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1

48 CFR 6.207 - Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible...Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB)...

2013-10-01

2

48 CFR 18.117 - Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible...117 Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB)...

2013-10-01

3

Adherence to Accelerometer Protocols Among Women From Economically Disadvantaged Neighborhoods  

PubMed Central

Background Objective measurement of physical activity with accelerometers is a challenging task in community-based intervention research. Challenges include distribution of and orientation to monitors, nonwear, incorrect placement, and loss of equipment. Data collection among participants from disadvantaged populations may be further hindered by factors such as transportation challenges, competing responsibilities, and cultural considerations. Methods Research staff distributed accelerometers and provided an orientation that was tailored to the population group. General adherence strategies such as follow-up calls, daily diaries, verbal and written instructions, and incentives were accompanied by population-specific strategies such as assisting with transportation, reducing obstacles to wearing the accelerometer, tailoring the message to the participant population, and creating a nonjudgmental environment. Results Sixty women asked to wear the Actigraph GT1M returned the accelerometer, and 57 of them provided sufficient data for analysis (at least 10 hours a day for a minimum of 4 days) resulting in 95% adherence to the protocol. Participants wore the accelerometers for an average of 5.98 days and 13.15 hours per day. Conclusions The high accelerometer monitoring adherence among this group of economically disadvantaged women demonstrates that collection of high-quality, objective physical activity data from disadvantaged populations in field-based research is possible.

Sharpe, Patricia A.; Wilcox, Sara; Rooney, Laura J.; Strong, Donna; Hopkins-Campbell, Rosie; Butel, Jean; Ainsworth, Barbara; Parra-Medina, Deborah

2011-01-01

4

13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section...Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? (a)...

2009-01-01

5

13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section...Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? (a)...

2010-01-01

6

48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern or women-owned small business (WOSB) concern eligible...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern...

2013-10-01

7

Neighborhood Disadvantage, Individual Economic Distress and Violence Against Women in Intimate Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuing debate in sociological criminology involves the association of crime with economic disadvantage at both aggregate and individual levels of analysis. At the aggregate level, data from law enforcement sources suggest that rates of intimate violence are higher in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience higher rates of intimate violence for compositional or contextual reasons, or rates may only

Michael L. Benson; Greer L. Fox; Alfred DeMaris; Judy Van Wyk

2003-01-01

8

[The long-term influence of socio-economic disadvantage on the psychosocial adjustment of women].  

PubMed

On the basis of a prospective longitudinal study of over 15,000 women this paper examines the long-term influences of socio-economic disadvantages on psychosocial adjustment. The study draws on data from two British cohort studies carried out 12 years apart from each other. A contextual developmental perspective is adopted to analyse the pathways linking childhood experiences to adult functioning in a changing socio-historical context. The study suggests a causal chain process linking the early and persisting experience of socio-economic adversity to behavioural maladjustment of girls during childhood and adolescence. Socio-economic adversity and behavioural maladjustment in adolescence, in turn, predict the development of depressive symptoms in adulthood. The influence of socio-economic adversity on individual development, however, also depends on the wider socio-historical context in which development takes place. It is concluded that for a better understanding of psychosocial adjustment across the lifespan we have to consider the interactions of a changing individual in a changing context. PMID:12407496

Schoon, Ingrid

2002-01-01

9

Perceived quality and availability of fruit and vegetables are associated with perceptions of fruit and vegetable affordability among socio-economically disadvantaged women. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Williams LK, Thornton L, Crawford D, Ball K. Perceived quality and availability of fruit and vegetables are associated with perceptions of fruit and vegetable affordability among socio-economically disadvantaged women.

10

Cardiovascular risk factors in economically disadvantaged women: a study of prevalence and awareness.  

PubMed

This study examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among low-income women and assessed the level of awareness and attitudes about these risk factors in the community. A survey instrument was developed and administered by a single researcher to a convenience sample of women in health clinics and nonclinical community settings. These settings included: an academic clinic, community clinics, women's shelters, free meal sites, community centers, public housing units, and private homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Two hundred two women were selected without regard to age or race. The mean number of cardiovascular risk factors per subject was 2.6 (SD 1.4). Each of eight established cardiovascular risk factors was identified by 4% to 34% of subjects. Among those women with a specific risk factor, only 0% to 45% reported that they were at increased risk due to the presence of that factor. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among low-income women is substantial. Knowledge and understanding of these risk factors is suboptimal, particularly among women personally affected by risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:9770952

Poduri, A; Grisso, J A

1998-09-01

11

Family planning and contraceptive decision-making by economically disadvantaged, African-American women  

PubMed Central

Background Significant racial disparities exist in the US unplanned pregnancy rate. We conducted a qualitative study using the theory of planned behavior as a framework to describe how low-income, African-American women approach family planning. Study Design Structured focus groups were held with adult, low-income, non-pregnant, African-American women in Connecticut. Data were collected using a standardized discussion guide, and audio-taped and transcribed. Four, independent researchers coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method. Codes were organized into over-arching themes. Results Contraceptive knowledge was limited with formal education often occurring after sexual debut. Attitudes about contraception were overtly negative with method effectiveness being judged by the experience of side effects. Family and friends strongly influence contraceptive decisions while male partners are primarily seen as a barrier. Contraceptive pills are perceived as readily accessible although compliance is considered a barrier. Conclusions Contraception education should occur before sexual debut, should involve trusted family and community members, and should positively frame issues in terms of achieving life goals.

Hodgson, Eric J.; Collier, Charlene; Hayes, Laura; Curry, Leslie; Fraenkel, Liana

2013-01-01

12

Cycles of Discrimination: Older Women, Cumulative Disadvantages, and Retirement Consequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article identifies typical life course situations that women experience, which contribute to a cycle of discrimination or a recurrence of disadvantages simply because of their sex, race, or age. Although men suffer social, health, psychological, and economic disadvantages as they age, this article focuses primarily on women as a more deprived…

Davis, Nanette J.

2005-01-01

13

Developmental Levels of Economically Disadvantaged College Freshmen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The personal developmental levels of students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds were studied; and the hypothesis that students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds would be less mature than other students in the developmental levels of autonomy, purpose, and interpersonal relationships was assessed. The effects of participation in…

Yarbrough, Stephen L.

14

World's women: making gains but still disadvantaged.  

PubMed

This article briefly summarizes the progress made by women globally and points out that women are still disadvantaged. The article is based on statistics compiled in a wall chart on Women in 1998 by the Population Reference Bureau. Women have progressed in education, the labor force, and health. Women's life expectancy has increased from 49 to 68 years since the 1950s. Women's participation in the labor force has increased from 33% to 54%. Literacy has risen from 54% to 64% since the 1970s. The gender gap in secondary school enrollment has narrowed since the 1980s. The ratio of girl-to-boy secondary school enrollment is 80 or 90 girls/100 boys. However, women still experience major disadvantages. In 1997, women became HIV-infected at a rate of almost 6000 women/day. 41% of people living with HIV/AIDS are women. In sub-Saharan Africa, women with HIV account for 50% of the nearly 20 million adults infected with HIV. The proportion of HIV-infected women in other regions ranges 20-33%. 4 million of the 11.7 million people who have died of AIDS were women. Nearly 600,000 women die every year from maternal mortality and abortion. Maternal mortality rates range from under 8 deaths/100,000 live births in European countries to 1400 deaths/100,000 live births in some sub-Saharan countries. Family planning and access to and services for prenatal, delivery, and postpartum care can help reduce maternal deaths. Maternal care has improved, but not sufficiently to offset the increased number of pregnancies. The number of female-headed households has grown, and these households tend to be poor. PMID:12293548

1998-04-01

15

From Disadvantaged Girls to Successful Women: Education and Women's Resiliency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is the result of a 2-year study of women who were disadvantaged as girls but who achieved highly in academics. The participants, all of whom had advanced degrees or had completed two years of graduate school, had been raised in low-income homes, were first-generation college students, and had faced stress as children. Most of these women

LePage-Lees, Pamela

16

A Randomized Trial of a Diet and Exercise Intervention for Overweight and Obese Women from Economically Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: Sisters Taking Action for Real Success (STARS)  

PubMed Central

Background Lower socioeconomic status at both the individual and neighborhood level is associated with increased health risks. Weight loss can reduce this risk, but few high quality weight loss studies target this population. Objectives STARS tests a culturally-appropriate, group-based behavioral and social support intervention on body weight and waist circumference in women from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods. Design A stratified (by BMI) randomized trial. Randomization to group was generated by a random numbers table with allocation concealment by opaque envelopes. Methods Participants 25–50 years who had a BMI ? 25 kg/m2 and a waist circumference ? 88 cm were recruited from 18 census tracts in Columbia, SC with high rates of poverty between November 2008 and November 2010. All participants received a dietary and exercise counseling session. Intervention participants then receive 16 theoretically-based and tailored weekly group sessions followed by 8 weeks of telephone maintenance counseling. Control participants receive 16 weekly health education mailings. Measurements correspond to baseline, post-group intervention, and post-telephone counseling, and for intervention participants, after a 12-week no-contact period. Measurement staff was blinded to group assignment. Results Participants (N=155; n=80 intervention, n=75 minimal intervention control) were primarily African American (86.5%) and averaged 38.9 years with a mean BMI of 40.1 kg/m2 and waist circumference of 115.4 cm. Food insecurity was reported by 43% of participants. Summary STARS targets an underserved population with an innovative, tailored, and theoretically-grounded, group-based intervention followed by telephone maintenance. If effective, the approach has the potential to be feasible and cost-effective for community delivery.

Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Granner, Michelle; Hutto, Brent

2011-01-01

17

49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? 26.67 Section 26...67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of...million, the individual's presumption of economic disadvantage is rebutted. You are...

2013-10-01

18

Depression prevalence in disadvantaged young black women  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Background Research with Mexican Americans suggests that immigrants have lower rates of mental disorders than U. S.-born Mexican Americans.We examine the prevalence of depression, somatization, alcohol use and drug use among black American women, comparing rates of disorders among U. S.-born, Caribbean-born, and African-born subsamples. Methods Wo men in Women, Infants and Children (WIC) programs, county-run Title X

Jeanne Miranda; Juned Siddique; Thomas R. Belin; Laura P. Kohn-Wood

2005-01-01

19

Food Insecurity Is Associated with Past and Present Economic Disadvantage and Body Mass Index1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fears and experiences of food restriction influence eating behavior but the association between past and present economic disadvantage, food insecurity and body size is poorly understood. Therefore, we examined these associations in a nationwide, representative sample of 25- to 64-y-old Finnish men and women (n 5 6506). The respondents were classified by their body mass index (BMI) into four groups:

Sirpa Sarlio-Lahteenkorva; Eero Lahelma

20

Developing Latent Mathematics Abilities in Economically Disadvantaged Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study was undertaken as an effort to attend to the potential giftedness of economically disadvantaged students, to give opportunities for mathematics acceleration, and to provide a sequential, individualized mathematics program for students of high mobility. The authors evaluated the Project SAIL (Students' Active Interdisciplinary…

McKenna, Michele A.; Hollingsworth, Patricia L.; Barnes, Laura L. B.

2005-01-01

21

Book Selections of Economically Disadvantaged Black Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author identified books most often selected among a sample of economically disadvantaged Black 8- to 12-year-old participants (N = 293) and investigated reasons participants offered for choosing specific books. Participants self-selected books at a book fair providing 412 books. The most commonly selected books supplied descriptive data.…

Williams, Lunetta M.

2008-01-01

22

Misperceptions of Motivation of Economically Disadvantaged Employees in Work Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the cross-cultural perceptions of appropriate and inappropriate behaviors for three sets of role relationships between employers and economically-disadvantaged job trainees. Results suggest that job trainees perceived the role of a superordinate as being more punitive, more deceitful, and less friendly than the employers thought would be…

Smith, Althea; Chemers, Martin M.

1981-01-01

23

INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT AMONG ECONOMICALLY AND EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CURRENT RESEARCH INDICATES THAT SCHOOL AND HOME ENVIRONMENTS STRONGLY INFLUENCE AN INDIVIDUAL'S INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT, ALTHOUGH CERTAIN VERY BROAD HEREDITARY LIMITATIONS MAY ALSO AFFECT IT. THE ECONOMICALLY AND EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH EXPERIENCES AN ENVIRONMENT WHICH LACKS STIMULI ESSENTIAL TO POSITIVE INTELLECTUAL GROWTH AND…

GREEN, ROBERT L.

24

Troubled Times, Troubled Relationships: How Economic Resources, Gender Beliefs, and Neighborhood Disadvantage Influence Intimate Partner Violence  

PubMed Central

We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV), and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N=1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mother’s reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age three, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women’s risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the race/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women’s economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV.

