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1

Learning to (Dis)Engage? The Socialising Experiences of Young People Living in Areas of Socio-Economic Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young people are increasingly required to demonstrate civic engagement in their communities and help deliver the aspirations of localism and Big Society. Using an ecological systems approach this paper explores the experiences of different groups of young people living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage. Using volunteering as an example of…

Mason, Carolynne; Cremin, Hilary; Warwick, Paul; Harrison, Tom

2011-01-01

2

Profit Related Loans for Economically Disadvantaged Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing recognition that economically disadvantaged areas do not have an inherent capacity to regenerate economic activity or to deliver automatically socially propitious outcomes. In such circumstances, there might be a strong case for public sector intervention of various types. In what follows we a case for the provision of financial resources for the establishment or consolidation of

Bruce Chapman; Ric Simes

2004-01-01

3

Peer-mentoring for first-time mothers from areas of socio-economic disadvantage: A qualitative study within a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Non-professional involvement in delivering health and social care support in areas of socio-economic deprivation is considered important in attempting to reduce health inequalities. However, trials of peer mentoring programmes have yielded inconsistent evidence of benefit: difficulties in implementation have contributed to uncertainty regarding their efficacy. We aimed to explore difficulties encountered in conducting a randomised controlled trial of a peer-mentoring programme for first-time mothers in socially disadvantaged areas, in order to provide information relevant to future research and practice. This paper describes the experiences of lay-workers, women and health professionals involved in the trial. Methods Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with women (n = 11) who were offered peer mentor support, lay-workers (n = 11) who provided mentoring and midwives (n = 2) who supervised the programme, which provided support, from first hospital antenatal visit to one year postnatal. Planned frequency of contact was two-weekly (telephone or home visit) but was tailored to individuals' needs. Results Despite lay-workers living in the same locality, they experienced difficulty initiating contact with women and this affected their morale adversely. Despite researchers' attempts to ensure that the role of the mentor was understood clearly it appeared that this was not achieved for all participants. Mentors attempted to develop peer-mentor relationships by offering friendship and sharing personal experiences, which was appreciated by women. Mentors reported difficulties developing relationships with those who lacked interest in the programme. External influences, including family and friends, could prevent or facilitate mentoring. Time constraints in reconciling flexible mentoring arrangements with demands of other commitments posed major personal difficulties for lay-workers. Conclusion Difficulties in initiating contact, developing peer-mentor relationships and time constraints pose challenges to delivering lay-worker peer support. In developing such programmes, awareness of potential difficulties and of how professional support may help resolve these should improve uptake and optimise evaluation of their effectiveness. Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN55055030 PMID:18304334

Murphy, Christine A; Cupples, Margaret E; Percy, Andrew; Halliday, Henry L; Stewart, Moira C

2008-01-01

4

Evaluating Government Training Programs for the Economically Disadvantaged  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines past evaluations of government training programs for the economically disadvantaged and offers an agenda for future research. It is found that government training programs are producing modest increases in earnings for adult men and women, but are probably not producing positive effects for youth. Future research must better document links between program-provided training and acquisition of valuable

Daniel Friedlander; David H. Greenberg; Philip K. Robins

1997-01-01

5

49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? 26.67...Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption...When an individual's presumption of social and/or economic disadvantage has...

2010-10-01

6

ENVIRONMENTAL RISK AND IMPACT IN COMMUNITIES OF COLOR AND ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Research has shown that communities of color and economically/educationally disadvantaged communities are at a greater risk of impact from environmental hazards. In many past studies in environmental justice (EJ) communities, scientists have used surrogate measures of exposure b...

7

Social characteristics of psychological distress in a disadvantaged urban area of Kazakhstan.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to systematically assess the association of socio-economic characteristics and psychological distress in a disadvantaged urban area of a post-Soviet Republic. Psychological distress was assessed in a random sample of 200 persons, aged 18-57, living in a disadvantaged urban area of Kazakhstan using the General Health Questionnaire with 28 items (GHQ-28). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the association of social characteristics and psychological distress. Female gender (P < 0.05), living without a partner (P < 0.01), higher age (P < 0.01), unemployment (P < 0.01), and low perceived income (P < 0.05) were associated with psychological distress in multivariate analyses. Non-Kazakh ethnicity (P < 0.05) was linked with psychological distress in bivariate analyses. The educational level was not significantly associated with psychological distress. Women, aged 38-57, living without partner and with low access to financial resources, were at a very high risk of psychological distress. Possibly due to social drift or status inconsistency, higher educational levels were not associated with lower levels of psychological distress in the disadvantaged area. PMID:23712308

Ignatyev, Yuriy; Assimov, Marat; Dochshanov, Dauren; Ströhle, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas; Mundt, Adrian P

2014-01-01

8

Addressing Summer Reading Setback among Economically Disadvantaged Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much research has established the contribution of summer reading setback to the reading achievement gap that is present between children from more and less economically advantaged families. Likewise, summer reading activity, or the lack of it, has been linked to summer setback. Finally, family socioeconomic status has been linked to the access…

Allington, Richard L.; McGill-Franzen, Anne; Camilli, Gregory; Williams, Lunetta; Graff, Jennifer; Zeig, Jacqueline; Zmach, Courtney; Nowak, Rhonda

2010-01-01

9

Parental Depression and Economic Disadvantage: The Role of Parenting in Associations with Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effects of parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and parenting behaviors in 180 children and adolescents of depressed parents (ages 9–15 years-old). Analyses revealed that while parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and disrupted parenting behaviors were related to children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms, disrupted parenting (e.g., intrusive, neglectful parenting) accounted for the association of parental depressive symptoms and economic disadvantage with children’s symptoms. This study provides evidence that disrupted parenting may be a common or shared process through which both parental depression and economic disadvantage are associated with children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. PMID:24244085

Watson, Kelly H.; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E.

2013-01-01

10

Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED) population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods The primary prevention element of Have a Heart Paisley (HaHP) offered risk screening to all eligible individuals. The programme employed two approaches to engaging with the community: a) a social marketing campaign and b) a community development project adopting primarily face-to-face canvassing. Individuals living in areas of SED were under-recruited via the social marketing approach, but successfully recruited via face-to-face canvassing. This paper reports on focus group discussions with participants, exploring their perceptions about and experiences of both approaches. Results Various reasons were identified for low uptake of risk screening amongst individuals living in areas of high SED in response to the social marketing campaign and a number of ways in which the face-to-face canvassing approach overcame these barriers were identified. These have been categorised into four main themes: (1) processes of engagement; (2) issues of understanding; (3) design of the screening service and (4) the priority accorded to screening. The most immediate barriers to recruitment were the invitation letter, which often failed to reach its target, and the general distrust of postal correspondence. In contrast, participants were positive about the face-to-face canvassing approach. Participants expressed a lack of knowledge and understanding about CHD and their risk of developing it and felt there was a lack of clarity in the information provided in the mailing in terms of the process and value of screening. In contrast, direct face-to-face contact meant that outreach workers could explain what to expect. Participants felt that the procedure for uptake of screening was demanding and inflexible, but that the drop-in sessions employed by the community development project had a major impact on recruitment and retention. Conclusion Socio-economically disadvantaged individuals can be hard-to-reach; engagement requires strategies tailored to the needs of the target population rather than a population-wide approach. PMID:20598130

2010-01-01

11

WWC Quick Review of the Report "Addressing Summer Reading Setback among Economically Disadvantaged Elementary Students"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined whether providing summer reading books to economically disadvantaged first- and second-grade students for three consecutive summers improved reading achievement. The study analyzed data on about 1,300 students from 17 high-poverty elementary schools in two large districts in Florida. Student-level reading achievement was…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

2010-01-01

12

TV Characters at Work: Television's Role in the Occupational Aspirations of Economically Disadvantaged Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television regularly depicts work-related activities of fictional characters and is one of several important sources of occupational information for young people. However, no research appears to have examined the influence of televised occupational portrayals on economically disadvantaged youths, although television may be an especially important…

Hoffner, Cynthia A.; Levine, Kenneth J.; Sullivan, Quintin E.; Crowell, Dennis; Pedrick, Laura; Berndt, Patricia

2006-01-01

13

The Issue of Resource Equalization: Funding the Education of Economically Disadvantaged Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The State of Illinois appropriates funds according to a resource equalizer formula which allows a district having a large number and a high percentage of economically disadvantaged school children to gain a sizable bonus in State aid, contingent upon a plan to improve instruction. The Chicago Public Schools have received this bonus without…

Fox, Roger; Lacour, Bernard

14

Case Studies of Success: Supporting Academic Success for Students with High Potential from Ethnic Minority and Economically Disadvantaged Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The underrepresentation of ethnic minority and economically disadvantaged students in gifted education must be understood in terms of broader school contexts and practices. This qualitative study investigated how teachers and schools contributed to the academic success of minority students of high potential from economically disadvantaged

Tomlinson, Carol Ann; Jarvis, Jane M.

2014-01-01

15

Economic disadvantage, perceived family life quality, and emotional well-being in Chinese adolescents: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over three consecutive years, Chinese secondary school students experiencing and not experiencing economic disadvantage (n = 280 and 2,187, respectively) responded to measures of perceived family life quality (parenting attributes and parent-child\\u000a relational quality) and emotional well-being (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and self-esteem). While participants\\u000a experiencing economic disadvantage generally had more negative perceptions of parenting quality and parent-child relational\\u000a quality than did

Daniel T. L. Shek

2008-01-01

16

Economic Stress, Psychological Well-Being and Problem Behavior in Chinese Adolescents with Economic Disadvantage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the association between perceived economic stress and adolescent adjustment in 229 Chinese adolescents using children and parent reports of economic stress. Findings show differences in perceived stress between parents and children. A lower level of perceived economic stress was generally related to better adolescent mental health and…

Shek, Daniel T. L.

2003-01-01

17

Lessons from black-thicket jungle: What is feasible in village schools of disadvantaged areas?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative examination of the national goals of education as presented by various developing countries shows such goals to be often abstract and overly idealistic: a long way from the harsh reality of most rural village schools. Drawing on the results of a lengthy field study in a disadvantaged area of Sri Lanka, this article discusses the matter of feasibility in

Victoria J. Baker

1989-01-01

18

Mobile Technologies & Socio-Economic Opportunities for Disadvantaged Women: A Study of Information Behavior in a Developing Nation Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been championed by the United Nations and others as one of the key media to open up socio-economic opportunities for disadvantaged populations. Studies lead us to believe that after being introduced to ICTs, users' information behavior changes, enabling them to benefit from socio-economic

Potnis, Devendra Dilip

2010-01-01

19

Nicotine dependence more strongly correlates with psychological distress in disadvantaged areas of Kazakhstan than Germany.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the association of current smoking and nicotine dependence with psychological distress in socially disadvantaged urban areas of Germany and Kazakhstan. Random samples of people living in disadvantaged areas of Berlin, Germany, and Almaty, Kazakhstan, were assessed using the General Health Questionnaire with 28 items and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. The association of both current smoking and nicotine dependence with psychological distress was assessed for each sample using linear regression analyses and compared between the two samples calculating t-values for the comparison of B-coefficients. Current smoking was equally associated with psychological distress in both countries, whereas the association of nicotine dependence and psychological distress was only seen for the Kazakh sample and significantly stronger than for the German sample. The results could not be explained by social characteristics. Possibly due to the lack of outpatient community mental health services for the treatment of common mental disorders, nicotine dependence was associated with psychological distress in the disadvantaged area of Kazakhstan. PMID:23807567

Ignatyev, Yuriy; Mundt, Adrian P

2014-10-01

20

Economic Disadvantage, Perceived Family Life Quality, and Emotional Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over three consecutive years, Chinese secondary school students experiencing and not experiencing economic disadvantage (n = 280 and 2,187, respectively) responded to measures of perceived family life quality (parenting attributes and parent-child relational quality) and emotional well-being (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and…

Shek, Daniel T. L.

2008-01-01

21

Growing up as "Man of the House": Adultification and Transition into Adulthood for Young Men in Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field…

Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

2014-01-01

22

The Relationship between Teachers' Collective Efficacy and Student Achievement at Economically Disadvantaged Middle School Campuses in Texas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the collective efficacy of teachers and student achievement at economically disadvantaged middle school campuses. Schools of today are expected to show continuous improvement in student achievement from year to year, regardless of the students' family background, ethnicity, or…

Sandoval, Juan Manuel

2010-01-01

23

Personal, social and environmental correlates of resilience to physical inactivity among women from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

While sex and socio-economic disparities in physical activity have been well documented, not all disadvantaged women are inactive. This study aimed to examine correlates of achieving recommended levels of physical activity among women of low socio-economic position. In 2005, a population-based sample of 291 women with low educational attainment provided survey data on leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Participants reported

Verity J. Cleland; Kylie Ball; Jo Salmon; Anna F. Timperio; David A. Crawford

2008-01-01

24

Time horizons and substance use among African American youths living in disadvantaged urban areas.  

PubMed

Transitioning from adolescence to full-fledged adulthood is often challenging, and young people who live in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods face additional obstacles and experience disproportionately higher negative outcomes, including substance abuse and related risk behaviors. This study investigated whether substance use among African Americans ages 15 to 25 (M=18.86 years) living in such areas was related to present-dominated time perspectives and higher delay discounting. Participants (N=344, 110 males, 234 females) living in Deep South disadvantaged urban neighborhoods were recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling, an improved peer-referral sampling method suitable for accessing this hard-to-reach target group. Structured field interviews assessed alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use and risk/protective factors, including time perspectives (Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory [ZTPI]) and behavioral impulsivity (delay discounting task). As predicted, substance use was positively related to a greater ZTPI orientation toward present pleasure and a lower tendency to plan and achieve future goals. Although the sample as a whole showed high discounting of delayed rewards, discount rates did not predict substance use. The findings suggest that interventions to lengthen time perspectives and promote enriched views of future possible selves may prevent and reduce substance use among disadvantaged youths. Discontinuities among the discounting and time perspective variables in relation to substance use merit further investigation. PMID:24531637

Cheong, JeeWon; Tucker, Jalie A; Simpson, Cathy A; Chandler, Susan D

2014-04-01

25

The social-emotional impact of instrumental music performance on economically disadvantaged South African students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent these findings hold true for disadvantaged students. The purpose of this study

Karendra Devroop

2012-01-01

26

Geographic remoteness, area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and inequalities in colorectal cancer survival in Queensland: a multilevel analysis  

PubMed Central

Background To explore the impact of geographical remoteness and area-level socioeconomic disadvantage on colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. Methods Multilevel logistic regression and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations were used to analyze geographical variations in five-year all-cause and CRC-specific survival across 478 regions in Queensland Australia for 22,727 CRC cases aged 20–84 years diagnosed from 1997–2007. Results Area-level disadvantage and geographic remoteness were independently associated with CRC survival. After full multivariate adjustment (both levels), patients from remote (odds Ratio [OR]: 1.24, 95%CrI: 1.07-1.42) and more disadvantaged quintiles (OR?=?1.12, 1.15, 1.20, 1.23 for Quintiles 4, 3, 2 and 1 respectively) had lower CRC-specific survival than major cities and least disadvantaged areas. Similar associations were found for all-cause survival. Area disadvantage accounted for a substantial amount of the all-cause variation between areas. Conclusions We have demonstrated that the area-level inequalities in survival of colorectal cancer patients cannot be explained by the measured individual-level characteristics of the patients or their cancer and remain after adjusting for cancer stage. Further research is urgently needed to clarify the factors that underlie the survival differences, including the importance of geographical differences in clinical management of CRC. PMID:24152961

2013-01-01

27

Treatment Effects of a Relationship-Strengthening Intervention for Economically Disadvantaged New Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the treatment effects of a relationship skills and family strengthening intervention for n = 726 high-risk, disadvantaged new parents. Method: Hierarchical linear modeling and regression models were used to assess intervention treatment effects. These findings were subsequently verified…

Charles, Pajarita; Jones, Anne; Guo, Shenyang

2014-01-01

28

The Social-Emotional Impact of Instrumental Music Performance on Economically Disadvantaged South African Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent these…

Devroop, Karendra

2012-01-01

29

Perceived quality and availability of fruit and vegetables are associated with perceptions of fruit and vegetable affordability among socio-economically disadvantaged women. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Williams LK, Thornton L, Crawford D, Ball K. Perceived quality and availability of fruit and vegetables are associated with perceptions of fruit and vegetable affordability among socio-economically disadvantaged women.

30

Lessons from black-thicket jungle: What is feasible in village schools of disadvantaged areas?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative examination of the national goals of education as presented by various developing countries shows such goals to be often abstract and overly idealistic: a long way from the harsh reality of most rural village schools. Drawing on the results of a lengthy field study in a disadvantaged area of Sri Lanka, this article discusses the matter of feasibility in the shadow of too high expectations. It is concluded that ambitious goals should be operationalized at a practicable level, and recommendations are put forward for feasible action. As a rigidly ordered system of schooling may be an inevitable stage in a progressive evolution of schooling types, patience is needed before criticizing schools which lack creative teaching and problem-solving approaches. It is emphasised that the most important raw materials of the educational system are abundantly present, i.e., human resources. Children are eager to learn; parents are potentially supportive and want education for the sake of learning as well as for jobs. And most importantly for the success of the schools, dedicated principals and teachers are present in unexpectedly high numbers considering the constraints they face. The importance of such educators is stressed, along with implications for selection, training and remuneration.

Baker, Victoria J.

1989-06-01

31

Identifying Successful Strategies Implemented by Teachers in High Performing, High Poverty Schools to Address the Diverse Needs of Economically Disadvantaged Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research study sought to identify the successful strategies used by teachers in high performing, high poverty schools to address the needs of economically disadvantaged students. The study examined teacher perceptions, motivation factors, and instructional strategies as they relate to the improvement of the academic progress of economically

Taylor-Statom, Yolanda

2012-01-01

32

Identifying solutions to increase participation in physical activity interventions within a socio-economically disadvantaged community: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background There is an urgent need to increase population levels of physical activity, particularly amongst those who are socio-economically disadvantaged. Multiple factors influence physical activity behaviour but the generalisability of current evidence to such ‘hard-to-reach’ population subgroups is limited by difficulties in recruiting them into studies. Also, rigorous qualitative studies of lay perceptions and perceptions of community leaders about public health efforts to increase physical activity are sparse. We sought to explore, within a socio-economically disadvantaged community, residents’ and community leaders’ perceptions of physical activity (PA) interventions and issues regarding their implementation, in order to improve understanding of needs, expectations, and social/environmental factors relevant to future interventions. Methods Within an ongoing regeneration project (Connswater Community Greenway), in a socio-economically disadvantaged community in Belfast, we collaborated with a Community Development Agency to purposively sample leaders from public- and voluntary-sector community groups and residents. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 leaders. Residents (n?=?113), of both genders and a range of ages (14 to 86 years) participated in focus groups (n?=?14) in local facilities. Interviews and focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic framework. Results Three main themes were identified: awareness of PA interventions; factors contributing to intervention effectiveness; and barriers to participation in PA interventions. Participants reported awareness only of interventions in which they were involved directly, highlighting a need for better communications, both inter- and intra-sectoral, and with residents. Meaningful engagement of residents in planning/organisation, tailoring to local context, supporting volunteers, providing relevant resources and an ‘exit strategy’ were perceived as important factors related to intervention effectiveness. Negative attitudes such as apathy, disappointing experiences, information with no perceived personal relevance and limited access to facilities were barriers to people participating in interventions. Conclusions These findings illustrate the complexity of influences on a community’s participation in PA interventions and support a social-ecological approach to promoting PA. They highlight the need for cross-sector working, effective information exchange, involving residents in bottom-up planning and providing adequate financial and social support. An in-depth understanding of a target population’s perspectives is of key importance in translating PA behaviour change theories into practice. PMID:24886604

2014-01-01

33

A Study of Participatory Action Research as Professional Development for Educators in Areas of Educational Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the final analysis of a mixed methodological study of participatory action research (PAR) as professional development. The participants were administrators and teachers studying extreme educational disadvantage caused by homeless and transient living conditions. Two questions are answered: 1. What was the experience of…

James, E. Alana

2006-01-01

34

Morbidity and Irish Catholic descent in Britain : Relating health disadvantage to socio-economic position  

Microsoft Academic Search

In common with some other ethnic and religious minorities whose forebears migrated from their country of origin, Irish Catholics in Britain are less well off than the host population in terms of socio-economic position and health. Results are presented from a Scottish study, where Catholic religion of origin mainly indicates Irish ancestry, and it is estimated that about one-third of

Joanne Abbotts; Rory Williams; Graeme Ford

2001-01-01

35

Influence of Schools on Economically Disadvantageous Attitudes: A Solomon Islands Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the economically detrimental attitude of regionalism in a Solomon Islands secondary school and measures changes in regionalism with exposure to school experience that stressed regional integration. Significant decreases in regionalism were recorded. (Available from Plenum Publishing Corporation, 227 West 17 Street, New York, NY…

MacBeth, Alastair M.

1976-01-01

36

Moving beyond the residential neighborhood to explore social inequalities in exposure to area-level disadvantage: Results from the Interdisciplinary Study on Inequalities in Smoking.  

PubMed

The focus, in place and health research, on a single, residential, context overlooks the fact that individuals are mobile and experience other settings in the course of their daily activities. Socio-economic characteristics are associated with activity patterns, as well as with the quality of places where certain groups conduct activities, i.e. their non-residential activity space. Examining how measures of exposure to resources, and inequalities thereof, compare between residential and non-residential contexts is required. Baseline data from 1890 young adults (18-25 years-old) participating in the Interdisciplinary Study of Inequalities in Smoking, Montreal, Canada (2011-2012), were analyzed. Socio-demographic and activity location data were collected using a validated, self-administered questionnaire. Area-level material deprivation was measured within 500-m road-network buffer zones around participants' residential and activity locations. Deprivation scores in the residential area and non-residential activity space were compared between social groups. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate associations between individual- and area-level characteristics and non-residential activity space deprivation, and to explore whether these characteristics attenuated the education-deprivation association. Participants in low educational categories lived and conducted activities in more disadvantaged areas than university students/graduates. Educational inequalities in exposure to area-level deprivation were larger in the non-residential activity space than in the residential area for the least educated, but smaller for the intermediate group. Adjusting for selected covariates such as transportation resources and residential deprivation did not significantly attenuate the education-deprivation associations. Results support the existence of social isolation in residential areas and activity locations, whereby less educated individuals tend to be confined to more disadvantaged areas than their more educated counterparts. They also highlight the relevance of investigating both residential and non-residential contexts when studying inequalities in health-relevant exposures. PMID:24632055

Shareck, Martine; Kestens, Yan; Frohlich, Katherine L

2014-05-01

37

The Healthy Toddlers Trial Protocol: An Intervention to Reduce Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity in Economically and Educationally Disadvantaged Populations  

PubMed Central

Background The number of overweight children in America has doubled to an estimated 10 million in the past 20 years. Establishing healthy dietary behaviors must begin early in childhood and include parents. The Healthy Toddlers intervention focuses on promoting healthy eating habits in 1- to 3-year-old children utilizing the Social Cognitive Theory and a learner-centered approach using Adult Learning principles. This Healthy Toddlers Trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial of an in-home intervention with economically and educationally disadvantaged mothers of toddlers. The intervention focuses on: (a) promoting healthy eating behaviors in toddlers while dietary habits are forming; and (b) providing initial evidence for the potential of Healthy Toddlers as a feasible intervention within existing community-based programs. Methods/Design This describes the study protocol for a randomized control trial, a multi-state project in Colorado, Michigan, and Wisconsin with economically and educationally disadvantaged mother-toddler dyads; toddlers are between 12 and 36 months. The Healthy Toddlers intervention consists of eight in-home lessons and four reinforcement telephone contacts, focusing on fruit, vegetable, and sweetened beverage consumption and parental behaviors, taught by paraprofessional instructors. Healthy Toddlers uses a randomized, experimental, short-term longitudinal design with intervention and control groups. In-home data collection (anthropometric measurements, feeding observations, questionnaires, 3-day dietary records) occurs at baseline, immediately following the intervention, and 6 months after the intervention. Main toddler outcomes include: a) increased fruit and vegetable consumption and decreased sweetened beverage consumption; and b) improved toddler-eating skills (self-feeding and self-serving). Main parent outcomes include: a) improved psychosocial attributes (knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, feeding style) related to child feeding; b) provision of a more positive mealtime physical environment (turning off the TV); and c) creation of a more positive mealtime social environment (sitting down together for meals). Discussion If this project is successful, the expected outcomes are that the intervention will be effective in helping toddlers develop healthy eating skills that contribute to improve overall health and development and to the prevention of obesity. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ACTRN12610000981022 PMID:21777452

2011-01-01

38

Health Care for the Economically Disadvantaged. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on Finance, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These hearings examine ways of ensuring access to quality health care, especially for low-income persons ineligible for Medicaid. The problems of determining who the economically disadvantaged are, what services they are provided with, and how those services are provided and financed are all addressed. An Urban Institute researcher testifies that…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

39

An Exploratory Study of the Effectiveness of the Staff Development Model and the Research-Based Assessment Plan in Improving the Identification of Gifted Economically Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph discusses a project involving 246 teachers that investigated a Staff Development Model (SDM) and a Research-Based Assessment Plan (RAP) for their potential to improve the identification and education of gifted students from economically disadvantaged families, some of whom have limited proficiency in the English language. The…

Frasier, Mary M.; Hunsaker, Scott L.; Lee, Jongyeun; Finley, Vernon S.; Garcia, Jaime H.; Martin, Darlene; Frank, Elaine

40

Inclusive Transition Processes--Considering Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Parents' Views and Actions for Their Child's Successful School Start  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has noted that the transition to primary school is important for future school success. As a result, an inclusive transition process to school has become increasingly important. However, this process is particularly difficult for socio-economically disadvantaged children in Germany. The study considers parents' views and…

Rothe, Antje; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf

2014-01-01

41

Delivery of primary health care to persons who are socio-economically disadvantaged: does the organizational delivery model matter?  

PubMed Central

Background As health systems evolve, it is essential to evaluate their impact on the delivery of health services to socially disadvantaged populations. We evaluated the delivery of primary health services for different socio-economic groups and assessed the performance of different organizational models in terms of equality of health care delivery in Ontario, Canada. Methods Cross sectional study of 5,361 patients receiving care from primary care practices using Capitation, Salaried or Fee-For-Service remuneration models. We assessed self-reported health status of patients, visit duration, number of visits per year, quality of health service delivery, and quality of health promotion. We used multi-level regressions to study service delivery across socio-economic groups and within each delivery model. Identified disparities were further analysed using a t-test to determine the impact of service delivery model on equity. Results Low income individuals were more likely to be women, unemployed, recent immigrants, and in poorer health. These individuals were overrepresented in the Salaried model, reported more visits/year across all models, and tended to report longer visits in the Salaried model. Measures of primary care services generally did not differ significantly between low and higher income/education individuals; when they did, the difference favoured better service delivery for at-risk groups. At-risk patients in the Salaried model were somewhat more likely to report health promotion activities than patients from Capitation and Fee-For-Service models. At-risk patients from Capitation models reported a smaller increase in the number of additional clinic visits/year than Fee-For-Service and Salaried models. At-risk patients reported better first contact accessibility than their non-at-risk counterparts in the Fee-For-Service model only. Conclusions Primary care service measures did not differ significantly across socio-economic status or primary care delivery models. In Ontario, capitation-based remuneration is age and sex adjusted only. Patients of low socio-economic status had fewer additional visits compared to those with high socio-economic status under the Capitation model. This raises the concern that Capitation may not support the provision of additional care for more vulnerable groups. Regions undertaking primary care model reforms need to consider the potential impact of the changes on the more vulnerable populations. PMID:24341530

2013-01-01

42

The Relationship between Residential Land Use Patterns and the Educational Outcomes of Economically Disadvantaged Students in Texas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disparate outcomes resulting from economic segregation in public primary schools have been the subject of much debate and litigation. Little research, however, examines whether negative outcomes may be exacerbated by inequities in the distribution of housing across metropolitan areas. This article explores connections between residential land use…

Van Zandt, Shannon; Wunneburger, Douglas F.

2011-01-01

43

Serving Economically Depressed Areas. Report 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted in Illinois to determine how effectively the vocational education system was meeting its responsibilities to serve persons in economically depressed areas under the terms of the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act of 1984. State records showed that during fiscal year 1987, Illinois expended $982,956 of the $1,336,238…

Black, Hartzel; And Others

44

Municipal health expectancy in Japan: decreased healthy longevity of older people in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little is known about small-area variation in healthy longevity of older people and its socioeconomic correlates. This study aimed to estimate health expectancy at 65 years (HE65) at the municipal level in Japan, and to examine its relation to area socio-demographic conditions. METHODS: HE65 of municipalities (N = 3361) across Japan was estimated by a linear regression formula with

Yoshiharu Fukuda; Keiko Nakamura; Takehito Takano

2005-01-01

45

Engaging Fathers from Disadvantaged Areas in Children's Early Educational Transitions: A UK Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings presented here relate to the evaluation of an innovative one-year pilot project in an area of multiple deprivation in the north of England, the goal of which was to engage fathers and male carers in their children's transition from an early years setting to formal schooling to enhance children's enjoyment, achievement and learning at this…

Potter, Carol; Walker, Gary; Keen, Bev

2012-01-01

46

The NASA Plan: To award eight percent of prime and subcontracts to socially and economically disadvantaged businesses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is NASA's intent to provide small disadvantaged businesses, including women-owned, historically black colleges and universities and minority education institutions the maximum practicable opportunity to receive a fair proportion of NASA prime and subcontracted awards. Annually, NASA will establish socioeconomic procurement goals including small disadvantaged business goals, with a target of reaching the eight percent level by the end of FY 1994. The NASA Associate Administrators, who are responsible for the programs at the various NASA Centers, will be held accountable for full implementation of the socioeconomic procurement plans. Various aspects of this plan, including its history, are discussed.

1990-01-01

47

Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to…

Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

2012-01-01

48

Updating the Process and Content of Teacher Education Curriculum to Research Disadvantaged Youth in Western Metropolitan Areas. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central purpose of this report is to help teachers, teacher educators, supervisors, and local directors to be more aware of the problems and needs of disadvantaged urban youth. Focus is directed toward existing teacher education programs to determine needed changes which will help teachers to better serve the education needs of disadvantaged

Haas, Mary Helen; Wood, Marcile

49

Weight and place: a multilevel cross-sectional survey of area-level social disadvantage and overweight\\/obesity in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To estimate variation between small areas in adult body mass index (BMI), and assess the importance of area level socioeconomic disadvantage in predicting BMI.Methods:We identified all census collector districts (CCDs) in the 20 innermost Local Government Areas in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia, and ranked them by the percentage of low income households (<$400\\/week). In all, 50 CCDs were randomly selected from

T King; A M Kavanagh; D Jolley; G Turrell; D Crawford

2006-01-01

50

Pupil Disaffection in Areas of Socio-Economic Disadvantage: Implications for Effective School Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines specific elements of a much wider study that attempted to ascertain the reasons for under-achievement in a large comprehensive school in the Welsh valleys. Specific Academic performance at General Certificate of Secondary Education (G.C.S.E.) level was poor in Randall, the main case school, in relation to other schools with…

Lloyd-Nesling, Norma

2006-01-01

51

An Analysis of the Emerging Roles of the Paraprofessional School-Community Aide with Implications for Strategies of Social Change in Disadvantaged Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed the use of paraprofessionals as school-community workers (Community Counselors) by the Flint (Michigan) Community Schools. The purpose was to examine perceptions and expectations of this position in order to: organize a framework for the emerging role of the indigenous school-community worker in urban disadvantaged areas; make…

Hadden, Marise Alvena Tabor Bell

52

Incentives as connectors: insights into a breastfeeding incentive intervention in a disadvantaged area of North-West England  

PubMed Central

Background Incentive or reward schemes are becoming increasingly popular to motivate healthy lifestyle behaviours. In this paper, insights from a qualitative and descriptive study to investigate the uptake, impact and meanings of a breastfeeding incentive intervention integrated into an existing peer support programme (Star Buddies) are reported. The Star Buddies service employs breastfeeding peer supporters to support women across the ante-natal, intra-partum and post-partum period. Methods In a disadvantaged area of North West England, women initiating breastfeeding were recruited by peer supporters on the postnatal ward or soon after hospital discharge to participate in an 8 week incentive (gifts and vouchers) and breastfeeding peer supporter intervention. In-depth interviews were conducted with 26 women participants who engaged with the incentive intervention, and a focus group was held with the 4 community peer supporters who delivered the intervention. Descriptive analysis of routinely collected data for peer supporter contacts and breastfeeding outcomes before and after the incentive intervention triangulated and retrospectively provided the context for the qualitative thematic analysis. Results A global theme emerged of 'incentives as connectors', with two sub-themes of 'facilitating connections' and 'facilitating relationships and wellbeing'. The incentives were linked to discussion themes and gift giving facilitated peer supporter access for proactive weekly home visits to support women. Regular face to face contacts enabled meaningful relationships and new connections within and between the women, families, peer supporters and care providers to be formed and sustained. Participants in the incentive scheme received more home visits and total contact time with peer supporters compared to women before the incentive intervention. Full participation levels and breastfeeding rates at 6-8 weeks were similar for women before and after the incentive intervention. Conclusion The findings suggest that whilst the provision of incentives might not influence women's intentions or motivations to breastfeed, the connections forged provided psycho-social benefits for both programme users and peer supporters. PMID:22458841

2012-01-01

53

THE ATLANTA AREA WORKSHOP ON PREPARING TEACHERS TO WORK WITH DISADVANTAGED YOUTH (PINE MOUNTAIN, GEORGIA, MARCH 5-8, 1967).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS IS A REPORT OF A WORKSHOP FOR 114 SOUTHERN EDUCATIONAL LEADERS WHICH AIMED AT (1) INVESTIGATING THE PROBLEMS FACED BY TEACHERS OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN, (2) GENERATING IDEAS FOR MODEL PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE PROGRAMS FOR SUCH TEACHERS, AND (3) HAVING WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS DESIGN SUCH PROGRAMS. THERE WAS GENERAL AGREEMENT THAT THE BASIC…

CODY, WILMER S.; SHUFELT, LYNN F.

54

Public perception and economic implications of bottled water consumption in underprivileged urban areas.  

