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1

Personal, social and environmental correlates of resilience to physical inactivity among women from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

While sex and socio-economic disparities in physical activity have been well documented, not all disadvantaged women are inactive. This study aimed to examine correlates of achieving recommended levels of physical activity among women of low socio-economic position. In 2005, a population-based sample of 291 women with low educational attainment provided survey data on leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Participants reported

Verity J. Cleland; Kylie Ball; Jo Salmon; Anna F. Timperio; David A. Crawford

2008-01-01

2

Treatment of Depression in Disadvantaged Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-income minority women are underrepresented in mental health service settings, yet they are clearly at risk for psychiatric disorders. We staff a clinic specialized in the treatment of depression in economically disadvantaged medical patients. We will share our experience treating disadvantaged and ethnic minority women and will discuss the ingredients necessary to provide quality therapy for these women. We will

Francisca Azocar; Jeanne Miranda; Eleanor Valdes Dwyer

1996-01-01

3

Perceived quality and availability of fruit and vegetables are associated with perceptions of fruit and vegetable affordability among socio-economically disadvantaged women. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Williams LK, Thornton L, Crawford D, Ball K. Perceived quality and availability of fruit and vegetables are associated with perceptions of fruit and vegetable affordability among socio-economically disadvantaged women.

4

Mobile Technologies & Socio-Economic Opportunities for Disadvantaged Women: A Study of Information Behavior in a Developing Nation Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been championed by the United Nations and others as one of the key media to open up socio-economic opportunities for disadvantaged populations. Studies lead us to believe that after being introduced to ICTs, users' information behavior changes, enabling them to benefit from socio-economic

Potnis, Devendra Dilip

2010-01-01

5

Evaluating Government Training Programs for the Economically Disadvantaged  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines past evaluations of government training programs for the economically disadvantaged and offers an agenda for future research. It is found that government training programs are producing modest increases in earnings for adult men and women, but are probably not producing positive effects for youth. Future research must better document links between program-provided training and acquisition of valuable

Daniel Friedlander; David H. Greenberg; Philip K. Robins

1997-01-01

6

Profit Related Loans for Economically Disadvantaged Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing recognition that economically disadvantaged areas do not have an inherent capacity to regenerate economic activity or to deliver automatically socially propitious outcomes. In such circumstances, there might be a strong case for public sector intervention of various types. In what follows we a case for the provision of financial resources for the establishment or consolidation of

Bruce Chapman; Ric Simes

2004-01-01

7

A Randomized Trial of a Diet and Exercise Intervention for Overweight and Obese Women from Economically Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: Sisters Taking Action for Real Success (STARS)  

PubMed Central

Background Lower socioeconomic status at both the individual and neighborhood level is associated with increased health risks. Weight loss can reduce this risk, but few high quality weight loss studies target this population. Objectives STARS tests a culturally-appropriate, group-based behavioral and social support intervention on body weight and waist circumference in women from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods. Design A stratified (by BMI) randomized trial. Randomization to group was generated by a random numbers table with allocation concealment by opaque envelopes. Methods Participants 25–50 years who had a BMI ? 25 kg/m2 and a waist circumference ? 88 cm were recruited from 18 census tracts in Columbia, SC with high rates of poverty between November 2008 and November 2010. All participants received a dietary and exercise counseling session. Intervention participants then receive 16 theoretically-based and tailored weekly group sessions followed by 8 weeks of telephone maintenance counseling. Control participants receive 16 weekly health education mailings. Measurements correspond to baseline, post-group intervention, and post-telephone counseling, and for intervention participants, after a 12-week no-contact period. Measurement staff was blinded to group assignment. Results Participants (N=155; n=80 intervention, n=75 minimal intervention control) were primarily African American (86.5%) and averaged 38.9 years with a mean BMI of 40.1 kg/m2 and waist circumference of 115.4 cm. Food insecurity was reported by 43% of participants. Summary STARS targets an underserved population with an innovative, tailored, and theoretically-grounded, group-based intervention followed by telephone maintenance. If effective, the approach has the potential to be feasible and cost-effective for community delivery. PMID:21864718

Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Granner, Michelle; Hutto, Brent

2011-01-01

8

Mediators of Adverse Birth Outcomes Among Socially Disadvantaged Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Numerous studies find that socially disadvantaged women are more likely than socially advantaged women to deliver infants that weigh less than normal and/or are born weeks prior to their due date. However, little is known about the pathways that link maternal social disadvantage to birth outcomes. Using data from a prospective cohort study, we examined whether antenatal psychosocial stress, substance use, and maternal health conditions in pregnancy mediated the pathway between maternal social disadvantage and birth outcomes. Methods Analyses used structural equation modeling to examine data from a community clinic-based sample (n=2168) of pregnant women who completed questionnaires assessing psychosocial functioning and health behaviors as well as sociodemographic characteristics, which were matched with subsequent birth outcome data. Results Analyses revealed maternal social disadvantage predicted poorer birth outcomes through a mediated pathway including maternal health conditions in pregnancy. Conclusions The findings demonstrate that maternal social disadvantage is associated with poor health status in pregnancy, which in turn adversely affects birth outcomes. Results argue for more systematic attention to the roles of social disadvantage, including life course perspectives that trace social disadvantage prior to and through pregnancy. PMID:22150295

Nurius, Paula; Logan-Greene, Patricia

2012-01-01

9

Nontraditional Career Development Programs for Women. A Career Exploration Project for Disadvantaged Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a discussion of a Career Exploration Project jointly undertaken by the Seal of Ohio Girl Scout Council and the Division of Continuing Education of Columbus Technical Institute during the Summer of 1975. The participants were economically disadvantaged young women between the ages of 11 and 17. The main objective was to increase…

Sarno, Marie R.

10

49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? 26.67...Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption...When an individual's presumption of social and/or economic disadvantage has...

2010-10-01

11

Non-Traditional Educational Trajectories: The Educational Aspirations and Expectations of Women Who Are Educationally Disadvantaged  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation focuses on the educational aspirations and expectations of a heterogeneous group of women who were enrolled in, or had graduated from, adult education and literacy programs in Boston, Massachusetts. The research questions guiding the inquiry are: (1) Why do educationally disadvantaged women value education--how are these values…

Coffield, Claudia Ditmar

2012-01-01

12

ENVIRONMENTAL RISK AND IMPACT IN COMMUNITIES OF COLOR AND ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Research has shown that communities of color and economically/educationally disadvantaged communities are at a greater risk of impact from environmental hazards. In many past studies in environmental justice (EJ) communities, scientists have used surrogate measures of exposure b...

13

The Economic Role of Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistical information pertaining to one of the most important changes in the American economy in this century--the increase in the number of women who work outside the home--is presented as an introduction to the broader range of topics which will be considered by the Advisory Committee on the Economic Role of Women. Job-related aspects of…

Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

14

Building social capital with women in a socially disadvantaged community.  

PubMed

Individual and community health outcomes are strengthened by friendships and social support networks. Community interventions aimed at improving the social factors that influence the health of individuals and communities increasingly include strategies to develop resilience through building networks and social capital. The study reported here used a cross-sectional survey design, administered at two time points, to measure the effect of a community capacity-building programme implemented by Women's Health Nurses. Data described and where possible measured women's perceptions of their physical and mental well-being, friendships and support networks, community connectedness and participation, safety, and knowledge of and access to local community services. The follow-up survey also measured the impact of specific community development initiatives. Overall, findings of both surveys were consistent, with some notable exceptions. For example, at follow up there was a significant improvement in mental health indicators and fewer women believed their physical or emotional problems imposed a considerable burden on their daily activities. They also believed people from other cultures were more likely to be accepted by neighbours and reported increased involvement in community activities as a direct result of the Villawood Icebreakers Project. PMID:19531075

Griffiths, Rhonda; Horsfall, Jan; Moore, Margo; Lane, Di; Kroon, Veronica; Langdon, Rachel

2009-06-01

15

Addressing Summer Reading Setback among Economically Disadvantaged Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much research has established the contribution of summer reading setback to the reading achievement gap that is present between children from more and less economically advantaged families. Likewise, summer reading activity, or the lack of it, has been linked to summer setback. Finally, family socioeconomic status has been linked to the access…

Allington, Richard L.; McGill-Franzen, Anne; Camilli, Gregory; Williams, Lunetta; Graff, Jennifer; Zeig, Jacqueline; Zmach, Courtney; Nowak, Rhonda

2010-01-01

16

Stress Exposure and Depression in Disadvantaged Women: The Protective Effects of Optimism and Perceived Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, the authors predicted that the individual protective factors of optimism and perceived control over acute and chronic stressors would buffer the relations between acute and chronic stress exposure and severity of depression, controlling for household income, in a sample of financially disadvantaged women. Ninety-seven African…

Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Larkin, Jill; Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Brown, Charlotte

2007-01-01

17

Parental Depression and Economic Disadvantage: The Role of Parenting in Associations with Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effects of parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and parenting behaviors in 180 children and adolescents of depressed parents (ages 9–15 years-old). Analyses revealed that while parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and disrupted parenting behaviors were related to children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms, disrupted parenting (e.g., intrusive, neglectful parenting) accounted for the association of parental depressive symptoms and economic disadvantage with children’s symptoms. This study provides evidence that disrupted parenting may be a common or shared process through which both parental depression and economic disadvantage are associated with children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. PMID:24244085

Watson, Kelly H.; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E.

2013-01-01

18

WWC Quick Review of the Report "Addressing Summer Reading Setback among Economically Disadvantaged Elementary Students"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined whether providing summer reading books to economically disadvantaged first- and second-grade students for three consecutive summers improved reading achievement. The study analyzed data on about 1,300 students from 17 high-poverty elementary schools in two large districts in Florida. Student-level reading achievement was…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

2010-01-01

19

TV Characters at Work: Television's Role in the Occupational Aspirations of Economically Disadvantaged Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television regularly depicts work-related activities of fictional characters and is one of several important sources of occupational information for young people. However, no research appears to have examined the influence of televised occupational portrayals on economically disadvantaged youths, although television may be an especially important…

Hoffner, Cynthia A.; Levine, Kenneth J.; Sullivan, Quintin E.; Crowell, Dennis; Pedrick, Laura; Berndt, Patricia

2006-01-01

20

The Issue of Resource Equalization: Funding the Education of Economically Disadvantaged Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The State of Illinois appropriates funds according to a resource equalizer formula which allows a district having a large number and a high percentage of economically disadvantaged school children to gain a sizable bonus in State aid, contingent upon a plan to improve instruction. The Chicago Public Schools have received this bonus without…

Fox, Roger; Lacour, Bernard

21

The effects of mid-life socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived social support on trajectories of subsequent depressive symptoms among older Taiwanese women  

PubMed Central

Background Scant research has taken a life-course perspective to explore the longitudinal impact of socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived social support on the psychological well-being of older women. We sought to explore whether socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived social support in mid-life are associated with subsequent depressive symptomatology among older Taiwanese women. Methods This study was based on data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging conducted on a nationally representative sample (n?=?1,073) of women aged 50 and above with a 12-year follow up. Mid-life socioeconomic disadvantage was assessed by socioeconomic status (SES) (i.e., educational attainment, major lifetime occupation in adulthood, and employment status) and economic strain. Perceived social support included three dimensions: listening, caring, and sick care. We used the short form of the Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale that measures depressive symptomatology within two domains (negative affect and lack of positive affect). Growth curve models were employed to predict the relationships between mid-life socioeconomic disadvantage, perceived social support, and subsequent depressive trajectories, controlling for aging effects. Results Multivariate analyses demonstrated older women in a socioeconomic disadvantaged position are more likely to report higher initial levels of depressive symptoms in both domains; lack of formal education did not exacerbate depressive symptoms in the lack of positive affect domain over time. In addition, mid-life perceived positive social support in caring and sick care was associated with lower initial levels of depressive symptoms in both domains. Conclusions Our results suggest independent effects of mid-life socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived social support on subsequent depressive symptomatology among older Taiwanese women. PMID:24751187

2014-01-01

22

Case Studies of Success: Supporting Academic Success for Students with High Potential from Ethnic Minority and Economically Disadvantaged Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The underrepresentation of ethnic minority and economically disadvantaged students in gifted education must be understood in terms of broader school contexts and practices. This qualitative study investigated how teachers and schools contributed to the academic success of minority students of high potential from economically disadvantaged

Tomlinson, Carol Ann; Jarvis, Jane M.

2014-01-01

23

The voices of older women in a disadvantaged community: issues of health and social capital.  

PubMed

The voices of older women are rarely heard in debates about the health of disadvantaged groups. Despite growing interest in health in old age, the health experiences of older women as gendered social beings have yet to be fully explored. Their potential to contribute positively to family and community health is seldom acknowledged. The aim of this article is to present findings from a qualitative British Health Development Agency funded project on the relationship between social capital, health and gender, focusing on the health and social networks of older women in a socially disadvantaged community in the north of England. Seventy-seven community members were interviewed, of these 19 were older women aged 55-78 years. Their accounts of ill health in the context of ageing were analysed to explore the intricate ways in which social capital was created, maintained and linked to health. Findings suggest that social constructions of motherhood and caring underpinned responsibility for their own and others' health. Their experiences of dealing with health matters, together with frequent health talk, gave the women confidence as lay health experts, enabling them to contest medical advice. Drawing on personal experiences of trust and reciprocity, they recognised the importance of social networking in alleviating the problems of loneliness and isolation. At stressful times in their lives they were able to draw on existing support networks and, in spite of occasional personal conflicts, some benefited from the empowering and health-enhancing role of formal and informal participation in community life. These findings indicate that older women can operate autonomously in health matters and can substantially influence the development of healthy communities, although this can sometimes be at a personal cost. PMID:16039027

Boneham, Margaret Anne; Sixsmith, Judith A

2006-01-01

24

Economic disadvantage, perceived family life quality, and emotional well-being in Chinese adolescents: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over three consecutive years, Chinese secondary school students experiencing and not experiencing economic disadvantage (n = 280 and 2,187, respectively) responded to measures of perceived family life quality (parenting attributes and parent-child\\u000a relational quality) and emotional well-being (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and self-esteem). While participants\\u000a experiencing economic disadvantage generally had more negative perceptions of parenting quality and parent-child relational\\u000a quality than did

Daniel T. L. Shek

2008-01-01

25

Economic Stress, Psychological Well-Being and Problem Behavior in Chinese Adolescents with Economic Disadvantage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the association between perceived economic stress and adolescent adjustment in 229 Chinese adolescents using children and parent reports of economic stress. Findings show differences in perceived stress between parents and children. A lower level of perceived economic stress was generally related to better adolescent mental health and…

Shek, Daniel T. L.

2003-01-01

26

Promoting Physical Activity and Reducing Sedentary Behavior in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: A Qualitative Study of What Women Want  

PubMed Central

Since women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to be physically inactive and engage in higher levels of sedentary behavior than women living in more advantaged neighborhoods, it is important to develop and test the feasibility of strategies aimed to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior amongst this high-risk target group. Thirty-seven women (aged 19–85) living in a disadvantaged neighborhood, and five key stakeholders, received a suite of potential intervention materials and completed a qualitative questionnaire assessing the perceived feasibility of strategies aimed to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. Thematic analyses were performed. Women perceived the use of a locally-relevant information booklet as a feasible strategy to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. Including weight-loss information was suggested to motivate women to be active. Half the women felt the best delivery method was mailed leaflets. Other suggestions included reference books and websites. Many women mentioned that an online activity calendar was motivational but too time-consuming to commit to. Most women preferred the information booklet as a strategy to increase physical activity/reduce sedentary behavior, yet several suggested that using the booklet together with the online calendar may be more effective. These findings make an important contribution to research informing the development of intervention strategies to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior amongst women living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:23166718

Teychenne, Megan; Ball, Kylie; Salmon, Jo

2012-01-01

27

The Impact of Being Offered and Receiving Classroom Training on the Employment Histories of Disadvantaged Women: Evidence from Experimental Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors address two questions using experimental data on disadvantaged women. First, what is the impact of being offered Job Training Partnership Act classroom training on the duration of unemployment and employment? Second, what is the effect of actually participating in this training on the length of such spells? Belonging to the treatment group shortens unemployment spells but has no

Curtis Eberwein; John C Ham; Robert J LaLonde

1997-01-01

28

Women and Economic Development in Cameroon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a survey of written sources and perspectives of knowledgeable individuals, the report provides information on women's economic roles in Cameroon, and on aspects of social life which effect their economic performance. A description of the importance of traditional social systems and their evolution over the last 30 years follows a brief…

Bryson, Judy C.

29

Women and the Choice to Study Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Underrepresentation of women in economics is documented in many studies. Investigation of its sources at the undergraduate level is examined through students' decisions to persist in economics, either beyond an introductory course or in their major choices. The authors add to the literature by analyzing students' decisions to take their first…

Emerson, Tisha L. N.; McGoldrick, KimMarie; Mumford, Kevin J.

2012-01-01

30

Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED) population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods The primary prevention element of Have a Heart Paisley (HaHP) offered risk screening to all eligible individuals. The programme employed two approaches to engaging with the community: a) a social marketing campaign and b) a community development project adopting primarily face-to-face canvassing. Individuals living in areas of SED were under-recruited via the social marketing approach, but successfully recruited via face-to-face canvassing. This paper reports on focus group discussions with participants, exploring their perceptions about and experiences of both approaches. Results Various reasons were identified for low uptake of risk screening amongst individuals living in areas of high SED in response to the social marketing campaign and a number of ways in which the face-to-face canvassing approach overcame these barriers were identified. These have been categorised into four main themes: (1) processes of engagement; (2) issues of understanding; (3) design of the screening service and (4) the priority accorded to screening. The most immediate barriers to recruitment were the invitation letter, which often failed to reach its target, and the general distrust of postal correspondence. In contrast, participants were positive about the face-to-face canvassing approach. Participants expressed a lack of knowledge and understanding about CHD and their risk of developing it and felt there was a lack of clarity in the information provided in the mailing in terms of the process and value of screening. In contrast, direct face-to-face contact meant that outreach workers could explain what to expect. Participants felt that the procedure for uptake of screening was demanding and inflexible, but that the drop-in sessions employed by the community development project had a major impact on recruitment and retention. Conclusion Socio-economically disadvantaged individuals can be hard-to-reach; engagement requires strategies tailored to the needs of the target population rather than a population-wide approach. PMID:20598130

2010-01-01

31

Delivery of primary health care to persons who are socio-economically disadvantaged: does the organizational delivery model matter?  

PubMed Central

Background As health systems evolve, it is essential to evaluate their impact on the delivery of health services to socially disadvantaged populations. We evaluated the delivery of primary health services for different socio-economic groups and assessed the performance of different organizational models in terms of equality of health care delivery in Ontario, Canada. Methods Cross sectional study of 5,361 patients receiving care from primary care practices using Capitation, Salaried or Fee-For-Service remuneration models. We assessed self-reported health status of patients, visit duration, number of visits per year, quality of health service delivery, and quality of health promotion. We used multi-level regressions to study service delivery across socio-economic groups and within each delivery model. Identified disparities were further analysed using a t-test to determine the impact of service delivery model on equity. Results Low income individuals were more likely to be women, unemployed, recent immigrants, and in poorer health. These individuals were overrepresented in the Salaried model, reported more visits/year across all models, and tended to report longer visits in the Salaried model. Measures of primary care services generally did not differ significantly between low and higher income/education individuals; when they did, the difference favoured better service delivery for at-risk groups. At-risk patients in the Salaried model were somewhat more likely to report health promotion activities than patients from Capitation and Fee-For-Service models. At-risk patients from Capitation models reported a smaller increase in the number of additional clinic visits/year than Fee-For-Service and Salaried models. At-risk patients reported better first contact accessibility than their non-at-risk counterparts in the Fee-For-Service model only. Conclusions Primary care service measures did not differ significantly across socio-economic status or primary care delivery models. In Ontario, capitation-based remuneration is age and sex adjusted only. Patients of low socio-economic status had fewer additional visits compared to those with high socio-economic status under the Capitation model. This raises the concern that Capitation may not support the provision of additional care for more vulnerable groups. Regions undertaking primary care model reforms need to consider the potential impact of the changes on the more vulnerable populations. PMID:24341530

2013-01-01

32

The NASA Plan: To award eight percent of prime and subcontracts to socially and economically disadvantaged businesses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is NASA's intent to provide small disadvantaged businesses, including women-owned, historically black colleges and universities and minority education institutions the maximum practicable opportunity to receive a fair proportion of NASA prime and subcontracted awards. Annually, NASA will establish socioeconomic procurement goals including small disadvantaged business goals, with a target of reaching the eight percent level by the end of FY 1994. The NASA Associate Administrators, who are responsible for the programs at the various NASA Centers, will be held accountable for full implementation of the socioeconomic procurement plans. Various aspects of this plan, including its history, are discussed.

1990-01-01

33

Economic Disadvantage, Perceived Family Life Quality, and Emotional Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over three consecutive years, Chinese secondary school students experiencing and not experiencing economic disadvantage (n = 280 and 2,187, respectively) responded to measures of perceived family life quality (parenting attributes and parent-child relational quality) and emotional well-being (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and…

Shek, Daniel T. L.

2008-01-01

34

Growing up as "Man of the House": Adultification and Transition into Adulthood for Young Men in Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field…

Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

2014-01-01

35

Learning to (Dis)Engage? The Socialising Experiences of Young People Living in Areas of Socio-Economic Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young people are increasingly required to demonstrate civic engagement in their communities and help deliver the aspirations of localism and Big Society. Using an ecological systems approach this paper explores the experiences of different groups of young people living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage. Using volunteering as an example of…

Mason, Carolynne; Cremin, Hilary; Warwick, Paul; Harrison, Tom

2011-01-01

36

The Relationship between Teachers' Collective Efficacy and Student Achievement at Economically Disadvantaged Middle School Campuses in Texas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the collective efficacy of teachers and student achievement at economically disadvantaged middle school campuses. Schools of today are expected to show continuous improvement in student achievement from year to year, regardless of the students' family background, ethnicity, or…

Sandoval, Juan Manuel

2010-01-01

37

The social-emotional impact of instrumental music performance on economically disadvantaged South African students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent these findings hold true for disadvantaged students. The purpose of this study

Karendra Devroop

2012-01-01

38

It Doesn't Happen Here: Eating Disorders in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Economically Disadvantaged, Urban College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulk of eating disorder studies have focused on white, middle-upper class women, excluding ethnically and economically diverse women and men. Accordingly, our knowledge of prevalence rates and risk factors is reliant on this narrow literature. To expand upon the current literature, we examined eating disorders in ethnically diverse low-income, urban college students. We surveyed 884 incoming freshmen during an

Katie Gentile; Chitra Raghavan; Valli Rajah; Katie Gates

2007-01-01

39

Treatment Effects of a Relationship-Strengthening Intervention for Economically Disadvantaged New Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the treatment effects of a relationship skills and family strengthening intervention for n = 726 high-risk, disadvantaged new parents. Method: Hierarchical linear modeling and regression models were used to assess intervention treatment effects. These findings were subsequently verified…

Charles, Pajarita; Jones, Anne; Guo, Shenyang

2014-01-01

40

The Social-Emotional Impact of Instrumental Music Performance on Economically Disadvantaged South African Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent these…

Devroop, Karendra

2012-01-01

41

Identifying Successful Strategies Implemented by Teachers in High Performing, High Poverty Schools to Address the Diverse Needs of Economically Disadvantaged Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research study sought to identify the successful strategies used by teachers in high performing, high poverty schools to address the needs of economically disadvantaged students. The study examined teacher perceptions, motivation factors, and instructional strategies as they relate to the improvement of the academic progress of economically

Taylor-Statom, Yolanda

2012-01-01

42

Identifying solutions to increase participation in physical activity interventions within a socio-economically disadvantaged community: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background There is an urgent need to increase population levels of physical activity, particularly amongst those who are socio-economically disadvantaged. Multiple factors influence physical activity behaviour but the generalisability of current evidence to such ‘hard-to-reach’ population subgroups is limited by difficulties in recruiting them into studies. Also, rigorous qualitative studies of lay perceptions and perceptions of community leaders about public health efforts to increase physical activity are sparse. We sought to explore, within a socio-economically disadvantaged community, residents’ and community leaders’ perceptions of physical activity (PA) interventions and issues regarding their implementation, in order to improve understanding of needs, expectations, and social/environmental factors relevant to future interventions. Methods Within an ongoing regeneration project (Connswater Community Greenway), in a socio-economically disadvantaged community in Belfast, we collaborated with a Community Development Agency to purposively sample leaders from public- and voluntary-sector community groups and residents. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 leaders. Residents (n?=?113), of both genders and a range of ages (14 to 86 years) participated in focus groups (n?=?14) in local facilities. Interviews and focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic framework. Results Three main themes were identified: awareness of PA interventions; factors contributing to intervention effectiveness; and barriers to participation in PA interventions. Participants reported awareness only of interventions in which they were involved directly, highlighting a need for better communications, both inter- and intra-sectoral, and with residents. Meaningful engagement of residents in planning/organisation, tailoring to local context, supporting volunteers, providing relevant resources and an ‘exit strategy’ were perceived as important factors related to intervention effectiveness. Negative attitudes such as apathy, disappointing experiences, information with no perceived personal relevance and limited access to facilities were barriers to people participating in interventions. Conclusions These findings illustrate the complexity of influences on a community’s participation in PA interventions and support a social-ecological approach to promoting PA. They highlight the need for cross-sector working, effective information exchange, involving residents in bottom-up planning and providing adequate financial and social support. An in-depth understanding of a target population’s perspectives is of key importance in translating PA behaviour change theories into practice. PMID:24886604

2014-01-01

43

Morbidity and Irish Catholic descent in Britain : Relating health disadvantage to socio-economic position  

Microsoft Academic Search

In common with some other ethnic and religious minorities whose forebears migrated from their country of origin, Irish Catholics in Britain are less well off than the host population in terms of socio-economic position and health. Results are presented from a Scottish study, where Catholic religion of origin mainly indicates Irish ancestry, and it is estimated that about one-third of

Joanne Abbotts; Rory Williams; Graeme Ford

2001-01-01

44

Influence of Schools on Economically Disadvantageous Attitudes: A Solomon Islands Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the economically detrimental attitude of regionalism in a Solomon Islands secondary school and measures changes in regionalism with exposure to school experience that stressed regional integration. Significant decreases in regionalism were recorded. (Available from Plenum Publishing Corporation, 227 West 17 Street, New York, NY…

MacBeth, Alastair M.

1976-01-01

45

The economic impact of infertility on women in developing countries ? a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background: It is the responsibility of health systems to provide quality health care and to protect consumers against impoverishing health costs. In the case of infertility in developing countries, quality care is often lacking and treatment costs are usually covered by patients. Additional financial hardship may be caused by various social consequences. The economic implications of infertility and its treatment have not been systematically explored. Methods: A systematic MEDLINE search was conducted to identify English language publications providing original data from developing countries on out-of-pocket payment (OoPP) for infertility treatment and on other economic consequences of involuntary childlessness. Findings: Twenty one publications were included in this review. Information on OoPP was scant but suggests that infertility treatment is associated with a significant risk of catastrophic expenditure, even for basic or ineffective interventions. Other economic disadvantages, which may be profound, are caused by loss of access to child labour and support, divorce, as well as customary laws or negative attitudes which discriminate against infertile individuals. Women in particular are affected. Conclusion: Pertinent data on OoPP and other economic disadvantages of infertility in developing countries are limited. According to the evidence available, infertility may cause impoverishing health costs as well as economic instability or deprivation secondary to social consequences. Health systems in developing countries do not appear to meet their responsibilities vis-à-vis infertile patients. PMID:24753897

Dyer, S.J.; Patel, M.

2012-01-01

46

Individual, social and environmental factors influencing physical activity levels and behaviours of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged urban mothers in Canada: A mixed methods approach  

PubMed Central

Background Existing data provide little insight into the physical activity context of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged mothers in Canada. Our primary objectives were: (1) to use focus group methodology to develop tools to identify the individual, social, and environmental factors influencing utilitarian and leisure time physical activities (LTPA) of multiethnic SED mothers; and (2) to use a women specific physical activity survey tool to assess psychosocial barriers and supports and to quantify individual physical activity (PA) levels of multi-ethnic SED mothers in Canada. Methods Qualitative focus group sessions were conducted in West, Central and Eastern Canada with multiethnic SED mothers (n?=?6 focus groups; n?=?42 SED mothers) and with health and recreation professionals (HRPs) (n?=?5 focus groups; n?=?25 HRPs) involved in community PA programming for multiethnic SED mothers. Administration of the women specific Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) tool was completed by consenting SED mothers (n?=?59). Results More than half of SED mothers were employed and had higher total PA scores with occupation included than unemployed mothers. However, nearly 60% of both groups were overweight or obese. Barriers to LTPA included the lack of available, affordable and accessible LTPA programs that responded to cultural and social needs. Concerns for safety, nonsupportive cultural and social norms and the winter climate were identified as key barriers to both utilitarian and LTPA. Conclusions Findings show that multiethnic SED mothers experience many barriers to utilitarian and LTPA opportunities within their communities. The varying LTPA levels among these multi-ethnic SED mothers and the occurrence of overweight and obesity suggests that current LTPA programs are likely insufficient to maintain healthy body weights. PMID:22500882

2012-01-01

47

Peer-mentoring for first-time mothers from areas of socio-economic disadvantage: A qualitative study within a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Non-professional involvement in delivering health and social care support in areas of socio-economic deprivation is considered important in attempting to reduce health inequalities. However, trials of peer mentoring programmes have yielded inconsistent evidence of benefit: difficulties in implementation have contributed to uncertainty regarding their efficacy. We aimed to explore difficulties encountered in conducting a randomised controlled trial of a peer-mentoring programme for first-time mothers in socially disadvantaged areas, in order to provide information relevant to future research and practice. This paper describes the experiences of lay-workers, women and health professionals involved in the trial. Methods Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with women (n = 11) who were offered peer mentor support, lay-workers (n = 11) who provided mentoring and midwives (n = 2) who supervised the programme, which provided support, from first hospital antenatal visit to one year postnatal. Planned frequency of contact was two-weekly (telephone or home visit) but was tailored to individuals' needs. Results Despite lay-workers living in the same locality, they experienced difficulty initiating contact with women and this affected their morale adversely. Despite researchers' attempts to ensure that the role of the mentor was understood clearly it appeared that this was not achieved for all participants. Mentors attempted to develop peer-mentor relationships by offering friendship and sharing personal experiences, which was appreciated by women. Mentors reported difficulties developing relationships with those who lacked interest in the programme. External influences, including family and friends, could prevent or facilitate mentoring. Time constraints in reconciling flexible mentoring arrangements with demands of other commitments posed major personal difficulties for lay-workers. Conclusion Difficulties in initiating contact, developing peer-mentor relationships and time constraints pose challenges to delivering lay-worker peer support. In developing such programmes, awareness of potential difficulties and of how professional support may help resolve these should improve uptake and optimise evaluation of their effectiveness. Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN55055030 PMID:18304334

Murphy, Christine A; Cupples, Margaret E; Percy, Andrew; Halliday, Henry L; Stewart, Moira C

2008-01-01

48

The Healthy Toddlers Trial Protocol: An Intervention to Reduce Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity in Economically and Educationally Disadvantaged Populations  

PubMed Central

Background The number of overweight children in America has doubled to an estimated 10 million in the past 20 years. Establishing healthy dietary behaviors must begin early in childhood and include parents. The Healthy Toddlers intervention focuses on promoting healthy eating habits in 1- to 3-year-old children utilizing the Social Cognitive Theory and a learner-centered approach using Adult Learning principles. This Healthy Toddlers Trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial of an in-home intervention with economically and educationally disadvantaged mothers of toddlers. The intervention focuses on: (a) promoting healthy eating behaviors in toddlers while dietary habits are forming; and (b) providing initial evidence for the potential of Healthy Toddlers as a feasible intervention within existing community-based programs. Methods/Design This describes the study protocol for a randomized control trial, a multi-state project in Colorado, Michigan, and Wisconsin with economically and educationally disadvantaged mother-toddler dyads; toddlers are between 12 and 36 months. The Healthy Toddlers intervention consists of eight in-home lessons and four reinforcement telephone contacts, focusing on fruit, vegetable, and sweetened beverage consumption and parental behaviors, taught by paraprofessional instructors. Healthy Toddlers uses a randomized, experimental, short-term longitudinal design with intervention and control groups. In-home data collection (anthropometric measurements, feeding observations, questionnaires, 3-day dietary records) occurs at baseline, immediately following the intervention, and 6 months after the intervention. Main toddler outcomes include: a) increased fruit and vegetable consumption and decreased sweetened beverage consumption; and b) improved toddler-eating skills (self-feeding and self-serving). Main parent outcomes include: a) improved psychosocial attributes (knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, feeding style) related to child feeding; b) provision of a more positive mealtime physical environment (turning off the TV); and c) creation of a more positive mealtime social environment (sitting down together for meals). Discussion If this project is successful, the expected outcomes are that the intervention will be effective in helping toddlers develop healthy eating skills that contribute to improve overall health and development and to the prevention of obesity. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ACTRN12610000981022 PMID:21777452

2011-01-01

49

Health Care for the Economically Disadvantaged. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on Finance, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These hearings examine ways of ensuring access to quality health care, especially for low-income persons ineligible for Medicaid. The problems of determining who the economically disadvantaged are, what services they are provided with, and how those services are provided and financed are all addressed. An Urban Institute researcher testifies that…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

50

An Exploratory Study of the Effectiveness of the Staff Development Model and the Research-Based Assessment Plan in Improving the Identification of Gifted Economically Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph discusses a project involving 246 teachers that investigated a Staff Development Model (SDM) and a Research-Based Assessment Plan (RAP) for their potential to improve the identification and education of gifted students from economically disadvantaged families, some of whom have limited proficiency in the English language. The…

Frasier, Mary M.; Hunsaker, Scott L.; Lee, Jongyeun; Finley, Vernon S.; Garcia, Jaime H.; Martin, Darlene; Frank, Elaine

51

Inclusive Transition Processes--Considering Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Parents' Views and Actions for Their Child's Successful School Start  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has noted that the transition to primary school is important for future school success. As a result, an inclusive transition process to school has become increasingly important. However, this process is particularly difficult for socio-economically disadvantaged children in Germany. The study considers parents' views and…

Rothe, Antje; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf

2014-01-01

52

Socio-economic status of Muslim women.  

PubMed

The Indian sociological literature neglects the role of women in social relationships within the family system, their status in society, and the interactions between Indian minorities and the majority community. Indian institutions and cultural norms have perpetuated the role of Indian women as subservient. Orthodox Muslims uphold the low position of women as a symbol of cultural identity. Indian Muslims have tried to prevent conversion and integration of other views, but have failed to eliminate the Hindu influence on the general pattern of living, the system of social stratification, and customs and attitudes regarding women. Muslims hold conformist ideals and beliefs from the Quran and the Hadis. Although Indian women live under the Hindu Code Bill that gives equal rights to women, most Muslim women are restricted under the Muslim Personal Law. Muslims who are ignorant of the Quran are unaware of the allowances in the Shariat for social adjustment, change, and accommodation. In fact, Indian Muslim communities follow four different Shariats: the Hanafi, the Shaafi, the Hambali, and the Maliki. Islamic scholars state that the Shariat is not unchangeable. There is also disparity between the actual practice of polygamy and the Quran's strict provision that all wives must be treated equally. Islamic practices have been manipulated to suit male interests. Indian Muslims are either Ashrafs or nonAshrafs. Ashrafs are the upper social class and are made up of the Sayyads, the Sheikhs, the Mughals, and the Pathans, in descending order of hierarchy. There are differences in the treatment of women within this stratification. For instance, many nonAshraf women do not observe purdah, but the tendency among the Ashraf is to impose purdah. PMID:12347368

Bhatty, Z

1994-01-01

53

The effectiveness of antenatal care programmes to reduce infant mortality and preterm birth in socially disadvantaged and vulnerable women in high-income countries: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Infant mortality has shown a steady decline in recent years but a marked socioeconomic gradient persists. Antenatal care is generally thought to be an effective method of improving pregnancy outcomes, but the effectiveness of specific antenatal care programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in socioeconomically disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women has not been rigorously evaluated. Methods We conducted a systematic review, focusing on evidence from high income countries, to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative models of organising or delivering antenatal care to disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women vs. standard antenatal care. We searched Medline, Embase, Cinahl, PsychINFO, HMIC, CENTRAL, DARE, MIDIRS and a number of online resources to identify relevant randomised and observational studies. We assessed effects on infant mortality and its major medical causes (preterm birth, congenital anomalies and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)) Results We identified 36 distinct eligible studies covering a wide range of interventions, including group antenatal care, clinic-based augmented care, teenage clinics, prenatal substance abuse programmes, home visiting programmes, maternal care coordination and nutritional programmes. Fifteen studies had adequate internal validity: of these, only one was considered to demonstrate a beneficial effect on an outcome of interest. Six interventions were considered 'promising'. Conclusions There was insufficient evidence of adequate quality to recommend routine implementation of any of the programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in disadvantaged/vulnerable women. Several interventions merit further more rigorous evaluation. PMID:21314944

2011-01-01

54

Integrating Socio-Economic Determinants of Canadian Women's Health.  