Golden, Shelley D.; Perreira, Krista M.; Durrance, Christine Piette

2013-01-01

25

Women, Empowerment, and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development policies and programs tend not to view women as integral to the economic development process. This is reflected in the higher investments in women's reproductive rather than their productive roles, mainly in population programs. Yet women throughout the developing world engage in economically productive work and earn incomes. They work primarily in agricul ture and in the informal sector

Rekha Mehra

1997-01-01

26

Women's Work and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a cross-country dataset and microdata from India and Thailand, we examine how women's work status changes with economic development. Several clear patterns emerge: women's labor force participation first declines and then rises with development; women move from work in family enterprises to work as paid employees; fertility declines; and gender gaps in education narrow. Women's education levels, and those

Kristen Mammen; Christina Paxson

2000-01-01

27

Education for Rural Development - A Portfolio of Studies. Volume 2: Education for Disadvantaged Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The volume contains two studies from India and Thailand on the education of women, and rural women especially, who are deprived or disadvantaged. The Indian study, "Education of Girls and Women in Deprived Groups," presents a viewpoint on deprivation in society in general, and India specifically. The concomitant of deprivation is defined as the…

Naik, Chitra; And Others

28

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Economic Disadvantage E Appendix E to Part 26 Transportation Office...ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Pt. 26, App. E Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations...determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social...

2011-10-01

29

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Economic Disadvantage E Appendix E to Part 26 Transportation Office...ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Pt. 26, App. E Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations...determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social...

2012-10-01

30

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...socially or economically disadvantaged includes but is not limited to: (1) Statistical profile outlining the national income level and standard of living enjoyed by members of the group in comparison to the income level and standard of...

2009-01-01

31

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...socially or economically disadvantaged includes but is not limited to: (1) Statistical profile outlining the national income level and standard of living enjoyed by members of the group in comparison to the income level and standard of...

2010-01-01

32

ENVIRONMENTAL RISK AND IMPACT IN COMMUNITIES OF COLOR AND ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Research has shown that communities of color and economically/educationally disadvantaged communities are at a greater risk of impact from environmental hazards. In many past studies in environmental justice (EJ) communities, scientists have used surrogate measures of exposure b...

33

Women in a Changing Military. The Disadvantaged Navy Woman.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These two articles discuss how the advent of the all-volunteer military service, coupled with the changing role of women, has compelled the military to reassess its policy toward women. The military is no longer a 'male brotherhood.' Women are here to sta...

E. J. Hunter C. A. Million W. D. Hoover

1977-01-01

34

An Exploratory Study of Radical Mindfulness Training with Severely Economically Disadvantaged People: Findings of a Canadian Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a two-phased research project that piloted a modified mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention developed specifically for a severely economically disadvantaged population. The terms severely economically disadvantaged (SED) and “severely marginalised” were used to describe the participants who experience socioeconomic disadvantage and social isolation as well as significant medical, psychological, physical, and learning challenges. Phase one of the

Steven F. Hick; Charles Furlotte

2010-01-01

35

Temperament Influences on Parenting and Child Psychopathology: Socio-Economic Disadvantage as Moderator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite calls for research on how the socio-economic environment may be related to temperament, we still do not know enough about the relationship between temperament and socio-economic disadvantage (SED). A particularly under-researched question in temperament research is how SED may moderate the temperament-parenting and the temperament-child…

Flouri, Eirini

2008-01-01

36

Addressing Summer Reading Setback among Economically Disadvantaged Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much research has established the contribution of summer reading setback to the reading achievement gap that is present between children from more and less economically advantaged families. Likewise, summer reading activity, or the lack of it, has been linked to summer setback. Finally, family socioeconomic status has been linked to the access…

Allington, Richard L.; McGill-Franzen, Anne; Camilli, Gregory; Williams, Lunetta; Graff, Jennifer; Zeig, Jacqueline; Zmach, Courtney; Nowak, Rhonda

2010-01-01

37

How Does Childhood Economic Disadvantage Lead to Crime?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study sought to examine the associations between indices of socio-economic deprivation in childhood and later involvement in crime. Method: Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study. In this project a cohort of 1,265 children born in Christchurch in 1977 have been studied from birth to age 21…

Fergusson, David; Swain-Campbell, Nicola; Horwood, John

2004-01-01

38

Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models  

PubMed Central

Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This paper reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate diversity and instability. This expansion would be particularly relevant for research among low-income ethnic minority families and families with young children. This line of research would highlight specific pathways to target to prevent the onset of early parental and child dysfunction.

Barnett, Melissa A.

2014-01-01

39

Mass Media Sources for Breast Cancer Information: Their Advantages and Disadvantages for Women with the Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 1997 study explored in depth the views and experiences of women with breast cancer concerning disease-related mass media information. Results of focus group discussions indicate advantages and disadvantages of mass media information, and its impact upon individuals may depend on their disease status. Suggests implications for mass media…

Rees, Charlotte E.; Bath, Peter A.

2000-01-01

40

Stress Exposure and Depression in Disadvantaged Women: The Protective Effects of Optimism and Perceived Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, the authors predicted that the individual protective factors of optimism and perceived control over acute and chronic stressors would buffer the relations between acute and chronic stress exposure and severity of depression, controlling for household income, in a sample of financially disadvantaged women. Ninety-seven African…

Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Larkin, Jill; Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Brown, Charlotte

2007-01-01

41

Parental Depression and Economic Disadvantage: The Role of Parenting in Associations with Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effects of parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and parenting behaviors in 180 children and adolescents of depressed parents (ages 9–15 years-old). Analyses revealed that while parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and disrupted parenting behaviors were related to children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms, disrupted parenting (e.g., intrusive, neglectful parenting) accounted for the association of parental depressive symptoms and economic disadvantage with children’s symptoms. This study provides evidence that disrupted parenting may be a common or shared process through which both parental depression and economic disadvantage are associated with children’s internalizing and externalizing problems.

Watson, Kelly H.; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E.

2013-01-01

42

Structure and Change in the Behavior of Economically Disadvantaged Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of economically disadvantaged children in free play nursery contexts provided further evidence for the cross-cultural applicability of Schaefer's three-dimensional scheme in assessing classroom competencies. Several implications of the configurational approach are a new way of thinking about competence measurement, its differentiated…

Emmerich, Walter

43

Relation between Reading Problems and Internalizing Behavior in School for Preadolescent Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study of 105 economically disadvantaged children examined the relation between reading problems and internalizing behavior in 3rd- and 5th-grade assessments (8- to 12-year olds). The variable-centered results showed that reading problems predicted change in internalizing behavior in the context of child and family predictors. The…

Ackerman, Brian P.; Izard, Carroll E.; Kobak, Roger; Brown, Eleanor D.; Smith, Clare

2007-01-01

44

WWC Quick Review of the Report "Addressing Summer Reading Setback among Economically Disadvantaged Elementary Students"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined whether providing summer reading books to economically disadvantaged first- and second-grade students for three consecutive summers improved reading achievement. The study analyzed data on about 1,300 students from 17 high-poverty elementary schools in two large districts in Florida. Student-level reading achievement was…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

2010-01-01

45

Predictors of Quality of Life in Economically Disadvantaged Populations in Montreal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most epidemiological studies agree that economically disadvantaged populations are the groups most vulnerable to mental health problems and report lower quality of life among these populations. However, it appears that access to social support plays a role in protecting against the chronic stress resulting from conditions such as poverty. This…

Caron, Jean

2012-01-01

46

Economic Disadvantage and Young Children's Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Mechanisms of Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home…

Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

2013-01-01

47

Predictors of Parenting among Economically Disadvantaged Latina Mothers: Mediating and Moderating Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role of ecological risk factors, maternal psychological distress, and social network support on the parenting behaviors of 535 economically disadvantaged Latina mothers, who were surveyed for the Welfare Children, & Families: A Three City Study. We predicted that ecological risk would influence…

Prelow, Hazel M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Bowman, Marvella A.; Swenson, Rebecca R.

2010-01-01

48

Tuberculin Skin Testing among Economically Disadvantaged Youth in a Federally Funded Job Training Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low income, medically underserved communities are at increased risk for tuberculosis. Limited population- based national data are available about tuberculous infection in young people from such backgrounds. To determine the prevalence of a positive tuberculin skin test among economically disadvantaged youth in a federally funded job training program during 1995 and 1996, the authors evaluated data from medical records of

Alan R. Lifson; Linda L. Halcon; Ann M. Johnston; Charles R. Hayman; Peter Hannan; Carol A. Miller; Sarah E. Valway

49

Political Participation and Cumulative Disadvantage: The Impact of Economic and Social Hardship on Young Citizens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we seek to provide the most comprehensive exploration to date of the effects of economic and social disadvantage on young citizens' voter turnout. We look at four overlapping domains of hardship—those rooted in (a) the family context, (b) the community context, (c) the school context, and (d) major events and life transitions. Our conceptual model of cumulative

Julianna Sandell Pacheco; Eric Plutzer

2008-01-01

50

The Economic Status of Alaska Native Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining the economic status of Native women in Alaska, this report compares the economic well being of Native women to other women in the state and nation, looks at factors contributing to their economic status, and makes positive action recommendations. Based on 1970 and 1980 census data, chapter I analyzes the 50% increase of Alaska Native…

Thomas, Cheryl; And Others

51

A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social–emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered analysis of 207 Hispanic American preschoolers (ages 4 and 5 years) yielded 6 distinct profiles, 2

Geraldine V. Oades-Sese; Giselle B. Esquivel; Pamela K. Kaliski; Lisette Maniatis

2011-01-01

52

Intelligence of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families: Role of Parental Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of parental education status on the intelligence of children from economically disadvantaged families was examined.\\u000a One-hundred school going children aged 4 to 8 years from low income families were divided into 3 groups based on the level\\u000a of their parental education. The main outcome measure was the intelligence of the child. Significant differences (p?

Manjit Sidhu; Prahbhjot Malhi; Jagat Jerath

2010-01-01

53

The effects of mid-life socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived social support on trajectories of subsequent depressive symptoms among older Taiwanese women  

PubMed Central

Background Scant research has taken a life-course perspective to explore the longitudinal impact of socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived social support on the psychological well-being of older women. We sought to explore whether socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived social support in mid-life are associated with subsequent depressive symptomatology among older Taiwanese women. Methods This study was based on data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging conducted on a nationally representative sample (n?=?1,073) of women aged 50 and above with a 12-year follow up. Mid-life socioeconomic disadvantage was assessed by socioeconomic status (SES) (i.e., educational attainment, major lifetime occupation in adulthood, and employment status) and economic strain. Perceived social support included three dimensions: listening, caring, and sick care. We used the short form of the Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale that measures depressive symptomatology within two domains (negative affect and lack of positive affect). Growth curve models were employed to predict the relationships between mid-life socioeconomic disadvantage, perceived social support, and subsequent depressive trajectories, controlling for aging effects. Results Multivariate analyses demonstrated older women in a socioeconomic disadvantaged position are more likely to report higher initial levels of depressive symptoms in both domains; lack of formal education did not exacerbate depressive symptoms in the lack of positive affect domain over time. In addition, mid-life perceived positive social support in caring and sick care was associated with lower initial levels of depressive symptoms in both domains. Conclusions Our results suggest independent effects of mid-life socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived social support on subsequent depressive symptomatology among older Taiwanese women.

2014-01-01

54

The Physical and Social Environment of Sleep in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Postpartum Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the physical and social environment of sleep self-management in postpartum socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Design Descriptive, exploratory design. Setting Participants were recruited in the hospital after giving birth. Data were collected in participant homes after discharge. Participants Postpartum women on Medicaid with normal healthy infants. Methods Participants completed a survey about features within their physical and social sleep environment at 2 weeks postpartum. Participants then completed three days and nights of sleep diaries at both 4 and 8 weeks postpartum to document perceived awakenings, select sleep hygiene practices, bed sharing, and reasons for sleep disruption. Results The sleep environments of participants were dynamic from night to night. Bed sharing was common with nearly half of participants sharing with a partner, approximately 25 percent with the infant, and 20 percent with older children. Fifty-two percent of participants slept with the television on part (31%) or all (69%) of the night. Eight-five percent of participants drank caffeine and 24 percent smoked. Conclusions These results inform theory-driven postpartum sleep interventions. Modifications to the physical and social sleep environment that attend specifically to how sleep hygiene and environmental factors are manifested in the postpartum period have the potential to improve sleep for socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Future research is needed to articulate which changes can be effectively self-managed by mothers through nursing interventions.

Doering, Jennifer

2012-01-01

55

DoD Science and Engineering Apprenticeship Program for Socially and Economically Disadvantaged High School Students. 1991-1992 Activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The year 1991 represented the tenth successful DOD Science and Engineering Summer Apprenticeship Program for Socially and Economically Disadvantaged Students, sponsored by the Office of Naval Research at Florida State University. The program this year was...