PubMed

This paper presents a comparative assessment of public perception of drinking water quality in two underprivileged urban areas in Lebanon and Jordan with nearly similar cultural and demographic characteristics. It compares the quality of bottled water to the quality of the drinking water supplied through the public network and examines the economic implications of bottled water consumption in the two study areas. Participants' perception of the quality of drinking water provided via the public network was generally negative, and bottled water was perceived to be of better quality in both areas, thus affecting drinking water preferences and consumption patterns. The results reveal that the quality of bottled water is questionable in areas that lack enforcement of water quality standards, thus adding to the burden of an already disadvantaged community. Both areas demonstrated a considerable cost incurred for purchasing bottled water in low income communities reaching up to 26 % of total income. PMID:22828978

Massoud, M A; Maroun, R; Abdelnabi, H; Jamali, I I; El-Fadel, M

2013-04-01

55

It Doesn't Happen Here: Eating Disorders in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Economically Disadvantaged, Urban College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulk of eating disorder studies have focused on white, middle-upper class women, excluding ethnically and economically diverse women and men. Accordingly, our knowledge of prevalence rates and risk factors is reliant on this narrow literature. To expand upon the current literature, we examined eating disorders in ethnically diverse low-income, urban college students. We surveyed 884 incoming freshmen during an

Katie Gentile; Chitra Raghavan; Valli Rajah; Katie Gates

2007-01-01

56

Exploring disparities in acute myocardial infarction events between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: roles of age, gender, geography and area-level disadvantage.  

PubMed

We investigated disparities in rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in the 199 Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) in New South Wales, Australia. Using routinely collected and linked hospital and mortality data from 2002 to 2007, we developed multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the relative rates of first AMI events in the study period accounting for area of residence. Rates of AMI in Aboriginal people were more than two times that in non-Aboriginal people, with the disparity greatest in more disadvantaged and remote areas. AMI rates in Aboriginal people varied significantly by SLA, as did the Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal rate ratio. We identified almost 30 priority areas for universal and targeted preventive interventions that had both high rates of AMI for Aboriginal people and large disparities in rates. PMID:24751666

Randall, D A; Jorm, L R; Lujic, S; Eades, S J; Churches, T R; O'Loughlin, A J; Leyland, A H

2014-07-01

57

Economic Impacts of a Wide Area Release of Anthrax  

SciTech Connect

This analysis explores economic impacts that might result from a wide-area release of anthrax. The intent is not to provide a quantitative analysis of such a disaster, but to: 1. Define the general categories of economic impacts that the region should be concerned about; and, 2. Explore what types of private sector businesses or industries, if any, may have the greatest impact on speeding the economic recovery of the region.

Judd, Kathleen S.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.

2009-05-29

58

METROPOLITAN REPORT Economic Indicators for the New Orleans Area  

E-print Network

METROPOLITAN REPORT Economic Indicators for the New Orleans Area Division of Business and Economic 14,800 jobs were added. Though this 0.3% loss is small, it is a sign that the recession has reached hospitals (76% recovered). · The dollar value of construction contracts signed so far this year in both non

Kulp, Mark

59

METROPOLITAN REPORT Economic Indicators for the New Orleans Area  

E-print Network

unemployment claims were also down, thus showing an ongoing recovery of the labor market in the metro area by the Economic Forecasting Center at Georgia State University. All percent changes in quarterly activity reflect

Kulp, Mark

60

Educational Disadvantage in New Hampshire.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report studies the specific attributes of educational disadvantage which prevent satisfactory achievement in New Hampshire children. It is based on a sample of approximately 10 percent of the state school districts, which are divided into three levels of economic status, three levels of achievement, and an urban, suburban, or rural category.…

Whittemore-Abelson, Concord, NH.

61

Exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and associated health risks of socio-economically disadvantaged population in a “hot spot” in Camden, New Jersey  

PubMed Central

To address disparities in health risks associated with ambient air pollution for racial/ethnic minority groups, this study characterized personal and ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a suspected hot spot of air pollution – the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), and an urban reference community – the Copewood/Davis Streets (CDS) neighborhood in Camden, New Jersey. Both are minority-dominant, impoverished communities. We collected 24-h integrated personal air samples from 54 WFS residents and 53 CDS residents, with one sample on a weekday and one on a weekend day during the summer and winter seasons of 2004–2006. Ambient air samples from the center of each community were also collected simultaneously during personal air sampling. Toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (TEX) presented higher (p < 0.05) ambient levels in WFS than in CDS, particularly during weekdays. A stronger association between personal and ambient concentrations of MTBE and TEX was found in WFS than in CDS. Fourteen to forty-two percent of the variation in personal MTBE, hexane, benzene, and TEX was explained by local outdoor air pollution. These observations indicated that local sources impacted the community air pollution and personal exposure in WFS. The estimated cancer risks resulting from two locally emitted VOCs, benzene and ethylbenzene, and non-cancer neurological and respiratory effects resulting from hexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes exceeded the US EPA risk benchmarks in both communities. These findings emphasized the need to address disparity in health risks associated with ambient air pollution for the socio-economically disadvantaged groups. This study also demonstrated that air pollution hot spots similar to WFS can provide robust setting to investigate health effects of ambient air pollution.

Wu, Xiangmei (May); Fan, Zhihua (Tina); Zhu, Xianlei; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Weisel, Clifford P.; Lioy, Paul J.

2015-01-01

62

Individual, social and environmental factors influencing physical activity levels and behaviours of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged urban mothers in Canada: A mixed methods approach  

PubMed Central

Background Existing data provide little insight into the physical activity context of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged mothers in Canada. Our primary objectives were: (1) to use focus group methodology to develop tools to identify the individual, social, and environmental factors influencing utilitarian and leisure time physical activities (LTPA) of multiethnic SED mothers; and (2) to use a women specific physical activity survey tool to assess psychosocial barriers and supports and to quantify individual physical activity (PA) levels of multi-ethnic SED mothers in Canada. Methods Qualitative focus group sessions were conducted in West, Central and Eastern Canada with multiethnic SED mothers (n?=?6 focus groups; n?=?42 SED mothers) and with health and recreation professionals (HRPs) (n?=?5 focus groups; n?=?25 HRPs) involved in community PA programming for multiethnic SED mothers. Administration of the women specific Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) tool was completed by consenting SED mothers (n?=?59). Results More than half of SED mothers were employed and had higher total PA scores with occupation included than unemployed mothers. However, nearly 60% of both groups were overweight or obese. Barriers to LTPA included the lack of available, affordable and accessible LTPA programs that responded to cultural and social needs. Concerns for safety, nonsupportive cultural and social norms and the winter climate were identified as key barriers to both utilitarian and LTPA. Conclusions Findings show that multiethnic SED mothers experience many barriers to utilitarian and LTPA opportunities within their communities. The varying LTPA levels among these multi-ethnic SED mothers and the occurrence of overweight and obesity suggests that current LTPA programs are likely insufficient to maintain healthy body weights. PMID:22500882

2012-01-01

63

Multi-area economic dispatch with tie line constraints  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a new method for solving the Multi-Area Economic Dispatch (MAED) problem with tie line constraints. This formulation extends the traditional economic dispatch methods used in study applications such as Unit Commitment to include area demand constraints, area reserve constraints, and tie line capacity constraints between the modeled areas. The MAED is formulated as a capacitated non-linear network flow problem which is solved using a high-speed network-flow code. The MAED determines the amount of power that can be economically generated in one area and transferred to another area to displace generation in the second area. The network flow model does not compute the actual power transfer between areas. The paper demonstrates that a significant number of the problem constraints may be formulated as network-type, and as a result, the method provides a robust, high-speed solution method for a surprisingly large class of utility problems including the ability to analyze potential purchases and sales in a multi-area environment.

Streiffert, D. [ESCA Corp., Bellevue, WA (United States)] [ESCA Corp., Bellevue, WA (United States)

1995-11-01

64

Treatment of Depression in Disadvantaged Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-income minority women are underrepresented in mental health service settings, yet they are clearly at risk for psychiatric disorders. We staff a clinic specialized in the treatment of depression in economically disadvantaged medical patients. We will share our experience treating disadvantaged and ethnic minority women and will discuss the ingredients necessary to provide quality therapy for these women. We will

Francisca Azocar; Jeanne Miranda; Eleanor Valdes Dwyer

1996-01-01

65

Process evaluation for the FEeding Support Team (FEST) randomised controlled feasibility trial of proactive and reactive telephone support for breastfeeding women living in disadvantaged areas  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the feasibility, acceptability and fidelity of a feeding team intervention with an embedded randomised controlled trial of team-initiated (proactive) and woman-initiated (reactive) telephone support after hospital discharge. Design Participatory approach to the design and implementation of a pilot trial embedded within a before-and-after study, with mixed-method process evaluation. Setting A postnatal ward in Scotland. Sample Women initiating breast feeding and living in disadvantaged areas. Methods Quantitative data: telephone call log and workload diaries. Qualitative data: interviews with women (n=40) with follow-up (n=11) and staff (n=17); ward observations 2?weeks before and after the intervention; recorded telephone calls (n=16) and steering group meetings (n=9); trial case notes (n=69); open question in a telephone interview (n=372). The Framework approach to analysis was applied to mixed-method data. Main outcome measures Quantitative: telephone call characteristics (number, frequency, duration); workload activity. Qualitative: experiences and perspectives of women and staff. Results A median of eight proactive calls per woman (n=35) with a median duration of 5?min occurred in the 14?days following hospital discharge. Only one of 34 control women initiated a call to the feeding team, with women undervaluing their own needs compared to others, and breast feeding as a reason to call. Proactive calls providing continuity of care increased women's confidence and were highly valued. Data demonstrated intervention fidelity for woman-centred care; however, observing an entire breast feed was not well implemented due to short hospital stays, ward routines and staff–team–woman communication issues. Staff pragmatically recognised that dedicated feeding teams help meet women's breastfeeding support needs in the context of overstretched and variable postnatal services. Conclusions Implementing and integrating the FEeding Support Team (FEST) trial within routine postnatal care was feasible and acceptable to women and staff from a research and practice perspective and shows promise for addressing health inequalities. Trial registration ISRCTN27207603. The study protocol and final report is available on request. PMID:22535794

Craig, Leone; MacLennan, Graeme; Boyers, Dwayne; Vale, Luke

2012-01-01

66

The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Louisville, Kentucky, Metro Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The model allows various economic projections to be…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

67

A Randomized Trial of a Diet and Exercise Intervention for Overweight and Obese Women from Economically Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: Sisters Taking Action for Real Success (STARS)  

PubMed Central

Background Lower socioeconomic status at both the individual and neighborhood level is associated with increased health risks. Weight loss can reduce this risk, but few high quality weight loss studies target this population. Objectives STARS tests a culturally-appropriate, group-based behavioral and social support intervention on body weight and waist circumference in women from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods. Design A stratified (by BMI) randomized trial. Randomization to group was generated by a random numbers table with allocation concealment by opaque envelopes. Methods Participants 25–50 years who had a BMI ? 25 kg/m2 and a waist circumference ? 88 cm were recruited from 18 census tracts in Columbia, SC with high rates of poverty between November 2008 and November 2010. All participants received a dietary and exercise counseling session. Intervention participants then receive 16 theoretically-based and tailored weekly group sessions followed by 8 weeks of telephone maintenance counseling. Control participants receive 16 weekly health education mailings. Measurements correspond to baseline, post-group intervention, and post-telephone counseling, and for intervention participants, after a 12-week no-contact period. Measurement staff was blinded to group assignment. Results Participants (N=155; n=80 intervention, n=75 minimal intervention control) were primarily African American (86.5%) and averaged 38.9 years with a mean BMI of 40.1 kg/m2 and waist circumference of 115.4 cm. Food insecurity was reported by 43% of participants. Summary STARS targets an underserved population with an innovative, tailored, and theoretically-grounded, group-based intervention followed by telephone maintenance. If effective, the approach has the potential to be feasible and cost-effective for community delivery. PMID:21864718

Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Granner, Michelle; Hutto, Brent

2011-01-01

68

The Gifted Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes an enrichment program for gifted disadvantaged children (ages 5-15) in Tel Aviv, Israel. The program had both neighborhood programs and activities/programs outside the child's neighborhood including a summer camp program. Evaluation indicated substantial IQ increases after three semesters. (DB)

Landau, Erika

1987-01-01

69

Reconnecting Disadvantaged Young Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By several recent counts, the United States is home to 2 to 3 million youth age 16 through 24 who are out of school and out of work. Much has been written on disadvantaged youth, and government policy has gone through many incarnations, yet questions remain unanswered. Why are so many young people "disconnected," and what can public policy do…

Holzer, Harry; Edelman, Peter; Offner, Paul

2006-01-01

70

ENGLISH AND THE DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PART 1 OF THIS COLLECTION OF ARTICLES BY THE STAFF AND PARTICIPANTS OF AN NDEA SUMMER INSTITUTE IN ENGLISH FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH DESCRIBES ATTITUDES AND VIEWPOINTS ON THE PLACE OF ENGLISH IN THE DAILY LIVES OF STUDENTS AND CONTAINS ARTICLES ON "ENGLISH FOR WHAT" BY CHARLES WEINGARTNER, "ENGLISH TEACHING AND DROP-OUTS" AND "ENGLISH AND THE…

FAGAN, EDWARD R., ED.

71

Perceived quality and availability of fruit and vegetables are associated with perceptions of fruit and vegetable affordability among socio-economically disadvantaged women. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

72

Measuring the Determinants of Relative Economic Performance of Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the determinants of economic performance of 149 English rural Local Authority Districts (LADs). A Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) estimation procedure was employed to jointly determine the influence of a wide range of indicators representing economic, human, cultural and environmental capital, as well as less tangible or "soft"…

Agarwal, Sheela; Rahman, Sanzidur; Errington, Andrew

2009-01-01

73

The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Chicago, Illinois, Metro Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed, with the generous support of State Farm[R], a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

74

The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Jackson, Mississippi, Metro Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

75

The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Atlanta, Georgia, Metro Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

76

SocioEconomic Dimensions of Rural Poverty: An Experience of Barani Areas in Punjab-Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out on the Socio-economic factors lying behind the rural poverty in the Barani areas. Using the appropriate economic tools (Descriptive Statistics) on primary data as well as globally famous FGT class of poverty measures were used to see the Socio-economic factors causing poverty. It was observed that agricultural income of those related with agriculture sector is

FAISAL ABBAS; ABDUL SABOOR; NAEEM SARWAR; ASIF MAQBOOL

77

Theme: Teaching Academically Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Will We Serve the Academically Disadvantaged?" (Iverson); "Using Centers of Learning to Reach Academically Disadvantaged Students" (Gentry); "Georgia's Special Lamb Project Adoption Program" (Farmer); "Teacher Expectations" (Powers); "Providing Instruction for Special Populations" (Jewell); and "The Educational Reform Movement and…

Iverson, Maynard J.; And Others

1993-01-01

78

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: Tennessee  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

79

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: West Virginia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

80

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: Kentucky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

81

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: Alabama  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

82

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: North Carolina  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

83

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: Ohio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

84

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: Georgia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

85

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: Mississippi  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

86

1997 Economic Census: Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series, Selected States: South Carolina  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the Census Bureau released nine reports in the Economic Census's Health Care and Assistance, Geographic Area Series. These reports offer economic data on "establishments providing health care and social assistance for individuals," including number of establishments, revenues, payroll, and employment by state, county, and metropolitan area.

87

"I Am Reading to Her and She Loves It": Benefits of Engaging Fathers from Disadvantaged Areas in Their Children's Early Learning Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings presented here relate to the evaluation of a one-year father-inclusion project, which took place in an area of multiple deprivation in the North of England. The project's goal was to engage fathers and male carers in their children's transition from an early years setting to a reception class and to maintain that involvement in the…

Potter, Carol; Walker, Gary; Keen, Bev

2013-01-01

88

An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations. Volume 2: Appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An economic assessment of short takeoff aircraft for short haul air transportation applications is presented. The economic viability and environmental compatibility of short takeoff aircraft service in high density areas were evaluated. The subjects discussed are: (1) aircraft configurations and performance, (2) airfield and terminal requirements, and (3) direct and indirect operating costs.

Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

1973-01-01

89

Instructional Materials for Occupational Home Economics; Food Service Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials were developed by subject matter specialists at an Indiana State University workshop for teacher use when planning a cooperative occupational training program for supervised food service workers. Content areas, each printed on a different color paper, include: (1) Grooming and Public Relations, (2) Counter and Cafeteria Service, (3)…

Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis. Div. of Vocational Education.

90

METROPOLITAN REPORT Economic Indicators for the New Orleans Area  

E-print Network

Orleans regional labor market area which includes Jefferson, Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St, the latest of which is the third quarter of 2008. All percent changes in employment activity reflect discussion unless otherwise noted. The Year to Date column in this issue contains percent change

Kulp, Mark

91

Opening Opportunities for Disadvantaged Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contents of this book include: "Urban environment in the 1970's," A. Harry Passow; "Educational strategies and the disadvantaged," S.M. Miller and Pamela Roby; "A critique of the concept of 'compensatory education,'" Basil Bernstein; "Early childhood education for the disadvantaged," Helen Robison; "Up from poverty: the price of 'making it' in a…

Passow, A. Harry, Ed.

92

DOI:10.1068/a3664 Financial institutions in disadvantaged areas: a comparative analysis of policies encouraging financial inclusion in Britain and the United States  

E-print Network

Abstract. The paper compares British and US government policy initiatives to combat financial exclusion and promote community reinvestment. Financial exclusion, a general term for those who lack financial products, is concentrated in a small number of deprived urban areas in larger cities that are also starved of private sector investment. British policies, though they have drawn on US experience, predominantly treat exclusion as an individual problem and pay insufficient attention to the wider interconnections between people and place that underlie financial exclusion. These are more prominent in the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) that has led to significant improvements in financial inclusion and community investment in the USA. The CRA is underpinned by a more compartmentalised and locally embedded system of financial regulation. Consolidation in the banking sector and the growth of competition between banks and other financial institutions in an increasingly integrated US financial sector threaten this. British policies seek to provide `joined-up ' solutions to financial exclusion in a manner that is more in tune with an integrated financial sector where a small number of large banks compete on a level playing field with other financial institutions. The paper highlights the difficulties that these policies face in enlisting the cooperation of financial institutions. The growth of policy interest in finance exclusion

J Neill Marshall

2003-01-01

93

48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a small disadvantaged business, unless the Contractor...Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Report...accomplished through using the Electronic Subcontracting Reporting...System's Small Disadvantaged Business Participation...

2013-10-01

94

48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...a small disadvantaged business, unless the Contractor...Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Report...accomplished through using the Electronic Subcontracting Reporting...System's Small Disadvantaged Business Participation...

2011-10-01

95

48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...a small disadvantaged business, unless the Contractor...Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Report...accomplished through using the Electronic Subcontracting Reporting...System's Small Disadvantaged Business Participation...

2012-10-01

96

Residential Segregation,Spatial Mismatch and Economic Growth across US Metropolitan Area  

SciTech Connect

Numerous studies have demonstrated the detrimental influence of residential segregation on poor inner-city residents. This study examines the impact of residential segregation on the welfare of populations in US metropolitan areas using economic growth as the indicator. Panel data of US metropolitan areas spanning 25 years, 1980 2005, are used to analyze the effect of segregation on economic growth. The results show that both racial and skill segregation have a negative impact on short and long-term economic growth, which have increased over time. Further, the negative impact of the variables associated with spatial mismatch is also revealed. The results clearly point to the need for mobility policies that favor non-White households and comprehensive strategies that promote economic opportunities in low-resource communities in the US.

Campbell, Dr Harrison [University of North Carolina, Charlotte] [University of North Carolina, Charlotte; Li, Huiping [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

97

Poverty-Stricken Schools: What We Can Learn from the Rest of the World and from Successful Schools in Economically Disadvantaged Areas in the US  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses how much of the gap in learning between poverty-stricken students and advantaged students in the US is related to a lack of educational resources and poor teaching quality. It discusses how some school systems have been able to overcome the challenges of poverty and how high-quality teaching can alleviate the effects of…

Morgan, Hani

2012-01-01

98

The Economic Impact of Community College of Philadelpia on the Philadelphia Area. Report #18.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents results of a study of the economic impact of the Community College of Philadelphia (CCP) on the Philadelphia area. After introductory material highlights the origin of the study in a survey of the collective impact of all two- and four-year colleges and universities on the economy of the state, the paper discusses the role and…

Philadelphia Community Coll., PA. Office of Institutional Research.

99

Social and Economic Effects of Large-Scale Energy Development in Rural Areas: An Assessment Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

General development, structure, and uses of a computerized impact projection model, the North Dakota Regional Environmental Assessment Program (REAP) Economic-Demographic Assessment Model, were studied not only to describe a model developed to meet informational needs of local decision makers (especially in a rural area undergoing development),…

Murdock, Steve H.; Leistritz, F. Larry

100

Data Protection Guidance Transferring personal data outside the European Economic Area  

E-print Network

Data Protection Guidance Transferring personal data outside the European Economic Area The either data protection principles specifies that personal data should not be transferred outside of the EEA unless that country `ensures an adequate level of protection for the rights and freedoms of data subjects

Mumby, Peter J.

101

Ping-Pong and the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everyone experiences disadvantages in life. Some disadvantages are the result of forces largely beyond the control of any one individual, including genetic, political, social, and historical disadvantages which no amount of trying is apt to overcome. Some disadvantages are self-inflicted, including being deliberately narrow in viewpoint; avoiding…

Looper, Travis

102

Trends in Educational Disadvantage in Dutch Primary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central question in this study is whether the language and math delays of the different socio-economic and ethnic minority groups targeted by Dutch educational disadvantage policy have diminished or not. Data are from the years 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2008. Information from a total of 90,000 pupils in Grades 2 and 8 was selected to represent the…

Driessen, Geert; Merry, Michael S.

2014-01-01

103

Against the Odds: Disadvantaged Students Who Succeed in School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report explores the factors and conditions that could help more students succeed at school despite challenging socio-economic backgrounds. It does this by studying resilient students and what sets them apart from their less successful peers. Understanding how educational systems can support disadvantaged students and help them "beat the odds"…

OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

2011-01-01

104

Virtues of SIN: Can Intensified Public Efforts Help Disadvantaged Immigrants?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The labor market integration of immigrants is a top political priority throughout the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Social and fiscal gains, as well as sustained future labor supply make governments search for effective policies to increase employment among the mostly disadvantaged. The author studies SIN,…

Aslund, Olof; Johansson, Per

2011-01-01

105

The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response.…

Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

2013-01-01

106

The Early Childhood Education of Disadvantaged Children in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2010, the Chinese government has adopted a series of services and policies to provide early childhood education for disadvantaged children. The rapid economic development and urbanisation process since the mid-1980s have led to great changes in social structure and demographics in China. This creates new challenges for the education of…

Song, Zhanmei; Zhu, Jiaxiong; Xia, Zhuyun; Wu, Xin

2014-01-01

107

LEARNING PATTERNS IN THE DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

RESEARCH ON THE DEVELOPMENTAL ORIGINS OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN IS NOT AS IMPORTANT FOR SCHOOL PEOPLE AS IS SCHOOL-BASED RESEARCH. SUCH STUDIES FOCUS ON A TASK ANALYSIS APPROACH WHICH WOULD MATCH THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A STUDENTS BEHAVIOR WITH INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES. ONE SPECIFIC PIECE OF RESEARCH STUDIED THE EFFECTS OF…

LESSER, GERALD S.; STODOLSKY, SUSAN S.

108

13 CFR 123.600 - Are economic injury disaster loans under this subpart limited to the geographic areas contiguous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...geographic areas contiguous to the declared disaster areas? 123.600 Section 123.600 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...Result of the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks § 123.600 Are economic injury disaster loans under...

2011-01-01

109

13 CFR 123.600 - Are economic injury disaster loans under this subpart limited to the geographic areas contiguous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...geographic areas contiguous to the declared disaster areas? 123.600 Section 123.600 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...Result of the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks § 123.600 Are economic injury disaster loans under...

2010-01-01

110

Water for Texas: Applicant Capacity Assessment Tool for the Economically Distressed Areas Program  

E-print Network

Williams Whitney Scott Megan Stubbs Dr. Deborah Kerr, Advisor Project Mission Statement To develop an evaluation tool to assist the Texas Water Development Board in assessing the capacity of applicants to complete proposed water projects in economically... distressed areas This project was a partnership between the George Bush School of Government and Public Service at Texas A&M University and the Texas Water Development Board II Executive Summary Since 1989, the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB...

Bennett, Jason; Dascaliuc, Svetlana; Grossman, Nick; Hunt, Michael; Kenesson, Laura; Madden, Tara; McWilliams, Austin; Scott, Whitney; Stubbs, Megan

2005-01-01

111

The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…

Maroto, Michelle

2012-01-01

112

Toward improving identification of talent potential among minority and disadvantaged students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The under?inclusion of economically disadvantaged and children of minority cultures in programs for the gifted is well documented. Suggestions are made for the elements of anew paradigm for identifying talent potential in underserved populations. In coming to grips with more effective approaches to the identification and development of talents among minority and disadvantaged gifted, educators will better understand how to

A. Harry Passow; Mary M. Frasier

1996-01-01

113

An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an economic and environmental study of short haul airline systems using short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft are presented. The STOL system characteristics were optimized for maximum patronage at a specified return on investment, while maintaining noise impact compatibility with the terminal area. Supporting studies of aircraft air pollution and hub airport congestion relief were also performed. The STOL concept specified for this study was an Augmentor Wing turbofan aircraft having a field length capability of 2,000 ft. and an effective perceived noise level of 95 EPNdB at 500 ft. sideline distance. An economic and environmental assessment of the defined STOL system and a summary of the methodology, STOL system characteristics and arena characteristics are provided.

Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

1974-01-01

114

Education and the Disadvantaged, Proceedings of a Conference on the Disadvantaged (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, June 8-9, 1967).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conference report is made up of six papers and related commentaries on the nature of disadvantagement and its implications. Most participants were from the Milwaukee, Wisconsin, area. Small group meetings and discussions followed each of the papers. The opening paper, "Education and the Disadvantaged" (E. Melby), examined a broad range of…

Goldman, Harvey, Ed.

115

Economic Planning for Multicounty Rural Areas: Application of a Linear Programming Model in Northwest Arkansas. Technical Bulletin No. 1653.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Planners in multicounty rural areas can use the Rural Development, Activity Analysis Planning (RDAAP) model to try to influence the optimal growth of their areas among different general economic goals. The model implies that best industries for rural areas have: high proportion of imported inputs; low transportation costs; high value added/output…

Williams, Daniel G.

116

Child Participation and Family Engagement with Early Childhood Education and Care Services in Disadvantaged Australian Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To support national policy initiatives in early childhood education and to determine reasons for low enrolment in services from families in disadvantaged areas, the authors investigated the views and practices of 101 families from disadvantaged communities. Families with a child aged 3-5 years were recruited from urban, rural and remote areas of…

Grace, Rebekah; Bowes, Jennifer; Elcombe, Emma

2014-01-01

117

California High-Speed Rail and Economic Development: Station-Area Market Profiles and Public Policy Responses  

E-print Network

1 California High-Speed Rail and Economic Development: Station-Area Market Profiles and Public;2 Abstract Investment in California's proposed High-Speed Rail (HSR) system has been justified partly-Speed Rail (HSR) systems as an economic stimulus. Following the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA

Kammen, Daniel M.

118

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

119

[Spatial coupling characteristics of eco-environment quality and economic poverty in Lüliang area].  

PubMed

It is one of the important strategies during the poverty alleviation to maintain a basic balance between the eco-environment and economic development in poor areas. Taking the whole 20 counties in Lüliang national contiguous special poverty-stricken areas and the surrounding 36 counties as multi-type and multi-scale typical study areas, the relationship between eco-environment quality and poverty in the poverty-stricken areas was explored in this paper. Firstly, the region's ecological poverty index system was systematically built, and by integrated use of the subjective and objective weighting method, the ecological environment quality was evaluated in the perspective of natural environment. Then, the coupling coordination degree was calculated by coupling the ecological environment quality index and the average disposable income. Finally, the spatial variation was analyzed in detail respectively at provincial, city and county scales. Results showed that as a whole, the spatial autocorrelation coefficient of coupling coordination degree was relatively higher in the study area, and the coupling coordination degree in the eastern part was higher than that in the western part; the whole coupling coordination degree in Shanxi Province was slightly higher than in Shaanxi Province; the national poverty counties presented a state of recession, and their coordinated development degrees were far lower than that of non-national poverty counties. PMID:25223029

Li, Jing-Yi; Wang, Yan-Hui

2014-06-01

120

Exploring relations between crime and disadvantage on merseyside  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sets out some of the conceptual and methodological issues underpinning a two-year study into relations between crime and disadvantage in Merseyside, northwest England. The study forms part of the British Economic and Social Research Council's (ESRC) Crime and Social Order Research Programme; a five-year initiative with resources of 2.1 million pounds funding 21 separate projects (ESRC, 1994). Merseyside,

A. Hirschfield; K. J. Bowers; P. J. B. Brown

1995-01-01

121

Health impacts and economic losses assessment of the 2013 severe haze event in Beijing area.  

PubMed

Haze is a serious air pollution problem in China, especially in Beijing and surrounding areas, affecting visibility, public health and regional climate. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was used to simulate PM2.5 (particulate matters with aerodynamic diameter ?2.5?m) concentrations during the 2013 severe haze event in Beijing, and health impacts and health-related economic losses were calculated based on model results. Compared with surface monitoring data, the model results reflected pollution concentrations accurately (correlation coefficients between simulated and measured PM2.5 were 0.7, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 in Beijing, Tianjin, Xianghe and Xinglong stations, respectively). Health impacts assessments show that the PM2.5 concentrations in January might cause 690 (95% confidence interval (CI): (490, 890)) premature deaths, 45,350 (95% CI: (21,640, 57,860)) acute bronchitis and 23,720 (95% CI: (17,090, 29,710)) asthma cases in Beijing area. Results of the economic losses assessments suggest that the haze in January 2013 might lead to 253.8 (95% CI: (170.2, 331.2)) million US$ losses, accounting for 0.08% (95% CI: (0.05%, 0.1%)) of the total 2013 annual gross domestic product (GDP) of Beijing. PMID:25585158

Gao, Meng; Guttikunda, Sarath K; Carmichael, Gregory R; Wang, Yuesi; Liu, Zirui; Stanier, Charles O; Saide, Pablo E; Yu, Man

2015-04-01

122

A Study of Four Library Programs for Disadvantaged Persons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a study of four projects in New York City which were established with federal grants to offer library service to the disadvantaged in the area. The four programs studied are the Preschool Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the Community Coordinator Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the North Manhattan Project of the New York…

Winsor, Charlotte B.; Burrows, Lodema

123

Economic Insights into Providing Access to Improved Groundwater Sources in Remote, Low-Resource Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is often the most or only feasible drinking water source in remote, low-resource areas. Yet the economics of its development have not been systematically outlined. We applied CBARWI (Cost-Benefit Analysis for Remote Water Improvements), a recently developed Decision Support System, to investigate the economic, physical and management factors related to the costs and benefits of non-networked groundwater supply in remote areas. Synthetic profiles of community water services (n = 17,962), defined across 14 parameters' values and ranges relevant to remote areas, were imputed into the decision framework, and the parameter effects on economic outcomes were investigated through regression analysis (Table 1). Several approaches were included for financing the improvements, after Abramson et al, 2011: willingness-to -pay (WTP), -borrow (WTB) and -work (WTW) in community irrigation (';water-for-work'). We found that low-cost groundwater development approaches are almost 7 times more cost-effective than conventional boreholes fitted with handpumps. The costs of electric, submersible borehole pumps are comparable only when providing expanded water supplies, and off-grid communities pay significantly more for such expansions. In our model, new source construction is less cost-effective than improvement of existing wells, but necessary for expanding access to isolated households. The financing approach significantly impacts the feasibility of demand-driven cost recovery; in our investigation, benefit exceeds cost in 16, 32 and 48% of water service configurations financed by WTP, WTB and WTW, respectively. Regressions of total cost (R2 = 0.723) and net benefit under WTW (R2 = 0.829) along with analysis of output distributions indicate that parameters determining the profitability of irrigation are different from those determining costs and other measures of net benefit. These findings suggest that the cost-benefit outcomes associated with groundwater-based water supply improvements vary considerably by many parameters. Thus, a wide variety of factors should be included to inform water development strategies. Abramson, A. et al (2011), Willingness to pay, borrow and work for water service improvements in developing countries, Water Resour Res, 47Table 1: Descriptions, investigated values and regression coefficients of parameters included in our analysis. Rank of standardized ? indicates relative importance. Regression dependent variables are in [($ household-1) y-1]. * Parameters relevant to water-for-work program only.† p <.0001‡ p <.05

Abramson, A.; Lazarovitch, N.; Adar, E.

2013-12-01

124

Optimal Design of Biomass Utilization System for Rural Area Includes Technical and Economic Dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to design optimal biomass utilization system for rural area, OMNIBUS (The Optimization Model for Neo-Integrated Biomass Utilization System) has been developed. OMNIBUS can derive the optimal system configuration to meet different objective function, such as current account balance, amount of biomass energy supply, and CO2 emission. Most of biomass resources in a focused region e.g. wood biomass, livestock biomass, and crop residues are considered in the model. Conversion technologies considered are energy utilization technologies e.g. direct combustion and methane fermentation, and material utilization technologies e.g. composting and carbonization. Case study in Miyakojima, Okinawa prefecture, has been carried out for several objective functions and constraint conditions. Considering economics of the utilization system as a priority requirement, composting and combustion heat utilization are mainly chosen in the optimal system configuration. However gasification power plant and methane fermentation are included in optimal solutions, only when both biomass energy utilization and CO2 reduction have been set as higher priorities. External benefit of CO2 reduction has large impacts on the system configuration. Provided marginal external benefit of more than 50,000 JPY/t-C, external benefit becomes greater than the revenue from electricity and compost etc. Considering technological learning in the future, expensive technologies such as gasification power plant and methane fermentation will have economic feasibility as well as market competitiveness.

Morioka, Yasuki; Nakata, Toshihiko

125

An evolutionary perspective on leaf economics: phylogenetics of leaf mass per area in vascular plants.  