PubMed

HEALTH ISSUE: The association between a number of socio-economic determinants and health has been amply demonstrated in Canada and elsewhere. Over the past decades, women's increased labour force participation and changing family structure, among other changes in the socio-economic environment, have altered social roles considerably and lead one to expect that the pattern of disparities in health among women and men will also have changed. Using data from the CCHS (2000), this chapter investigates the association between selected socio-economic determinants of health and two specific self-reported outcomes among women and men: (a) self-perceived health and (b) self-reports of chronic conditions. KEY FINDINGS: The descriptive picture demonstrated by this CCHS dataset is that 10% of men aged 65 and over report low income, versus 23% of women within the same age bracket. The results of the logistic regression models calculated for women and men on two outcome variables suggest that the selected socio-economic determinants used in this analysis are important for women and for men in a differential manner. These results while supporting other results illustrate the need to refine social and economic characteristics used in surveys such as the CCHS so that they would become more accurate predictors of health status given that there are personal, cultural and environmental dimensions to take into account. RECOMMENDATIONS: Because it was shown that socio economic determinants of health are context sensitive and evolve over time, studies should be designed to examine the complex temporal interactions between a variety of social and biological determinants of health from a life course perspective. Examples are provided in the chapter. PMID:15345097

Vissandjee, Bilkis; Desmeules, Marie; Cao, Zheynuan; Abdool, Shelly

2004-08-25

55

Research Overview: Economics At the Women's Foundation of Minnesota, we know that  

E-print Network

Research Overview: Economics At the Women's Foundation of Minnesota, we know that when women thrive, so do their families and communities. To achieve economic security, women must first have economic or low wages to work-family balance, addressing these barriers will improve the lives of women and of all

Blanchette, Robert A.

56

Economic and Employment Status of Asian-Pacific Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report deals with the employment and economic status of Asian and Pacific women in the United States. Data collected for a set of socioeconomic variables were analyzed and interpreted. Variables were analyzed by specific Asian ethnicity and by age. Data aggregated at the standard metropolitan statistical area level were used whenever…

Fong, Pauline L.; Cabezas, Amado Y.

57

Women's Marginalization, Economic Flows, and Environmental Flows: A Classroom Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses environmental security, focusing on the meaning of "security." Defines the global economy as a process in which the security of groups is sought, maintained, or threatened. Illustrates connections among environmental security, the global economy, and abuse of women and children in less economically developed places, incorporating the…

O'Lear, Shannon

1999-01-01

58

Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to…

Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

2012-01-01

59

Correlates of socio-economic inequalities in women's television viewing: a study of intrapersonal, social and environmental mediators  

PubMed Central

Introduction Socio-economically disadvantaged women are at a greater risk of spending excess time engaged in television viewing, a behavior linked to several adverse health outcomes. However, the factors which explain socio-economic differences in television viewing are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of intrapersonal, social and environmental factors to mediating socio-economic (educational) inequalities in women's television viewing. Methods Cross-sectional data were provided by 1,554 women (aged 18-65) who participated in the 'Socio-economic Status and Activity in Women study' of 2004. Based on an ecological framework, women self-reported their socio-economic position (highest education level), television viewing, as well as a number of potential intrapersonal (enjoyment of television viewing, preference for leisure-time sedentary behavior, depression, stress, weight status), social (social participation, interpersonal trust, social cohesion, social support for physical activity from friends and from family) and physical activity environmental factors (safety, aesthetics, distance to places of interest, and distance to physical activity facilities). Results Multiple mediating analyses showed that two intrapersonal factors (enjoyment of television viewing and weight status) and two social factors (social cohesion and social support from friends for physical activity) partly explained the educational inequalities in women's television viewing. No physical activity environmental factors mediated educational variations in television viewing. Conclusions Acknowledging the cross-sectional nature of this study, these findings suggest that health promotion interventions aimed at reducing educational inequalities in television viewing should focus on intrapersonal and social strategies, particularly providing enjoyable alternatives to television viewing, weight-loss/management information, increasing social cohesion in the neighborhood and promoting friend support for activity. PMID:22264399

2012-01-01

60

Latinas and African American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…

Browne, Irene, Ed.

61

The contemporary relevance of Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Women And Economics  

E-print Network

. , CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION. . V1 Biographical Background. . Gilman's Work. Purpose of the Study. . II SOCIAL AND INTELLECTUAL BACKGROUND. . . . 4 7 11 14 Charles Darwin. . Herbert Spencer. Lester F. Ward. 15 17 22 III WOMEN AND ECONOMICS. 27... theory to the social world, with the development of two distinct evolutionary paradigms. The first was largely developed by Herbert Spencer, and advocated in the United States by William Graham Sumner. This particular body incorporated the idea...

Mastagni, Danee M

2012-06-07

62

Process evaluation for the FEeding Support Team (FEST) randomised controlled feasibility trial of proactive and reactive telephone support for breastfeeding women living in disadvantaged areas  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the feasibility, acceptability and fidelity of a feeding team intervention with an embedded randomised controlled trial of team-initiated (proactive) and woman-initiated (reactive) telephone support after hospital discharge. Design Participatory approach to the design and implementation of a pilot trial embedded within a before-and-after study, with mixed-method process evaluation. Setting A postnatal ward in Scotland. Sample Women initiating breast feeding and living in disadvantaged areas. Methods Quantitative data: telephone call log and workload diaries. Qualitative data: interviews with women (n=40) with follow-up (n=11) and staff (n=17); ward observations 2?weeks before and after the intervention; recorded telephone calls (n=16) and steering group meetings (n=9); trial case notes (n=69); open question in a telephone interview (n=372). The Framework approach to analysis was applied to mixed-method data. Main outcome measures Quantitative: telephone call characteristics (number, frequency, duration); workload activity. Qualitative: experiences and perspectives of women and staff. Results A median of eight proactive calls per woman (n=35) with a median duration of 5?min occurred in the 14?days following hospital discharge. Only one of 34 control women initiated a call to the feeding team, with women undervaluing their own needs compared to others, and breast feeding as a reason to call. Proactive calls providing continuity of care increased women's confidence and were highly valued. Data demonstrated intervention fidelity for woman-centred care; however, observing an entire breast feed was not well implemented due to short hospital stays, ward routines and staff–team–woman communication issues. Staff pragmatically recognised that dedicated feeding teams help meet women's breastfeeding support needs in the context of overstretched and variable postnatal services. Conclusions Implementing and integrating the FEeding Support Team (FEST) trial within routine postnatal care was feasible and acceptable to women and staff from a research and practice perspective and shows promise for addressing health inequalities. Trial registration ISRCTN27207603. The study protocol and final report is available on request. PMID:22535794

Craig, Leone; MacLennan, Graeme; Boyers, Dwayne; Vale, Luke

2012-01-01

63

The Relationship between Residential Land Use Patterns and the Educational Outcomes of Economically Disadvantaged Students in Texas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disparate outcomes resulting from economic segregation in public primary schools have been the subject of much debate and litigation. Little research, however, examines whether negative outcomes may be exacerbated by inequities in the distribution of housing across metropolitan areas. This article explores connections between residential land use…

Van Zandt, Shannon; Wunneburger, Douglas F.

2011-01-01

64

Depressive symptoms are associated with dietary intake but not physical activity among overweight and obese women from disadvantaged neighborhoods.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that depressive symptoms are associated with poorer dietary intake and inadequate physical activity; however, this association has not been examined in lower-income overweight and obese African American women. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the associations between depressive symptoms and diet and physical activity in 196 women (87% African American; age, 25-51 years). Higher depressive symptoms were hypothesized to predict poorer diet quality, greater emotional eating, lower physical activity levels, and greater sedentary time. Depressive symptoms were measured using the validated short form of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Dietary intake and quality were assessed using three 24-hour dietary recalls. Emotional eating was evaluated using 4 items from the emotional eating subscale of the Eating Behavior Patterns Questionnaire. Physical activity and sedentary time were objectively measured using the ActiGraph accelerometer. Linear regression models tested the associations between depressive symptoms and each dietary and physical activity outcome variable. Symptoms of depression were positively associated with total daily caloric intake from saturated fat and total sugars, as well as emotional eating scores (P < .05). Although not statistically significant, depressive symptoms were positively associated with sweetened beverage consumption (P = .06) and added sugars (P = .07). Depressive symptoms were not associated with total fat, sodium, fruit and vegetables, fast food consumption, the Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, or sedentary time. Future studies should explore the mechanisms linking the identified associations between depressive symptoms and dietary intake, such as the role of emotional eating. PMID:24774065

Whitaker, Kara M; Sharpe, Patricia A; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E

2014-04-01

65

Self-Employment as a Means to Women's Economic Self-Sufficiency: WomenVenture's Business Development Program. SEEDS No. 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet examines the development and activities of WomenVenture's business development program in the context of facilitation of self-employment as a means to women's economic self-sufficiency. The following topics are discussed: women in the work force, women in poverty, self-employment and low-income women, formation of the Women's…

McKee, Katharine; And Others

66

Economic Return From the Women’s Health Initiative Estrogen Plus Progestin Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background The findings of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) estrogen plus progestin (E+P) trial led to a substantial reduction in use of combined hormone therapy (cHT) among postmenopausal women in the United States. The economic effect of this shift has not been evaluated relative to the trial’s $260 million cost (2012 U.S. dollars). Objective To estimate the economic return from the WHI E+P trial. Design Decision model to simulate health outcomes for a “WHI scenario” with observed cHT use and a “no-WHI scenario” with cHT use extrapolated from the pretrial period. Data Sources Primary analyses of WHI outcomes, peer-reviewed literature, and government sources. Target Population Postmenopausal women in the United States, aged 50 to 79 years, who did not have a hysterectomy. Time Horizon 2003 to 2012. Perspective Payer. Intervention Combined hormone therapy. Outcome Measures Disease incidence, expenditure, quality-adjusted life-years, and net economic return. Results of Base-Case Analysis The WHI scenario resulted in 4.3 million fewer cHT users, 126 000 fewer breast cancer cases, 76 000 fewer cardiovascular disease cases, 263 000 more fractures, 145 000 more quality-adjusted life-years, and expenditure savings of $35.2 billion. The corresponding net economic return of the trial was $37.1 billion ($140 per dollar invested in the trial) at a willingness-to-pay level of $100 000 per quality-adjusted life-year. Results of Sensitivity Analysis The 95% CI for the net economic return of the trial was $23.1 to $51.2 billion. Limitation No evaluation of indirect costs or outcomes beyond 2012. Conclusion The WHI E+P trial made high-value use of public funds with a substantial return on investment. These results can contribute to discussions about the role of public funding for large, prospective trials with high potential for public health effects. Primary Funding Source National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. PMID:24798522

Roth, Joshua A.; Etzioni, Ruth; Waters, Teresa M.; Pettinger, Mary; Rossouw, Jacques E.; Anderson, Garnet L.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Hlatky, Mark; Johnson, Karen C.; Ramsey, Scott D.

2014-01-01

67

Economic solvency in the context of violence against women: a concept analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this concept analysis is to define economic solvency in the context of violence against women. Poverty, or lack of resources, is often discussed as a risk factor for intimate partner violence. The concept of economic solvency, which may be a protective factor for women, is less often discussed and not well defined. Databases searched for the analysis included EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PubMed and Gender Watch. The Rodgers evolutionary method was used to perform the concept analysis. A total of 134 articles were retrieved, using the specified search terms 'economic solvency and women', 'economic self-reliance and women' and 'economic self-sufficiency and women'. Articles were included if they were peer reviewed, contained the keywords with sufficient context to determine the author's intended meaning, and focused on women only or contrasted men to women. Thirty-five articles were used in the concept analysis. The definition of economic solvency drawn from the concept analysis is: a long-term state that occurs when there is societal structure that supports gender equity and external resources are available and can be used by a woman who has necessary human capital, sustainable employment and independence. Just as poverty and violence are cyclical, so are economic solvency and empowerment of women. To decrease women's risk of intimate partner violence around the world and further improve the status of women, we recommend continued research on economic solvency, including the individual, family, community and societal resources required to obtain economic solvency and the human capital characteristics needed for sustainability. PMID:24628877

Gilroy, Heidi; Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith

2015-03-01

68

Economic violence to women and girls: is it receiving the necessary attention?  

PubMed

Most studies on gender-based violence (GBV) have focused on its physical, sexual, and psychological manifestations. This paper seeks to draw attention to the types of economic violence experienced by women, and describes its consequences on health and development. Economic violence experienced included limited access to funds and credit; controlling access to health care, employment, education, including agricultural resources; excluding from financial decision making; and discriminatory traditional laws on inheritance, property rights, and use of communal land. At work women experienced receiving unequal remuneration for work done equal in value to the men's, were overworked and underpaid, and used for unpaid work outside the contractual agreement. Some experienced fraud and theft from some men, illegal confiscation of goods for sale, and unlawful closing down of worksites. At home, some were barred from working by partners; while other men totally abandoned family maintenance to the women. Unfortunately, economic violence results in deepening poverty and compromises educational attainment and developmental opportunities for women. It leads to physical violence, promotes sexual exploitation and the risk of contracting HIV infection, maternal morbidity and mortality, and trafficking of women and girls. Economic abuse may continue even after the woman has left the abusive relationship. There is need for further large-scale studies on economic violence to women. Multi-strategy interventions that promote equity between women and men, provide economic opportunities for women, inform them of their rights, reach out to men and change societal beliefs and attitudes that permit exploitative behavior are urgently required. PMID:18495936

Fawole, Olufunmilayo I

2008-07-01

69

Gender and Sexual Economics: Do Women View Sex as a Female Commodity?  

PubMed

In the study reported here, data from implicit and behavioral choice measures did not support sexual economics theory's (SET's) central tenet that women view female sexuality as a commodity. Instead, men endorsed sexual exchange more than women did, which supports the idea that SET is a vestige of patriarchy. Further, men's sexual advice, more than women's, enforced the sexual double standard (i.e., men encouraged men more than women to have casual sex)-a gender difference that was mediated by hostile sexism, but also by men's greater implicit investment in sexual economics. That is, men were more likely to suppress female sexuality because they resisted female empowerment and automatically associated sex with money more than women did. It appears that women are not invested in sexual economics, but rather, men are invested in patriarchy, even when it means raising the price of sexual relations. PMID:24855018

Rudman, Laurie A; Fetterolf, Janell C

2014-05-21

70

Educational Disadvantage in New Hampshire.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report studies the specific attributes of educational disadvantage which prevent satisfactory achievement in New Hampshire children. It is based on a sample of approximately 10 percent of the state school districts, which are divided into three levels of economic status, three levels of achievement, and an urban, suburban, or rural category.…

Whittemore-Abelson, Concord, NH.

71

Exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and associated health risks of socio-economically disadvantaged population in a “hot spot” in Camden, New Jersey  

PubMed Central

To address disparities in health risks associated with ambient air pollution for racial/ethnic minority groups, this study characterized personal and ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a suspected hot spot of air pollution – the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), and an urban reference community – the Copewood/Davis Streets (CDS) neighborhood in Camden, New Jersey. Both are minority-dominant, impoverished communities. We collected 24-h integrated personal air samples from 54 WFS residents and 53 CDS residents, with one sample on a weekday and one on a weekend day during the summer and winter seasons of 2004–2006. Ambient air samples from the center of each community were also collected simultaneously during personal air sampling. Toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (TEX) presented higher (p < 0.05) ambient levels in WFS than in CDS, particularly during weekdays. A stronger association between personal and ambient concentrations of MTBE and TEX was found in WFS than in CDS. Fourteen to forty-two percent of the variation in personal MTBE, hexane, benzene, and TEX was explained by local outdoor air pollution. These observations indicated that local sources impacted the community air pollution and personal exposure in WFS. The estimated cancer risks resulting from two locally emitted VOCs, benzene and ethylbenzene, and non-cancer neurological and respiratory effects resulting from hexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes exceeded the US EPA risk benchmarks in both communities. These findings emphasized the need to address disparity in health risks associated with ambient air pollution for the socio-economically disadvantaged groups. This study also demonstrated that air pollution hot spots similar to WFS can provide robust setting to investigate health effects of ambient air pollution.

Wu, Xiangmei (May); Fan, Zhihua (Tina); Zhu, Xianlei; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Weisel, Clifford P.; Lioy, Paul J.

2015-01-01

72

The effect of neighborhood disadvantage, social ties, and genetic variation on the antisocial behavior of African American women: a multilevel analysis.  

PubMed

Social disorganization theory posits that individuals who live in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to engage in antisocial behavior than are those who live in advantaged neighborhoods and that neighborhood disadvantage asserts this effect through its disruptive impact on social ties. Past research on this framework has been limited in two respects. First, most studies have concentrated on adolescent males. In contrast, the present study focused on a sample of adult African American females. Second, past research has largely ignored individual-level factors that might explain why people who grow up in disadvantaged neighborhoods often do not engage in antisocial behavior. We investigated the extent to which genetic variation contributes to heterogeneity of response to neighborhood conditions. We found that the impact of neighborhood disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by neighborhood social ties. Further, the analysis indicated that the effects of neighborhood disadvantage and social ties on antisocial behavior were moderated by genetic polymorphisms. Examination of these moderating effects provided support for the differential susceptibility model of Gene × Environment. The effect of Gene × Neighborhood Disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by the effect of Gene × Neighborhood Social Ties, providing support for an expanded view of social disorganization theory. PMID:24713449

Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L; Edmond, Mary Bond; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Cutrona, Carolyn E

2014-11-01

73

The Changing Economic Status of Disabled Women, 1982–1991: Trends and Their Determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides an assessment of the intertemporal economic well-being of a representative sample of women who began receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) in 1980–81. We compare their economic circumstances over the 1982–1991 period with those of disabled men who also began receiving SSDI in those years and with those of a matched sample of nondisabled women who had

Robert Haveman; Karen Holden; Barbara Wolfe; Paul Smith; K. Wilson

74

Energy and women's economic empowerment: Rethinking the benefits of improved cookstove use in rural India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International development organizations have recently ramped up efforts to promote the use of improved cookstoves (ICS) in developing countries, aiming to reduce the harmful environmental and public health impacts of the burning of biomass for cooking and heating. I hypothesize that ICS use also has additional benefits---economic and social benefits---that can contribute to women's economic empowerment in the developing world. To explore the relationship between ICS use and women's economic empowerment, I use Ordinary Least Squares and Logit models based on data from the India Human Development Survey (IHDS) to analyze differences between women living in households that use ICS and those living in homes that use traditional cookstoves. My regression results reveal that ICS use has a statistically significant and negative effect on the amount of time women and girls spend on fuel collection and a statistically significant and positive effect on the likelihood of women's participation in side businesses, but does not have a statistically significant effect on the likelihood of lost productivity. My analysis shows promise that in addition to health and environmental benefits, fuel-efficient cooking technologies can also have social and economic impacts that are especially beneficial to women. It is my hope that the analysis provided in this paper will be used to further the dialogue about the importance of women's access to modern energy services in the fight to improve women's living standards in the developing world.

Seaward, James Nicholas

75

LEARNING ABOUT WOMEN. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND THE ENVIRONMENT IN INDIA: A CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

On a recent semester-long stay in India, students from Xavier University (Cincinnati, Ohio) learned about a variety of social and economic development issues, with an emphasis on the role and status of women. This study describes and assesses the impact and effectiveness of their learning with a particular focus on their exposure to Meerut Seva Samaj (MSS), one economic development

NANCY BERTAUX; ELAINE CRABLE

2007-01-01

76

Understanding the social and economic contexts surrounding women engaged in street-level prostitution.  

PubMed

Prostitution involves the exchange of sexual services for economic compensation. Due to the sexual promiscuity surrounding prostitution, women involved in prostitution constitute a high-risk group for contracting and transmitting STDs, including HIV. Prostitution is not only a public health concern, but also an economic one. Cities throughout the United States spent an average of $7.5 to $16 million per year enforcing prostitution laws and addressing negative outcomes associated with prostitution. Thus, women involved in prostitution are a cause for concern from both public health and economic perspectives. However, little is known about why women remain in this type of behavior given the risks prostitution presents, and even less is known about how to intervene and interrupt the complex cycle of prostitution. Thus, the purpose of this study was to understand what factors contribute to a woman's decision to remain in prostitution. A series of interviews were conducted with 12 women engaged in street-level prostitution. Results of the study revealed that drug use not only spurs entry into prostitution, but also contributes to the tenure of prostitution. Further, social support and economic stability are plausible reasons for women remaining in prostitution. These findings lead us to recommendations for policy and program development. Women involved in prostitution are a highly marginalized population, rarely recognized as individuals with life histories. Understanding why women remain in prostitution is important, because until these determinants are known, intervention programs designed to interrupt the cycle, and ultimately prevent prostitution, cannot be formulated. PMID:21142598

Murphy, Lyn Stankiewicz

2010-12-01

77

Ethics, equity, and economics: a primer on women in medicine.  

PubMed

Women account for more than 70% of physician assistant (PA) students, 62% of practicing PAs, and 57% of faculty in PA programs. About half of all US medical students, 30% of actively practicing physicians, and 37% of faculty at academic medical centers are female. However, women in medicine are paid less than men for equal work effort and achieve fewer leadership positions within academia and medicine. Neglecting the skills and talents of women may lead to a workforce that fails to represent our patient and student populations. PMID:24758976

Essary, Alison C; Coplan, Bettie

2014-05-01

78

Women, Fertility and Economics: Fifty Years of Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a systematic review of the scientific literature on fertility and its relationship with economics. We explore theoretical and empirical frameworks developed in the last fifty years, emphasizing on the classical (Becker, Easterling) and unorthodox approaches (Bongaarts, Iannaccone, Lehrer). This literature review focused on journals of economics, sociology and demography indexed in the Journal Storage database (JSTOR), Elsevier’s

Felipe Del Río; Nelson Alvis; Martha Yánez; Raúl Quejada; Karina Acevedo

2010-01-01

79

Economic evaluation of drug abuse treatment and HIV prevention programs in pregnant women: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Drug abuse and transmission of HIV during pregnancy are major public health problems that adversely affect pregnant women, their children and surrounding communities. Programs that address this vulnerable population have the ability to be cost effective due to resulting cost savings for mother, child and society. Economic evaluations of programs that address these issues are an important tool to better understand the costs of services and create sustainable healthcare systems. This study critically examined economic evaluations of drug abuse treatment and HIV prevention programs in pregnant women. A systematic review was conducted using the criteria recommended by the Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine and the British Medical Journal (BMJ) checklist for economic evaluations. The search identified 6 economic studies assessing drug abuse treatment for pregnant women, and 12 economic studies assessing programs that focus on prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. Results show that many programs for drug abuse treatment and PMTCT among pregnant women are cost-effective or even cost-saving. This review identified several shortcomings in methodology and lack of standardization of current economic evaluations. Efforts to improve methodological challenges will help make future studies more comparable and have more influence on policy makers, clinicians and the public. PMID:21962429

Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Lazar, Christina M.

2011-01-01

80

The reduction of violent crime through economic equality for women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normally we do not link the reduction of violent crime with equal rights for women, this paper traces such a linkage. Central to the logic of this argument is that the distribution of the frequency of violent crime is often described by a bimodal curve which supposedly distinguishes between minor, unimportant offenders and a distinct group of serious offenders: the

Jim Hackler I

1991-01-01

81

Women, Economic Development And The Environment: Empirical Evidences From Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural women's participation in income generating activities and their interaction with the environment in the Sudan\\/Sahel regions of Nigeria was examined. Participatory Learning Model (PALM) Framework was used to collect information from a random sample of 330 females selected from the 11 States in the area. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics, per-caput energy model, total investment and cost

Nabinta R. T; S. Kuashwaha; R. M. Sani

82

Sex Preferences, Marital Dissolution and the Economic Status of Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American society is confronting the consequences of increase in divorce rates. There is substantial increase in households that are headed by a single female. The possible reasons for the rise in divorces and the labor market outcomes for women are analyzed. It is also noted that if the first-born is a girl, the marriage is less likely to…

Bedard, Kelly; Deschenes, Olivier

2005-01-01

83

Attitudes of women toward intimate partner violence: a study of rural women in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Predictors of rural women's attitudes in Nigeria toward intimate partner violence (IPV) were investigated using a random sample of rural women (n = 3911) aged 15-49 years from the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). Findings were suggestive of social, religious, and cultural influences in the women's attitudes towards IPV. Women resident in the three northern regions, the South South region, Muslim women, women with low levels of education and low household wealth were more likely to tolerate IPV. This is reflective of the socio-economic disadvantages they face, as well as the cultural and religious restrictions imposed on these women. PMID:18842071

Antai, Diddy E; Antai, Justina B

2008-01-01

84

Cultural and socio-economic factors on changes in aging among Iranian women.  

PubMed

The aim of the study is to determine the cultural and socio-economic factors that influence changes in aging among Iranian women. This qualitative study was part of a more extensive study designed according to grounded theory method. A purposeful, snowball and theoretical sampling technique was used. Data collection instruments were interviews and field notes. Duration of interviews differed and ranged from 38 to 110 minutes. Data collection process, coding and analysis were performed simultaneously. Collected data were analyzed using the recommended method by Corbin and Straus (1998 and 2008). The factors were formed from 6 subcategories: cultural and socio-economic status in the past, urban/rural life, companionship status, beliefs and attitudes, higher responsibilities of women and women's financial capability. This study explained the various aspects of cultural and socio-economic changes in the elderly participants based on their real experiences. PMID:24762357

Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin

2014-05-01

85

The importance of eating rice: changing food habits among pregnant Indonesian women during the economic crisis.  

PubMed

This article presents qualitative and quantitative research findings on food habits of pregnant Indonesian women in relation to the economic crisis that arose in 1997. Between 1996 and 1998, dietary intakes were estimated for 450 pregnant women in Central Java. Between January and June 1999, four focus group discussions, 16 in-depth interviews and four non-participant observations were held with women, two in-depth interviews were held with traditional birth attendants, and four with midwives. Women were categorized as urban or rural, rich or poor, and according to rice field ownership. The women reported that before the crisis they bought more foods and cooked more meals and snacks. During the crisis, cooking methods became simpler and cooking tasty foods was more important than cooking nutritious foods. This involved using plenty of spices and cooking oil, but reducing the use of expensive nutritious foods. The herbal drink jamu was drunk by 15% of pregnant women; its consumption was lower during than before the economic crisis. Twenty-six percent of the women avoided certain foods due to food taboos, and most of these women avoided beneficial foods; this phenomenon decreased during the crisis among the rich and the rural, poor, landless women. In spite of increased prices for rice, women did not decrease their rice consumption during the crisis because rice was believed to have the highest value for survival, to provide strength during pregnancy and delivery, and to be easier to store and cook. Finally, children and husbands had highest priority in being served food, and women were the last to eat. PMID:15847972

Hartini, T Ninuk S; Padmawati, R Siwi; Lindholm, Lars; Surjono, Achmad; Winkvist, Anna

2005-07-01

86

Women of the Sisters' Hall: religion and the making of women's alternative space in Taiwan's economic restructuring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against the background of Taiwan's recent economic restructuring, this article investigates the lives of a group of working-class women who were believers of I-Kuan Tao, a sectarian religion, and who had by and large decided to remain single in order to better practice their religious teaching. They lived together in an I-Kuan Tao temple. This article situates singlehood in the

Anru Lee

2008-01-01

87

Burnout among women: associations with demographic\\/socio-economic, work, life-style and health factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This study examined the occurrence of low\\/high burnout among women and the demographic\\/socio-economic, work, life-style, and\\u000a health “correlates” of high burnout. The sample consisted of 6.000 randomly selected women from the general population, of\\u000a which 3.591 participated. The design was cross-sectional. The univariate analyses showed that about 21% of the women had high\\u000a burnout, and compared to those with low

J. J. F. Soares; G. Grossi; Ö. Sundin

2007-01-01

88

Women's roundtable discussion on the economic, social and political impacts of the Southeast Asian financial crisis.  

PubMed

This article summarizes the main issues revealed at a women's roundtable discussion on the Economic, Social, and Political Impacts of the Southeast Asian Financial Crisis. The discussion was organized by the Development Alternatives of Women for the New Era (DAWN) and was held during April 12-14, 1998, in Manila, the Philippines. The aim was to explore the effects of the financial crisis and its management by states and multilateral agencies on women's political, economic, cultural, and social status; and to reach regional understanding of new issues for the women's movement in Asia and to identify areas of advocacy. Participants included women scholars and activists from Southeast, East, and South Asia; Africa; the Caribbean; Latin America; and the Pacific. Participants came from a wide variety of backgrounds. Nine issues were emphasized. For example, some predicted the currency devaluation before July 1997. The financial crisis is linked with globalization. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the primary institution for addressing the financial crisis. IMF conditions on inflation rates and budget surpluses are recessionary and government budget oriented. The crisis has exposed cronyism and corruption within capitalism. Patriarchal values have reemerged as Asian values. Women have lost jobs and income, while the cost of living continues to increase. Prostitution has become more acceptable as legitimate work. Women's human rights are not legally protected. State ideology assumes domestic and sex roles. Issues in each region are identified. 14 key issues pertain to all regions. PMID:12179933

Kelkar, G

1998-01-01

89

The Economic Contributions of Women in a Rural Western Navajo Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines and enumerates economic changes that have occurred in the traditional rural Navajo community of Shonto. While women's net income contributions to Shonto's economy has declined, their position has seen only a slight erosion; their activities (sheep and goat husbandry, agriculture, arts and crafts) are still considered necessary and…

Russell, Scott C.; McDonald, Mark B.

1982-01-01

90

Family Equity at Issue: A Study of the Economic Consequences of Divorce on Women and Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implemented in the 1970s, Alaska's system of "no fault" divorce creates economic hardships for women and children instead of providing greater family equity. The study site selected was Anchorage because its demographic profile generally reflects the statewide profile, necessary court records are accessible and more than one-half of all Alaskan…

Baker, Barbara

91

Household economic strategies and nutritional anthropometry of women in American Samoa and highland Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares findings from research projects involving different genetic, environmental, and cultural contexts: a study of lifestyle and health from American Samoa (ASLS) and the Bolivian project, Reproduction and Ecology in Provincia Aroma (REPA). This paper presents analyses of varying economic strategies and their association with nutritional status indicators in each population. The ASLS sample includes 66 Samoan women

James R. Bindon; Virginia J. Vitzthum

2002-01-01

92

The Economic Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse for Adult Lesbian Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study extends investigation of the long-term consequences of child sexual abuse into the workplace and considers the economic effects on Lesbian women as determined by the National Lesbian Health Care Survey. It considers the effects of child sexual abuse on four spheres of a woman's life: her physical health, mental health, educational…

Hyman, Batya

2000-01-01

93

Food patterns during an economic crisis among pregnant women in Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted between 1996 and 1998. Six 24-hour recalls were performed during the second trimester of pregnancy among 450 women in Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia. The objectives of the study were to assess the food intake and food pattern among pregnant women before and during the economic crisis. Before the crisis, rich women had the highest intakes of animal foods, fats and oils, and sugar. Food intake among the urban poor and the rural landless poor subgroups was influenced by the emerging economic crisis. Although the price of rice increased, the intake of rice also increased among all subgroups. Rural poor women with access to rice fields increased their intake of rice and decreased their intake of nonrice staple foods (p < .05). There were significant decreases in the consumption of chicken by rich women and rural poor women with access to rice fields (p < .05). Rice was a strongly inferior good and remained an important supplier of energy, protein, and carbohydrate. Nuts and pulses were important suppliers of calcium and iron, and vegetables were an important supplier of vitamin A. Rich women increased their intake of nuts and pulses, vegetables, fats and oils, and sugar when their intake of rice increased (p < .05). The food patterns were based on rice, nuts and pulses, and vegetables, i.e., plant food. All but the rich women decreased their intake of nutritious foods such as meat, chicken, and fruits. The intake of nuts and pulses and of vegetables increased, whereas the intake of cooking oil and sugar remained constant. PMID:14564930

Hartini, Theresia Ninuk; Winkvist, Anna; Lindholm, Lars; Stenlund, Hans; Surjono, Achmad

2003-09-01

94

A Longitudinal Study of the Effect of Integrated Literacy and Basic Education Programs on Women's Participation in Social and Economic Development in Nepal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Nepal, Girls' and Women's Education Initiative and the Girls' and Women's Education Policy Research Activity (GWE-PRA) investigated the impact of women's integrated literacy programs in the country's development by examining measures of socio-economic status, as well as indicators of women's social and economic development, including" (1)…

Burchfield, Shirley; Hua, Haiyan; Baral, Dyuti; Rocha, Valeria

95

The role of sexual violence in creating and maintaining economic insecurity among asset-poor women of color.  

PubMed

This article argues that economic instability and sexual violence reinforce each other in two ways. First, the devastating psychological consequences of sexual assault can diminish work performance and disrupt income, creating economic instability, particularly for the asset-poor. Latina and African American women face particular risk due to barriers to appropriate post-assault resources and low rates of asset ownership. Second, income- and asset poverty increase women's risk for sexual violence and complicate recovery. Women with financial and social resources can leverage these assets to both avoid and recover from sexual assault, whereas women without such resources lack these options. Policy solutions are proposed. PMID:25288596

Loya, Rebecca M

2014-11-01

96

Overweight and Obesity among Women by Economic Stratum in Urban India  

PubMed Central

Using data of the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 2005-2006, this study examined the prevalence of overweight and obesity among women from different economic strata in urban India. The study used a separate wealth index for urban India constructed using principal components analysis (PCA). The result shows that prevalence of overweight and obesity is very high in urban areas, more noticeably among the non-poor households. Furthermore, overweight and obesity increase with age, education, and parity of women. The results of multinomial logistic regression show that non-poor women are about 2 and 3 times more at risk of being overweight and obese respectively. Marital status and media exposure are the other covariates associated positively with overweight and obesity. Thus, the growing demand which now appears before the Government or urban health planners is to address this rising urban epidemic with equal importance as given to other issues in the past. PMID:24847596

Prusty, Ranjan Kumar

2014-01-01

97

Women Are "The Key to Progress." The Situation of Women in Developing Countries and German Efforts To Improve Their Situation. IN Visitors' Information Special Report, SO 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women in developing countries carry out three-quarters of all work in rural areas, are often exposed to great health risks through frequent childbirth, and are disadvantaged compared with men in education and training. Modernization has burdened women with new responsibilities and more work but has improved health care. The economic and social…

Krugmann-Randolf, Inga

98

The Gifted Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes an enrichment program for gifted disadvantaged children (ages 5-15) in Tel Aviv, Israel. The program had both neighborhood programs and activities/programs outside the child's neighborhood including a summer camp program. Evaluation indicated substantial IQ increases after three semesters. (DB)

Landau, Erika

1987-01-01

99

Reconnecting Disadvantaged Young Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By several recent counts, the United States is home to 2 to 3 million youth age 16 through 24 who are out of school and out of work. Much has been written on disadvantaged youth, and government policy has gone through many incarnations, yet questions remain unanswered. Why are so many young people "disconnected," and what can public policy do…

Holzer, Harry; Edelman, Peter; Offner, Paul

2006-01-01

100

ENGLISH AND THE DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PART 1 OF THIS COLLECTION OF ARTICLES BY THE STAFF AND PARTICIPANTS OF AN NDEA SUMMER INSTITUTE IN ENGLISH FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH DESCRIBES ATTITUDES AND VIEWPOINTS ON THE PLACE OF ENGLISH IN THE DAILY LIVES OF STUDENTS AND CONTAINS ARTICLES ON "ENGLISH FOR WHAT" BY CHARLES WEINGARTNER, "ENGLISH TEACHING AND DROP-OUTS" AND "ENGLISH AND THE…

FAGAN, EDWARD R., ED.

101

Theme: Teaching Academically Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Will We Serve the Academically Disadvantaged?" (Iverson); "Using Centers of Learning to Reach Academically Disadvantaged Students" (Gentry); "Georgia's Special Lamb Project Adoption Program" (Farmer); "Teacher Expectations" (Powers); "Providing Instruction for Special Populations" (Jewell); and "The Educational Reform Movement and…

Iverson, Maynard J.; And Others

1993-01-01

102

Health and nutrition economics: diet costs are associated with diet quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WHO asserts that the global food price crisis threatens public health and jeopardizes the health of the most disadvantaged groups such as women, children, the elderly and low-income families. Economic factors play a crucial role and could affect personal nutrition status and health. Economic decision factors such as food price and income do influence people's food choices. Moreover, food

Yuan-Ting Lo MPH; Yu-Hung Chang; Meei-Shyuan Lee; Mark L Wahlqvist

103

Educational Inequalities in Women’s Depressive Symptoms: The Mediating Role of Perceived Neighbourhood Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Socio-economically disadvantaged (e.g., less educated) women are at a greater risk of depression compared to less disadvantaged women. However, little is known regarding the factors that may explain socioeconomic inequalities in risk of depression. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of perceived neighbourhood factors in mediating the relationship between education and women’s risk of depression. Cross-sectional data were provided by 4,065 women (aged 18–45). Women self-reported their education level, depressive symptoms (CES-D 10), as well as four neighbourhood factors (i.e., interpersonal trust, social cohesion, neighbourhood safety, and aesthetics). Single and multiple mediating analyses were conducted. Clustering by neighbourhood of residence was adjusted by using a robust estimator of variance. Multiple mediating analyses revealed that interpersonal trust was the only neighbourhood characteristic found to partly explain the educational inequalities in women’s depressive symptoms. Social cohesion, neighbourhood aesthetics and safety were not found to mediate this relationship. Acknowledging the cross-sectional nature of this study, findings suggest that strategies to promote interpersonal trust within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods may help to reduce the educational inequalities in risk of depression amongst women. Further longitudinal and intervention studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:23330219

Teychenne, Megan; Ball, Kylie; Salmon, Jo

2012-01-01

104

Making a livelihood at the fish-landing site: exploring the pursuit of economic independence amongst Ugandan women.  