R. L. Pfeffer

1992-01-01

56

34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false ...economically disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program? 403.114 Section 403.114...

2013-07-01

57

Longitudinal predictors of frequent vegetable and fruit consumption among socio-economically disadvantaged Australian adolescents.  

PubMed

Adequate vegetable and fruit consumption is necessary for preventing nutrition-related diseases. Socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume relatively few vegetables and fruits. However, despite nutritional challenges associated with socio-economic disadvantage, a minority of adolescents manage to eat vegetables and fruit in quantities that are more in line with dietary recommendations. This investigation aimed to identify predictors of more frequent intakes of fruits and vegetables among adolescents over a 2-year follow-up period. Data were drawn from 521 socio-economically disadvantaged (maternal education ?Year 10 of secondary school) Australian adolescents aged 12-15 years. Participants were recruited from 37 secondary schools and were asked to complete online surveys in 2004/2005 (baseline) and 2006/2007 (follow-up). Surveys comprised a 38-item FFQ and questions based on Social Ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental influences on diet. At baseline and follow-up, respectively, 29% and 24% of adolescents frequently consumed vegetables (?2 times/day); 33% and 36% frequently consumed fruit (?1 time/day). In multivariable logistic regressions, baseline consumption strongly predicted consumption at follow-up. Frequently being served vegetables at dinner predicted frequent vegetable consumption. Female sex, rarely purchasing food or drink from school vending machines, and usually being expected to eat all foods served predicted frequent fruit consumption. Findings suggest nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving eating behaviours among this at-risk population and should focus on younger adolescents, particularly boys; improving adolescent eating behaviours at school; and encouraging families to increase home availability of healthy foods and to implement meal time rules. PMID:24685764

Stephens, Lena D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

2014-07-01

58

Behavioral Predictors of Low Fat Intake Among Economically Disadvantaged African-American Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine whether five behaviors shown to predict low fat intake in adults predicted low fat intake among economically disadvantaged African-American adolescents. Design Cross-sectional. Subjects and Measures Recruited through youth services agencies serving low-income communities in New York and New Jersey, participants were 265 African-American adolescents aged 10 to 14 years. Participants completed the Block Fat Screener and scales for measuring the following behaviors: avoiding fat as a seasoning, modifying meat to make it lower in fat, substituting high-fat foods with manufactured low-fat equivalents, replacing high-fat foods with fruits and vegetables, and replacing high-fat foods with low-fat foods other than fruits and vegetables. Analysis The reliability and construct validity of the scales were assessed using internal consistency reliability and correlation analyses. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine behavioral predictors of low fat intake. Results Scale coefficient alphas ranged from .60 to .80. Fat avoidance, substitution, and replacement with fruits and vegetables were significantly associated with fat intake. The regression equation containing these behaviors accounted for 12% of the variance in intake. All three behaviors were significant predictors of low fat intake. Conclusions Fewer behaviors have salience for predicting low fat intake among economically disadvantaged African-American adolescents than among adults. Interventions to lower youths' intake should emphasize fat avoidance, substitution, and replacement with fruits and vegetables.

Di Noia, Jennifer; Contento, Isobel R.

2010-01-01

59

What Might Work? Exploring the Perceived Feasibility of Strategies to Promote Physical Activity among Women Living in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to investigate preferences for, perceived feasibility of and barriers to uptake of hypothetical physical activity promotion strategies among women from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 purposively recruited women (18-45 years) living in socioeconomically…

Cleland, Verity; Ball, Kylie

2013-01-01

60

Economic value of safe water for the infrastructurally disadvantaged urban household: A case study in Delhi, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delhi has witnessed rapid urbanization during the past 50 years, with ever increasing growth in population and economic activity leading to water stress in several parts of the city. This paper looks at the valuation of water as an economic resource in the context of a low-income, infrastructurally disadvantaged urban household, through the results of a primary survey. In doing

Purnamita Dasgupta; Rajib Dasgupta

2004-01-01

61

Does the measure of economic disadvantage matter? Exploring the effect of individual and relative deprivation on intrauterine growth restriction  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the relation between health, individual income, and relative deprivation. Three alternative measures of relative deprivation are described, Yitzhaik relative deprivation, Deaton relative deprivation, and log income difference relative deprivation, with attention to problems in measuring permanent disadvantage when the underlying income distribution is changing over time. We used data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth, a US-based longitudinal survey, to examine the associations between disadvantage, measured cross-sectionally and aggregated over the life course, and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We reject the hypotheses that any of the economic measures, whether permanent/contemporaneous or individual/relative, have different associations with IUGR in terms of sign and significance. There was some evidence that permanent economic disadvantage was associated with greater risk of IUGR than those on the corresponding contemporaneous measures. The fitted values from logistic regressions on each measure of disadvantage were compared with the two-way plots of the observed IUGR-income pattern. Deaton relative deprivation and log income difference tracked the observed probability of IUGR as a function of income more closely than the other two measures of relative deprivation. Finally, we examined the determinants of each measure of disadvantage. Observed characteristics in childhood and adulthood explained more of the variance in log income difference and Deaton relative deprivation than in the other two measures of disadvantage. They also explained more of the variance in permanent disadvantage than in the contemporaneous counterpart.

Salsberry, Pamela J.; Olsen, Randall J.

2007-01-01

62

A longitudinal study of the social and academic competence of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered analysis of 207 Hispanic American preschoolers (ages 4 and 5 years) yielded 6 distinct profiles, 2 of which were socially competent and 1 of which was vulnerable. Findings revealed profile differences in social competence and a significant relationship between bilingualism and social-emotional development. In Study 2, the authors determined which profiles were associated with later academic achievement and growth of English proficiency. Findings indicated a significant relationship of early social-emotional development to later academic success and English acquisition, highlighting the role of bilingualism. PMID:21219064

Oades-Sese, Geraldine V; Esquivel, Giselle B; Kaliski, Pamela K; Maniatis, Lisette

2011-05-01

63

Global Economic and Education Opportunities for Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

International education and life-long learning skills are playing an increasingly important role in capacity building in the new economy. These skills will, in turn, enable women to be active participants in the emerging global economic and social environment. Capacity building of women will also enable developing nations to have access to the high-value human capital needed to underpin their future

Lindy Hyam

64

How "Economic" Are Women's Work Decisions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The degree to which wives' work decisions reflect the fulfillment of efficiency principles versus a response to social norms and personal needs was analyzed. The National Longitudinal Survey of Women, who were 30 to 44 years of age, provided the data base. To determine if women's work decisions were consistent with maximizing their economic return…

Brown, Clair

65

Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED) population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods The primary prevention element of Have a Heart Paisley (HaHP) offered risk screening to all eligible individuals. The programme employed two approaches to engaging with the community: a) a social marketing campaign and b) a community development project adopting primarily face-to-face canvassing. Individuals living in areas of SED were under-recruited via the social marketing approach, but successfully recruited via face-to-face canvassing. This paper reports on focus group discussions with participants, exploring their perceptions about and experiences of both approaches. Results Various reasons were identified for low uptake of risk screening amongst individuals living in areas of high SED in response to the social marketing campaign and a number of ways in which the face-to-face canvassing approach overcame these barriers were identified. These have been categorised into four main themes: (1) processes of engagement; (2) issues of understanding; (3) design of the screening service and (4) the priority accorded to screening. The most immediate barriers to recruitment were the invitation letter, which often failed to reach its target, and the general distrust of postal correspondence. In contrast, participants were positive about the face-to-face canvassing approach. Participants expressed a lack of knowledge and understanding about CHD and their risk of developing it and felt there was a lack of clarity in the information provided in the mailing in terms of the process and value of screening. In contrast, direct face-to-face contact meant that outreach workers could explain what to expect. Participants felt that the procedure for uptake of screening was demanding and inflexible, but that the drop-in sessions employed by the community development project had a major impact on recruitment and retention. Conclusion Socio-economically disadvantaged individuals can be hard-to-reach; engagement requires strategies tailored to the needs of the target population rather than a population-wide approach.

2010-01-01

66

Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ?24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services.

Hu, Yu; Li, Qian; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Yaping; Qi, Xiaohua

2013-01-01

67

ShopSmart 4 Health - Protocol of a skills-based randomised controlled trial promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women  

PubMed Central

Background There is a need for evidence on the most effective and cost-effective approaches for promoting healthy eating among groups that do not meet dietary recommendations for good health, such as those with low incomes or experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage. This paper describes the ShopSmart 4 Health study, a randomised controlled trial conducted by Deakin University, Coles Supermarkets and the Heart Foundation, to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a skill-building intervention for promoting increased purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables amongst women of low socioeconomic position (SEP). Methods/design ShopSmart 4 Health employed a randomised controlled trial design. Women aged 18–60 years, holding a Coles store loyalty card, who shopped at Coles stores within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods and met low-income eligibility criteria were invited to participate. Consenting women completed a baseline survey assessing food shopping and eating habits and food-related behaviours and attitudes. On receipt of their completed survey, women were randomised to either a skill-building intervention or a wait-list control condition. Intervention effects will be evaluated via self-completion surveys and using supermarket transaction sales data, collected at pre- and post-intervention and 6-month follow-up. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Process evaluation will be undertaken to identify perceived value and effects of intervention components. Discussion This study will provide data to address the currently limited evidence base regarding the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of skill-building intervention strategies aimed at increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women, a target group at high risk of poor diets. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN48771770

2013-01-01

68

Evaluating a Community Based Participatory Approach to Research with Disadvantaged Women in the Southern Suburbs of Beirut  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript presents the evaluation of a 3 year community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach involving the testing\\u000a of a psychosocial intervention to improve reproductive and mental health of married women in a disadvantaged community in\\u000a Beirut, Lebanon. The community-based participatory approach involved a community advisory committee (CAC), a local women committee\\u000a (LWC), and university researchers. The evaluation of the CBPR approach

Loulou Kobeissi; Rima Nakkash; Zeina Ghantous; Maya Abou Saad; Nasser Yassin

69

On the Economics of Higher Education in India, With Special Reference to Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper investigates the role of economic factors in the enrolment decision at the higher education level in India. The study concludes that the rate of participation of women is in a disadvantaged position in the post-reform period. Women’s education has started to loose its importance as a determinant factor of economic development, rather, in the post-reform period, it has

Sugeeta Upadhyay

2008-01-01

70

At the Forefront: The Role of Women's Community Education in Combating Poverty and Disadvantage in the Republic of Ireland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this report, the role of women's community education in combating poverty and disadvantage in Ireland over the past 10 years was examined, and future directions for policy and practice were suggested. The following data collection approaches were used: literature and policy document reviews; case studies involving regional workshops with…

University Coll. Dublin (Ireland). Women's Education, Research and Resource Centre.

71

Delivery of primary health care to persons who are socio-economically disadvantaged: does the organizational delivery model matter?  

PubMed Central

Background As health systems evolve, it is essential to evaluate their impact on the delivery of health services to socially disadvantaged populations. We evaluated the delivery of primary health services for different socio-economic groups and assessed the performance of different organizational models in terms of equality of health care delivery in Ontario, Canada. Methods Cross sectional study of 5,361 patients receiving care from primary care practices using Capitation, Salaried or Fee-For-Service remuneration models. We assessed self-reported health status of patients, visit duration, number of visits per year, quality of health service delivery, and quality of health promotion. We used multi-level regressions to study service delivery across socio-economic groups and within each delivery model. Identified disparities were further analysed using a t-test to determine the impact of service delivery model on equity. Results Low income individuals were more likely to be women, unemployed, recent immigrants, and in poorer health. These individuals were overrepresented in the Salaried model, reported more visits/year across all models, and tended to report longer visits in the Salaried model. Measures of primary care services generally did not differ significantly between low and higher income/education individuals; when they did, the difference favoured better service delivery for at-risk groups. At-risk patients in the Salaried model were somewhat more likely to report health promotion activities than patients from Capitation and Fee-For-Service models. At-risk patients from Capitation models reported a smaller increase in the number of additional clinic visits/year than Fee-For-Service and Salaried models. At-risk patients reported better first contact accessibility than their non-at-risk counterparts in the Fee-For-Service model only. Conclusions Primary care service measures did not differ significantly across socio-economic status or primary care delivery models. In Ontario, capitation-based remuneration is age and sex adjusted only. Patients of low socio-economic status had fewer additional visits compared to those with high socio-economic status under the Capitation model. This raises the concern that Capitation may not support the provision of additional care for more vulnerable groups. Regions undertaking primary care model reforms need to consider the potential impact of the changes on the more vulnerable populations.

