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living in Low-lying areas is a challenging task, but due to the lack of suitable land at affordable prices, thousands of householders have been establishing their own houses on Low-lying areas. Manipulation and conversion of low lying areas have led to an increase in the frequency and severity of micro disasters because the cumulative effect of these settlements is very high. Therefore, it is needed to examine how individual households have been emerging in Low-lying areas. This process is primarily influenced and controlled by Socio-economic factors. In the field survey conducted for this study, 388 householders were interviewed face to face to obtain the primary data. Collected data were applied to the Multivariate binary logistic Model. The Dependent variable of the model was set as Stable Houses and Non-Stable Houses based on the weighted values that were obtained from the field observations. Independent variables of this study are nine key aspects of the socio-economic conditions in these areas. Units of analysis of the study were taken as individual housing plots in the study area. The particular combination of Socio-Economic factors that exerted influence on each housing plot was measured using predicted probability value of logistic model and linked it with GIS land plot's map. Accuracy of Final Model is 86.9 % and probability level of influencing factors given a clear idea about household distribution and status while providing guidance about how the planning authorities should monitor and manage low lying areas, taking into consideration the present housing condition of these areas.

Hemakumara, GPTS; Rainis, Ruslan

2015-02-01

471

Resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos and adaptive disadvantages  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos Fersol 1G (temephos 1% w/w) associated with the adaptive disadvantage of insect populations in the absence of selection pressure. METHODS A diagnostic dose of 0.28 mg a.i./L and doses between 0.28 mg a.i./L and 1.40 mg a.i./L were used. Vector populations collected between 2007 and 2008 in the city of Campina Grande, state of Paraíba, were evaluated. To evaluate competition in the absence of selection pressure, insect populations with initial frequencies of 20.0%, 40.0%, 60.0%, and 80.0% resistant individuals were produced and subjected to the diagnostic dose for two months. Evaluation of the development of aquatic and adult stages allowed comparison of the life cycles in susceptible and resistant populations and construction of fertility life tables. RESULTS No mortality was observed in Ae. aegypti populations subjected to the diagnostic dose of 0.28 mg a.i./L. The decreased mortality observed in populations containing 20.0%, 40.0%, 60.0%, and 80.0% resistant insects indicates that temephos resistance is unstable in the absence of selection pressure. A comparison of the life cycles indicated differences in the duration and viability of the larval phase, but no differences were observed in embryo development, sex ratio, adult longevity, and number of eggs per female. CONCLUSIONS The fertility life table results indicated that some populations had reproductive disadvantages compared with the susceptible population in the absence of selection pressure, indicating the presence of a fitness cost in populations resistant to temephos. PMID:25372168

Diniz, Morgana Michele Cavalcanti de Souza Leal; Henriques, Alleksandra Dias da Silva; Leandro, Renata da Silva; Aguiar, Dalvanice Leal; Beserra, Eduardo Barbosa

2014-01-01

472

Economic Development, Education and Transnational Corporations. Routledge Studies in Development Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on the questions of: why do some economically disadvantaged nations develop significantly faster than others, and what roles do their educational systems play? As case illustrations, in the early 1960s Mexico and South Korea were both equally underdeveloped agrarian societies. Since that time, the development strategies pursued…

Hanson, Mark

2011-01-01

473

What might work? Exploring the perceived feasibility of strategies to promote physical activity among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate preferences for, perceived feasibility of and barriers to uptake of hypothetical physical activity promotion strategies among women from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 purposively recruited women (18-45 years) living in socioeconomically disadvantaged urban and rural areas of Victoria, Australia. Participants indicated the most and least appealing of nine hypothetical strategies, strategies most likely to use and strategies most likely to increase physical activity. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic and interpretive content analyses were used to identify emergent common and contrasting themes. A community centre-based program with free childcare, the provision of a cleaner while physical activity is undertaken and a neighbourhood-based program were the three most popular strategies. Mobile-telephone-delivered text messages, an online interactive diary and subsidized gym memberships were considered least useful. Irrespective of the strategy, components of importance commonly identified were social support; being accountable to someone; having the option of a structured or flexible attendance design; integration of multiple strategies and financial considerations. Issues around trust and privacy and weight loss also emerged as important. The findings provide important insights for the development of physical activity programs targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged women. PMID:22987863