PubMed

Qualitative life history data were used to explore the experiences of women who live at five fish-landing sites on Lake Victoria, Uganda. We explored what economic and social opportunities women have in order to try to understand why some women are more vulnerable to violence and other risks than others and why some women are able to create successful enterprises while others struggle to make a living. The ability of women to create a viable livelihood at the landing sites was influenced by a wide variety of factors. Women who had or were able to access capital when they arrived at the landing site to set up their own enterprise had a significant advantage over those who did not, particularly in avoiding establishing sexual relationships in order to get support. Being able to establish their own business enabled women to avoid lower paid and more risky work such as fish processing and selling or working in bars. The development of landing sites and the leisure industry may be having an impact on how women earn money at the landing sites, with the most desirable economic opportunities not necessarily being connected directly to fishing. PMID:25400694

Pearson, Georgina; Barratt, Caroline; Seeley, Janet; Ssetaala, Ali; Nabbagala, Georgina; Asiki, Gershim

2013-11-01

105

The Long Term Economic Impact of Severe Obstetric Complications for Women and Their Children in Burkina Faso  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the long term economic impact of severe obstetric complications for women and their children in Burkina Faso, focusing on measures of food security, expenditures and related quality of life measures. It uses a hospital based cohort, first visited in 2004/2005 and followed up four years later. This cohort of 1014 women consisted of two main groups of comparison: 677 women who had an uncomplicated delivery and 337 women who experienced a severe obstetric complication which would have almost certainly caused death had they not received hospital care (labelled a “near miss” event). To analyze the impact of such near miss events as well as the possible interaction with the pregnancy outcome, we compared household and individual level indicators between women without a near miss event and women with a near miss event who either had a live birth, a perinatal death or an early pregnancy loss. We used propensity score matching to remove initial selection bias. Although we found limited effects for the whole group of near miss women, the results indicated negative impacts: a) for near miss women with a live birth, on child development and education, on relatively expensive food consumption and on women’s quality of life; b) for near miss women with perinatal death, on relatively expensive foods consumption and children’s education and c) for near miss women who had an early pregnancy loss, on overall food security. Our results showed that severe obstetric complications have long lasting consequences for different groups of women and their children and highlighted the need for carefully targeted interventions. PMID:24224028

Ilboudo, Patrick G. C.; Russell, Steve; D’Exelle, Ben

2013-01-01

106

Demographic and socio-economic status of women in different family structures in a rural area of south India.  

PubMed

The authors study "women's demographic and socio-economic position in different family types...[using data] from a sample survey conducted in a rural area of Tamil Nadu [India] during May and June of 1988....Comparison of demographic characteristics of ever-married women in the reproductive age, such as marital status, age, marriage duration, age at marriage and living children, and socio-economic characteristics, such as educational status, occupational status, per capita annual income of the family and number of rooms in the house, is made between family types." PMID:12345797

Padmini, I K; Krishnamoorthy, S

1994-01-01

107

Perceived quality and availability of fruit and vegetables are associated with perceptions of fruit and vegetable affordability among socio-economically disadvantaged women. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

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108

China's one-child policy: the economic choices and consequences faced by pregnant women.  

PubMed

This paper addresses the important issue of the effect of China's one-child policy on prenatal and obstetric care utilization. The paper provides the first detailed empirical approach to this question, exploiting a unique high quality household survey. China officially codified a set of rules and regulations in 1979 governing the approved size of Chinese families, commonly known as the one-child policy. The policy imposed economic and social costs on families failing to adhere to the family size limits. In particular, the policy raised the price of obstetric medical services for unapproved pregnancies in comparison to approved pregnancies and imposed fines on families with unapproved births. Using data from an eight-province longitudinal household survey (The China Health and Nutrition Survey), we investigate whether or not the one-child policy's financial penalties were associated with the avoidance of obstetric care by pregnant Chinese women with unapproved pregnancies. The one-child policy variables of particular interest were a dichotomous measure of the approval status of the pregnancy, a continuous measure of the fine imposed upon families with unapproved births, and a continuous measure of the prices of prenatal care and delivery services net of any subsidy available for approved births. The results partially confirm the hypotheses that the one-child policy's economic and social costs caused women to forego seeking modern obstetric care services. The fine was found to be a significant deterrent to the utilization of prenatal care. Additionally, the unapproved-status of a pregnancy was strongly negatively associated with "the use of obstetric care. However, higher prices were not consistently found to be a significant deterrent to the use of obstetric care. PMID:11218178

Doherty, J P; Norton, E C; Veney, J E

2001-03-01

109

The long term economic impact of severe obstetric complications for women and their children in Burkina Faso.  

PubMed

This study investigates the long term economic impact of severe obstetric complications for women and their children in Burkina Faso, focusing on measures of food security, expenditures and related quality of life measures. It uses a hospital based cohort, first visited in 2004/2005 and followed up four years later. This cohort of 1014 women consisted of two main groups of comparison: 677 women who had an uncomplicated delivery and 337 women who experienced a severe obstetric complication which would have almost certainly caused death had they not received hospital care (labelled a "near miss" event). To analyze the impact of such near miss events as well as the possible interaction with the pregnancy outcome, we compared household and individual level indicators between women without a near miss event and women with a near miss event who either had a live birth, a perinatal death or an early pregnancy loss. We used propensity score matching to remove initial selection bias. Although we found limited effects for the whole group of near miss women, the results indicated negative impacts: a) for near miss women with a live birth, on child development and education, on relatively expensive food consumption and on women's quality of life; b) for near miss women with perinatal death, on relatively expensive foods consumption and children's education and c) for near miss women who had an early pregnancy loss, on overall food security. Our results showed that severe obstetric complications have long lasting consequences for different groups of women and their children and highlighted the need for carefully targeted interventions. PMID:24224028

Ilboudo, Patrick G C; Russell, Steve; D'Exelle, Ben

2013-01-01

110

The Impact of Social Institutions on the Economic Role of Women in Developing Countries. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 234  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Donor agencies and policy makers tend to agree that increased access of women to education, health, credit, formal legal rights and employment opportunities, in conjunction with economic growth, will substantially improve the socio-economic role of women in developing countries. This paper challenges that view. It argues that these measures might…

Morrisson, Christian; Jutting, Johannes

2004-01-01

111

Marital Quality for Men and Women in Stepfamilies: Examining the Role of Economic Pressure, Common Stressors, and Stepfamily-Specific Stressors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although economic pressure and family stress models have been examined with samples of men and women in first marriages, previous models have neglected to focus on men and women in stepfamilies and to examine stress sources unique to stepfamilies. This study examines the effect of economic pressure on both common stressors and stepfamily-specific…

Schramm, David G.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca

2012-01-01

112

Women Empowerment and Participation in Economic Activities: Indispensable Tools for Self-Reliance and Development of Nigerian Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of the study was to examine women empowerment and participation in economic activities as tools for self-reliance and development of the Nigerian society. Research questions and hypothesis were used to guide the study. Structured questionnaire was used as the major instrument for data collection. Copies of questionnaires were…

E. N., Ekesionye; A. N., Okolo

2012-01-01

113

Socio-economic factors associated with maternal health-seeking behaviours among women from poor households in rural Egypt.  

PubMed

IntroductionSocio-economic inequalities in basic maternal health interventions exist in Egypt, yet little is known about health-seeking of poor households. This paper assesses levels of maternal health-seeking behaviours in women living in poor households in rural Upper Egypt, and compares these to national averages. Secondly, we construct innovative measures of socio-economic resourcefulness among the rural poor in order to examine the association between the resulting variables and the four dimensions of maternal health-seeking behaviour.MethodsWe analysed a cross-sectional survey conducted in Assiut and Sohag governorates in 2010¿2011 of 2,242 women in households below the poverty line in 65 poorest villages in Egypt. The associations between four latent socio-economic constructs (socio-cultural resourcefulness, economic resourcefulness, dwelling quality and woman¿s status) and receipt of any antenatal care (ANC), regular ANC (four or more visits), facility delivery and private sector delivery for women¿s most recent pregnancy in five years preceding survey were assessed using multivariate logistic regression.ResultsIn the sample, 58.5% of women reported using any ANC and 51.1% facility delivery, lower than national coverage (74.2% and 72.4%, respectively). The proportion of ANC users receiving regular ANC was lower (67%) than nationally (91%). Among women delivering in facilities, 18% of women in the poor Upper Egypt sample used private providers (63% nationally). In multivariate analysis, higher economic resourcefulness was associated with higher odds of receiving ANC but with lower odds of facility delivery. Socio-cultural resourcefulness was positively associated with receiving any ANC, regular ANC and facility delivery, whereas it was not associated with private delivery care. Dwelling quality was positively associated with private delivery facility use. Woman¿s status was not independently associated with any of the four behaviours.ConclusionsCoverage of basic maternal health interventions and utilisation of private providers are lower among rural poor women in Upper Egypt than nationally. Variables capturing socio-cultural resourcefulness and economic resourcefulness were useful predictors of ANC and facility delivery. Further understanding of issues surrounding availability, affordability and quality of maternal health services among the poor is crucial to eliminating inequalities in maternal health coverage in Egypt. PMID:25424200

Benova, Lenka; Campbell, Oona; Sholkamy, Hania; Ploubidis, George B

2014-11-25

114

Opening Opportunities for Disadvantaged Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contents of this book include: "Urban environment in the 1970's," A. Harry Passow; "Educational strategies and the disadvantaged," S.M. Miller and Pamela Roby; "A critique of the concept of 'compensatory education,'" Basil Bernstein; "Early childhood education for the disadvantaged," Helen Robison; "Up from poverty: the price of 'making it' in a…

Passow, A. Harry, Ed.

115

Advancing social and economic development by investing in women's and children's health: a new Global Investment Framework.  

PubMed

A new Global Investment Framework for Women's and Children's Health demonstrates how investment in women's and children's health will secure high health, social, and economic returns. We costed health systems strengthening and six investment packages for: maternal and newborn health, child health, immunisation, family planning, HIV/AIDS, and malaria. Nutrition is a cross-cutting theme. We then used simulation modelling to estimate the health and socioeconomic returns of these investments. Increasing health expenditure by just $5 per person per year up to 2035 in 74 high-burden countries could yield up to nine times that value in economic and social benefits. These returns include greater gross domestic product (GDP) growth through improved productivity, and prevention of the needless deaths of 147 million children, 32 million stillbirths, and 5 million women by 2035. These gains could be achieved by an additional investment of $30 billion per year, equivalent to a 2% increase above current spending. PMID:24263249

Stenberg, Karin; Axelson, Henrik; Sheehan, Peter; Anderson, Ian; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Temmerman, Marleen; Mason, Elizabeth; Friedman, Howard S; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Lawn, Joy E; Sweeny, Kim; Tulloch, Jim; Hansen, Peter; Chopra, Mickey; Gupta, Anuradha; Vogel, Joshua P; Ostergren, Mikael; Rasmussen, Bruce; Levin, Carol; Boyle, Colin; Kuruvilla, Shyama; Koblinsky, Marjorie; Walker, Neff; de Francisco, Andres; Novcic, Nebojsa; Presern, Carole; Jamison, Dean; Bustreo, Flavia

2014-04-12

116

The Role of Economic Factors on Women's Risk for Intimate Partner Violence: A Cross-National Comparison of Canada and the United States.  

PubMed

National data from Canada and the United States are used to examine the connection between women's economic contributions to the family and their risk for physical and emotional abuse. Analyses show that American women are at a twofold greater risk; however, the relationship between economic variables and the risk of both physical violence and coercive control are more complex. Income serves to reduce the risk of both violence and coercive control for both Canadian and American women, whereas education serves as a clear protective factor for American women, but does not provide the same benefit for Canadian women. PMID:25540258

Kaukinen, Catherine Elizabeth; Powers, Ráchael A

2015-02-01

117

Sweeping out Home Economics: Curriculum Reform at Connecticut College for Women, 1952-1962  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the moment of its founding in 1911, Connecticut College for Women exhibited a curricular tension between an emphasis on the liberal arts, which mirrored the elite men's and women's colleges of the day, and vocational aspects, which made it a different type of women's college, one designed to prepare women for the kind of lives they would lead…

Marthers, Paul Philip

2011-01-01

118

48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a small disadvantaged business, unless the Contractor...Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Report...accomplished through using the Electronic Subcontracting Reporting...System's Small Disadvantaged Business Participation...

2013-10-01

119

48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...a small disadvantaged business, unless the Contractor...Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Report...accomplished through using the Electronic Subcontracting Reporting...System's Small Disadvantaged Business Participation...

2011-10-01

120

48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...a small disadvantaged business, unless the Contractor...Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Report...accomplished through using the Electronic Subcontracting Reporting...System's Small Disadvantaged Business Participation...

2012-10-01

121

Social characteristics of psychological distress in a disadvantaged urban area of Kazakhstan.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to systematically assess the association of socio-economic characteristics and psychological distress in a disadvantaged urban area of a post-Soviet Republic. Psychological distress was assessed in a random sample of 200 persons, aged 18-57, living in a disadvantaged urban area of Kazakhstan using the General Health Questionnaire with 28 items (GHQ-28). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the association of social characteristics and psychological distress. Female gender (P < 0.05), living without a partner (P < 0.01), higher age (P < 0.01), unemployment (P < 0.01), and low perceived income (P < 0.05) were associated with psychological distress in multivariate analyses. Non-Kazakh ethnicity (P < 0.05) was linked with psychological distress in bivariate analyses. The educational level was not significantly associated with psychological distress. Women, aged 38-57, living without partner and with low access to financial resources, were at a very high risk of psychological distress. Possibly due to social drift or status inconsistency, higher educational levels were not associated with lower levels of psychological distress in the disadvantaged area. PMID:23712308

Ignatyev, Yuriy; Assimov, Marat; Dochshanov, Dauren; Ströhle, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas; Mundt, Adrian P

2014-01-01

122

Educational Advancement and Socio-Economic Participation of Women in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational advancement of women in India is not perceived as an important characteristic since education is perceived as irrelevant to their roles. The equality of women in status and opportunity is guaranteed in the 1955 Constitution of India and by the government. Although achievements by women in the local and national levels exist, a…

Doraiswami, Smt. S.

123

Economic crisis, immigrant women and changing availability of intimate partner violence services: a qualitative study of professionals¿ perceptions in Spain.  

PubMed

IntroductionSince 2008, Spain has been in the throes of an economic crisis. This recession particularly affects the living conditions of vulnerable populations, and has also led to a reversal in social policies and a reduction in resources. In this context, the aim of this study was to explore intimate partner violence (IPV) service providers¿ perceptions of the impact of the current economic crisis on these resources in Spain and on their capacity to respond to immigrant women¿s needs experiencing IPV.MethodsA qualitative study was performed based on 43 semi-structured in-depth interviews to social workers, psychologists, intercultural mediators, judges, lawyers, police officers and health professionals from different services dealing with IPV (both, public and NGO¿s) and cities in Spain (Barcelona, Madrid, Valencia and Alicante) in 2011. Transcripts were imported into qualitative analysis software (Atlas.ti), and analysed using qualitative content analysis.ResultsWe identified four categories related to the perceived impact of the current economic crisis: a) ¿Immigrant women have it harder now¿, b) ¿IPV and immigration resources are the first in line for cuts¿, c) ¿ Fewer staff means a less effective service¿ and d) ¿Equality and IPV policies are no longer a government priority¿. A cross-cutting theme emerged from these categories: immigrant women are triply affected; by IPV, by the crisis, and by structural violence.ConclusionThe professionals interviewed felt that present resources in Spain are insufficient to meet the needs of immigrant women, and that the situation might worsen in the future. PMID:25205287

Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Agudelo-Suarez, Andres A; Goicolea, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen

2014-09-10

124

NASA Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) within NASA promotes the utilization of small, disadvantaged, and women-owned small businesses in compliance with Federal laws, regulations, and policies. We assist such firms in obtaining contracts and subcontracts with NASA and its prime contractors. The OSDBU also facilitates the participation of small businesses in NASA's technology transfer and commercialization activities. Our driving philosophy is to consider small businesses as our products. Our customers are the NASA Enterprises, Field Centers, Functional Staff Offices, major prime contractors, and other large institutions. We hone the skills of our products to make them marketable to our customers in the performance of NASA missions.

2001-01-01

125

The evaluation of the JEWEL project: An innovative economic enhancement and HIV prevention intervention study targeting drug using women involved in prostitution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The JEWEL (Jewellery Education for Women Empowering Their Lives) pilot study examined the efficacy of an economic empowerment and HIV prevention intervention targeting illicit drug-using women (n=50) who were involved in prostitution in Baltimore, Maryland. The intervention was comprised of six 2-hour sessions that taught HIV prevention risk reduction and the making, marketing and selling of jewellery. Bivariate comparisons examined

S. G. Sherman; D. German; Y. Cheng; M. Marks; M. Bailey-Kloche

2006-01-01

126

Ping-Pong and the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everyone experiences disadvantages in life. Some disadvantages are the result of forces largely beyond the control of any one individual, including genetic, political, social, and historical disadvantages which no amount of trying is apt to overcome. Some disadvantages are self-inflicted, including being deliberately narrow in viewpoint; avoiding…

Looper, Travis

127

Trends in Educational Disadvantage in Dutch Primary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central question in this study is whether the language and math delays of the different socio-economic and ethnic minority groups targeted by Dutch educational disadvantage policy have diminished or not. Data are from the years 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2008. Information from a total of 90,000 pupils in Grades 2 and 8 was selected to represent the…

Driessen, Geert; Merry, Michael S.

2014-01-01

128

Against the Odds: Disadvantaged Students Who Succeed in School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report explores the factors and conditions that could help more students succeed at school despite challenging socio-economic backgrounds. It does this by studying resilient students and what sets them apart from their less successful peers. Understanding how educational systems can support disadvantaged students and help them "beat the odds"…

OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

2011-01-01

129

Virtues of SIN: Can Intensified Public Efforts Help Disadvantaged Immigrants?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The labor market integration of immigrants is a top political priority throughout the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Social and fiscal gains, as well as sustained future labor supply make governments search for effective policies to increase employment among the mostly disadvantaged. The author studies SIN,…

Aslund, Olof; Johansson, Per

2011-01-01

130

The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response.…

Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

2013-01-01

131

The Early Childhood Education of Disadvantaged Children in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2010, the Chinese government has adopted a series of services and policies to provide early childhood education for disadvantaged children. The rapid economic development and urbanisation process since the mid-1980s have led to great changes in social structure and demographics in China. This creates new challenges for the education of…

Song, Zhanmei; Zhu, Jiaxiong; Xia, Zhuyun; Wu, Xin

2014-01-01

132

LEARNING PATTERNS IN THE DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

RESEARCH ON THE DEVELOPMENTAL ORIGINS OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN IS NOT AS IMPORTANT FOR SCHOOL PEOPLE AS IS SCHOOL-BASED RESEARCH. SUCH STUDIES FOCUS ON A TASK ANALYSIS APPROACH WHICH WOULD MATCH THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A STUDENTS BEHAVIOR WITH INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES. ONE SPECIFIC PIECE OF RESEARCH STUDIED THE EFFECTS OF…

LESSER, GERALD S.; STODOLSKY, SUSAN S.

133

The Economic Legacy of Divorce and Separation for Women in Old Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although progress has been made over the last 20 years, the burden of a low income in old age is still carried by unattached women. Few researchers, however, have examined exactly where the burden of poverty falls within the category of unattached older women or what the nature of this poverty is. Like any other group of older Canadians,…

McDonald, Lynn; Robb, A. Leslie

2004-01-01

134

ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF WOMEN AND DIVISION OF SOCIAL AND FAMILY ROLES BETWEEN THE SEXES IN HUNGARY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our century revolutionary changes took place in the social situation of women in developed and semideveloped countries, especially in the European socialist societies. From the sociological point of view female emancipation means ensuring equal possibilities for women in attaining equal status in the social structure with that of males. The realization of factual social equality requires political and legal

Laszlo Molnar

1975-01-01

135

Gender Equity and Women Empowerment in Africa: The Education and Economic Globalization Nexus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Millennium Declaration resolves to promote gender equality and the empowerment of women as a basic human right. The Declaration\\u000a also maintains that giving women their fair share is the only way to effectively combat poverty, hunger, and disease and to\\u000a simulate development that is truly sustainable. Progress towards this goal is assessed by measuring gender equality in three\\u000a areas:

Macleans A. Geo-JaJa; Sara J. Payne; Pamela R. Hallam; Donald R. Baum

136

Estimated economic impact of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system on unintended pregnancy in active duty women.  

PubMed

Unintended pregnancy is reportedly higher in active duty women; therefore, we sought to estimate the potential impact of the levonorgestrel-containing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) could have on unintended pregnancy in active duty women. A decision tree model with sensitivity analysis was used to estimate the number of unintentional pregnancies in active duty women which could be prevented. A secondary cost analysis was performed to analyze the direct cost savings to the U.S. Government. The total number of Armed Services members is estimated to be over 1.3 million, with an estimated 208,146 being women. Assuming an age-standardized unintended pregnancy rate of 78 per 1,000 women, 16,235 unintended pregnancies occur each year. Using a combined LNG-IUS failure and expulsion rate of 2.2%, a decrease of 794, 1588, and 3970 unintended pregnancies was estimated to occur with 5%, 10% and 25% usage, respectively. Annual cost savings from LNG-IUS use range from $3,387,107 to $47,352,295 with 5% to 25% intrauterine device usage. One-way sensitivity analysis demonstrated LNG-IUS to be cost-effective when the cost associated with pregnancy and delivery exceeded $11,000. Use of LNG-IUS could result in significant reductions in unintended pregnancy among active duty women, resulting in substantial cost savings to the government health care system. PMID:25269131

Heitmann, Ryan J; Mumford, Sunni L; Hill, Micah J; Armstrong, Alicia Y

2014-10-01

137

The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…

Maroto, Michelle

2012-01-01

138

Toward improving identification of talent potential among minority and disadvantaged students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The under?inclusion of economically disadvantaged and children of minority cultures in programs for the gifted is well documented. Suggestions are made for the elements of anew paradigm for identifying talent potential in underserved populations. In coming to grips with more effective approaches to the identification and development of talents among minority and disadvantaged gifted, educators will better understand how to

A. Harry Passow; Mary M. Frasier

1996-01-01

139

Women's health.  

PubMed

Although women live longer than men, new evidence indicates women bear a disproportionately heavy burden of disease. The effect of disease on economic productivity of women in developing countries has been largely ignored. Infections are often causes of disease in women, including those that affect reproductive health. Although men and women usually experience similar rates of many diseases, rates of exposure and treatment vary between men and women. If untreated, factors adversely affecting women's health in one stage compound women's ill health in succeeding stages. PMID:7673671

Curlin, P; Tinker, A

1995-06-01

140

The Effect of Economic, Physical, and Psychological Abuse on Mental Health: A Population-Based Study of Women in the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Background. The comparative effect of economic abuse and other forms of abuse in predicting depression and other mental health disorders has not been previously investigated despite its relevance for mental illness prevention. Objective. To determine the differential association of economic abuse on psychological distress and suicide attempts. Study Design. We used cross-sectional data from women aged 15–49 years in the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) (N = 9,316). Results. Adjusting for sociodemographic confounders revealed positive associations between economic, physical, or psychological abuse and suicide attempts and psychological distress. Psychological and economic abuse were the strongest predictors of suicide attempts and psychological distress, respectively. Economic abuse was also negatively associated with psychological distress. Comorbidity with one mental health disorder greatly increased the odds of reporting the other mental health disorder. Conclusion. Overall, the results elucidate the differential effects of these forms of abuse on women's mental health. PMID:25525517

Antai, Diddy; Oke, Ayo; Braithwaite, Patrick; Lopez, Gerald Bryan

2014-01-01

141

Coresidence with Parents, Women's Economic Resources, and the Transition to Marriage in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrating three theoretical explanations for declining rates of marriage in Japan, the authors develop hypotheses in which linkages between benefits of coresidence with parents and marriage timing are moderated by women's own socioeconomic characteristics. To evaluate these hypothesized interactive relationships, data from a panel survey of…

Raymo, James M.; Ono, Hiromi

2007-01-01

142

The Future of Young Women's Economic Role in a Globalized Economy: New Opportunities, Persisting Constraints  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young women in advanced industrial countries have been outperforming young men in educational attainment at the same time that their labor market outcomes are still lagging. Sex segregation in education and the labor market is identified as an important source of this imbalance. In this article, the authors advance some thoughts about this…

Buchmann, Marlis; Malti, Tina

2012-01-01

143

Women, Work, and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines causes of women's disadvantage in the workplace and the inadequacies of career development models for women. Addresses themes related to women's learning at work: hidden curriculum in the work context, identity development, relationships and connection, and mentoring. (Contains 38 references.) (SK)

Bierema, Laura L.

2001-01-01

144

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

145

Exploring relations between crime and disadvantage on merseyside  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sets out some of the conceptual and methodological issues underpinning a two-year study into relations between crime and disadvantage in Merseyside, northwest England. The study forms part of the British Economic and Social Research Council's (ESRC) Crime and Social Order Research Programme; a five-year initiative with resources of 2.1 million pounds funding 21 separate projects (ESRC, 1994). Merseyside,

A. Hirschfield; K. J. Bowers; P. J. B. Brown

1995-01-01

146

Marriageable Women: A Focus on Participants in a Community Healthy Marriage Program  

PubMed Central

Although disadvantaged women are the targets of marriage programs, little attention has been paid to women's marriage constraints and their views of marriage. Drawing on an exchange framework and using qualitative data collected from single women participating in a marriage initiative, we introduce the concept of marriageable women—the notion that certain limitations may make women poor marriage partners. Like their male counterparts, we find women also possess qualities that are not considered assets in the marriage market, such as economic constraints, mental and physical health issues, substance use, multiple partner fertility, and gender distrust. We also consider how women participating in a marriage program frame their marriage options, whereas a few opt out of the marriage market altogether. PMID:23258947

Manning, Wendy D.; Trella, Deanna; Lyons, Heidi; Toit, Nola Cora Du

2012-01-01

147

Food subsidy programs and the health and nutritional status of disadvantaged families in high income countries: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Less healthy diets are common in high income countries, although proportionally higher in those of low socio-economic status. Food subsidy programs are one strategy to promote healthy nutrition and to reduce socio-economic inequalities in health. This review summarises the evidence for the health and nutritional impacts of food subsidy programs among disadvantaged families from high income countries. Methods Relevant studies reporting dietary intake or health outcomes were identified through systematic searching of electronic databases. Cochrane Public Health Group guidelines informed study selection and interpretation. A narrative synthesis was undertaken due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity of study design and outcomes. Results Fourteen studies were included, with most reporting on the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in the USA. Food subsidy program participants, mostly pregnant or postnatal women, were shown to have 10–20% increased intake of targeted foods or nutrients. Evidence for the effectiveness of these programs for men or children was lacking. The main health outcome observed was a small but clinically relevant increase in mean birthweight (23–29g) in the two higher quality WIC studies. Conclusions Limited high quality evidence of the impacts of food subsidy programs on the health and nutrition of adults and children in high income countries was identified. The improved intake of targeted nutrients and foods, such as fruit and vegetables, could potentially reduce the rate of non-communicable diseases in adults, if the changes in diet are sustained. Associated improvements in perinatal outcomes were limited and most evident in women who smoked during pregnancy. Thus, food subsidy programs for pregnant women and children should aim to focus on improving nutritional status in the longer term. Further prospective studies and economic analyses are needed to confirm the health benefits and justify the investment in food subsidy programs. PMID:23256601

2012-01-01

148

HANDBOOK, TEACHING SCIENCE TO EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DESCRIBED ARE PROCEDURES AND LABORATORY MATERIALS WHICH ARE OUTGROWTHS OF A RESEARCH PROJECT OF THE SOUTHEASTERN EDUCATION LABORATORY FOR THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE TO DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS IN GRADES 7, 8, AND 9. PART 1 DEALS WITH THE CRITERIA USED IN DEVELOPING PROCEDURES AND MATERIALS FOR USE WITH EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED. INCLUDED ARE (1) THE…

BINGHAM, N.E.; AND OTHERS

149

Interactions between microfinance programmes and non-economic empowerment of women associated with intimate partner violence in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aims to examine the associations between microfinance programme membership and intimate partner violence (IPV) in different socioeconomic strata of a nationally representative sample of women in Bangladesh. Methods The cross-sectional study was based on a nationally representative interview survey of 11?178 ever-married women of reproductive age (15–49?years). A total of 4465 women who answered the IPV-related questions were analysed separately using ?2 tests and Cramer's V as a measure of effect size to identify the differences in proportions of exposure to IPV with regard to microfinance programme membership, and demographic variables and interactions between microfinance programme membership and factors related to non-economic empowerment were considered. Results Only 39% of women were members of microfinance programmes. The prevalence of a history of IPV was 48% for moderate physical violence, 16% for severe physical violence and 16% for sexual violence. For women with secondary or higher education, and women at the two wealthiest levels of the wealth index, microfinance programme membership increased the exposure to IPV two and three times, respectively. The least educated and poorest groups showed no change in exposure to IPV associated with microfinance programmes. The educated women who were more equal with their spouses in their family relationships by participating in decision-making increased their exposure to IPV by membership in microfinance programmes. Conclusions Microfinance plans are associated with an increased exposure to IPV among educated and empowered women in Bangladesh. Microfinance firms should consider providing information about the associations between microfinance and IPV to the women belonging to the risk groups. PMID:24319278

Dalal, Koustuv; Dahlström, Örjan; Timpka, Toomas

2013-01-01

150

Promotion of Physical Activity Among Mexican-Origin Women in Texas and South Carolina: An Examination of Social, Cultural, Economic, and Environmental Factors  

PubMed Central

Interventions to improve physical activity levels among Latinos must take into consideration the social, cultural, economic, and environmental contexts of Latino communities. We report findings of formative assessments related to Mexican-origin women’s levels of readiness, willingness, and ability to participate in regular leisure time physical activity in two diverse locations, the Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley and the South Carolina Midlands. The ENLACE project employed a Community-Based Participatory Research approach. Formative assessment activities focused on identification of community assets and resources and exploration of community members’ experiences, opinions, values, preferences, and perceived needs related to physical activity. Data sources included windshield tours, walkability assessments of local neighborhoods; community inventory exercises, focus groups, and individual interviews. Barriers to regular physical activity included the dominance of work and family responsibilities, social norms, lack of social support, social isolation, environmental constraints, economics, and low levels of personal knowledge and motivation. PMID:21731409

Parra-Medina, Deborah; Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K.

2011-01-01

151

Women's Studies (undergraduate)  

E-print Network

348 Women's Studies (undergraduate) The Women's Studies Program offers an interdisciplinary course of study in the historical, economic, political, social and cultural experi- ence of women. The program courses in women's studies. Each semester the Women's Studies Department publishes a list of courses

Suzuki, Masatsugu

152

Neighborhood Effects on Health: Concentrated Advantage and Disadvantage  

PubMed Central

We investigate an alternative conceptualization of neighborhood context and its association with health. Using an index that measures a continuum of concentrated advantage and disadvantage, we examine whether the relationship between neighborhood conditions and health varies by socio-economic status. Using NHANES III data geo-coded to census tracts, we find that while largely uneducated neighborhoods are universally deleterious, individuals with more education benefit from living in highly educated neighborhoods to a greater degree than individuals with lower levels of education. PMID:20627796

Finch, Brian K.; Do, D. Phuong; Heron, Melonie; Bird, Chloe; Seeman, Teresa; Lurie, Nicole

2010-01-01

153

Maslow's Theories and Educating the Disadvantaged Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes Abraham Maslow's concepts of the organization of the personality with implications for educating the disadvantaged adult learner. Special attention is given to personality syndromes and the effect they have on the expression of behavior. (JOW)

Long, Jerry

1982-01-01

154

Optimizing secure communication standards for disadvantaged networks  

E-print Network

We present methods for optimizing standardized cryptographic message protocols for use on disadvantaged network links. We first provide an assessment of current secure communication message packing standards and their ...

Okano, Stephen Hiroshi

2009-01-01

155

A multilevel analysis of race, community disadvantage, and body mass index among adults in the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the contributions of both individual socioeconomic status (SES) and community disadvantage in explaining the higher body mass index (BMI) of black adults in the US. Data from a national survey of adults (1986 American's Changing Lives Study) were combined with tract-level community data from the 1980 census.Results of multilevel regression analyses showed that black women had an

Stephanie A. Robert; Eric N. Reither

2004-01-01

156

Trends in tooth loss in relation to socio-economic status among Swedish women, aged 38 and 50 years: repeated cross-sectional surveys 1968-2004  

PubMed Central

Background Oral diseases are a health problem worldwide. Differences in oral health status may vary with geographical locations, but also within the same country and between groups with different social backgrounds. The specific aims were to describe secular trends in oral health status regarding number of remaining teeth and also to describe differences in socio-economic status, among 38- and 50-year-old women, over a 36-year period. Methods Cross-sectional health surveys were performed at four occasions; 1968/69 (n?=?746), 1980/81 (n?=?532), 1992/93 (n?=?165) and 2004/05 (n?=?500), including randomly selected women aged 38 and 50 years. The number of teeth was determined using panoramic radiographs and self-reported measures of marital status, social class, educational level, and income were recorded. Results The mean number of teeth among women has increased significantly. The educational level has increased while fewer women are married/cohabiting over time. There has been a shift in the social group the women belong to, where proportionally more women were categorized in a higher social group in 2004/05 than in 1968/69. Moreover, there is a significant relationship between fewer teeth and a lower social group, and among the 50-year-old women, this was irrespective of examination year. However, multivariate analyses showed that the risk to be edentulous or not, or to have fewer remaining teeth was significantly higher for women of lower social group, or living alone, in all studies over the 36 year-period. This was independent of age group, even though the risk diminished over the study period. Conclusions Cohort comparisons of women aged 38 and 50 years during 36 years showed that dental status improved, with (i) a decreasing prevalence of edentulism and, (ii) an increasing number of remaining teeth in dentate individuals over time. Differences due to social group and education were still present, with more remaining teeth in the women in the higher social group. A time trend analysis indicated that in the later examination years the individuals had fewer teeth lost, irrespective of age, marital status and, social group. PMID:24195640

2013-01-01

157

Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent stress reactivity  

PubMed Central

Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African–American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). We found that concentrated disadvantage was associated with cortisol reactivity and this relationship was moderated by gender, such that higher concentrated disadvantage predicted higher cortisol reactivity and steeper recovery in boys but not in girls. Parental education, alone or as moderated by gender, did not predict reactivity or recovery, while neither education nor concentrated disadvantage predicted estimates of baseline cortisol. This finding is consistent with animal literature showing differential vulnerability, by gender, to the effects of adverse early experience on stress regulation and the differential effects of neighborhood disadvantage in adolescent males and females. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying SES differences in brain development and particularly reactivity to environmental stressors may vary across genders. PMID:23091454

Hackman, Daniel A.; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Hurt, Hallam; Farah, Martha J.

2012-01-01

158

Gender norms and economic empowerment intervention to reduce intimate partner violence against women in rural Côte d’Ivoire: a randomized controlled pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Gender-based violence against women, including intimate partner violence (IPV), is a pervasive health and human rights concern. However, relatively little intervention research has been conducted on how to reduce IPV in settings impacted by conflict. The current study reports on the evaluation of the incremental impact of adding “gender dialogue groups” to an economic empowerment group savings program on levels of IPV. This study took place in north and northwestern rural Côte d’Ivoire. Methods Between 2010 and 2012, we conducted a two-armed, non-blinded randomized-controlled trial (RCT) comparing group savings only (control) to “gender dialogue groups” added to group savings (treatment). The gender dialogue group consisted of eight sessions that targeted women and their male partner. Eligible Ivorian women (18+ years, no prior experience with group savings) were invited to participate. 934 out of 981 (95.2%) partnered women completed baseline and endline data collection. The primary trial outcome measure was an overall measure of past-year physical and/or sexual IPV. Past year physical IPV, sexual IPV, and economic abuse were also separately assessed, as were attitudes towards justification of wife beating and a woman’s ability to refuse sex with her husband. Results Intent to treat analyses revealed that compared to groups savings alone, the addition of gender dialogue groups resulted in a slightly lower odds of reporting past year physical and/or sexual IPV (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.47; not statistically significant). Reductions in reporting of physical IPV and sexual IPV were also observed (not statistically significant). Women in the treatment group were significantly less likely to report economic abuse than control group counterparts (OR?=?0.39; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.60, p?women, treatment women attending more than 75% of intervention sessions with their male partner were less likely to report physical IPV (a OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.94; p?=?.04) and report fewer justifications for wife beating (adjusted ??=?-1.14; 95% CI: -2.01, -0.28, p?=?0.01) ; and both low and high adherent women reported significantly decreased economic abuse (a OR: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.52, p?economic programming, because this type of combined intervention has potential to reduce levels of IPV. Additional large-scale intervention research is needed to replicate these findings. Trial registration Registration Number: NCT01629472. PMID:24176132

2013-01-01

159

The Possible Effects on Socio-Economic Inequalities of Introducing HPV Testing as Primary Test in Cervical Cancer Screening Programs  

PubMed Central

Background: Screening with HPV is more effective than Pap test in preventing cervical cancer. HPV as primary test will imply longer intervals and a triage test for HPV positive women. It will also permit the development of self-sampling devices. These innovations may affect population coverage, participation, and compliance to protocols, and likely in a different way for less educated, poorer, and disadvantaged women. Aim: To describe the impact on inequalities, actual or presumed, of the introduction of HPV-based screening. Methods: The putative HPV-based screening algorithm has been analyzed to identify critical points for inequalities. A systematic review of the literature has been conducted searching PubMed on HPV screening coverage, participation, and compliance. Results were summarized in a narrative synthesis. Results: Knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer was lower in women with low socio-economic status and in disadvantaged groups. A correct communication can reduce differences. Longer intervals will make it easier to achieve high-population coverage, but higher cost of the test in private providers could reduce the use of opportunistic screening by disadvantaged women. There are some evidences that inviting for HPV test instead of Pap increases participation, but there are no data on social differences. Self-sampling devices are effective in increasing participation and coverage. Some studies showed that the acceptability of self-sampling is higher in more educated women, but there is also an effect on hard-to-reach women. Communication of HPV positivity may increase anxiety and impact on sexual behaviors, the effect is stronger in low educated and disadvantaged women. Finally, many studies found indirect evidence that unvaccinated women are or will be more probably under-screened. Conclusion: The introduction of HPV test may increase population coverage, but non-compliance to protocols and interaction with opportunistic screening can increase the existing inequalities. PMID:24575388

Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Baldacchini, Flavia; Ronco, Guglielmo

2014-01-01

160

Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and adult disorders Why do children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families suffer  

E-print Network

Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and adult disorders 1 Why do children from socioeconomically children who experienced socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. Data come from 1,037 children born in Dunedin was associated with an increased risk of substance dependence and poor physical health in adulthood (sex

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

161

The Effect of Three Reinforcement Systems on Spelling Achievement Among Disadvantaged and Non-Disadvantaged Pupils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of three different types of reinforcement strategies on spelling achievement among a sample of disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged fourth grade public school pupils. The three reinforcement strategies employed involved a concrete reward (candy), a token or symbolic reward…

Quick, Custer R., Jr.