2013-01-01

72

The Relationship between Teachers' Collective Efficacy and Student Achievement at Economically Disadvantaged Middle School Campuses in Texas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the collective efficacy of teachers and student achievement at economically disadvantaged middle school campuses. Schools of today are expected to show continuous improvement in student achievement from year to year, regardless of the students' family background, ethnicity, or…

Sandoval, Juan Manuel

2010-01-01

73

Ethnic Group, Sex and Economic Disadvantage: associations with pupils’ educational progress from Baseline to the end of Key Stage 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very few studies have explored the associations between ethnic group, sex, economic disadvantage and school attended on pupils’ progress during their earliest years at school (age 4?7). The present study reports an analysis of the educational progress made by over 5000 pupils between Baseline assessment at age 4 and national end of Key Stage 1 (KS1) tests at age 7.

Steve Strand

1999-01-01

74

Ethnic Group, Sex and Economic Disadvantage: Associations with Pupils' Educational Progress from Baseline to the End of Key Stage 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the educational progress made by students between Baseline assessment at age 4 and national end of Key Stage 1 tests at age 7. Focuses on the effects background factors have on students' progress, the interactions between ethnic group, sex, and economic disadvantage on progress, and evidence of school effectiveness. Discusses the…

Strand, Steve

1999-01-01

75

Risk factors for low birth weight in a socio-economically disadvantaged population: Parity, marital status, ethnicity and cigarette smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low birth weight (LBW) is a public health problem, because it is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The principal aim of this study was to assess risk factors for LBW in a large multi-ethnic and socio-economically disadvantaged population. Data from 3242 mothers, who attended the Well Baby Clinic (Southwestern Sydney, Australia) for the first time, were analysed

H. Phung; A. Bauman; T. V. Nguyen; L. Young; M. Tran; K. Hillman

2003-01-01

76

Growing up as "Man of the House": Adultification and Transition into Adulthood for Young Men in Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field…

Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

2014-01-01

77

Contextual Risk, Maternal Negative Emotionality, and the Negative Emotion Dysregulation of Preschool Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: This study examined relations between contextual risk, maternal negative emotionality, and preschool teacher reports of the negative emotion dysregulation of children from economically disadvantaged families. Contextual risk was represented by cumulative indexes of family and neighborhood adversity. The results showed a direct…

Brown, Eleanor D.; Ackerman, Brian P.

2011-01-01

78

Adherence to combined montelukast and fluticasone treatment in economically disadvantaged african american youth with asthma.  

PubMed

High rates of asthma treatment nonadherence have been reported, particularly in economically disadvantaged African American youth. The relationship between adherence to combined medication treatment and asthma outcomes has potential clinical significance but is not well understood. Using electronic monitoring, we describe the pattern of adherence to daily corticosteroid (fluticasone) and leukotriene receptor antagonist (montelukast) medication over the course of 1 year in a population of African American youth with moderate to severe asthma. On average, adherence to montelukast was higher than adherence to fluticasone (p < 0.01); however, for both medications, adherence rates significantly declined over the course of the study. After 1 year, participants took only 31% of prescribed doses of montelukast and 23% of prescribed doses of fluticasone. The decline in adherence to both fluticasone (p < 0.05) and montelukast (p < 0.001) was related to increased healthcare utilization. Furthermore, asthma symptom ratings were related montelukast (p < 0.001), but not fluticasone adherence. These results suggest that adherence promotion intervention strategies are warranted to improve health-related outcomes in families who are at-risk for treatment nonadherence. PMID:19905919

McNally, Kelly A; Rohan, Jennifer; Schluchter, Mark; Riekert, Kristin A; Vavrek, Pamela; Schmidt, Amy; Redline, Susan; Kercsmar, Carolyn; Drotar, Dennis

2009-11-01

79

Jobs and Economic Security for America's Women.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since his first day in office, President Obama has worked to lay the foundation for economic growth that creates good jobs and incomes for all Americans. Many of these policies have been particularly important for women. These policies have helped stave o...

2010-01-01

80

Learning when School is Not in Session: A Reading Summer Day-Camp Intervention to Improve the Achievement of Exiting First-Grade Students Who are Economically Disadvantaged  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the summer vacation children who are economically disadvantaged experience declines in reading achievement, while middle- and high-income children improve. Previous research has demonstrated that the most widely implemented intervention -- sending economically disadvantaged students to summer school -- has not led to increases in reading…

Schacter, John; Jo, Booil

2005-01-01

81

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Social disadvantage must stem from circumstances beyond...recipients will consider education, employment and business...the business world. (1) Education. Recipients will consider...access to institutions of higher education and vocational...

2010-10-01

82

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Social disadvantage must stem from circumstances beyond...recipients will consider education, employment and business...the business world. (1) Education. Recipients will consider...access to institutions of higher education and vocational...

2009-10-01

83

Thinking about one's gender group's privileges or disadvantages: consequences for well-being in women and men.  

PubMed

Thoughts about group-based privileges or disadvantages were expected to have different consequences for personal and group well-being, depending on whether the individual is a member of a high- or low-status group. To test this hypothesis, women and men were randomly assigned to consider the ways that their gender group membership has resulted in either beneficial or detrimental outcomes in their lives. For men, thinking about their gender group's privileges resulted in lower scores on the group-related well-being measures compared to women, and thinking about their group's disadvantages resulted in higher personal self-esteem scores in men compared to women. It is suggested that among high-status group members, thinking about privilege can evoke guilt and taint one's group image, whereas thinking about disadvantage can augment personal internal attributions for the positive outcomes received. Discussion focuses on the implications that the operation of two types of mechanisms--group-based emotions and the undermining or augmenting of attributions--has for the responses of high- and low-status group members when their groups are portrayed as exerting either negative or positive effects on their lives. PMID:9639862

Branscombe, N R

1998-06-01

84

Growing up as "man of the house": adultification and transition into adulthood for young men in economically disadvantaged families.  

PubMed

Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field work and life-history interviews with low-income, young African American men and Salvadoran men in the Washington, DC/Baltimore region to illustrate how adultification may deliver contradictory expectations for adolescents. The findings also show how the accelerated responsibilities that accompany the experience of adultification create difficulties in the young men's transition into adulthood. These findings indicate that the age period of emerging adulthood may begin earlier for economically disadvantaged young men. PMID:24677648

Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

2014-03-01

85

Economic Integration of Women in the Development Process of Burandi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews the status of women in Burundi, with particular focus on rural women, and proposes a three-point strategy to incorporate women into the economic development process. The strategy involves: (1) legislative reform, including liberalizing ...

M. Fikry M. Ward

1992-01-01

86

Biopolitical management, economic calculation and "trafficked women".  

PubMed

Narratives surrounding human trafficking, especially trafficking in women for sex work, employ gendered and racialized tropes that have among their effects, a shrouding of women's economic decision-making and state collusion in benefiting from their labour. This paper explores the operation of these narratives in order to understand the ways in which they mask the economics of trafficking by sensationalizing the sexual and criminal aspects of it, which in turn allows the state to pursue political projects under the guise of a benevolent concern for trafficked women and/or protection of its own citizens. This paper will explore one national example: Article 18 of Italian Law 40 (1998). I argue that its passage has led to an increase in cooperation with criminal prosecution of traffickers largely because it approaches trafficked women as capable of making decisions about how and what they themselves want to do. This paper will also consider a more global approach to trafficking embedded in the concept of "migration management", an International Organization for Migration (IOM) framework that is now shaping EU, US and other national immigration laws and policies that impact trafficking. It will also examine the inherent limitations of both the national and global approach as an occasion to unpack how Article 18 and Migration Management function as forms of biopolitical management that participate in the production of "trafficking victims" into a massified population to be managed, rather than engender a more engaged discussion of what constitutes trafficking and how to redress it. PMID:20645471

Berman, Jacqueline

2010-01-01

87

Perceived barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from disadvantaged neighborhoods: results from a focus groups assessment.  

PubMed

This study explored perceptions and experiences with barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from predominately African American, disadvantaged neighborhoods. Four focus groups (n = 28) were conducted between April and May 2008 with overweight or obese women (93% African American; 34.3 ± 8.9 years; body mass index [BMI] 40.4 ± 8.5). Individual, social, and environmental factors were frequently mentioned as barriers to exercise and healthy eating. Insults from strangers about their body size (e.g., from children or people at the gym), and feelings of intimidation and embarrassment about not being able to complete exercises due to their body size were described as barriers to exercise. Lack of support and pressure from family, friends, and co-workers were barriers to healthy eating; participants experienced pressure from family and friends to eat more and were told they did not need to lose weight. Participants discussed the importance of not losing their curves; this concern needs to be considered when developing weight control programs for African American women. The findings of this qualitative study guided the development of a weight loss intervention for women from disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:24617795

Baruth, Meghan; Sharpe, Patricia A; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Wilcox, Sara

2014-01-01

88

Treatment Effects of a Relationship-Strengthening Intervention for Economically Disadvantaged New Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the treatment effects of a relationship skills and family strengthening intervention for n = 726 high-risk, disadvantaged new parents. Method: Hierarchical linear modeling and regression models were used to assess intervention treatment effects. These findings were subsequently verified…

Charles, Pajarita; Jones, Anne; Guo, Shenyang

2014-01-01

89

Adverse Birth Outcomes in African American Women: The Social Context of Persistent Reproductive Disadvantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

African Americans have the highest rates of infant mortality and adverse birth outcomes of all major racial\\/ethnic groups in the United States. The long-standing nature of this disparity suggests the need to shift epidemiologic focus from individual-level risk factors to the larger social forces that shape disease risk in populations. In this article, the African American reproductive disadvantage is discussed

Tyan Parker Dominguez

2010-01-01

90

Socioeconomic Disadvantage, Parenting Responsibility, and Women's Smoking in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We carried out analyses of smoking in relation to poverty and child care responsibility among women aged 18-54 years residing in the United States. Methods. With data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we assessed the interaction effects of poverty and living with young children on maternal smoking behavior among 61 700 women aged 18-54 years in 4

Hee-Jin Jun; S. V. Subramanian; Steven Gortmaker; Ichiro Kawachi

2004-01-01

91

Same landscape, different lens: variations in young people's socio-economic experiences and perceptions in their disadvantaged working-class community  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I compare socio-economic experiences and community perceptions expressed by socially and economically disadvantaged young people with those of university students living in the same post-industrial community. I consider markers of distinction among these young people in relation to their family and educational experiences. I also critique overlaps in their perceptions of their community with specific focus on

Mary Tanya Brann-Barrett

2011-01-01

92

Identifying solutions to increase participation in physical activity interventions within a socio-economically disadvantaged community: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background There is an urgent need to increase population levels of physical activity, particularly amongst those who are socio-economically disadvantaged. Multiple factors influence physical activity behaviour but the generalisability of current evidence to such ‘hard-to-reach’ population subgroups is limited by difficulties in recruiting them into studies. Also, rigorous qualitative studies of lay perceptions and perceptions of community leaders about public health efforts to increase physical activity are sparse. We sought to explore, within a socio-economically disadvantaged community, residents’ and community leaders’ perceptions of physical activity (PA) interventions and issues regarding their implementation, in order to improve understanding of needs, expectations, and social/environmental factors relevant to future interventions. Methods Within an ongoing regeneration project (Connswater Community Greenway), in a socio-economically disadvantaged community in Belfast, we collaborated with a Community Development Agency to purposively sample leaders from public- and voluntary-sector community groups and residents. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 leaders. Residents (n?=?113), of both genders and a range of ages (14 to 86 years) participated in focus groups (n?=?14) in local facilities. Interviews and focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic framework. Results Three main themes were identified: awareness of PA interventions; factors contributing to intervention effectiveness; and barriers to participation in PA interventions. Participants reported awareness only of interventions in which they were involved directly, highlighting a need for better communications, both inter- and intra-sectoral, and with residents. Meaningful engagement of residents in planning/organisation, tailoring to local context, supporting volunteers, providing relevant resources and an ‘exit strategy’ were perceived as important factors related to intervention effectiveness. Negative attitudes such as apathy, disappointing experiences, information with no perceived personal relevance and limited access to facilities were barriers to people participating in interventions. Conclusions These findings illustrate the complexity of influences on a community’s participation in PA interventions and support a social-ecological approach to promoting PA. They highlight the need for cross-sector working, effective information exchange, involving residents in bottom-up planning and providing adequate financial and social support. An in-depth understanding of a target population’s perspectives is of key importance in translating PA behaviour change theories into practice.

2014-01-01

93

Influence of Schools on Economically Disadvantageous Attitudes: A Solomon Islands Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the economically detrimental attitude of regionalism in a Solomon Islands secondary school and measures changes in regionalism with exposure to school experience that stressed regional integration. Significant decreases in regionalism were recorded. (Available from Plenum Publishing Corporation, 227 West 17 Street, New York, NY…

MacBeth, Alastair M.