Cleland, Verity; Ball, Kylie

2013-04-01

474

Computational methods of Gaussian Particle Swarm Optimization (GPSO) and Lagrange Multiplier on economic dispatch issues (case study on electrical system of Java-Bali IV area)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective in this paper is about economic dispatch problem of electric power generation where scheduling the committed generating units outputs so as to meet the required load demand at minimum operating cost, while satisfying all units and system equality and inequality constraint. In the operating of electric power system, an economic planning problem is one of variables that its must be considered since economically planning will give more efficiency in operational cost. In this paper the economic dispatch problem which has non linear cost function solved by using swarm intelligent method is Gaussian Particle Swarm Optimization (GPSO) and Lagrange Multiplier. GPSO is a population-based stochastic algorithms which their moving inspired by swarm intelligent and probabilities theories. To analize its accuracy, the economic dispatch solution by GPSO method will be compared with Lagrange multiplier method. From the running test result the GPSO method give economically planning calculation which it better than Lagrange multiplier method and the GPSO method faster to getting error convergence. Therefore the GPSO method have better performance to getting global best solution than the Lagrange method.

Komsiyah, S.

2014-03-01

475

Going on to Uni? Access and Participation in University for Students from Backgrounds of Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a research project that investigated the aspirations of primary and secondary school students about access to, and participation in higher education. The research was undertaken at schools in low socio-economic status regional and rural areas of north-eastern New South Wales. The paper discusses the background to the…

Wilks, Judith; Wilson, Katie

2012-01-01

476

Economics of Grassland Conversion  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this paper we provide an overview of economic factors that contribute to changes in grassland area including the relative profitability of crop and livestock production, effects of land productivity, and effects of conversion costs. We also identify other potential socio-economic influences on gr...

477

Economic Crisis in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sub-Saharan Africa is facing deep economic crisis. A situation has reached where there is total stagnation with zero per cent growth rate and no hope of recovery. Hunger is hovering over vast areas of Africa threatening the lives of 150 million people and every day people are dying of starvation. It is said, that nature and international economic relations are

Vijay Gupta

1985-01-01

478

A pre-and-post study of an urban renewal program in a socially disadvantaged neighbourhood in Sydney, Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Urban renewal programs aim to target both the physical and social environments to improve the social capital, social connectedness, sense of community and economic conditions of residents of the neighbourhoods. We evaluated the impact of an urban renewal program on the health and well-being of residents of a socially disadvantaged community in south-western Sydney, Australia. Methods Pre- and post-urban renewal program surveys were conducted with householders by trained interviewers. The urban renewal program was conducted over 16?months and consisted of internal upgrades (including internal painting; replacement of kitchens, bathrooms and carpets; general maintenance), external upgrades (including property painting; new fencing, carports, letterboxes, concrete driveways, drainage and landscaping), general external maintenance, and social interventions such as community engagement activities, employment initiatives, and building a community meeting place. The questionnaire asked about demographic characteristics, self-reported physical activity, psychological distress, self-rated health, and perceptions of aesthetics, safety and walkability in the neighbourhood. We used the paired chi-square test (McNemars test) to compare paired proportions. A Bonferroni corrected p-value of <0.0013 denoted statistical significance. Results Following the urban renewal program we did not find statistically significant changes in perceptions of aesthetics, safety and walkability in the neighbourhood. However, post-urban renewal, more householders reported there were attractive buildings and homes in their neighbourhood (18% vs 64%), felt that they belonged to the neighbourhood (48% vs 70%), that their area had a reputation for being a safe place (8% vs 27%), that they felt safe walking down their street after dark (52% vs 85%), and that people who came to live in the neighbourhood would be more likely to stay rather than move elsewhere (13% vs 54%). Changes in psychological distress and self-rated health were not statistically significant. Conclusions We found an increase, in the short-term, in the proportion of householders reporting improvements in some aspects of their immediate neighbourhood following the urban renewal program. It will be important to repeat the survey in the future to determine whether these positive changes are sustained. PMID:22788536