162

Gaining Access or Losing Ground? Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students in Undergraduate Engineering, 1994-2003  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expanding access to engineering for underrepresented groups has by and large focused on ethnicity/race and gender, with little understanding of socioeconomic disadvantages. In this study, we use economic, human, and cultural capital theories to frame and then describe access to undergraduate engineering degree programs and bachelor's degrees.…

Lundy-Wagner, Valerie C.; Veenstra, Cindy P.; Orr, Marisa K.; Ramirez, Nichole M.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Long, Russell A.

2014-01-01

163

Everybody's Problem: Novice Teachers in Disadvantaged Mexican Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the difficulties that novice teachers confront at two economically, socially, and academically disadvantaged schools in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The researchers employed the action research tradition. Problems were identified using participant observation during reflexive workshops conducted with novice teachers and…

Martínez, Nora H.

2014-01-01

164

The Displaced vs. the Disadvantaged: A Necessary Dichotomy? Occasional Paper 1994-2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current displaced worker initiative towers over the 30-year effort to bring the economically disadvantaged into the mainstream of the labor market. The Congressional Budget Office defines displacement as all workers 18 years of age and older who lose full-time employment due to slack work, job abolition, or plant closure. Major displaced…

Levitan, Sar A.; Mangum, Stephen L.

165

Identifying Rural Disadvantaged Gifted Students. Project SPRING: Special Populations Resource Information Network for the Gifted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was developed as part of a project to identify and serve the needs of gifted and talented economically disadvantaged elementary and secondary level populations. Section I presents a leader's manual for a workshop that discusses innovative procedures for identifying bright children in all cultures and populations. The workshop examines…

Spicker, Howard H.; Poling, S. Nancy

166

Quantifying Access Disadvantage and Gathering Information in Rural and Remote Localities: The Griffith Service Access Frame.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A purely geographic classification is not the best way to measure rural disadvantage in Australia. A service access model is described that incorporates the following elements: population center size; distance, time, and cost of travel to the service center; and a measure of the economic capacity of residents to overcome the cost of travel.…

Griffith, Dennis A.

2003-01-01

167

Dental Materials Advantages & Disadvantages PORCELAIN FUSED  

E-print Network

Dental Materials ­ Advantages & Disadvantages PORCELAIN FUSED TO METAL This type of porcelain for crowns and fixed bridges Advantages Good resistance to further decay if the restoration fits well Very for crowns and fixed bridges and some partial denture frameworks Advantages Good resistance to further decay

Klein, Ophir

168

Collective Bargaining, Transfer Rights, and Disadvantaged Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collective bargaining is common in American public education, but its consequences are poorly understood. We focus here on key contractual provisions--seniority-based transfer rights--that affect teacher assignments, and we show that these transfer rights operate to burden disadvantaged schools with higher percentages of inexperienced teachers. We…

Anzia, Sarah F.; Moe, Terry M.

2014-01-01

169

School Effectiveness and the Disadvantaged Schools Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Disadvantaged Schools Program (DSP) has been an important and integral part of education for many Australian students for over a decade. After reviewing eight school effectiveness variables, this paper argues that adding a new emphasis on academic success and cognitive skills will enhance the DSP program. Includes 3 tables and 20 references.…

Walker, Allan; Murphy, Joseph

1986-01-01

170

Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from Add Health, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community and school controls. Neighborhood violence…

Harding, David J.

2009-01-01

171

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED STATUS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE RECENT CONCERN FOR THE PROBLEMS OF THE POOR IS BEING REFLECTED IN CHANGES IN EDUCATIONAL THEORY AND PRACTICES. EDUCATORS NOW FEEL THAT THE DISADVANTAGED YOUTH IS EDUCABLE AND THAT IT IS THE SCHOOL'S RESPONSIBILITY TO EDUCATE HIM. THERE IS, HOWEVER, THE DANGER THAT THIS PRESENT CONCERN IS ONLY A "FAD" AND THUS WILL PASS. IN THEIR INCREASED…

RIESSMAN, FRANK

172

On William Julius Wilson's "Truly Disadvantaged."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A premise of this paper is that in his book "The Truly Disadvantaged" (1987), William Julius Wilson fails to recognize the effect of covert racism on the plight of the African American underclass. Wilson asserts that historical racism has contributed to the present predicament of the underclass, who have been abandoned in the ghettos by their…

Burns, John

173

Catholic Schools Serving Disadvantaged Students. Appendix C.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the achievement of disadvantaged students in Catholic schools and considers the costs of comparable educations. Catholic school students, especially minority students, outperform others on standardized tests, although Catholic school students are not equivalent to public school students. The Catholic school cost per student is lower than…

Coons, Susan

1997-01-01

174

Lightning protection systems: advantages and disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanics and interaction of lightning producing thunder clouds and earth, are discussed. Compared to the Franklin Air Terminal (rod) and Faraday Cage, the debatable advantages and disadvantages of the Early Streamer Emission Enhanced Ionizing Air Terminal, and Multipoint Discharge Systems, are examined along with conceptual future methods of lightning protection

D. W. Zipse

1993-01-01

175

Educational Issues of the Socially Disadvantaged Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though enrollment in elementary schools and national literacy rates have increased greatly in India since its independence in 1949, the number of dropouts and illiterate individuals will also continue to increase unless the needs of the socially disadvantaged are identified and met. The majority of the dropouts and the illiterates belong to…

Sreedhar, M. V.

176

Teenage Childbearing and Social Disadvantage: Unprotected Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Continues dialogue begun with two articles on teenage pregnancy and childbearing published in Family Relations in 1991 ("As the Pendulum Swings: Teenage Childbearing and Social Concern" and "Teenage Childbearing and Social and Reproductive Disadvantage: The Evolution of Complex Questions and the Demise of Simple Answers") and responds to previous…

Geronimus, Arline T.

1992-01-01

177

The effect of neighborhood disadvantage on the racial disparity in ovarian cancer-specific survival in a large hospital-based study in cook county, illinois.  

PubMed

This paper examines the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on racial disparities in ovarian cancer-specific survival. Despite treatment advances for ovarian cancer, survival remains shorter for African-American compared to White women. Neighborhood disadvantage is implicated in racial disparities across a variety of health outcomes and may contribute to racial disparities in ovarian cancer-specific survival. Data were obtained from 581 women (100 African-American and 481 White) diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between June 1, 1994, and December 31, 1998 in Cook County, IL, USA, which includes the city of Chicago. Neighborhood disadvantage score at the time of diagnosis was calculated for each woman based on Browning and Cagney's index of concentrated disadvantage. Cox proportional hazard models measured the association of self-identified African-American race with ovarian cancer-specific survival after adjusting for age, tumor characteristics, surgical debulking, and neighborhood disadvantage. There was a statistically significant negative association (-0.645) between ovarian cancer-specific survival and neighborhood disadvantage (p?=?0.008). After adjusting for age and tumor characteristics, African-American women were more likely than Whites to die of ovarian cancer (HR?=?1.59, p?=?0.003). After accounting for neighborhood disadvantage, this risk was attenuated (HR?=?1.32, p?=?0.10). These findings demonstrate that neighborhood disadvantage is associated with ovarian cancer-specific survival and may contribute to the racial disparity in survival. PMID:25657992

Peterson, Caryn E; Rauscher, Garth H; Johnson, Timothy P; Kirschner, Carolyn V; Freels, Sally; Barrett, Richard E; Kim, Seijeoung; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Joslin, Charlotte E; Davis, Faith G

2015-01-01

178

The Effect of Neighborhood Disadvantage on the Racial Disparity in Ovarian Cancer-Specific Survival in a Large Hospital-Based Study in Cook County, Illinois  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on racial disparities in ovarian cancer-specific survival. Despite treatment advances for ovarian cancer, survival remains shorter for African-American compared to White women. Neighborhood disadvantage is implicated in racial disparities across a variety of health outcomes and may contribute to racial disparities in ovarian cancer-specific survival. Data were obtained from 581 women (100 African-American and 481 White) diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between June 1, 1994, and December 31, 1998 in Cook County, IL, USA, which includes the city of Chicago. Neighborhood disadvantage score at the time of diagnosis was calculated for each woman based on Browning and Cagney’s index of concentrated disadvantage. Cox proportional hazard models measured the association of self-identified African-American race with ovarian cancer-specific survival after adjusting for age, tumor characteristics, surgical debulking, and neighborhood disadvantage. There was a statistically significant negative association (?0.645) between ovarian cancer-specific survival and neighborhood disadvantage (p?=?0.008). After adjusting for age and tumor characteristics, African-American women were more likely than Whites to die of ovarian cancer (HR?=?1.59, p?=?0.003). After accounting for neighborhood disadvantage, this risk was attenuated (HR?=?1.32, p?=?0.10). These findings demonstrate that neighborhood disadvantage is associated with ovarian cancer-specific survival and may contribute to the racial disparity in survival. PMID:25657992

Peterson, Caryn E.; Rauscher, Garth H.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Kirschner, Carolyn V.; Freels, Sally; Barrett, Richard E.; Kim, Seijeoung; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Joslin, Charlotte E.; Davis, Faith G.

2015-01-01

179

48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...contains small disadvantaged business (SDB) participation targets. The Contractor...requirement . If this contract contains SDB participation targets, the Contractor shall report on the participation of SDB concerns at contract completion,...

2010-10-01

180

Summer jobs reduce violence among disadvantaged youth.  

PubMed

Every day, acts of violence injure more than 6000 people in the United States. Despite decades of social science arguing that joblessness among disadvantaged youth is a key cause of violent offending, programs to remedy youth unemployment do not consistently reduce delinquency. This study tests whether summer jobs, which shift focus from remediation to prevention, can reduce crime. In a randomized controlled trial among 1634 disadvantaged high school youth in Chicago, assignment to a summer jobs program decreases violence by 43% over 16 months (3.95 fewer violent-crime arrests per 100 youth). The decline occurs largely after the 8-week intervention ends. The results suggest the promise of using low-cost, well-targeted programs to generate meaningful behavioral change, even with a problem as complex as youth violence. PMID:25477459

Heller, Sara B

2014-12-01

181

The advantages and disadvantages of being introduced  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced species, those dispersed outside their natural ranges by humans, now cause almost all biological invasions, i.e.,\\u000a entry of organisms into habitats with negative effects on organisms already there. Knowing whether introduction tends to give\\u000a organisms specific ecological advantages or disadvantages in their new habitats could help understand and control invasions.\\u000a Even if no specific species traits are associated with

Peter Alpert

2006-01-01

182

Lightning protection systems: advantages and disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful 200-year-old method of using a (Franklin) rod to collect, control, and convey to earth the awesome and destructive power of lightning has produced other controversial, potential alternate methods. The mechanics and interaction of lightning-producing thunderclouds and earth are discussed. Compared to the Franklin air terminal (rod) and Faraday cage method, the debatable advantages and disadvantages of the early

Donald W. Zipse

1994-01-01

183

Does Socio-Economic Status and Health Consciousness Influence How Women Respond to Health Related Messages in Media?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the past few decades, people have been increasingly exposed to health-related messages in the mass media, conveying recommendations for healthy lifestyles. The present study investigates whether these messages represent a stressor, and whether coping responses increase levels of motivation or levels of negative affect. A sample of 403 women

Iversen, Anette Christine; Kraft, Pal

2006-01-01

184

HIV-serostatus disclosure in the context of free antiretroviral therapy and socio-economic dependency: experiences among women living with HIV in Tanzania.  

PubMed

The worldwide implementation of free antiretroviral therapy (ART) raised great hopes among policy makers and health organisations about the positive changes it would bring about in attitudes and behaviours towards HIV and AIDS, as well as for infected people's lives. A change in illness perception was anticipated, leading to the hypothesis of a possible change in disclosure rates, patterns and the choice of significant others to inform. In the era of free treatment availability in the United Republic of Tanzania, we examined reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure among HIV-seropositive women enrolled on ART and their choice of significant others to inform. In so doing, we contribute to the necessary yet neglected debate about the social impact of ART on the lives of infected women. The study, for which an ethnographic cross-sectional pilot approach was chosen, was conducted at the Care and Treatment Center (CTC) at Bombo Regional Hospital (BRH) in Tanga city, Tanzania. Data presented here derive from participant observation, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews conducted with 59 HIV-seropositive women on ART. Interestingly, and despite treatment availability, the choice of significant others to inform, as well as reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure, mirror findings from previous studies conducted before the introduction of free ART. The main reason for non-disclosure was fear of discrimination. The hope for social, economic or health support was the main motivation for disclosure, followed by the need for a 'clinic companion' in order to receive ART, as requested by hospital staff. Nevertheless, healthcare staff were not unanimous in thinking that disclosure is always beneficial, thus the recommended extent of disclosure varied. ART and concomitant factors were raised as an entirely new and significant reason for disclosure by interviewees. Finally, findings confirm that despite ART, disclosure remains a highly stressful event for women. PMID:25388976

Bohle, Leah F; Dilger, Hansjörg; Groß, Uwe

2014-09-01

185

76 FR 5083 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OST-2010-0118] RIN 2105-AD75 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements AGENCY...the administration of the Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE) program by increasing...certification, adding provisions to foster small business participation, improving...

2011-01-28

186

Women’s identity-related participation and engagement in literacy courses in Turkey   

E-print Network

This dissertation explores women’s participation and engagement in literacy courses from an identity perspective within the broader context of women’s life stories and the socio-cultural, economic and institutional ...

Yazlik, Ozlem

2014-07-04

187

Education and Social Crisis; Perspectives on Teaching Disadvantaged Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of readings presents 49 papers published between 1959 and 1965. The volume is organized into three parts: (1) cultural values and family life of disadvantaged youth; (2) problems facing disadvantaged youth in the schools; and (3) programs and progress in meeting the educational needs of disadvantaged youth. Introductions by the…

Keach, Everett T., Jr., Ed.; And Others

188

Disadvantages of Preferential Dispersals in Fluctuating Environments  

E-print Network

It has not been known whether preferential dispersal is adaptive in fluctuating environments. We investigate the effect of preferential and random dispersals in bet-hedging systems by using a discrete stochastic metapopulation model, where each site fluctuates between good and bad environments with temporal correlation. To explore the optimal migration pattern, an analytical estimation of the total growth is derived by mean field approximation. We found that the preference for fertile sites is disadvantageous when transportation among sites has a cost or the sensitivity of preference is high.

Morita, Satoru

2014-01-01

189

Communicating health information to disadvantaged populations.  

PubMed

Interest in the communication of health information among disadvantaged populations has increased in recent years with the shift from a model of patient-provider communication to one of a more empowered healthcare consumer; with the use of new communication technologies that increase the number of channels through which health information may be accessed; and with the steadily increasing number of people without health insurance. Three separate research literatures contribute to our current understanding of this issue. In the medicine and public health literature, disparities in health access and outcomes among socioeconomic, ethnic, and racial groups are now well documented. In the information sciences literature, scholars note that on a continuum of health information behaviors, ranging from information avoidance and nonseeking to active seeking, nonseeking behaviors are associated with disadvantaged populations. In the communication literature, enthusiasm over the technology-driven growth of online health information seeking is tempered by evidence supporting the knowledge gap hypothesis, which indicates that as potential access to health information increases, systematic gaps in health knowledge also increase as groups with higher socioeconomic status acquire this information at a faster rate than those with lower socioeconomic status. A number of diverse strategies show promise in reducing information and health disparities, including those that focus on technology, such as programs to increase computer and Internet access, skills, and comprehension; those that focus on interpersonal communication, such as the community health worker model; and those that focus on mass media channels, such as entertainment education. PMID:20216358

Beacom, Amanda M; Newman, Sandra J

2010-01-01

190

Seeds of HOPE: a model for addressing social and economic determinants of health in a women's obesity prevention project in two rural communities.  

PubMed

Socioeconomic status (SES) and income disparity are strong predictors of health, and health promotion interventions that address them are more likely to be meaningful to participants and to sustain positive effects. Seeds of HOPE is an innovative project that is the result of a long-standing collaboration between the University of North Carolina (UNC) Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Prevention Research Center, and communities in rural North Carolina. Initial formative work, including key informant interviews, community surveys, and focus groups, strengthened our understanding of the link between hope and health and the importance of addressing social and economic issues as part of our health promotion interventions. A Seeds of HOPE strategic plan was developed using a community-based participatory process and led to the idea to start Threads of HOPE, an enterprise that will serve as a business laboratory where women will produce and market a unique product and also learn business skills. Threads of HOPE will be a health-enhancing business and will serve as a training program for a new cadre of women entrepreneurs in two rural communities. PMID:17937563

Benedict, Salli; Campbell, Marci; Doolen, Anne; Rivera, Imana; Negussie, Tezita; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle

2007-10-01

191

Practicing gender or practicing science? Gender practices of women scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subtle biases women face in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields have been the subject of many studies and initiatives in recent years. Many programs hoping to increase the numbers of women in these fields and to contribute to women's advancement have focused on identifying and remedying gendered institutional barriers and practices that ultimately disadvantage women. This dissertation

Laura Anne Rhoton

2009-01-01

192

Helping Women into Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With women bearing a disproportionate share of economic hardship, their poor representation on training designed to tackle barriers to work is a critical concern. The author asks what can be done to improve women's access to this sort of learning. As the underrecruitment of women to ESF pre-employment programmes demonstrates, the author suggests…

Ward, Jane

2011-01-01

193

HIV, poverty and women.  

PubMed

This review examines the interactions of financial status and HIV and its implications for women. MEDLINE and Google scholar were searched using the keywords 'women', 'poverty' and 'HIV' in any field of the article. The search was limited to articles published in English over the last 10 years. The first section of the article tries to establish whether poverty or wealth is a risk factor for HIV. There is credible evidence for both arguments. While wealth shows an increased risk for both sexes, poverty places women at a special disadvantage. The second section explains how the financial status interacts with other 'non biological' factors to put women at increased risk. While discrimination based on these factors disadvantage women, there are some paradoxical observations that do not fit with the traditional line of explanation (e.g. paradoxical impact of wealth and education on HIV). The final section assesses the impact of HIV in driving poverty and the role of women in interventional programmes. The specific impact of poverty on females in families living with HIV is less explored. Though microfinance initiatives to empower women are a good idea in theory, the actual outcome of such a programme is less convincing. PMID:24037044

Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Rajapakse, Senaka

2010-03-01

194

Adjustment to university and academic performance among disadvantaged students in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adjustment to the university environment is regarded as an important factor in predicting university outcomes. This study explores the pathways taken by adjustment and other psychosocial variables (help?seeking, academic motivation, self?esteem, perceived stress, and perceived academic overload), in relation to the success of economically and educationally disadvantaged students at university. Participants were 194 first?year students on need?based financial aid at

Johann Louw; Kitty Dumont

2009-01-01

195

Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity  

PubMed Central

In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous inequity (AI) and disadvantageous inequity (DI). AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed (1) hypoactivation of the ventral striatum (VS) under DI but not under AI; (2) inequity induced activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) that was stronger under DI than under AI; (3) correlations between subjective evaluations of AI evaluation and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal and left insular activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. One possible interpretation is that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns. PMID:22701414

Fliessbach, Klaus; Phillipps, Courtney B.; Trautner, Peter; Schnabel, Marieke; Elger, Christian E.; Falk, Armin; Weber, Bernd

2012-01-01

196

Teaching Reading to the Disadvantaged Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An assessment was made of the overall effectiveness of a one-day inservice training workshop for 100 adult basic education (ABE) teachers in West Tennessee. The Kropp-Verner Evaluation Scale and a questionnaire were administered to participants. Of the total number of respondents, 56% were women, 67% were aged 35 or older, and 75% had less than…

Dutton, Donnie; Glover, Billy

197

Women and tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is the leading infectious cause of death in women worldwide. The disease poses a major threat to women's health security. Population growth, the HIV epidemic, increasing poverty and rising levels of drug resistance will inevitably increase the burden of this disease in women. Women are at increased risk of progression to disease during their reproductive years. However, in most low-income countries, twice as many men are notified with tuberculosis as women. Biological mechanisms may account for most of this difference but socioeconomic and cultural factors leading to barriers in accessing health care may cause under-notification in women. Tuberculosis control programmes should be sensitive to the constraints faced by women in accessing health care, in order to empower women to commence and complete treatment. The fear and stigma associated with tuberculosis have a greater impact on women than on men, often leaving them in a more precarious social and economic position. Tuberculosis in women creates orphans, impoverished families and reduces the economic development of society. Tuberculosis is a major cause of preventable suffering and death in women. WHO's recommended tuberculosis control strategy, DOTS, represents a cost-effective response to the problem of tuberculosis in women. Tuberculosis is a major women's health issue. It is a global health priority that tuberculosis treatment be made available to women, particularly to those in low-income countries who are bearing the brunt of this epidemic. PMID:9050189

Connolly, M; Nunn, P

1996-01-01

198

Women, poverty and adverse maternal outcomes in Nairobi, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background The link between poverty and adverse maternal outcomes has been studied largely by means of quantitative data. We explore poor urban Kenyan women's views and lived experiences of the relationship between economic disadvantage and unpleasant maternal outcomes. Method Secondary analysis of focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews data with women in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya. Results Urban poor women in Nairobi associate poverty with adverse maternal outcomes. However, their accounts and lived experiences of the impact of poverty on maternal outcomes underscore dynamics other than those typically stressed in the extant literature. To them, poverty primarily generates adverse maternal outcomes by exposing women to exceedingly hard and heavy workloads during pregnancy and the period surrounding it; to intimate partner violence; as well as to inhospitable and unpleasant treatment by service providers. Conclusions Poverty has wider and more intricate implications for maternal outcomes than are acknowledged in extant research. To deliver their expected impact, current efforts to promote better maternal outcomes must be guided by a more thorough perspective of the link between women's livelihoods and their health and wellbeing. PMID:21122118

2010-01-01

199

The burden and determinants of reproductive tract infections in India: a population based study of women in Goa, India  

PubMed Central

Background/objective Reproductive tract infections (RTI) present major health, social, and economic problems in developing countries. Our objective was to describe the prevalence and risk factors of RTIs in a population based sample of women aged 18–45?years. Method 2494 women of 3000 randomly selected from the population defined by a primary health centre catchment area consented to participate. Participants were interviewed regarding complaints and risk factors. Laboratory specimens were collected for the diagnosis of RTIs. Analyses of risk factors were carried out separately for the outcomes of sexually transmitted infections: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis; and endogenous infections: bacterial vaginosis (BV) and candida. Results Endogenous infections were relatively common (BV 17.8%; candida 8.5%), and sexually transmitted infections (STI) were infrequent (4.2%). Factors indicative of poverty and marginalisation were associated with STIs and BV. Gender disadvantage, particularly spousal violence, was associated with BV, while concern about a husband's extramarital relationships, an indicator of sexual risk, was associated with STI. Husband's discharge was strongly associated with STI, and a non?white vaginal discharge was associated with both STI and BV. Condom use and oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduced risk of BV. Conclusions Most of the population burden of RTIs is attributed to endogenous infections. Socioeconomic deprivation and gender disadvantage are associated with raised risk for BV, while the risk factors for STIs indicated that disadvantaged women were likely to be infected by their husbands. PMID:16731678

Patel, V; Weiss, H A; Mabey, D; West, B; D'Souza, S; Patil, V; Nevrekar, P; Gupte, S; Kirkwood, B R

2006-01-01

200

Public perceptions of risk in criminality: the effects of mental illness and social disadvantage.  

PubMed

We examined how different types of mental illness elicited varying levels of predicted criminality and compared this with factors which might also elicit a negative response, specifically, a criminal history and social disadvantage. A sample of 243 participants undertook an anonymous, online experiment. Each participant was exposed to one of six vignettes: three involved mental illness (schizophrenia, depression/anxiety, or alcohol dependency); two in which socio-economic background was manipulated; and a control. The impact of mental illness, history of criminality and social disadvantage on the likelihood that the character in the vignette would commit future crime, and levels of sympathy, trust and potential for rehabilitation in the character were measured. Age and personal experience of mental illness and/or criminal behaviour in the participants was also examined. The sample were significantly more likely to think that a character would 'possibly' commit future crime if he had mental illness in comparison to the control, but crimes were expected to be minor. Significantly more discriminatory behaviour was reported towards the character with no mental illness but a disadvantaged background. Familiarity ameliorated this effect. Prejudice towards those with a criminal past and a disadvantaged background may be stronger than prejudice against those with mental illnesses. PMID:23473655

Nee, Claire; Witt, Clare

2013-10-30

201

Fathers' Accounts of Struggle and Growth in Early Adulthood: An Exploratory Study of Disadvantaged Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter explores how fatherhood prompts struggle and growth in the psychological, social, and economic changes associated with the transition to adulthood. Little is known about these connections, especially for disadvantaged Latino and White fathers who live in small and mid-sized American communities. We draw on eight in-depth focus groups…

Settersten, Richard A., Jr.; Day, Jack K.; Cancel-Tirado, Doris; Driscoll, Debra Minar

2014-01-01

202

How Community Development Programmes Can Foster Re-Engagement with Learning in Disadvantaged Communities: Leadership as Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family and community capacity building projects in Tasmania are attempting to address the disadvantage of communities marginalised by socio-economic and other influences. Collaborations between the projects, community members and groups, and education and training organisations, have resulted in a leadership process which has fostered reengagement…

Millar, Pat; Kilpatrick, Sue

2005-01-01

203

Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.  

PubMed

The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

Porter, M E

1992-01-01

204

Violence against women.  

PubMed

This article discusses the prevalence of violence against women in Uganda. The incidence of violence against women has been increasing despite efforts by law enforcement orders. In the broadest sense, violence against women is any violation of a woman's personhood, mental or physical integrity or freedom of movement. Violence against women is considered as an obstacle to the achievement of the objectives of equality, development and peace. Moreover, the act violates and impairs women's rights and fundamental freedoms. The low social and economic status of women can be both a cause and a consequence of violence against women. Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, limit the ability to make choices on women's lives. PMID:12290444

Keizire, J

1995-01-01

205

Meeting the Needs of Rural Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the gender order that operates in rural areas of Australia, ensuring that women are accorded secondary status, that their contributions are discounted, and that their concerns are trivialized. Women are disadvantaged by patriarchal gender relations that dominate rural society and that are reinforced by ideologies of family and…

Alston, Margaret

206

Duration or Disadvantage? Exploring Nativity, Ethnicity, and Health in Midlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives . This study examined nativity as a risk factor for poor physical and emotional health for an ethnically di- verse population making the transition into retirement. The authors addressed whether the health disadvantage observed for immigrants lessens with increased time spent in the country (supporting theories of assimilation) or increases with duration of residence (supporting theories of cumulative disadvantage).

Jacqueline L. Angel; Cynthia J. Buckley; Art Sakamoto

2001-01-01

207

INNOVATION AND THE NEW CONCERN FOR THE DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

REVIEWED ARE SOME OF THE APPROACHES WHICH HAVE BEEN USED TO IMPROVE THE EDUCATIONAL STATUS OF DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS. IT IS FELT THAT THE COMPENSATORY EDUCATION EFFORTS HAVE NOT SUCCEEDED BECAUSE MOST PROJECTS HAVE EITHER UTILIZED TRADITIONAL CONTENT AND TEACHING METHODS OR HAVE BEEN REMEDIAL. ALSO, THEY DO NOT START BY RAISING THE DISADVANTAGED

JOHNTZ, WILLIAM F.

208

Measures of Disadvantage: Is Car Ownership a Good Indicator?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A need to better understand the multidimensional nature of disadvantage is leading to the adoption of a wider range of measurement variables. One variable now commonly adopted is zero car ownership. This paper challenges the logic of including "not having a car" as an indicator of disadvantage. It argues that this can distort the real picture of…

Johnson, Victoria; Currie, Graham; Stanley, Janet

2010-01-01

209

Practical Problems of Schoolbook Selection for Disadvantaged Pupils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every year the purchase of unsuitable books for disadvantaged children wastes millions of dollars. The use of these unsuitable books results in extensive reading failure. In order to overcome this waste of money and human resources, book committees need to employ standards and methods of evaluation to identify books appropriate for disadvantaged

Whipple, Gertrude

210

Characterizing the Bilingual Disadvantage in Noun Phrase Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Up to now, evidence on bilingual disadvantages in language production comes from tasks requiring single word retrieval. The present study aimed to assess whether there is a bilingual disadvantage in multiword utterances, and to determine the extent to which such effect is present in onset latencies, articulatory durations, or both. To do so, we…

Sadat, Jasmin; Martin, Clara D.; Alario, F. Xavier; Costa, Albert

2012-01-01

211

Factors associated with health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agriculture  

PubMed Central

Background Women facing social and economic disadvantage in stressed communities of developing countries are at greater risk due to health problems. This paper investigates the relationships between structural, health and psychosocial predictors among women in mining and agricultural communities. This paper is a report of a study of the predictors of the health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agricultural communities. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional research design was used. The instruments used are SF-36 Health Survey and Coping Strategy Checklist. ANOVA, MANOVA and GLM were used in the analysis. The study was conducted between January-September 2008 with randomly selected women in a mining (145) and an agricultural community (133) in India. Results Women in the agricultural community had significantly increased Physical Health, Mental Health and SF36 scores compared with those in the mining community. Years of stay, education and employment were significant predictors among women in the agricultural community. 39% (33%) and 40% (26%) of the variance in Physical and Mental health respectively among women in agricultural and mining communities are predicted by the structural, health and psychosocial variables. Conclusion Perceived health status should be recognised as an important assessment of Physical and Mental Health among women in rural stressed communities. Cognitive, emotional and behavioural coping strategies are significant predictors of health related quality of life. Implications. Nurses should use the SF-36 as a diagnostic tool for assessing health related quality of life among women and discuss coping strategies, so that these can target women’s adaptive behaviour. This should be an essential part of the nursing process for facilitating adaptive process for improved health related quality of life. PMID:23336256

2013-01-01

212

Latin American women’s experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted  

PubMed Central

Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used. Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades. This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women’s experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal. Women’s personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1) a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2) complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support. Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it might not be effective, and the fact that some women eventually need to seek medical care at a hospital where they might be sanctioned for having an abortion and even reported to the police. PMID:23259660

2012-01-01

213

Effects of Welfare Reform on Education Acquisition of Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes. PMID:23504449

Dave, Dhaval M.; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

214

Maternal health and pregnancy outcomes among women of refugee background from African countries: a retrospective, observational study in Australia.  

PubMed

BackgroundWomen of refugee background from Africa are reported to have a greater risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to women born in resettlement countries. However, there is currently little insight into whether adverse pregnancy outcomes are more common among migrant women of refugee background, compared to women who have migrated for non-humanitarian reasons. To inform whether women of refugee background require additional services in pregnancy compared to non-refugee migrant women from similar world regions we aimed to describe and compare maternal health, pregnancy care attendance and pregnancy outcomes among migrant women from Africa with or without a refugee background.MethodsRetrospective, observational study of singleton births at a single, metropolitan, maternity service in Australia 2002¿2011, to women born in humanitarian source countries (HSC) and non-HSC from North Africa (n¿=¿1361), Middle and East Africa (n¿=¿706) and West Africa (n¿=¿106).ResultsCompared to non-HSC groups, age¿<¿20 years (0¿1.4% vs 2.3-13.3%), living in relatively socio-economically disadvantaged geographic areas (26.2-37.3% vs 52.9-77.8%) and interpreter need (0¿23.9% vs 9.7-51.5%) were generally more common in the HSC groups. Compared to non-HSC groups, female genital mutilation (0.3-3.3% vs 5.1-13.8%), vitamin D insufficiency (8.7-21.5% vs 23.3-32.0%), syphilis (0¿0.3% vs 1.2-7.5%) and hepatitis B (0¿1.1% vs 1.2-18%) were also generally more common among the HSC groups. Unplanned birth before arrival at the hospital (3.6%) was particularly high in the North African HSC group. HSC-birth was associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (odds ratio¿=¿3.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.8-7.1) among women from Middle and East Africa, after adjusting for maternal age, parity, body mass index and relative socio-economic disadvantage of area of residence. The West African HSC group had the highest stillbirth incidence (4.4%).ConclusionsMigrant women of refugee background from different African regions appear to be at greater risk of specific adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to migrant women without a refugee background. Awareness of differing risks and health needs would assist provision of appropriate pregnancy care to improve the health of African women and their babies. PMID:25427757

Gibson-Helm, Melanie; Teede, Helena; Block, Andrew; Knight, Michelle; East, Christine; Wallace, Euan M; Boyle, Jacqueline

2014-11-27

215

Women on the Move.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the progress made by women in medicine and other fields seems promising, it nonetheless fails to meet the rising expectations created by various legal actions and legislation. People must begin to recognize the social and economic costs of continued discrimination against women and others. (Author)

Stevens, George; Marquette, R. Penny

1979-01-01

216

Older Women and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elderly women may suffer from economic problems, isolation, loneliness, poor housing, poor health care, and few viable alternatives to institutionalization. Although the total number of aged poor has declined by over 40% in the past 20 years, the number of aged women living alone and poor stayed almost unchanged. The separation and divorce rates…

Wood, Vivian

217

Financial Incentives for Smoking Cessation Among Pregnant and Newly Postpartum Women  

PubMed Central

Objective Smoking during pregnancy is the leading preventable cause of poor pregnancy outcomes in the U.S., causing serious immediate and longer-term adverse effects for mothers and offspring. In this report we provide a narrative review of research on the use of financial incentives to promote abstinence from cigarette smoking during pregnancy, an intervention wherein women earn vouchers exchangeable for retail items contingent on biochemically-verified abstinence from recent smoking. Methods Published reports based on controlled trials are reviewed. All of the reviewed research was conducted by one of two research groups who have investigated this treatment approach. Results Results from six controlled trials with economically disadvantaged pregnant smokers support the efficacy of financial incentives for increasing smoking abstinence rates antepartum and early postpartum. Results from three trials provide evidence that the intervention improves sonographically estimated fetal growth, mean birth weight, percent of low-birth-weight deliveries, and breastfeeding duration. Conclusions The systematic use of financial incentives has promise as an efficacious intervention for promoting smoking cessation among economically disadvantaged pregnant and recently postpartum women and improving birth outcomes. Additional trials in larger and more diverse samples are warranted to further evaluate the merits of this treatment approach. PMID:22227223

Higgins, Stephen T.; Washio, Yukiko; Heil, Sarah H.; Solomon, Laura J.; Gaalema, Diann E.; Higgins, Tara M.; Bernstein, Ira M.

2012-01-01

218

Do Jobs Work? Risk and Protective Behaviors Associated with Employment Among Disadvantaged Female Teens in Urban Atlanta.  

PubMed

Adolescent employment predicts lower educational engagement and achievement and greater engagement with risk behaviors. Most research has studied middle class rather than disadvantaged adolescents. We identified risk and protective behaviors associated with employment using data from a 3-wave, 12-month study of 715 low-socio-economic status female African American adolescents who were ages 15-21 at baseline. Adolescents who were employed at wave 2 (n=214) were matched with adolescents who were not employed at wave 2 (n=422) using nearest-neighbor matching on baseline factors within propensity score calipers on factors including marijuana use, sex while high, pregnancy risk, and socioeconomic status. We compared employed and non-employed teens on risk behaviors including marijuana use, sex while high or drunk, and a biomarker for semen exposure in the past 14 days. Employed teens were 44% as likely to say that their boyfriend is their primary spending money source and 43% as likely to be emotionally abused, but these benefits did not persist after employment ended. Six months after employment, employed respondents reported using marijuana 57% more often and had sex while drunk or high 2.7 times as frequently. Women who were employed at both waves 2 and 3 were 17% as likely to have their boyfriend as a primary source of spending money and 13% more likely to graduate high school, but they used marijuana twice as often, alcohol 1.6 times as often, had 1.6 times as many sexual partners, and had sex while high or drunk 2.3 times as often. Female teens who work may avoid potentially coercive romantic relationships, but they may buy drugs or alcohol with their earnings. PMID:25221451

Rosenbaum, Janet; Zenilman, Jonathan; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina; DiClemente, Ralph

2014-01-01

219

Do Jobs Work? Risk and Protective Behaviors Associated with Employment Among Disadvantaged Female Teens in Urban Atlanta  

PubMed Central

Adolescent employment predicts lower educational engagement and achievement and greater engagement with risk behaviors. Most research has studied middle class rather than disadvantaged adolescents. We identified risk and protective behaviors associated with employment using data from a 3-wave, 12-month study of 715 low-socio-economic status female African American adolescents who were ages 15–21 at baseline. Adolescents who were employed at wave 2 (n=214) were matched with adolescents who were not employed at wave 2 (n=422) using nearest-neighbor matching on baseline factors within propensity score calipers on factors including marijuana use, sex while high, pregnancy risk, and socioeconomic status. We compared employed and non-employed teens on risk behaviors including marijuana use, sex while high or drunk, and a biomarker for semen exposure in the past 14 days. Employed teens were 44% as likely to say that their boyfriend is their primary spending money source and 43% as likely to be emotionally abused, but these benefits did not persist after employment ended. Six months after employment, employed respondents reported using marijuana 57% more often and had sex while drunk or high 2.7 times as frequently. Women who were employed at both waves 2 and 3 were 17% as likely to have their boyfriend as a primary source of spending money and 13% more likely to graduate high school, but they used marijuana twice as often, alcohol 1.6 times as often, had 1.6 times as many sexual partners, and had sex while high or drunk 2.3 times as often. Female teens who work may avoid potentially coercive romantic relationships, but they may buy drugs or alcohol with their earnings. PMID:25221451

Rosenbaum, Janet; Zenilman, Jonathan; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina; DiClemente, Ralph

2014-01-01

220

Social disadvantage, genetic sensitivity, and children’s telomere length  

PubMed Central

Disadvantaged social environments are associated with adverse health outcomes. This has been attributed, in part, to chronic stress. Telomere length (TL) has been used as a biomarker of chronic stress: TL is shorter in adults in a variety of contexts, including disadvantaged social standing and depression. We use data from 40, 9-y-old boys participating in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to extend this observation to African American children. We report that exposure to disadvantaged environments is associated with reduced TL by age 9 y. We document significant associations between low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure, and harsh parenting and TL. These effects were moderated by genetic variants in serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways. Consistent with the differential susceptibility hypothesis, subjects with the highest genetic sensitivity scores had the shortest TL when exposed to disadvantaged social environments and the longest TL when exposed to advantaged environments. PMID:24711381

Mitchell, Colter; Hobcraft, John; McLanahan, Sara S.; Siegel, Susan Rutherford; Berg, Arthur; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Garfinkel, Irwin; Notterman, Daniel

2014-01-01

221

48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.  