1976-01-01

94

Equitable Learning Outcomes: Supporting Economically and Culturally Disadvantaged Students in "Formative Learning Environments"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central and distinguishing thesis of social and cultural perspectives on outcome equity is that public school classrooms are culturally biased environments. Such environments disaffect children who arrive at school from the economic or cultural margin. The "formative learning environment" (FoLE) establishes and sustains legitimate…

Clark, Ian

2014-01-01

95

Meeting the Needs of Educationally Disadvantaged Women: A Program for Re-Entry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to assess the needs of women at Fresno City College (FCC), a questionnaire was distributed to 133 female day students during regular class sessions. Results showed that: (1) 87.2 percent were 18-24 years old; (2) 57.2 percent were White; (3) 77.8 percent were single; (4) over 60 percent needed information on careers, graduation…

Richards, Lillian S.

96

"Planned" Teenage Pregnancy: Perspectives of Young Women from Disadvantaged Backgrounds in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reduction of teenage pregnancy has attracted much interest in research, practice and social policy. Little is known about teenagers who report their pregnancies as "planned." Forty-one in-depth interviews were undertaken, in six different parts of England, among young women who reported their pregnancy as "planned". The mean age at conception…

Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

2006-01-01

97

The Disadvantaged Majority: Science Education for Women. AETS Outstanding Paper for 1983.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although women comprise the majority of the population, fewer than 9 percent are employed as scientists and engineers. Research indicates that girls have poorer attitudes toward science, enroll less often in science courses, demonstrate lower achievement levels in science, and have fewer experiences with science materials or instruments. Among the…

Kahle, Jane Butler

98

Cortisol and Anti-social Behavior in Early Adolescence: The Role of Gender in an Economically Disadvantaged Sample  

PubMed Central

This study examines the relation between adolescents’ anti-social behaviors and adrenocortical activity during a laboratory visit in a sample of economically disadvantaged families (N = 116, ages 12 – 14, 51% female). Pre-task cortisol levels indexed adolescents’ pre-challenge response to the lab visit, while adolescents’ response to a conflict discussion with their caregivers was indexed with residualized change in pre- to post- conflict cortisol levels. A trait measure of anti-social behavior (derived from parent, teacher, and self-reports) was associated with lower pre-task cortisol levels but greater cortisol response to the conflict discussion. Gender moderated anti-social adolescents’ cortisol response to the conflict discussion with girls who reported more covert risky problem behaviors showing an increased cortisol response. The findings suggest that, while anti-social adolescents had lower pre-task cortisol levels, conflict discussions with caregivers present a unique challenge to anti-social girls compared with anti-social boys.

Kobak, Roger; Zajac, Kristyn; Levine, Seymour

2014-01-01

99

Types of cultural capital and self-rated health among disadvantaged women in outer Beirut, Lebanon  

PubMed Central

Aims Our study extends research on the social determinants of health by exploring the association between a new, potentially very significant dimension, cultural capital by type and self-rated health among low-income women living in outer Beirut, Lebanon. Methods Self-rated general health was assessed using household data from a cross-sectional survey of 1869 women, conducted in 2003. Three types of cultural capital were included: watching cultural TV programs, producing art (e.g., drawing, theatre performance) and consuming art or literature (e.g., attending exhibits, reading literary books). Associations between self-rated health status and types of cultural capital were assessed using odds ratios from binary logistic regression models. Results With the exception of art production, lack of cultural capital increased the odds of self-perceived poor health status adjusting for socio-demographics and other risk factors. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.86 (95% CI: 1.07 to 3.22) for watching cultural TV programs and 1.52 (95% CI: 1.12 to 2.06) for consuming art. As expected, health risk factors, age, social support and community of residence were also associated with health status. Conclusions Two types of cultural capital were strong predictors of self perceived health status among women living in poor urban communities, regardless of social capital, income and other relevant risk factors.

Khawaja, Marwan; Mowafi, Mona

2007-01-01

100

The economic impact of infertility on women in developing countries - a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background: It is the responsibility of health systems to provide quality health care and to protect consumers against impoverishing health costs. In the case of infertility in developing countries, quality care is often lacking and treatment costs are usually covered by patients. Additional financial hardship may be caused by various social consequences. The economic implications of infertility and its treatment have not been systematically explored. Methods: A systematic MEDLINE search was conducted to identify English language publications providing original data from developing countries on out-of-pocket payment (OoPP) for infertility treatment and on other economic consequences of involuntary childlessness. Findings: Twenty one publications were included in this review. Information on OoPP was scant but suggests that infertility treatment is associated with a significant risk of catastrophic expenditure, even for basic or ineffective interventions. Other economic disadvantages, which may be profound, are caused by loss of access to child labour and support, divorce, as well as customary laws or negative attitudes which discriminate against infertile individuals. Women in particular are affected. Conclusion: Pertinent data on OoPP and other economic disadvantages of infertility in developing countries are limited. According to the evidence available, infertility may cause impoverishing health costs as well as economic instability or deprivation secondary to social consequences. Health systems in developing countries do not appear to meet their responsibilities vis-à-vis infertile patients.

Dyer, S. J.; Patel, M.

2012-01-01

101

Beyond income: Material resources among drug users in economically-disadvantaged New York City neighborhoods  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about material resources among drug users beyond income. Income measures can be insensitive to variation among the poor, do not account for variation in cost-of-living, and are subject to non-response bias and underreporting. Further, most do not include illegal income sources that may be relevant to drug-using populations. Methods We explored the reliability and validity of an 18-item material resource scale and describe correlates of adequate resources among 1593 current, former and non-drug users recruited in New York City. Reliability was determined using coefficient ?, ?h, and factor analysis. Criterion validity was explored by comparing item and mean scores by income and income source using ANOVA; content validity analyses compared scores by drug use. Multiple linear regression was used to describe correlates of adequate resources. Results The coefficient ? and ?h for the overall scale were 0.91 and 0.68, respectively, suggesting reliability was at least adequate. Legal income >$5000 (vs. ? $5000) and formal (vs. informal) income sources were associated with more resources, supporting criterion validity. We observed decreasing resources with increasing drug use severity, supporting construct validity. Three factors were identified: basic needs, economic resources and services. Many did not have their basic needs met and few had adequate economic resources. Correlates of adequate material resources included race/ethnicity, income, income source, and homelessness. Conclusions The 18-item material resource scale demonstrated reliability and validity among drug users. These data provide a different view of poverty, one that details specific challenges faced by low-income communities.

Ompad, Danielle C.; Nandi, Vijay; Cerda, Magdalena; Crawford, Natalie; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

2011-01-01

102

Perceived need for substance use treatment among young women from disadvantaged communities in Cape Town, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Initiation of treatment for substance use disorders is low among young women from disadvantaged communities in Cape Town, South Africa. Yet little is known about the factors that influence perceived need for treatment (a determinant of treatment entry) within this population. Methods Baseline data on 720 young, drug-using women, collected as part of a randomized field experiment were analyzed to identify predisposing, enabling and health need factors associated with perceived need for treatment. Results Overall, 46.0% of our sample perceived a need for treatment. Of these participants, 92.4% wanted treatment for their substance use problems but only 50.1% knew where to access services. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, we found significant main effects for ethnicity (AOR?=?1.54, 95% CI?=?1.05-1.65), income (AOR?=?0.96, 95% CI?=?0.93-0.99), anxiety (AOR?=?1.22, 95% CI?=?1.05-1.45), and not having family members with drug problems (AOR?=?1.45, 95% CI?=?1.05-2.04) on perceived need for treatment. When the sample was stratified by methamphetamine use, income (AOR?=?0.87, 95% CI?=?0.79-0.96), awareness of treatment services (AOR =1.84, 95% CI?=?1.03-3.27), anxiety (AOR =1.41, 95% CI?=?1.06-1.87) and physical health status (AOR?=?6.29, 95% CI?=?1.56-25.64) were significantly associated with perceived need for treatment among those who were methamphetamine-negative. No variables were significantly associated with perceived need for treatment among participants who were methamphetamine-positive. Conclusions A sizeable proportion of young women who could benefit from substance use treatment do not believe they need treatment, highlighting the need for interventions that enhance perceived need for treatment in this population. Findings also show that interventions that link women who perceive a need for treatment to service providers are needed. Such interventions should address barriers that limit young women’s use of services for substance use disorders.

2014-01-01

103

Time trends in socio-economic inequalities for women and men with disabilities in Australia: evidence of persisting inequalities  

PubMed Central

Introduction The socio-economic circumstances and health of people with disabilities has been relatively ignored in public health research, policy and practice in Australia and internationally. This is despite emerging evidence that the socio-economic circumstances that people with disabilities live in contributes to their poorer health. Compared to other developed countries, Australians with disabilities are more likely to live in disadvantaged circumstances, despite being an economically prosperous country; it is therefore likely that the socio-economic disadvantage experienced by Australians with disabilities makes a significant contribution to their health. Despite the importance of this issue Australia does not routinely monitor the socio-economic inequalities for people with disabilities. This paper addresses this gap by describing time trends in socio-economic conditions for Australians with and without disabilities according to the severity of the disability and sex. Methods Cross-sectional analyses of the Australian Bureau of Statistics Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers were carried out at three time points (1998, 2003 and 2009) to estimate the proportions of women and men (aged between 25 and 64 years) who were living on low incomes, had not completed year 12, were not in paid work, living in private rental and experiencing multiple disadvantage (three or more of the indicators). Results People with disabilities are less likely to have completed year 12, be in paid work and are more likely to be living on low incomes and experiencing multiple disadvantage. These conditions worsened with increasing severity of disability and increased or persisted over time, with most of the increase between 1998 and 2003. While women with milder disabilities tended to fare worse than men, the proportions were similar for those with moderate and severe/profound disabilities. Conclusion People with disabilities experience high levels of socio-economic disadvantage which has increased or persisted over time and these are likely to translate into poorer health outcomes. A large proportion experience multiple forms of disadvantage, reinforcing the need to tackle disadvantage in a coordinated way across sectors. People with disabilities should be a priority population group for public health. Monitoring socio-economic conditions of people with disabilities is critical for informing policy and assessing the impact of disability reforms.

2013-01-01

104

Individual, social and environmental factors influencing physical activity levels and behaviours of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged urban mothers in Canada: A mixed methods approach  

PubMed Central

Background Existing data provide little insight into the physical activity context of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged mothers in Canada. Our primary objectives were: (1) to use focus group methodology to develop tools to identify the individual, social, and environmental factors influencing utilitarian and leisure time physical activities (LTPA) of multiethnic SED mothers; and (2) to use a women specific physical activity survey tool to assess psychosocial barriers and supports and to quantify individual physical activity (PA) levels of multi-ethnic SED mothers in Canada. Methods Qualitative focus group sessions were conducted in West, Central and Eastern Canada with multiethnic SED mothers (n?=?6 focus groups; n?=?42 SED mothers) and with health and recreation professionals (HRPs) (n?=?5 focus groups; n?=?25 HRPs) involved in community PA programming for multiethnic SED mothers. Administration of the women specific Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) tool was completed by consenting SED mothers (n?=?59). Results More than half of SED mothers were employed and had higher total PA scores with occupation included than unemployed mothers. However, nearly 60% of both groups were overweight or obese. Barriers to LTPA included the lack of available, affordable and accessible LTPA programs that responded to cultural and social needs. Concerns for safety, nonsupportive cultural and social norms and the winter climate were identified as key barriers to both utilitarian and LTPA. Conclusions Findings show that multiethnic SED mothers experience many barriers to utilitarian and LTPA opportunities within their communities. The varying LTPA levels among these multi-ethnic SED mothers and the occurrence of overweight and obesity suggests that current LTPA programs are likely insufficient to maintain healthy body weights.