2012-01-01

479

Office of Inspector General audit report on small disadvantaged business program at the Chicago Operations Office  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Inspector General performed audits of the Small Disadvantaged Business Program at five management and operating contractors in FY 1994. The audits disclosed that none of the contractors fully met the intent of the Act and implementing regulations. The contractors awarded some subcontracts to firms of questionable program eligibility. Also, two of the contractors concentrated awards among a limited number of small disadvantaged businesses, and used procurement practices that precluded opportunities for many small disadvantaged businesses to participate. The objective of this audit was to determine whether Chicago was providing the maximum practicable opportunity for small disadvantaged businesses to participate in contract awards.

NONE

1999-01-01

480

Health, behavioral, cognitive, and social correlates of breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods.  

PubMed

Breakfast skipping is a potentially modifiable behavior that has negative effects on health and is socioeconomically patterned. This study aimed to examine the intrapersonal (health, behavioral, and cognitive) and social factors associated with breakfast skipping. Nonpregnant women (n = 4123) aged 18-45 y from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods throughout Victoria, Australia, completed a postal questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and cognitive and social factors were assessed by self-report. Breakfast skipping was defined in 2 ways: 1) "rarely/never" eating breakfast (n = 498) and 2) eating breakfast ?2 d/wk (includes those who rarely/never ate breakfast; n = 865). Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios and linear trends, adjusting for covariates. The P values for linear trends are reported below. Compared with breakfast consumers, women who reported rarely/never eating breakfast tended to have poorer self-rated health (P-trend < 0.001), be current smokers (P-trend < 0.001), pay less attention to health (P-trend < 0.001), not prioritize their own healthy eating when busy looking after their family (P-trend < 0.001), have less nutrition knowledge (P-trend < 0.001), and a lower proportion were trying to control their weight (P-trend < 0.020). When breakfast skipping was defined as eating breakfast ?2 d/wk, additional associations were found for having lower leisure-time physical activity (P-trend = 0.012) and less self-efficacy for eating a healthy diet (P-trend < 0.043). In conclusion, a range of intrapersonal and social factors were significantly associated with breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design and need for causal confirmation, programs that aim to promote breakfast consumption in this population group should consider targeting family-related barriers to healthy eating and nutrition knowledge. PMID:23986365

Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cleland, Verity J; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

2013-11-01

481

Norms, social networks, and HIV-related risk behaviors among urban disadvantaged drug users.  

PubMed

Altering norms may be an important approach to introducing and sustaining health protective behavior change. This study sought to examine the relationship between condom use, condom norms, and social network characteristics among a sample of economically impoverished individuals at risk for acquiring and transmitting HIV. Participants were 1051 individuals from a drug-using community in the USA. Eighty percent were current drug users; 17% were HIV seropositive. Reported condom use was strongly associated with peer norms about condom use (friends talking about condoms, encouraging condom use, and using condoms). Women were less likely than men to report that their friends used condoms. Injection drug use was negatively associated with peer norms about condom use, while church attendance and network characteristics were positively associated with condom-promoting norms. The size of the health advice and the financial support networks was most positively related to condom norms. Network methodology may aid in the identification of specific ties that promote condom use norms in a population. The findings of this study may have implications for norm change interventions among disadvantaged communities at high risk for HIV/AIDS. PMID:12570967

Latkin, Carl A; Forman, Valerie; Knowlton, Amy; Sherman, Susan

2003-02-01

482

Peer education: a strategy for improving health education in disadvantaged areas in Belfast.  