PubMed

In plant leaves, resource use follows a trade-off between rapid resource capture and conservative storage. This "worldwide leaf economics spectrum" consists of a suite of intercorrelated leaf traits, among which leaf mass per area, LMA, is one of the most fundamental as it indicates the cost of leaf construction and light-interception borne by plants. We conducted a broad-scale analysis of the evolutionary history of LMA across a large dataset of 5401 vascular plant species. The phylogenetic signal in LMA displayed low but significant conservatism, that is, leaf economics tended to be more similar among close relatives than expected by chance alone. Models of trait evolution indicated that LMA evolved under weak stabilizing selection. Moreover, results suggest that different optimal phenotypes evolved among large clades within which extremes tended to be selected against. Conservatism in LMA was strongly related to growth form, as were selection intensity and phenotypic evolutionary rates: woody plants showed higher conservatism in relation to stronger stabilizing selection and lower evolutionary rates compared to herbaceous taxa. The evolutionary history of LMA thus paints different evolutionary trajectories of vascular plant species across clades, revealing the coordination of leaf trait evolution with growth forms in response to varying selection regimes. PMID:25165520

Flores, Olivier; Garnier, Eric; Wright, Ian J; Reich, Peter B; Pierce, Simon; Dìaz, Sandra; Pakeman, Robin J; Rusch, Graciela M; Bernard-Verdier, Maud; Testi, Baptiste; Bakker, Jan P; Bekker, Renée M; Cerabolini, Bruno E L; Ceriani, Roberta M; Cornu, Guillaume; Cruz, Pablo; Delcamp, Matthieu; Dolezal, Jiri; Eriksson, Ove; Fayolle, Adeline; Freitas, Helena; Golodets, Carly; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Hodgson, John G; Brusa, Guido; Kleyer, Michael; Kunzmann, Dieter; Lavorel, Sandra; Papanastasis, Vasilios P; Pérez-Harguindeguy, Natalia; Vendramini, Fernanda; Weiher, Evan

2014-07-01

126

GIS: Geographic Information System An application for socio-economical data collection for rural area  

E-print Network

The country India follows the planning through planning commission. This is on the basis of information collected by traditional, tedious and manual method which is too slow to sustain. Now we are in the age of 21th century. We have seen in last few decades that the progress of information technology with leaps and bounds, which have completely changed the way of life in the developed nations. While internet has changed the established working practice and opened new vistas and provided a platform to connect, this gives the opportunity for collaborative work space that goes beyond the global boundary. We are living in the global economy and India leading towards Liberalize Market Oriented Economy (LMOE). Considering this things, focusing on GIS, we proposed a system for collection of socio economic data and water resource management information of rural area via internet.

Nayak, S K; Kalyankar, N V

2010-01-01

127

Legislative Report; National Advisory Council on the Education of Disadvantaged Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report enumerates principles which should be considered important to any legislation designed to provide educational services to disadvantaged children. It is recommended that the primary objective of Title I programs be to raise the educationally disadvantaged child's level of achievement in the area of the basic skills. It is recommended…

National Advisory Council on the Education of Disadvantaged Children, Washington, DC.

128

HANDBOOK, TEACHING SCIENCE TO EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DESCRIBED ARE PROCEDURES AND LABORATORY MATERIALS WHICH ARE OUTGROWTHS OF A RESEARCH PROJECT OF THE SOUTHEASTERN EDUCATION LABORATORY FOR THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE TO DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS IN GRADES 7, 8, AND 9. PART 1 DEALS WITH THE CRITERIA USED IN DEVELOPING PROCEDURES AND MATERIALS FOR USE WITH EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED. INCLUDED ARE (1) THE…

BINGHAM, N.E.; AND OTHERS

129

Community Internet Access in Rural Areas: Solving the Economic Sustainability Puzzle  

E-print Network

these challenges through new information and information communication technologies (ICTs). Increasingly powerful deficits in rural health and learning, urban migration, environmental degradation, and other related trends, flexible, and economical, ICTs present staggering new opportunities for social and economic integration

130

Take the money and run: Economic segregation in U.S. metropolitan areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared to racial segregation, economic segregation has received little attention in recent empirical literature. Yet a heated debate has arisen concerning Wilson's hypothesis (1987) that increasing economic segregation plays a role in the formation of urban ghettos. This paper presents a methodological critique of the measure of economic segregation used by Massey and Eggers (1990) and finds that it confounds

Paul A. Jargowsky

131

The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

132

Professor L. Jean Camp is a founder of the interdiscipline of economics of security. Her core contributions are in area of the social and economic implications of technologies of security  

E-print Network

Interdisciplinary Innovator Economics of Information Security, Design for Trust Online #12;Biography Professor L. Jean Camp is a founder of the interdiscipline of economics of security. Her core contributions are in area of the social and economic implications of technologies of security

Camp, L. Jean

133

RIWU – A model of regional economic development and industrial water use in the catchment area of the Upper Danube  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regional?economic model RIWU (Regional Industrial Water Use) describes the development of economy, demography and industrial water use in the Upper Danube catchment area at the smallest possible spatial dissolution. It is part of an interdisciplinary research project with the title: “GLOWA?Danube – integrative techniques, scenarios and strategies regarding global changes of the water cycle”, funded by the Federal Ministry

Erich Langmantel; Johann Wackerbauer

2003-01-01

134

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY BY PROTECTING NATURAL RESOURCES IN CONSERVATION AREA TO PROMOTE THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF WEST JAVA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural resources degradation in Indonesia, including West Java, dramatically rose during the decade of 90's. The decline of several crucial ecological functions of the West Java's ecosystem especially natural forest within the protected areas may have serious consequences for numerous economic activities of the local communities as well as local industries. The Gross National Product of Indonesia that grows 7.1%

Rika WINURDIASTRI; West Java

135

Economic evaluation of area-wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus, which limit outdoor activities. While several evaluations of effectiveness exist, information on costs is lacking. Economic evaluation of such a program is important to help inform policy makers an...

136

Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and ...

137

Economic Viability of Phytoremediation of a Cadmium Contaminated Agricultural Area Using Energy Maize. Part I: Effect on the Farmer's Income  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the economic viability of using energy maize as a phytoremediation crop in a vast agricultural area moderately contaminated with metals. The acceptance of phytoremediation as a remediation technology is, besides the extraction rate, determined by its profitability, being the effects it has on the income of the farmer whose land is contaminated. This income can be

T. Thewys; N. Witters; S. Van Slycken; A. Ruttens; E. Meers; F. M. G. Tack; J. Vangronsveld

2010-01-01

138

Neighborhood Effects on Health: Concentrated Advantage and Disadvantage  

PubMed Central

We investigate an alternative conceptualization of neighborhood context and its association with health. Using an index that measures a continuum of concentrated advantage and disadvantage, we examine whether the relationship between neighborhood conditions and health varies by socio-economic status. Using NHANES III data geo-coded to census tracts, we find that while largely uneducated neighborhoods are universally deleterious, individuals with more education benefit from living in highly educated neighborhoods to a greater degree than individuals with lower levels of education. PMID:20627796

Finch, Brian K.; Do, D. Phuong; Heron, Melonie; Bird, Chloe; Seeman, Teresa; Lurie, Nicole

2010-01-01

139

Maslow's Theories and Educating the Disadvantaged Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes Abraham Maslow's concepts of the organization of the personality with implications for educating the disadvantaged adult learner. Special attention is given to personality syndromes and the effect they have on the expression of behavior. (JOW)

Long, Jerry

1982-01-01

140

Optimizing secure communication standards for disadvantaged networks  

E-print Network

We present methods for optimizing standardized cryptographic message protocols for use on disadvantaged network links. We first provide an assessment of current secure communication message packing standards and their ...

Okano, Stephen Hiroshi

2009-01-01

141

Economic Potential of CHP in Detroit Edison Service Area: the Customer Perspective  

SciTech Connect

DOE's mission under the Distributed Energy and Electricity Reliability (DEER) Program is to strengthen America's electric energy infrastructure and provide utilities and consumers with a greater array of energy-efficient technology choices for generating, transmitting, distributing, storing, and managing demand for electric power and thermal energy. DOE recognizes that distributed energy technologies can help accomplish this mission. Distributed energy (DE) technologies have received much attention for the potential energy savings and electric power reliability assurances that may be achieved by their widespread adoption. Fueling the attention has been the desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and concern about easing power transmission and distribution system capacity limitations and congestion. However, these benefits may come at a cost to the electric utility companies in terms of lost revenue and other potential impacts on the distribution system. It is important to assess the costs and benefits of DE to consumers and distribution system companies. DOE commissioned this study to assess the costs and benefits of DE technologies to consumers and to better understand the effect of DE on the grid. Current central power generation units vent more waste heat (energy) than the entire transportation sector consumes and this wasted thermal energy is projected to grow by 45% within the next 20 years. Consumer investment in technologies that increase power generation efficiency is a key element of the DOE Energy Efficiency program. The program aims to increase overall cycle efficiency from 30% to 70% within 20 years as well. DOE wants to determine the impact of DE in several small areas within cities across the U.S. Ann Arbor, Michigan, was chosen as the city for this case study. Ann Arbor has electric and gas rates that can substantially affect the market penetration of DE. This case study analysis was intended to: (1) Determine what DE market penetration can realistically be expected, based on consumer investment in combined heat and power systems (CHP) and the effect of utility applied demand response (DR). (2) Evaluate and quantify the impact on the distribution utility feeder from the perspective of customer ownership of the DE equipment. (3) Determine the distribution feeder limits and the impact DE may have on future growth. For the case study, the Gas Technology Institute analyzed a single 16-megawatt grid feeder circuit in Ann Arbor, Michigan to determine whether there are economic incentives to use small distributed power generation systems that would offset the need to increase grid circuit capacity. Increasing circuit capacity would enable the circuit to meet consumer's energy demands at all times, but it would not improve the circuit's utilization factor. The analysis spans 12 years, to a planning horizon of 2015. By 2015, the demand for power is expected to exceed the grid circuit capacity for a significant portion of the year. The analysis was to determine whether economically acceptable implementation of customer-owned DE systems would reduce the peak power demands enough to forestall the need to upgrade the capacity of the grid circuit. The analysis was based on economics and gave no financial credit for improved power reliability or mitigation of environmental impacts. Before this study was completed, the utility expanded the capacity of the circuit to 22 MW. Although this expansion will enable the circuit to meet foreseeable increases in peak demand, it also will significantly decrease the circuit's overall utilization factor. The study revealed that DE penetration on the selected feeder is not expected to forestall the need to upgrade the grid circuit capacity unless interconnection barriers are removed. Currently, a variety of technical, business practice, and regulatory barriers discourage DE interconnection in the US market.

Kelly, J.

2003-10-10

142

Maine: 2002 Economic Census. Educational Services, Geographic Area Series. EC02-61A-ME.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. Title 13 of the United States Code (Sections 131, 191, and 224) directs the Census Bureau to take the economic census every 5 years, covering…

US Department of Commerce, 2005

2005-01-01

143

The Economic Impact of Universities in Non-Metropolitan Areas of the Great Plains, USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public universities cite their economic impact to help justify state financial support, but the literature offers no comprehensive theory that can guide analysis of such claims. This research used qualitative methodology to complement the ubiquitous economic impact studies, and showed that mission, leadership and geography determine how public…

Falconer, John

2007-01-01

144

Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

1995-03-01

145

Childhood tuberculosis in the European Union/European Economic Area, 2000 to 2009.  

PubMed

Childhood tuberculosis (TB) has been neglected for decades as a key component of TB control. However, ensuring proper monitoring of childhood TB has recently been given renewed emphasis. A descriptive analysis of surveillance data was performed to assess burden and trends of paediatric TB in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) between 2000 and 2009. From 2000 to 2009, 39,695 notified paediatric (defined as 0–14 years of age) TB cases were reported by the 27 EU countries plus Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. These paediatric cases accounted for 4.3% of all notified cases. However, across the EU/EEA Member States, paediatric case notification rates ranged from 29.6 per 100,000 to 0.3 per 100,000 for the latest reporting year, 2009. Overall,though, these rates dropped from 5.5 per 100,000 in 2000 to 4.2 per 100,000 in 2009. The EU/EEA average annual percent changes (AAPC) in paediatric notification rates decreased between 2000 and 2004 by 1.3%and between 2005 and 2009 by 2.4%, with an overall decrease between 2000 and 2009 of 2.8%. Of all paediatric cases reported from 2000 to 2009, only 16.9%were culture-confirmed, amongst which the overall treatment success was 80.5% for all culture-confirmed pulmonary paediatric TB cases. Childhood TB in the EU/EEA remains a public health issue. Due attention should be paid to assessing paediatric trends as they could provide an insight in recent transmission. Whilst the primary aim of further reducing TB rates among children is paramount, better rates of appropriate diagnosis should also be achieved, along with a further improvement of therapeutic success rates. PMID:21457686

Sandgren, A; Hollo, V; Quinten, C; Manissero, D

2011-01-01

146

Environmental inequity in England: small area associations between socio-economic status and environmental pollution.  

PubMed

Recent studies have suggested that more deprived people tend to live in areas characterised by higher levels of environmental pollution. If generally true, these environmental inequities may combine to cause adverse effects on health and also exacerbate problems of confounding in epidemiological studies. Previous studies of environmental inequity have nevertheless indicated considerable complexity in the associations involved, which merit further investigation using more detailed data and more advanced analytical methods. This study investigates the ways in which environmental inequity in England varies in relation to: (a) different environmental pollutants (measured in different ways); (b) different aspects of socio-economic status; and (c) different geographical scales and contexts (urban vs. rural). Associations were analysed between the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD2004) and its domains and five sets of environmental pollutants (relating to road traffic, industry, electro-magnetic frequency radiation, disinfection by-products in drinking water and radon), measured in terms of proximity, emission intensity and environmental concentration. Associations were assessed using bivariate and multivariate correlation, and by comparing the highest and lowest quintiles of deprivation using Student's t-test and Hotelling's T2. Associations are generally weak (R(2) < 0.10), and vary depending on the specific measures used. Strongest associations occur with what can be regarded as contingent components of deprivation (e.g. crime, living environment, health) rather than causative factors such as income, employment or education. Associations also become stronger with increasing level of spatial aggregation. Overall, the results suggest that any triple jeopardy for health, and problems of confounding, associated with environmental inequities are likely to be limited. PMID:18786752

Briggs, David; Abellan, Juan J; Fecht, Daniela

2008-11-01

147

Mobile medics? The mobility of doctors in the European Economic Area.  

PubMed

The Treaty of Rome seeks to generate a common European market whereby all barriers to the free movement of produce, capital, services and labour are removed. Current EU policy on the free movement of labour requires that healthcare workers, who are EU citizens and meet certain training criteria, have the right to register to practice in member states other than the one in which they trained. This policy is underpinned by the EEC Directives. For example, the Medical Directive 93/16/EEC describes the framework for the mutual recognition of medical diplomas, certificates and other evidence of qualifications through out the European Economic Area (EEA). The potential impact of this for health policy is clear-workforce planning and the demand for doctors, (and also nurses and other health care professionals), could be particularly affected by new forces impacting on their supply. This paper reports on the reality of labour mobility today, and on the factors upon which mobility depends, by the means of a case study which, investigated the movement into UK of doctors from the EEA. At a formal level there is mutual recognition of diplomas, certificates and other evidence of qualifications. However, formal and 'real life' recognition could be in tension equating in policy terms to an implementation deficit. As a result, there is a 'mixed picture' which makes predicting the future (both for individual countries and for the European Union) even more difficult. Furthermore, different policy objectives have to be reconciled. Do we want high mobility; or do we want to preserve national manpower planning? PMID:10996417

Jinks, C; Ong, B N; Paton, C

2000-11-01

148

Demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths in a special project area of rural northern India.  

PubMed

The demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths (n = 475) in a special project area of rural northern India (Ballabgarh) were ascertained from 1991 to 1999 using the electronic database system of the project area for data extraction, and were compared with the eligible living children of the same age using a matched population-based case-control study design. Similar determinants were also ascertained in neonatal deaths (n = 212) using the same study design. After controlling for the potential confounders using conditional logistic regression analyses, lower caste (a proxy measure for low socio-economic conditions in rural India) was found to be significantly associated with higher post-neonatal deaths (OR = 2.21). Higher maternal age (>30 years) and fathers' lower educational levels were significantly associated with higher neonatal deaths, in addition to higher post-neonatal deaths in the same area. PMID:12881622

Kabir, Zubair

2003-07-01

149

Planting the SEED: Towards a Spatial Economic Ecological Database for a shared understanding of the Dutch Wadden area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we address the characteristics of a publicly accessible Spatial Economic Ecological Database (SEED) and its ability to support a shared understanding among planners and experts of the economy and ecology of the Dutch Wadden area. Theoretical building blocks for a Wadden SEED are discussed. Our SEED contains a comprehensive set of stakeholder validated spatially explicit data on key economic and ecological indicators. These data extend over various spatial scales. Spatial issues relevant to the specification of a Wadden-SEED and its data needs are explored in this paper and illustrated using empirical data for the Dutch Wadden area. The purpose of the SEED is to integrate basic economic and ecologic information in order to support the resolution of specific (policy) questions and to facilitate connections between project level and strategic level in the spatial planning process. Although modest in its ambitions, we will argue that a Wadden SEED can serve as a valuable element in the much debated science-policy interface. A Wadden SEED is valuable since it is a consensus-based common knowledge base on the economy and ecology of an area rife with ecological-economic conflict, including conflict in which scientific information is often challenged and disputed.

Daams, Michiel N.; Sijtsma, Frans J.

2013-09-01

150

Demographic and socio-economic status of women in different family structures in a rural area of south India.  

PubMed

The authors study "women's demographic and socio-economic position in different family types...[using data] from a sample survey conducted in a rural area of Tamil Nadu [India] during May and June of 1988....Comparison of demographic characteristics of ever-married women in the reproductive age, such as marital status, age, marriage duration, age at marriage and living children, and socio-economic characteristics, such as educational status, occupational status, per capita annual income of the family and number of rooms in the house, is made between family types." PMID:12345797

Padmini, I K; Krishnamoorthy, S

1994-01-01

151

Economic Effects of Land Subsidence Due to Excessive Groundwater Withdrawal in the Texas Gulf Coast Area  

E-print Network

1943. Estimates are divided into three sub-areas within this total area to provide insight into the incidence of subsidence-related costs. The sub-areas considered in this study were sub-area I, an 83 square mile area between Houston and Baytown...

Jones, L. L.; Larson, J.

152

24 CFR 599.105 - Economic condition requirements for a nominated area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the nominated area is an area of pervasive poverty, unemployment, and general distress...period to which such data relate. (c) Poverty requirement. A nominated area meets the poverty requirement if the poverty rate for...

2012-04-01

153

24 CFR 599.105 - Economic condition requirements for a nominated area.  

...the nominated area is an area of pervasive poverty, unemployment, and general distress...period to which such data relate. (c) Poverty requirement. A nominated area meets the poverty requirement if the poverty rate for...

2014-04-01

154

24 CFR 599.105 - Economic condition requirements for a nominated area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the nominated area is an area of pervasive poverty, unemployment, and general distress...period to which such data relate. (c) Poverty requirement. A nominated area meets the poverty requirement if the poverty rate for...

2013-04-01

155

Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent stress reactivity  

PubMed Central

Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African–American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). We found that concentrated disadvantage was associated with cortisol reactivity and this relationship was moderated by gender, such that higher concentrated disadvantage predicted higher cortisol reactivity and steeper recovery in boys but not in girls. Parental education, alone or as moderated by gender, did not predict reactivity or recovery, while neither education nor concentrated disadvantage predicted estimates of baseline cortisol. This finding is consistent with animal literature showing differential vulnerability, by gender, to the effects of adverse early experience on stress regulation and the differential effects of neighborhood disadvantage in adolescent males and females. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying SES differences in brain development and particularly reactivity to environmental stressors may vary across genders. PMID:23091454

Hackman, Daniel A.; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Hurt, Hallam; Farah, Martha J.

2012-01-01

156

An approach for integrating economic impact analysis into the evaluation of potential marine protected area sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are one tool that can be used in the comprehensive management of human activities in areas of the ocean. Although researchers have supported using MPAs as an ecosystem management tool, scientific research on MPAs in areas other than fisheries and fisheries management is limited. This paper presents a model for designing marine protected areas that protect

Tracey Morin Dalton

2004-01-01

157

Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and adult disorders Why do children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families suffer  

E-print Network

Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and adult disorders 1 Why do children from socioeconomically children who experienced socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. Data come from 1,037 children born in Dunedin was associated with an increased risk of substance dependence and poor physical health in adulthood (sex

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

158

The Effect of Three Reinforcement Systems on Spelling Achievement Among Disadvantaged and Non-Disadvantaged Pupils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of three different types of reinforcement strategies on spelling achievement among a sample of disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged fourth grade public school pupils. The three reinforcement strategies employed involved a concrete reward (candy), a token or symbolic reward…

Quick, Custer R., Jr.

159

Surveillance status and recent data for Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in the European Union and European Economic Area, January 2012.  

PubMed

In January 2012, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) conducted an email based survey of European Union and European Economic Area countries to describe the existing surveillance activities for Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, recent findings and existence of clinical guidelines for the treatment of M. pneumoniae infection. Of the 20 countries that participated in the survey, seven reported increases in M. pneumoniae infections observed during the autumn and winter of 2011. PMID:22321134

Lenglet, A; Herrador, Z; Magiorakos, A P; Leitmeyer, K; Coulombier, D

2012-01-01

160

An Agricultural Economic Survey of Rockwall County, Texas : A Typical Blackland Cotton Farming Area.  

E-print Network

TfXAS AGRICULTURAL fXPfRIMfNT STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, President BULLETIN NO. 327 February, 1925 DIVISION OF FARM AND RANCH ECONOMICS AN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC SURVEY OF ROCKWALL COUNTY, TEXAS A.... BLUM, B. S., A ssistant Chem ist SOIL SURVEY J. El. T EAGUE, B. S., Assistant Chemist *"'W. T. CARTER, B. S., Chief of Division VELMA GRAHAM, Assistant Chemist H. W. HAWKE R, S oil Surveyor K. KITSUTA, M. S. Assistant Chem ist E. H. TEMPLIN, B. S...

Gabbard, L. P. (Letcher P.)

1925-01-01

161

Gaining Access or Losing Ground? Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students in Undergraduate Engineering, 1994-2003  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expanding access to engineering for underrepresented groups has by and large focused on ethnicity/race and gender, with little understanding of socioeconomic disadvantages. In this study, we use economic, human, and cultural capital theories to frame and then describe access to undergraduate engineering degree programs and bachelor's degrees.…

Lundy-Wagner, Valerie C.; Veenstra, Cindy P.; Orr, Marisa K.; Ramirez, Nichole M.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Long, Russell A.

2014-01-01

162

Everybody's Problem: Novice Teachers in Disadvantaged Mexican Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the difficulties that novice teachers confront at two economically, socially, and academically disadvantaged schools in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The researchers employed the action research tradition. Problems were identified using participant observation during reflexive workshops conducted with novice teachers and…

Martínez, Nora H.

2014-01-01

163

The Displaced vs. the Disadvantaged: A Necessary Dichotomy? Occasional Paper 1994-2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current displaced worker initiative towers over the 30-year effort to bring the economically disadvantaged into the mainstream of the labor market. The Congressional Budget Office defines displacement as all workers 18 years of age and older who lose full-time employment due to slack work, job abolition, or plant closure. Major displaced…

Levitan, Sar A.; Mangum, Stephen L.

164

Identifying Rural Disadvantaged Gifted Students. Project SPRING: Special Populations Resource Information Network for the Gifted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was developed as part of a project to identify and serve the needs of gifted and talented economically disadvantaged elementary and secondary level populations. Section I presents a leader's manual for a workshop that discusses innovative procedures for identifying bright children in all cultures and populations. The workshop examines…

Spicker, Howard H.; Poling, S. Nancy

165

Quantifying Access Disadvantage and Gathering Information in Rural and Remote Localities: The Griffith Service Access Frame.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A purely geographic classification is not the best way to measure rural disadvantage in Australia. A service access model is described that incorporates the following elements: population center size; distance, time, and cost of travel to the service center; and a measure of the economic capacity of residents to overcome the cost of travel.…

Griffith, Dennis A.

2003-01-01

166

Nontraditional Career Development Programs for Women. A Career Exploration Project for Disadvantaged Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a discussion of a Career Exploration Project jointly undertaken by the Seal of Ohio Girl Scout Council and the Division of Continuing Education of Columbus Technical Institute during the Summer of 1975. The participants were economically disadvantaged young women between the ages of 11 and 17. The main objective was to increase…

Sarno, Marie R.

167

76 FR 32950 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2012 Economic Census of Island Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...information collection instrument...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract...Economic Census statistics for the island...Warehousing, Information; Finance...Scientific, and Technical Services...census. The information collected...produce basic statistics by kind of...Census. The collection of data...

2011-06-07

168

CAN AUSTRALIAN AND ASIAN IRRIGATION AREAS BE ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE AND RETAIN THEIR ECONOMIC VIABILITY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally, about 10 million ha of agricultural land are lost annually due to salinisation of which about 1.5 million ha are irrigated. While some climate and management aspects are common to semi-arid regions the detailed mechanisms and options to secure ecological sustainability and economic viability may vary considerably from case to case. This paper applies a whole of the system

Shahbaz Khan; Rana Tariq; Cui Yuanlai; J. Blackwell

169

Dental Materials Advantages & Disadvantages PORCELAIN FUSED  

E-print Network

Dental Materials ­ Advantages & Disadvantages PORCELAIN FUSED TO METAL This type of porcelain for crowns and fixed bridges Advantages Good resistance to further decay if the restoration fits well Very for crowns and fixed bridges and some partial denture frameworks Advantages Good resistance to further decay

Klein, Ophir

170

Collective Bargaining, Transfer Rights, and Disadvantaged Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collective bargaining is common in American public education, but its consequences are poorly understood. We focus here on key contractual provisions--seniority-based transfer rights--that affect teacher assignments, and we show that these transfer rights operate to burden disadvantaged schools with higher percentages of inexperienced teachers. We…

Anzia, Sarah F.; Moe, Terry M.

2014-01-01

171

School Effectiveness and the Disadvantaged Schools Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Disadvantaged Schools Program (DSP) has been an important and integral part of education for many Australian students for over a decade. After reviewing eight school effectiveness variables, this paper argues that adding a new emphasis on academic success and cognitive skills will enhance the DSP program. Includes 3 tables and 20 references.…

Walker, Allan; Murphy, Joseph

1986-01-01

172

Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from Add Health, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community and school controls. Neighborhood violence…

Harding, David J.

2009-01-01

173

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED STATUS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE RECENT CONCERN FOR THE PROBLEMS OF THE POOR IS BEING REFLECTED IN CHANGES IN EDUCATIONAL THEORY AND PRACTICES. EDUCATORS NOW FEEL THAT THE DISADVANTAGED YOUTH IS EDUCABLE AND THAT IT IS THE SCHOOL'S RESPONSIBILITY TO EDUCATE HIM. THERE IS, HOWEVER, THE DANGER THAT THIS PRESENT CONCERN IS ONLY A "FAD" AND THUS WILL PASS. IN THEIR INCREASED…

RIESSMAN, FRANK

174

On William Julius Wilson's "Truly Disadvantaged."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A premise of this paper is that in his book "The Truly Disadvantaged" (1987), William Julius Wilson fails to recognize the effect of covert racism on the plight of the African American underclass. Wilson asserts that historical racism has contributed to the present predicament of the underclass, who have been abandoned in the ghettos by their…

Burns, John

175

Catholic Schools Serving Disadvantaged Students. Appendix C.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the achievement of disadvantaged students in Catholic schools and considers the costs of comparable educations. Catholic school students, especially minority students, outperform others on standardized tests, although Catholic school students are not equivalent to public school students. The Catholic school cost per student is lower than…

Coons, Susan

1997-01-01

176

Lightning protection systems: advantages and disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanics and interaction of lightning producing thunder clouds and earth, are discussed. Compared to the Franklin Air Terminal (rod) and Faraday Cage, the debatable advantages and disadvantages of the Early Streamer Emission Enhanced Ionizing Air Terminal, and Multipoint Discharge Systems, are examined along with conceptual future methods of lightning protection

D. W. Zipse

1993-01-01

177

Educational Issues of the Socially Disadvantaged Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though enrollment in elementary schools and national literacy rates have increased greatly in India since its independence in 1949, the number of dropouts and illiterate individuals will also continue to increase unless the needs of the socially disadvantaged are identified and met. The majority of the dropouts and the illiterates belong to…

Sreedhar, M. V.

178

Teenage Childbearing and Social Disadvantage: Unprotected Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Continues dialogue begun with two articles on teenage pregnancy and childbearing published in Family Relations in 1991 ("As the Pendulum Swings: Teenage Childbearing and Social Concern" and "Teenage Childbearing and Social and Reproductive Disadvantage: The Evolution of Complex Questions and the Demise of Simple Answers") and responds to previous…

Geronimus, Arline T.

1992-01-01

179

Results of a modeling workshop concerning economic and environmental trends and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the past decade, the southern regions of the U.S. have experienced rapid change which is expected to continue into the foreseeable future. Growth in population, industry, and resource development has been attributed to a variety of advantages such as an abundant and inexpensive labor force, a mild climate, and the availability of energy, water, land, and other natural resources. While this growth has many benefits for the region, it also creates the potential for increased air, water, and solid waste pollution, and modification of natural habitats. A workshop was convened to consider the Mobile Bay area as a site-specific case of growth and its environmental consequences in the southern region. The objectives of the modeling workshop were to: (1) identify major factors of economic development as they relate to growth in the area over the immediate and longer term; (2) identify major environmental and resource management issues associated with this expected growth; and (3) identify and characterize the complex interrelationships among economic and environmental factors. This report summarizes the activities and results of a modeling workshop concerning economic growth and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area. The workshop was organized around construction of a simulation model representing the relationships between a series of actions and indicators identified by participants. The workshop model had five major components. An Industry Submodel generated scenarios of growth in several industrial and transportation sectors. A Human Population/Economy Submodel calculated human population and economic variables in response to employment opportunities. A Land Use/Air Quality Submodel tabulated changes in land use, shoreline use, and air quality. A Water Submodel calculated indicators of water quality and quantity for fresh surface water, ground water, and Mobile Bay based on discharge information provided by the Industry and Human Population/Economy Submodels. Finally, a Fish Submodel calculated indicators of habitat quality for finfish and shellfish, utilizing information on water quality and wetlands acreage. The workshop was successful in identifying many of the critical interrelations between components of the Mobile area system. Not all of those interactions, such as the feedback of air quality as a limitation on development, could be incorporated into the workshop model because of the model's broad spatial scale and because of uncertainties or data gaps. Thus, the value of the modeling workshop was in the areas outlines below, rather than in the predictive power of the initial model developed at the workshop. First, participants developed a holistic perspective on the interactions which will determine future economic and environmental trends within the Mobile Bay area. Potential environmental consequences and limitations to grown identified at the workshop included: shoreline and water access; water quality of Mobile Bay; finfish and shellfish habitat quality with respect to dissolved oxygen and coliforms; air quality; and acreage of critical wetland habitat. Second, the model's requirements for specific, quantitative information stimulated supporting analyses, such as economic input-output calculations, which provide additional insight into the Mobile Bay area system. Third, the perspective of the Mobile area as an interacting system was developed in an open, cooperative forum which my provide a foundation for conflict resolution based on common understanding. Finally, the identification of model limitations and uncertainties should be useful in guiding the efficient allocation of future research effort.

Hamilton, David B.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Johnson, Richard A.; Roelle, James E.; Staley, Michael J.

1982-01-01

180

Emergy-based comparative analysis on industrial clusters: economic and technological development zone of Shenyang area, China.  

PubMed

In China, local governments of many areas prefer to give priority to the development of heavy industrial clusters in pursuit of high value of gross domestic production (GDP) growth to get political achievements, which usually results in higher costs from ecological degradation and environmental pollution. Therefore, effective methods and reasonable evaluation system are urgently needed to evaluate the overall efficiency of industrial clusters. Emergy methods links economic and ecological systems together, which can evaluate the contribution of ecological products and services as well as the load placed on environmental systems. This method has been successfully applied in many case studies of ecosystem but seldom in industrial clusters. This study applied the methodology of emergy analysis to perform the efficiency of industrial clusters through a series of emergy-based indices as well as the proposed indicators. A case study of Shenyang Economic Technological Development Area (SETDA) was investigated to show the emergy method's practical potential to evaluate industrial clusters to inform environmental policy making. The results of our study showed that the industrial cluster of electric equipment and electronic manufacturing produced the most economic value and had the highest efficiency of energy utilization among the four industrial clusters. However, the sustainability index of the industrial cluster of food and beverage processing was better than the other industrial clusters. PMID:24788859

Liu, Zhe; Geng, Yong; Zhang, Pan; Dong, Huijuan; Liu, Zuoxi

2014-09-01

181

Higher Education, The Health Care Industry, and Metropolitan Regional Economic Development: What Can "Eds & Meds" Do for the Economic Fortunes of a Metro Area's Residents? Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper No. 08-140  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the effects of expansions in higher educational institutions and the medical service industry on the economic development of a metropolitan area. This examination pulls together previous research and provides some new empirical evidence. We provide quantitative evidence of the magnitude of economic effects of higher education…

Bartik, Timothy J.; Erickcek, George

2007-01-01

182

The Economics of Forest Land Use in Temperate and Tropical Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents economic rules for harvest timing when timber and nontimber goods, services, and ecological functions\\u000a are produced from forest stands. Forests include stands that are heterogeneous in age, land quality, and distance to market.\\u000a Rules for allocating land between forest and nonforest use are developed. Key land use margins are identified that are important\\u000a to land use allocation

PETER J. PARKS; Edward B. Barbier; Joanne C. Burgess

1998-01-01

183

Methodical problems of economic efficiency calculations connected with choice of industrial building areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

documentation. The planning of the buildings for a new enterprise begins with the choice of the industrial area. The choice of an industrial area for the buildings to be erected and the search and inspections connected with it belongs to the complex work to be done by the planning organization, together with the institution interested. The task of the special

A. G. Strazh

1969-01-01

184

ANALYSIS OF THE ECONOMICS OF WATER SUPPLY IN THE WASHINGTON METROPOLITAN AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of a controversy arising over available water supply in the Washington Metropolitan Area, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, administrator for Region III, requested that a cost analysis of the water supply system in the Washington, D.C. area be made. The analys...