2012-01-01

105

The Healthy Toddlers Trial Protocol: An Intervention to Reduce Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity in Economically and Educationally Disadvantaged Populations  

PubMed Central

Background The number of overweight children in America has doubled to an estimated 10 million in the past 20 years. Establishing healthy dietary behaviors must begin early in childhood and include parents. The Healthy Toddlers intervention focuses on promoting healthy eating habits in 1- to 3-year-old children utilizing the Social Cognitive Theory and a learner-centered approach using Adult Learning principles. This Healthy Toddlers Trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial of an in-home intervention with economically and educationally disadvantaged mothers of toddlers. The intervention focuses on: (a) promoting healthy eating behaviors in toddlers while dietary habits are forming; and (b) providing initial evidence for the potential of Healthy Toddlers as a feasible intervention within existing community-based programs. Methods/Design This describes the study protocol for a randomized control trial, a multi-state project in Colorado, Michigan, and Wisconsin with economically and educationally disadvantaged mother-toddler dyads; toddlers are between 12 and 36 months. The Healthy Toddlers intervention consists of eight in-home lessons and four reinforcement telephone contacts, focusing on fruit, vegetable, and sweetened beverage consumption and parental behaviors, taught by paraprofessional instructors. Healthy Toddlers uses a randomized, experimental, short-term longitudinal design with intervention and control groups. In-home data collection (anthropometric measurements, feeding observations, questionnaires, 3-day dietary records) occurs at baseline, immediately following the intervention, and 6 months after the intervention. Main toddler outcomes include: a) increased fruit and vegetable consumption and decreased sweetened beverage consumption; and b) improved toddler-eating skills (self-feeding and self-serving). Main parent outcomes include: a) improved psychosocial attributes (knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, feeding style) related to child feeding; b) provision of a more positive mealtime physical environment (turning off the TV); and c) creation of a more positive mealtime social environment (sitting down together for meals). Discussion If this project is successful, the expected outcomes are that the intervention will be effective in helping toddlers develop healthy eating skills that contribute to improve overall health and development and to the prevention of obesity. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ACTRN12610000981022

2011-01-01

106

Rethinking the Curriculum To Meet the Needs of Underprepared, Underrepresented, and Economically Disadvantaged Students: Majors and Courses for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attracting and assuring the success of students of color requires the rethinking of curricula to meet the needs of underrepresented, underprepared, and economically disadvantaged students. General education offerings should be restructured to give students the skills and resources needed to make sense out of their particular gender and ethnicity,…

Glock, Nancy Clover

107

Three-year change in diet quality and associated changes in BMI among schoolchildren living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.  

PubMed

Findings from research that has assessed the influence of dietary factors on child obesity have been equivocal. In the present study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that a positive change in diet quality is associated with favourable changes in BMI z-scores (zBMI) in schoolchildren from low socio-economic backgrounds and to examine whether this effect is modified by BMI category at baseline. The present study utilised data from a subsample (n 216) of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, a longitudinal cohort study with data collected in 2007-8 (T1) and 2010-11 (T2) in socio-economically disadvantaged women and children (5-12 years at T1). Dietary data were collected using a FFQ and diet quality index (DQI) scores derived at both time points. The objective measures of weight, height and physical activity (accelerometers) were included. The other variables were reported in the questionnaires. We examined the association between change in DQI and change in zBMI, using linear regression analyses adjusted for physical activity, screen sedentary behaviour and maternal education level both in the whole sample and in the sample stratified by overweight status at baseline. After accounting for potential covariates, change in diet quality was found to be inversely associated with change in zBMI only in children who were overweight at baseline (P= 0·035), thus supporting the hypothesis that improvement in diet quality is associated with a concurrent improvement in zBMI among already overweight children, but not among those with a normal BMI status. The identification of modifiable behaviours such as diet quality that affect zBMI longitudinally is valuable to inform future weight gain prevention interventions in vulnerable groups. PMID:24775601

Lioret, Sandrine; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cameron, Adrian J; Crawford, David; Campbell, Karen J; Cleland, Verity J; Ball, Kylie

2014-07-01

108

Women's Education for Economic Development in Cross Section of Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International organizations and researchers in the field of education and development have emphasized the importance of women's education for the social and economic development of Third World countries. However, women's educational levels are lower than men's in most countries throughout the world. This paper presents findings of a study that…

Kuroda, Kazuo

109

Women, Insurance Capital, and Economic Development in Rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, longitudinal data from a national probability sample of rural households in India are used to assess how the traditional migration of women across households via marriage, by contributing to consumption smoothing, augments the returns to women as human capital and how these returns are affected by economic development propelled by agricultural technical progress. The estimates confirm earlier

Mark R. Rosenzweig

1993-01-01

110

Validity and Reliability of a Dietary Stages of Change Measure Among Economically Disadvantaged African-American Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the construct validity and 2-month test-retest reliability of a staging measure for assessing readiness to consume five or more daily servings of fruits and vegetables among economically disadvantaged African-American adolescents. Design Longitudinal survey. Setting Youth services agencies serving low-income communities in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Subjects African-American adolescents (N = 390) aged 11 to 14 years. Measures Self-report measures of stage of change and fruit and vegetable consumption. Analysis Correlation analysis and analysis of covariance were used to examine, cross-sectionally, whether fruit and vegetable consumption differed by stage of change (validity assessment). Correlation analysis and Cohen's kappa (?) were used to assess the degree of association and level of agreement between stages longitudinally (test-retest reliability assessment). Results Fruit and vegetable consumption was moderately correlated with stage of change (r ? .54, p = .000). Consistent with the transtheoretical model, youths’ consumption increased from earlier to later stages (p = .000). Forty-six percent of youths were in the same stage at both measurements. The correlation between stages was .26, and Cohen's ? was .20 (p = .000). Conclusions Despite preliminary evidence of construct validity, the low test-retest reliability found suggests that further research and testing are needed to improve the stability of the measure.

Di Noia, Jennifer; Mauriello, Leanne; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Thompson, Debbe

2013-01-01

111

Differences in individual empowerment outcomes of socially disadvantaged women: effects of mode of participation and structural changes in a physical activity promotion program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  This study explored the differences in individual empowerment outcomes of a group of socially disadvantaged women participating\\u000a in physical activity promotion. The outcomes observed were assessed in the context of the women’s mode of participation and\\u000a the structural organizational and community level changes, which took place during the implementation of the program.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Fifteen semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted and analyzed

Ulrike Röger; Alfred Rütten; Annika Frahsa; Karim Abu-Omar; Antony Morgan

112

DO WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS EFFECT ECONOMIC GROWTH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practitioners, researchers, and policy makers have recognized the potential for national economic prosperity and economic development through the impact of entrepreneurial activity. Large amounts of money are spent on a range of initiatives designed to stimulate employment and innovative production. Many organizations and government institutions have long recognized the importance of women in the process of increased development in both

Amanda Bullough

2006-01-01

113

Electronic Monitoring of Oral Therapies in Ethnically Diverse and Economically Disadvantaged Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Consequences of Low Adherence  

PubMed Central

Background To quantify adherence to oral therapies in ethnically diverse and economically disadvantaged patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using electronic medication monitoring, and to evaluate the clinical consequences of low adherence. Methods 107 patients with RA enrolled in a 2-year prospective cohort study agreed to have their oral RA drug therapy intake electronically monitored, with the Medication Events Monitoring System (MEMS®). Adherence to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and prednisone were determined as the percentage of days (or weeks for methotrexate) in which the patient took the correct dose as prescribed by the physician. Patient outcomes were assessed including the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ), the Disease Activity Index 28 (DAS28), quality of life and radiological damage using Sharp-van der Heijde scores. Results Adherence to the treatment regimen as determined by percent of correct doses was 64% for DMARDs and 70% for prednisone. Patients who had better mental health were statistically more likely to be adherent. Only 23 (21%) of the patients had an average adherence to DMARDs ? 80%. These patients showed significantly better disease activity scores across 2 years of follow-up than those who were less adherent (DAS28 3.3±1.3 vs. 4.1±1.2, p<0.02). Radiological scores were also worse in non-adherent patients at baseline and 12 months. Conclusions Only one fifth of the RA patients had an overall adherence of at least 80%. Less than two thirds of the prescribed DMARD doses were correctly taken. Adherent patients had lower disease activity and radiological damage scores across the 2 years of follow-up.

Waimann, Christian A.; Marengo, Maria F.; de Achaval, Sofia; Cox, Vanessa L.; Garcia-Gonzalez, Araceli; Reveille, John D.; Richardson, Marsha N.; Almazor, Maria E. Suarez

2013-01-01

114

Return to work, economic hardship, and women's postpartum health.  

PubMed

This study followed a sample of 217 new mothers in a North Carolina county as they returned to work full-time, measuring their mental and physical health-related quality of life through 16 months postpartum. In general, working mothers of infants had mental health scores that were comparable to the general population of U.S. women, and physical health that was slightly better than women in general. Using ANCOVA and controlling for important demographic characteristics, health-related quality of life was compared between mothers experiencing low and high levels of economic hardship. Across the study period, women with high economic hardship, who constituted 30.7% of the sample, had levels of mental and physical health below those of women with low economic hardship. Mothers with high economic hardship also had less stable health trajectories than mothers with low economic hardship. The findings highlight the importance of reconsidering the traditionally accepted postpartum recovery period of six weeks and extending benefits, such as paid maternity and sick leave, as well as stable yet flexible work schedules. PMID:21104566

Tucker, Jenna N; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Leng, Iris; Clinch, C Randall; Arcury, Thomas A

2010-10-01

115

The Do-Well study: protocol for a randomised controlled trial, economic and qualitative process evaluations of domiciliary welfare rights advice for socio-economically disadvantaged older people recruited via primary health care  

PubMed Central

Background Older people in poor health are more likely to need extra money, aids and adaptations to allow them to remain independent and cope with ill health, yet in the UK many do not claim the welfare benefits to which they are entitled. Welfare rights advice interventions lead to greater welfare income, but have not been rigorously evaluated for health benefits. This study will evaluate the effects on health and well-being of a domiciliary welfare rights advice service provided by local government or voluntary organisations in North East England for independent living, socio-economically disadvantaged older people (aged ?60?yrs), recruited from general (primary care) practices. Methods/Design The study is a pragmatic, individually randomised, single blinded, wait-list controlled trial of welfare rights advice versus usual care, with embedded economic and qualitative process evaluations. The qualitative study will examine whether the intervention is delivered as intended; explore responses to the intervention and examine reasons for the trial findings; and explore the potential for translation of the intervention into routine policy and practice. The primary outcome is the effect on health-related quality of life, measured using the CASP 19 questionnaire. Volunteer men and women aged ?60?years (1/household) will be identified from general practice patient registers. Patients in nursing homes or hospitals at the time of recruitment will be excluded. General practice populations will be recruited from disadvantaged areas of North East England, including urban, rural and semi-rural areas, with no previous access to targeted welfare rights advice services delivered to primary care patients. A minimum of 750 participants will be randomised to intervention and control arms in a 1:1 ratio. Discussion Achieving a trial design that is both ethical and acceptable to potential participants, required methodological compromises. The choice of follow-up length required a trade-off between sufficient time to demonstrate health impact and the need to allow the control group access to the intervention as early as possible. The study will have implications for fundamental understanding of social inequalities and how to tackle them, and provides a model for similar evaluations of health-orientated social interventions. If the health benefits of this intervention are proven, targeted welfare rights advice services should be extended to ensure widespread provision for older people and other vulnerable groups. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN Number ISRCTN37380518

2012-01-01

116

Sex Ratios, Economic Power, and Women's Roles: A Theoretical Extension and Empirical Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested hypotheses concerning sex ratios, women's roles, and economic power with data from 111 countries. Found undersupply of women positively associated with proportion of women who marry and fertility rate; inversely associated with women's average age at marriage, literacy rate, and divorce rate. Suggests women's economic power may counteract…

South, Scott J.

1988-01-01

117

Women's Marginalization, Economic Flows, and Environmental Flows: A Classroom Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses environmental security, focusing on the meaning of "security." Defines the global economy as a process in which the security of groups is sought, maintained, or threatened. Illustrates connections among environmental security, the global economy, and abuse of women and children in less economically developed places, incorporating the…

O'Lear, Shannon

1999-01-01

118

Economic and Social Psychological Independence: Dilemmas for Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews three volumes which provide considerable material on the cultural, economic, psychological, and social factors which affect Black and White women and their families: "Common Differences: Conflicts in Black and White Feminist Perspectives" (Joseph and Lewis); "The Black Woman Cross-Culturally" (Steady); and "Household Composition and Racial…

Lindsay, Beverly

1985-01-01

119

INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO PREPARING HOME ECONOMICS LEADERS FOR EMERGING PROGRAMS SERVING DISADVANTAGED YOUTH AND ADULTS. FINAL REPORT, APPENDIX C.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SIXTY-FIVE SELECTIONS, IN NOTE OR OUTLINE FORM, FROM PRESENTATIONS BY CONSULTANTS AIDING IN PREPARING LEADERS FOR EMERGING PROGRAMS SERVING THE DISADVANTAGED ARE INCLUDED IN THIS APPENDIX. THE SUBJECT MATTER RANGES FROM SPECIFIC TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING SUCH SKILLS AS READING TO GENERAL INFORMATION SUCH AS BASIC UNDERSTANDINGS NECESSARY FOR…

GARRETT, PAULINE GILLETTE

120

Work in a World of High Technology: Problems and Prospects for Economically Disadvantaged Workers. State-of-the-Art Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to analyze the changing nature of work in today's economy and to investigate employment problems and mobility opportunities for disadvantaged workers. Principal dimensions of employment opportunities in the "old economy" of the 1950s and 1960s are highlighted, and the impact of the emergence of the "new economy" on the…

Noyelle, Thierry J.

121

Schools and Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three books reviewed in this essay all have a similar theme: the role that schools and other institutions can play in improving the life-chances of young people and breaking the cycle of socio-economic disadvantage and low educational attainment that is characteristic of school systems around the world. Through an evaluation of the Academies…

Smith, Emma

2011-01-01

122

Latinas and African American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…

Browne, Irene, Ed.