...in paragraph (a)(1) of this section for development assistance and for assistance for famine recovery and development in Africa shall be used only for activities of disadvantaged enterprises (as defined in 726.7002). In order to achieve...

2014-10-01

222

Facilitating Vocational Development Among Disadvantaged Inner-City Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the vocational development process of tenth-grade disadvantaged students can be facilitated through deliberate intervention in the form of supplementary learning experiences. (Author)

Hamdani, Asma

1977-01-01

223

48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...either be certified as a small disadvantaged business (SDB) concern or have a completed SDB application pending at the SBA or a Private Certifier...accept an offeror's representation that it is an SDB concern for general statistical purposes....

2010-10-01

224

48 CFR 1552.219-73 - Small Disadvantaged Business Targets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the following small disadvantaged business (SDB) participation targets proposed by the contractor... (b) The following specifically identified SDB(s) was (were) considered under the Section—SDB participation evaluation factor or...

2010-10-01

225

Marriageable Women: A Focus on Participants in a Community Healthy Marriage Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although disadvantaged women are the targets of marriage programs, little attention has been paid to women's marriage constraints and their views of marriage. Drawing on an exchange framework and using qualitative data collected from single women participating in a marriage initiative, we introduce the concept of marriageable women--the notion…

Manning, Wendy D.; Trella, Deanna; Lyons, Heidi; Du Toit, Nola Cora

2010-01-01

226

Family and neighborhood disadvantage, home environment, and children's school readiness.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine associations between family socioeconomic risk, neighborhood disadvantage, and children's school readiness. A sample of 420 children from 48 early childcare programs yielded multi-informant data. The average age was 55.3 months (SD = 6.4), with 38% of children being Black, non-Hispanic, Hispanic, or other minority race (American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander). One third (32.4%) of the parents had annual incomes less than $30,000. We used multilevel structural equation modeling to test direct and indirect associations among family socioeconomic risk and neighborhood disadvantage and children's cognitive and social-emotional development through home learning environment and parental depression. Children with a greater number of family socioeconomic risks and a higher level of neighborhood disadvantage demonstrated lower scores on cognitive skills. The degree of family socioeconomic risk was indirectly associated with children's cognitive ability through parents' cognitive stimulation at home. Parents who had more family socioeconomic risks and neighborhood disadvantage reported more depressive symptoms, which, in turn, suggested children's greater probability of having social-emotional problems. In other words, home learning environments explained associations between family socioeconomic disadvantage and children's cognitive skills, while parental depression explained associations between family/neighborhood disadvantages and children's social-emotional problems. Results suggest the importance of intervention or prevention strategies for parents to improve cognitive stimulation at home and to reduce depressive symptoms. PMID:25150370

Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K; Hur, Eunhye

2014-10-01

227

Competitive disadvantage makes attitudes towards rape less negative.  

PubMed

Evolutionary theorists have argued that perceived competitive disadvantage may lead to more positive evaluation of, and greater likelihood of engaging in, risky and antisocial behavior. However, experimental studies have not yet examined the effects of competitive disadvantage on perceptions of rape. In the current study, we created a manipulation of perceived competitive status to test its effects on beliefs about rape. In one condition, participants were made to feel disadvantaged relative to male peers in terms of financial, physical, and intellectual power, whereas in the other condition they were made to feel advantaged. Participants were 120 heterosexual male undergraduate students. The manipulation was effective; compared to participants in the advantage condition, those in the disadvantage condition rated themselves as significantly worse off financially, shorter, in worse physical shape, and as having lower course marks than the average male student at the university. Compared to perceived competitive advantage, perceived disadvantage led to less negative attitudes towards rape. However, perceived competitive status did not significantly affect justifications and excuses for rape. Future studies using similar experimental manipulations can complement correlational studies and may contribute to greater clarity, precision, and sophistication of research and theory on the role of competitive disadvantage in rape. PMID:22947990

Nunes, Kevin L; Pettersen, Cathrine

2011-01-01

228

48 CFR 19.305 - Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...Programs 19.305 Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...apparently successful offeror's representation of disadvantaged status if the...

2013-10-01

229

48 CFR 19.305 - Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...Programs 19.305 Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...apparently successful offeror's representation of disadvantaged status if the...

2012-10-01

230

48 CFR 19.305 - Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...Programs 19.305 Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...apparently successful offeror's representation of disadvantaged status if the...

2011-10-01

231

48 CFR 19.305 - Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status.  

...2014-10-01 false Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...Programs 19.305 Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...apparently successful offeror's representation of disadvantaged status if the...

2014-10-01

232

Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics  

E-print Network

Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics BSc Economics and Politics #12;www.bath.ac.uk/economics Welcome to the Department of Economics The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching is internationally respected and our students are in demand by employers

Burton, Geoffrey R.

233

Economics Postgraduate MSc Economics  

E-print Network

Economics Postgraduate MSc Economics MSc Economics & Finance MSc International Money & Banking #12;www.bath.ac.uk/economics Welcome to the Department of Economics The Department offers a range. The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching and research

Burton, Geoffrey R.

234

Challenges facing women entrepreneurs in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study seeks to examine the business and social profiles of 67 women entrepreneurs in three regions of Nigeria in order to identify patterns of entrepreneurship and social and economic challenges facing women business owners in Nigeria. The study aims to support and encourage sustainable small-scale economic development activities by Nigerian women and determine ways to integrate these

Daphne Halkias; Chinedum Nwajiuba; Nicholas Harkiolakis; Sylva M. Caracatsanis

2011-01-01

235

The Voices and the Silences of Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An anthropological approach to women discusses; their role in developing nations; the influences of economic growth upon male and female roles; women speaking for themselves; women's constructions of reality; female learning processes and their modern adaptions; varied educational influences; and the involvement of women in education for…

Callaway, Helen

1975-01-01

236

Women in Portugal.  

PubMed

Prior to 1974, women in Portugal were restricted by the Penal Code and had little organizational power. Women's groups were formed within the Catholic Church to teach women about cooking, child care, and home economics. There was no contact with international women's groups. The press only reported events such as bra burning. 80% of all illiterates in Portugal are women. The conditions of Portuguese women are described after the revolution of April 25, 1974. Present roles are discussed for work, health, education, religion, trade unions and political parties, and women's organizations. The Women's Liberation Movement (WLM) appeared in May 1974 among a heterogenous group of women in Lisbon who were concerned about the oppression of women. WLM made feminist issues public amid ridicule and promoted the declaration of equal rights for women in the 1976 Republic Constitution and in the Family Code. Wage discrimination became illegal in 1979. Women represent 32.8% of the labor force. Unemployment is particularly high among women and is increasing. Women's wages and levels of skill are the lowest. The Christian Democratic government is actively engaged in a campaign to keep women at home and has formed the special Ministry of Family Affairs, which encourages large families and women's home activity in order to save jobs for men. There is a crisis in education: large class sizes and limited number of schools. Child care for the working mother is expensive when available and rarely available. An obstacle to women's rights has been the role of the Catholic Church, which fought equal rights legislation, condemned the Family Code and divorce laws, forbade the practice of contraception, and supported the movement against abortion. Only 1 member of government is a women, and she is considered a token. Trade unions have a women's section, but little attention is given to the problems of women. Women's groups within larger organizations have little autonomy. Those with autonomy are restricted and organized around specific causes, such as abortion. The liberation of women is evolving slowly. PMID:12285938

Barbosa, M

1981-01-01

237

Women's housing conditions in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women. PMID:12347277

Shefali, M K

1996-01-01

238

Behavioural therapy for smoking cessation: The effectiveness of different intervention types for disadvantaged and affluent smokers?  

PubMed Central

Background Disadvantaged smokers are less likely to be successful when trying to stop smoking than more affluent smokers. In the UK, NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSS) provide a range of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support, delivered by advisors with a range of backgrounds. Whether the types of support provided and who provides it influence differences in quit rates amongst low SES smokers compared with high SES smokers has not previously been examined. Methods 202,084 records of smokers in England who attended a NHS Stop Smoking Service between July 2010 and June 2011 were acquired. Smokers were followed-up by services at four weeks post quit date. Multilevel logistic regression models of CO validated quits were employed. Disadvantage was explored through the National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification (NS-SEC) and by eligibility for free prescriptions, an indicator of low income amongst adults aged between 19 and 59 in England. Results Affluent smokers were more likely to quit than disadvantaged smokers (OR 1.38 (1.35 to 1.42) for clients who paid for prescriptions compared to those eligible for free prescriptions). 80% of service clients received one-to-one counselling but open group forms of behavioural therapy were more successful (main effect OR 1.26 (1.12 to 1.41)) except amongst some of the most disadvantaged clients (long-term unemployed and prisoners). Closed groups were little deployed and they were not significantly more successful than one-to-one behavioural therapy after controls. Who delivered treatment did make a difference for some clients, with all but the most affluent less likely to be successful if they had been treated by a nurse compared with other types of advisers, including smoking cessation specialists (main effect OR 0.73 (0.65 to 0.83)). Conclusion This study provides further evidence that disadvantaged smokers find quitting more difficult even when they have attended a smoking cessation programme. The findings suggest that open groups should be promoted, although they may not be as effective as other forms of behavioural therapy for the long-term unemployed or prisoners. Further research is required to explore why most groups of smokers who attended services staffed by nurses were less likely to quit than those who received treatment from other types of advisors. PMID:23954946

Hiscock, Rosemary; Murray, Susan; Brose, Leonie S.; McEwen, Andy; Bee, Jo Leonardi; Dobbie, Fiona; Bauld, Linda

2013-01-01

239

Advances in the prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV/AIDS among women in the United States  

PubMed Central

Despite recent advances in testing and treatment, the incidence of HIV/AIDS in the United States has remained stagnant with an estimated 56,300 new infections every year. Women account for an increasing proportion of the epidemic. The vulnerability of women to HIV stems from both increased biologic susceptibility to heterosexual transmission and also the social, economic, and structural disadvantages they often confront. This review describes the main reasons for the increased vulnerability of U.S. women to HIV transmission with particular emphasis on specific highrisk groups including: non-Hispanic blacks, women who use drugs, women with a history of incarceration, and victims of intimate partner violence. Although behavioral approaches to HIV prevention may be effective, pragmatic implementation is often difficult, especially for women who lack sociocultural capital to negotiate condoms with their male partners. Recent advances in HIV prevention show promise in terms of female-initiated interventions. These notably include female condoms, non-specific vaginal microbicides, and antiretroviral oral and vaginal pre-exposure prophylaxis. In this review, we will present evidence in support of these new female-initiated interventions while also emphasizing the importance of advocacy and the political support for these scientific advances to be successful. PMID:23745166

Chen, Nadine E.; Meyer, Jaimie P.; Springer, Sandra A.

2011-01-01

240

Neighborhood Racial/Ethnic Concentration, Social Disadvantage, and Homicide Risk: An Ecological Analysis of 10 U.S. Cities  

PubMed Central

Homicide is one of the leading causes of death among African-American and Hispanic men. We investigated how neighborhood characteristics associated with social disadvantage explain racial/ethnic homicide gaps in 10 U.S. cities. The test hypotheses were that (1) higher concentrations of African-Americans and Hispanics would be associated with higher homicide rates and (2) the relationship between racial/ethnic concentration and homicide would be attenuated after adjusting for neighborhood characteristics (e.g., unemployment, median household income, low educational attainment, and female headship). The test hypotheses were examined using separate Poisson regression models, which adjusted for spatial autocorrelation. Homicide rates were greater in neighborhoods with higher concentrations of African-Americans and Hispanics than in other groups, and the association of neighborhood racial/ethnic concentration with homicide was reduced after adjusting for neighborhood social disadvantage variables, especially percent female head of household and percent persons with less than a high school education. We also found that the relationship between neighborhood racial/ethnic concentration and homicide was explained more by social disadvantage variables in some cities than in others. Based on our findings, policy makers may wish to consider implementation of policies that (1) expand early childhood education programs and higher education opportunities and (2) encourage economic and community development initiatives in socially disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:18661242

Wall, Melanie

2008-01-01

241

Highline Public Schools Computer-Assisted Instruction Project: A Program to Meet Disadvantaged Students' Individual Needs for Basic Skill Development: Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This description of a computer-assisted instruction project, which provides an alternative approach to individual instruction in basic skills for economically and educationally disadvantaged students at the secondary level, includes the results of evaluations conducted at the end of each of three school years. Instruction in priority…

Maser, Arthur L.; And Others

242

Attitudes About the Police and Neighborhood Safety in Disadvantaged NeighborhoodsThe Influence of Criminal Victimization and Perceptions of a Drug Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building on past research, this study focuses on how the experience of victimization and being approached by a drug dealer relate to individuals' perceptions about neighborhood safety and in turn affect perceptions of the police. Ordinal logistic regression analyses are conducted on data from a sample of residents in socially and economically disadvantaged, high-crime neighborhoods. Findings suggest that victimization leads

Brian K. Payne; Randy R. Gainey

2007-01-01

243

Women's Health  

MedlinePLUS

Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

244

A decision impact, decision conflict and economic assessment of routine Oncotype DX testing of 146 women with node-negative or pNImi, ER-positive breast cancer in the UK  

PubMed Central

Background: Tumour gene expression analysis is useful in predicting adjuvant chemotherapy benefit in early breast cancer patients. This study aims to examine the implications of routine Oncotype DX testing in the UK. Methods: Women with oestrogen receptor positive (ER+), pNO or pN1mi breast cancer were assessed for adjuvant chemotherapy and subsequently offered Oncotype DX testing, with changes in chemotherapy decisions recorded. A subset of patients completed questionnaires about their uncertainties regarding chemotherapy decisions pre- and post-testing. All patients were asked to complete a diary of medical interactions over the next 6 months, from which economic data were extracted to model the cost-effectiveness of testing. Results: Oncotype DX testing resulted in changes in chemotherapy decisions in 38 of 142 (26.8%) women, with 26 of 57 (45.6%) spared chemotherapy and 12 of 85 (14.1%) requiring chemotherapy when not initially recommended (9.9% reduction overall). Decision conflict analysis showed that Oncotype DX testing increased patients' confidence in treatment decision making. Economic analysis showed that routine Oncotype DX testing costs £6232 per quality-adjusted life year gained. Conclusion: Oncotype DX decreased chemotherapy use and increased confidence in treatment decision making in patients with ER+ early-stage breast cancer. Based on these findings, Oncotype DX is cost-effective in the UK setting. PMID:23695023

Holt, S; Bertelli, G; Humphreys, I; Valentine, W; Durrani, S; Pudney, D; Rolles, M; Moe, M; Khawaja, S; Sharaiha, Y; Brinkworth, E; Whelan, S; Jones, S; Bennett, H; Phillips, C J

2013-01-01

245

Predicting Success among Prospective Disadvantaged Students in Natural Scientific Fields  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred and fifty-nine Grade 11 prospective disadvantaged students in the natural sciences at the University of Pretoria completed the Study Orientation Questionnaire in Mathematics and the Senior Aptitude Test (Advanced). Fifty-nine male students (M age = 16.05; SD = 0.57) and 100 females (M age = 16.02; SD = 0.512) scored significantly…

Maree, J. G.; Fletcher, L.; Sommerville, J.

2011-01-01

246

Disentangling Disadvantage: Can We Distinguish Good Teaching from Classroom Composition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the use of teacher value-added estimates to assess the distribution of effective teaching across students of varying socioeconomic disadvantage in the presence of classroom composition effects. We examine, via simulations, how accurately commonly used teacher value-added estimators recover the rank correlation between…

Zamarro, Gema; Engberg, John; Saavedra, Juan Esteban; Steele, Jennifer

2015-01-01

247

What's in a Name: "Education and the Disadvantaged American" (1962)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Education and the Disadvantaged American" represented an attempt by the leaders of the American elementary and secondary education enterprise to come to terms with the failure to learn of a significant portion of the school population. The dimension of race surrounded the discussion leading to publication, but it was never addressed…

Urban, Wayne J.

2009-01-01

248

From Here to Where?--"Disadvantaged Schools," Literacy and Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the abolishment of the Disadvantaged Schools Program (DSP) in South Australia represented a shift away from a focus on the social to the individual, from curriculum to instruction, from school-based inquiry and teacher research to expert solutions, and from various contexted and contested outcomes to a singular and simplistic version…

Thomson, Pat

2001-01-01

249

Rural-Urban Migration in Bolivia: Advantages and Disadvantages1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of rural-urban migration, and shows that the costs of increased urbanization (crime, pollution, congestion, etc) in Bolivia are rather small compared to the costs experienced in other Latin American countries. The benefits, on the other hand, may be large. Encouraging rural-urban migration may be one of the cheapest ways of reducing poverty

Lykke E. Andersen

250

Introducing Computer Science to Educationally Disadvantaged High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An approach to the teaching and learning of high school computer science (CS) to and by educationally disadvantaged students (EDS) is described, as well as the implementation of six pedagogical principles in two learning environments developed for Israeli schools. Following a brief description of the main characteristics of EDS classes and a…

Paz, Tamar; Levy, Dalit

2005-01-01

251

The Early College Challenge: Navigating Disadvantaged Students' Transition to College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful early college high schools (ECHSs) are formed through partnerships between high schools and colleges (usually community colleges). Think of it as preparation through acceleration. ECHSs enroll disadvantaged students who have not excelled with ordinary grade-level academic content and have them take college courses while still in high…

Rosenbaum, James E.; Becker, Kelly Iwanaga

2011-01-01

252

Books By Mail: Moving the Library to Disadvantaged Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series on library services to disadvantaged adults, this guide suggests several ways a library can provide books by mail services. Mail order delivery is a way of making the library's collection available to many who are unable or unwilling to visit the library building. The system can be handled by clerks or volunteers. Planning should…

Reed, Mary Jane; Schmidt, Susan K.

253

Poverty, Disadvantage and Negotiating the Curriculum (R-2).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the need for teachers in socioeconomically disadvantaged schools to change classroom practice. Examines the disparity between home and school environments, using critical social theory. Describes curriculum negotiation as an active, relevant process, focusing on creating classroom environments that empower students. Discusses the skills…

Harris, Patricia

1996-01-01

254

Bold Action Programs for the Disadvantaged: Elementary Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following five characteristics of successful reading projects for the disadvantaged are discussed as a basis for appraising ESEA/Title I programs: (1) a child need-centered emphasis, (2) provision for teacher education, (3) use of multidisciplinary and paraprofessional personnel, (4) parent involvement, and (5) evaluation procedures. Current…

Whipple, Gertrude

255

Product Outcome Objectives: Model Grant to Serve Educationally Disadvantaged Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three Oregon community colleges collaborated to develop a model program to meet the learning needs of educationally disadvantaged students. The model consists of several Outcome Objectives, or goals for the program. The discussion of each objective includes background information relevant to the specific goal and a description of the methods used…

Portland Community Coll., OR.

256

48 CFR 1519.204 - Small disadvantaged business participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...participation of Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB) concerns in the performance of a resulting...evaluate the extent of participation of SDB concerns in the performance of the contract...evaluate the extent of participation of SDB concerns in the performance of the...

2010-10-01

257

Reaching and Helping Unorganized and Disadvantaged People. Courier No. 33.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this issue are mainly concerned with how to reach the poorest and most disadvantaged sections of the population and how best to help once contact has been made. "Nijera Kori in Retrospect: In Search of an Organization of the Rural Poor" (Mohiuddin Ahmad) provides extracts from an evaluation of this grassroots, village-based,…

ASPBAE Courier, 1985

1985-01-01

258

A Study of Four Library Programs for Disadvantaged Persons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a study of four projects in New York City which were established with federal grants to offer library service to the disadvantaged in the area. The four programs studied are the Preschool Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the Community Coordinator Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the North Manhattan Project of the New York…

Winsor, Charlotte B.; Burrows, Lodema

259

Hard to believe : arts education and disadvantaged students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first of three articles, the author profiles the work of The Song Room, an innovative not-for-profit organisation that is bringing free, tailored music and creative arts education programs to schools with disadvantaged student populations throughout Australia. Examples of how the program has impacted on specific schools are included, for example at Sacred Heart School in Melbourne's Fitzroy which

Ralph Saubern

2009-01-01

260

Math Basic Skills Module for Disadvantaged Electronic Students. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project was undertaken to develop a remedial academic curriculum and materials that would help disadvantaged students gain the basic mathematics skills necessary to succeed in an electronics program. Major activities of the project included development of a bibliography of currently available math resource books with materials appropriate for…

Rodewald, Dave

261

Vocational Assessment of Students with Disadvantages: Their Peculiar Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the underlying factor structure of the aptitude tests and work samples being completed by students with educational disadvantages (limited reading and mathematics skills) who were assessed with the current assessment model in the Akron (Ohio) Public Schools. The amount of variance accounted for by the factors was also…

Nolte, Deborah

262

THE LIGHTHOUSE DAY CAMP READING EXPERIMENT WITH DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A READING PROGRAM DESIGNED FOR DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AND CONDUCTED BY THE LIGHTHOUSE, A SETTLEMENT HOUSE IN NORTH PHILADELPHIA, AS PART OF ITS DAY CAMP PROGRAM WAS DESCRIBED AND ASSESSED. THE READING PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED (1) TO BOOST THE OPPORTUNITIES IN READING READINESS FOR CHILDREN ABOUT TO ENTER FIRST GRADE, (2) TO ENRICH LANGUAGE…

GOMBERG, ADELINE W.

263

Ethnicity, Concentrated Minority Disadvantage, and Perceived Risk of Victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been little systematic research on how the characteristics of locales condition the relationship of ethnicity to crime-related attitudes, and none of it has examined southwestern Hispanics. Addressing these issues, this investigation examines the effects of ethnicity and concentrated minority disadvantage on confidence in the police and perceived risk of victimization. Data collected in telephone and personal interviews in

Malcolm D. Holmes

2003-01-01

264

A Summer Academic Research Experience for Disadvantaged Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience…

Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N.

2013-01-01

265

Promotion of Primary Education for Girls and Disadvantaged Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the results of a meeting of education officials from Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, and Thailand to discuss the promotion of primary education for girls and other disadvantaged groups in developing Asian countries. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, discussing the goals and results of the meeting. Chapter…

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

266

Education and Training and the Avoidance of Financial Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Making use of the longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, this study examines the relationship between post-school qualifications and financial disadvantage among Australians during the period 2001 to 2008. Specifically, it is concerned with the extent that education and training, vis-a-vis…

Marks, Gary N.

2011-01-01

267

Women, Democracy and Participation in the Information Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the disadvantaged state of women in South Africa, including statistics that illustrate effects of their lack of status on their health and well being. It then focuses on the role in South Africa of the community library and information services in empowering especially women. Barriers experienced in information delivery to…

Mayer, Louisa

268

An economical single to three phase converter for induction motors  

E-print Network

There are several different types of single to three phase converters for induction motors available today. However, many of the presently available phase converters suffer from disadvantages such as high cost or low performance. An economical...

Di Zerega, Philp Van Uytandaele

1994-01-01

269

Barriers and Facilitators to Health Behaviour Change and Economic Activity among Slum-Dwelling Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Nairobi, Kenya: The Role of Social, Health and Economic Assets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent girls and young women in urban slum areas in developing countries face a myriad of challenges regarding education, sexual health, livelihoods and gender-based violence. One way of understanding how these challenges interact with each other is through the Asset Building Framework, which posits that girls need a combination of social,…

Austrian, Karen; Anderson, Althea D.

2015-01-01

270

The Role of Support Services in Promoting Social Inclusion for the Disadvantaged Urban-dwelling Elderly  

PubMed Central

Background Disadvantaged older adults living in non-family situations in Toronto are more likely than older adults living in family situations to have less economic security, less social support, and less choice in housing. Older adults who live in poverty and are precariously housed are more likely to be chronically ill, to live with multiple illnesses, to have poor nutrition, high stress and loneliness, all of which are strongly associated with the determinant of health social exclusion. The aim of this study is to: 1) evaluate the level of social disadvantage and exclusion experienced by low-income older adults 65 years of age and older living alone or in non-family situations; 2) assess the level of dependency on government and community services (support services) to maintain a reasonable standard of living (minimize effects of social exclusion); and 3) identify consequences of social exclusion not addressed by current available services. Methods Fifteen male older adult members of the Good Neighbours’ Club in downtown Toronto were interviewed. Semi-structured questionnaires assessed barriers to, utility of, and perceived impact of support services available to disadvantaged older adults living in the central core of southeast Toronto. Results Support services for income, housing, food security, social support, and health care do mitigate the effects of social exclusion in the study participants. Data gathered from interviews identified factors that counter the efforts by support services to increase social inclusion in this population. Conclusions Support services reduce social isolation experienced by these older adults. Evidence of the detrimental impact of low financial literacy suggests a need to design and implement training programs to build the older adults’ capacity to manage their own finances effectively, and resist falling victim to financial fraud. PMID:24278093

Nguyen, Vicky P.K.H.; Sarkari, Feroz; MacNeil, Kate; Cowan, Laura; Rankin, Joyce

2013-01-01

271

Gender Norms, Poverty and Armed Conflict in Côte D'Ivoire: Engaging Men in Women's Social and Economic Empowerment Programming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engaging men is a critical component in efforts to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV). Little is known regarding men's perspectives of approaches that challenge inequitable gender norms, particularly in settings impacted by armed conflict. This article describes men's experiences with a women's empowerment program and highlights…

Falb, K. L.; Annan, J.; King, E.; Hopkins, J.; Kpebo, D.; Gupta, J.

2014-01-01

272

1 Women's Studies WOMEN'S STUDIES  

E-print Network

1 Women's Studies WOMEN'S STUDIES Students gain knowledge of contemporary feminist theories of the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences' arts and humanities programs, women's studies examines women's lives's programs · Bachelor of Arts with a major in women's studies (http:// bulletin.gwu.edu/arts-sciences/womens-studies

Vertes, Akos

273

Manifestation of the advantages and disadvantages of using the CO2 laser in oral surgery.  

PubMed

In their patient population, the authors summarize experience with 548 laser operations of oral lesions, the manifestation of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique. The hemostatic effect of the laser is of special significance, which became evident in the surgery of 90 hemangiomas, 17 patients with naveus flammeus, and 14 with clotting disturbance. For protection of the healthy tissues, various laser surgical methods were used--coagulation, vaporization, excision--and the postoperative edema, pain, inflammation, wound healing disturbances, and scarring were minimal. By the use of this method, the oral cavity functions can be well maintained. Following one laser treatment, the relapse rate was lower than 8 percent, after two treatments 1.1 percent. The laser treatment is economically favorable, since the absence of patients from work is minimal. Methods have been elaborated to overcome the disadvantages of laser treatment. It is established that the following can be favorably treated with the CO2 laser: leukoplakia, hemangioma, epulis, granuloma fissuratum, naveus flammeus, and clotting disturbance. The advantages of CO2 laser treatment in oral surgery manifest themselves very markedly. PMID:10148946

Gáspár, L; Szabó, G

1990-02-01

274

The Black Woman Worker: A Minority Group Perspective on Women at Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Being black and female is a double disadvantage in the labor market. Black women work in higher proportions than other women, but their wages are less and many have undesirable jobs. Some black women are experiencing more employment success, but as racial discrimination lessens, they face sexism. (VM)

Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

1986-01-01

275

The Impact of Learning on Women's Labour Market Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women play an increasingly important role in the labour market and as wage earners. Moreover, in many countries, young women have outperformed men in terms of educational attainment and qualification. Still, women's human capital investment does not pay off as it does for men as they are still significantly disadvantaged on the labour market.…

Haasler, Simone R.

2014-01-01

276

Is policing domestic violence institutionally racist? A case study of south Asian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the relationship between police services offered to Asian women as victims of domestic violence and institutional racism. Interviews with officers and women belonging to the minority ethnic communities in two police force areas in England showed that black and minority ethnic (BME) women victims of domestic violence suffer a double disadvantage in terms of the poor service

Jyoti Belur

2008-01-01

277

Forum on Economic Freedom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Forum on Economic Freedom web site was developed by the Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE) to build and strengthen democracy around the world through promoting private enterprise. The highlight of the site is Economic Reform Today, a journal published by CIPE to help educate policymakers on successful economic strategies. Recent issues have focused on challenges for policymakers in new democracies, globalization, reshaping government and market solutions to social issues. Other resources available include materials from CIPE "Central and Eastern Europe: Economic Policy Roundtables" and "Women in Business" programs.

278

Essays in public finance and labor economics  

E-print Network

This thesis examines three questions of causality relevant to public finance and labor economics: the effect of racial segregation on city characteristics, the effect of divorce on women's economic outcomes, and the effect ...

Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans

2006-01-01

279

International Women's Day speech.  

PubMed

The objectives of the International Women's Day are: 1) to celebrate the struggle for women's rights in the economic, social, political, and cultural domain; 2) to reaffirm women's solidarity in the struggle for peace; 3) and to show what women have achieved. In 1988, Uganda's government of the National Resistance Movement created the Ministry of Women in Development. The period 1988-1990 was one of consultations, needs assessment, planning, and recruiting staff for the Ministry. From 1990 to 1993, measurable results have been achieved. The Ministry's gender concerns pertained to the sector policies of the Ministries of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Education, Health, Water, Energy, Minerals, and Environment Protection. Under the Umbrella Project for Women in Development, gender sensitization has been achieved with policy makers in ministries, at district level, and in the media. Gender issues have also been incorporated in the National Political School Curriculum. The Ministry has also trained a corps of 73 women trainers from 38 districts. The Ministry, with funding from DANIDA, collected women's views on the constitution through meetings and seminars in all the districts in the country. Recommendations were submitted in a consolidated report to the Constitution Commission. A pilot para-legal scheme is successfully being implemented in Kamuli district. A community-based pool of legal advisors has been developed. Legal matters that affect both women and men are undertaken at the community level. The economic emancipation of women is a crucial part of the Ministry's mandate. In conjunction with NGOs, pilot credit programs are being run in Mukono, Jinja, Mbale, and Kapchorwa districts. Cross-sectoral programs are in close collaboration with the rural water and sanitation program, the Northern Uganda rehabilitation program, and the integrated Basic Education Pilot Project to be implemented in 8 districts. PMID:12345405

Kazibwe, S W

1993-01-01

280

Variations in food and drink advertising in UK monthly women's magazines according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers: a descriptive study of publications over 12 months  

PubMed Central

Background Overweight and obesity are recognised nationally and internationally as key public health challenges. Food and drink advertising is one of the array of factors that influence both diet and physical activity choices and, hence, body weight and obesity. Little previous work has focused on food and drink advertising in magazines. We studied food and drink advertising in a wide range of popular UK monthly women's magazines published over a full year. We explored differences in the prevalence of food and drink advertising and the type of food and drinks advertised according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. Methods All advertisements in all issues of 18 popular UK monthly women's magazines published over 12 months were identified. For each food or drink advertisement, branded food and drinks were noted and categorised into one of seven food groups. All analyses were at the level of the individual advertisement. Results A total of 35 053 advertisements were identified; 1380 (3.9%) of these were for food or drink. The most common food group represented was 'food and drinks high in fat and/or sugar' (28.0% of food advertisements), the least common group was 'fruits & vegetables' (2.0% of food advertisements). Advertisements for alcohol accounted for 10.1% of all food advertisements. Food and drink advertisements were most common in summer, general interest magazines, and those with the most affluent readerships. There were some differences in the type of food and drink advertised across season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. Conclusions Food and drink advertisements represented only a small proportion of advertisements in UK women's monthly magazines. Food and drink advertisements in these magazines feature a high proportion of 'less healthy' foods. There were a number of differences across season, magazine type and according to the socio-economic profile of readers in the prevalence of food and drink advertisements. Fewer differences were seen in the type of food and drinks advertised. PMID:21605388

2011-01-01

281

The Downside of Patriarchal Benevolence: Ambivalence in Addressing Domestic Violence and SocioEconomic Considerations for Women of Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social values and status cause diverse obstacles for escaping abuse (e.g., belief in the sanctity of marriage vs. financial\\u000a necessity to stay for survival). India provides a unique opportunity to explore the interplay of status and corresponding\\u000a patriarchal values in relation to the incidence of domestic violence and how it is viewed, coped with, and psychologically\\u000a impacting native women. Sixty-four

Lauren L. Tichy; Judith V. Becker; Melissa M. Sisco

2009-01-01

282

Love thy neighbour? Associations of social capital and crime with physical activity amongst women.  

PubMed

Using a multilevel study design, this study examined the associations between social characteristics of individuals and neighbourhoods and physical activity among women. Women (n = 1405) recruited from 45 Melbourne (Australia) neighbourhoods of varying socioeconomic disadvantage provided data on social factors and leisure-time: physical activity; walking; and walking in one's own neighbourhood. Individual level social factors were number of neighbours known and social participation. Neighbourhood-level social characteristics (interpersonal trust, norms of reciprocity, social cohesion) were derived by aggregating survey data on these constructs within neighbourhoods. Objective data on crimes within neighbourhoods were obtained from Victoria Police. In bivariable regression models, all social variables at both the individual and neighbourhood level were positively associated with odds of physical activity, walking, and walking in one's own neighbourhood. Associations with individual social participation (associated with all three physical activity variables) and neighbourhood interpersonal trust (associated with overall physical activity only) remained significant in multivariable models. Neither neighbourhood crime against the person nor incivilities were associated with any form of physical activity. These results demonstrate that women who participated in local groups or events and, less consistently, women living in neighbourhoods where residents trusted one another, were more likely to participate in leisure-time physical activity. While redressing macro-level social and economic policies that contribute to neighbourhood inequalities remains a priority, public health initiatives aimed at promoting physical activity could consider focusing on fostering social interactions targeting both individuals and communities. Further investigation of causal mechanisms underlying these associations is required. PMID:20561727

Ball, Kylie; Cleland, Verity J; Timperio, Anna F; Salmon, Jo; Giles-Corti, Billie; Crawford, David A

2010-08-01

283

Women of the World: Women's Health in India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Census Bureau offers this report that profiles the current state of women's health and education in India. The report was released as part of the bureau's Women of the World series, which focuses on socio-economic gender issues in various countries. The reports present data from a variety of sources and summarize germane findings to provide a snapshot of Indian literacy, education level, fertility, infant mortality, and maternal mortality, among other statistical factors related to women's health and education.

Adlakha, Arjun, 1941-.; Velkoff, Victoria A.

284

Incentives as connectors: insights into a breastfeeding incentive intervention in a disadvantaged area of North-West England  

PubMed Central

Background Incentive or reward schemes are becoming increasingly popular to motivate healthy lifestyle behaviours. In this paper, insights from a qualitative and descriptive study to investigate the uptake, impact and meanings of a breastfeeding incentive intervention integrated into an existing peer support programme (Star Buddies) are reported. The Star Buddies service employs breastfeeding peer supporters to support women across the ante-natal, intra-partum and post-partum period. Methods In a disadvantaged area of North West England, women initiating breastfeeding were recruited by peer supporters on the postnatal ward or soon after hospital discharge to participate in an 8 week incentive (gifts and vouchers) and breastfeeding peer supporter intervention. In-depth interviews were conducted with 26 women participants who engaged with the incentive intervention, and a focus group was held with the 4 community peer supporters who delivered the intervention. Descriptive analysis of routinely collected data for peer supporter contacts and breastfeeding outcomes before and after the incentive intervention triangulated and retrospectively provided the context for the qualitative thematic analysis. Results A global theme emerged of 'incentives as connectors', with two sub-themes of 'facilitating connections' and 'facilitating relationships and wellbeing'. The incentives were linked to discussion themes and gift giving facilitated peer supporter access for proactive weekly home visits to support women. Regular face to face contacts enabled meaningful relationships and new connections within and between the women, families, peer supporters and care providers to be formed and sustained. Participants in the incentive scheme received more home visits and total contact time with peer supporters compared to women before the incentive intervention. Full participation levels and breastfeeding rates at 6-8 weeks were similar for women before and after the incentive intervention. Conclusion The findings suggest that whilst the provision of incentives might not influence women's intentions or motivations to breastfeed, the connections forged provided psycho-social benefits for both programme users and peer supporters. PMID:22458841

2012-01-01

285

Using risk analysis in Health Impact Assessment: the impact of different relative risks for men and women in different socio-economic groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to contribute to the emerging field of quantification of Health Impact Assessment (HIA), by analysing how different relative risks affect the burden of disease for various socio-economic groups (SES). Risk analysis, utilising attributable and impact fraction, raises several methodological considerations. The present study illustrates this by measuring the impact of changed distribution levels of

Louise Nilunger; Finn Diderichsen; Bo Burström; Piroska Östlin

2004-01-01

286

Socio-Economic Outcomes of Teen Pregnancy and Parenthood: A Review of the Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews literature examining the socioeconomic consequences of teen pregnancy and childbearing and the birth intentions of teenage mothers. Teen mothers, as opposed to women who delay childbearing, are more likely to become socioeconomically disadvantaged. Socioeconomic disadvantage is correlated with, but not necessarily a consequence of, early…

Bissell, Mary

2000-01-01

287

Obstacles to Women in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the underlying social, cultural and economic causes for the undemocratic treatment of the female sex within the fabric of the scientific establishment. Offers a few positive measures for women to use in opening the scientific-technical structure to women. (BR)

Shapley, Deborah

1975-01-01

288

THE WOMEN'S TALENT CORPS, PROPOSAL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

WOMEN'S TALENT CORPS, FUNDED BY THE OFFICE OF ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY, WILL MEET TWO SOCIAL PROBLEMS IN NEW YORK CITY--JOB SHORTAGES IN COMMUNITY SERVICES AND UNEMPLOYMENT AND LACK OF TRAINING AMONG THE POOR. WOMEN WILL BE RECRUITED FROM LOW-INCOME NEIGHBORHOODS AND TRAINED AS PRE-PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANTS IN SCHOOLS, HOSPITALS, AND SOCIAL AGENCIES…

COHEN, AUDREY C.