185

48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...contains small disadvantaged business (SDB) participation targets. The Contractor...requirement . If this contract contains SDB participation targets, the Contractor shall report on the participation of SDB concerns at contract completion,...

2010-10-01

186

Climate change and socio-economic scenarios, land use modelling implications on water resources in an inner alpine area, Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MontanAqua project aims to study the water resources management in the region Sierre-Montana (Valais, Switzerland). Land use is known to have an influence on the water resources (soil moisture dynamic, soil sealing, surface runoff and deep percolation). Thus land use modelling is of importance for the water resources management. An actual land use map was produced using infrared imagery (Niklaus 2012, Fig.1). Land use changes are known to be mainly drived by socio-economic factors as well as climatic factors (Dolman et al. 2003). Potential future Land uses was separatly predicted according to 1-. socio-economic and 2-. climatic/abiotic drivers : 1. 4 socio-economic scenarios were developped with stakeholders (Schneider et al. 2013) between 2010 and 2012. We modeled those socio-economic scenarios into a GIS application using Python programming (ModelBuilder in ArcGIS 10) to get a cartographic transcription of the wishes of the stakeholders for their region in 2050. 2. Uncorrelated climatic and abiotic drivers were used in a BIOMOD2 (Georges et al. 2013) framework. 4 models were used: Maximum Entropy (MAXENT), Multiple Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Classification Tree Analysis (CTA) and the Flexible Discriminant Analysis (FDA) to predict grassland, alpine pasture, vineyards and forest in our study region. Climatic scenarios were then introduced into the models to predict potential land use in 2050 driven only by climatic and abiotic factors The comparison of all the outputs demonstrates that the socio-economic drivers will have a more important impact in the region than the climatic drivers (e.g. -70% grassland surface for the worst socio-economic scenario vs. -40% of grassland surface for the worst climatic models). Further analysis also brings out the sensitivity of the grassland/alpine pasture system to the climate change and to socio-economic changes. Future work will be to cross the different land use maps obtained by the two model types and to use them to implement soil moisture and evaporation data for the near-future in the region Sierre-Montana. REFERENCES Niklaus M. 2012. An Object-oriented Approach for Mapping Current Land Use/Land Cover in the Study Area Crans-Montana-Sierre, Valais. MSc, Geography Institute, University of Bern Dolman A.J., Verhagen A. & Rovers C.A. 2003. Global environmental change and land use. Kluwer Academic Publisher. Dordrecht. Schneider F. & Rist S. 2013. Envisioning sustainable water futures in a transdisciplinary learning process: combining normative, explorative, and participatory scenario approaches. Sustainability Science, in press. Georges D. & Thuiller W. 2012. An example of species distribution modelling with biomod2. biomod2 version : 2.0.17

Rey, Emmanuel; Schneider, Flurina; Liniger, Hanspeter; Weingartner, Rolf; Herweg, Karl

2014-05-01

187

Social and economic sustainability of urban systems: comparative analysis of metropolitan statistical areas in Ohio, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

This article presents a general and versatile methodology for assessing sustainability with Fisher Information as a function of dynamic changes in urban systems. Using robust statistical methods, six Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in Ohio were evaluated to comparatively as...

188

Summer jobs reduce violence among disadvantaged youth.  

PubMed

Every day, acts of violence injure more than 6000 people in the United States. Despite decades of social science arguing that joblessness among disadvantaged youth is a key cause of violent offending, programs to remedy youth unemployment do not consistently reduce delinquency. This study tests whether summer jobs, which shift focus from remediation to prevention, can reduce crime. In a randomized controlled trial among 1634 disadvantaged high school youth in Chicago, assignment to a summer jobs program decreases violence by 43% over 16 months (3.95 fewer violent-crime arrests per 100 youth). The decline occurs largely after the 8-week intervention ends. The results suggest the promise of using low-cost, well-targeted programs to generate meaningful behavioral change, even with a problem as complex as youth violence. PMID:25477459

Heller, Sara B

2014-12-01

189

The advantages and disadvantages of being introduced  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced species, those dispersed outside their natural ranges by humans, now cause almost all biological invasions, i.e.,\\u000a entry of organisms into habitats with negative effects on organisms already there. Knowing whether introduction tends to give\\u000a organisms specific ecological advantages or disadvantages in their new habitats could help understand and control invasions.\\u000a Even if no specific species traits are associated with

Peter Alpert

2006-01-01

190

Lightning protection systems: advantages and disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful 200-year-old method of using a (Franklin) rod to collect, control, and convey to earth the awesome and destructive power of lightning has produced other controversial, potential alternate methods. The mechanics and interaction of lightning-producing thunderclouds and earth are discussed. Compared to the Franklin air terminal (rod) and Faraday cage method, the debatable advantages and disadvantages of the early

Donald W. Zipse

1994-01-01

191

An Economic Study of Farm Organization in the Piney Woods Farming Area of Texas.  

E-print Network

and southern portions of the L .: . .- 1 - -..~Js- frost recorded in 30 years pre- vious to November 1 and the I0 BULLETIN NO. 453, TEXAS AGRICURTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION area to the North and West, the pine decreases and oaks and other types , increase...

Bonnen, C. A. (Clarence Alfred); Thibodeaux, B. H.; Criswell, J. F.

1932-01-01

192

76 FR 5083 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OST-2010-0118] RIN 2105-AD75 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements AGENCY...the administration of the Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE) program by increasing...certification, adding provisions to foster small business participation, improving...

2011-01-28

193

Obesity and Association with Area of Residence, Gender and Socio-Economic Factors in Algerian and Tunisian Adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction The epidemiological transition has resulted in a major increase in the prevalence of obesity in North Africa. This study investigated differences in obesity and its association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic position among adults in Algeria and Tunisia, two countries with socio-economic and socio-cultural similarities. Methods Cross-sectional studies used stratified, three-level, clustered samples of 35–70 year old adults in Algeria, (women n?=?2741, men n?=?2004) and Tunisia (women n?=?2964, men n?=?2379). Thinness was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI)?=?weight/height <18.5 kg/m2, obesity as BMI ?30, and abdominal obesity as waist circumference/height ?0.6. Associations with area of residence, gender, age, education, profession and household welfare were assessed. Results Prevalence of thinness was very low except among men in Algeria (7.3% C.I.[5.9–8.7]). Prevalence of obesity among women was high in Algeria (30.1% C.I.[27.8–32.4]) and Tunisia (37.0% C.I.[34.4–39.6]). It was less so among men (9.1% C.I.[7.1–11.0] and 13.3% C.I.[11.2–15.4]).The results were similar for abdominal obesity. In both countries women were much more obesity-prone than men: the women versus men obesity Odds-Ratio was 4.3 C.I.[3.4–5.5] in Algeria and 3.8 C.I.[3.1–4.7] in Tunisia. Obesity was more prevalent in urban versus rural areas in Tunisia, but not in Algeria (e.g. for women, urban versus rural Odds-Ratio was 2.4 C.I.[1.9–3.1] in Tunisia and only 1.2 C.I.[1.0–5.5] in Algeria). Obesity increased with household welfare, but more markedly in Tunisia, especially among women. Nevertheless, in both countries, even in the lowest quintile of welfare, a fifth of the women were obese. Conclusion The prevention of obesity, especially in women, is a public health issue in both countries, but there were differences in the patterning of obesity according to area of residence and socio-economic position. These specificities must be taken into account in the management of obesity inequalities. PMID:24116063

Atek, Madjid; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila; Laid, Youcef; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Mézimèche, Nadia; Bougatef, Souha; Béji, Chiraz; Boutekdjiret, Leila; Martin-Prével, Yves; Lebcir, Hassiba; Gartner, Agnès; Kolsteren, Patrick; Delpeuch, Francis; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Maire, Bernard

2013-01-01

194

Sustainability and economic consequences of creating marine protected areas in multispecies multiactivity context.  

PubMed

The present study deals with harvesting of prey species in the presence of predator in a multispecies marine fishery. The total habitat is divided into two patches: one is reserve area where fishing is completely banned and other zone is called fishing area where only prey is exploited. We assume that the prey fish possesses heterogeneous intrinsic growth rate with uniform carrying capacity where as predator has constant intrinsic growth rate with prey dependent carrying capacity. The analytical conditions are derived to prevent the species extinction for larger employed effort in single (only prey) species fishery. Optimal equilibrium premium are presented for both monospecies and multispecies fishery for all degree of protection. Increasing standing stock (ISS) and protected standing stock (PSS) are measured in the presence of prey-predator interaction. PMID:23149287

Kar, T K; Ghosh, Bapan

2013-02-01

195

Economics of Mechanical Cotton Harvesting in the High Plains Cotton Area of Texas.  

E-print Network

in the High Plains cotton area of Texas is highly mechanized except for some hand hoeing and much of the harvesting. Some growers rely on mechanical strippers to harvest their entire crop. Others use hand labor to harvest cotton that matures before frost... operation and harvesting conditions. Mechanical stripping is confined to the period after frost has killed the plants. Open cotton left standing in the field is subject to weather damage. Therefore, hand harvested cotton before frost grades higher than...

Rogers, Ralph H.; Morgan, Quevedo Martin; Williamson, M. N. (Marion Newton)

1951-01-01

196

Economic geology of uranium deposits in the Ralston Creek area Jefferson County, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deposits described are in Golden Gate Canyon and the Ralston Creek drainage area near Denver, Colorado. Two of the deposits have produced uranium ore as of March 31, 1956. The Ralston Creek mine has shipped 2,338 tons averaging 0.72 percent UO and the Gary shipped 1,108 tons averaging 0.28 percent UO. The country rock includes metasediments of the Idaho

R. C. Derzay; A. G. Bird

1957-01-01

197

Estimating the economic value of cultural ecosystem services in an urbanizing area using hedonic pricing.  

PubMed

A need exists to increase both knowledge and recognition of the values associated with ecosystem services and amenities. This article explores the use of hedonic pricing as a tool for eliciting these values. We take a case study approach, valuing several services provided by ecosystems, namely aesthetic quality (views), access to outdoor recreation, and the benefits provided by tree cover in Dakota County, Minnesota, USA. Our results indicate that these services are valued by local residents and that hedonic pricing can be used to elicit at least a portion of this value. We find that many aspects of the aesthetic environment significantly impact home sale prices. Total view area as well as the areas of some land-cover types (water and lawn) in views positively influenced home sale prices while views of impervious surfaces generally negatively influenced home sale price. Access to outdoor recreation areas significantly and positively influenced home sale prices as did tree cover in the neighborhood surrounding a home. These results illustrate the ability of hedonic pricing to identify partial values for ecosystem services and amenities in a manner that is highly relevant to local and regional planning. These values could be used to increase policy-maker and public awareness of ecosystem services and could improve their consideration in planning and policy decisions. PMID:23025985

Sander, Heather A; Haight, Robert G

2012-12-30

198

Education and Social Crisis; Perspectives on Teaching Disadvantaged Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of readings presents 49 papers published between 1959 and 1965. The volume is organized into three parts: (1) cultural values and family life of disadvantaged youth; (2) problems facing disadvantaged youth in the schools; and (3) programs and progress in meeting the educational needs of disadvantaged youth. Introductions by the…

Keach, Everett T., Jr., Ed.; And Others

199

Disadvantages of Preferential Dispersals in Fluctuating Environments  

E-print Network

It has not been known whether preferential dispersal is adaptive in fluctuating environments. We investigate the effect of preferential and random dispersals in bet-hedging systems by using a discrete stochastic metapopulation model, where each site fluctuates between good and bad environments with temporal correlation. To explore the optimal migration pattern, an analytical estimation of the total growth is derived by mean field approximation. We found that the preference for fertile sites is disadvantageous when transportation among sites has a cost or the sensitivity of preference is high.

Morita, Satoru

2014-01-01

200

An integrated multi criteria approach for landfill siting in a conflicting environmental, economical and socio-cultural area.  

PubMed

Landfill site selection is a complicated multi criteria land use planning that should convince all related stakeholders with different insights. This paper addresses an integrating approach for landfill siting based on conflicting opinions among environmental, economical and socio-cultural expertise. In order to gain optimized siting decision, the issue was investigated in different viewpoints. At first step based on opinion sampling and questionnaire results of 35 experts familiar with local situations, the national environmental legislations and international practices, 13 constraints and 15 factors were built in hierarchical structure. Factors divided into three environmental, economical and socio-cultural groups. In the next step, the GIS-database was developed based on the designated criteria. In the third stage, the criteria standardization and criteria weighting were accomplished. The relative importance weights of criteria and subcriteria were estimated, respectively, using analytical hierarchy process and rank ordering methods based on different experts opinions. Thereafter, by using simple additive weighting method, the suitability maps for landfill siting in Marvdasht, Iran, was evaluated in environmental, economical and socio-cultural visions. The importance of each group of criteria in its own vision was assigned to be higher than two other groups. In the fourth stage, the final suitability map was obtained after crossing three resulted maps in different visions and reported in five suitability classes for landfill construction. This map indicated that almost 1224 ha of the study area can be considered as best suitable class for landfill siting considering all visions. In the last stage, a comprehensive field visit was performed to verify the selected site obtained from the proposed model. This field inspection has confirmed the proposed integrating approach for the landfill siting. PMID:22503155

Eskandari, Mahnaz; Homaee, Mehdi; Mahmodi, Shahla

2012-08-01

201

Communicating health information to disadvantaged populations.  

PubMed

Interest in the communication of health information among disadvantaged populations has increased in recent years with the shift from a model of patient-provider communication to one of a more empowered healthcare consumer; with the use of new communication technologies that increase the number of channels through which health information may be accessed; and with the steadily increasing number of people without health insurance. Three separate research literatures contribute to our current understanding of this issue. In the medicine and public health literature, disparities in health access and outcomes among socioeconomic, ethnic, and racial groups are now well documented. In the information sciences literature, scholars note that on a continuum of health information behaviors, ranging from information avoidance and nonseeking to active seeking, nonseeking behaviors are associated with disadvantaged populations. In the communication literature, enthusiasm over the technology-driven growth of online health information seeking is tempered by evidence supporting the knowledge gap hypothesis, which indicates that as potential access to health information increases, systematic gaps in health knowledge also increase as groups with higher socioeconomic status acquire this information at a faster rate than those with lower socioeconomic status. A number of diverse strategies show promise in reducing information and health disparities, including those that focus on technology, such as programs to increase computer and Internet access, skills, and comprehension; those that focus on interpersonal communication, such as the community health worker model; and those that focus on mass media channels, such as entertainment education. PMID:20216358

Beacom, Amanda M; Newman, Sandra J

2010-01-01

202

GLORIA sidescan-sonar imagery for parts of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone and adjacent areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1983, President Ronald Reagan signed a Proclamation establishing the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the United States extending its territory 200 nautical miles from the coasts of the United States, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, and other U.S. territories and possessions. The charter of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) places the primary responsibility for mapping the territories of the United States within the USGS. Upon declaration of the EEZ, the territory of the United States was enlarged by more than 13 million square kilometers, all of which are under water. The USGS EEZ-SCAN program to systematically map the EEZ began in 1984 and continued through 1991. This digital publication contains all the GLORIA sidescan imagery of the deep-water (greater than 200 meters) portion of the EEZ mapped during those 8 years of data collection. For each EEZ area, we describe the data collection surveys and provide downloads of the GLORIA data and metadata.

Paskevich, Valerie F.; Wong, Florence L.; O'Malley, John J.; Stevenson, Andrew J.; Gutmacher, Christina E.

2011-01-01

203

Adjustment to university and academic performance among disadvantaged students in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adjustment to the university environment is regarded as an important factor in predicting university outcomes. This study explores the pathways taken by adjustment and other psychosocial variables (help?seeking, academic motivation, self?esteem, perceived stress, and perceived academic overload), in relation to the success of economically and educationally disadvantaged students at university. Participants were 194 first?year students on need?based financial aid at

Johann Louw; Kitty Dumont

2009-01-01

204

Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity  

PubMed Central

In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous inequity (AI) and disadvantageous inequity (DI). AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed (1) hypoactivation of the ventral striatum (VS) under DI but not under AI; (2) inequity induced activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) that was stronger under DI than under AI; (3) correlations between subjective evaluations of AI evaluation and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal and left insular activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. One possible interpretation is that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns. PMID:22701414

Fliessbach, Klaus; Phillipps, Courtney B.; Trautner, Peter; Schnabel, Marieke; Elger, Christian E.; Falk, Armin; Weber, Bernd

2012-01-01

205

Working in disadvantaged communities: What additional competencies do we need?  

PubMed Central

Background Residents of socioeconomically disadvantaged locations are more likely to have poor health than residents of socioeconomically advantaged locations and this has been comprehensively mapped in Australian cities. These inequalities present a challenge for the public health workers based in or responsible for improving the health of people living in disadvantaged localities. The purpose of this study was to develop a generic workforce needs assessment tool and to use it to identify the competencies needed by the public health workforce to work effectively in disadvantaged communities. Methods A two-step mixed method process was used to identify the workforce needs. In step 1 a generic workforce needs assessment tool was developed and applied in three NSW Area Health Services using focus groups, key stakeholder interviews and a staff survey. In step 2 the findings of this needs assessment process were mapped against the existing National Health Training Package (HLT07) competencies, gaps were identified, additional competencies described and modules of training developed to fill identified gaps. Results There was a high level of agreement among the AHS staff on the nature of the problems to be addressed but less confidence indentifying the work to be done. Processes for needs assessments, community consultations and adapting mainstream programs to local needs were frequently mentioned as points of intervention. Recruiting and retaining experienced staff to work in these communities and ensuring their safety were major concerns. Workforce skill development needs were seen in two ways: higher order planning/epidemiological skills and more effective working relationships with communities and other sectors. Organisational barriers to effective practice were high levels of annual compulsory training, balancing state and national priorities with local needs and giving equal attention to the population groups that are easy to reach and to those that are difficult to engage. A number of additional competency areas were identified and three training modules developed. Conclusion The generic workforce needs assessment tool was easy to use and interpret. It appears that the public health workforce involved in this study has a high level of understanding of the relationship between the social determinants and health. However there is a skill gap in identifying and undertaking effective intervention. PMID:19393091

Harris, Elizabeth; Harris, Mark F; Madden, Lynne; Wise, Marilyn; Sainsbury, Peter; MacDonald, John; Gill, Betty

2009-01-01

206

STTEPping in the Right Direction? Western Classical Music in an Orchestral Programme for Disadvantaged African Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article looks at STTEP, an outreach project currently housed at the University of Pretoria, which concentrates on the teaching of western orchestral instruments, plus background areas such as music theory, to disadvantaged children and youth from a variety of townships around Pretoria, South Africa. STTEP's direction can well be described as…

van Niekerk, Caroline; Salminen, Sanna

2008-01-01

207

Gifted Mothers as Social Capital: A View from a Disadvantaged Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores an unexamined area in the realm of gifted adults coming from disadvantaged backgrounds. The focus of this paper documents how a mother, in spite of all sorts of hardships, never deviates from her conviction about the education of her children. The author examines the concept of social capital in a symbiotic relationship with…

Maitra, Krishna

2012-01-01

208

The Influence of Family Size on Learning Readiness Patterns of Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Preschool Blacks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschool readiness measures were secured on 35 pairs of disadvantaged 2- to 3-year-old lower SES black children, representing large and small families, to determine the impact of family size on readiness profiles. The findings reveal that blacks from small families achieved significantly higher scores on 3 of the 9 skill areas: Visual Memory,…

Scott, Ralph; Kobes, David A.

209

Crossing the Bridge: Overcoming Entrenched Disadvantage through Student-centred Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quality school education is essential if young people are to have access to the greatest possible opportunities in life, but it is not a universal experience in Australia. Instead, too many young people are disengaged from school, especially those in the middle years of schooling and those living in disadvantaged areas. This study examined the…

Black, Rosalyn

2007-01-01

210

Drugs, Guns, and Disadvantaged Youths: Co-Occurring Behavior and the Code of the Street  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guided by Anderson's theory of the code of the street, this study explored social mechanisms linking individual-level disadvantage factors with the adoption of beliefs grounded in the code of the street and with drug trafficking and gun carrying--the co-occurring behavior shaping violence among young men in urban areas. Secondary data were…

Allen, Andrea N.; Lo, Celia C.

2012-01-01

211

State Disadvantaged Child Project in the Portland Public Schools. 1988-89 Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this report is to describe the programs that make up Oregon's Disadvantaged Child Project (DCP) and document the ways in which students benefited from participation. The DCP was established in 1967 to provide supplemental services to children in low-income and culturally deprived areas. The project contains three major components:…

Yagi, Kan

212

Redressing dis-advantage: promoting vertical equity within South Africa.  

PubMed

This paper represents the first attempt to apply vertical equity principles to the South African health sector. A vertical equity approach, which recognises that different groups have different starting points and therefore require differential treatment, appears to offer an appropriate basis for considering how best to redress the vast inequities which exist in post-Apartheid South Africa. Vertical equity principles are applied in critically analysing two areas of recent policy action which are particularly relevant to health sector equity in South Africa, namely public-private sector cross-subsidies and the allocation of government resources between provinces. Despite a strong political commitment to redressing historical inequities, recent government policy actions in these two areas appear to fall short of desirable goals when viewed through a vertical equity lens. In particular, policies since the first democratic elections in 1994 have done little to reduce the extent of government subsidies to the private health sector, which serves a minority of the population. In addition, recent proposals for a Social Health Insurance will allow minimal cross-subsidies between high- and low-income earners and would not adequately redress the currently inequitable public-private cross-subsidies. With respect to the allocation of government resources between provinces, a vertical equity approach would suggest that the most historically dis-advantaged provinces have an even greater claim on government resources than reflected in the current formula, as developed by the Department of Finance. This paper also considers the potential benefits of engaging with societal views in determining what constitutes dis-advantage in the South African context, in order to identify those who should receive priority in resource allocation decisions. It concludes with a review of a number of practical steps that can be taken to draw vertical equity principles into policy action. PMID:11186024

McIntyre, D; Gilson, L

2000-01-01

213

Economic Evaluation of an Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Program to Control the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey  

PubMed Central

Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control) from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY). The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008) and the intervention years (2009-2011) declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8. PMID:25338065

Shepard, Donald S.; Halasa, Yara A.; Fonseca, Dina M.; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P.; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A.; Clark, Gary G.

2014-01-01

214

Public perceptions of risk in criminality: the effects of mental illness and social disadvantage.  

PubMed

We examined how different types of mental illness elicited varying levels of predicted criminality and compared this with factors which might also elicit a negative response, specifically, a criminal history and social disadvantage. A sample of 243 participants undertook an anonymous, online experiment. Each participant was exposed to one of six vignettes: three involved mental illness (schizophrenia, depression/anxiety, or alcohol dependency); two in which socio-economic background was manipulated; and a control. The impact of mental illness, history of criminality and social disadvantage on the likelihood that the character in the vignette would commit future crime, and levels of sympathy, trust and potential for rehabilitation in the character were measured. Age and personal experience of mental illness and/or criminal behaviour in the participants was also examined. The sample were significantly more likely to think that a character would 'possibly' commit future crime if he had mental illness in comparison to the control, but crimes were expected to be minor. Significantly more discriminatory behaviour was reported towards the character with no mental illness but a disadvantaged background. Familiarity ameliorated this effect. Prejudice towards those with a criminal past and a disadvantaged background may be stronger than prejudice against those with mental illnesses. PMID:23473655

Nee, Claire; Witt, Clare

2013-10-30

215

Fathers' Accounts of Struggle and Growth in Early Adulthood: An Exploratory Study of Disadvantaged Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter explores how fatherhood prompts struggle and growth in the psychological, social, and economic changes associated with the transition to adulthood. Little is known about these connections, especially for disadvantaged Latino and White fathers who live in small and mid-sized American communities. We draw on eight in-depth focus groups…

Settersten, Richard A., Jr.; Day, Jack K.; Cancel-Tirado, Doris; Driscoll, Debra Minar

2014-01-01

216

How Community Development Programmes Can Foster Re-Engagement with Learning in Disadvantaged Communities: Leadership as Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family and community capacity building projects in Tasmania are attempting to address the disadvantage of communities marginalised by socio-economic and other influences. Collaborations between the projects, community members and groups, and education and training organisations, have resulted in a leadership process which has fostered reengagement…

Millar, Pat; Kilpatrick, Sue

2005-01-01

217

The impact of economic factors on the realities of outpatient multi-drug treatment of chronic diseases in rural areas.  

PubMed

The reform of the health care system in Poland introduced in 1999 brought not ony a lot of disappointments arising from the failure in performing its basic assumptions, but also from the deterioration in access to medical care by patients coming from the poorest class of the Polish population. The subjects were 209 people at the age of 52-80 years including 149 women and 60 men - inhabitants of rural areas of Lublin province. These were outpatients who attended the Endocrine Clinic in Poniatowa. The studies were conducted with the use of the standardized survey questionnaire. Of all 209 respondents requiring long-term multidrug therapies for chronic diseases, 128 (61.2% of those surveyed) reported episodic or permanent noncompliance to treatment regimens, 90 people (43%) had applied medications in a way at variance with medical recommendations. Among the reasons, economic factors were most often mentioned. Ony 21 respondents (10%) expressed the opinion that they had always possessed sufficient means to buy necessary drugs. Current regulations concerning the refunding of costs of medicines may make effective outpatient treatment of chronic diseases impossible. Almost 61.2% of the polled treated themselves contrary to medical recommendations. In most cases, improper courses of treatment were caused by financial problems. PMID:21736266

Sygit, Katarzyna; Ko???taj, Witold; Sygit, Marian; Ko???taj, Barbara

2011-06-01

218

Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.  

PubMed

The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

Porter, M E

1992-01-01

219

California Community College Home Economics Program Plan, 1992. Including: Directory of Professional and Trade Organizations and Directory of Home Economics and Related Program Areas and Instructional Staff.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assist local colleges/districts in assessing their existing home economics program, and in developing curricula that respond to the changing needs of students, communities, and the workforce, this plan presents the program guidelines of the California Community Colleges (CCCs). Introductory material describes the history of the program…

California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

220

Environmental, social and economic information management for the evaluation of sustainability in urban areas: A system of indicators for Thessaloniki, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of indicators constitutes internationally an important tool for assessing the progress achieved towards sustainable development. Measuring the sustainability in urban areas – which are crucial engines of local socio-economic development, but at the same time present concentration points of environmental decay – is a major challenge for environmental managers and decision-makers. This paper aims at the development and

Nicolas Moussiopoulos; Charisios Achillas; Christos Vlachokostas; Dimitra Spyridi; Konstantinos Nikolaou

2010-01-01

221

Developing country experience with eco-industrial parks: a case study of the Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the pollution that accompanies rapid industrial growth in China, a National Eco-industrial Park Demonstration Program was launched in 2000. This article provides a case study of the Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area (TEDA). The emergence of an environmental institution in TEDA is used as a backdrop to assess how TEDA has transformed itself into one of the top three

Han Shi; Marian Chertow; Yuyan Song

2010-01-01

222

Role of self-sufficiency, productivity and diversification on the economic sustainability of farming systems with autochthonous sheep breeds in less favoured areas in Southern Europe.  

PubMed

Traditional mixed livestock cereal- and pasture-based sheep farming systems in Europe are threatened by intensification and specialisation processes. However, the intensification process does not always yield improved economic results or efficiency. This study involved a group of farmers that raised an autochthonous sheep breed (Ojinegra de Teruel) in an unfavourable area of North-East Spain. This study aimed to typify the farms and elucidate the existing links between economic performance and certain sustainability indicators (i.e. productivity, self-sufficiency and diversification). Information was obtained through direct interviews with 30 farms (73% of the farmers belonging to the breeders association). Interviews were conducted in 2009 and involved 32 indicators regarding farm structure, management and economic performance. With a principal component analysis, three factors were obtained explaining 77.9% of the original variance. This factors were named as inputs/self-sufficiency, which included the use of on-farm feeds, the amount of variable costs per ewe and economic performance; productivity, which included lamb productivity and economic autonomy; and productive orientation, which included the degree of specialisation in production. A cluster analysis identified the following four groups of farms: high-input intensive system; low-input self-sufficient system; specialised livestock system; and diversified crops-livestock system. In conclusion, despite the large variability between and within groups, the following factors that explain the economic profitability of farms were identified: (i) high feed self-sufficiency and low variable costs enhance the economic performance (per labour unit) of the farms; (ii) animal productivity reduces subsidy dependence, but does not necessarily imply better economic performance; and (iii) diversity of production enhances farm flexibility, but is not related to economic performance. PMID:23552287

Ripoll-Bosch, R; Joy, M; Bernués, A

2013-04-01

223

Duration or Disadvantage? Exploring Nativity, Ethnicity, and Health in Midlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives . This study examined nativity as a risk factor for poor physical and emotional health for an ethnically di- verse population making the transition into retirement. The authors addressed whether the health disadvantage observed for immigrants lessens with increased time spent in the country (supporting theories of assimilation) or increases with duration of residence (supporting theories of cumulative disadvantage).

Jacqueline L. Angel; Cynthia J. Buckley; Art Sakamoto

2001-01-01

224

INNOVATION AND THE NEW CONCERN FOR THE DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

REVIEWED ARE SOME OF THE APPROACHES WHICH HAVE BEEN USED TO IMPROVE THE EDUCATIONAL STATUS OF DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS. IT IS FELT THAT THE COMPENSATORY EDUCATION EFFORTS HAVE NOT SUCCEEDED BECAUSE MOST PROJECTS HAVE EITHER UTILIZED TRADITIONAL CONTENT AND TEACHING METHODS OR HAVE BEEN REMEDIAL. ALSO, THEY DO NOT START BY RAISING THE DISADVANTAGED

JOHNTZ, WILLIAM F.

225

Measures of Disadvantage: Is Car Ownership a Good Indicator?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A need to better understand the multidimensional nature of disadvantage is leading to the adoption of a wider range of measurement variables. One variable now commonly adopted is zero car ownership. This paper challenges the logic of including "not having a car" as an indicator of disadvantage. It argues that this can distort the real picture of…

Johnson, Victoria; Currie, Graham; Stanley, Janet

2010-01-01

226

Practical Problems of Schoolbook Selection for Disadvantaged Pupils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every year the purchase of unsuitable books for disadvantaged children wastes millions of dollars. The use of these unsuitable books results in extensive reading failure. In order to overcome this waste of money and human resources, book committees need to employ standards and methods of evaluation to identify books appropriate for disadvantaged

Whipple, Gertrude

227

Characterizing the Bilingual Disadvantage in Noun Phrase Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Up to now, evidence on bilingual disadvantages in language production comes from tasks requiring single word retrieval. The present study aimed to assess whether there is a bilingual disadvantage in multiword utterances, and to determine the extent to which such effect is present in onset latencies, articulatory durations, or both. To do so, we…

Sadat, Jasmin; Martin, Clara D.; Alario, F. Xavier; Costa, Albert

2012-01-01

228

Wind Farms in Rural Areas: How Far Do Community Benefits from Wind Farms Represent a Local Economic Development Opportunity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the large-scale deployment of renewable technologies can bring significant, localised economic and environmental changes, there has been remarkably little empirical investigation of the rural development implications. This paper seeks to redress this through an analysis of the economic development opportunities surrounding wind energy…

Munday, Max; Bristow, Gill; Cowell, Richard

2011-01-01

229

13 CFR 123.600 - Are economic injury disaster loans under this subpart limited to the geographic areas contiguous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Economic Injury Disaster Loans as a Result of the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks § 123.600 Are economic injury disaster...Trade Center or the damage to the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, or as a direct result of any...

2012-01-01

230

13 CFR 123.600 - Are economic injury disaster loans under this subpart limited to the geographic areas contiguous...  

...Economic Injury Disaster Loans as a Result of the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks § 123.600 Are economic injury disaster...Trade Center or the damage to the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, or as a direct result of any...

2014-01-01

231

13 CFR 123.600 - Are economic injury disaster loans under this subpart limited to the geographic areas contiguous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Economic Injury Disaster Loans as a Result of the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks § 123.600 Are economic injury disaster...Trade Center or the damage to the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, or as a direct result of any...

2013-01-01

232

In these tighter economic times the University needs to look at all areas where costs can be reduced. One of these areas is that of `local printing'. This  

E-print Network

be reduced. One of these areas is that of `local printing'. This includes activities such as the printing of emails, printing of documents and draft documents, all of which are areas which could be reduced to provide savings. Another area is how you specify your print work to Printing Services there are many areas

Schnaufer, Achim

233

Gender and Socio-economic Differences in Daily Smoking and Smoking Cessation Among Adult Residents in a Greek Rural Area  

PubMed Central

Despite the well-known health risks, smoking is still highly prevalent worldwide. Greece has the highest level of adult smoking rate (40%) across the European Union. We investigated gender and socio-economic differences in daily smoking and smoking cessation among Greek adults. We conducted a cross-sectional survey between October and November 2009 in 434 adults residing in a Greek rural area. Data were collected with the use of the World Health Organization Global Adult Tobacco Survey (WHO GATS) Core Questionnaire. Respondents were classified into smokers (if they had smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and continued to smoke) or non-smokers. Overall, 58.1% (n=252) were smokers (58.5% male, n=127 and 57.8% female, n=125); 51.2% (n=222) were younger than 18 years-old when they started smoking. Men tended to start smoking at a younger age, to smoke more cigarettes/day and to have smoked a greater average of cigarettes during the last 5 days. Overall, 82.5% of smokers attempted to stop smoking a year prior to the study, with women having a greater difficulty in quitting smoking. The main source of information on smoking was the mass media (73.5%) and books (53.7%), whereas doctors and other health professionals were the least listed source of relative information (27.7 and 8.1%, respectively). Smoking rates among Greek adults were high, but a considerable number of individuals who smoked, wished to quit and had attempted to do so. Smoking cessation clinics are not perceived as a valuable support in quitting effort. PMID:22435078

Birmpili, Evangelia; Katsiki, Niki; Malhotra, Aseem; Dimopoulou, Evelina; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Tsiligiroglou-Fachantidou, Anna

2012-01-01

234

Mediators of Adverse Birth Outcomes Among Socially Disadvantaged Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Numerous studies find that socially disadvantaged women are more likely than socially advantaged women to deliver infants that weigh less than normal and/or are born weeks prior to their due date. However, little is known about the pathways that link maternal social disadvantage to birth outcomes. Using data from a prospective cohort study, we examined whether antenatal psychosocial stress, substance use, and maternal health conditions in pregnancy mediated the pathway between maternal social disadvantage and birth outcomes. Methods Analyses used structural equation modeling to examine data from a community clinic-based sample (n=2168) of pregnant women who completed questionnaires assessing psychosocial functioning and health behaviors as well as sociodemographic characteristics, which were matched with subsequent birth outcome data. Results Analyses revealed maternal social disadvantage predicted poorer birth outcomes through a mediated pathway including maternal health conditions in pregnancy. Conclusions The findings demonstrate that maternal social disadvantage is associated with poor health status in pregnancy, which in turn adversely affects birth outcomes. Results argue for more systematic attention to the roles of social disadvantage, including life course perspectives that trace social disadvantage prior to and through pregnancy. PMID:22150295

Nurius, Paula; Logan-Greene, Patricia

2012-01-01

235

The impact of the biotechnology industry on local economic development in the Boston and San Diego metropolitan areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-technology\\/knowledge-intensive industries have become of increasing importance as sources of job growth and revenue to communities seeking to develop their economies. Communities want these industries so that they can be as economically vigorous as possible. However, although high-tech industries such as biotechnology are coveted as drivers of economic development, the local development impact of these clusters of regional innovation is

Michael Sable

2007-01-01

236

Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' understanding of the concepts of area and how it can relate to perimeter. The shapes explored in this lesson are constructed of adjacent squares on a coordinate plane. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to area as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, the reading level for this resourceâs worksheet is at the grade 8 level.