123

New Schools for the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines the types of schooling programs that will build on the strengths of educationally disadvantaged students to bring them into the educational mainstream as well as to prepare them for economic, political, and social participation. Without intervention on behalf of the disadvantaged, the following results may occur: (1) a dual…

Levin, Henry M.

124

Women's changing economic roles with pastoral sedentarization: Varying strategies in alternate Rendille communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trend of pastoral sedentarization in Africa presents new economic opportunities to women through the sale of dairy products, agricultural produce, and labor. This study of Rendille of northern Kenya shows a variety of economic strategies pursued by women in nomadic pastoral, settled agro-pastoral, and town communities. Results of household budgets and interviews with married women indicate that urban centers

Elliot Fratkin; Kevin Smith

1995-01-01

125

Engaging women volunteers of high socioeconomic status in supporting socioeconomically disadvantaged tuberculosis patients in Chiang Rai, Thailand  

PubMed Central

Problem The 2008 tuberculosis (TB) surveillance of Chiang Rai Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand reported that 8.4% of Thai, 22.7% of hill tribe minority and 25% of migrant patients (n = 736) defaulted from treatment. Context TB patient management in Chiang Rai is complicated due to poverty and HIV stigma. A previous study shows unaffordable travel expense was one of the reasons of patient default. Action We engaged Chiang Rai women’s organizations whose members are of high socioeconomic status to support poor TB patients financially and socially. A group of women formed a team to support these TB patients (n = 192) by raising and sustaining funds and providing home visits (n = 37). TB surveillance and patient-fund register data were used to evaluate TB treatment outcomes. Outcome The success of TB treatment was significantly higher for patients receiving financial support (relative risk [RR]: 1.351; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–1.53; P < 0.000). Lower death rates in all groups were observed among patients receiving financial support. However, financial assistance alone did not improve treatment outcomes for migrant patients. Thirty-seven patients (25 Thai, eight hill tribe, four migrants) who were visited by women volunteers at home achieved 95% TB treatment success. Discussion It is possible to involve volunteers to support poor TB patients. Willingness to support TB patients was driven by presenting provincial TB epidemiology information, research data on the experience of poor patients and the inspiring experiences of other women volunteers. Future research should investigate the reasons for the high treatment success among patients who received home visits.

Luangjina, Sarmwai; Nedsuwan, Supalert; Kantipong, Pacharee; Wongyai, Jirapohn; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu

2013-01-01

126

Pathways of disadvantage and smoking careers: evidence and policy implications  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate in older industrialised societies (a) how social disadvantage contributes to smoking risk among women (b) the role of social and economic policies in reducing disadvantage and moderating wider inequalities in life chances and living standards. Methods Review and analysis of (a) the effects of disadvantage in childhood and into adulthood on women's smoking status in early adulthood (b) policy impacts on the social exposures associated with high smoking risk. Main results (a) Smoking status—ever smoking, current smoking, heavy smoking, and cessation—is influenced not only by current circumstances but by longer term biographies of disadvantage (b) social and economic policies shape key social predictors of women's smoking status, including childhood circumstances, educational levels and adult circumstances, and moderate inequalities in the distribution of these dimensions of life chances and living standards. Together, the two sets of findings argue for a policy toolkit that acts on the distal determinants of smoking, with interventions targeting the conditions in which future and current smokers live. Conclusions An approach to tobacco control is advocated that combines changing smoking habits with reducing inequalities in the social trajectories in which they are embedded. Policies to level up opportunities and living standards across the lifecourse should be championed as part of an equity oriented approach to reducing the disease burden of cigarette smoking.

Graham, Hilary; Inskip, Hazel M; Francis, Brian; Harman, Juliet

2006-01-01

127

Comment Accroitre la Contribution des Femmes au Developpement Economique (Enhancing Women's Participation in Economic Development).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

International experience has proved that support for a stronger role for women in society contributes to economic growth through improved child survival rates, better family health, and reduced fertility rates. Nevertheless, women still face many barriers...

1995-01-01

128

Self-reported depression is increasing among socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents - repeated cross-sectional surveys from Finland from 2000 to 2011  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescent depression is more common in lower socio-economic groups. Whether this pattern has changed over time, is not known. We examined the prevalence of self-reported depression and its changes in socio-economic groups from 2000 to 2011 among Finnish adolescents. Methods Data were based on classroom surveys every second year from 2000–2001 to 2010–2011 using nationwide samples of 14–16-year old Finns (n?=?618,084). Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires including questions on health, health behaviours, and school experiences. Depression was measured with a Finnish modification of the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory, and divided into no, mild, moderate and severe depression. The association between depression and the social background (parents’ education and employment) over time was studied using a multinomial regression analysis. Results The prevalence of self-reported severe depression slightly increased from 2000–2001 to 2010–2011 in girls. In boys a slight increase was observed when adjusting for background variables. The differences in the prevalence of depression between the social background groups persisted over the entire study period. In both sexes, severe depression nearly doubled among those adolescents whose parents were unemployed and had a low education level; among boys, the prevalence was 6.5% in 2000–2001 and 12.8% in 2010–2011, and among girls 6.4% and 11.4% respectively. Conclusion The largest increases in prevalence of severe depression are seen among socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents. This suggests that inequalities in mental health may become an increasing concern.

2014-01-01

129

Women's Socio-Economic Development in India: The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jacobs (2000) and McLean (2000) affirm the need to expand boundaries of HRD to include multiple topics in a variety of contexts. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) provide possibilities and limitations for the socio-economic development of women in India. The roles of NGOs in serving the socio-economic needs of women provide a broader,…

Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

2004-01-01

130

An Examination of the First/Second-Grade Form of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance: Factor Structure and Stability by Grade and Gender across Groups of Economically Disadvantaged Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested the structure of the Pictorial Scale of Competence and Social Acceptance (PSPCSA) across groups of first and second grade children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. We used confirmatory factor analysis, including latent mean structures analysis, to test the fit of competing PSPCSA factor models and examined invariance across…

French, Brian F.; Mantzicopoulos, Panayota

2007-01-01

131

Self-Concept and the Disadvantaged  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study to empirically assess the relationship of economic disadvantage to self-concept utilized toe Miskimins Self-Goal-Other Discrepancy Scale (MSGO) with a sample of urban economically disadvantaged adults to evolve a multidimensional description of self-concept. Findings are related to counseling and vocational variables. A final section…

Miskimins, R. W.; Baker, B. R.

1973-01-01

132

The Conversation and Company of Educated Women. A Colloquy on Home Economics Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers in this publication are the result of a symposium assessing the role of home economics in women's education. In her paper entitled "The Human Sciences and Home Economics: An Emerging Conversation," Francine H. Hultgren questions the possibilities for home economics within the human sciences. "Hestian Hermeneutics: A Lens of Analysis for…

Peterat, Linda, Ed.

133

Economic Status of Women. Hearing before the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a transcript of a Congressional hearing on the economic status of women held by the Joint Economic Committee on February 3, 1982. Witnesses who testified at the hearing included Representatives Reuss, Richmond, Heckler, Wylie and Schroeder, Senators Jepsen and Kassenbaum, and a number of women active in women's equality programs.…

Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

134

48 CFR 52.219-29 - Notice of Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Program Repository means a secure, Web-based application that collects, stores... (1) It meets the applicable size standard corresponding to the NAICS code assigned...that contains provisionsâ (i) Setting forth the purpose of the joint...

2013-10-01

135

Merit Systems: Hiring the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared under authority of the Economic Opportunity Act, this New Careers manual deals largely with specific personnel functions in which manpower project directors and staff members can work closely with government officials--state and local as well as Federal--to alter public service merit system requirements as they affect disadvantaged

Wilson, Michael

136

Women City Leaders and Postmaterialist Values: Gender Differences in Economic Development Priorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate gender-associated differences in the attitudes of city leaders regarding local economic development priorities. In so doing, we test the thesis that the economic development priorities of women city leaders will reflect postmaterialist values; in other words, women city leaders will place more of an emphasis on quality-of-life issues than do men. We employ results of a survey of

James M. Vanderleeuw; Maria E. Sandovici; Christopher A. Jarmon

2011-01-01

137

Kenyan women in physics: Overcoming cultural, economic, and professional challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efforts to attract, retain, and improve the status of girls and women in Kenya to the sciences, in particular physics, are outlined. Areas in which positive change has been observed are noted. Issues that still need to be addressed to realize the full potential of women undertaking physics are discussed.

Baki, Paul; Kasina, Angeline; Nyamwandha, Cecilia; Kawira, Millien; Mburu, Jane; King'ori, Gladys; Kahonge, Teresia; Gichana, Zubeda

2013-03-01

138

The Nature of Work and Problems of Rural Women in Kenya: Implication for Home Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Home Economics is a profession which helps families and individuals to improve their quality of life. The majority of families in Kenya live and work in rural areas where facilities and resources are limited. Women provide 60-80% of the farm labor. Despite the hard working conditions, rural women have a major responsibility in promoting the…

Tumuti, Dinah W.

139

Women's Formal Education and Economic Growth: The Case of the Philippines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that the education of Philippine women pays off in the economic growth of the country. Previous research which examined women's contribution to national income in six countries indicated that levels of educational attainment and levels of per capita national income were positively or moderately associated in five of the…

Crawford, LouEllen; Sidener, Nancy L.

140

Somalia: An Assessment of SWDO (Somalia Women's Democratic Organization), and of the Social and Economic Status of Women in the Lower Shebelle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Somali Women's Democratic Organization (SWDO) asked USAID/Somalia to provide a team to initiate a project directed at improving its management capabilities and improving social and economic conditions of rural women in the Lower Shabelle Region of Som...

V. H. Delancey D. E. Lindsay A. Spring

1987-01-01

141

Ethics, equity, and economics: A primer on women in medicine.  

PubMed

Women account for more than 70% of physician assistant (PA) students, 62% of practicing PAs, and 57% of faculty in PA programs. About half of all US medical students, 30% of actively practicing physicians, and 37% of faculty at academic medical centers are female. However, women in medicine are paid less than men for equal work effort and achieve fewer leadership positions within academia and medicine. Neglecting the skills and talents of women may lead to a workforce that fails to represent our patient and student populations. PMID:24758976

Essary, Alison C; Coplan, Bettie

2014-05-01

142

LEARNING ABOUT WOMEN. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND THE ENVIRONMENT IN INDIA: A CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

On a recent semester-long stay in India, students from Xavier University (Cincinnati, Ohio) learned about a variety of social and economic development issues, with an emphasis on the role and status of women. This study describes and assesses the impact and effectiveness of their learning with a particular focus on their exposure to Meerut Seva Samaj (MSS), one economic development

NANCY BERTAUX; ELAINE CRABLE

2007-01-01

143

Understanding the social and economic contexts surrounding women engaged in street-level prostitution.  

PubMed

Prostitution involves the exchange of sexual services for economic compensation. Due to the sexual promiscuity surrounding prostitution, women involved in prostitution constitute a high-risk group for contracting and transmitting STDs, including HIV. Prostitution is not only a public health concern, but also an economic one. Cities throughout the United States spent an average of $7.5 to $16 million per year enforcing prostitution laws and addressing negative outcomes associated with prostitution. Thus, women involved in prostitution are a cause for concern from both public health and economic perspectives. However, little is known about why women remain in this type of behavior given the risks prostitution presents, and even less is known about how to intervene and interrupt the complex cycle of prostitution. Thus, the purpose of this study was to understand what factors contribute to a woman's decision to remain in prostitution. A series of interviews were conducted with 12 women engaged in street-level prostitution. Results of the study revealed that drug use not only spurs entry into prostitution, but also contributes to the tenure of prostitution. Further, social support and economic stability are plausible reasons for women remaining in prostitution. These findings lead us to recommendations for policy and program development. Women involved in prostitution are a highly marginalized population, rarely recognized as individuals with life histories. Understanding why women remain in prostitution is important, because until these determinants are known, intervention programs designed to interrupt the cycle, and ultimately prevent prostitution, cannot be formulated. PMID:21142598

Murphy, Lyn Stankiewicz

2010-12-01

144

Economic Empowerment of Women and Utilization of Maternal Delivery Care in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Objective: Maternal mortality is a major public health problem in low-income countries, such as Bangladesh. Women's empowerment in relation to enhanced utilization of delivery care is underexplored. This study investigates the associations between women's economic empowerment and their utilization of maternal health care services in Bangladesh. Methods: In total, 4925 women (15–49 years of age) with at least one child from whole Bangladesh constituted the study sample. Home delivery without skilled birth attendant and use of institutional delivery services were the main outcome variables used for the analyses. Economic empowerment, neighborhood socioeconomic status, household economic status, and demographic factors were considered as explanatory variables. The chi square test and unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses were applied at the collected data. Results: In the adjusted model, respondent's and husband's education, household economic status, and residency emerged as important predictors for utilization of delivery care services. In the unadjusted model, economically empowered working and microfinanced women displayed more home delivery. Conclusion: The current study shows that use of delivery care services is associated with socioeconomic development and can be enhanced by societies that focus on general issues such as schooling, economic wellbeing, and gender-based discrimination.