289

National Organization for Women (NOW)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Organization of Women (NOW) Web page offers extensive information about issues NOW is involved in, such as economic equity, electoral politics, global feminism, racial and ethnic diversity, and violence against women. Also available is contact information for chapter and state organizations and the NOW Action Center. Links to other feminist resources on the Internet include the University of Maryland's Women's Studies Database and feminist activists resources on the Net.

1998-01-01

290

Women in rural development.  

PubMed

The integration of women in rural development means something more than mere labor involvement, but there has never been a clear definition of what it means. 4 principal concerns of policy-makers are briefly described as they affect women: unemployment and inadequate employment; 2) the satisfaction of basic needs and women's participation in decision-making; 3) population issues; and 4) rural-to-urban migration. The actual inter-household and inter-personal distribution of more work and higher productivity work could result in some hard-working people working even longer hours because of additional tasks with others losing their intermittent employment opportunities due to mechanization. These contradictions can be particularly acute for women. The non-material basic need of decision-making powers is more important in the case of women than of men, yet the personal status of women is being threatened by the institution-building that accompanies peasant-based agricultural intensification plans and anti-poverty programs. The education of females has been seen as a possible factor favoring family planning. In addition, education for women can mean access to public information and new expectations from life for themselves. At this time more women than men seem to be migrating to towns and cities in a number of countries with varied economic structures. 3 cases studies of agricultural development in Kenya, Bangladesh and Java, Indonesia are presented. PMID:12336530

Palmer, I

1980-01-01

291

Residential Selection across the Life Course: Adolescent Contextual and Individual Determinants of Neighborhood Disadvantage in Mid-Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous cross-sectional studies have examined neighborhood effects on health. Residential selection in adulthood has been stressed as an important cause of selection bias but has received little empirical attention, particularly its determinants from the earlier life course. The present study aims to examine whether neighborhood, family, school, health behaviors and health in adolescence are related to socioeconomic disadvantage of one's neighborhood of residence in adulthood. Methods Based on the prospective Northern Swedish Cohort (analytical N?=?971, 90.6% retention rate), information was collected at age 16 years concerning family circumstances, school adjustment, health behaviors and mental and physical health. Neighborhood register data was linked to the cohort and used to operationalize aggregated measures of neighborhood disadvantage (ND) at age 16 and 42. Data was analyzed with linear mixed models, with ND in adulthood regressed on adolescent predictors and neighborhood of residence in adolescence as the level-2 unit. Results Neighborhood disadvantage in adulthood was clustered by neighborhood of residence in adolescence (ICC?=?8.6%). The clustering was completely explained by ND in adolescence. Of the adolescent predictors, ND (b?=?.14 (95% credible interval?=?.07–.22)), final school marks (b?=??.18 (?.26–?.10)), socioeconomic disadvantage (b?=?.07 (.01–.14)), and, with borderline significance, school peer problems (b?=?.07 (?.00–.13)), were independently related to adulthood ND in the final adjusted model. In sex-stratified analyses, the most important predictors were school marks (b?=??.21 (?.32–?.09)) in women, and neighborhood of residence (ICC?=?15.5%) and ND (b?=?.20 (.09–.31)) in men. Conclusions These findings show that factors from adolescence – which also may impact on adult health – could influence the neighborhood context in which one will live in adulthood. This indicates that residential selection bias in neighborhood effects on health research may have its sources in early life. PMID:24278263

Gustafsson, Per E.; San Sebastian, Miguel; Janlert, Urban; Theorell, Töres; Westerlund, Hugo; Hammarström, Anne

2013-01-01

292

‘Inconvenient biology:’ advantages and disadvantages of first-time parenting after age 40 using in vitro fertilization  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND As ages at first birth have steadily risen in the industrial west over the last several decades, the phenomenon of ‘delayed childbearing’ has come under research scrutiny by demographers, medical specialists and social scientists. In this study, we specifically explore the perceived advantages and disadvantages of postponed conception as well as participants’ retrospective opinions on the ‘optimal age’ for parenting. METHODS To this end, we examined a cohort purposely chosen to epitomize delayed childbearing, i.e. men and women who used IVF to conceive at the very end of their reproductive capability. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted between 2009 and 2011 with 46 couples and 15 individual self-selected US women and men who had used IVF to conceive their first child when the woman was aged 40 or older at the time of delivery. Although the demographics of this cohort were consistent with others who use IVF in the USA, their median income was 3–4 times higher than that of the average US family, which may bias their largely positive parenting experiences. RESULTS Most women and men believed that childbearing later in life resulted in advantages for themselves and their families. These included having established careers with financial security and career-time flexibility, enhanced emotional preparedness, committed co-parenting relationships and a positive overall family experience. The main disadvantage was the unexpected difficulty in conceiving that culminated in the use of IVF and resulted in a smaller family than desired, although many expressed feeling ‘lucky’ to have children at all. Other disadvantages were lack of energy for parenting, less available lifetime to spend with children and anticipated stigma as older parents. CONCLUSIONS These disadvantages appear to have influenced conception and parenting experiences so that in hindsight the majority of participants identified the optimal age for first-time parenting as 5–10 years earlier than they had conceived. This age range was imagined to maximize the financial and emotional advantages of later parenting while minimizing the impact of age-related infertility, diminished energy, anticipated health issues and the social stigma of appearing too old to parent. PMID:22333985

Mac Dougall, K.; Beyene, Y.; Nachtigall, R.D.

2012-01-01

293

41 CFR 105-53.130-4 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 105-53...Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. (a) Creation...and authority. Public Law 95-507, October 14...amendment to the Small Business Act and the Small...

2010-07-01

294

49 CFR 1.62 - Delegations to the Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01...Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 1.62 Section 1.62...DUTIES Delegations § 1.62 Delegations to...Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. The...

2010-10-01

295

48 CFR 719.271-2 - The USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB). 719.271-2 Section 719.271-2 Federal...Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB). (a) SDB is responsible for administering, implementing,...

2010-10-01

296

75 FR 5535 - Participation by Disadvantaged Business Enterprises in Department of Transportation Financial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Participation by Disadvantaged Business Enterprises in Department of...their overall disadvantaged business enterprise (DBE) goal for...about moving to a three-year cycle: (1) The difficulty in estimating...transportation, Minority business, Reporting and...

2010-02-03

297

Women's Entry into Teaching: Myths and Realities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews the entry of women into the teaching profession in nineteenth-century America, noting that, while the primary motivation for encouraging women to teach was that they could be paid less than men, this economic justification was obscured by sentimental pronouncements about women's superior moral and nurturant power. (SJL)

Russell, Dorothy S.

1979-01-01

298

Literacy Learning and Economic Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case studies of two women use the concept of sponsor--an agent who supported or hampered their literacy learning. The relationship between literacy learning and economic change is revealed as both women experienced the decline of agriculture ad rise in industrialization and corporate control. (SK)

Brandt, Deborah

1999-01-01

299

THE WOMEN AND THE ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women and environment are generally considered powerless elements in the complex global system, which is mainly based on economic laws, taking into account economically quantifiable elements. However, recent anthropogenic challenges to the environment, which threaten our existence, such as hydro-geological disasters, the overexploitation of primary resources, air and water pollution, show the need of new relationships with respect to the

F. Scapini

300

Advantages and Disadvantages of Health Care Accreditation Mod­els  

PubMed Central

Background: This systematic review seeks to define the general advantages and disadvan­tages of accreditation programs to assist in choosing the most appropriate approach. Method: Systematic search of SID, Ovid Medline & PubMed databases was conducted by the keywords of accreditation, hospital, medical practice, clinic, accreditation models, health care and Persian meanings. From 2379 initial articles, 83 articles met the full inclusion criteria. From initial analysis, 23 attributes were identified which appeared to define advantages and disadvantages of different accreditation approaches and the available systems were compared on these. Results: Six systems were identified in the international literature including the JCAHO from USA, the Canadian program of CCHSA, and the accreditation programs of UK, Australia, New Zealand and France. The main distinguishing attributes among them were: quality improve­ment, patient and staff safety, improving health services integration, public’s confi­dence, effectiveness and efficiency of health services, innovation, influence global standards, information management, breadth of activity, history, effective relationship with stakeholders, agreement with AGIL attributes and independence from government. Conclusion: Based on 23 attributes of comprehensive accreditation systems we have defined from a systematic review, the JCAHO accreditation program of USA and then CCHSA of Can­ada offered the most comprehensive systems with the least disadvantages. Other programs such as the ACHS of Australia, ANAES of France, QHNZ of New Zealand and UK accredita­tion programs were fairly comparable according to these criteria. However the decision for any country or health system should be based on an assessment weighing up their specific objec­tives and needs. PMID:24688896

Tabrizi, Jafar S.; Gharibi, Farid; Wilson, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

301

Pupil Disaffection in Areas of Socio-Economic Disadvantage: Implications for Effective School Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines specific elements of a much wider study that attempted to ascertain the reasons for under-achievement in a large comprehensive school in the Welsh valleys. Specific Academic performance at General Certificate of Secondary Education (G.C.S.E.) level was poor in Randall, the main case school, in relation to other schools with…

Lloyd-Nesling, Norma

2006-01-01

302

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1400.4 Section 1400.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) MINORITY BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT AGENCY DETERMINATION OF GROUP ELIGIBILITY FOR MBDA ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or...

2010-01-01

303

Preschool Quality and the Development of Children From Economically Disadvantaged Families in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: The influence of preschool quality on the development of 67 4-year-old children from poor and rural families in South India was examined. Children's developmental status was assessed using a modified version of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and through physician ratings. Preschool quality was assessed through repeated systematic observations and using the Tamil Nadu Early Childhood Environment

Nirmala Rao

2010-01-01

304

Mothers' Parenting and Young Economically Disadvantaged Children's Relational and Overt Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined links between mothers' parenting and children's relational bullying and overt bullying in a sample of children attending a Head Start program. Mothers completed surveys and face-to-face interviews. Head Start teachers completed assessments on children. Results indicated that a small percentage of children in the sample was rated by…

Curtner-Smith, Mary E.; Culp, Anne M.; Culp, Rex; Scheib, Carrie; Owen, Kelly; Tilley, Angela; Murphy, Molly; Parkman, Lauren; Coleman, Peter W.

2006-01-01

305

Extending the purposes of science education: addressing violence within socio-economic disadvantaged communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current discourses about science education show a wide concern towards humanisation and a more socio-cultural perspective of school science. They suggest that science education can serve diverse purposes and be responsive to social and environmental situations we currently face. However, these discourses and social approaches to science education tend to focus on global issues. They do not respond to the immediate needs and local context of some communities. I discuss in this paper why the purposes of science education need to be extended to respond to the local issue of violence. For this, I present a case study with a group of 38 students from a poor population in Bogotá, Colombia, located in one of the suburbs with highest levels of crime in the city. I examine the ways that science education contributes to and embodies its own forms of violence and explore how a new approach to science education could contribute to break the cycle of violence.

Castano, Carolina

2012-09-01

306

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...training, exclusion from social and professional association...honors rightfully earned, and social patterns or pressures which...retaliatory or discriminatory behavior by an employer or labor union; and social patterns or pressures...

2011-10-01

307

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...training, exclusion from social and professional association...honors rightfully earned, and social patterns or pressures which...retaliatory or discriminatory behavior by an employer or labor union; and social patterns or pressures...

2013-10-01

308

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...training, exclusion from social and professional association...honors rightfully earned, and social patterns or pressures which...retaliatory or discriminatory behavior by an employer or labor union; and social patterns or pressures...

2010-10-01

309

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...training, exclusion from social and professional association...honors rightfully earned, and social patterns or pressures which...retaliatory or discriminatory behavior by an employer or labor union; and social patterns or pressures...

2012-10-01

310

Predicting Kindergarten Success for Economically Disadvantaged Head Start Children: A Latent Curve Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to use data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 database for public use (version 2.9.2.1; Westat, 2000) to examine a sample of Head Start children and families to predict kindergarten and first grade success, The study controlled family variables of income level, family…

Jiang, Ying Hong; Mok, Doris; Weaver, Robert R.

311

Interfirm information linkages in an economically disadvantaged region: an empirical perspective from metropolitan Buffalo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The external information linkages of industrial firms in two sectors of Buffalo's manufacturing base -- medical instruments, and chemicals -- are examined. Survey data are presented which indicate a positive role for imported technical services in local product innovation, export activity, and technology diffusion. The data reveal that firms which import a substantial proportion of their external technical inputs hold

A MacPherson

1991-01-01

312

Early Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity among Economically Disadvantaged Families in the USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in…

Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

2012-01-01

313

Child Care and the Development of Behavior Problems among Economically Disadvantaged Children in Middle Childhood  

PubMed Central

Research examining the longer term influences of child care on children’s development has expanded in recent years, but few studies have considered low-income children’s experiences in community care arrangements. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 349), this study examines the influences of child care quality, extent and type on low-income children’s development of behavior problems during middle childhood (7–11 years old). Higher levels of child care quality were linked to moderate reductions in externalizing behavior problems. High quality child care was especially protective against the development of behavior problems for boys and African American children. Child care type and the extent of care that children experienced were generally unrelated to behavior problems in middle childhood. PMID:20840234

Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Maldonado-Carreño, Carolina; Li-Grining, Christine; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

2010-01-01

314

Beliefs about the Causes of Poverty in Parents and Adolescents Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 2 consecutive years, parents and their adolescent children from 199 poor families in Hong Kong responded to the Chinese Perceived Causes of Poverty Scale, which assesses beliefs about the causes of poverty. The author abstracted 4 factors from the scale. Analyses showed that these factors (personal problems, exploitation, lack of opportunity,…

Shek, Daniel T. L.

2004-01-01

315

Beliefs About the Causes of Poverty in Parents and Adolescents Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 2 consecutive years, parents and their adolescent children from 199 poor families in Hong Kong responded to the Chinese Perceived Causes of Poverty Scale, which assesses beliefs about the causes of poverty. The author abstracted 4 factors from the scale. Analyses showed that these factors (personal problems, exploitation, lack of opportunity, fate) were stable across time and across different

Daniel T. L. Shek

2004-01-01

316

Household type, economic disadvantage, and residential segregation: empirical patterns and findings from simulation analysis  

E-print Network

these theories, I draw oncensus data for Houston, Texas and use the xPx measure to document patterns of contact between households based on family type, poverty status, and race. I also decompose the effects that each of these variables can have separately...

Howden, Lindsay Michelle

2005-08-29

317

Wraparound Counseling: An Ecosystemic Approach to Working with Economically Disadvantaged Students in Urban School Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban schools are faced with challenges such as low academic performance, increased incidents of violence, lack of parental engagement with educators, and school personnel burnout. Wraparound counseling is a holistic prevention tool that combines the best practices of counseling and special education for use in the school setting. (Contains 1…

West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Frazier, Kimberly N.; Kelley, Erin

2011-01-01

318

Feminism, ecology and the philosophy of economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contemporary discipline of economics pays little heed to either the natural environment or to the work of women. A review of the literature on the historical development of western concepts of self and science shows that this is not coincidental. Rather than suggesting that ecological economics reinforce the identification of women with nature, however, feminist thought suggests that dualistic

Julie A. Nelson

1997-01-01

319

48 CFR 752.226-2 - Subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT...meaning as in FAR 19.001, except that the term also includes women. (d) Contractors should require representations...

2010-10-01

320

Women Winners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines are presented to help institutions ensure women's full participation in campus-based and sponsored merit awards and prizes programs. Over 100 recommendations are designed to: explain why such awards and prizes can be particularly important for women students and women faculty; identify overt and inadvertent barriers to women's full…

Hall, Roberta M.; Sandler, Bernice Resnick

321

Neural Correlates of Advantageous and Disadvantageous Inequity in Sharing Decisions  

PubMed Central

Humans have a strong preference for fair distributions of resources. Neuroimaging studies have shown that being treated unfairly coincides with activation in brain regions involved in signaling conflict and negative affect. Less is known about neural responses involved in violating a fairness norm ourselves. Here, we investigated the neural patterns associated with inequity, where participants were asked to choose between an equal split of money and an unequal split that could either maximize their own (advantageous inequity) or another person’s (disadvantageous inequity) earnings. Choosing to divide money unequally, irrespective who benefited from the unequal distribution, was associated with activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Inequity choices that maximized another person’s profits were further associated with activity in the ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Taken together, our findings show evidence of a common neural pattern associated with both advantageous and disadvantageous inequity in sharing decisions and additional recruitment of neural circuitry previously linked to the computation of subjective value and reward when violating a fairness norm at the benefit of someone else. PMID:25238541

Crone, Eveline A.

2014-01-01

322

Gender equality, poverty and economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews empirical findings from economic analyses of the role of gender equality and women's empowerment in reducing poverty and stimulatinggrowth. Going beyond the large literature documenting the impact of female education on a range of development outcomes, the paper presents evidence on the impact of women's access to markets (labor, land, and credit) and women's decision-making power within

Nistha Sinha; Dhushyanth Raju; Andrew Morrison

2007-01-01

323

Social and Economic Context. Trends and Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools are very sensitive to the rapid social, economic, and demographic changes that the United States is presently undergoing. They are at a disadvantage compared to most other social institutions because, in serving a younger population, they have less lead time to prepare for changes in the complexion of society. Young people in today's world…

Lumsden, Linda, Comp.; Coffey, Elizabeth, Comp.

324

New England Economic Review: 2000 Issues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The May/June 2000 issue of New England Economic Review from FRB Boston includes three articles and their abstracts: "Rising Tide in the Labor Market: To What Degree Do Expansions Benefit the Disadvantaged?," "Discouraged and Other Marginally Attached Workers: Evidence on Their Role in the Labor Market," and "The Neutrality of Massachusetts' Taxation of Financial Institutions."

2000-01-01

325

Emission constrained economic dispatch  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a methodology to include emission constraints in classical Economic Dispatch (ED), which contains an efficient weights estimation technique. Also, a partial closed form technique is presented to implement the Emission Constrained Economic Dispatch (ECED). A simple technique is proposed to identify the binding constraints. The methods proposed do not need any user-supplied tuning or conversion factors. Dispatch quality is not compromised, and any practical sized problem can be solved efficiently. The proposed methods have rapid and consistent convergence to the Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions. Different methods of including emissions as well as their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Sample test results are presented. The proposed two methodologies have potential for on-line implementation.

Ramanathan, R. (ESCA Corp., Bellevue, WA (United States))

1994-11-01

326

Education and the Disadvantaged, Proceedings of a Conference on the Disadvantaged (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, June 8-9, 1967).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conference report is made up of six papers and related commentaries on the nature of disadvantagement and its implications. Most participants were from the Milwaukee, Wisconsin, area. Small group meetings and discussions followed each of the papers. The opening paper, "Education and the Disadvantaged" (E. Melby), examined a broad range of…

Goldman, Harvey, Ed.

327

Views of women towards cesarean section.  

PubMed

Women who deliver by cesarean section CS differ significantly from those who deliver vaginally regarding their childbirth experience. Those who deliver by CS are often less satisfied with their experience, and with themselves. They experience a feeling of resentment towards the physician, profound disappointment at the treatment expectation and loss of the happy moment of natural birth leading to postpartum depression. Cesarean delivery carries considerable disadvantages in terms of pain and trauma of an abdominal operation and complications associated with it. However, the CS rate is constantly on the rise. Hence, there is a need to evaluate the views of women undergoing cesarean deliveries and to ascertain the role of women in decision making regarding mode of delivery. This is a review of studies investigating the views of women from different countries towards CS and presents the view points of Saudi women regarding this. PMID:15195197

Al-Nuaim, Lulu A

2004-06-01

328

The Many Faces of the Economic Bulletin Board.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Economic Bulletin Board (EBB), a one-stop site for economic statistics and government-sponsored business information, can be accessed on the World Wide Web, gopher, telnet, file transfer protocol, dial-up, and fax. Each access method has advantages and disadvantages related to connections, pricing, depth of access, retrieval, and system…

Boettcher, Jennifer

1996-01-01

329

Working in disadvantaged communities: What additional competencies do we need?  

PubMed Central

Background Residents of socioeconomically disadvantaged locations are more likely to have poor health than residents of socioeconomically advantaged locations and this has been comprehensively mapped in Australian cities. These inequalities present a challenge for the public health workers based in or responsible for improving the health of people living in disadvantaged localities. The purpose of this study was to develop a generic workforce needs assessment tool and to use it to identify the competencies needed by the public health workforce to work effectively in disadvantaged communities. Methods A two-step mixed method process was used to identify the workforce needs. In step 1 a generic workforce needs assessment tool was developed and applied in three NSW Area Health Services using focus groups, key stakeholder interviews and a staff survey. In step 2 the findings of this needs assessment process were mapped against the existing National Health Training Package (HLT07) competencies, gaps were identified, additional competencies described and modules of training developed to fill identified gaps. Results There was a high level of agreement among the AHS staff on the nature of the problems to be addressed but less confidence indentifying the work to be done. Processes for needs assessments, community consultations and adapting mainstream programs to local needs were frequently mentioned as points of intervention. Recruiting and retaining experienced staff to work in these communities and ensuring their safety were major concerns. Workforce skill development needs were seen in two ways: higher order planning/epidemiological skills and more effective working relationships with communities and other sectors. Organisational barriers to effective practice were high levels of annual compulsory training, balancing state and national priorities with local needs and giving equal attention to the population groups that are easy to reach and to those that are difficult to engage. A number of additional competency areas were identified and three training modules developed. Conclusion The generic workforce needs assessment tool was easy to use and interpret. It appears that the public health workforce involved in this study has a high level of understanding of the relationship between the social determinants and health. However there is a skill gap in identifying and undertaking effective intervention. PMID:19393091

Harris, Elizabeth; Harris, Mark F; Madden, Lynne; Wise, Marilyn; Sainsbury, Peter; MacDonald, John; Gill, Betty

2009-01-01

330

Nibbled to Death by Ducks: The Accumulation of Disadvantage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the consequences of unconscious bias is the accumulation of advantage/disadvantage. Research has shown that over time, minor imbalances will accrue and eventually have major impacts regarding promotion, salary, prestige, and advancement to leadership positions. For example, an unconscious bias during an evaluation leading to an underestimate of performance will result in a lower success rate, which then feeds back into the next evaluation and the cycle repeats. How can we address this? We'll be discussing how to become informed and conscious of the problem, and we'll look at recommendations for developing and implementing departmental and institutional policies and practices aimed at increasing awareness and countering these accumulations of imbalances that impact us all.

Simpson, Caroline E.

2010-05-01

331

Resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos and adaptive disadvantages  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos Fersol 1G (temephos 1% w/w) associated with the adaptive disadvantage of insect populations in the absence of selection pressure. METHODS A diagnostic dose of 0.28 mg a.i./L and doses between 0.28 mg a.i./L and 1.40 mg a.i./L were used. Vector populations collected between 2007 and 2008 in the city of Campina Grande, state of Paraíba, were evaluated. To evaluate competition in the absence of selection pressure, insect populations with initial frequencies of 20.0%, 40.0%, 60.0%, and 80.0% resistant individuals were produced and subjected to the diagnostic dose for two months. Evaluation of the development of aquatic and adult stages allowed comparison of the life cycles in susceptible and resistant populations and construction of fertility life tables. RESULTS No mortality was observed in Ae. aegypti populations subjected to the diagnostic dose of 0.28 mg a.i./L. The decreased mortality observed in populations containing 20.0%, 40.0%, 60.0%, and 80.0% resistant insects indicates that temephos resistance is unstable in the absence of selection pressure. A comparison of the life cycles indicated differences in the duration and viability of the larval phase, but no differences were observed in embryo development, sex ratio, adult longevity, and number of eggs per female. CONCLUSIONS The fertility life table results indicated that some populations had reproductive disadvantages compared with the susceptible population in the absence of selection pressure, indicating the presence of a fitness cost in populations resistant to temephos. PMID:25372168

Diniz, Morgana Michele Cavalcanti de Souza Leal; Henriques, Alleksandra Dias da Silva; Leandro, Renata da Silva; Aguiar, Dalvanice Leal; Beserra, Eduardo Barbosa

2014-01-01

332

Redressing dis-advantage: promoting vertical equity within South Africa.  

PubMed

This paper represents the first attempt to apply vertical equity principles to the South African health sector. A vertical equity approach, which recognises that different groups have different starting points and therefore require differential treatment, appears to offer an appropriate basis for considering how best to redress the vast inequities which exist in post-Apartheid South Africa. Vertical equity principles are applied in critically analysing two areas of recent policy action which are particularly relevant to health sector equity in South Africa, namely public-private sector cross-subsidies and the allocation of government resources between provinces. Despite a strong political commitment to redressing historical inequities, recent government policy actions in these two areas appear to fall short of desirable goals when viewed through a vertical equity lens. In particular, policies since the first democratic elections in 1994 have done little to reduce the extent of government subsidies to the private health sector, which serves a minority of the population. In addition, recent proposals for a Social Health Insurance will allow minimal cross-subsidies between high- and low-income earners and would not adequately redress the currently inequitable public-private cross-subsidies. With respect to the allocation of government resources between provinces, a vertical equity approach would suggest that the most historically dis-advantaged provinces have an even greater claim on government resources than reflected in the current formula, as developed by the Department of Finance. This paper also considers the potential benefits of engaging with societal views in determining what constitutes dis-advantage in the South African context, in order to identify those who should receive priority in resource allocation decisions. It concludes with a review of a number of practical steps that can be taken to draw vertical equity principles into policy action. PMID:11186024

McIntyre, D; Gilson, L

2000-01-01

333

The Economics Department of Economics  

E-print Network

The Economics Initiative Department of Economics #12;Economics at LSE The Department of Economics is the top ranked economics department in Europe and among the top 12 worldwide. It is one of the largest economics departments in the world, with over 60 faculty and 1,000 students and a department which makes

334

Women's Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regardless of their marital status earlier in life, most women can expect to be single for some of their old age. In addition, older single women often have reduced resources. Many women now face situations unlike their expectations when they chose their life courses. Such a situation is shared by a unique community of Catholic sisters. Changes in…

Mercier, Joyce McDonough; And Others

335

Women and Academic Workloads: Career Slow Lane or Cul-de-Sac?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Career progression for women academics to higher levels is not in proportion to their representation within the profession. This paper looks at theories about this and relates them to current practices within universities for allocating work. The management of workloads can disadvantage women through a number of interactive factors. Interruptions…

Barrett, Lucinda; Barrett, Peter

2011-01-01

336

The impact of road construction on women's trade in rural Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the impact of road construction and consequent reorganization of the periodic market system on rural traders in two regions of northern Nigeria: the Jos Plateau and Borno. It focuses primarily on the fortunes of women traders in off-road communities. The decline of off-road markets appears to be particularly disadvantageous to women in Borno. The study emphasizes the

Gina Porter

1995-01-01

337

Violence against women.  

PubMed

This essay opens its discussion of violence against women by referring to the 1994 television broadcast of a 10-year-old Egyptian girl undergoing female genital mutilation (FGM) without benefit of infection control measures or anesthesia at the hands of a local barber. After presenting a brief description of FGM, its various justifications, and its impacts on its victims, the official Egyptian policy is described as ambiguous, and the broadcast is shown to have caused influential religious leaders and medical personnel to defend FGM and, thus, led to postponement of a bill to outlaw FGM. The next section of the essay shows that Egypt's response to FGM reflects the international debate on all forms of violence against women emerging from and reinforcing the social relationships that give men power over women. These forms of violence include domestic violence in almost all societies; the dowry-related, bride-burning homicides that claim 5000-12,000 lives each year in India; son preference that leads to abortion of female fetuses and female infanticide; and crimes such as rape, sexual abuse, and forced prostitution. The essay continues with a look at the costs of violence hidden in the damage to women that increases health care costs substantially and reduces economic productivity. Violence towards women, which occurs throughout the world and can prevent women from participating in public life or from controlling their fertility, is a male tool to inhibit women from gaining autonomy outside the home. The essay concludes that victims of violence are beginning to break the silence that surrounded these deeds and are seeking legislative protection. Laws may not result in real-life changes, but the movement to eliminate FGM may prove to be the first success in women's efforts to achieve human rights. An example is the important precedent being set in the US by a woman seeking asylum to avoid facing an arranged marriage and FGM in her native Togo. PMID:12291323

Nelson, T

1996-01-01

338

Lifecourse Adversity and Physical Performance across Countries among Men and Women Aged 65-74  

PubMed Central

Background This study examines the associations between lifecourse adversity and physical performance in old age in different societies of North and South America and Europe. Methods We used data from the baseline survey of the International Study of Mobility in Aging, conducted in: Kingston (Canada), Saint-Hyacinthe (Canada), Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia) and Tirana (Albania). The study population was composed of community dwelling people between 65 and 74 years of age, recruiting 200 men and 200 women at each site. Physical Performance was assessed with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Economic and social adversity was estimated from childhood adverse events, low education, semi-skilled occupations during adulthood and living alone and insufficient income in old age. Results A total of 1995 people were assessed. Low physical performance was associated with childhood social and economic adversity, semi-skilled occupations, living alone and insufficient income. Physical performance was lower in participants living in Colombia, Brazil and Albania than in Canada counterparts, despite adjustment for lifecourse adversity, age and sex. Conclusions We show evidence of the early origins of social and economic inequalities in physical performance during old age in distinct populations and for the independent and cumulative disadvantage of low socioeconomic status during adulthood and poverty and living alone in later life. PMID:25101981

Sousa, Ana Carolina Patrício de Albuquerque; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira; Thanh Tu, Mai; Phillips, Susan P.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

2014-01-01

339

PROVIDING WOMEN, KEPT MEN  

PubMed Central

This paper draws on ethnographic and interview based fieldwork to explore accounts of intimate relationships between widowed women and poor young men that emerged in the wake of economic crisis and a devastating HIV epidemic among the Luo ethnic group in Western Kenya. I show how the cooptation of widow inheritance practices in the wake of an overwhelming number of widows as well as economic crisis resulted in widows becoming providing women and poor young men becoming kept men. I illustrate how widows in this setting, by performing a set of practices central to what it meant to be a man in this society – pursuing and providing for their partners - were effectively doing masculinity. I will also show how young men, rather than being feminized by being kept, deployed other sets of practices to prove their masculinity and live in a manner congruent with cultural ideals. I argue that ultimately, women’s practice of masculinity in large part seemed to serve patriarchal ends. It not only facilitated the fulfillment of patriarchal expectations of femininity – to being inherited – but also served, in the end, to provide a material base for young men’s deployment of legitimizing and culturally valued sets of masculine practice. PMID:25489121

Mojola, Sanyu A

2014-01-01

340

Testing the economic independence hypothesis: the effect of an exogenous increase in child support on subsequent marriage and cohabitation.  

PubMed

We examine the effects of an increase in income on the cohabitation and marriage of single mothers. Using data from an experiment that resulted in randomly assigned differences in child support receipt for welfare-receiving single mothers, we find that exogenous income increases (as a result of receiving all child support that was paid) are associated with significantly lower cohabitation rates between mothers and men who are not the fathers of their child(ren). Overall, these results support the hypothesis that additional income increases disadvantaged women's economic independence by reducing the need to be in the least stable type of partnerships. Our results also show the potential importance of distinguishing between biological and social fathers. PMID:24728708

Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R

2014-06-01

341

Psychological Distress and Mortality: Are Women More Vulnerable?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does psychological distress increase mortality risk? If it does, are women more vulnerable than men to the effect of distress on mortality? Drawing from cumulative disadvantage theory, these questions are addressed with data from a 20-year follow-up of a national sample of adults ages 25-74. Event history analyses were performed to examine…

Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Nuriddin, Tariqah A.

2006-01-01

342

Improving Physics Education in Disadvantaged Schools Using Most Appropriate Technology & Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our proposal - Bridging The Gap aims at partnering with the teachers from the target Hartford High School System and utilizing the most appropriate technology to build a cost-effective portfolio of experimental kits with accompanying web based delivery of content to cover the entire curriculum of high school level science and mathematics to improve student enrollment and students conceptual understanding of these subjects. Note that the emphasis here is on the most appropriate tools rather than the most advanced tools since the target high schools are not all expected to be able to afford costly courseware solutions. Nevertheless, the partnership of AppWave with Hartford School District is expected to significantly close the ever-widening science and technology gap for economically and socially disadvantaged student population in the Hartford School District. AppWaves partnership with the Department of Science, Hartford School District, will involve direct interaction with Hartford High School teachers and a continuous interaction with the AppWave Advisory Panel a group of local education experts from the Trinity College, Hartford and the University of Connecticut.

Saxena, Vishal

2002-10-01

343

Advantages and disadvantages of biodegradable platforms in drug eluting stents  

PubMed Central

Coronary angioplasty with drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation is currently the most common stent procedure worldwide. Since the introduction of DES, coronary restenosis as well as the incidence of target vessel and target lesion revascularization have been significantly reduced. However, the incidence of very late stent thrombosis beyond the first year after stent deployment has more commonly been linked to DES than to bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation. Several factors have been associated with very late stent thrombosis after DES implantation, such as delayed healing, inflammation, stent mal-apposition and endothelial dysfunction. Some of these adverse events were associated with the presence of durable polymers, which were essential to allow the elution of the immunosuppressive drug in the first DES designs. The introduction of erodable polymers in DES technology has provided the potential to complete the degradation of the polymer simultaneously or immediately after the release of the immunosuppressive drug, after which a BMS remains in place. Several DES designs with biodegradable (BIO) polymers have been introduced in preclinical and clinical studies, including randomized trials. In this review, we analyze the clinical results from 6 observational and randomized studies with BIO polymers and discuss advantages and disadvantages of this new technology. PMID:21499496

Rodriguez-Granillo, Agustina; Rubilar, Bibiana; Rodriguez-Granillo, Gaston; Rodriguez, Alfredo E

2011-01-01

344

The prevalence and correlates of single cigarette selling among urban disadvantaged drug users in Baltimore, Maryland  

PubMed Central

Background Selling of single cigarettes, also known as loosies, is a public health concern. Loosies allow for those with fewer resources to buy cigarettes without having to purchase a pack. Selling of loosies may cue smoking behaviors. In the US, socioeconomically disadvantaged populations have high rates of smoking and illicit drug use and the selling of loosies appears to be linked to the urban informal economy. We examined the proportion and frequency of cigarette selling and roles in the informal economy associated with selling loosies among a sample of urban drug users. Methods There were 801 participants, recruited by community outreach, assessed at baseline, who were enrolled in an HIV prevention intervention for drug users. Results Most (89%) smoked cigarettes in the prior 30 days, of whom 92% smoked daily. Self-reported selling of cigarettes was common with 58% reporting that they had sold cigarettes within the last six months; 20.4% reported selling cigarettes a few times a week and 7.4% reported daily selling of cigarettes. In a stepwise regression model, four sources of income were associated with frequent cigarette selling: providing street security (OR=2.214, 95% CI 1.177–4.164), selling food stamps (OR=1.461, 95% CI 1.003–2.126), pawning items (OR=2.15, 95% CI 1.475–3.135), and selling drugs (OR=1.634, 95% CI 1.008–2.648). Conclusion There is a high rate of selling loosies among urban substance users. The wide availability of loosies may promote smoking. Smoking cessation programs with drug treatment and economic development programs may help to reduce economic pressures to sell loosies. PMID:23578589

Latkin, Carl; Murray, Laura; Smith, Katherine M Clegg; Cohen, Joanna; Knowlton, Amy R.