PubMed

The paper reports on the initial phase of an evaluation of a multi-agency project designed to deliver social and health education to 16-18-year-old trainees attending four community workshops in North and West Belfast. A survey of the first year of the project was carried out using quantitative and qualitative methodologies which included a questionnaire survey of those trainees attending the programme and structured interviews with a representative sample of trainees. The first stage of the research involved a baseline measure (time 0) which provided valuable insights into the behaviours, attitudes and values of the trainees regarding a range of health issues, including smoking and alcohol behaviours, and substance abuse. Some changes in behaviour, during the first year of the project, were noted, such as reported reductions in substance abuse and increased awareness of sources of advice relating to health issues. PMID:8685307

McAleavy, G; McCrystal, P; Kelly, G

1996-01-01

483

Brazilian Electronic Journal of Economics (BEJE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Brazilian Electronic Journal of Economics is published by the Department of Economics, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil. The aim of the journal is to publish original articles in the areas of "economics of the Internet, network economics, and economics of information." The site provides the full text of the articles in the journal.

484

Advantages and disadvantages of biodegradable platforms in drug eluting stents  

PubMed Central

Coronary angioplasty with drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation is currently the most common stent procedure worldwide. Since the introduction of DES, coronary restenosis as well as the incidence of target vessel and target lesion revascularization have been significantly reduced. However, the incidence of very late stent thrombosis beyond the first year after stent deployment has more commonly been linked to DES than to bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation. Several factors have been associated with very late stent thrombosis after DES implantation, such as delayed healing, inflammation, stent mal-apposition and endothelial dysfunction. Some of these adverse events were associated with the presence of durable polymers, which were essential to allow the elution of the immunosuppressive drug in the first DES designs. The introduction of erodable polymers in DES technology has provided the potential to complete the degradation of the polymer simultaneously or immediately after the release of the immunosuppressive drug, after which a BMS remains in place. Several DES designs with biodegradable (BIO) polymers have been introduced in preclinical and clinical studies, including randomized trials. In this review, we analyze the clinical results from 6 observational and randomized studies with BIO polymers and discuss advantages and disadvantages of this new technology. PMID:21499496

Rodriguez-Granillo, Agustina; Rubilar, Bibiana; Rodriguez-Granillo, Gaston; Rodriguez, Alfredo E

2011-01-01

485

[Advantages and disadvantages of the femtosecond laser microkeratome].  

PubMed

Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) complications are mainly attributable to imperfect cutting with the mechanical microkeratome. The femtosecond laser is an important challenger because it can provide extremely precise cutting beginning at any corneal point. We analyze the potential of this new tool from the results reported in the literature. The optomechanical control of the impact position provides freer and more effective intrastromal cutting than the blade. The best cutting matrix is obtained with the postage stamp method. If the plasma quality is not perfectly under control, side effects such as tissue streaks and secondary ultraviolet radiations can be observed. For LASIK surgery, femtolaser cutting can offer greater safety, reproducibility, predictability and flexibility. The risk of incomplete or irregular cutting and the free cap risk are reduced. Striae, epithelial defects and interface deposits should be minimized. A better flap congruence can limit the risk of secondary displacement and epithelial ingrowth. The results of making thinner flaps should be more predictable. Other than the high cost of the procedure, laser cutting has very few disadvantages. In 1999, Intralase Corporation introduced the first femtolaser microkeratome on the American market. Approximately 120,000 intra-LASIK procedures have been carried out with fewer cutting complications than with the mechanic blade. PMID:15976724

Touboul, D; Salin, F; Mortemousque, B; Chabassier, P; Mottay, E; Léger, F; Colin, J

2005-05-01

486

The Rural Education Dichotomy: Disadvantaged Systems and School Strengths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational advantages conferred by rurality and smallness have their greatest impact at the school and classroom level, but this same rurality creates district or system-level problems that have often been solved by consolidation. Consolidation efforts have been waning because they are politically unpopular, good economic times allow states…

Dunn, Randy J.

487

INDIANS IN TWO PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEMS, DEPRIVATION AND DISADVANTAGE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE SOCIAL AND PHYSICAL CONDITIONS ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS WERE REVIEWED. THE AVERAGE LIFE SPAN WAS FOUND TO BE NOT MORE THAN 41 YEARS, AND A CIRCLE OF POVERTY, DISEASE, AND DEPRESSION WAS DISCOVERED. THE SCHOOLING OF INDIAN CHILDREN PLAYED A CRITICAL ROLE IN THEIR EVENTUAL SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DISINTEGRATION. THE LACK OF INITIATIVE ON THE PART OF…

HAUBRITCH, VERNON F.