2010-01-01

237

The Impact of the 2008-2009 Economic Recession on Acute Myocardial Infarction Occurrences in Various Socioeconomic Areas of Raritan Bay Region, New Jersey  

PubMed Central

Background: Psychosocial stress is one important risk factor for myocardial infarction. Aim: The study was to assess the impact of the 2008-2009 economic recession on myocardial infarction occurrences in different socioeconomic areas of Raritan Bay region, New Jersey. Materials and Methods: The patients, who were treated for acute myocardial infarction from January 2006 to June 2012, were grouped based on the average incomes of their residence districts in the Raritan Bay region. The Spearman Rank Correlation test was used to assess the correlation between the monthly occurrences of myocardial infarction and Dow Jones stock averages, as well as the correlation between the myocardial infarction occurrences and NJ State unemployment rates. Results: Among 1,491 cases that were identified, 990 cases resided in areas with income below the state average and 477 were from areas above the average. After the onset of the recession, the myocardial infarction occurrences trended up in the low-income area group but not in the high-income area group; and this increasing trend is correlated with the rise in NJ State unemployment rates but not with the changes in stock averages. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that unemployment contributed to an increased risk of myocardial infarction among the residents in low socioeconomic areas after the 2008-2009 economic recession. PMID:24926446

Li, Yulong; Rukshin, Iris; Pan, Fangfang; Sen, Shuvendu; Islam, Mohammed; Yousif, Abdalla; Rukshin, Vladimir

2014-01-01

238

Economic Viability of Phytoremediation of a Cadmium Contaminated Agricultural Area Using Energy Maize. Part II: Economics of Anaerobic Digestion of Metal Contaminated Maize in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with remediation of the Campine soil, an agricultural area diffusely contaminated with metals where most farmers raise dairy cattle and grow fodder maize. In a previous study, we calculated the effect of switching from fodder to energy maize on the farmer's income. Selling this energy maize as feedstock for anaerobic digestion to produce renewable energy could lead

T. Thewys; N. Witters; E. Meers; J. Vangronsveld

2010-01-01

239

The Disadvantage of Homelessness in Children's Schooling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings of a study that investigated the extent to which homeless children in the United States receive the "free and appropriate education" to which they are entitled. Data were collected through several surveys conducted in two San Francisco Bay Area counties: (1) surveys of parents in homeless shelters with 313 school-age…

Shaver, Debra M.; Dornbusch, Sanford M.

240

Economic and Technical Feasibility Study of Utility-Scale Wind Generation for the New York Buffalo River and South Buffalo Brownfield Opportunity Areas  

SciTech Connect

Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing contaminated lands in the Buffalo, New York, area for utility-scale wind development is explored. The study found that there is available land, electrical infrastructure, wind resource, and local interest to support a commercial wind project; however, economies of scale and local electrical markets may need further investigation before significant investment is made into developing a wind project at the Buffalo Reuse Authority site.

Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.

2014-04-01

241

Social disadvantage, genetic sensitivity, and children’s telomere length  

PubMed Central

Disadvantaged social environments are associated with adverse health outcomes. This has been attributed, in part, to chronic stress. Telomere length (TL) has been used as a biomarker of chronic stress: TL is shorter in adults in a variety of contexts, including disadvantaged social standing and depression. We use data from 40, 9-y-old boys participating in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to extend this observation to African American children. We report that exposure to disadvantaged environments is associated with reduced TL by age 9 y. We document significant associations between low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure, and harsh parenting and TL. These effects were moderated by genetic variants in serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways. Consistent with the differential susceptibility hypothesis, subjects with the highest genetic sensitivity scores had the shortest TL when exposed to disadvantaged social environments and the longest TL when exposed to advantaged environments. PMID:24711381

Mitchell, Colter; Hobcraft, John; McLanahan, Sara S.; Siegel, Susan Rutherford; Berg, Arthur; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Garfinkel, Irwin; Notterman, Daniel

2014-01-01

242

48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.  

...in paragraph (a)(1) of this section for development assistance and for assistance for famine recovery and development in Africa shall be used only for activities of disadvantaged enterprises (as defined in 726.7002). In order to achieve...

2014-10-01

243

Facilitating Vocational Development Among Disadvantaged Inner-City Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the vocational development process of tenth-grade disadvantaged students can be facilitated through deliberate intervention in the form of supplementary learning experiences. (Author)

Hamdani, Asma

1977-01-01

244

48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...either be certified as a small disadvantaged business (SDB) concern or have a completed SDB application pending at the SBA or a Private Certifier...accept an offeror's representation that it is an SDB concern for general statistical purposes....

2010-10-01

245

48 CFR 1552.219-73 - Small Disadvantaged Business Targets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the following small disadvantaged business (SDB) participation targets proposed by the contractor... (b) The following specifically identified SDB(s) was (were) considered under the Section—SDB participation evaluation factor or...

2010-10-01

246

Family and neighborhood disadvantage, home environment, and children's school readiness.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine associations between family socioeconomic risk, neighborhood disadvantage, and children's school readiness. A sample of 420 children from 48 early childcare programs yielded multi-informant data. The average age was 55.3 months (SD = 6.4), with 38% of children being Black, non-Hispanic, Hispanic, or other minority race (American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander). One third (32.4%) of the parents had annual incomes less than $30,000. We used multilevel structural equation modeling to test direct and indirect associations among family socioeconomic risk and neighborhood disadvantage and children's cognitive and social-emotional development through home learning environment and parental depression. Children with a greater number of family socioeconomic risks and a higher level of neighborhood disadvantage demonstrated lower scores on cognitive skills. The degree of family socioeconomic risk was indirectly associated with children's cognitive ability through parents' cognitive stimulation at home. Parents who had more family socioeconomic risks and neighborhood disadvantage reported more depressive symptoms, which, in turn, suggested children's greater probability of having social-emotional problems. In other words, home learning environments explained associations between family socioeconomic disadvantage and children's cognitive skills, while parental depression explained associations between family/neighborhood disadvantages and children's social-emotional problems. Results suggest the importance of intervention or prevention strategies for parents to improve cognitive stimulation at home and to reduce depressive symptoms. PMID:25150370

Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K; Hur, Eunhye

2014-10-01

247

Competitive disadvantage makes attitudes towards rape less negative.  

PubMed

Evolutionary theorists have argued that perceived competitive disadvantage may lead to more positive evaluation of, and greater likelihood of engaging in, risky and antisocial behavior. However, experimental studies have not yet examined the effects of competitive disadvantage on perceptions of rape. In the current study, we created a manipulation of perceived competitive status to test its effects on beliefs about rape. In one condition, participants were made to feel disadvantaged relative to male peers in terms of financial, physical, and intellectual power, whereas in the other condition they were made to feel advantaged. Participants were 120 heterosexual male undergraduate students. The manipulation was effective; compared to participants in the advantage condition, those in the disadvantage condition rated themselves as significantly worse off financially, shorter, in worse physical shape, and as having lower course marks than the average male student at the university. Compared to perceived competitive advantage, perceived disadvantage led to less negative attitudes towards rape. However, perceived competitive status did not significantly affect justifications and excuses for rape. Future studies using similar experimental manipulations can complement correlational studies and may contribute to greater clarity, precision, and sophistication of research and theory on the role of competitive disadvantage in rape. PMID:22947990

Nunes, Kevin L; Pettersen, Cathrine

2011-01-01

248

76 FR 55606 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2011-09-08

249

77 FR 9588 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2012-02-17

250

78 FR 63405 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2012-0180 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

2013-10-24

251

77 FR 64917 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2012-10-24

252

78 FR 63899 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2012-0180 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

2013-10-25

253

75 FR 14359 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-03-25

254

77 FR 16950 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2012-03-23

255

76 FR 13097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2011-03-10

256

75 FR 64172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...of pollock specified for Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-10-19

257

75 FR 9534 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-03-03

258

75 FR 61638 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...total allowable catch limit in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-10-06

259

77 FR 60321 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2012-10-03

260

76 FR 10779 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2011-02-28

261

78 FR 9849 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2013-0032 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

2013-02-12

262

76 FR 11393 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2011-03-02

263

75 FR 57702 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch of pollock specified for Statistical Area 630 of the GOA...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-09-22

264

77 FR 65330 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2012-10-26

265

78 FR 17886 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2012-0180 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

2013-03-25

266

75 FR 64958 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...of pollock specified for Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-10-21

267

Expanding Economic and Educational Opportunity in Distressed Rural Areas: A Conceptual Framework for the Rural Community College Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) collaborates with community colleges in rural communities that are racially, ethnically, culturally, and economically diverse by challenging them to think broadly about their potential as catalysts for regional development. RCCI is a national demonstration program that combines the goals of rural…

MDC, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

268

The Economic Benefits from Halving the Dropout Rate: A Boom to Businesses in the Nation's Largest Metropolitan Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few people realize the impact that high school dropouts have on a community's economic, social, and civic health. Business owners and residents--in particular, those without school-aged children--may not be aware that they have much at stake in the success of their local high schools. Indeed, everyone--from car dealers and realtors to bank…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

269

Demographic and socio-economic impact of external migration on the sending areas (the case of Egypt).  

PubMed

The effects on individuals, households, and the community as a whole of migration from Egypt are examined for the period 1974-1990. The authors evaluate the impact of such migration on population growth and redistribution in Egypt, and describe the economic consequences of emigration, including remittances, for the sending country. Some policy implications are discussed. (SUMMARY IN ARA) PMID:12317470

Nawar, L; Mostafa, E

1992-01-01

270

48 CFR 19.305 - Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...Programs 19.305 Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...apparently successful offeror's representation of disadvantaged status if the...

2013-10-01

271

48 CFR 19.305 - Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...Programs 19.305 Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...apparently successful offeror's representation of disadvantaged status if the...

2012-10-01

272

48 CFR 19.305 - Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...Programs 19.305 Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...apparently successful offeror's representation of disadvantaged status if the...

2011-10-01

273

48 CFR 19.305 - Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status.  

...2014-10-01 false Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...Programs 19.305 Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...apparently successful offeror's representation of disadvantaged status if the...

2014-10-01

274

Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics  

E-print Network

Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics BSc Economics and Politics #12;www.bath.ac.uk/economics Welcome to the Department of Economics The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching is internationally respected and our students are in demand by employers

Burton, Geoffrey R.

275

Economics Postgraduate MSc Economics  

E-print Network

Economics Postgraduate MSc Economics MSc Economics & Finance MSc International Money & Banking #12;www.bath.ac.uk/economics Welcome to the Department of Economics The Department offers a range. The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching and research

Burton, Geoffrey R.

276

A Qualitative Study of How Young Scottish Smokers Living in Disadvantaged Communities Get Their Cigarettes  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Reducing access to cigarettes is an important element of youth smoking prevention strategies. This is particularly so in disadvantaged communities that have high rates of youth smoking. In 2010, Scotland banned proxy sales of tobacco products to under 18-year-olds who were getting older people to purchase cigarettes on their behalf. Methods: A qualitative study using 24 small single-sex friendship groups. Eighty young people, mostly aged 14–16, of whom 57 were smokers, were recruited in 2012 from community youth groups in 3 socially disadvantaged areas of Scotland. Results: Participants’ main sources of cigarettes were proxy sales, family, and peers and friends. Younger smokers were more likely to purchase single cigarettes from older smokers at school and to steal cigarettes from family members. Older and regular smokers were more likely to obtain cigarettes through proxy purchases. Proxy purchases were often facilitated by problem drug users who were willing to buy cigarettes for a small monetary reward. Direct purchases in shops were less commonly reported but appeared to involve complicit action by some retailers. Few reported that they bought blackmarket cigarettes, although they were available in these communities. Conclusions: Young people in areas of deprivation are still able to circumvent the age-of-sale legislation on selling cigarettes. Even though proxy sales have been banned, they are an important source of cigarettes for disadvantaged young smokers. PMID:23911845

2013-01-01

277

Vocational Curriculum Resources for Disadvantaged Students. A Guide to Print and Non-Print Instructional Materials. Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume 2 of a three-volume guide to vocational curriculum resources for disadvantaged students consists of instructional checklists for resources identified in the following areas: agriculture, auto body repair, automobile mechanics, basic math skills, basic reading skills, business education, career education, carpentry, cosmetology, custodial…

Mangano, R. Michael; And Others

278

Vocational Curriculum Resources for Disadvantaged Students. A Guide to Print and Non-Print Instructional Materials. Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume 1 of a three-volume guide to vocational curriculum resources for disadvantaged students consists of instructional checklists for resources identified in the following areas: agriculture, auto body repair, automobile mechanics, basic math skills, basic reading skills, business education, carpentry, cosmetology, custodial and maintenance,…

Mangano, R. Michael; And Others

279

Accessibility and spatial distribution of general practice services in an Australian city by levels of social disadvantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accessibility and spatial distribution of health services provided by the main source of primary medical care in Australia — the general practice surgery — was investigated by level of social disadvantage of local catchment areas. All 459 general practice surgeries in Perth, an Australian city of 1.2 million residents, were surveyed with a 94% response. Amount of service provision

Jilda C. G. Hyndman; C. D’Arcy J. Holman

2001-01-01

280

Adult cognitive ability and socioeconomic status as mediators of the effects of childhood disadvantage on salivary cortisol in aging adults.  

PubMed

In this longitudinal study we investigate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Two mechanisms by which early life stress may affect later pathophysiology are through its influence on cognitive functioning or later socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. We predicted that individual differences in young adult cognitive ability and midlife SES would mediate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife cortisol. On each of three nonconsecutive days, participants provided five salivary cortisol samples corresponding to their diurnal rhythm (N=727 men; mean age 55, SD=2.6). We calculated three measures of cortisol regulation (area-under-the curve cortisol reflecting total daytime cortisol output; cortisol-awakening-response; and wake-to-bed slope), averaging scores for each measure across multiple days. Childhood disadvantage combined four dichotomous indicators used previously by Rutter (1985): father low SES; mother education less than 12th grade; major family disruption/separation before age 18; and large family size (more than 5 siblings). The two mediators were a measure of general cognitive ability assessed at age 20 and highest achieved midlife SES. Men from more disadvantaged childhoods were significantly more likely to have dysregulated cortisol at midlife, with higher daytime cortisol levels decades after their childhood experience. Effects of childhood disadvantage were both direct and indirect. Cognitive ability and adult SES, however, only partially mediated the associations between early life stress and midlife cortisol. Specific indirect effects accounted for 33.8% of the total effect of childhood disadvantage [?=0.12 (0.05; 0.18)] on total daytime cortisol. Associations remained significant after accounting for ethnicity, smoking status, and self-reported depressive symptoms. PMID:23684478

Franz, Carol E; Spoon, Kelly; Thompson, Wesley; Hauger, Richard L; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Jacobson, Kristen C; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J; McCaffery, Jeanne; McKenzie, Ruth; Mendoza, Sally P; Panizzon, Matthew S; Ramundo, Ana; Shahroudi, Afrand; Kremen, William S

2013-10-01

281

Economic Recession and Emergence of an HIV-1 Outbreak among Drug Injectors in Athens Metropolitan Area: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background During 2011, a dramatic increase (1600%) of reported HIV-1 infections among injecting drug users (IDUs) was noted in Athens, Greece. We herein assess the potential causal pathways associated with this outbreak. Methods Our study employed high resolution HIV-1 phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses. We examined also longitudinal data of ecological variables such as the annual growth of gross domestic product (GDP) of Greece in association with HIV-1 and HCV sentinel prevalence in IDUs, unemployment and homelessness rates and HIV transmission networks in Athens IDUs before and during economic recession (2008–2012). Results IDU isolates sampled in 2011 and 2012 suggested transmission networks in 94.6% and 92.7% of the cases in striking contrast with the sporadic networking (5%) during 1998–2009. The geographic origin of most HIV-1 isolates was consistent with the recently documented migratory waves in Greece. The decline in GDP was inversely correlated with annual prevalence rates of HIV and HCV and with unemployment and homelessness rates in IDUs (all p<0.001). The slope of anti-HCV prevalence in the sentinel populations of IDUs and in “new” drug injectors was found 120 and 1.9-fold (p?=?0.007, p?=?0.08 respectively) higher in 2008–2012 (economic recession) compared with 2002–2006. The median (25th, 75th) size of transmission networks were 34 (12, 58) and 2 (2, 2) (p?=?0.057) in 2008–2012 and 1998–2007, respectively. The coverage of harm reduction services was low throughout the study period. Conclusions Scaling-up harm reduction services and addressing social and structural factors related to the current economic crisis should be urgently considered in environments where HIV-1 outbreaks may occur. PMID:24265730

Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Fotiou, Anastasios; Tsiara, Chrissa; Paraskeva, Dimitra; Sypsa, Vana; Lazanas, Marios; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Psichogiou, Mina; Skoutelis, Athanasios; Wiessing, Lucas; Friedman, Samuel R.; Jarlais, Don C. d. e. s.; Terzidou, Manina; Kremastinou, Jenny; Malliori, Meni; Hatzakis, Angelos

2013-01-01

282

Behavioural therapy for smoking cessation: The effectiveness of different intervention types for disadvantaged and affluent smokers?  

PubMed Central

Background Disadvantaged smokers are less likely to be successful when trying to stop smoking than more affluent smokers. In the UK, NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSS) provide a range of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support, delivered by advisors with a range of backgrounds. Whether the types of support provided and who provides it influence differences in quit rates amongst low SES smokers compared with high SES smokers has not previously been examined. Methods 202,084 records of smokers in England who attended a NHS Stop Smoking Service between July 2010 and June 2011 were acquired. Smokers were followed-up by services at four weeks post quit date. Multilevel logistic regression models of CO validated quits were employed. Disadvantage was explored through the National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification (NS-SEC) and by eligibility for free prescriptions, an indicator of low income amongst adults aged between 19 and 59 in England. Results Affluent smokers were more likely to quit than disadvantaged smokers (OR 1.38 (1.35 to 1.42) for clients who paid for prescriptions compared to those eligible for free prescriptions). 80% of service clients received one-to-one counselling but open group forms of behavioural therapy were more successful (main effect OR 1.26 (1.12 to 1.41)) except amongst some of the most disadvantaged clients (long-term unemployed and prisoners). Closed groups were little deployed and they were not significantly more successful than one-to-one behavioural therapy after controls. Who delivered treatment did make a difference for some clients, with all but the most affluent less likely to be successful if they had been treated by a nurse compared with other types of advisers, including smoking cessation specialists (main effect OR 0.73 (0.65 to 0.83)). Conclusion This study provides further evidence that disadvantaged smokers find quitting more difficult even when they have attended a smoking cessation programme. The findings suggest that open groups should be promoted, although they may not be as effective as other forms of behavioural therapy for the long-term unemployed or prisoners. Further research is required to explore why most groups of smokers who attended services staffed by nurses were less likely to quit than those who received treatment from other types of advisors. PMID:23954946

Hiscock, Rosemary; Murray, Susan; Brose, Leonie S.; McEwen, Andy; Bee, Jo Leonardi; Dobbie, Fiona; Bauld, Linda

2013-01-01

283

NASA Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) within NASA promotes the utilization of small, disadvantaged, and women-owned small businesses in compliance with Federal laws, regulations, and policies. We assist such firms in obtaining contracts and subcontracts with NASA and its prime contractors. The OSDBU also facilitates the participation of small businesses in NASA's technology transfer and commercialization activities. Our driving philosophy is to consider small businesses as our products. Our customers are the NASA Enterprises, Field Centers, Functional Staff Offices, major prime contractors, and other large institutions. We hone the skills of our products to make them marketable to our customers in the performance of NASA missions.

2001-01-01

284

Neighborhood Racial/Ethnic Concentration, Social Disadvantage, and Homicide Risk: An Ecological Analysis of 10 U.S. Cities  

PubMed Central

Homicide is one of the leading causes of death among African-American and Hispanic men. We investigated how neighborhood characteristics associated with social disadvantage explain racial/ethnic homicide gaps in 10 U.S. cities. The test hypotheses were that (1) higher concentrations of African-Americans and Hispanics would be associated with higher homicide rates and (2) the relationship between racial/ethnic concentration and homicide would be attenuated after adjusting for neighborhood characteristics (e.g., unemployment, median household income, low educational attainment, and female headship). The test hypotheses were examined using separate Poisson regression models, which adjusted for spatial autocorrelation. Homicide rates were greater in neighborhoods with higher concentrations of African-Americans and Hispanics than in other groups, and the association of neighborhood racial/ethnic concentration with homicide was reduced after adjusting for neighborhood social disadvantage variables, especially percent female head of household and percent persons with less than a high school education. We also found that the relationship between neighborhood racial/ethnic concentration and homicide was explained more by social disadvantage variables in some cities than in others. Based on our findings, policy makers may wish to consider implementation of policies that (1) expand early childhood education programs and higher education opportunities and (2) encourage economic and community development initiatives in socially disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:18661242

Wall, Melanie

2008-01-01

285

Highline Public Schools Computer-Assisted Instruction Project: A Program to Meet Disadvantaged Students' Individual Needs for Basic Skill Development: Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This description of a computer-assisted instruction project, which provides an alternative approach to individual instruction in basic skills for economically and educationally disadvantaged students at the secondary level, includes the results of evaluations conducted at the end of each of three school years. Instruction in priority…

Maser, Arthur L.; And Others

286

Attitudes About the Police and Neighborhood Safety in Disadvantaged NeighborhoodsThe Influence of Criminal Victimization and Perceptions of a Drug Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building on past research, this study focuses on how the experience of victimization and being approached by a drug dealer relate to individuals' perceptions about neighborhood safety and in turn affect perceptions of the police. Ordinal logistic regression analyses are conducted on data from a sample of residents in socially and economically disadvantaged, high-crime neighborhoods. Findings suggest that victimization leads

Brian K. Payne; Randy R. Gainey

2007-01-01

287

Predicting Success among Prospective Disadvantaged Students in Natural Scientific Fields  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred and fifty-nine Grade 11 prospective disadvantaged students in the natural sciences at the University of Pretoria completed the Study Orientation Questionnaire in Mathematics and the Senior Aptitude Test (Advanced). Fifty-nine male students (M age = 16.05; SD = 0.57) and 100 females (M age = 16.02; SD = 0.512) scored significantly…

Maree, J. G.; Fletcher, L.; Sommerville, J.

2011-01-01

288

Disentangling Disadvantage: Can We Distinguish Good Teaching from Classroom Composition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the use of teacher value-added estimates to assess the distribution of effective teaching across students of varying socioeconomic disadvantage in the presence of classroom composition effects. We examine, via simulations, how accurately commonly used teacher value-added estimators recover the rank correlation between…

Zamarro, Gema; Engberg, John; Saavedra, Juan Esteban; Steele, Jennifer

2015-01-01

289

What's in a Name: "Education and the Disadvantaged American" (1962)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Education and the Disadvantaged American" represented an attempt by the leaders of the American elementary and secondary education enterprise to come to terms with the failure to learn of a significant portion of the school population. The dimension of race surrounded the discussion leading to publication, but it was never addressed…

Urban, Wayne J.

2009-01-01

290

From Here to Where?--"Disadvantaged Schools," Literacy and Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the abolishment of the Disadvantaged Schools Program (DSP) in South Australia represented a shift away from a focus on the social to the individual, from curriculum to instruction, from school-based inquiry and teacher research to expert solutions, and from various contexted and contested outcomes to a singular and simplistic version…

Thomson, Pat

2001-01-01

291

Rural-Urban Migration in Bolivia: Advantages and Disadvantages1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of rural-urban migration, and shows that the costs of increased urbanization (crime, pollution, congestion, etc) in Bolivia are rather small compared to the costs experienced in other Latin American countries. The benefits, on the other hand, may be large. Encouraging rural-urban migration may be one of the cheapest ways of reducing poverty

Lykke E. Andersen

292

Introducing Computer Science to Educationally Disadvantaged High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An approach to the teaching and learning of high school computer science (CS) to and by educationally disadvantaged students (EDS) is described, as well as the implementation of six pedagogical principles in two learning environments developed for Israeli schools. Following a brief description of the main characteristics of EDS classes and a…

Paz, Tamar; Levy, Dalit

2005-01-01

293

The Early College Challenge: Navigating Disadvantaged Students' Transition to College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful early college high schools (ECHSs) are formed through partnerships between high schools and colleges (usually community colleges). Think of it as preparation through acceleration. ECHSs enroll disadvantaged students who have not excelled with ordinary grade-level academic content and have them take college courses while still in high…

Rosenbaum, James E.; Becker, Kelly Iwanaga

2011-01-01

294

Books By Mail: Moving the Library to Disadvantaged Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series on library services to disadvantaged adults, this guide suggests several ways a library can provide books by mail services. Mail order delivery is a way of making the library's collection available to many who are unable or unwilling to visit the library building. The system can be handled by clerks or volunteers. Planning should…

Reed, Mary Jane; Schmidt, Susan K.

295

Poverty, Disadvantage and Negotiating the Curriculum (R-2).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the need for teachers in socioeconomically disadvantaged schools to change classroom practice. Examines the disparity between home and school environments, using critical social theory. Describes curriculum negotiation as an active, relevant process, focusing on creating classroom environments that empower students. Discusses the skills…

Harris, Patricia

1996-01-01

296

Bold Action Programs for the Disadvantaged: Elementary Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following five characteristics of successful reading projects for the disadvantaged are discussed as a basis for appraising ESEA/Title I programs: (1) a child need-centered emphasis, (2) provision for teacher education, (3) use of multidisciplinary and paraprofessional personnel, (4) parent involvement, and (5) evaluation procedures. Current…

Whipple, Gertrude

297

Product Outcome Objectives: Model Grant to Serve Educationally Disadvantaged Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three Oregon community colleges collaborated to develop a model program to meet the learning needs of educationally disadvantaged students. The model consists of several Outcome Objectives, or goals for the program. The discussion of each objective includes background information relevant to the specific goal and a description of the methods used…

Portland Community Coll., OR.

298

48 CFR 1519.204 - Small disadvantaged business participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...participation of Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB) concerns in the performance of a resulting...evaluate the extent of participation of SDB concerns in the performance of the contract...evaluate the extent of participation of SDB concerns in the performance of the...

2010-10-01

299

Reaching and Helping Unorganized and Disadvantaged People. Courier No. 33.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this issue are mainly concerned with how to reach the poorest and most disadvantaged sections of the population and how best to help once contact has been made. "Nijera Kori in Retrospect: In Search of an Organization of the Rural Poor" (Mohiuddin Ahmad) provides extracts from an evaluation of this grassroots, village-based,…

ASPBAE Courier, 1985

1985-01-01

300

Hard to believe : arts education and disadvantaged students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first of three articles, the author profiles the work of The Song Room, an innovative not-for-profit organisation that is bringing free, tailored music and creative arts education programs to schools with disadvantaged student populations throughout Australia. Examples of how the program has impacted on specific schools are included, for example at Sacred Heart School in Melbourne's Fitzroy which

Ralph Saubern

2009-01-01

301

Math Basic Skills Module for Disadvantaged Electronic Students. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project was undertaken to develop a remedial academic curriculum and materials that would help disadvantaged students gain the basic mathematics skills necessary to succeed in an electronics program. Major activities of the project included development of a bibliography of currently available math resource books with materials appropriate for…

Rodewald, Dave

302

Vocational Assessment of Students with Disadvantages: Their Peculiar Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the underlying factor structure of the aptitude tests and work samples being completed by students with educational disadvantages (limited reading and mathematics skills) who were assessed with the current assessment model in the Akron (Ohio) Public Schools. The amount of variance accounted for by the factors was also…

Nolte, Deborah

303

THE LIGHTHOUSE DAY CAMP READING EXPERIMENT WITH DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A READING PROGRAM DESIGNED FOR DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AND CONDUCTED BY THE LIGHTHOUSE, A SETTLEMENT HOUSE IN NORTH PHILADELPHIA, AS PART OF ITS DAY CAMP PROGRAM WAS DESCRIBED AND ASSESSED. THE READING PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED (1) TO BOOST THE OPPORTUNITIES IN READING READINESS FOR CHILDREN ABOUT TO ENTER FIRST GRADE, (2) TO ENRICH LANGUAGE…

GOMBERG, ADELINE W.

304

Ethnicity, Concentrated Minority Disadvantage, and Perceived Risk of Victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been little systematic research on how the characteristics of locales condition the relationship of ethnicity to crime-related attitudes, and none of it has examined southwestern Hispanics. Addressing these issues, this investigation examines the effects of ethnicity and concentrated minority disadvantage on confidence in the police and perceived risk of victimization. Data collected in telephone and personal interviews in

Malcolm D. Holmes

2003-01-01

305

A Summer Academic Research Experience for Disadvantaged Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience…

Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N.

2013-01-01

306

Promotion of Primary Education for Girls and Disadvantaged Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the results of a meeting of education officials from Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, and Thailand to discuss the promotion of primary education for girls and other disadvantaged groups in developing Asian countries. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, discussing the goals and results of the meeting. Chapter…

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

307

Education and Training and the Avoidance of Financial Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Making use of the longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, this study examines the relationship between post-school qualifications and financial disadvantage among Australians during the period 2001 to 2008. Specifically, it is concerned with the extent that education and training, vis-a-vis…

Marks, Gary N.

2011-01-01

308

An economical single to three phase converter for induction motors  

E-print Network

There are several different types of single to three phase converters for induction motors available today. However, many of the presently available phase converters suffer from disadvantages such as high cost or low performance. An economical...

Di Zerega, Philp Van Uytandaele

1994-01-01

309

The Role of Support Services in Promoting Social Inclusion for the Disadvantaged Urban-dwelling Elderly  

PubMed Central

Background Disadvantaged older adults living in non-family situations in Toronto are more likely than older adults living in family situations to have less economic security, less social support, and less choice in housing. Older adults who live in poverty and are precariously housed are more likely to be chronically ill, to live with multiple illnesses, to have poor nutrition, high stress and loneliness, all of which are strongly associated with the determinant of health social exclusion. The aim of this study is to: 1) evaluate the level of social disadvantage and exclusion experienced by low-income older adults 65 years of age and older living alone or in non-family situations; 2) assess the level of dependency on government and community services (support services) to maintain a reasonable standard of living (minimize effects of social exclusion); and 3) identify consequences of social exclusion not addressed by current available services. Methods Fifteen male older adult members of the Good Neighbours’ Club in downtown Toronto were interviewed. Semi-structured questionnaires assessed barriers to, utility of, and perceived impact of support services available to disadvantaged older adults living in the central core of southeast Toronto. Results Support services for income, housing, food security, social support, and health care do mitigate the effects of social exclusion in the study participants. Data gathered from interviews identified factors that counter the efforts by support services to increase social inclusion in this population. Conclusions Support services reduce social isolation experienced by these older adults. Evidence of the detrimental impact of low financial literacy suggests a need to design and implement training programs to build the older adults’ capacity to manage their own finances effectively, and resist falling victim to financial fraud. PMID:24278093

Nguyen, Vicky P.K.H.; Sarkari, Feroz; MacNeil, Kate; Cowan, Laura; Rankin, Joyce

2013-01-01

310

An optimization model for automated selection of economic and ecologic delivery profiles in area forwarding based inbound logistics networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Area Forwarding Based Inbound Logistics Networks are used by several large companies whose suppliers are spread widely to\\u000a reduce costs by consolidating transported goods in an early stage of the transport. Managing material flows in those networks\\u000a is a complex task, especially if the synergy effects in the main leg shall be used to reduce costs and environmental pollution.\\u000a One

Achim Koberstein; Leena Suhl

2010-01-01

311

Manifestation of the advantages and disadvantages of using the CO2 laser in oral surgery.  