2013-01-01

345

The impact of economic sanctions on health and human rights in Haiti, 1991-1994.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This report examines the impact of an economic embargo from 1991 to 1994 on health, well-being, and human rights in Haiti. METHODS: Data from surveillance systems for nutrition, reportable diseases, and hospital diagnoses were combined with survey data and interviews with affected women, governmental representatives, diplomats, and staff of nongovernmental organizations. RESULTS: Changes included declining income, rising unemployment, poorer nutrition, declining infant mortality, rising mortality among 1- to 4-year-olds, decreased attention to children's well-being and education, and family breakdown. Survival strategies among poor Haitians included changed dietary habits, informal-sector economic activity, moving in with relatives, selling domestic goods, increased informal unions among couples, decreased school attendance, and indentured servitude among children. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of economic sanctions in Haiti resulted in extensive violations of rights; the impact was greatest on the most disadvantaged Haitians. Many Haitian and international supporters of democracy were unaware of the extensive negative impact that sanctions could have. The impact continues now, 5 years after sanctions ended. Modified policies reduced some of the burden of sanctions, and international assistance prevented what otherwise might have become a humanitarian disaster during sanctions. PMID:10511830

Gibbons, E; Garfield, R

1999-01-01

346

The Effect of Incentives on Achievement & Behavior of Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mesa School District (Arizona) "Incentives Only" Project--carried out via a performance contract with the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity in 1970-71 through the Mesa Education Association (MEA)--is described in terms of rationale for the use of incentives, background, program procedures, the incentives model, the delivery system,…

Barnard, Douglas P.

347

75 FR 34303 - 90th Anniversary of the Department of Labor Women's Bureau, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...work, family, and community, strengthening our economic leadership and enriching our...significant obstacles to equal economic opportunity and advancement...conditions, and helping them achieve economic security. As women surged...

2010-06-16

348

The Effect of Social Disadvantage on Motor Development in Young Children: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Empirical research suggests that social disadvantage has a negative effect on the development of language, and related cognitive skills such as reading. There is, however, no corresponding body of research on the impact of social disadvantage on motor development. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of…

McPhillips, Martin; Jordan-Black, Julie-Anne

2007-01-01

349

Designs for the Preparation of Vocational and Technical Teachers of Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Youth. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the inadequate supply of teachers willing to work with disadvantaged students, this project sought to dissipate the stereotypes and misconceptions of disadvantaged people held by prospective teachers. To accomplish this, four design and evaluation conferences were held to plan clinical experiences for prospective teachers and to…

Huffman, Harry; Welter, Clyde W.

350

The Tax (Dis)Advantage Of A Firm Issuing Options On Its Own Stock  

E-print Network

The Tax (Dis)Advantage Of A Firm Issuing Options On Its Own Stock Robert L. McDonald First draft with implicit borrowing--such as put sales and call purchases--are tax-disadvantaged relative to the equivalent--such as compensation calls--are tax-advantaged. We also show that firms are better off from a tax perspective issuing

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

351

Disadvantaged Former Miners' Perspectives on Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To explore disadvantaged former miners' perspectives in north Derbyshire, United Kingdom (UK) on smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: In-depth, audiotaped interviews with 16 disadvantaged former miners who smoked or had stopped smoking within six months. Results: Perceptions of being able to stop smoking with minimal difficulty…

White, Simon; Baird, Wendy

2013-01-01

352

Access to Effective Teaching for Disadvantaged Students: Executive Summary. NCEE 2014-4002  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes disadvantaged students' access to effective teaching in grades 4 through 8 in 29 diverse school districts, using value-added analysis to measure effective teaching. Recent federal initiatives emphasize measuring teacher effectiveness and ensuring that disadvantaged students have equal access to effective teachers. These…

Isenberg, Eric; Max, Jeffrey; Gleason, Philip; Potamites, Liz; Santillano, Robert; Hock, Heinrich; Hansen, Michael

2013-01-01

353

Everyday Speech Acts of Disadvantaged and Advantaged Mothers to Their Toddlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, everyday mother-to-toddler speech patterns among disadvantaged and advantaged groups were examined in the home environment. The Schachter FIS-C (Functions of Interpersonal Speech of Caretakers) language measuring instrument was applied to mother speech in three sociolinguistic urban groups: black disadvantaged, black advantaged, and…

Schachter, Frances Fuchs; And Others

354

Research and Teaching Reading to Disadvantaged Learners: Implications for Further Research and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the teaching of reading to disadvantaged children often places too much emphasis on etiology rather than on pedagogy. The student's behavior, not the etiology, is the key to change. Suggestions that disadvantaged children have initial reading problems because of auditory, vocabulary, and visual discrimination deficits or articulatory…

Cohen, S. Alan

355

Pilot Evaluation of a Home Visit Parent Training Program in Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The study reported the pilot evaluation of the Healthy Start Home Visit Program for disadvantaged Chinese parents with preschool children, delivered by trained parent assistants. Home visiting was used to make services more accessible to disadvantaged families. Method: The participants included 21 parent-child dyads. Outcome measures…

Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Heung, Kitty

2013-01-01

356

ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES FOR ISCO METHODS IN-SITU FENTON OXIDATION IN-SITU PERMANGANATE OXIDATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ Fenton oxidation and in-situ permanganate oxidation will be presented. This presentation will provide a brief overview of each technology and a detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each technology. Included in the ...

357

Neighborhood Disadvantage, Residential Stability, and Perceptions of Instrumental Support among New Mothers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing survey (N = 4,211), this study examines neighborhood disadvantage and perceptions of instrumental support among mothers with young children. The authors find that (a) living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with less instrumental support, particularly financial…

Turney, Kristin; Harknett, Kristen

2010-01-01

358

What Helps Children Eat Well? A Qualitative Exploration of Resilience among Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well known that persons of low socioeconomic position consume generally a less healthy diet. Key determinants of unhealthy eating among disadvantaged individuals include aspects of the family and external environment. Much less is known about family and environmental determinants of healthy eating among social disadvantaged children. The aim…

Williams, Lauren K.; Veitch, Jenny; Ball, Kylie

2011-01-01

359

An experimental demonstration that early-life competitive disadvantage accelerates telomere loss.  

PubMed

Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an experiment in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that used cross-fostering to expose siblings to divergent early experience. Birds were assigned either to competitive advantage (being larger than their brood competitors) or competitive disadvantage (being smaller than their brood competitors) between days 3 and 12 post-hatching. Disadvantage did not affect weight gain, but it increased telomere attrition, leading to shorter telomere length in disadvantaged birds by day 12. There were no effects of disadvantage on oxidative damage as measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. We thus found strong evidence that early-life competitive disadvantage can accelerate telomere loss. This could lead to faster age-related deterioration and poorer health in later life. PMID:25411450

Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Brilot, Ben; Bedford, Thomas; Bateson, Melissa

2015-01-01

360

Reading for Children Without--Our Disadvantaged Youth. Reading Aids Series, No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful reading practices and programs for culturally disadvantaged children are discussed by five authorities in the field. The first section, written by Gertrude Whipple, defines the kinds of pupils considered to be culturally disadvantaged, tells why they need a special program, and outlines the type of program needed. Three sections deal…

Whipple, Gertrude, Comp.; Black, Millard H., Comp.

361

Career Education Programs for the Disadvantaged. Appendix A of a Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of a project designed to provide a synthesis of literature and practice relating to the career education of disadvantaged students, this paper, which is intended for administrators of local programs, identifies successful components of career education programs for the disadvantaged. Program descriptions were secured through a…

Robertson, J. Marvin

362

What are the Advantages/Disadvantages of an International Approach? R. R. Parker  

E-print Network

What are the Advantages/Disadvantages of an International Approach? R. R. Parker MFE ITER/Exp Plenary #12;What are the Advantages/Disadvantages of an International Approach? Advantages Fusion has had experiment such as ITER is beyond what individual governments are willing to invest in fusion. Only

363

48 CFR 53.302-312 - Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB) Participation Report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB) Participation Report. 53.302-312 Section 53.302-312...Illustrations of Forms 53.302-312 Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB) Participation Report. ER26JY00.003 ER26JY00.004...

2010-10-01

364

48 CFR 52.219-24 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Targets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...participation of small disadvantaged business (SDB) concerns in the contract. Credit under...factor or subfactor is not available to an SDB concern that qualifies for a price evaluation...Disadvantaged Business Concerns, unless the SDB concern specifically waives the price...

2010-10-01

365

Why is the Socially Disadvantaged Child Retarded? A Rationale and New Concept of Human Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volumes have been written on the socially disadvantaged. Two theories related to the disadvantaged have evolved: the first is the "deprivation theory" which stresses the importance of an enriched environment, during the early years, on the cognitive and emotional development of the child; the second is "the cumulative intellectual deficit theory,"…

Ogletree, Earl J.

366

An experimental demonstration that early-life competitive disadvantage accelerates telomere loss  

PubMed Central

Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an experiment in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that used cross-fostering to expose siblings to divergent early experience. Birds were assigned either to competitive advantage (being larger than their brood competitors) or competitive disadvantage (being smaller than their brood competitors) between days 3 and 12 post-hatching. Disadvantage did not affect weight gain, but it increased telomere attrition, leading to shorter telomere length in disadvantaged birds by day 12. There were no effects of disadvantage on oxidative damage as measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. We thus found strong evidence that early-life competitive disadvantage can accelerate telomere loss. This could lead to faster age-related deterioration and poorer health in later life. PMID:25411450

Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Brilot, Ben; Bedford, Thomas; Bateson, Melissa

2015-01-01

367

Multiple Levels of Social Disadvantage and Links to Obesity in Adolescence and Young Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The rise in adolescent obesity has become a public health concern, especially because of its impact on disadvantaged youth. This article examines the role of disadvantage at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level, to determine which contexts are related to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. Methods: We analyzed…

Lee, Hedwig; Harris, Kathleen M.; Lee, Joyce

2013-01-01

368

Teaching Advanced Skills to Educationally Disadvantaged Students. Data Analysis Support Center (DASC) Task 4. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document comprises six papers that discuss teaching advanced skills to educationally disadvantaged students. An introductory paper, "Models for Teaching Advanced Skills to Educationally Disadvantaged Children" (B. Means and M. S. Knapp), synthesizes the themes that characterize the collection of papers as a whole, and discusses general issues…

Means, Barbara, Ed.; Knapp, Michael S., Ed.

369

The Effect of Pupil's Origin on Perceptions and Expectations by Teachers of Disadvantaged and Advantaged Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teachers of disadvantaged and advantaged students were asked to form an impression of a student and to indicate their expectations regarding academic achievement on the basis of student's ethnic origin. The results showed that teachers stereotypically perceive students and accordingly form their expectations concerning students’ future academic achievement. Teachers of disadvantaged children did not differ in their perceptions and expectations

Joseph Guttman

1981-01-01

370

Child Participation and Family Engagement with Early Childhood Education and Care Services in Disadvantaged Australian Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To support national policy initiatives in early childhood education and to determine reasons for low enrolment in services from families in disadvantaged areas, the authors investigated the views and practices of 101 families from disadvantaged communities. Families with a child aged 3-5 years were recruited from urban, rural and remote areas of…

Grace, Rebekah; Bowes, Jennifer; Elcombe, Emma

2014-01-01

371

THE IMPACT OF SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED STATUS ON SCHOOL LEARNING AND ADJUSTMENT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH GENERALIZES TOO FREELY ABOUT THE EFFECT OF LOWER-CLASS CULTURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE MIDDLE-CLASS SCHOOL ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD. IF INSTEAD EDUCATORS CONSIDERED THE RANGES AND VARIATIONS OF EACH OF THESE INFLUENCES, AND THE VARIABLES ACCOUNTING FOR THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD'S ACADEMIC SUCCESS…

HAMBURGER, MARTIN

372

Achievement Scholarships Achievement scholarships will support bright students from disadvantaged backgrounds,  

E-print Network

backgrounds, encouraging and rewarding their academic success. Research has shown that such students often see disadvantaged backgrounds to fully focus on their academic work, while encouraging and recognising their successAchievement Scholarships Achievement scholarships will support bright students from disadvantaged

Haase, Markus

373

Legislative Report; National Advisory Council on the Education of Disadvantaged Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report enumerates principles which should be considered important to any legislation designed to provide educational services to disadvantaged children. It is recommended that the primary objective of Title I programs be to raise the educationally disadvantaged child's level of achievement in the area of the basic skills. It is recommended…

National Advisory Council on the Education of Disadvantaged Children, Washington, DC.

374

Do Disadvantaged Students Have Equal Access to Effective Teaching? NCEE Study Snapshot. NCEE 2014-4001  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study snapshot offers a summary of "Access to Effective Teaching for Disadvantaged Students. NCEE 2014-4001," the first report from a study initiated by the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences to examine access to effective teaching for disadvantaged students in 29 diverse school districts. The study…

National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, 2013

2013-01-01

375

Women's relationship with the environment.  

PubMed

In developing countries, all development activities as well as reclamation of degraded areas, pollution reduction, and preservation of biodiversity affect women's environment, especially in rural areas. Women produce most subsistence foods and cash crops, but control only about 1% of the world's land. Lack of land tenure and of access to it keep women from obtaining credit, training, and other supports, thereby preventing them from using their traditional, longterm conservation practices. In many developing countries, commercial producers force women off the most productive lands and onto marginal lands where they grow subsistence crops. They tend to overuse the marginal land and to allow little time for soil recovery. Soil degradation is exacerbated when women need to travel greater distances to collect fuelwood, water, fodder, and food. Almost complete desertification awaits Rajasthan, India, where such events and intensive cash cropping occur. Heavy pesticide use on large commercial farms increases pest resistance, thereby boosting infestation and reducing species diversity. Women are testing sustainable agricultural techniques, for instance, interplanting and crop rotation. Even though women supply water needs, they tend to be excluded from planning, implementing, and maintaining water supplies. Women depend on forests to provide food, fodder, fuel, building materials, medicines, and many materials for income-earning efforts. Commercial logging, migration and resettlement, agricultural development, and cutting for firewood and charcoal destroy these forests. Reforestation schemes do not consider women's needs. Deforestation and desertification increase women's work burdens. Poor women who have migrated to urban areas also experience environmental degradation, deteriorating health, and resource depletion; most live in squatter settlements. Deteriorating economic circumstances in developing countries, reduced flows of official development assistance to developing countries, rapid population growth, lack of women's support mechanisms, and civil conflict are underlying factors for environmental degradation. PMID:12287131

Davidson, J

1993-02-01

376

Family and school socioeconomic disadvantage: interactive influences on adolescent dating violence victimization.  

PubMed

Although low socioeconomic status has been positively associated with adult partner violence, its relationship to adolescent dating violence remains unclear. Further, few studies have examined the relationship between contextual disadvantage and adolescent dating violence, or the interactive influences of family and contextual disadvantage. Guided by social disorganization theory, relative deprivation theory, and gendered resource theory, we analyzed data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-1996) to explore how family and school disadvantage relate to dating violence victimization. Psychological and minor physical victimization were self-reported by adolescents in up to six heterosexual romantic or sexual relationships. Family and school disadvantage were based on a principal component analysis of socioeconomic indicators reported by adolescents and parents. In weighted multilevel random effects models, between-school variability in dating violence victimization was proportionately small but substantive: 10% for male victimization and 5% for female victimization. In bivariate analyses, family disadvantage was positively related to victimization for both males and females; however, school disadvantage was only related to males' physical victimization. In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, relative age within the school, and mean school age, neither family nor school disadvantage remained related to males' victimization. For females, family disadvantage remained significantly positively associated with victimization, but was modified by school disadvantage: family disadvantage was more strongly associated with dating violence victimization in more advantaged schools. Findings support gendered resource theory, and suggest that status differentials between females and their school context may increase their vulnerability to dating violence victimization. PMID:19375207

Spriggs, Aubrey L; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Herring, Amy H; Schoenbach, Victor J

2009-06-01

377

Family and School Socioeconomic Disadvantage: Interactive Influences on Adolescent Dating Violence Victimization  

PubMed Central

Although low socioeconomic status has been positively associated with adult partner violence, its relationship to adolescent dating violence remains unclear. Further, few studies have examined the relationship between contextual disadvantage and adolescent dating violence, or the interactive influences of family and contextual disadvantage. Guided by Social Disorganization Theory, Relative Deprivation Theory, and Gendered Resource Theory, we analyzed data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-1996) to explore how family and school disadvantage relate to dating violence victimization. Psychological and minor physical victimization were self-reported by adolescents in up to six heterosexual romantic or sexual relationships. Family and school disadvantage were based on a principal component analysis of soecioeconomic indicators reported by adolescents and parents. In weighted multilevel random effects models, between-school variability in dating violence victimization was proportionately small but substantive: 10% for male victimization and 5% for female victimization. In bivariate analyses, family disadvantage was positively related to victimization for both males and females; however, school disadvantage was only related to males’ physical victimization. In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, relative age within the school, and mean school age, neither family nor school disadvantage remained related to males’ victimization. For females, family disadvantage remained significantly positively associated with victimization, but was modified by school disadvantage: family disadvantage was more strongly associated with dating violence victimization in more advantaged schools. Findings support gendered resource theory, and suggest that status differentials between females and their school context may increase their vulnerability to dating violence victimization. PMID:19375207

Spriggs, Aubrey L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Herring, Amy H; Schoenbach, Victor J

2010-01-01

378

75 FR 67804 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...issues and challenges in international economic policy. The meeting will focus on...sectoral issues will focus on women and economic security. Subcommittee reports and discussions will be led by the Economic Sanctions Subcommittee and the...

2010-11-03

379

Behavioral economics.  

PubMed

Behavioral economics uses evidence from psychology and other social sciences to create a precise and fruitful alternative to traditional economic theories, which are based on optimization. Behavioral economics may interest some biologists, as it shifts the basis for theories of economic choice away from logical calculation and maximization and toward biologically plausible mechanisms. PMID:25247364

Camerer, Colin F

2014-09-22

380

WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE AND IRRIGATION - TURKISH CASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

As it is the case in most developing and developed countries in the world, women play a vital role in rural areas of Turkey in contributing to agricultural activities in addition to household duties and non-agricultural activities such as industry and services. Women's role in the daily economic life in Turkey has always been very important especially in the agricultural

B. Özekici; O. Tekinel; S. Kiymaz

381

Participation of Women: The Reality in 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A compilation of 10 articles presents perspectives on the issue of female political participation. "The Patriarchy Takes a Ribbing" (Benoite Groult) looks at women as the primary agents for economic and political change. "Women and Political Power in Europe" (Mariette Sineau) considers variations in female responsibility and status in…

Council of Europe Forum, 1985

1985-01-01

382

Reaching Rural Women: Case Studies and Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although not often considered in the past by planners because their economic contributions are not performed for money, rural women are contributors to the development of their countries. The urgency of reaching women with important information to break the cycle of poverty is now being recognized by the major development agencies. While there are…

Colle, Royal D.; Fernandez de Colle, Susana

383

International Directory of Women's Development Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory of women's groups is designed to provide basic contacts for communication among women's organizations, resource groups, and the international development community. Questionnaires were sent to organizations that contribute in some way to the social and economic process. Activities are listed for 289 local and national organizations…

Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Bureau for Technical Assistance.

384

Arizona Women in Poverty Hearings. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared at the request of Arizona Governor Bruce Babbit, this report documents the state of poverty among women in Arizona and recommends an action plan that will alleviate their poor economic status. Discussion focuses on three factors identified as influencing conditions of poverty experienced by women: changing family structure, the labor…

Coudroglou, Aliki

385

Puerto Rican Women as Workers and Writers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of the "Centro Bulletin" highlights recent studies by and about employed Puerto Rican and Latina women. "La mujer en el Puerto Rico del siglo XIX" (O. Jimenez de Wagenheim), in Spanish, reviews the contributions of women to Puerto Rican economic, political, and social life during the nineteenth century. "Notas sobre el desarrollo…

Vazquez, Blanca, Ed.

1989-01-01

386

The Correlation Between Psychiatric Disorders and Women’s Lives  

PubMed Central

Objective: Psychiatric disorders are important factors which affect the quality of life: employment rates, interpersonal and intrafamilial communications, marriage, child-bearing, parental skills and many other social – cognitive areas in different ways. Psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder and depressive disorder have a negative impact on women’s lives. This study has compared the relationship between these mental illnesses and the liabilities of women’s lives. Methods: For the purpose of this study, 61 schizophrenics, 35 bipolar and 40 unipolar female patients and 60 healthy controls from a university hospital of eastern Turkey were evaluated with SCID- I, a family environmental scale and a personal information questionnaire. Results: The women with psychiatric disorders had higher rates of unemployment, shorter durations of marriage and lower numbers of parity, as compared to their healthy counterparts, especially after the onset of their illnesses. The schizophrenia and bipolar groups are at risk due to the psychotropic medications which they take during pregnancy. The onset or the exacerbations of illnesses during the postpartum period are also seen more in the schizophrenia and the bipolar groups. However, the patients did not use medicines more than the healthy controls during lactation. The schizophrenia and bipolar groups seem to be failing in using reliable methods of contraception. This data is important due to the traditional and the socio-economical structure of eastern Turkey, which may interrelate with the results. Conclusion: Women have to play various roles in life and they have various challenges which are related to these roles. The female psychiatric patients should be evaluated in the special perspective of ‘being women’, along with other clinical parameters. The evaluation of the social, cultural and the economic aspects and the collaborative teams of different clinical disciplines which are related to women’s mental health would be beneficial. PMID:23730649

Bursalioglu, Fusun Sevimli; Aydin, Nazan; Yazici, Esra; Yazici, Ahmet Bulent

2013-01-01

387

Sea Women  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Here on tiny Mara Island just south of Korea, women are the breadwinners and men take care of the children, do the shopping and, feed the pigs. The women are pretty successful, too: typically earning upwards of $30,000 a year...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2006-02-08

388

Medicine Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described as a survival manual for Indian women in medicine, this collected work contains diverse pieces offering inspiration and practical advice for Indian women pursuing or considering careers in medicine. Introductory material includes two legends symbolizing the Medicine or Spirit Woman's role in Indian culture and an overview of Indians Into…

Beiswenger, James N., Ed.; Jeanotte, Holly, Ed.

389

Women's studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On March 31, 1997, the Association for Women Geoscientists will award two Chrysalis Scholarships to women who have returned to school after an interruption in their education for a year or longer. The $750 awards will be given to geoscience master's or Ph.D. candidates to cover expenses in finishing their theses.The application deadline is February 28, 1997.

Carlowicz, Michael

390

Empowering Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empowering Women is a traveling exhibition of folk art that focuses on ten cooperatives from four continents and ten countries. The exhibition is a window into the ways that cooperatives empower women to: (1) preserve and reinvigorate their country's traditional arts; (2) generate steady livelihoods for their families; (3) send their children to…

Gomez, Aurelia

2012-01-01

391

Parental Investment in Childhood and Later Adult Well-Being: Can Greater Parental Involvement Mediate the Effects of Socioeconomic Disadvantage?  

E-print Network

Parental involvement is important for later well-being since it conveys to children that parents are interested in their development. In socioeconomically disadvantaged homes this involvement becomes even more important. This paper asks: Can the social capital produced by greater parental involvement mediate some of the harmful effects of less financial capital? Data are from the National Child Development Study; a longitudinal study of children born in Britain in 1958. Results suggest that parental involvement does matter, but it depends on when involvement and economic hardship are measured, as well as type of involvement and parent gender. Father interest in education reduces the impact of economic hardship on education the most, especially at age 11. Both father and mother interest in school at age 16 have the largest direct impact on education. The frequency of outings with mother at age 11 also has a larger direct impact on education than outings with father, however, neither compare with the reduction in the effect of economic hardship as a result of father interest in school.

Darcy Hango

392

Globalization, the Patriarchal State and Women's Resistance in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the impact of globalization and the state policies on women in Singapore. It traces the trajectory of the government's globalizing policies and its deliberate use ofgender to counteract the perceived erosion of traditional social relations in the workplace and the home. Singaporean women have been economically marginalized and remain vulnerable in many respects, as the recent economic

Christine Doran; Jim Jose

2002-01-01

393

Opportunities for women and Islam: variations upon variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Religion has long been thought to be an important institution influencing economic development. More recently, it has also been argued that religion influences economic and social opportunities for women, specifically, that Islam limits women's opportunities. A revisionist view has countered with the argument that once one accounts for oil rents and\\/or fertility, then much of the negative effect disappears. In

Sharmistha Self; Richard Grabowski

2011-01-01

394

Opportunities for women and Islam: variations upon variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Religion has long been thought to be an important institution influencing economic development. More recently, it has also been argued that religion influences economic and social opportunities for women, specifically, that Islam limits women's opportunities. A revisionist view has countered with the argument that once one accounts for oil rents and\\/or fertility, then much of the negative effect disappears. In

Sharmistha Self; Richard Grabowski

2012-01-01

395

Outcomes Evaluation of St. Petersburg Russia Women's Wellness Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers demonstrate that investing in women's health yields great social and economic dividends, yet the health of women often receives little attention throughout the world. Women's wellness centers (WWCs) were established in the former Soviet Union beginning in 1992 under the sponsorship of the American International Health Alliance (AIHA) in conjunction with the United States Association for International Development (USAID)

Lynn Clark Callister; Natalia Getmanenko; Natalia Garvrish; Olga Eugenevna Marakova; Nataliya Vladimirovna Zotina; Natalia Turkina

2009-01-01

396

13 CFR 124.1013 - How does SBA make disadvantaged status determinations in considering an SDB protest?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...disadvantaged status determinations in considering an SDB protest? 124.1013 Section 124.1013...disadvantaged status determinations in considering an SDB protest? (a) General. The...contract until: (i) The SBA has made an SDB determination, or (ii) 15...

2010-01-01

397

Women's Health Topics  

MedlinePLUS

... for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's Health Topics Women's Health Topics Take Time to Care about Your Health . ... Publications for Women Pregnancy Registries ¡Nunca Más! Novelas Women's Health Research Pink Ribbon Sunday Program Stay Informed Get ...

398

Women and Lung Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Horrigan Conners Center for Women’s Health and Gender Biology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, April, ... Lung Cancer in Women: The Differences in Epidemiology, Biology and Treatment Outcomes, Maria Patricia Rivera MD Expert ...

399

Marriage and Offending among a Cohort of Disadvantaged African Americans  

PubMed Central

Objectives Drawing on Sampson and Laub’s age-graded theory of informal social control, this research tests the generalizability of the marriage effect on desistance from crime. Specifically, do urban African American men and women living in the United States benefit from marriage similarly to Whites? Methods The authors use hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to analyze the relationship between marriage and official arrest counts among African American male and female first graders from Woodlawn, an inner-city community in Chicago, first assessed in 1966 and followed up at three time points (ages 16, 32, and 42). Results The authors find strong evidence of a marriage effect for the males across crime type, with a reduction in offending between 21 percent and 36 percent when in a state of marriage. The findings for females were less consistent across crime type, a 10 percent reduction in the odds of a property arrest and a 9 percent increase in the odds of a drug arrest when in a state of marriage. Conclusions Their findings provide evidence in favor of the generality of Sampson and Laub’s theory, at least for males. However, the authors were not able to evaluate the mechanisms of desistance and identify this as an area of future research. PMID:24817770

Doherty, Elaine Eggleston; Ensminger, Margaret E.

2014-01-01

400

Women's employment and fertility control.  

PubMed

In India today, there is greater aspiration among women for improved social status within the family and the community and an equal socioeconomic role in society. Between 1964 and 1968, the number of women seeking employment rose 81% as compared to an increase of only 14% among men. Much of the increase in female job-seekers was among women with higher education. Modern economic conditions and rapid urbanization have speeded this trend toward increased female employment. Studies from various countries are cited to show that female employment is associated with smaller family norms. However, only those types of employment which involve work outside the home (i.e., not agricultural or physical labor jobs) will have an impact on family sizes. As women work, they gain a sense of their importance and they have a role other than motherhood. PMID:12309144

Grewal, S

1978-09-01

401

Economic Sanctions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Institute for International Economics (IIE) (reviewed in the December 4, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics), this site is a useful resource for Economics or International Relations courses. Using testimony, speeches, articles, working papers, and an interesting case study (of Myanmar), the site explains and explores the economic and political goals and impact of sanctions. Additional Hot Topics features include the Japan Crisis, the Asian Financial Crisis, and the Euro Conversion.

402

Smokefree Women  

Cancer.gov

JavaScript is disabled. Skip to Main Content Search Smokefree Women Search Quit Smoking Quit Smoking Benefits of Quitting Health Effects of Smoking Secondhand Smoke Withdrawal Ways to Quit QuitGuide Pregnancy & Motherhood Pregnancy & Motherhood Before

403

Leibniz's women.  

PubMed

Enlightenment natural philosophers were linked to one another in an extended correspondence network, but the female participants in this international Republic of Letters are rarely mentioned. Gottfried Leibniz relied on several such women not only for financial patronage, but also for intellectual stimulation. Although this hardworking and underpaid librarian at the Hanoverian Court is now one of the world's most famous mathematical philosophers, the women on whom he depended for ideas as well as support have been largely forgotten. PMID:15571762

Fara, Patricia

2004-12-01

404

48 CFR 1519.201-72 - Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...suitable for acquisition from small business and small disadvantaged business concerns; (6) Advise small businesses with respect to the financial assistance available under existing laws and regulations and assist such...

2010-10-01

405

Violence, Older Peers, and the Socialization of Adolescent Boys in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods  

PubMed Central

Most theoretical perspectives on neighborhood effects on youth assume that neighborhood context serves as a source of socialization, but the exact sources and processes underlying adolescent socialization in disadvantaged neighborhoods are largely unspecified and unelaborated. This paper proposes that cross-cohort socialization by older neighborhood peers is one source of socialization for adolescent boys in such neighborhoods. Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey suggest that adolescents in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to spend time with older individuals. Qualitative interview data from 60 adolescent boys in three neighborhoods in Boston are analyzed to understand the causes and consequences of these interactions and relationships. I find that some of the strategies these adolescents employ to cope with violence in disadvantaged neighborhoods promote interaction with older peers, particularly those who are most disadvantaged, and that such interactions can expose adolescents to local, “unconventional,” or “alternative” cultural models. PMID:20161350

Harding, David J.

2009-01-01

406

75 FR 77737 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Small Disadvantaged Business Self-Certification  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to its Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB) Program. DATES: Effective Date: December...73 FR 57490, October 3, 2008, to allow SDB subcontractors to provide written statements...representing in good faith their status as an SDB concern for the purposes of...

2010-12-13

407

48 CFR 1552.219-72 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...participation of small disadvantaged business (SDB) concerns in the performance of the contract. The nature of the evaluation of an SDB offeror under this evaluation factor or subfactor is dependent upon whether the SDB concern qualifies for the price...

2010-10-01

408

78 FR 69336 - Title I-Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Title I--Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged AGENCY...regarding modified academic achievement standards and alternate assessments...on those modified academic achievement standards. This notice...

2013-11-19

409

Women NGOs and rural women empowerment activities in the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study attempted to document beneficiaries’ perceptions on the contributions of Women NGOs (WNGOs) to the socio-economic\\u000a empowerment of rural women in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study included: an assessment of WNGOs\\u000a contributions to improvements’ in beneficiaries’ socio-economic activities and constraints affecting beneficiaries’ participation\\u000a in WNGOs activities. An attempt was also made to determine the

Iniobong Aniefiok Akpabio

2009-01-01

410

DIVORCE AND WOMEN'S RISK OF HEALTH INSURANCE LOSS*  

PubMed Central

This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health insurance changes after divorce. Our estimates suggest that roughly 115,000 American women lose private health insurance annually in the months following divorce and that roughly 65,000 of these women become uninsured. The loss of insurance coverage we observe is not just a short-term disruption. Women's rates of insurance coverage remain depressed for more than two years after divorce. Insurance loss may compound the economic losses women experience after divorce, and contribute to as well as compound previously documented health declines following divorce. PMID:23147653

Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J.

2012-01-01

411

The Economics of Early Educational Intervention: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last two decades, at least 20 economic analyses of early education intervention have been conducted and their results widely distributed. A critical review of this literature indicates that few studies provide credible evidence for the cost-effectiveness of early intervention for disadvantaged children. (TJH)

Barnett, W. Steven; Escobar, Colette M.

1987-01-01

412

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Structural Disadvantage and Crime: White, Black, and Hispanic Comparisons*  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this study is to advance knowledge on racial/ethnic disparities in violence and the structural sources of those disparities. We do so by extending scarce and limited research exploring the relationship between race/ethnic gaps in disadvantage and differences in violent crime across groups. Methods Using census place-level data from California and New York, we construct White, Black, and Hispanic “gap” measures that take as a given the existence of disparities across race/ethnic groups in structural disadvantage and crime and subsequently utilize seemingly unrelated regression models to assess the extent to which gaps in disadvantage are predictive of gaps in homicide and index violence. Results Our results suggest that (1) there is considerable heterogeneity in the size of White-Black, White-Hispanic, and Black-Hispanic gaps in structural disadvantage and crime and (2) that race/ethnic disparities in structural disadvantage, particularly poverty and female headship, are positively associated with race/ethnic gaps in homicide and index violence. Conclusion In light of recent scholarship on the racial invariance hypothesis and on the relationship between structural inequality and crime, the current study demonstrates that disparities in disadvantage, particularly family structure and poverty, are important in driving racial and ethnic disparities in crime. PMID:25035523

Ulmer, Jeffery T.; Harris, Casey T.; Steffensmeier, Darrell

2014-01-01

413

Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage and the Shape of the Age–Crime Curve  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to better determine the way in which neighborhood disadvantage affects the shape of the age–crime curve. Methods. We used data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (PYS), a 14-year longitudinal study, to compare the age–crime curves of individuals in neighborhoods of different disadvantage. We visually compared observed age–crime curves, and then used generalized linear mixed models to test for differences in curve parameters. Results. Adjusted for individual risk factors, the mixed models found that the parameters for interactions of neighborhood disadvantage with both linear age and quadratic age were significant (P < .05) and consistent with higher and longer age–crime curves in more disadvantaged neighborhoods. This implied that compared with boys in advantaged neighborhoods, rates of violence among boys in disadvantaged neighborhoods rose to higher levels that were sustained significantly longer. Conclusions. These results suggested that residing in a disadvantaged neighborhood during early adolescence may have an enduring effect on the shape of the age–crime curve throughout an individual's life. PMID:21778512

Tu, Li-Chuan; Loeber, Rolf; Cohen, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

414

Women's Property Rights and Gendered Policies: Implications for Women's Long-term Welfare in Rural Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates effects of community-level women's property and inheritance rights on women's economic outcomes using a 13 year longitudinal panel from rural Tanzania. In the preferred model specification, inverse probability weighting is applied to a woman-level fixed effects model to control for individual-level time invariant heterogeneity and attrition. Results indicate that changes in women's property and inheritance rights are

Amber Peterman

2011-01-01

415

Economic transition, gender bias, and the distribution of earnings in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractMarket-oriented economic reform, which accelerated after 1992, has brought substantial changes to the Chinese economy. This dramatic economic transition was raised two important questions: ‘How are women faring in the transition from a planned economy to a market economy?’ and ‘Are some women faring relatively better than other women’? We use data from the Chinese Household Income Projects for the

John A. Bishop; Feijun Luo; Fang Wang

2005-01-01

416

The impact of redistributing power to disadvantaged families in Hungary.  

PubMed

The Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) formulated recommendations along which health inequalities can be successfully tackled anywhere in the world. The situation of the Roma minority in Europe provides countless opportunities for the translation of these guidelines into action that should be guided by coherent and evidence-based strategies integrating lessons learned in smaller-scale field projects. Our paper describes the long-term evaluation of a locally initiated housing project in Hungary carried out more than a decade after implementation, which highlights the salience of the CSDH's recommendations and critical factors for success and sustainability. The project provides evidence for the long-term positive impact on education of the social housing project implemented by an empowered community through delegating decision making to a board of representatives of the beneficiaries in all decisions, including financial ones. Educational level greatly improved, and all houses-inhabited by 17 out of 20 families who initially entered the project-remained in good condition, properly equipped and decorated after 13 years of implementation, in spite of an increase of unemployment during the same period which led to reduced income and deterioration of the families' economic situation. Better housing conditions for vulnerable people can be sustained and result in increased educational level if incremental improvement is aimed for and coupled with the redistribution of power at the local level. PMID:23969320

Kósa, K; Coons, B; Molnár, A

2013-08-22

417

3 CFR 8402 - Proclamation 8402 of August 25, 2009. Women's Equality Day, 2009  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...agenda. We honor the resilience, accomplishments, and history of all women in the United States. We celebrate the...economic and public life, from government to boardrooms to the sciences, women have yet to eradicate all barriers to...

2010-01-01

418

Women and post-conflict development : a case study on Liberia  

E-print Network

Liberia seems an ostensible 'poster child' in light of the call by women's rights advocates to insert women in all aspects of the political, social, and economic transition in post-conflict countries. Liberia has elected ...

Massaquoi, William N

2007-01-01

419

Economics Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economics Challenge is a economics competition for high school students living in the twelfth district -- Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Oregon, Utah, and Washington. The competition strives to "increase [high school students's] knowledge and understanding of economics." Winning team members will receive $1,000 US savings bonds. The site includes a description of the competition, registration forms for these states, and two sets of practice questions and answers.

2000-01-01

420

Women as Mendelians and Geneticists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the rediscovery of Mendel's laws of heredity in 1900, the biologists who began studying heredity, variation, and evolution using the new Mendelian methodology—performing controlled hybrid crosses and statistically analyzing progeny to note the factorial basis of characters—made great progress. By 1910, the validity of Mendelism was widely recognized and the field William Bateson christened `genetics' was complemented by the chromosome theory of heredity of T. H. Morgan and his group in the United States. Historians, however, have largely overlooked an important factor in the early establishment of Mendelism and genetics: the large number of women who contributed to the various research groups. This article examines the social, economic, and disciplinary context behind this new wave of women's participation in science and describes the work of women Mendelians and geneticists employed at three leading experimental research institutes, 1900-1940. It argues that the key to more women working in science was the access to higher education and the receptivity of emerging interdisciplinary fields such as genetics to utilize the expertise of women workers, which not only advanced the discipline but also provided new opportunities for women's employment in science.

Richmond, Marsha L.