488

What's so local about global climate change? Testing social theories of environmental degradation to quantify the demographic, economic, and governmental factors associated with energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in U.S. metropolitan areas and counties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research investigates the consequence of a crucial and not yet fully explored problem: the reluctance of the United States to sign and ratify international agreements, like Kyoto, that aim to mitigate climate change and its underlying social and ecological impacts. This unwillingness has inspired local governments, mayors, metropolitan area governance consortia, state governments, and governors to take on the climate challenge without the directive of the federal government. Local areas of the U.S. are experiencing climate-change-related impacts such as receding beach lines due to sea level rise and intense storms, fresh water shortages, and extreme weather events. As a result, researchers have begun to explore the human dimensions of climate change through an inquiry in: among many other topics, the vulnerability of local areas to the impacts of climate change and the forces shaping local areas' contribution to climate change. This study addresses the latter issue using the STIRPAT framework - a reformulated version of the I=(P)(A)(T) formulation that relates environmental impacts (I) to population growth (P), affluence (A), and technology (T). I address three questions that have thus far been poorly answered in prior research: "across the U.S., do local areas differ in the extent of their contribution to climate change?", "what are the causes of variation in energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions across local areas?" and "which social theories best explain the causes of variation in energy use and CO2 emissions across local areas?" To make strides in answering these questions and contribute to the understanding of local level drivers of energy consumption and emissions, this research analyzes the causes of variation in: energy use and CO2 emissions in the 100 largest U.S. metropolitan areas in chapter 4, the change in energy consumption between 2000 and 2005 for these metropolitan areas in chapter 5, and CO2 emissions in all U.S. counties in chapter 6. The STIRPAT method is used to test four social theories of environmental degradation -- the treadmill of production, ecological modernization, urban ecological transitions, and human ecology theories -- by quantifying variables associated with energy use and CO2 emissions drawn from each theory. The specific findings demonstrate that various demographic, economic, and governmental factors are related strongly to metropolitan area energy consumption and county-level CO2 emissions. The human ecology, treadmill of production, and urban ecological transitions theories are important to explaining how and why climate-related impacts differ for a wide variety of local areas in the United States. Related to human ecology and treadmill of production theory, environmental degradation is highest in metropolitan areas and counties with large populations and large economies that have various mechanisms in place to facilitate economic growth. By contrast, some U.S. counties are beginning to remedy their impact on the environment by applying economic and governmental resources toward the mitigation of CO2 emissions, which provides evidence of support for urban ecological transitions theory. However, because climate change is a complex cross-scale global environmental problem and the results in this dissertation confirm that this problem is locally driven by similar population and economic factors also affecting the climate at larger spatial scales, mitigation efforts to reduce energy use and emissions at the local level will be fruitless without a well-coordinated, cross-scale (local to global) ideological shift that puts less priority on economic goals and more on environmental sustainability. These results, and the methodological and theoretical framework applied in this dissertation, thus provide a useful platform for the successful application of future research that specifically addresses mitigation strategies to reduce local-level environmental impacts. This dissertation research, therefore, contributes to the environmental sociology, gen

Tribbia, John Luke

489

IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. XX, NO. XX, MONTH 20XX 1 Decentralized Economic Dispatch in Microgrids via  

E-print Network

to the environmental benefit in terms of using more renewable energy sources, the microgrids can reduce Economic Dispatch in Microgrids via Heterogeneous Wireless Networks Hao Liang, Student Member, IEEE, Bong) Shen, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--As essential building blocks of the future smart grid, microgrids can

Zhuang, Weihua

490

The bottom line: An investigation of the economic, cultural and social costs of industrial longline fishing in the Pacific and the benefits of sustainable use marine protected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial longline fishing can be understood as a case study of the cultural, economic, environmental and social impacts of unsustainable fishing technology. While much attention has been attributed to the impact of industrial longlines on the marine ecosystem, little is known about the impact of longline fishing on local food security, employment, cultural belief systems and traditions, revenue generation from

Robert Ovetz

2006-01-01

491

The Direct and Indirect Economic Impact of UTK [University of Tennessee, Knoxville] on the Knoxville Area, 1971-1972. Volume 13, Number 80.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years colleges and universities have undertaken programs designed to interpret themselves to the larger community on an unprecedented scale. It is clear that the University of Tennessee is an important economic force on the local economy, accounting for some $123,787,021 in direct and $42,235,596 in indirect income created for a total…

Moore, John R.; Ericksen, Craig G.