PubMed

In their patient population, the authors summarize experience with 548 laser operations of oral lesions, the manifestation of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique. The hemostatic effect of the laser is of special significance, which became evident in the surgery of 90 hemangiomas, 17 patients with naveus flammeus, and 14 with clotting disturbance. For protection of the healthy tissues, various laser surgical methods were used--coagulation, vaporization, excision--and the postoperative edema, pain, inflammation, wound healing disturbances, and scarring were minimal. By the use of this method, the oral cavity functions can be well maintained. Following one laser treatment, the relapse rate was lower than 8 percent, after two treatments 1.1 percent. The laser treatment is economically favorable, since the absence of patients from work is minimal. Methods have been elaborated to overcome the disadvantages of laser treatment. It is established that the following can be favorably treated with the CO2 laser: leukoplakia, hemangioma, epulis, granuloma fissuratum, naveus flammeus, and clotting disturbance. The advantages of CO2 laser treatment in oral surgery manifest themselves very markedly. PMID:10148946

Gáspár, L; Szabó, G

1990-02-01

312

Ecological Economics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taking as its starting point the interdependence of the economy and the natural environment, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field of ecological economics. The authors, who have written extensively on the economics of sustainability, build on insights from both mainstream economics and ecological sciences. Part I explores the interdependence of the modern economy and its environment, while Part II focuses mainly on the economy and on economics. Part III looks at how national governments set policy targets and the instruments used to pursue those targets. Part IV examines international trade and institutions, and two major global threats to sustainability - climate change and biodiversity loss. Assuming no prior knowledge of economics, this textbook is well suited for use on interdisciplinary environmental science and management courses. It has extensive student-friendly features including discussion questions and exercises, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, further reading and website addresses. A comprehensive introduction to a developing field which will interest students from science, economics and management backgrounds A global approach to the problems of sustainability and sustainable development, issues which are increasingly prominent in political debate and policy making Filled with student-friendly features including focus areas for each chapter, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, discussion questions and exercises, further reading and website addresses

Common, Michael; Stagl, Sigrid

2005-10-01

313

Local Area Networks (The Printout).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Local Area Network (LAN), a project in which students used LAN-based word processing and electronic mail software as the center of a writing process approach. Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of networking. (MM)

Aron, Helen; Balajthy, Ernest

1989-01-01

314

Land use pattern, socio-economic development, and assessment of their impacts on ecosystem service value: study on natural wetlands distribution area (NWDA) in Fuzhou city, southeastern China.  

PubMed

This paper quantifies the allocation of ecosystem services value (ESV) associated with land use pattern and qualitatively examined impacts of land use changes and socio-economic factors on spatiotemporal variation of ESV in the Natural Wetland Distribution Area (NWDA), Fuzhou city, China. The results showed that total ESV of the study area decreased from 4,332.16 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 1989 to 3,697.42 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 2009, mainly due to the remarkable decreases in cropland (decreased by 55.3 %) and wetland (decreased by 74.2 %). Forest, water, and wetland played major roles in providing ecosystem services, accounting for over 90 % of the total ESV. Based on time series Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery, geographic information system, and historical data, analysis of the spatiotemporal variation of ESV from 1989 to 2009 was performed. It indicated that rapid expansion of urban areas along the Minjiang River resulted in significant changes in land use types, leading to a dramatic decline in ecosystem services. Meanwhile, because of land scarcity and unique ecosystem functions, the emergency of wetland and cropland protection in built-up area has become an urgent task of local authorities to the local government. Furthermore, there was still a significant negative correlation between ESV of cropland and wetland and the GDP. The results suggest that future planning of land use pattern should control encroachment of urban areas into cropland and wetland in addition to scientific and rational policies towards minimizing the adverse effects of urbanization. PMID:23054291

Cai, Yuan-Bin; Zhang, Hao; Pan, Wen-Bin; Chen, Yan-Hong; Wang, Xiang-Rong

2013-06-01

315

Modelling typhoid risk in Dhaka Metropolitan Area of Bangladesh: the role of socio-economic and environmental factors  

PubMed Central

Background Developing countries in South Asia, such as Bangladesh, bear a disproportionate burden of diarrhoeal diseases such as Cholera, Typhoid and Paratyphoid. These seem to be aggravated by a number of social and environmental factors such as lack of access to safe drinking water, overcrowdedness and poor hygiene brought about by poverty. Some socioeconomic data can be obtained from census data whilst others are more difficult to elucidate. This study considers a range of both census data and spatial data from other sources, including remote sensing, as potential predictors of typhoid risk. Typhoid data are aggregated from hospital admission records for the period from 2005 to 2009. The spatial and statistical structures of the data are analysed and Principal Axis Factoring is used to reduce the degree of co-linearity in the data. The resulting factors are combined into a Quality of Life index, which in turn is used in a regression model of typhoid occurrence and risk. Results The three Principal Factors used together explain 87% of the variance in the initial candidate predictors, which eminently qualifies them for use as a set of uncorrelated explanatory variables in a linear regression model. Initial regression result using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) were disappointing, this was explainable by analysis of the spatial autocorrelation inherent in the Principal factors. The use of Geographically Weighted Regression caused a considerable increase in the predictive power of regressions based on these factors. The best prediction, determined by analysis of the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) was found when the three factors were combined into a quality of life index, using a method previously published by others, and had a coefficient of determination of 73%. Conclusions The typhoid occurrence/risk prediction equation was used to develop the first risk map showing areas of Dhaka Metropolitan Area whose inhabitants are at greater or lesser risk of typhoid infection. This, coupled with seasonal information on typhoid incidence also reported in this paper, has the potential to advise public health professionals on developing prevention strategies such as targeted vaccination. PMID:23497202

2013-01-01

316

41 CFR 105-53.130-4 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 105-53...Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. (a) Creation...and authority. Public Law 95-507, October 14...amendment to the Small Business Act and the Small...

2010-07-01

317

49 CFR 1.62 - Delegations to the Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01...Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 1.62 Section 1.62...DUTIES Delegations § 1.62 Delegations to...Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. The...

2010-10-01

318

48 CFR 719.271-2 - The USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB). 719.271-2 Section 719.271-2 Federal...Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB). (a) SDB is responsible for administering, implementing,...

2010-10-01

319

75 FR 5535 - Participation by Disadvantaged Business Enterprises in Department of Transportation Financial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Participation by Disadvantaged Business Enterprises in Department of...their overall disadvantaged business enterprise (DBE) goal for...about moving to a three-year cycle: (1) The difficulty in estimating...transportation, Minority business, Reporting and...

2010-02-03

320

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping provides a feasible way to improve yield and economic incomes in farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.  

PubMed

Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China. PMID:25329376

Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

2014-01-01

321

A Comparative Study of Clear Corneal Phacoemulsification with Rigid IOL Versus SICS; the Preferred Surgical Technique in Low Socio-economic group Patients of Rural Areas  

PubMed Central

Context: Low socio-economic group patients from rural areas often opt for free cataract surgeries offered by charitable organisations. SICS continues to be a time tested technique for cataract removal in such patients. In recent times, camp patients are sometimes treated by clear corneal phacoemulsification with implantation of a rigid IOL, which being more cost effective is often provided for camp patients. This study was undertaken to find out which surgical technique yielded better outcomes and was more suited for high volume camp surgery. Aim: To find the better surgical option- phacoemulsification with rigid IOL or SICS, in poor patients from rural areas. Settings and Design: A prospective randomised controlled trial of cataract patients operated by two different techniques. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twelve eyes were selected and were randomly allocated into two groups of 56 eyes each. At completion of the study, data was analysed for 52 eyes operated by clear corneal phacoemulsification and implantation of a rigid IOL, and 56 eyes operated by SICS. Statistical Analysis Used: Unpaired t-test was used to calculate the p- value. Results: The results were evaluated on the following criteria. The mean post-operative astigmatism at the end of four weeks - was significantly higher in phacoemulsification group as compared to SICS group The BCVA (best corrected visual acuity) at the end of four weeks - was comparable in both groups. Subjective complaints and/ or complications: In phaco group two patients required sutures and seven had striate keratitis , while none in SICS group. Complaint of irritation was similar in both groups. Surgical time- was less for SICS group as compared to phaco group. Conclusion: SICS by virtue of being a faster surgery with more secure wound and significantly less astigmatism is a better option in camp patients from rural areas as compared to phacoemulsification with rigid IOL. PMID:25584291

Agarwal, Smita; Singh, Pankaj Kumar

2014-01-01

322

Advantages and Disadvantages of Health Care Accreditation Mod­els  

PubMed Central

Background: This systematic review seeks to define the general advantages and disadvan­tages of accreditation programs to assist in choosing the most appropriate approach. Method: Systematic search of SID, Ovid Medline & PubMed databases was conducted by the keywords of accreditation, hospital, medical practice, clinic, accreditation models, health care and Persian meanings. From 2379 initial articles, 83 articles met the full inclusion criteria. From initial analysis, 23 attributes were identified which appeared to define advantages and disadvantages of different accreditation approaches and the available systems were compared on these. Results: Six systems were identified in the international literature including the JCAHO from USA, the Canadian program of CCHSA, and the accreditation programs of UK, Australia, New Zealand and France. The main distinguishing attributes among them were: quality improve­ment, patient and staff safety, improving health services integration, public’s confi­dence, effectiveness and efficiency of health services, innovation, influence global standards, information management, breadth of activity, history, effective relationship with stakeholders, agreement with AGIL attributes and independence from government. Conclusion: Based on 23 attributes of comprehensive accreditation systems we have defined from a systematic review, the JCAHO accreditation program of USA and then CCHSA of Can­ada offered the most comprehensive systems with the least disadvantages. Other programs such as the ACHS of Australia, ANAES of France, QHNZ of New Zealand and UK accredita­tion programs were fairly comparable according to these criteria. However the decision for any country or health system should be based on an assessment weighing up their specific objec­tives and needs. PMID:24688896

Tabrizi, Jafar S.; Gharibi, Farid; Wilson, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

323

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1400.4 Section 1400.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) MINORITY BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT AGENCY DETERMINATION OF GROUP ELIGIBILITY FOR MBDA ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or...

2010-01-01

324

Preschool Quality and the Development of Children From Economically Disadvantaged Families in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: The influence of preschool quality on the development of 67 4-year-old children from poor and rural families in South India was examined. Children's developmental status was assessed using a modified version of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and through physician ratings. Preschool quality was assessed through repeated systematic observations and using the Tamil Nadu Early Childhood Environment

Nirmala Rao

2010-01-01

325

Mothers' Parenting and Young Economically Disadvantaged Children's Relational and Overt Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined links between mothers' parenting and children's relational bullying and overt bullying in a sample of children attending a Head Start program. Mothers completed surveys and face-to-face interviews. Head Start teachers completed assessments on children. Results indicated that a small percentage of children in the sample was rated by…

Curtner-Smith, Mary E.; Culp, Anne M.; Culp, Rex; Scheib, Carrie; Owen, Kelly; Tilley, Angela; Murphy, Molly; Parkman, Lauren; Coleman, Peter W.

2006-01-01

326

Extending the purposes of science education: addressing violence within socio-economic disadvantaged communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current discourses about science education show a wide concern towards humanisation and a more socio-cultural perspective of school science. They suggest that science education can serve diverse purposes and be responsive to social and environmental situations we currently face. However, these discourses and social approaches to science education tend to focus on global issues. They do not respond to the immediate needs and local context of some communities. I discuss in this paper why the purposes of science education need to be extended to respond to the local issue of violence. For this, I present a case study with a group of 38 students from a poor population in Bogotá, Colombia, located in one of the suburbs with highest levels of crime in the city. I examine the ways that science education contributes to and embodies its own forms of violence and explore how a new approach to science education could contribute to break the cycle of violence.

Castano, Carolina

2012-09-01

327

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...training, exclusion from social and professional association...honors rightfully earned, and social patterns or pressures which...retaliatory or discriminatory behavior by an employer or labor union; and social patterns or pressures...

2011-10-01

328

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...training, exclusion from social and professional association...honors rightfully earned, and social patterns or pressures which...retaliatory or discriminatory behavior by an employer or labor union; and social patterns or pressures...

2013-10-01

329

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...training, exclusion from social and professional association...honors rightfully earned, and social patterns or pressures which...retaliatory or discriminatory behavior by an employer or labor union; and social patterns or pressures...

2010-10-01

330

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...training, exclusion from social and professional association...honors rightfully earned, and social patterns or pressures which...retaliatory or discriminatory behavior by an employer or labor union; and social patterns or pressures...

2012-10-01

331

Predicting Kindergarten Success for Economically Disadvantaged Head Start Children: A Latent Curve Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to use data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 database for public use (version 2.9.2.1; Westat, 2000) to examine a sample of Head Start children and families to predict kindergarten and first grade success, The study controlled family variables of income level, family…

Jiang, Ying Hong; Mok, Doris; Weaver, Robert R.

332

Interfirm information linkages in an economically disadvantaged region: an empirical perspective from metropolitan Buffalo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The external information linkages of industrial firms in two sectors of Buffalo's manufacturing base -- medical instruments, and chemicals -- are examined. Survey data are presented which indicate a positive role for imported technical services in local product innovation, export activity, and technology diffusion. The data reveal that firms which import a substantial proportion of their external technical inputs hold

A MacPherson

1991-01-01

333

Early Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity among Economically Disadvantaged Families in the USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in…

Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

2012-01-01

334

Child Care and the Development of Behavior Problems among Economically Disadvantaged Children in Middle Childhood  

PubMed Central

Research examining the longer term influences of child care on children’s development has expanded in recent years, but few studies have considered low-income children’s experiences in community care arrangements. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 349), this study examines the influences of child care quality, extent and type on low-income children’s development of behavior problems during middle childhood (7–11 years old). Higher levels of child care quality were linked to moderate reductions in externalizing behavior problems. High quality child care was especially protective against the development of behavior problems for boys and African American children. Child care type and the extent of care that children experienced were generally unrelated to behavior problems in middle childhood. PMID:20840234

Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Maldonado-Carreño, Carolina; Li-Grining, Christine; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

2010-01-01

335

Beliefs about the Causes of Poverty in Parents and Adolescents Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 2 consecutive years, parents and their adolescent children from 199 poor families in Hong Kong responded to the Chinese Perceived Causes of Poverty Scale, which assesses beliefs about the causes of poverty. The author abstracted 4 factors from the scale. Analyses showed that these factors (personal problems, exploitation, lack of opportunity,…

Shek, Daniel T. L.

2004-01-01

336

Beliefs About the Causes of Poverty in Parents and Adolescents Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 2 consecutive years, parents and their adolescent children from 199 poor families in Hong Kong responded to the Chinese Perceived Causes of Poverty Scale, which assesses beliefs about the causes of poverty. The author abstracted 4 factors from the scale. Analyses showed that these factors (personal problems, exploitation, lack of opportunity, fate) were stable across time and across different

Daniel T. L. Shek

2004-01-01

337

Household type, economic disadvantage, and residential segregation: empirical patterns and findings from simulation analysis  

E-print Network

these theories, I draw oncensus data for Houston, Texas and use the xPx measure to document patterns of contact between households based on family type, poverty status, and race. I also decompose the effects that each of these variables can have separately...

Howden, Lindsay Michelle

2005-08-29

338

Wraparound Counseling: An Ecosystemic Approach to Working with Economically Disadvantaged Students in Urban School Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban schools are faced with challenges such as low academic performance, increased incidents of violence, lack of parental engagement with educators, and school personnel burnout. Wraparound counseling is a holistic prevention tool that combines the best practices of counseling and special education for use in the school setting. (Contains 1…

West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Frazier, Kimberly N.; Kelley, Erin

2011-01-01

339

Neural Correlates of Advantageous and Disadvantageous Inequity in Sharing Decisions  

PubMed Central

Humans have a strong preference for fair distributions of resources. Neuroimaging studies have shown that being treated unfairly coincides with activation in brain regions involved in signaling conflict and negative affect. Less is known about neural responses involved in violating a fairness norm ourselves. Here, we investigated the neural patterns associated with inequity, where participants were asked to choose between an equal split of money and an unequal split that could either maximize their own (advantageous inequity) or another person’s (disadvantageous inequity) earnings. Choosing to divide money unequally, irrespective who benefited from the unequal distribution, was associated with activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Inequity choices that maximized another person’s profits were further associated with activity in the ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Taken together, our findings show evidence of a common neural pattern associated with both advantageous and disadvantageous inequity in sharing decisions and additional recruitment of neural circuitry previously linked to the computation of subjective value and reward when violating a fairness norm at the benefit of someone else. PMID:25238541

Crone, Eveline A.

2014-01-01

340

Economic impact  

SciTech Connect

In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

Technology Transfer Department

2001-06-01

341

Socio-economic effect on socially-deprived communities of developing drinking water quality problems in arid and semi-arid area of central Rajasthan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rajasthan is well known for its Great Thar desert. Central Rajasthan has an arid to semi-arid environment. The area faces either scarcity of water or poor quality of drinking water. In some areas water is transported 2 km or more, which uses time, energy and money. Rich people have their own sources, which is restricted for use by others. Such conditions are affecting socially-deprived communities, both socially and economically. Groundwater is a major source of drinking water due to the unavailability of surface water. There is a lack of groundwater quality knowledge in the community and the data available is hard to understand by consumers. The CCME Water Quality Index is a tool to simplify the water quality report by rating the water on quality standards. It provides meaningful summaries of overall water quality and trends, which is accessible to non-technical lay people. In the present study the objective is to examine the groundwater quality of six districts (Ajmer, Bhilwara, Pali, Rajasamand, Nagaur and Jodhpur), centrally located in Rajasthan, with arid and semi-arid conditions. CCME WQI is also evaluated to produce quality data in a form to be understood by the community. A total of 4369 groundwater sources in 1680 villages from six districts (76 546 km2) were collected and examined. Results are outlined in the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS: 10500, 2012) and 2952 sources are unsafe for drinking. According to CCME WQI groundwater of 93 villages is poor, 343 villages are marginal, and 369 villages are fair in quality. Toxicological studies of unsafe drinking water and their remedial measures are also discussed. A tentative correlation between prevailing water-borne diseases and quality parameter has also been shown

Husain, I.; Husain, J.; Arif, M.

2014-09-01

342

Social and Economic Context. Trends and Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools are very sensitive to the rapid social, economic, and demographic changes that the United States is presently undergoing. They are at a disadvantage compared to most other social institutions because, in serving a younger population, they have less lead time to prepare for changes in the complexion of society. Young people in today's world…

Lumsden, Linda, Comp.; Coffey, Elizabeth, Comp.

343

New England Economic Review: 2000 Issues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The May/June 2000 issue of New England Economic Review from FRB Boston includes three articles and their abstracts: "Rising Tide in the Labor Market: To What Degree Do Expansions Benefit the Disadvantaged?," "Discouraged and Other Marginally Attached Workers: Evidence on Their Role in the Labor Market," and "The Neutrality of Massachusetts' Taxation of Financial Institutions."

2000-01-01

344

Emission constrained economic dispatch  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a methodology to include emission constraints in classical Economic Dispatch (ED), which contains an efficient weights estimation technique. Also, a partial closed form technique is presented to implement the Emission Constrained Economic Dispatch (ECED). A simple technique is proposed to identify the binding constraints. The methods proposed do not need any user-supplied tuning or conversion factors. Dispatch quality is not compromised, and any practical sized problem can be solved efficiently. The proposed methods have rapid and consistent convergence to the Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions. Different methods of including emissions as well as their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Sample test results are presented. The proposed two methodologies have potential for on-line implementation.

Ramanathan, R. (ESCA Corp., Bellevue, WA (United States))

1994-11-01

345

The Many Faces of the Economic Bulletin Board.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Economic Bulletin Board (EBB), a one-stop site for economic statistics and government-sponsored business information, can be accessed on the World Wide Web, gopher, telnet, file transfer protocol, dial-up, and fax. Each access method has advantages and disadvantages related to connections, pricing, depth of access, retrieval, and system…

Boettcher, Jennifer

1996-01-01

346

A Global Talent Magnet: How a San Francisco/Bay Area Global Higher Education Hub Could Advance California's Comparative Advantage in Attracting International Talent and Further Build US Economic Competitiveness. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.9.11  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the 2009-10 academic year international students generated more than $18.8 billion in net income into the US economy. California alone had nearly 100,000 international students with an economic impact of nearly $3.0 billion. In this paper, we outline a strategy for the San Francisco/Bay Area to double the number of international students…

Douglass, John; Edelstein, Richard; Hoareau, Cecile

2011-01-01

347

Public Higher Education Performance Accountability Framework Report: Goal - Contributions to Economic, Civic, and Social Development; Measure: Workforce Preparation - Degrees Awarded in Selected Areas of Projected Workforce Demand. Commission Report 07-17  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is the third in a series of measure reports that examine the economic, civic, and social development of the state by its systems of higher education. This report measures degrees awarded in selected areas of employment against workforce demand. The report found: (1) California's postsecondary schools are not producing enough graduates…

California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2007

2007-01-01

348

Nibbled to Death by Ducks: The Accumulation of Disadvantage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the consequences of unconscious bias is the accumulation of advantage/disadvantage. Research has shown that over time, minor imbalances will accrue and eventually have major impacts regarding promotion, salary, prestige, and advancement to leadership positions. For example, an unconscious bias during an evaluation leading to an underestimate of performance will result in a lower success rate, which then feeds back into the next evaluation and the cycle repeats. How can we address this? We'll be discussing how to become informed and conscious of the problem, and we'll look at recommendations for developing and implementing departmental and institutional policies and practices aimed at increasing awareness and countering these accumulations of imbalances that impact us all.

Simpson, Caroline E.

2010-05-01

349

Resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos and adaptive disadvantages  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos Fersol 1G (temephos 1% w/w) associated with the adaptive disadvantage of insect populations in the absence of selection pressure. METHODS A diagnostic dose of 0.28 mg a.i./L and doses between 0.28 mg a.i./L and 1.40 mg a.i./L were used. Vector populations collected between 2007 and 2008 in the city of Campina Grande, state of Paraíba, were evaluated. To evaluate competition in the absence of selection pressure, insect populations with initial frequencies of 20.0%, 40.0%, 60.0%, and 80.0% resistant individuals were produced and subjected to the diagnostic dose for two months. Evaluation of the development of aquatic and adult stages allowed comparison of the life cycles in susceptible and resistant populations and construction of fertility life tables. RESULTS No mortality was observed in Ae. aegypti populations subjected to the diagnostic dose of 0.28 mg a.i./L. The decreased mortality observed in populations containing 20.0%, 40.0%, 60.0%, and 80.0% resistant insects indicates that temephos resistance is unstable in the absence of selection pressure. A comparison of the life cycles indicated differences in the duration and viability of the larval phase, but no differences were observed in embryo development, sex ratio, adult longevity, and number of eggs per female. CONCLUSIONS The fertility life table results indicated that some populations had reproductive disadvantages compared with the susceptible population in the absence of selection pressure, indicating the presence of a fitness cost in populations resistant to temephos. PMID:25372168

Diniz, Morgana Michele Cavalcanti de Souza Leal; Henriques, Alleksandra Dias da Silva; Leandro, Renata da Silva; Aguiar, Dalvanice Leal; Beserra, Eduardo Barbosa

2014-01-01

350

The effects of mid-life socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived social support on trajectories of subsequent depressive symptoms among older Taiwanese women  

PubMed Central

Background Scant research has taken a life-course perspective to explore the longitudinal impact of socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived social support on the psychological well-being of older women. We sought to explore whether socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived social support in mid-life are associated with subsequent depressive symptomatology among older Taiwanese women. Methods This study was based on data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging conducted on a nationally representative sample (n?=?1,073) of women aged 50 and above with a 12-year follow up. Mid-life socioeconomic disadvantage was assessed by socioeconomic status (SES) (i.e., educational attainment, major lifetime occupation in adulthood, and employment status) and economic strain. Perceived social support included three dimensions: listening, caring, and sick care. We used the short form of the Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale that measures depressive symptomatology within two domains (negative affect and lack of positive affect). Growth curve models were employed to predict the relationships between mid-life socioeconomic disadvantage, perceived social support, and subsequent depressive trajectories, controlling for aging effects. Results Multivariate analyses demonstrated older women in a socioeconomic disadvantaged position are more likely to report higher initial levels of depressive symptoms in both domains; lack of formal education did not exacerbate depressive symptoms in the lack of positive affect domain over time. In addition, mid-life perceived positive social support in caring and sick care was associated with lower initial levels of depressive symptoms in both domains. Conclusions Our results suggest independent effects of mid-life socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived social support on subsequent depressive symptomatology among older Taiwanese women. PMID:24751187

2014-01-01

351

The Economics Department of Economics  

E-print Network

The Economics Initiative Department of Economics #12;Economics at LSE The Department of Economics is the top ranked economics department in Europe and among the top 12 worldwide. It is one of the largest economics departments in the world, with over 60 faculty and 1,000 students and a department which makes

352

Going on to Uni? Access and Participation in University for Students from Backgrounds of Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a research project that investigated the aspirations of primary and secondary school students about access to, and participation in higher education. The research was undertaken at schools in low socio-economic status regional and rural areas of north-eastern New South Wales. The paper discusses the background to the…

Wilks, Judith; Wilson, Katie

2012-01-01

353

The Area of Energy, Economics and Law offers two academic credentials: the Energy Commerce degree and the Certificate in Energy. Students learn industry  

E-print Network

energy degree in the state of Texas and is the only business school in the United States with full in the age of globalization -- is the realization that while energy poverty exists there can be no economic

Westfall, Peter H.

354

Parliament vs. Supreme court: a veto player framework of the Indian constitutional experiment in the area of economic and civil rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay is on the Indian constitution and extends and responds to the work of Singh (Constitutional Political Economy 17:17,\\u000a 2006) in the analysis of economic rights. The veto player framework is used to analyze the development of economic rights which\\u000a was diminished and civil rights (through Public Interest Litigation) which was expanded since Indian independence. The Congleton\\u000a Model (Constitutional

Feler Bose

2010-01-01

355

Improving Physics Education in Disadvantaged Schools Using Most Appropriate Technology & Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our proposal - Bridging The Gap aims at partnering with the teachers from the target Hartford High School System and utilizing the most appropriate technology to build a cost-effective portfolio of experimental kits with accompanying web based delivery of content to cover the entire curriculum of high school level science and mathematics to improve student enrollment and students conceptual understanding of these subjects. Note that the emphasis here is on the most appropriate tools rather than the most advanced tools since the target high schools are not all expected to be able to afford costly courseware solutions. Nevertheless, the partnership of AppWave with Hartford School District is expected to significantly close the ever-widening science and technology gap for economically and socially disadvantaged student population in the Hartford School District. AppWaves partnership with the Department of Science, Hartford School District, will involve direct interaction with Hartford High School teachers and a continuous interaction with the AppWave Advisory Panel a group of local education experts from the Trinity College, Hartford and the University of Connecticut.

Saxena, Vishal

2002-10-01

356

Computational methods of Gaussian Particle Swarm Optimization (GPSO) and Lagrange Multiplier on economic dispatch issues (case study on electrical system of Java-Bali IV area)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective in this paper is about economic dispatch problem of electric power generation where scheduling the committed generating units outputs so as to meet the required load demand at minimum operating cost, while satisfying all units and system equality and inequality constraint. In the operating of electric power system, an economic planning problem is one of variables that its must be considered since economically planning will give more efficiency in operational cost. In this paper the economic dispatch problem which has non linear cost function solved by using swarm intelligent method is Gaussian Particle Swarm Optimization (GPSO) and Lagrange Multiplier. GPSO is a population-based stochastic algorithms which their moving inspired by swarm intelligent and probabilities theories. To analize its accuracy, the economic dispatch solution by GPSO method will be compared with Lagrange multiplier method. From the running test result the GPSO method give economically planning calculation which it better than Lagrange multiplier method and the GPSO method faster to getting error convergence. Therefore the GPSO method have better performance to getting global best solution than the Lagrange method.

Komsiyah, S.

2014-03-01

357

Economics of industrial innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author explores the relationship of industrial innovation and economic development in terms of economic investment in new processes and materials, the effects of technology on firm size, and the role of public policy in fostering technology and stimulating employment. Each of these areas is treated in a separate section. Excerpts from The Measurement of Scientific and Technical Activities appears

C. Freeman

1982-01-01

358

Economic Crisis in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sub-Saharan Africa is facing deep economic crisis. A situation has reached where there is total stagnation with zero per cent growth rate and no hope of recovery. Hunger is hovering over vast areas of Africa threatening the lives of 150 million people and every day people are dying of starvation. It is said, that nature and international economic relations are

Vijay Gupta

1985-01-01

359

Advantages and disadvantages of biodegradable platforms in drug eluting stents  

PubMed Central

Coronary angioplasty with drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation is currently the most common stent procedure worldwide. Since the introduction of DES, coronary restenosis as well as the incidence of target vessel and target lesion revascularization have been significantly reduced. However, the incidence of very late stent thrombosis beyond the first year after stent deployment has more commonly been linked to DES than to bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation. Several factors have been associated with very late stent thrombosis after DES implantation, such as delayed healing, inflammation, stent mal-apposition and endothelial dysfunction. Some of these adverse events were associated with the presence of durable polymers, which were essential to allow the elution of the immunosuppressive drug in the first DES designs. The introduction of erodable polymers in DES technology has provided the potential to complete the degradation of the polymer simultaneously or immediately after the release of the immunosuppressive drug, after which a BMS remains in place. Several DES designs with biodegradable (BIO) polymers have been introduced in preclinical and clinical studies, including randomized trials. In this review, we analyze the clinical results from 6 observational and randomized studies with BIO polymers and discuss advantages and disadvantages of this new technology. PMID:21499496

Rodriguez-Granillo, Agustina; Rubilar, Bibiana; Rodriguez-Granillo, Gaston; Rodriguez, Alfredo E

2011-01-01

360

The prevalence and correlates of single cigarette selling among urban disadvantaged drug users in Baltimore, Maryland  

PubMed Central

Background Selling of single cigarettes, also known as loosies, is a public health concern. Loosies allow for those with fewer resources to buy cigarettes without having to purchase a pack. Selling of loosies may cue smoking behaviors. In the US, socioeconomically disadvantaged populations have high rates of smoking and illicit drug use and the selling of loosies appears to be linked to the urban informal economy. We examined the proportion and frequency of cigarette selling and roles in the informal economy associated with selling loosies among a sample of urban drug users. Methods There were 801 participants, recruited by community outreach, assessed at baseline, who were enrolled in an HIV prevention intervention for drug users. Results Most (89%) smoked cigarettes in the prior 30 days, of whom 92% smoked daily. Self-reported selling of cigarettes was common with 58% reporting that they had sold cigarettes within the last six months; 20.4% reported selling cigarettes a few times a week and 7.4% reported daily selling of cigarettes. In a stepwise regression model, four sources of income were associated with frequent cigarette selling: providing street security (OR=2.214, 95% CI 1.177–4.164), selling food stamps (OR=1.461, 95% CI 1.003–2.126), pawning items (OR=2.15, 95% CI 1.475–3.135), and selling drugs (OR=1.634, 95% CI 1.008–2.648). Conclusion There is a high rate of selling loosies among urban substance users. The wide availability of loosies may promote smoking. Smoking cessation programs with drug treatment and economic development programs may help to reduce economic pressures to sell loosies. PMID:23578589

Latkin, Carl; Murray, Laura; Smith, Katherine M Clegg; Cohen, Joanna; Knowlton, Amy R.

2013-01-01

361

The Effect of Incentives on Achievement & Behavior of Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mesa School District (Arizona) "Incentives Only" Project--carried out via a performance contract with the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity in 1970-71 through the Mesa Education Association (MEA)--is described in terms of rationale for the use of incentives, background, program procedures, the incentives model, the delivery system,…

Barnard, Douglas P.

362

The Effect of Social Disadvantage on Motor Development in Young Children: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Empirical research suggests that social disadvantage has a negative effect on the development of language, and related cognitive skills such as reading. There is, however, no corresponding body of research on the impact of social disadvantage on motor development. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of…

McPhillips, Martin; Jordan-Black, Julie-Anne

2007-01-01

363

Designs for the Preparation of Vocational and Technical Teachers of Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Youth. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the inadequate supply of teachers willing to work with disadvantaged students, this project sought to dissipate the stereotypes and misconceptions of disadvantaged people held by prospective teachers. To accomplish this, four design and evaluation conferences were held to plan clinical experiences for prospective teachers and to…

Huffman, Harry; Welter, Clyde W.

364

The Tax (Dis)Advantage Of A Firm Issuing Options On Its Own Stock  

E-print Network

The Tax (Dis)Advantage Of A Firm Issuing Options On Its Own Stock Robert L. McDonald First draft with implicit borrowing--such as put sales and call purchases--are tax-disadvantaged relative to the equivalent--such as compensation calls--are tax-advantaged. We also show that firms are better off from a tax perspective issuing

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

365

Disadvantaged Former Miners' Perspectives on Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To explore disadvantaged former miners' perspectives in north Derbyshire, United Kingdom (UK) on smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: In-depth, audiotaped interviews with 16 disadvantaged former miners who smoked or had stopped smoking within six months. Results: Perceptions of being able to stop smoking with minimal difficulty…

White, Simon; Baird, Wendy

2013-01-01

366

Access to Effective Teaching for Disadvantaged Students: Executive Summary. NCEE 2014-4002  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes disadvantaged students' access to effective teaching in grades 4 through 8 in 29 diverse school districts, using value-added analysis to measure effective teaching. Recent federal initiatives emphasize measuring teacher effectiveness and ensuring that disadvantaged students have equal access to effective teachers. These…

Isenberg, Eric; Max, Jeffrey; Gleason, Philip; Potamites, Liz; Santillano, Robert; Hock, Heinrich; Hansen, Michael

2013-01-01

367

Everyday Speech Acts of Disadvantaged and Advantaged Mothers to Their Toddlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, everyday mother-to-toddler speech patterns among disadvantaged and advantaged groups were examined in the home environment. The Schachter FIS-C (Functions of Interpersonal Speech of Caretakers) language measuring instrument was applied to mother speech in three sociolinguistic urban groups: black disadvantaged, black advantaged, and…

Schachter, Frances Fuchs; And Others

368

Research and Teaching Reading to Disadvantaged Learners: Implications for Further Research and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the teaching of reading to disadvantaged children often places too much emphasis on etiology rather than on pedagogy. The student's behavior, not the etiology, is the key to change. Suggestions that disadvantaged children have initial reading problems because of auditory, vocabulary, and visual discrimination deficits or articulatory…

Cohen, S. Alan

369

Pilot Evaluation of a Home Visit Parent Training Program in Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The study reported the pilot evaluation of the Healthy Start Home Visit Program for disadvantaged Chinese parents with preschool children, delivered by trained parent assistants. Home visiting was used to make services more accessible to disadvantaged families. Method: The participants included 21 parent-child dyads. Outcome measures…

Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Heung, Kitty

2013-01-01

370

ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES FOR ISCO METHODS IN-SITU FENTON OXIDATION IN-SITU PERMANGANATE OXIDATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ Fenton oxidation and in-situ permanganate oxidation will be presented. This presentation will provide a brief overview of each technology and a detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each technology. Included in the ...