2013-12-01

421

Women as Mendelians and Geneticists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the rediscovery of Mendel's laws of heredity in 1900, the biologists who began studying heredity, variation, and evolution using the new Mendelian methodology—performing controlled hybrid crosses and statistically analyzing progeny to note the factorial basis of characters—made great progress. By 1910, the validity of Mendelism was widely recognized and the field William Bateson christened `genetics' was complemented by the chromosome theory of heredity of T. H. Morgan and his group in the United States. Historians, however, have largely overlooked an important factor in the early establishment of Mendelism and genetics: the large number of women who contributed to the various research groups. This article examines the social, economic, and disciplinary context behind this new wave of women's participation in science and describes the work of women Mendelians and geneticists employed at three leading experimental research institutes, 1900-1940. It argues that the key to more women working in science was the access to higher education and the receptivity of emerging interdisciplinary fields such as genetics to utilize the expertise of women workers, which not only advanced the discipline but also provided new opportunities for women's employment in science.

Richmond, Marsha L.

2015-01-01

422

Women's Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this focused journal issue discuss women authors and examine female images in English and American literature. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Margaret Fuller and Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Rhetoric and the Shape of Learning" (Susan Lundvall Brodie); (2) "Feminist Psychology through Feminist…

Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.; Quinn, Laura, Ed.

1986-01-01

423

Minority Women's Health: Latinas  

MedlinePLUS

... address Submit Home > Minority Women's Health > Latinas Minority Women's Health Latinas Health conditions common in Latinas Latinos are ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women’s Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for ...

424

From the ground up: ecofeminism and ecological economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speaking from the margins, ecofeminist analysis exposes many of the assumptions of neoclassical economics as gender biased and as anti-ecological. It identifies the abstract individual of neoclassical economics as a privileged male individual whose apparent ‘autonomy’ is predicated on the oppression of women, marginal people and nature. Thus ecofeminists tell a different story about economic man — from the grounds

Martha McMahon

1997-01-01

425

Understanding Economic Abuse in the Lives of Survivors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intimate partner violence (IPV) often includes economic abuse as one tactic commonly used by an abuser; unfortunately, there is a lack of empirical understanding of economic abuse. Additionally, research is limited on the predictors of economic self-sufficiency in the lives of women experiencing IPV. This paper furthers our knowledge about…

Postmus, Judy L.; Plummer, Sara-Beth; McMahon, Sarah; Murshid, N. Shaanta; Kim, Mi Sung

2012-01-01

426

Working Nine to Five: Economic Impacts on the Gender Gap in Macro Politics .  

E-print Network

A difference in aggregate public opinion and policy preferences between men and women has long been assumed but rarely fully empirically tested. In this analysis, I look at multiple economic factors impacting men and women in similar, yet different...

Scott, Holly Katherine

2013-09-28

427

Pakistan: focus on women's issues.  

PubMed

In April 1996 at the senior officials' segment of the 52nd Session of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), a representative of Pakistan informed participants that population well-being efforts are part of the means used in implementing Pakistan's Social Action Programme. The Minister of State for Parliamentary Affairs noted that US$3 billion has been allocated to the Programme for implementation during the Eighth Five-Year Plan (1993-1998). The Programme aims to develop human resources and to improve the quality of life of the population, using life expectancy, access to primary health care, and literacy as indicators of quality of life. A key target group of the Programme is women. The Programme includes education, health, nutrition, training, and employment projects. In Pakistan, the mass media are contributing greatly in effecting the social change required to increase participation of women in economic activities. PMID:12291136

1996-01-01

428

Community-Based Interventions to Reduce Low Income, African American Women's Risk of Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Three Theoretical Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A community-based sample of disadvantaged African American women (n = 445) was recruited to participate in 1 of 3 theoretically driven experimental interventions based on either the theory of gender and power, social learning theory, or cognitive behavioral theory. Intervention outcomes were compared with a waiting list control condition. From baseline to postintervention, women in the experimental interventions showed differential

Janet S. St. Lawrence; Tracey E. Wilson; Gloria D. Eldridge; Ted L. Brasfield; Robert E. O'Bannon

2001-01-01

429

Celebrate Women's History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teachers' guide to activities celebrating Women's History Month focuses on women whose important contributions have been omitted from history textbooks. Women's History Month grew from a 1977 celebration of Women's History Week and is intended to bring women's history into the school curriculum. International Women's Day, celebrated on March…

Leonard, Carolyn M.; Baradar, Mariam

430

The women's game conference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Women's Game Conference focuses on women in the computer and video game industry. The conference will focus on a variety of women's topics in the computer and video game industry including examining career paths for women in the industry and issues related to working in the industry as women as well as how women are portrayed in games and

Newton Lee

2004-01-01

431

Barriers, motivators and facilitators related to prenatal care utilization among inner-city women in Winnipeg, Canada: a case–control study  

PubMed Central

Background The reasons why women do not obtain prenatal care even when it is available and accessible are complex. Despite Canada’s universally funded health care system, use of prenatal care varies widely across neighborhoods in Winnipeg, Manitoba, with the highest rates of inadequate prenatal care found in eight inner-city neighborhoods. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers, motivators and facilitators related to use of prenatal care among women living in these inner-city neighborhoods. Methods We conducted a case–control study with 202 cases (inadequate prenatal care) and 406 controls (adequate prenatal care), frequency matched 1:2 by neighborhood. Women were recruited during their postpartum hospital stay, and were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Stratified analyses of barriers and motivators associated with inadequate prenatal care were conducted, and the Mantel-Haenszel common odds ratio (OR) was reported when the results were homogeneous across neighborhoods. Chi square analysis was used to test for differences in proportions of cases and controls reporting facilitators that would have helped them get more prenatal care. Results Of the 39 barriers assessed, 35 significantly increased the odds of inadequate prenatal care for inner-city women. Psychosocial issues that increased the likelihood of inadequate prenatal care included being under stress, having family problems, feeling depressed, “not thinking straight”, and being worried that the baby would be apprehended by the child welfare agency. Structural barriers included not knowing where to get prenatal care, having a long wait to get an appointment, and having problems with child care or transportation. Attitudinal barriers included not planning or knowing about the pregnancy, thinking of having an abortion, and believing they did not need prenatal care. Of the 10 motivators assessed, four had a protective effect, such as the desire to learn how to protect one’s health. Receiving incentives and getting help with transportation and child care would have facilitated women’s attendance at prenatal care visits. Conclusions Several psychosocial, attitudinal, economic and structural barriers increased the likelihood of inadequate prenatal care for women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Removing barriers to prenatal care and capitalizing on factors that motivate and facilitate women to seek prenatal care despite the challenges of their personal circumstances may help improve use of prenatal care by inner-city women. PMID:25023478

2014-01-01

432

Relative importance of birth size and postnatal growth for women's educational achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Child undernutrition, commonly measured by growth failure, is associated with functional disadvantages later in life. Aims: To assess relationships between child growth and women's educational achievement (EA). Study design and subjects: Women from four ladino Guatemalan villages were measured as children (1969–1977) and again at ages 20–29 years (1996–1999). The anthropometric measurements analyzed were weight, length, and head circumference

Haojie Li; Ann M. DiGirolamo; Huiman X. Barnhart; Aryeh D. Stein; Reynaldo Martorell

2004-01-01

433

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: are we medicating for social disadvantage? (For).  

PubMed

The diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is based on well defined criteria, which describe a number of symptoms. It is important to consider the context of the symptoms, in terms of the influence of the child's family and school. Although stimulant medications benefit selected children they may not benefit all children with symptoms of ADHD. The incidence of ADHD increases with social disadvantage. There is a potential danger of using stimulant medication alone to treat children with complex psychosocial problems, associated with social disadvantage, including Aboriginal children. We desperately need better training in the management of ADHD and better access to child psychiatrists. PMID:16925542

Isaacs, David

2006-09-01

434

Ecological economics and economic growth.  

PubMed

Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain. PMID:20146773

Victor, Peter A

2010-01-01

435

Interventions for Women Prisoners and Their Children in the Post-Release Period  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women offenders and their children represent a severely disadvantaged and marginalised population. For many children, the very risk factors that contributed to their own mother's incarceration are present in their current lives, creating an intergenerational vulnerability for poor outcomes. Providing an intensive individualised parenting…

Frye, Sally; Dawe, Sharon

2008-01-01

436

Enhancing Mentoring and Networking of Junior Academic Women: What, Why, and How?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses advantages and disadvantages of various types of career-supportive relationships that make up academic women's webs of intellectual, social, personal, and political ties, including formal mentoring, networking, and peer-support programs. Several strategies rooted in each of these models are presented, based on a review of current…

Quinlan, Kathleen M.

1999-01-01

437

The Effectiveness of a Female Condom Intervention on Women's Use of Condoms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated a female condom promotion intervention for socioeconomically disadvantaged women at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases and HIV who had never used female condoms. Pre- and postintervention surveys indicated that providing education and counseling, along with unlimited quantities of male condoms, female condoms, and water-based…

Hardwick, Deborah

2002-01-01

438

Addressing Barriers to Community Care of Battered Women in Rural Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given domestic violence continues to be a serious social problem, recently acknowledged as a national public health epidemic as well, the need to examine existing formal helping services and address the barriers to service utilization among battered women is warranted. Social exclusion is the process by which multi-dimensionally disadvantaged individuals are prohibited from obtaining formal helping services. Although not a

Judith C. Hilbert; Satya P. Krishnan

2000-01-01

439

Sex trafficking of women and girls.  

PubMed

Sex trafficking involves some form of forced or coerced sexual exploitation that is not limited to prostitution, and has become a significant and growing problem in both the United States and the larger global community. The costs to society include the degradation of human and women's rights, poor public health, disrupted communities, and diminished social development. Victims of sex trafficking acquire adverse physical and psychological health conditions and social disadvantages. Thus, sex trafficking is a critical health issue with broader social implications that requires both medical and legal attention. Healthcare professionals can work to improve the screening, identification, and assistance of victims of sex trafficking in a clinical setting and help these women and girls access legal and social services. PMID:23687554

Deshpande, Neha A; Nour, Nawal M

2013-01-01

440

Resource Economics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of each chapter, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems.

Conrad, Jon M.

1999-10-01

441

FINANCIAL ECONOMICS RESOURCE ECONOMICS AND POLICY  

E-print Network

ECONOMICS FINANCIAL ECONOMICS RESOURCE ECONOMICS AND POLICY Program of Study The School of Economics at the University of Maine provides excellent opportunities for graduate students to study applied economics, financial economics, and policy analysis. The School of Economics administers the Master

Thomas, Andrew

442

Gender: shaping personality, lives and health of women in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Gender norms determine the status of Pakistani women that influence their life including health. In Pakistan, the relationship between gender norms and health of women is crucial yet complex demanding further analysis. This paper: determines the reasons for reiteration of gender roles; describes the societal processes and mechanisms that reproduce and reinforce them; and identifies their repercussions on women’s personality, lives and health especially reproductive health. Methods As part of a six-country study titled ‘Women’s Empowerment in Muslim Contexts’, semi-structured group discussions (n?=?30) were conducted with women (n?=?250) who were selected through snowballing from different age, ethnic and socio-economic categories. Discussion guidelines were used to collect participant’s perceptions about Pakistani women’s: characteristics, powers, aspirations, needs and responsibilities; circumstances these women live in such as opportunities, constraints and risks; and influence of these circumstances on their personality, lifestyle and health. Results The society studied has constructed a ‘Model’ for women that consider them ‘Objects’ without rights and autonomy. Women’s subordination, a prerequisite to ensure compliance to the constructed model, is maintained through allocation of lesser resources, restrictions on mobility, seclusion norms and even violence in cases of resistance. The model determines women’s traits and responsibilities, and establishes parameters for what is legitimate for women, and these have implications for their personality, lifestyle and health, including their reproductive behaviours. Conclusion There is a strong link between women’s autonomy, rights, and health. This demands a gender sensitive and a, right-based approach towards health. In addition to service delivery interventions, strategies are required to counter factors influencing health status and restricting access to and utilization of services. Improvement in women’s health is bound to have positive influences on their children and wider family’s health, education and livelihood; and in turn on a society’s health and economy. PMID:24690271

2014-01-01

443

Changing roles of women: reproduction to production.  

PubMed

The status of women in the countries included in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) varies widely from home labor and childbearing to social and political participation. In countries where the total fertility rate is high (over 6), such as Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Nepal, the status of women is low. Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Nepal, along with India, Sri Lanka, and China, also have the lowest levels of per capita income. The education of women is one of the earmarks of social development. Education enables women to delay marriage, reduce fertility, and participate in the economy. Between 1970 and 1980, the female literacy rate increased 10% in Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines; and 5% in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Nepal. Women's participation in the labor force is determined both by the stage of development of the country and by cultural factors. In Muslim countries the level of women's participation in the labor force is low. In Thailand and China it is very high. Women with the most education are likeliest to work in professional and administrative jobs. Self-employed women tend to have as little status and as many children as unpaid family workers, and women working in agriculture are almost as badly off. In Asia and the Pacific, except for Muslim countries, women have participated actively in family planning programs. In several countries in the region, women have been active in politics, but mostly at the local level. If women are to be integrated into the development process in the countries of Asia and the Pacific, attention must be given to their education and employment, to increasing the role of men in household and child rearing duties, and to research in the interrelations of population processes, women's status, and socioeconomic development. PMID:12282180

Rachapaetayakom, J

1988-12-01

444

ASSESSING CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE IN ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED NEIGHBORHOODS USING DIVERSE EXPOSURE METRICS. (R826789)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

445

Ontario Educators' Perceptions of Barriers to the Identification of Gifted Children from Economically Disadvantaged and Limited English Proficient Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cross section of educators from Ontario, Canada, many of whom were beginning teachers, volunteered to complete the survey at an Ontario Faculty of Education. Of the 121 educators who participated, 55% worked with students at the elementary school level, 24% at the middle school level, and 23% at the high school level. This investigation of…

Ryan, Thomas G.

2012-01-01

446

What Is Health Anyway? Perceptions and Experiences of Health and Health Care from Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Rural Residents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The divide between rich and poor in Australia is starkly apparent in health status statistics; the poorest Australians have the poorest health, and many live in rural Australia. However, little is known about financially deprived rural citizen's perceptions of their own health and their expectations of health care services. As a result,…

Allan, Julaine; Ball, Patrick; Alston, Margaret

2010-01-01

447

Maternal depression and foetal responses to novel stimuli: insights from a socio-economically disadvantaged Indian cohort.  

PubMed

Maternal stress during pregnancy has pervasive effects on stress responsivity in children. This study is the first to test the hypothesis that maternal prenatal depression, as observed in South India, may be associated with how foetuses respond to a potentially stressful stimulus. We employed measures of foetal heart rate at baseline, during exposure to a vibroacoustic stimulus, and post-stimulation, to study patterns of response and recovery in 133 third trimester foetuses of depressed and non-depressed mothers. We show that the association between maternal depression and foetal stress responsivity is U-shaped with foetuses of mothers with high and low depression scores demonstrating elevated responses, and poorer recovery, than foetuses of mothers with moderate levels. The right amount of intra-uterine stimulation is important in conditioning foetuses towards optimal regulation of their stress response. Our results imply that, in certain environmental contexts, exposure to moderate amounts of intra-uterine stress may facilitate this process. PMID:24901656

Fernandes, M; Stein, A; Srinivasan, K; Menezes, G; Renton, M; Zani, J; Ramchandani, P G

2014-06-01

448

Beliefs about Causes of Poverty and Psychological Well-Being of Parents and Adolescents Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parents and their adolescent children from 199 poor families in Hong Kong responded to the Chinese Perceived Causes of Poverty Scale (that assesses beliefs about causes of poverty in terms of personal problems, exploitation, lack of opportunities, fate, and external causes) and measures of psychological well-being over two consecutive years. Results showed that measures of beliefs about causes of poverty

DANIEL T. L. SHEK

2004-01-01

449

Resource economics  

SciTech Connect

The allocation of scarce resources is becoming crucial to human existence and it is essential to have an understanding of the role of economic factors in this problem. This is the central theme of Resource Economics. The author outlines the key concepts and tools of economics and illustrates their application by reference to problems of renewable resource management, non-renewable resource allocation, pollution and environmental impact analysis. A second theme running throughout the test is the need for economics to integrate with other scientific disciplines if resource allocation problems are to be understood fully and if a framework for their solution is to be found. The emphasis is on graphical means of illustration and everyday examples - rather than on mathematical notation and complex theory - making this a straightforward and immensely readable book.

Norton, G.A.

1984-01-01

450

Ecological Economics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taking as its starting point the interdependence of the economy and the natural environment, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field of ecological economics. The authors, who have written extensively on the economics of sustainability, build on insights from both mainstream economics and ecological sciences. Part I explores the interdependence of the modern economy and its environment, while Part II focuses mainly on the economy and on economics. Part III looks at how national governments set policy targets and the instruments used to pursue those targets. Part IV examines international trade and institutions, and two major global threats to sustainability - climate change and biodiversity loss. Assuming no prior knowledge of economics, this textbook is well suited for use on interdisciplinary environmental science and management courses. It has extensive student-friendly features including discussion questions and exercises, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, further reading and website addresses. A comprehensive introduction to a developing field which will interest students from science, economics and management backgrounds A global approach to the problems of sustainability and sustainable development, issues which are increasingly prominent in political debate and policy making Filled with student-friendly features including focus areas for each chapter, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, discussion questions and exercises, further reading and website addresses

Common, Michael; Stagl, Sigrid

2005-10-01

451

What Attracts High-Achieving Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students to the Physical Sciences and Engineering?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED) students are less likely to major in physical sciences or engineering. To guide recruitment and retention of a diversity of talent, this study examined what attracts high-achieving SED students to these fields. Participants were 50 undergraduates majoring in physical sciences or engineering enrolled in the…

Conrad, Sarah; Canetto, Silvia Sara; MacPhee, David; Farro, Samantha

2009-01-01

452

Parental alcohol dependence, socioeconomic disadvantage and alcohol and cannabis dependence among young adults in the community.  

E-print Network

Parental alcohol dependence, socioeconomic disadvantage and alcohol and cannabis dependence among.lestrat@inserm.fr Keywords: alcohol dependence; cannabis; family history; socioeconomic position; young adults; epidemiology), the prevalence of alcohol dependence (WHO AUDIT, 5.8%) and cannabis dependence (DSM IV criteria, 7

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

453

During Threaded Discussions Are Non-Native English Speakers Always at a Disadvantage?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When participating in threaded discussions, under what conditions might non¬native speakers of English (NNSE) be at a comparative disadvantage to their classmates who are native speakers of English (NSE)? This study compares the threaded discussion perspectives of closely-matched NNSE and NSE adult students having different levels of threaded…

Shafer Willner, Lynn

2014-01-01

454

Improving Computer Skills of Socially Disadvantaged Adolescents: Same-Age versus Cross-Age Tutoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a voluntary tutor-based training program, socially disadvantaged adolescents acquired basic computer skills. Two training groups were compared: one group was instructed by adolescents, the other by adults. Both groups achieved comparable results in a final test. The tutees' learning results did not differ with respect to their initial…

Vogelwiesche, Uta; Grob, Alexander; Winkler, Britta

2006-01-01

455

Implications of the "My School" Website for Disadvantaged Communities: A Bourdieuian Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on the theoretical constructs of Pierre Bourdieu, this article explores implications of the Australian "My School" website for schools located in disadvantaged communities. These implications flow from the legitimisation of certain cultural practices through the hidden linkages between scholastic aptitude and cultural heritage…

Mills, Carmen

2015-01-01

456

Assessing Social-Support Network among the Socio-Culturally Disadvantaged Children in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the social support networks and needs satisfaction of 300 secondary school students of low- and high-caste families in Orissa, India. Found that while children from advantaged sociocultural environments have healthier and more enriching family climates than children from disadvantaged sociocultural environments, the latter group had a…

Chowdhury, Aparajita; And Others

1996-01-01

457

STTEPping in the Right Direction? Western Classical Music in an Orchestral Programme for Disadvantaged African Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article looks at STTEP, an outreach project currently housed at the University of Pretoria, which concentrates on the teaching of western orchestral instruments, plus background areas such as music theory, to disadvantaged children and youth from a variety of townships around Pretoria, South Africa. STTEP's direction can well be described as…

van Niekerk, Caroline; Salminen, Sanna

2008-01-01

458

"Free Primary Education" in Lesotho and the Disadvantages of the Highlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the effects of national policies associated with "Education for All" on a disadvantaged region, the highlands of Lesotho. Since 2000 a programme of "Free Primary Education" has improved the position of the highlands in access to primary schooling; nevertheless, highland primary schools compare poorly with those in the…

Urwick, James

2011-01-01

459

Gifted Mothers as Social Capital: A View from a Disadvantaged Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores an unexamined area in the realm of gifted adults coming from disadvantaged backgrounds. The focus of this paper documents how a mother, in spite of all sorts of hardships, never deviates from her conviction about the education of her children. The author examines the concept of social capital in a symbiotic relationship with…

Maitra, Krishna

2012-01-01

460

School Tracking and Access to Higher Education among Disadvantaged Groups. NBER Working Paper No. 16914  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When students are tracked into vocational and academic secondary schools, access to higher education is usually restricted to those who completed an academic track. Postponing such tracking may increase university attendance among disadvantaged students if additional time in school enables them to catch up with their more privileged counterparts.…

Malamud, Ofer; Pop-Eleches, Cristian

2011-01-01

461

Students' Perception of Live Lectures' Inherent Disadvantages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to provide insight into various properties of live lectures from the perspective of sophomore engineering students. In an anonymous online survey conducted at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, we investigated students' opinions regarding lecture attendance, inherent disadvantages of…

Petrovic, Juraj; Pale, Predrag

2015-01-01

462

Educating the Employed Disadvantaged for Upgrading. A Report on Remedial Education Programs in the Paper Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study to determine the impact of adult basic education programs on the upward mobility of disadvantaged workers is presented. The paper industry was chosen for case analysis because of the nature of the upgrading problems, the vast adjustments required by the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the fact that these ABE programs have been operational…

Rowan, Richard L.; Northrup, Herbert R.

463

Dealing with Disadvantage: Resilience and the Social Capital of Young People's Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes how peer and extended networks provide young people with support and resources for dealing with disadvantage. Centering girls' accounts of growing up in the Glebe public housing estate, the difficulties they face, their critiques and aspirations are interpreted as resilience, supported by the social capital of their networks.…

Bottrell, Dorothy

2009-01-01

464

A Comparison of the Rates of Mental Impairment for Advantaged and Disadvantaged Ethnic Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An etiological analysis of the inverse relationship between social class and mental impairment is presented. The empirical analysis failed to support the hypothesis that within a social class disadvantaged ethnic groups have higher rates of mental impairment than advantaged ethnic groups. In general there was no difference between the rates for…

Duncombe, Margaret

465

Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment among Mexican American Early Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined a stress process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. The authors also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the…

Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.

2010-01-01

466

Abstract--Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) have several advantages and disadvantages compared with Unmanned  

E-print Network

at 30Hz. The pay- load attached to aircraft landing gear is shown in Figure 2. Unmanned Ground VehicleAbstract--Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) have several advantages and disadvantages compared with Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs). Both systems have different mobility and perception abilities. UAV systems

Florida, University of

467

Perceived Advantages and Disadvantages of Being a Female Graduate Student in the US and the UK  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We build on Diana Leonard's work on gender and graduate education by qualitatively investigating the perceived advantages and disadvantages of being a female graduate student in the USA and the UK. We interviewed six female students (ages 22-30) pursuing master's degrees in psychology or social sciences in the USA and the UK. Students…

Mehta, Clare Marie; Keener, Emily; Shrier, Lydia

2013-01-01

468

The Influence of Family Size on Learning Readiness Patterns of Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Preschool Blacks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschool readiness measures were secured on 35 pairs of disadvantaged 2- to 3-year-old lower SES black children, representing large and small families, to determine the impact of family size on readiness profiles. The findings reveal that blacks from small families achieved significantly higher scores on 3 of the 9 skill areas: Visual Memory,…

Scott, Ralph; Kobes, David A.

469

Starting School at a Disadvantage: The School Readiness of Poor Children. The Social Genome Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poor children in the United States start school at a disadvantage in terms of their early skills, behaviors, and health. Fewer than half (48 percent) of poor children are ready for school at age five, compared to 75 percent of children from families with moderate and high income, a 27 percentage point gap. This paper examines the reasons why poor…

Isaacs, Julia B.

2012-01-01

470

Crossing the Bridge: Overcoming Entrenched Disadvantage through Student-centred Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quality school education is essential if young people are to have access to the greatest possible opportunities in life, but it is not a universal experience in Australia. Instead, too many young people are disengaged from school, especially those in the middle years of schooling and those living in disadvantaged areas. This study examined the…

Black, Rosalyn

2007-01-01

471

Engagement in community music classes sparks neuroplasticity and language development in children from disadvantaged backgrounds  

PubMed Central

Children from disadvantaged backgrounds often face impoverished auditory environments, such as greater exposure to ambient noise and fewer opportunities to participate in complex language interactions during development. These circumstances increase their risk for academic failure and dropout. Given the academic and neural benefits associated with musicianship, music training may be one method for providing auditory enrichment to children from disadvantaged backgrounds. We followed a group of primary-school students from gang reduction zones in Los Angeles, CA, USA for 2 years as they participated in Harmony Project. By providing free community music instruction for disadvantaged children, Harmony Project promotes the healthy development of children as learners, the development of children as ambassadors of peace and understanding, and the development of stronger communities. Children who were more engaged in the music program—as defined by better attendance and classroom participation—developed stronger brain encoding of speech after 2 years than their less-engaged peers in the program. Additionally, children who were more engaged in the program showed increases in reading scores, while those less engaged did not show improvements. The neural gains accompanying music engagement were seen in the very measures of neural speech processing that are weaker in children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Our results suggest that community music programs such as Harmony Project provide a form of auditory enrichment that counteracts some of the biological adversities of growing up in poverty, and can further support community-based interventions aimed at improving child health and wellness. PMID:25566109

Kraus, Nina; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L.; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine

2014-01-01

472

Social and Occupational Integration of Disadvantaged People. Leonardo da Vinci Good Practices Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document profiles nine European programs that exemplify good practice in social and occupational integration of disadvantaged people. The programs profiled are as follows: (1) Restaurant Venezia (a CD-ROM program to improve the reading and writing skills of young people in Luxembourg who have learning difficulties); (2) an integrated…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

473

The Gap between Advantaged and Disadvantaged Students in Science Achievement in South African Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

South Africa's education system is still deep in the throes of reform under its third Minister of Education since 1994. Poor communities, in particular those of rural Africans, bear the brunt of the past inequalities. The challenge was to explore the extent of the "gap" in students' scores by comparing the advantaged and disadvantaged communities…

Howie, Sarah; Scherman, Vanessa; Venter, Elsie

2008-01-01

474

Learning of Culturally Disadvantaged Children as a Function of Social and Tangible Reward.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experiment studied the "relative effectiveness of tangible and social rewards upon the performance of a simple discrimination learning task by culturally disadvantaged children." Also assessed were the effects of the sex of the subjects (Ss) and the examiner. Ss were 144 five- and six-year old youngsters in a Georgia Head Start program. No…

Unikel, Irving P.; And Others

475

Impact of Intervention on Disadvantaged First Year Students Who Plan To Major in Health Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a program designed to encourage minority and financially, socially, or educationally disadvantaged incoming, freshman students to pursue health profession career goals. Sixteen at-risk students were selected to participate in a summer intervention program in West Virginia; a control group of 16 pre-medicine or pre-dentistry…

Haught, Patricia A.

476

Disadvantaged-Handicapped Identification and Supportive Service Delivery System, Southwestern College, Spring 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A system of identification and notification designed and implemented at Southwestern College to speed supportive services to the disadvantaged and handicapped students in vocational programs is discussed. The system is comprised of the following procedures: (1) Self-identification (Student Services Information Form filled out by each student at…

MacDougall, Allan

477

Engagement in community music classes sparks neuroplasticity and language development in children from disadvantaged backgrounds.  

PubMed

Children from disadvantaged backgrounds often face impoverished auditory environments, such as greater exposure to ambient noise and fewer opportunities to participate in complex language interactions during development. These circumstances increase their risk for academic failure and dropout. Given the academic and neural benefits associated with musicianship, music training may be one method for providing auditory enrichment to children from disadvantaged backgrounds. We followed a group of primary-school students from gang reduction zones in Los Angeles, CA, USA for 2 years as they participated in Harmony Project. By providing free community music instruction for disadvantaged children, Harmony Project promotes the healthy development of children as learners, the development of children as ambassadors of peace and understanding, and the development of stronger communities. Children who were more engaged in the music program-as defined by better attendance and classroom participation-developed stronger brain encoding of speech after 2 years than their less-engaged peers in the program. Additionally, children who were more engaged in the program showed increases in reading scores, while those less engaged did not show improvements. The neural gains accompanying music engagement were seen in the very measures of neural speech processing that are weaker in children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Our results suggest that community music programs such as Harmony Project provide a form of auditory enrichment that counteracts some of the biological adversities of growing up in poverty, and can further support community-based interventions aimed at improving child health and wellness. PMID:25566109

Kraus, Nina; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine

2014-01-01

478

Application of a Conceptual Model of College Withdrawal to Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retention and attrition after the freshman year among disadvantaged students at a senior college of the City University of New York were studied. A conceptual model of Tinto (1975) was applied to a group of students participating in the Search for Education, Elevation, and Knowledge (SEEK) program, which provided remedial and/or developmental…

Fox, Richard N.

479

Everyday (in)justices and ordinary environmentalisms: community gardening in disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have witnessed increased academic interest in the relations between poverty, environment and place. Studies of poverty in disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods have pointed to the contribution of despoiled local environments to social exclusion. Work in urban political ecology has highlighted the socio-environmental hybridity of injustices in the city, bringing a political dimension to debates on urban sustainability, while research

Paul Milbourne

2011-01-01

480

Drugs, Guns, and Disadvantaged Youths: Co-Occurring Behavior and the Code of the Street  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guided by Anderson's theory of the code of the street, this study explored social mechanisms linking individual-level disadvantage factors with the adoption of beliefs grounded in the code of the street and with drug trafficking and gun carrying--the co-occurring behavior shaping violence among young men in urban areas. Secondary data were…

Allen, Andrea N.; Lo, Celia C.

2012-01-01

481

76 FR 68026 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Small Disadvantaged Business Self-Certification  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to its small disadvantaged business (SDB) program. DATES: Effective Date: November...businesses (SDBs) to self-represent their SDB status to prime contractors in good faith...businesses were certified by the SBA as SDB firms. DoD, GSA, and NASA received...

2011-11-02

482

48 CFR 1552.219-74 - Small disadvantaged business participation evaluation factor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...participation of small disadvantaged business (SDB) concerns in the performance of the...evaluated based on: (1) The extent to which SDB concerns are specifically identified to...2) The extent of the commitment to use SDB concerns in the performance of the...

2010-10-01

483

A Story of Conflict and Collaboration: Media Literacy, Video Production and Disadvantaged Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Media literacy educators talk about the importance of developing essential social skills, such as collaboration, by using video production in the classroom. Video production with disadvantaged youth can also play a role of art therapy, as students use their creativity to come to terms with traumatizing pasts. This paper offers an account of a…

Friesem, Elizaveta

2014-01-01

484

Socioeconomic disadvantage and primary non-adherence with medication in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Lack of adherence with pharmacological therapy is a public health concern that compels tremendous costs for the health care system and the community. To analyse the association between socioeconomic disadvantage and primary non- adherence with medication, and to explore possible mediating effects of trust in health care and lifestyle profile. Design. Cross-sectional population-based study based on data from the

SARAH WAMALA; JUAN MERLO; GUNNEL BOSTROM; CHRISTER HOGSTEDT; GUNNER AGREN

2007-01-01

485

The Association of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with Socioeconomic Disadvantage: Alternative Explanations and Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Studies throughout Northern Europe, the United States and Australia have found an association between childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and family socioeconomic disadvantage. We report further evidence for the association and review potential causal pathways that might explain the link. Methods: Secondary…

Russell, Ginny; Ford, Tamsin; Rosenberg, Rachel; Kelly, Susan

2014-01-01

486

Empowering Educationally Disadvantaged Mathematics Students through a Strategies-Based Problem Solving Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major impediment to problem solving in mathematics in the great majority of South African schools is that disadvantaged students from seriously impoverished learning environments are lacking in the necessary informal mathematical knowledge to develop their own strategies for solving non-routine problems. A randomized pretest-posttest control…

Ramnarain, Umesh

2014-01-01

487

State Disadvantaged Child Project in the Portland Public Schools. 1988-89 Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this report is to describe the programs that make up Oregon's Disadvantaged Child Project (DCP) and document the ways in which students benefited from participation. The DCP was established in 1967 to provide supplemental services to children in low-income and culturally deprived areas. The project contains three major components:…

Yagi, Kan

488

Racial Segregation, the Concentration of Disadvantage, and Black and White Homicide Victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discriminatory housing market practices have created and reinforced patterns of racial residential segregation throughout the United States. Such segregation has racist consequences too. Residential segregation increases the concentration of disadvantage for blacks but not whites, creating African-American residential environments that heighten social problems including violence within the black population. At the same time, segregation protects white residential environments from these

Ruth D. Peterson; Lauren J. Krivo

1999-01-01

489

Is Concentrated Advantage the Cause? The Relative Contributions of Neighborhood Advantage and Disadvantage to Educational Inequality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Supported by persistent educational inequality and growth of the field of neighborhood effects research, this meta-analysis investigates the relative association of neighborhood advantage and disadvantage to educational outcomes; the consistency of associations across different educational indicators; and the moderating influence of model…

Johnson, Odis, Jr.

2013-01-01

490

Exploring the Link between Caregiver Affect and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Does Neighborhood Disadvantage Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a sample of urban youth (N = 1,070), we examined the links between primary caregiver affect (i.e., warmth and hostility) and two measures of sexual behavior in adolescence--early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners. We also examined the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage moderated associations between caregiver affect and…

Gardner, Margo; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2012-01-01

491

Family Resources and Development of Social Competence in Disadvantaged Children in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored relationship between family resources and social competence of 300 adolescents. Found that parental education, occupation, and family income were related to positive peer and teacher-related social competence among advantaged adolescents. Negative responses and outside family support were positively related to disadvantaged adolescents'…

Muni, Anita Kumari; Rath, Arundhati; Choudhury, Aparajita

1997-01-01

492

A Study of Participatory Action Research as Professional Development for Educators in Areas of Educational Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the final analysis of a mixed methodological study of participatory action research (PAR) as professional development. The participants were administrators and teachers studying extreme educational disadvantage caused by homeless and transient living conditions. Two questions are answered: 1. What was the experience of…

James, E. Alana

2006-01-01

493

Nutrition and Mental Development. ERIC-IRCD Urban Disadvantaged Series, Number 36, February 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the 1960's a growing body of experimental evidence suggesting that early malnutrition could affect the development and the functioning of the brain was translated into a concern that nutritional deprivation might be producing permanent mental retardation among "disadvantaged" children. The purpose of this paper is to show, through a review…

Gussow, Joan Dye

494

Gender Differences in Fundamental Motor Skill Development in Disadvantaged Preschoolers from Two Geographical Regions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the influence of gender and region on object control (OC) and locomotor skill development. Participants were 275 midwestern African American and 194 southwestern Hispanic preschool children who were disadvantaged. All were evaluated on the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (Ulrich, 2000). Two, 2 Gender (girls, boys) x 2 Region…

Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Crowe, Heather

2010-01-01

495

Lessons from black-thicket jungle: What is feasible in village schools of disadvantaged areas?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative examination of the national goals of education as presented by various developing countries shows such goals to be often abstract and overly idealistic: a long way from the harsh reality of most rural village schools. Drawing on the results of a lengthy field study in a disadvantaged area of Sri Lanka, this article discusses the matter of feasibility in

Victoria J. Baker

1989-01-01

496

Promoting teacher quality and continuity : tackling the disadvantages of remote Indigenous schools in the Northern Territory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity associated with reducing inequality in Indigenous education incorporates a multitude of causal factors. Issues associated with education delivery and outcomes in remote Indigenous communities are endemic nationally, yet the communities of the Northern Territory are uniquely disadvantaged due to their geographical and cultural isolation. By looking at the factors affecting the quality and continuity of teachers in remote

Inga Brasche; Ingrid Harrington

2012-01-01

497

Equity, Mathematics and Classroom Practice: Developing Rich Mathematical Experiences for Disadvantaged Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many students, the experience of school mathematics is not a positive one. Processes of exclusion operate to disadvantage students along social class, race and gender lines. For students from backgrounds that are not part of the success regime, significant scaffolding by teachers is needed if they are to be successful. In this article, the…

Jorgensen, Robyn Zevenbergen; Niesche, Richard

2008-01-01

498

Less than Equal: A Former Urban Schoolteacher Examines the Causes of Educational Disadvantagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

After reviewing competing explanations for the disproportionate rates of school failure experienced by poor and nonwhite populations advanced in recent decades, the author, a former urban alternative high school teacher, advances what he calls a culture-centered interactionist framework. This framework blames neither the impoverishment of students nor the ethnocentricity of middle-class educators alone for educational disadvantagement, but rather locates the

Gregory J. Fritzberg

2001-01-01

499

Inspire a Disadvantaged Child: Be That One Light in the Darkness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevailing expectation in education today is, "All children can learn." This expectation includes all children, including disadvantaged children and those who come from poverty. Our actions are guided by our expectations. If we believe that all children can learn, then children can learn. If we believe that children cannot learn, then our self…

Costley, Kevin C.

2006-01-01

500

Promoting Teacher Quality and Continuity: Tackling the Disadvantages of Remote Indigenous Schools in the Northern Territory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The complexity associated with reducing inequality in Indigenous education incorporates a multitude of causal factors. Issues associated with education delivery and outcomes in remote Indigenous communities are endemic nationally, yet the communities of the Northern Territory are uniquely disadvantaged due to their geographical and cultural…

Brasche, Inga; Harrington, Ingrid

2012-01-01