492

The Role of Religious and Social Organizations in the Lives of Disadvantaged Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines whether participation in religious or other social organizations can help offset the negative effects of growing up in a disadvantaged environment. Using the National Survey of Families and Households, we collect measures of disadvantage as well as parental involvement with religious and other social organizations when the youth were ages 3 to 19 and we observe their

Rajeev Dehejia; Thomas DeLeiere; Erzo F. P. Luttmer; Joshua Mitchell

2007-01-01

493

Pilot Evaluation of a Home Visit Parent Training Program in Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The study reported the pilot evaluation of the Healthy Start Home Visit Program for disadvantaged Chinese parents with preschool children, delivered by trained parent assistants. Home visiting was used to make services more accessible to disadvantaged families. Method: The participants included 21 parent-child dyads. Outcome measures…

Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Heung, Kitty

2013-01-01

494

Why is the Socially Disadvantaged Child Retarded? A Rationale and New Concept of Human Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volumes have been written on the socially disadvantaged. Two theories related to the disadvantaged have evolved: the first is the "deprivation theory" which stresses the importance of an enriched environment, during the early years, on the cognitive and emotional development of the child; the second is "the cumulative intellectual deficit theory,"…

Ogletree, Earl J.

495

The Tax (Dis)Advantage Of A Firm Issuing Options On Its Own Stock  

E-print Network

The Tax (Dis)Advantage Of A Firm Issuing Options On Its Own Stock Robert L. McDonald First draft with implicit borrowing--such as put sales and call purchases--are tax-disadvantaged relative to the equivalent--such as compensation calls--are tax-advantaged. We also show that firms are better off from a tax perspective issuing

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

496

Physical Fitness and Academic Performance in Primary School Children with and without a Social Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and academic performance, and investigated the…

de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, E.; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, R. J.; Doolaard, S.; Visscher, C.

2014-01-01

497

Disadvantaged Former Miners' Perspectives on Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To explore disadvantaged former miners' perspectives in north Derbyshire, United Kingdom (UK) on smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: In-depth, audiotaped interviews with 16 disadvantaged former miners who smoked or had stopped smoking within six months. Results: Perceptions of being able to stop smoking with minimal difficulty…

White, Simon; Baird, Wendy

2013-01-01

498

Theorizing Alternative Pathways through Adulthood: Unequal Social Arrangements in the Lives of Young Disadvantaged Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter introduces the innovative field-based studies on disadvantaged men that are featured in this volume. Together, these studies of disadvantaged men from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds and both urban and nonurban settings complement and extend recent discussions of emerging adulthood, which typically conceptualizes the transition…

Roy, Kevin; Jones, Nikki

2014-01-01

499

Vocational Readiness Attitudes of Rural Disadvantaged Adolescents from Exemplary Vocational, and Nonvocational Educational Backgrounds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study determined whether rural students enrolled in vocational programs which were considered to be exemplary for training disadvantaged youth differed in attitudes related to school and work from similar disadvantaged youth not enrolled in vocational studies. Ranging in age from 15 to 19 years, 115 students from 4 on-going vocational programs…

Handley, Herbert M.

500

Psycholinguistic Abilities of Good and Poor Reading First Grade Disadvantaged Pupils. IMRID Papers and Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study contrasted the psycholinguistic abilities of good and poor readers from disadvantaged backgrounds after completion of the first grade, using the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities. It was predicted that disadvantaged children classified as poor readers would be significantly inferior to those identified as good readers on…

Bruininks, Robert H.; And Others