371

Neighborhood Disadvantage, Residential Stability, and Perceptions of Instrumental Support among New Mothers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing survey (N = 4,211), this study examines neighborhood disadvantage and perceptions of instrumental support among mothers with young children. The authors find that (a) living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with less instrumental support, particularly financial…

Turney, Kristin; Harknett, Kristen

2010-01-01

372

What Helps Children Eat Well? A Qualitative Exploration of Resilience among Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well known that persons of low socioeconomic position consume generally a less healthy diet. Key determinants of unhealthy eating among disadvantaged individuals include aspects of the family and external environment. Much less is known about family and environmental determinants of healthy eating among social disadvantaged children. The aim…

Williams, Lauren K.; Veitch, Jenny; Ball, Kylie

2011-01-01

373

An experimental demonstration that early-life competitive disadvantage accelerates telomere loss.  

PubMed

Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an experiment in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that used cross-fostering to expose siblings to divergent early experience. Birds were assigned either to competitive advantage (being larger than their brood competitors) or competitive disadvantage (being smaller than their brood competitors) between days 3 and 12 post-hatching. Disadvantage did not affect weight gain, but it increased telomere attrition, leading to shorter telomere length in disadvantaged birds by day 12. There were no effects of disadvantage on oxidative damage as measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. We thus found strong evidence that early-life competitive disadvantage can accelerate telomere loss. This could lead to faster age-related deterioration and poorer health in later life. PMID:25411450

Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Brilot, Ben; Bedford, Thomas; Bateson, Melissa

2015-01-01

374

Reading for Children Without--Our Disadvantaged Youth. Reading Aids Series, No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful reading practices and programs for culturally disadvantaged children are discussed by five authorities in the field. The first section, written by Gertrude Whipple, defines the kinds of pupils considered to be culturally disadvantaged, tells why they need a special program, and outlines the type of program needed. Three sections deal…

Whipple, Gertrude, Comp.; Black, Millard H., Comp.

375

Career Education Programs for the Disadvantaged. Appendix A of a Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of a project designed to provide a synthesis of literature and practice relating to the career education of disadvantaged students, this paper, which is intended for administrators of local programs, identifies successful components of career education programs for the disadvantaged. Program descriptions were secured through a…

Robertson, J. Marvin

376

What are the Advantages/Disadvantages of an International Approach? R. R. Parker  

E-print Network

What are the Advantages/Disadvantages of an International Approach? R. R. Parker MFE ITER/Exp Plenary #12;What are the Advantages/Disadvantages of an International Approach? Advantages Fusion has had experiment such as ITER is beyond what individual governments are willing to invest in fusion. Only

377

48 CFR 53.302-312 - Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB) Participation Report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB) Participation Report. 53.302-312 Section 53.302-312...Illustrations of Forms 53.302-312 Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB) Participation Report. ER26JY00.003 ER26JY00.004...

2010-10-01

378

48 CFR 52.219-24 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Targets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...participation of small disadvantaged business (SDB) concerns in the contract. Credit under...factor or subfactor is not available to an SDB concern that qualifies for a price evaluation...Disadvantaged Business Concerns, unless the SDB concern specifically waives the price...

2010-10-01

379

Why is the Socially Disadvantaged Child Retarded? A Rationale and New Concept of Human Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volumes have been written on the socially disadvantaged. Two theories related to the disadvantaged have evolved: the first is the "deprivation theory" which stresses the importance of an enriched environment, during the early years, on the cognitive and emotional development of the child; the second is "the cumulative intellectual deficit theory,"…

Ogletree, Earl J.

380

An experimental demonstration that early-life competitive disadvantage accelerates telomere loss  

PubMed Central

Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an experiment in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that used cross-fostering to expose siblings to divergent early experience. Birds were assigned either to competitive advantage (being larger than their brood competitors) or competitive disadvantage (being smaller than their brood competitors) between days 3 and 12 post-hatching. Disadvantage did not affect weight gain, but it increased telomere attrition, leading to shorter telomere length in disadvantaged birds by day 12. There were no effects of disadvantage on oxidative damage as measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. We thus found strong evidence that early-life competitive disadvantage can accelerate telomere loss. This could lead to faster age-related deterioration and poorer health in later life. PMID:25411450

Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Brilot, Ben; Bedford, Thomas; Bateson, Melissa

2015-01-01

381

Multiple Levels of Social Disadvantage and Links to Obesity in Adolescence and Young Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The rise in adolescent obesity has become a public health concern, especially because of its impact on disadvantaged youth. This article examines the role of disadvantage at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level, to determine which contexts are related to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. Methods: We analyzed…

Lee, Hedwig; Harris, Kathleen M.; Lee, Joyce

2013-01-01

382

Teaching Advanced Skills to Educationally Disadvantaged Students. Data Analysis Support Center (DASC) Task 4. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document comprises six papers that discuss teaching advanced skills to educationally disadvantaged students. An introductory paper, "Models for Teaching Advanced Skills to Educationally Disadvantaged Children" (B. Means and M. S. Knapp), synthesizes the themes that characterize the collection of papers as a whole, and discusses general issues…

Means, Barbara, Ed.; Knapp, Michael S., Ed.

383

The Effect of Pupil's Origin on Perceptions and Expectations by Teachers of Disadvantaged and Advantaged Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teachers of disadvantaged and advantaged students were asked to form an impression of a student and to indicate their expectations regarding academic achievement on the basis of student's ethnic origin. The results showed that teachers stereotypically perceive students and accordingly form their expectations concerning students’ future academic achievement. Teachers of disadvantaged children did not differ in their perceptions and expectations

Joseph Guttman

1981-01-01

384

THE IMPACT OF SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED STATUS ON SCHOOL LEARNING AND ADJUSTMENT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH GENERALIZES TOO FREELY ABOUT THE EFFECT OF LOWER-CLASS CULTURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE MIDDLE-CLASS SCHOOL ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD. IF INSTEAD EDUCATORS CONSIDERED THE RANGES AND VARIATIONS OF EACH OF THESE INFLUENCES, AND THE VARIABLES ACCOUNTING FOR THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD'S ACADEMIC SUCCESS…

HAMBURGER, MARTIN

385

Achievement Scholarships Achievement scholarships will support bright students from disadvantaged backgrounds,  

E-print Network

backgrounds, encouraging and rewarding their academic success. Research has shown that such students often see disadvantaged backgrounds to fully focus on their academic work, while encouraging and recognising their successAchievement Scholarships Achievement scholarships will support bright students from disadvantaged

Haase, Markus

386

Do Disadvantaged Students Have Equal Access to Effective Teaching? NCEE Study Snapshot. NCEE 2014-4001  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study snapshot offers a summary of "Access to Effective Teaching for Disadvantaged Students. NCEE 2014-4001," the first report from a study initiated by the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences to examine access to effective teaching for disadvantaged students in 29 diverse school districts. The study…

National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, 2013

2013-01-01

387

Brazilian Electronic Journal of Economics (BEJE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Brazilian Electronic Journal of Economics is published by the Department of Economics, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil. The aim of the journal is to publish original articles in the areas of "economics of the Internet, network economics, and economics of information." The site provides the full text of the articles in the journal.

1997-01-01

388

Does social disadvantage contribute to the excess mortality in rheumatoid arthritis patients?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with increased mortality from cardiovascular causes and malignancy. The influence of disadvantage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), who are known to have premature mortality, has not been ascertained.?AIM—To assess the relation between the level of patient deprivation and mortality in RA patients.?METHODS—200 RA patients, enrolled in a study comparing sulfasalazine and penicillamine in 1984-85, have been followed up prospectively for 12 years. Subjects were categorised into Carstairs groups with deprivation scores ranging from 1 (most affluent) to 7 (most deprived). Information about deaths was obtained from the Registrar General in Scotland, death certificates and GP/hospital records.?RESULTS—There were more RA patients in the deprived areas then expected compared with the West of Scotland and England and Wales. Some 47.5% of the RA patients had died by 12 years—the majority of cardiorespiratory causes or malignancy. There were no differences in the median age or disease duration in the various Carstairs groups at study entry, but the percentage of deaths was higher in the more deprived groups after 12 years (36% dead in most affluent area compared with 61% in the most deprived, that is, in groups 6 and 7).?CONCLUSION—In patients with RA increasing deprivation was associated with premature mortality. If confirmed elsewhere these findings have implications for rheumatological management strategies, for researchers involved in collaborative studies of patients from different socioeconomic backgrounds and for resource allocation.?? PMID:10460184

Maiden, N; Capell, H; Madhok, R; Hampson, R; Thomson, E

1999-01-01

389

A review of recent advances in economic dispatch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey is presented of papers and reports that address various aspects of economic dispatch. The time period considered is 1977-88. Four related areas of economic dispatch are identified and papers published in the general areas of economic dispatch are classified into these. These areas are: optimal power flow, economic dispatch in relation to AGC, dynamic dispatch, and economic dispatch

B. H. Chowdhury; S. Rahman

1990-01-01

390

ECONOMIC FREEDOM AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN MENA COUNTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies of the relationship between economic freedom and growth of GDP have found a positive correlation. One problem in this area is the choice of measure of economic freedom. A single measurement does not reflect the complex economic environment and a highly aggregated index makes it difficult to draw policy conclusions. This paper attempts to answer the question: How

Hossein Panahi; Ahmad Assadzadeh; Ramiar Refaei

2014-01-01

391

Family and school socioeconomic disadvantage: interactive influences on adolescent dating violence victimization.  

PubMed

Although low socioeconomic status has been positively associated with adult partner violence, its relationship to adolescent dating violence remains unclear. Further, few studies have examined the relationship between contextual disadvantage and adolescent dating violence, or the interactive influences of family and contextual disadvantage. Guided by social disorganization theory, relative deprivation theory, and gendered resource theory, we analyzed data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-1996) to explore how family and school disadvantage relate to dating violence victimization. Psychological and minor physical victimization were self-reported by adolescents in up to six heterosexual romantic or sexual relationships. Family and school disadvantage were based on a principal component analysis of socioeconomic indicators reported by adolescents and parents. In weighted multilevel random effects models, between-school variability in dating violence victimization was proportionately small but substantive: 10% for male victimization and 5% for female victimization. In bivariate analyses, family disadvantage was positively related to victimization for both males and females; however, school disadvantage was only related to males' physical victimization. In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, relative age within the school, and mean school age, neither family nor school disadvantage remained related to males' victimization. For females, family disadvantage remained significantly positively associated with victimization, but was modified by school disadvantage: family disadvantage was more strongly associated with dating violence victimization in more advantaged schools. Findings support gendered resource theory, and suggest that status differentials between females and their school context may increase their vulnerability to dating violence victimization. PMID:19375207

Spriggs, Aubrey L; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Herring, Amy H; Schoenbach, Victor J

2009-06-01

392

Family and School Socioeconomic Disadvantage: Interactive Influences on Adolescent Dating Violence Victimization  

PubMed Central

Although low socioeconomic status has been positively associated with adult partner violence, its relationship to adolescent dating violence remains unclear. Further, few studies have examined the relationship between contextual disadvantage and adolescent dating violence, or the interactive influences of family and contextual disadvantage. Guided by Social Disorganization Theory, Relative Deprivation Theory, and Gendered Resource Theory, we analyzed data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-1996) to explore how family and school disadvantage relate to dating violence victimization. Psychological and minor physical victimization were self-reported by adolescents in up to six heterosexual romantic or sexual relationships. Family and school disadvantage were based on a principal component analysis of soecioeconomic indicators reported by adolescents and parents. In weighted multilevel random effects models, between-school variability in dating violence victimization was proportionately small but substantive: 10% for male victimization and 5% for female victimization. In bivariate analyses, family disadvantage was positively related to victimization for both males and females; however, school disadvantage was only related to males’ physical victimization. In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, relative age within the school, and mean school age, neither family nor school disadvantage remained related to males’ victimization. For females, family disadvantage remained significantly positively associated with victimization, but was modified by school disadvantage: family disadvantage was more strongly associated with dating violence victimization in more advantaged schools. Findings support gendered resource theory, and suggest that status differentials between females and their school context may increase their vulnerability to dating violence victimization. PMID:19375207

Spriggs, Aubrey L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Herring, Amy H; Schoenbach, Victor J

2010-01-01

393

Behavioral economics.  

PubMed

Behavioral economics uses evidence from psychology and other social sciences to create a precise and fruitful alternative to traditional economic theories, which are based on optimization. Behavioral economics may interest some biologists, as it shifts the basis for theories of economic choice away from logical calculation and maximization and toward biologically plausible mechanisms. PMID:25247364

Camerer, Colin F

2014-09-22

394

Migrant Differentials: An Examination of Social, Political, and Economic Dynamics of Life in the Receiving Area for Black Rural-Urban Migrants, 1915-1950.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a report on a study of the motives of southern blacks for migrating to the North during the period 1915-50. In particular, the study examined whether attitudes that existed as a result of sentimental (rather than solely economic) factors involved in movement from the South encouraged an orientation toward the northern opportunity structure…

Cruthird, J. Robert L.; Goodwin, E. Marvin

395

The Direct and Indirect Economic Impact of UTK [University of Tennessee, Knoxville] on the Knoxville Area, 1971-1972. Volume 13, Number 80.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years colleges and universities have undertaken programs designed to interpret themselves to the larger community on an unprecedented scale. It is clear that the University of Tennessee is an important economic force on the local economy, accounting for some $123,787,021 in direct and $42,235,596 in indirect income created for a total…

Moore, John R.; Ericksen, Craig G.

396

Visualizing Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Taking a page from Adam Smith, the motto of this delightful site is "Making the 'Invisible Hand' Visible." Under the guidance of Catherine Mulbrandon, the site brings together economic data and the powerful techniques of information visualization. She does this quite effectively through such thematic maps as "Where do Britain's rich and poor live?" and the "United States Household Income Map". Visitors can make their way through the maps here at their leisure, and also post their comments as they see fit. Additionally, users can look through the "Most Popular Posts" area and sign up to receive updates about new maps via email. Overall, the site is quite a find, and could even be used to spark debate and discussion in the classroom or around the break room.

Mulbrandon, Catherine

397

Parental Investment in Childhood and Later Adult Well-Being: Can Greater Parental Involvement Mediate the Effects of Socioeconomic Disadvantage?  

E-print Network

Parental involvement is important for later well-being since it conveys to children that parents are interested in their development. In socioeconomically disadvantaged homes this involvement becomes even more important. This paper asks: Can the social capital produced by greater parental involvement mediate some of the harmful effects of less financial capital? Data are from the National Child Development Study; a longitudinal study of children born in Britain in 1958. Results suggest that parental involvement does matter, but it depends on when involvement and economic hardship are measured, as well as type of involvement and parent gender. Father interest in education reduces the impact of economic hardship on education the most, especially at age 11. Both father and mother interest in school at age 16 have the largest direct impact on education. The frequency of outings with mother at age 11 also has a larger direct impact on education than outings with father, however, neither compare with the reduction in the effect of economic hardship as a result of father interest in school.

Darcy Hango

398

Home Economics I. Basic Core. Vocational Home Economics Education. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight home economics curriculum areas are presented in this guide, with each area consisting of one or more instructional units as follows: (1) Orientation (orientation to Future Homemakers of America--FHA, FHA in action, parliamentary procedure); (2) Career Exploration (home economics related occupations, locating a job, job success); (3) Child…

Clements, Irene; Coffey, Judy

399

13 CFR 124.1013 - How does SBA make disadvantaged status determinations in considering an SDB protest?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...disadvantaged status determinations in considering an SDB protest? 124.1013 Section 124.1013...disadvantaged status determinations in considering an SDB protest? (a) General. The...contract until: (i) The SBA has made an SDB determination, or (ii) 15...

2010-01-01

400

Economic Sanctions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Institute for International Economics (IIE) (reviewed in the December 4, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics), this site is a useful resource for Economics or International Relations courses. Using testimony, speeches, articles, working papers, and an interesting case study (of Myanmar), the site explains and explores the economic and political goals and impact of sanctions. Additional Hot Topics features include the Japan Crisis, the Asian Financial Crisis, and the Euro Conversion.

401

Environmentally Enriched Classrooms and the Development of Disadvantaged Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates the effects of placement of additional equipment in preschool classrooms on the cognitive, perceptual, and social development of urban Negro four-year-old children. Two Get Set classrooms in each of six areas of Philadelphia were paired for teachers, subjects, physical facilities and equipment. One classroom in each pair was…

Busse, Thomas V.; And Others

402

Rural Residence and Hispanic Ethnicity: Doubly Disadvantaged for Diabetes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Hispanics are at increased risk for diabetes, while rural residents have historically had decreased access to care. Purpose: To determine whether living in a rural area and being Hispanic confers special risks for diagnosis and control of diabetes. Methods: We analyzed the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey…

Koopman, Richelle J.; Mainous, Arch G.; Geesey, Mark E.

2006-01-01

403

Communication Based on Receptive Multilingualism: Advantages and Disadvantages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper tries to give answers for successful receptive multilingualism (RM) but also for its failure. It is mainly based on the results of two projects, one on inter-dialectal communication in the Baltic area during the era of the Hanseatic League and the other analyses inter-Scandinavian communication today. The main purpose of this survey is…

Braunmüller, Kurt

2013-01-01

404

An analysis of the relationship of selected factors to part-time and full-time farming in state economic area VIII of Texas  

E-print Network

ego counties of ru-al M. osissippi indicaeod chat a rolaiivoly Larm:. anchor of farm opo;ator that exon had hogun eo borh off-fom far ". x"you. periods of ebx! Sooh Cvupany, 1953 ' p. lgy. ~&9/ Unitod Staess Sspoa~ut of Coenn ~, Ihu ocu vf el.... & M. College of Terms, for his patient holp in procossing tho data. Particular thanks are also duo to the followin staff members of the Depaztment of Agricultural Economics and Sociology, A. & M. College of Terse: Dr. C. H. Brown for his helpful...

Vincent, Charles Homer

1962-01-01

405

48 CFR 1519.201-72 - Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...suitable for acquisition from small business and small disadvantaged business concerns; (6) Advise small businesses with respect to the financial assistance available under existing laws and regulations and assist such...

2010-10-01

406

Violence, Older Peers, and the Socialization of Adolescent Boys in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods  

PubMed Central

Most theoretical perspectives on neighborhood effects on youth assume that neighborhood context serves as a source of socialization, but the exact sources and processes underlying adolescent socialization in disadvantaged neighborhoods are largely unspecified and unelaborated. This paper proposes that cross-cohort socialization by older neighborhood peers is one source of socialization for adolescent boys in such neighborhoods. Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey suggest that adolescents in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to spend time with older individuals. Qualitative interview data from 60 adolescent boys in three neighborhoods in Boston are analyzed to understand the causes and consequences of these interactions and relationships. I find that some of the strategies these adolescents employ to cope with violence in disadvantaged neighborhoods promote interaction with older peers, particularly those who are most disadvantaged, and that such interactions can expose adolescents to local, “unconventional,” or “alternative” cultural models. PMID:20161350

Harding, David J.

2009-01-01

407

75 FR 77737 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Small Disadvantaged Business Self-Certification  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to its Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB) Program. DATES: Effective Date: December...73 FR 57490, October 3, 2008, to allow SDB subcontractors to provide written statements...representing in good faith their status as an SDB concern for the purposes of...

2010-12-13

408

48 CFR 1552.219-72 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...participation of small disadvantaged business (SDB) concerns in the performance of the contract. The nature of the evaluation of an SDB offeror under this evaluation factor or subfactor is dependent upon whether the SDB concern qualifies for the price...

2010-10-01

409

78 FR 69336 - Title I-Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Title I--Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged AGENCY...regarding modified academic achievement standards and alternate assessments...on those modified academic achievement standards. This notice...

2013-11-19

410

Wanting to attend isn’t just wanting to quit: why some disadvantaged smokers regularly attend smoking cessation behavioural therapy while others do not: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Attendance of a behavioural support programme facilitates smoking cessation. Disadvantaged smokers have been shown to attend less than their more affluent peers. We need to gain in-depth insight into underlying reasons for differing attendance behaviour in disadvantaged smokers, to better address this issue. This study aims to explore the underlying motivations, barriers and social support of smokers exhibiting different patterns of attendance at a free smoking cessation behavioural support programme in a disadvantaged neighbourhood of The Netherlands. Methods In 29 smokers undertaking smoking cessation group therapy or telephone counselling in a disadvantaged neighbourhood, qualitative interviews were completed, coded and analysed. Major themes were motivations, barriers to attend and social support. Motivations and social support were analysed with reference to the self-determination theory. Results Two distinct patterns of attendance emerged: those who missed up to two sessions (“frequent attenders”), and those who missed more than two sessions (“infrequent attenders”). The groups differed in their motivations to attend, barriers to attendance, and in the level of social support they received. In comparison with the infrequent attenders, frequent attenders more often had intrinsic motivation to attend (e.g. enjoyed attending), and named more self-determined extrinsic motivations to attend, such as commitment to attendance and wanting to quit. Most of those mentioning intrinsic motivation did not mention a desire to quit as a motivation for attendance. No organizational barriers to attendance were mentioned by frequent attenders, such as misunderstandings around details of appointments. Frequent attenders experienced more social support within and outside the course. Conclusion Motivation to attend behavioural support, as distinct from motivation to quit smoking, is an important factor in attendance of smoking cessation courses in disadvantaged areas. Some focus on increasing motivation to attend may help to prevent participants missing sessions. PMID:25002149

2014-01-01

411

NEP: New Economics Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New Economics Papers (NEP) is a working paper announcement service sponsored by RePEc (Research Papers in Economics) and the Electronic Library Programme. NEP aims to distribute, in the form of edited reports via email (to subscribers), up-to-date information on new releases of working papers. Conference announcements and professional information will also be disseminated through the reports. At the moment, users may subscribe to 15 different reports, each covering a different area of economics. Information about the various reports and subscription information is available at the site.

412

Economics Lesson Plans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Creating interesting and compelling lessons in Economics can present several unique challenges. Fortunately, the Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning organization has brought together a number of fine instructional resources for use by educators. These lesson plans and other activities are divided into thematic areas, such as economic decision-making, goods and services, savings, along with fifteen other headings. The resources are culled from a variety of sources, including the National Council of Economic Education, community college professors, and the National Center for Supercomputing Applications.

413

The Economics of Early Educational Intervention: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last two decades, at least 20 economic analyses of early education intervention have been conducted and their results widely distributed. A critical review of this literature indicates that few studies provide credible evidence for the cost-effectiveness of early intervention for disadvantaged children. (TJH)

Barnett, W. Steven; Escobar, Colette M.

1987-01-01

414

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Structural Disadvantage and Crime: White, Black, and Hispanic Comparisons*  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this study is to advance knowledge on racial/ethnic disparities in violence and the structural sources of those disparities. We do so by extending scarce and limited research exploring the relationship between race/ethnic gaps in disadvantage and differences in violent crime across groups. Methods Using census place-level data from California and New York, we construct White, Black, and Hispanic “gap” measures that take as a given the existence of disparities across race/ethnic groups in structural disadvantage and crime and subsequently utilize seemingly unrelated regression models to assess the extent to which gaps in disadvantage are predictive of gaps in homicide and index violence. Results Our results suggest that (1) there is considerable heterogeneity in the size of White-Black, White-Hispanic, and Black-Hispanic gaps in structural disadvantage and crime and (2) that race/ethnic disparities in structural disadvantage, particularly poverty and female headship, are positively associated with race/ethnic gaps in homicide and index violence. Conclusion In light of recent scholarship on the racial invariance hypothesis and on the relationship between structural inequality and crime, the current study demonstrates that disparities in disadvantage, particularly family structure and poverty, are important in driving racial and ethnic disparities in crime. PMID:25035523

Ulmer, Jeffery T.; Harris, Casey T.; Steffensmeier, Darrell

2014-01-01

415

Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage and the Shape of the Age–Crime Curve  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to better determine the way in which neighborhood disadvantage affects the shape of the age–crime curve. Methods. We used data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (PYS), a 14-year longitudinal study, to compare the age–crime curves of individuals in neighborhoods of different disadvantage. We visually compared observed age–crime curves, and then used generalized linear mixed models to test for differences in curve parameters. Results. Adjusted for individual risk factors, the mixed models found that the parameters for interactions of neighborhood disadvantage with both linear age and quadratic age were significant (P < .05) and consistent with higher and longer age–crime curves in more disadvantaged neighborhoods. This implied that compared with boys in advantaged neighborhoods, rates of violence among boys in disadvantaged neighborhoods rose to higher levels that were sustained significantly longer. Conclusions. These results suggested that residing in a disadvantaged neighborhood during early adolescence may have an enduring effect on the shape of the age–crime curve throughout an individual's life. PMID:21778512

Tu, Li-Chuan; Loeber, Rolf; Cohen, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

416

The impact of redistributing power to disadvantaged families in Hungary.  

PubMed

The Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) formulated recommendations along which health inequalities can be successfully tackled anywhere in the world. The situation of the Roma minority in Europe provides countless opportunities for the translation of these guidelines into action that should be guided by coherent and evidence-based strategies integrating lessons learned in smaller-scale field projects. Our paper describes the long-term evaluation of a locally initiated housing project in Hungary carried out more than a decade after implementation, which highlights the salience of the CSDH's recommendations and critical factors for success and sustainability. The project provides evidence for the long-term positive impact on education of the social housing project implemented by an empowered community through delegating decision making to a board of representatives of the beneficiaries in all decisions, including financial ones. Educational level greatly improved, and all houses-inhabited by 17 out of 20 families who initially entered the project-remained in good condition, properly equipped and decorated after 13 years of implementation, in spite of an increase of unemployment during the same period which led to reduced income and deterioration of the families' economic situation. Better housing conditions for vulnerable people can be sustained and result in increased educational level if incremental improvement is aimed for and coupled with the redistribution of power at the local level. PMID:23969320

Kósa, K; Coons, B; Molnár, A

2013-08-22

417

Health and nutrition economics: diet costs are associated with diet quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WHO asserts that the global food price crisis threatens public health and jeopardizes the health of the most disadvantaged groups such as women, children, the elderly and low-income families. Economic factors play a crucial role and could affect personal nutrition status and health. Economic decision factors such as food price and income do influence people's food choices. Moreover, food

Yuan-Ting Lo MPH; Yu-Hung Chang; Meei-Shyuan Lee; Mark L Wahlqvist

418

Economics Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economics Challenge is a economics competition for high school students living in the twelfth district -- Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Oregon, Utah, and Washington. The competition strives to "increase [high school students's] knowledge and understanding of economics." Winning team members will receive $1,000 US savings bonds. The site includes a description of the competition, registration forms for these states, and two sets of practice questions and answers.

2000-01-01

419

Centre for Economic Performance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established by the Economic and Social Research Council in 1990, the Centre for Economic Performance CEP at the London School of Economics and Political Science is one of the most prominent and established economic research groups in Europe. By focusing on the major links between globalization, technology and institutions, the CEP studies the determinants of economic performance at the level of the company, the nation, and the global economy. Broadly, CEP's research programs are divided into five groups that include research into labor markets, technology and growth, and education and skills. From the prodigious site, visitors can read about CEP In the News, learn about the various staff members' research areas of expertise, and browse their related publications (including occasional papers, working papers, and the like) back to 1990. Overall, this site will merit more than one visit, as it will be of substantial interest to persons interested in the intersections between economics, education, and globalization, to name but a few of the topical areas covered under the remit of the CEP.

420

Food subsidy programs and the health and nutritional status of disadvantaged families in high income countries: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Less healthy diets are common in high income countries, although proportionally higher in those of low socio-economic status. Food subsidy programs are one strategy to promote healthy nutrition and to reduce socio-economic inequalities in health. This review summarises the evidence for the health and nutritional impacts of food subsidy programs among disadvantaged families from high income countries. Methods Relevant studies reporting dietary intake or health outcomes were identified through systematic searching of electronic databases. Cochrane Public Health Group guidelines informed study selection and interpretation. A narrative synthesis was undertaken due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity of study design and outcomes. Results Fourteen studies were included, with most reporting on the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in the USA. Food subsidy program participants, mostly pregnant or postnatal women, were shown to have 10–20% increased intake of targeted foods or nutrients. Evidence for the effectiveness of these programs for men or children was lacking. The main health outcome observed was a small but clinically relevant increase in mean birthweight (23–29g) in the two higher quality WIC studies. Conclusions Limited high quality evidence of the impacts of food subsidy programs on the health and nutrition of adults and children in high income countries was identified. The improved intake of targeted nutrients and foods, such as fruit and vegetables, could potentially reduce the rate of non-communicable diseases in adults, if the changes in diet are sustained. Associated improvements in perinatal outcomes were limited and most evident in women who smoked during pregnancy. Thus, food subsidy programs for pregnant women and children should aim to focus on improving nutritional status in the longer term. Further prospective studies and economic analyses are needed to confirm the health benefits and justify the investment in food subsidy programs. PMID:23256601

2012-01-01

421

Marriage and Offending among a Cohort of Disadvantaged African Americans  

PubMed Central

Objectives Drawing on Sampson and Laub’s age-graded theory of informal social control, this research tests the generalizability of the marriage effect on desistance from crime. Specifically, do urban African American men and women living in the United States benefit from marriage similarly to Whites? Methods The authors use hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to analyze the relationship between marriage and official arrest counts among African American male and female first graders from Woodlawn, an inner-city community in Chicago, first assessed in 1966 and followed up at three time points (ages 16, 32, and 42). Results The authors find strong evidence of a marriage effect for the males across crime type, with a reduction in offending between 21 percent and 36 percent when in a state of marriage. The findings for females were less consistent across crime type, a 10 percent reduction in the odds of a property arrest and a 9 percent increase in the odds of a drug arrest when in a state of marriage. Conclusions Their findings provide evidence in favor of the generality of Sampson and Laub’s theory, at least for males. However, the authors were not able to evaluate the mechanisms of desistance and identify this as an area of future research. PMID:24817770

Doherty, Elaine Eggleston; Ensminger, Margaret E.

2014-01-01

422

An Investigation of the Vocational Directors' Role and Responsibilities in the Delivery and Evaluation of Disadvantaged and Handicapped Vocational Education Programs, as Perceived by the Local Administrator. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study assessed and compared perceptions of local vocational educators toward delivery and evaluation of vocational education programs for the disadvantaged and handicapped. Emphasis was on identifying factors affecting vocational education for the special needs population and areas of concern relative to these factors. A survey instrument was…

Valentine, Ivan E.; Oshima, Asahi

423

Natural, social, economical and political influences on fisheries: a review of the transitional area of the Polish waters of the Vistula Lagoon.  

PubMed

A 60 year (1948-2007) dataset gathered by Polish researchers working on the Vistula Lagoon fish assemblages and fisheries has shown this stressed transitional environment to be always been dominated by a few highly abundant fish species. During this period, the surrounding countries Poland and Russia (Kaliningrad) were transformed from centrally-planned economies with fixed prices to free market systems. The organization of the fishery evolved from one in which the majority of the fishing effort was expended by cooperatives, to one which was characterized by individual economic activity. The fishing gear deployed also evolved from cotton to monofilament, as well as from large sailing vessels with small-sized pair trawls to fyke nets targeting eel (Anguilla anguilla) and pound nets targeting herring (Clupea harengus). Small-sized gillnets targeting perch (Perca fluviatilis) grew in popularity as eel and pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) catches decreased. Cooperation between Polish and Russian fishery managers began in 1952 with the aim of implementing joint agreements to establish protection guidelines. The substantial nutrient loads into the lagoon in 1970 and 1980 put very large pressure on the environment, and contributed to the loss of macrophytes as well as the development of non-commercial fish populations. One of the consequences of these changes was the rapid growth of a black cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) breeding colony. These multi-faceted changes are considered to be the factors that have influenced the exploitation of fish assemblages in the Polish part of the Vistula Lagoon. The most evident change in the fish assemblage structure during the study period was the permanent decrease in the basin's top predators--pike (Esox lucius) and pikeperch. Eel stocking was initiated in 1970 following a crucial decline in yield from natural recruitment, and stocking was successful in increasing eel abundance. PMID:20359718

Psuty, Iwona

2010-01-01

424

Families under Economic Pressure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economic decline of rural America has widespread consequences for families, children, and education. Broad changes in farming and in the rural nonfarm sector have pushed the poverty rate for rural areas in the 1980s higher than the central cities rate. Projections indicate that by the mid-1990s, one-half of all farm families in the midwest may…

Elder, Glen H., Jr.; And Others

425

An evaluation of the discriminant and predictive validity of relative social disadvantage as screening criteria for priority access to public general dental care, in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Most public dental care services provide preventive, general dental care on a chronological, first come – first served basis. There is concern about lack of transparency, equity and timeliness in access to public dental services across Australia. Using social determinants as screening criteria is a novel approach to triage in dental care and is relatively untested in the literature. The research evaluated the discriminant and predictive validity of relative social disadvantage in prioritising access to public general dental care. Methods A consecutive sample of 615 adults seeking general dental care was selected. The validation measure used was clinical assessment of priority. Nine indicators of relative social disadvantage (RSD) were collected: Indigenous status; intellectual disability; physical disability; wheelchair usage; dwelling conditions; serious medical condition; serious medical condition and taking regular medication; hospitalised within 12 months; and, regular medical visits. At the first dental visit, dentists rated care as a priority if treatment was required ?6 months (PriorityTx) and otherwise non-priority (non-PriorityTx). A standardised dental examination was conducted. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and area under the ROC curve analyses of 1+ of RSD in predicting clinical priority were calculated. Results In bivariate analyses, one or more indicators of relative social disadvantage status were significantly associated with PriorityTx (P < 0.001; ?2). In multivariate analyses, one or more indicators of relative social disadvantage persisted as an independent predictor of PriorityTx (OR 3.8, 95% CI = 2.6-5.6). Compared with clinicians’ classification of PriorityTx, one or more indicators of relative social disadvantage had a sensitivity of 77.1%, and specificity of 53.3%, together with a positive predictive value of 81.9% and negative predictive value of 46.0%. ROC curve analysis supported one or more indicators of relative social disadvantage as a predictor of greater priority for access to general dental care (0.66). Conclusions Considerable heterogeneity exists among persons seeking public general dental care in New South Wales. RSD performs as a valid predictor of priority for access to treatment and acts as valid screening criteria for triaging priority access to treatment. Such indicators may address issues of inequality in access to general public oral health services. PMID:24593041

2014-01-01

426

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: are we medicating for social disadvantage? (For).  

PubMed

The diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is based on well defined criteria, which describe a number of symptoms. It is important to consider the context of the symptoms, in terms of the influence of the child's family and school. Although stimulant medications benefit selected children they may not benefit all children with symptoms of ADHD. The incidence of ADHD increases with social disadvantage. There is a potential danger of using stimulant medication alone to treat children with complex psychosocial problems, associated with social disadvantage, including Aboriginal children. We desperately need better training in the management of ADHD and better access to child psychiatrists. PMID:16925542

Isaacs, David

2006-09-01

427

Ecological economics and economic growth.  

PubMed

Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain. PMID:20146773

Victor, Peter A

2010-01-01

428

Home Economics Career Preparation Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook is designed to help secondary education teachers in Texas to conduct courses in a broad range of occupationally-specific training options in home economics. These programs usually include general related instruction, specific related instruction, and work-based instruction for careers in home economics areas. The handbook is divided…

McCuiston, Wendy; Stevens, Sarah; Mathieson, Mary

429

Resource Economics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of each chapter, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems.

Conrad, Jon M.

1999-10-01

430

FINANCIAL ECONOMICS RESOURCE ECONOMICS AND POLICY  

E-print Network

ECONOMICS FINANCIAL ECONOMICS RESOURCE ECONOMICS AND POLICY Program of Study The School of Economics at the University of Maine provides excellent opportunities for graduate students to study applied economics, financial economics, and policy analysis. The School of Economics administers the Master

Thomas, Andrew

431

Economics America: Content Statements for State Standards in Economics, K-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This updated list of content standards covering economics is suggested for states developing their own economics standards. The list outlines the core requirements for basic literacy in economics for grades K-12. The statements are similar to designated content standards from other core subject areas. Key economic concepts describing their basic…

National Council on Economic Education, New York, NY.

432

Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Incidence of Abnormal Glucose Metabolism  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine the role of area-level socioeconomic status (SES) on the development of abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) using national, population-based data. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study is a national, population-based, longitudinal study of adults aged ?25 years. A sample of 4,572 people provided complete baseline (1999 to 2000) and 5-year follow-up (2004 to 2005) data relevant for these analyses. Incident AGM was assessed using fasting plasma glucose and 2-h plasma glucose from oral glucose tolerance tests, and demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data were collected by interview and questionnaire. Area SES was defined using the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the relationship between area SES and incident AGM, with adjustment for covariates and correction for cluster design effects. RESULTS Area SES predicted the development of AGM, after adjustment for age, sex, and individual SES. People living in areas with the most disadvantage were significantly more likely to develop AGM, compared with those living in the least deprived areas (odds ratio 1.53; 95% CI 1.07–2.18). Health behaviors (in particular, physical activity) and central adiposity appeared to partially mediate this relationship. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that characteristics of the physical, social, and economic aspects of local areas influence diabetes risk. Future research should focus on identifying the aspects of local environment that are associated with diabetes risk and how they might be modified. PMID:22619081

Williams, Emily D.; Magliano, Dianna J.; Zimmet, Paul Z.; Kavanagh, Anne M.; Stevenson, Christopher E.; Oldenburg, Brian F.; Shaw, Jonathan E.

2012-01-01

433

Cumulative disadvantage? Exploring relationships between neighbourhood deprivation trends (1991 to 2006) and mortality in New Zealand  

PubMed Central

Background Area-level socioeconomic deprivation has been shown to exert an independent effect on both individual and population health outcomes and health-related behaviours. Evidence also suggests that health and economic inequalities in many countries are increasing in some areas but may be on the decline in others. While area-level deprivation at a single point in time is known to influence health, the literature relating to longitudinal deprivation of communities and associated health impacts is sparse. This research makes a methodological contribution to this literature. Methods Using a Latent Class Growth Model, we identified 12 deprivation trends (1991–2006) for small areas (n?=?1621) in New Zealand. We then fitted regression models to assess the effects of trends of relative deprivation on a) all-cause mortality, and b) cardiovascular mortality (2005–2007) by census area unit. For comparison, we also fitted regression models to assess the effect of deprivation deciles (in 2006) on outcomes a) and b). Results Using trends, we found a positive association between deprivation and mortality, except for two trends for both all-cause and CVD-related mortality. When comparing trends and deciles of deprivation, we observed similar patterns. However, we found that AIC values were slightly lower for the model including deciles, indicating better model fit. Conclusion While we found that current deprivation was a slightly better predictor of mortality, the approach used here offers a potentially useful alternative. Future deprivation research must consider the possible loss of information about health benefits of living in areas where relative deprivation has improved in cross-sectional analyses. PMID:23964568

2013-01-01

434

ASSESSING CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE IN ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED NEIGHBORHOODS USING DIVERSE EXPOSURE METRICS. (R826789)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

435

Ontario Educators' Perceptions of Barriers to the Identification of Gifted Children from Economically Disadvantaged and Limited English Proficient Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cross section of educators from Ontario, Canada, many of whom were beginning teachers, volunteered to complete the survey at an Ontario Faculty of Education. Of the 121 educators who participated, 55% worked with students at the elementary school level, 24% at the middle school level, and 23% at the high school level. This investigation of…

Ryan, Thomas G.

2012-01-01

436

What Is Health Anyway? Perceptions and Experiences of Health and Health Care from Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Rural Residents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The divide between rich and poor in Australia is starkly apparent in health status statistics; the poorest Australians have the poorest health, and many live in rural Australia. However, little is known about financially deprived rural citizen's perceptions of their own health and their expectations of health care services. As a result,…

Allan, Julaine; Ball, Patrick; Alston, Margaret

2010-01-01

437

Maternal depression and foetal responses to novel stimuli: insights from a socio-economically disadvantaged Indian cohort.  

PubMed

Maternal stress during pregnancy has pervasive effects on stress responsivity in children. This study is the first to test the hypothesis that maternal prenatal depression, as observed in South India, may be associated with how foetuses respond to a potentially stressful stimulus. We employed measures of foetal heart rate at baseline, during exposure to a vibroacoustic stimulus, and post-stimulation, to study patterns of response and recovery in 133 third trimester foetuses of depressed and non-depressed mothers. We show that the association between maternal depression and foetal stress responsivity is U-shaped with foetuses of mothers with high and low depression scores demonstrating elevated responses, and poorer recovery, than foetuses of mothers with moderate levels. The right amount of intra-uterine stimulation is important in conditioning foetuses towards optimal regulation of their stress response. Our results imply that, in certain environmental contexts, exposure to moderate amounts of intra-uterine stress may facilitate this process. PMID:24901656

Fernandes, M; Stein, A; Srinivasan, K; Menezes, G; Renton, M; Zani, J; Ramchandani, P G

2014-06-01

438

Beliefs about Causes of Poverty and Psychological Well-Being of Parents and Adolescents Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parents and their adolescent children from 199 poor families in Hong Kong responded to the Chinese Perceived Causes of Poverty Scale (that assesses beliefs about causes of poverty in terms of personal problems, exploitation, lack of opportunities, fate, and external causes) and measures of psychological well-being over two consecutive years. Results showed that measures of beliefs about causes of poverty

DANIEL T. L. SHEK

2004-01-01

439

Resource economics  

SciTech Connect

The allocation of scarce resources is becoming crucial to human existence and it is essential to have an understanding of the role of economic factors in this problem. This is the central theme of Resource Economics. The author outlines the key concepts and tools of economics and illustrates their application by reference to problems of renewable resource management, non-renewable resource allocation, pollution and environmental impact analysis. A second theme running throughout the test is the need for economics to integrate with other scientific disciplines if resource allocation problems are to be understood fully and if a framework for their solution is to be found. The emphasis is on graphical means of illustration and everyday examples - rather than on mathematical notation and complex theory - making this a straightforward and immensely readable book.

Norton, G.A.

1984-01-01

440

What Attracts High-Achieving Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students to the Physical Sciences and Engineering?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED) students are less likely to major in physical sciences or engineering. To guide recruitment and retention of a diversity of talent, this study examined what attracts high-achieving SED students to these fields. Participants were 50 undergraduates majoring in physical sciences or engineering enrolled in the…

Conrad, Sarah; Canetto, Silvia Sara; MacPhee, David; Farro, Samantha

2009-01-01

441

Parental alcohol dependence, socioeconomic disadvantage and alcohol and cannabis dependence among young adults in the community.  

E-print Network

Parental alcohol dependence, socioeconomic disadvantage and alcohol and cannabis dependence among.lestrat@inserm.fr Keywords: alcohol dependence; cannabis; family history; socioeconomic position; young adults; epidemiology), the prevalence of alcohol dependence (WHO AUDIT, 5.8%) and cannabis dependence (DSM IV criteria, 7

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

442

During Threaded Discussions Are Non-Native English Speakers Always at a Disadvantage?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When participating in threaded discussions, under what conditions might non¬native speakers of English (NNSE) be at a comparative disadvantage to their classmates who are native speakers of English (NSE)? This study compares the threaded discussion perspectives of closely-matched NNSE and NSE adult students having different levels of threaded…

Shafer Willner, Lynn

2014-01-01

443

Improving Computer Skills of Socially Disadvantaged Adolescents: Same-Age versus Cross-Age Tutoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a voluntary tutor-based training program, socially disadvantaged adolescents acquired basic computer skills. Two training groups were compared: one group was instructed by adolescents, the other by adults. Both groups achieved comparable results in a final test. The tutees' learning results did not differ with respect to their initial…

Vogelwiesche, Uta; Grob, Alexander; Winkler, Britta

2006-01-01

444

Implications of the "My School" Website for Disadvantaged Communities: A Bourdieuian Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on the theoretical constructs of Pierre Bourdieu, this article explores implications of the Australian "My School" website for schools located in disadvantaged communities. These implications flow from the legitimisation of certain cultural practices through the hidden linkages between scholastic aptitude and cultural heritage…

Mills, Carmen

2015-01-01

445

Assessing Social-Support Network among the Socio-Culturally Disadvantaged Children in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the social support networks and needs satisfaction of 300 secondary school students of low- and high-caste families in Orissa, India. Found that while children from advantaged sociocultural environments have healthier and more enriching family climates than children from disadvantaged sociocultural environments, the latter group had a…

Chowdhury, Aparajita; And Others

1996-01-01

446

"Free Primary Education" in Lesotho and the Disadvantages of the Highlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the effects of national policies associated with "Education for All" on a disadvantaged region, the highlands of Lesotho. Since 2000 a programme of "Free Primary Education" has improved the position of the highlands in access to primary schooling; nevertheless, highland primary schools compare poorly with those in the…

Urwick, James

2011-01-01

447

School Tracking and Access to Higher Education among Disadvantaged Groups. NBER Working Paper No. 16914  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When students are tracked into vocational and academic secondary schools, access to higher education is usually restricted to those who completed an academic track. Postponing such tracking may increase university attendance among disadvantaged students if additional time in school enables them to catch up with their more privileged counterparts.…

Malamud, Ofer; Pop-Eleches, Cristian

2011-01-01

448

Students' Perception of Live Lectures' Inherent Disadvantages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to provide insight into various properties of live lectures from the perspective of sophomore engineering students. In an anonymous online survey conducted at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, we investigated students' opinions regarding lecture attendance, inherent disadvantages of…

Petrovic, Juraj; Pale, Predrag

2015-01-01

449

Educating the Employed Disadvantaged for Upgrading. A Report on Remedial Education Programs in the Paper Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study to determine the impact of adult basic education programs on the upward mobility of disadvantaged workers is presented. The paper industry was chosen for case analysis because of the nature of the upgrading problems, the vast adjustments required by the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the fact that these ABE programs have been operational…

Rowan, Richard L.; Northrup, Herbert R.

450

Dealing with Disadvantage: Resilience and the Social Capital of Young People's Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes how peer and extended networks provide young people with support and resources for dealing with disadvantage. Centering girls' accounts of growing up in the Glebe public housing estate, the difficulties they face, their critiques and aspirations are interpreted as resilience, supported by the social capital of their networks.…

Bottrell, Dorothy

2009-01-01

451

A Comparison of the Rates of Mental Impairment for Advantaged and Disadvantaged Ethnic Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An etiological analysis of the inverse relationship between social class and mental impairment is presented. The empirical analysis failed to support the hypothesis that within a social class disadvantaged ethnic groups have higher rates of mental impairment than advantaged ethnic groups. In general there was no difference between the rates for…

Duncombe, Margaret

452

A multilevel analysis of race, community disadvantage, and body mass index among adults in the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the contributions of both individual socioeconomic status (SES) and community disadvantage in explaining the higher body mass index (BMI) of black adults in the US. Data from a national survey of adults (1986 American's Changing Lives Study) were combined with tract-level community data from the 1980 census.Results of multilevel regression analyses showed that black women had an

Stephanie A. Robert; Eric N. Reither

2004-01-01

453

Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment among Mexican American Early Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined a stress process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. The authors also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the…

Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.

2010-01-01

454

Abstract--Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) have several advantages and disadvantages compared with Unmanned  

E-print Network

at 30Hz. The pay- load attached to aircraft landing gear is shown in Figure 2. Unmanned Ground VehicleAbstract--Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) have several advantages and disadvantages compared with Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs). Both systems have different mobility and perception abilities. UAV systems

Florida, University of

455

Perceived Advantages and Disadvantages of Being a Female Graduate Student in the US and the UK  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We build on Diana Leonard's work on gender and graduate education by qualitatively investigating the perceived advantages and disadvantages of being a female graduate student in the USA and the UK. We interviewed six female students (ages 22-30) pursuing master's degrees in psychology or social sciences in the USA and the UK. Students…

Mehta, Clare Marie; Keener, Emily; Shrier, Lydia

2013-01-01

456

Stress Exposure and Depression in Disadvantaged Women: The Protective Effects of Optimism and Perceived Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, the authors predicted that the individual protective factors of optimism and perceived control over acute and chronic stressors would buffer the relations between acute and chronic stress exposure and severity of depression, controlling for household income, in a sample of financially disadvantaged women. Ninety-seven African…

Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Larkin, Jill; Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Brown, Charlotte

2007-01-01

457

Starting School at a Disadvantage: The School Readiness of Poor Children. The Social Genome Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poor children in the United States start school at a disadvantage in terms of their early skills, behaviors, and health. Fewer than half (48 percent) of poor children are ready for school at age five, compared to 75 percent of children from families with moderate and high income, a 27 percentage point gap. This paper examines the reasons why poor…

Isaacs, Julia B.

2012-01-01

458

Engagement in community music classes sparks neuroplasticity and language development in children from disadvantaged backgrounds  

PubMed Central

Children from disadvantaged backgrounds often face impoverished auditory environments, such as greater exposure to ambient noise and fewer opportunities to participate in complex language interactions during development. These circumstances increase their risk for academic failure and dropout. Given the academic and neural benefits associated with musicianship, music training may be one method for providing auditory enrichment to children from disadvantaged backgrounds. We followed a group of primary-school students from gang reduction zones in Los Angeles, CA, USA for 2 years as they participated in Harmony Project. By providing free community music instruction for disadvantaged children, Harmony Project promotes the healthy development of children as learners, the development of children as ambassadors of peace and understanding, and the development of stronger communities. Children who were more engaged in the music program—as defined by better attendance and classroom participation—developed stronger brain encoding of speech after 2 years than their less-engaged peers in the program. Additionally, children who were more engaged in the program showed increases in reading scores, while those less engaged did not show improvements. The neural gains accompanying music engagement were seen in the very measures of neural speech processing that are weaker in children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Our results suggest that community music programs such as Harmony Project provide a form of auditory enrichment that counteracts some of the biological adversities of growing up in poverty, and can further support community-based interventions aimed at improving child health and wellness. PMID:25566109

Kraus, Nina; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L.; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine

2014-01-01

459

Social and Occupational Integration of Disadvantaged People. Leonardo da Vinci Good Practices Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document profiles nine European programs that exemplify good practice in social and occupational integration of disadvantaged people. The programs profiled are as follows: (1) Restaurant Venezia (a CD-ROM program to improve the reading and writing skills of young people in Luxembourg who have learning difficulties); (2) an integrated…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

460

The Gap between Advantaged and Disadvantaged Students in Science Achievement in South African Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

South Africa's education system is still deep in the throes of reform under its third Minister of Education since 1994. Poor communities, in particular those of rural Africans, bear the brunt of the past inequalities. The challenge was to explore the extent of the "gap" in students' scores by comparing the advantaged and disadvantaged communities…

Howie, Sarah; Scherman, Vanessa; Venter, Elsie

2008-01-01

461

Learning of Culturally Disadvantaged Children as a Function of Social and Tangible Reward.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experiment studied the "relative effectiveness of tangible and social rewards upon the performance of a simple discrimination learning task by culturally disadvantaged children." Also assessed were the effects of the sex of the subjects (Ss) and the examiner. Ss were 144 five- and six-year old youngsters in a Georgia Head Start program. No…

Unikel, Irving P.; And Others

462

Impact of Intervention on Disadvantaged First Year Students Who Plan To Major in Health Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a program designed to encourage minority and financially, socially, or educationally disadvantaged incoming, freshman students to pursue health profession career goals. Sixteen at-risk students were selected to participate in a summer intervention program in West Virginia; a control group of 16 pre-medicine or pre-dentistry…

Haught, Patricia A.

463

Disadvantaged-Handicapped Identification and Supportive Service Delivery System, Southwestern College, Spring 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A system of identification and notification designed and implemented at Southwestern College to speed supportive services to the disadvantaged and handicapped students in vocational programs is discussed. The system is comprised of the following procedures: (1) Self-identification (Student Services Information Form filled out by each student at…

MacDougall, Allan

464

Engagement in community music classes sparks neuroplasticity and language development in children from disadvantaged backgrounds.  

PubMed

Children from disadvantaged backgrounds often face impoverished auditory environments, such as greater exposure to ambient noise and fewer opportunities to participate in complex language interactions during development. These circumstances increase their risk for academic failure and dropout. Given the academic and neural benefits associated with musicianship, music training may be one method for providing auditory enrichment to children from disadvantaged backgrounds. We followed a group of primary-school students from gang reduction zones in Los Angeles, CA, USA for 2 years as they participated in Harmony Project. By providing free community music instruction for disadvantaged children, Harmony Project promotes the healthy development of children as learners, the development of children as ambassadors of peace and understanding, and the development of stronger communities. Children who were more engaged in the music program-as defined by better attendance and classroom participation-developed stronger brain encoding of speech after 2 years than their less-engaged peers in the program. Additionally, children who were more engaged in the program showed increases in reading scores, while those less engaged did not show improvements. The neural gains accompanying music engagement were seen in the very measures of neural speech processing that are weaker in children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Our results suggest that community music programs such as Harmony Project provide a form of auditory enrichment that counteracts some of the biological adversities of growing up in poverty, and can further support community-based interventions aimed at improving child health and wellness. PMID:25566109

Kraus, Nina; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine

2014-01-01

465

Application of a Conceptual Model of College Withdrawal to Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retention and attrition after the freshman year among disadvantaged students at a senior college of the City University of New York were studied. A conceptual model of Tinto (1975) was applied to a group of students participating in the Search for Education, Elevation, and Knowledge (SEEK) program, which provided remedial and/or developmental…

Fox, Richard N.

466

Everyday (in)justices and ordinary environmentalisms: community gardening in disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have witnessed increased academic interest in the relations between poverty, environment and place. Studies of poverty in disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods have pointed to the contribution of despoiled local environments to social exclusion. Work in urban political ecology has highlighted the socio-environmental hybridity of injustices in the city, bringing a political dimension to debates on urban sustainability, while research

Paul Milbourne

2011-01-01

467

76 FR 68026 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Small Disadvantaged Business Self-Certification  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to its small disadvantaged business (SDB) program. DATES: Effective Date: November...businesses (SDBs) to self-represent their SDB status to prime contractors in good faith...businesses were certified by the SBA as SDB firms. DoD, GSA, and NASA received...

2011-11-02

468

48 CFR 1552.219-74 - Small disadvantaged business participation evaluation factor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...participation of small disadvantaged business (SDB) concerns in the performance of the...evaluated based on: (1) The extent to which SDB concerns are specifically identified to...2) The extent of the commitment to use SDB concerns in the performance of the...

2010-10-01

469

A Story of Conflict and Collaboration: Media Literacy, Video Production and Disadvantaged Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Media literacy educators talk about the importance of developing essential social skills, such as collaboration, by using video production in the classroom. Video production with disadvantaged youth can also play a role of art therapy, as students use their creativity to come to terms with traumatizing pasts. This paper offers an account of a…

Friesem, Elizaveta

2014-01-01

470

Socioeconomic disadvantage and primary non-adherence with medication in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Lack of adherence with pharmacological therapy is a public health concern that compels tremendous costs for the health care system and the community. To analyse the association between socioeconomic disadvantage and primary non- adherence with medication, and to explore possible mediating effects of trust in health care and lifestyle profile. Design. Cross-sectional population-based study based on data from the

SARAH WAMALA; JUAN MERLO; GUNNEL BOSTROM; CHRISTER HOGSTEDT; GUNNER AGREN

2007-01-01

471

The Association of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with Socioeconomic Disadvantage: Alternative Explanations and Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Studies throughout Northern Europe, the United States and Australia have found an association between childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and family socioeconomic disadvantage. We report further evidence for the association and review potential causal pathways that might explain the link. Methods: Secondary…

Russell, Ginny; Ford, Tamsin; Rosenberg, Rachel; Kelly, Susan

2014-01-01

472

Empowering Educationally Disadvantaged Mathematics Students through a Strategies-Based Problem Solving Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major impediment to problem solving in mathematics in the great majority of South African schools is that disadvantaged students from seriously impoverished learning environments are lacking in the necessary informal mathematical knowledge to develop their own strategies for solving non-routine problems. A randomized pretest-posttest control…

Ramnarain, Umesh

2014-01-01

473

Racial Segregation, the Concentration of Disadvantage, and Black and White Homicide Victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discriminatory housing market practices have created and reinforced patterns of racial residential segregation throughout the United States. Such segregation has racist consequences too. Residential segregation increases the concentration of disadvantage for blacks but not whites, creating African-American residential environments that heighten social problems including violence within the black population. At the same time, segregation protects white residential environments from these

Ruth D. Peterson; Lauren J. Krivo

1999-01-01

474

Is Concentrated Advantage the Cause? The Relative Contributions of Neighborhood Advantage and Disadvantage to Educational Inequality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Supported by persistent educational inequality and growth of the field of neighborhood effects research, this meta-analysis investigates the relative association of neighborhood advantage and disadvantage to educational outcomes; the consistency of associations across different educational indicators; and the moderating influence of model…

Johnson, Odis, Jr.

2013-01-01

475

Exploring the Link between Caregiver Affect and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Does Neighborhood Disadvantage Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a sample of urban youth (N = 1,070), we examined the links between primary caregiver affect (i.e., warmth and hostility) and two measures of sexual behavior in adolescence--early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners. We also examined the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage moderated associations between caregiver affect and…

Gardner, Margo; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2012-01-01

476

Family Resources and Development of Social Competence in Disadvantaged Children in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored relationship between family resources and social competence of 300 adolescents. Found that parental education, occupation, and family income were related to positive peer and teacher-related social competence among advantaged adolescents. Negative responses and outside family support were positively related to disadvantaged adolescents'…

Muni, Anita Kumari; Rath, Arundhati; Choudhury, Aparajita

1997-01-01

477

Nutrition and Mental Development. ERIC-IRCD Urban Disadvantaged Series, Number 36, February 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the 1960's a growing body of experimental evidence suggesting that early malnutrition could affect the development and the functioning of the brain was translated into a concern that nutritional deprivation might be producing permanent mental retardation among "disadvantaged" children. The purpose of this paper is to show, through a review…

Gussow, Joan Dye

478

Gender Differences in Fundamental Motor Skill Development in Disadvantaged Preschoolers from Two Geographical Regions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the influence of gender and region on object control (OC) and locomotor skill development. Participants were 275 midwestern African American and 194 southwestern Hispanic preschool children who were disadvantaged. All were evaluated on the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (Ulrich, 2000). Two, 2 Gender (girls, boys) x 2 Region…

Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Crowe, Heather

2010-01-01

479

Promoting teacher quality and continuity : tackling the disadvantages of remote Indigenous schools in the Northern Territory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity associated with reducing inequality in Indigenous education incorporates a multitude of causal factors. Issues associated with education delivery and outcomes in remote Indigenous communities are endemic nationally, yet the communities of the Northern Territory are uniquely disadvantaged due to their geographical and cultural isolation. By looking at the factors affecting the quality and continuity of teachers in remote

Inga Brasche; Ingrid Harrington

2012-01-01

480

Equity, Mathematics and Classroom Practice: Developing Rich Mathematical Experiences for Disadvantaged Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many students, the experience of school mathematics is not a positive one. Processes of exclusion operate to disadvantage students along social class, race and gender lines. For students from backgrounds that are not part of the success regime, significant scaffolding by teachers is needed if they are to be successful. In this article, the…

Jorgensen, Robyn Zevenbergen; Niesche, Richard

2008-01-01

481

Less than Equal: A Former Urban Schoolteacher Examines the Causes of Educational Disadvantagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

After reviewing competing explanations for the disproportionate rates of school failure experienced by poor and nonwhite populations advanced in recent decades, the author, a former urban alternative high school teacher, advances what he calls a culture-centered interactionist framework. This framework blames neither the impoverishment of students nor the ethnocentricity of middle-class educators alone for educational disadvantagement, but rather locates the

Gregory J. Fritzberg

2001-01-01

482

Inspire a Disadvantaged Child: Be That One Light in the Darkness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevailing expectation in education today is, "All children can learn." This expectation includes all children, including disadvantaged children and those who come from poverty. Our actions are guided by our expectations. If we believe that all children can learn, then children can learn. If we believe that children cannot learn, then our self…

Costley, Kevin C.

2006-01-01

483

Promoting Teacher Quality and Continuity: Tackling the Disadvantages of Remote Indigenous Schools in the Northern Territory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The complexity associated with reducing inequality in Indigenous education incorporates a multitude of causal factors. Issues associated with education delivery and outcomes in remote Indigenous communities are endemic nationally, yet the communities of the Northern Territory are uniquely disadvantaged due to their geographical and cultural…

Brasche, Inga; Harrington, Ingrid

2012-01-01

484

Affiliation to Youth Gangs during Adolescence: The Interaction between Childhood Psychopathic Tendencies and Neighborhood Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join.…

Dupere, Veronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J. Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

2007-01-01

485

Towards a Clearer Understanding of Student Disadvantage in Higher Education: Problematising Deficit Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increased diversity in the student body resulting from massification poses particular challenges to higher education. This article engages the uncritical use of the "disadvantage" discourse and its effect on pedagogy. It explores some of the challenges of coping with student diversity, with particular reference to the South African context.…

Smit, Renee

2012-01-01

486

A Directory of Training and Employment Programs in the Private Sector Emphasis: Disadvantaged Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory lists 117 programs sponsored by the private sector for the training and employment of disadvantaged youth. (It is the first in a series of program guides to be issued regularly by the Public/Private Ventures' Resource Center.) Programs had to meet two criteria to be included: (1) they involved participation of the private sector…

Newburg, Adina

487

Disadvantaged Students in the Early Grades: Will Smaller Classes Help Them?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses data from the Norwegian elementary school to test whether students from disadvantaged backgrounds benefit from smaller classes. The data cover one cohort of fourth graders who have been treated in small versus large classes for a period of three years. The Norwegian class size rule of maximum 28 students is used to generate…

Vaag Iversen, Jon Marius; Bonesrønning, Hans

2013-01-01

488

Non-Traditional Educational Trajectories: The Educational Aspirations and Expectations of Women Who Are Educationally Disadvantaged  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation focuses on the educational aspirations and expectations of a heterogeneous group of women who were enrolled in, or had graduated from, adult education and literacy programs in Boston, Massachusetts. The research questions guiding the inquiry are: (1) Why do educationally disadvantaged women value education--how are these values…

Coffield, Claudia Ditmar

2012-01-01

489

Effects of Year-Round Schooling on Disadvantaged Students and the Distribution of Standardized Test Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using detailed longitudinal data for the state of California, this paper estimates the effect of year-round school calendars on nationally standardized test performance of traditionally disadvantaged students. The student subgroups studied in this paper are: low socioeconomic status, limited English proficiency, Hispanic and Latino, and African…

Graves, Jennifer

2011-01-01

490

Economic Indicators, 1995 -- Forward  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the US Council of Economic Advisors, this monthly magazine offers an economic pulse of the nation via over 40 time series tables and graphs in the areas of output, employment, production, prices, money, federal finance, and international statistics. The University of California GPO (Government Printing Office) Gateway (discussed in the August 2, 1996 Scout Report) provides each issue in both text and Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) formats. The publication is searchable and browsable; each issue is conveniently divided into individual tables for ease of downloading. EI is an indispensible resource for economists, business analysts, and journalists, and the UC GPO gateway has provided an invaluable service in making it easily accessible.

491

Regional Economic Conditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Regional Economic Condition (RECON) was created to help the FDIC analyze the risks facing financial institutions by providing economic information and statistics at one of three levels: state, MSA (Metropolitan Statistical Area), and county. Users begin by selecting a state; along with viewing state information, users may also choose to specify their information by state, county, or MSA. Data are provided by both government and private sources and include a wide array of maps, charts, and graphs. A special "shopping cart" allows users to mark a collection of data and view them at one time. RECON also offers a helpful tutorial slide show, user notes of data updates, and a data availability chart.

492

What economics courses are there? Economics and International Development  

E-print Network

Economics Essentials What economics courses are there? BA Economics Economics and International Development Economics and International Relations Economics and Politics Philosophy, Politics and Economics (PPE) (p103) BSc Economics Economics and Management Studies Finance and Business (p46) Mathematics

Sussex, University of

493

P.C.A.P. Project Profiles. Queensland Priority Country Area Program--Evaluation Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty-two projects designed to improve educational opportunities of rural Queensland children were funded as part of the Disadvantaged Schools Program in 1979 and 1980. This program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report which suggested that students in country areas may be disadvantaged compared to urban dwellers, with respect to…

Fowler, C. F.; Peters, J. E.

494

[Economic growth and health inequities].  

PubMed

This essay reviews the relation between health inequities and economic growth. The general meaning of these and ancillary concepts (economic development, health inequalities) is briefly reviewed. Some studies illustrating different hypotheses on the long-run historical evolution of health inequalities are presented, and three case studies -the United States in 1920-1940 and in recent years, Finland during the expansion of the 1980s and the recession of the 1990s- are reviewed to demonstrate the evolution of health inequalities during the periods of expansion and recession in markets economies that conform to the so-called business cycle. Health inequities between ethnic groups and social classes are often found in modern societies, and some of these disparities seem to be widening. Periods of economic expansion do not seem favorable for the lessening of health inequalities. Contrarily, and counter-intuitively, evidence rather suggests that it is during periods of recession that gaps in health between privileged and disadvantaged groups tend to narrow. PMID:24448945

Tapia Granados, José A

2013-01-01

495

Economic linkages to changing landscapes.  

PubMed

Many economic processes are intertwined with landscape change. A large number of individual economic decisions shape the landscape, and in turn the changes in the landscape shape economic decisions. This article describes key research questions about the economics of landscape change and reviews the state of research knowledge. The rich and varied economic-landscape interactions are an active area of research by economists, geographers, and others. Because the interactions are numerous and complex, disentangling the causal relationships in any given landscape system is a formidable research challenge. Limited data with mismatched temporal and spatial scales present further obstacles. Nevertheless, the growing body of economic research on these topics is advancing and shares fundamental challenges, as well as data and methods, with work in other disciplines. PMID:23824079

Peterson, Jeffrey M; Caldas, Marcellus M; Bergtold, Jason S; Sturm, Belinda S; Graves, Russell W; Earnhart, Dietrich; Hanley, Eric A; Brown, J Christopher

2014-01-01

496

Participation of disadvantaged communities in project planning and decision?making: A case?study of Hout Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunities for public involvement in planning and decision?making, especially among disadvantaged groups, are extremely limited in South Africa. This is due to a highly centralised, deeply authoritarian and secretive system of government, and the élitist approach of professionals to planning. This article examines the challenges facing professionals and authorities seeking to involve disadvantaged communities in project planning. An assessment of

Merle Sowman; Megan Gawith

1994-01-01

497

The Influence of Neighborhood Disadvantage, Collective Socialization, and Parenting on African American Children's Affiliation with Deviant Peers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on hypotheses about the contributions of neighborhood disadvantage, collective socializa- tion, and parenting to African American children's affiliation with deviant peers. A total of 867 families living in Georgia and Iowa, each with a 10- to 12-year-old child, participated. Unique contributions to deviant peer affiliation were examined using a hierarchical linear model. Community disadvantage derived from census

Gene H. Brody; Rand Conger; Frederick X. Gibbons; Xiaojia Ge; Velma McBride Murry; Meg Gerrard; Ronald L. Simons

2001-01-01

498

Evaluating the Feasibility, Effectiveness and Acceptability of an Active Play Intervention for Disadvantaged Preschool Children: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australian children from disadvantaged families are at increased risk of delays in acquiring fundamental movement skills, with physical inactivity and increased risk of the potential consequences of obesity. The aims of this pilot study were to: 1) assess the fundamental movement skills of disadvantaged children; 2) evaluate the feasibility and…

Stagnitti, Karen; Malakellis, Mary; Kershaw, Beth; Hoare, Majella; Kenna, Rachel; de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea

2011-01-01

499

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Obesity during the Transition to Adulthood: The Contingent and Nonlinear Impact of Neighborhood Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neighborhood disadvantage in early adolescence may help explain racial and ethnic disparities in obesity during the transition to adulthood; however the processes may work differently for males and females and for minority groups compared to Whites. The present study examines the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and young adult…

Nicholson, Lisa M.; Browning, Christopher R.

2012-01-01

500

Airship economics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Projected operating and manufacturing costs of a large airship design which are considered practical with today's technology and environment are discussed. Data and information developed during an 18-month study on the question of feasibility, engineering, economics and production problems related to a large metalclad type airship are considered. An overview of other classic airship designs are provided, and why metalclad was selected as the most prudent and most economic design to be considered in the 1970-80 era is explained. Crew operation, ATC and enroute requirements are covered along with the question of handling, maintenance and application of systems to the large airship.

Neumann, R. D.; Hackney, L. R. M.

1975-01-01