Dalal, Koustuv; Shabnam, Jahan; Andrews-Chavez, Johanna; Martensson, Lena B.; Timpka, Toomas

2012-01-01

145

Women's roundtable discussion on the economic, social and political impacts of the Southeast Asian financial crisis.  

PubMed

This article summarizes the main issues revealed at a women's roundtable discussion on the Economic, Social, and Political Impacts of the Southeast Asian Financial Crisis. The discussion was organized by the Development Alternatives of Women for the New Era (DAWN) and was held during April 12-14, 1998, in Manila, the Philippines. The aim was to explore the effects of the financial crisis and its management by states and multilateral agencies on women's political, economic, cultural, and social status; and to reach regional understanding of new issues for the women's movement in Asia and to identify areas of advocacy. Participants included women scholars and activists from Southeast, East, and South Asia; Africa; the Caribbean; Latin America; and the Pacific. Participants came from a wide variety of backgrounds. Nine issues were emphasized. For example, some predicted the currency devaluation before July 1997. The financial crisis is linked with globalization. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the primary institution for addressing the financial crisis. IMF conditions on inflation rates and budget surpluses are recessionary and government budget oriented. The crisis has exposed cronyism and corruption within capitalism. Patriarchal values have reemerged as Asian values. Women have lost jobs and income, while the cost of living continues to increase. Prostitution has become more acceptable as legitimate work. Women's human rights are not legally protected. State ideology assumes domestic and sex roles. Issues in each region are identified. 14 key issues pertain to all regions. PMID:12179933

Kelkar, G

1998-01-01

146

Does Female Disadvantage Mean Lower Access to Food?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on gender differentials in nutrition demonstrates that the calorie intake of females is generally as adequate as that of males at all ages. Female disadvantage in micronutrient intake is, however, frequent. Pregnant and lactating women are disadvantaged relative to both men and other women. In South Asia there is evidence that boys are advantaged over girls in food

Laurie F. DeRose; Maitreyi Das; Sara R. Millman

2000-01-01

147

A Quantitative and Qualitative Investigation of Variability and Contextual Sources Related to the Academic Engagement of Minority and Economically Disadvantaged Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research consistently has indicated that academic achievement outcomes for most minority students, and for students from economically impoverished backgrounds, are marginal as compared with the achievement of their Asian and Caucasian classmates and of individuals with higher socio-economic status (STS). Academic engagement has been linked to…

Schilling, Joan Carlin

2009-01-01

148

Family Equity at Issue: A Study of the Economic Consequences of Divorce on Women and Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implemented in the 1970s, Alaska's system of "no fault" divorce creates economic hardships for women and children instead of providing greater family equity. The study site selected was Anchorage because its demographic profile generally reflects the statewide profile, necessary court records are accessible and more than one-half of all Alaskan…

Baker, Barbara

149

Women's lung cancer mortality, socio-economic status and changing smoking patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality data from the OPCS Longitudinal Study were used to determine whether the conventional classification of married women by their husband's occupation under-estimates the extent of social differences in lung cancer among this group. Differences existed for social class measures but alternatives based on housing tenure and car access defined socio-economic differences wider than any other previously recorded for England

Helena Pugh; Christine Power; Peter Goldblatt; Sara Arber

1991-01-01

150

[Economic development and married women's employment in Taiwan: a study of female marginalization].  

PubMed

As in other developing countries, the industrial development in Taiwan seems to marginalize female workers. This study tries to examine the trend of women's employment status, using both macro- and micro-level data. The statistics suggest that female employment had significantly declined during the early stages of industrialization. Although rapid economic development has expanded women's job opportunities, most women are concentrated in lower-status jobs and the informal sector. Informal employment is especially prevalent among married women. In the micro-level analysis the study examines the factors that led to the marginalization of women's labor force. The empirical analysis applies a multinomial logistic model to a 1980 KAP (knowledge, attitude, and practice) survey sample of 3859 married women. The results suggest that married women's work patterns in terms of formal vs. informal employment are determined by the family organization rather than by labor market conditions. Wives from families with small businesses are more likely to be involved in informal employment. Wives also tend to work informally when they have young children. On the other hand, the effects of labor market conditions are mediated by the types of family economy. Therefore the women's informal employment in Taiwan, as a characteristic of female marginalization, is the result of the sexual division of labor in the family organization and the prevalence of the family business, rather than that of being excluded into the marginal forms of employment through the process of capitalistic production, as argued by the female marginalization theorists. PMID:12222451

Lu, Y

1994-07-01

151

Preventive intervention programs for disadvantaged children.  

PubMed

This paper describes a 6-year effort aimed at developing educational interventions for a group of economically disadvantaged children. The program provided an opportunity for psychologists and student paraprofessionals to join with personnel at urban health care facilities in responding to a serious identified community problem--disadvantaged youngsters, ages 1 and 2, who are vulnerable to later school and life difficulties. The intervention succeeded in enhancing academic skills among six groups of disadvantaged toddlers. As ongoing research results indicated the need for new program elements, the university personnel piloted innovations and the health centers gradually incorporated effective components into the existing program. PMID:729347

Jason, L A; De Amicis, L; Carter, B

1978-01-01

152

Food patterns during an economic crisis among pregnant women in Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted between 1996 and 1998. Six 24-hour recalls were performed during the second trimester of pregnancy among 450 women in Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia. The objectives of the study were to assess the food intake and food pattern among pregnant women before and during the economic crisis. Before the crisis, rich women had the highest intakes of animal foods, fats and oils, and sugar. Food intake among the urban poor and the rural landless poor subgroups was influenced by the emerging economic crisis. Although the price of rice increased, the intake of rice also increased among all subgroups. Rural poor women with access to rice fields increased their intake of rice and decreased their intake of nonrice staple foods (p < .05). There were significant decreases in the consumption of chicken by rich women and rural poor women with access to rice fields (p < .05). Rice was a strongly inferior good and remained an important supplier of energy, protein, and carbohydrate. Nuts and pulses were important suppliers of calcium and iron, and vegetables were an important supplier of vitamin A. Rich women increased their intake of nuts and pulses, vegetables, fats and oils, and sugar when their intake of rice increased (p < .05). The food patterns were based on rice, nuts and pulses, and vegetables, i.e., plant food. All but the rich women decreased their intake of nutritious foods such as meat, chicken, and fruits. The intake of nuts and pulses and of vegetables increased, whereas the intake of cooking oil and sugar remained constant. PMID:14564930

Hartini, Theresia Ninuk; Winkvist, Anna; Lindholm, Lars; Stenlund, Hans; Surjono, Achmad

2003-09-01

153

A randomized controlled trial to improve health among women receiving welfare in the U.S.: the relationship between employment outcomes and the economic recession  

PubMed Central

The high prevalence of health conditions among U.S. women receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF, or `welfare') impedes the ability of many in this group to move from `welfare-to-work', and the economic recession has likely exacerbated this problem. Despite this, few interventions have been developed to improve employment outcomes by addressing the health needs of women receiving TANF, and little is known about the impact of economic downturns on the employment trajectory of this group. Using data from a recent randomized controlled trial (RCT) that tested the efficacy of a public health nursing (PHN) intervention to address the chronic health condition needs of 432 American women receiving TANF, we examine the effect of the intervention and of recession exposure on employment. We further explore whether intervention effects were modified by select sociodemographic and health characteristics. Both marginal and more robust intervention effects were noted for employment-entry outcomes (any employment, p=0.05 and time-to-employment, p=0.01). There were significant effects for recession exposure on employment-entry (any employment, p=0.002 and time-to-employment, p<0.001). Neither the intervention nor recession exposure influenced longer-term employment outcomes (employment rate or maximum continuous employment). Intervention effects were not modified by age, education, prior TANF receipt, functional status, or recession exposure, suggesting the intervention was equally effective in improving employment-entry across a fairly heterogeneous group both before and after the recession onset. These findings advance our understanding of the health and employment dynamics among this group of disadvantaged women under variable macroeconomic conditions, and have implications for guiding health and TANF-related policy.

Kneipp, Shawn M.; Kairalla, John A.; Sheely, Amanda L.

2012-01-01

154

Monitoring in Disadvantaged Grids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In disadvantaged grids, communication resources are scarce and variable. Thus, it is important that middleware and applications are able to adapt to the available capacity. This means that knowledge of the networking environment the C2 software is operati...

F. T. Johnsen G. Salberg T. H. Bloebaum

2013-01-01

155

Economic Evaluations of Smoking Cessation and Relapse Prevention Programs for Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective Smoking cessation and relapse prevention during and after pregnancy reduces the risk of adverse maternal and infant health outcomes, but the economic evaluations of such programs have not been systematically reviewed. This study aims to critically assess economic evaluations of smoking cessation and relapse prevention programs for pregnant women. Methods All relevant English-language articles were identified using PubMed (January 1966–2003), the British National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, and reference lists of key articles. Economic evaluations of smoking cessation and relapse prevention among pregnant women were reviewed. Fifty-one articles were retrieved, and eight articles were included and evaluated. A single reviewer extracted methodological details, study designs, and outcomes into summary tables. All studies were reviewed, and study quality was judged using the criteria recommended by the Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine and the British Medical Journal (BMJ) checklist for economic evaluations. Results The search retrieved 51 studies. No incremental cost-effectiveness studies or cost-utility studies were found. A narrative synthesis was conducted on the eight studies that met the inclusion criteria. Roughly one-third employed cost–benefit analyses (CBA). Those conducting CBA have found favorable benefit–cost ratios of up to 3:1; for every dollar invested $3 are saved in downstream health-related costs. Conclusions CBA suggests favorable cost–benefit ratios for smoking cessation among pregnant women, although currently available economic evaluations of smoking cessation and relapse prevention programs for pregnant women provide limited evidence on cost-effectiveness to determine optimal resource allocation strategies. Although none of these studies had been performed in accordance with Panel recommendations or BMJ guidelines, they are, however, embryonic elements of a more systematic framework. Existing analyses suggest that the return on investment will far outweigh the costs for this critical population. There is significant potential to improve the quality of economic evaluations of such programs; therefore, additional analyses are needed. The article concludes with ideas on how to design and conduct an economic evaluation of such programs in accordance with accepted quality standards.

Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Emmons, Karen M.

2009-01-01

156

Women and medicine.  

PubMed

It is now clear that women doctors will soon make up the majority of the medical workforce. Research shows that women often prefer part time and flexible working, and are inclined to favour some specialist fields over others. Although these facts are widely known, as yet it appears that little account has been taken of their economic and organisational consequences. All doctors require sound careers advice, but women doctors reported that this is often poor or inconsistent. Women's preference for flexible working at certain stages of their careers could be a major advantage in health service planning; models need to be developed that recognise women's willingness to work in new ways. Although women are under-represented in positions of national leadership, there is no evidence to suggest that they are disadvantaged in their endeavours, or unwilling to deliver the commitment necessary. However, they may need timely advice and encouragement to reach their full potential. PMID:21413474

Dacre, Jane; Shepherd, Susan

2010-12-01

157

Maternal mortality, women's status, and economic dependency in less developed countries: a cross-national analysis.  

PubMed

While much has been written about the medical, economic, and social causes of cross-national differences in some mortality related phenomena such as in life expectancy and infant mortality, much less attention has been given to maternal mortality, the focus of the present study. In the studies of maternal mortality that have been done, there has been very little effort to assess the potential relevance of the gender stratification and dependency theory perspectives. Using lagged cross-sectional and path analysis with a sample of 79 less developed countries, this article focuses on the impact of predictors linked to three theoretical perspectives - modernization, economic dependency, and gender stratification. We find that women's status, as measured by indicators such as level of education relative to men, age at first marriage, and reproductive autonomy, is a strong predictor of maternal mortality. We find that economic dependency, especially multinational corporate investment, has a detrimental effect on maternal mortality that is mediated by its harmful impacts on economic growth and the status of women. We also find support for developmental theory, a variant of modernization theory. PMID:10414829

Shen, C; Williamson, J B

1999-07-01

158

Domestic Violence in the Lives of Women Receiving Welfare: Mental Health, Substance Dependence, and Economic Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from a random sample of women from the welfare caseload in an urban Michi- gan county, the authors investigate the prevalence of domestic violence and its associa- tion with mental health, health, and economic well-being. Nearly a quarter of the women experienced physical partner violence in the past 12 months, and almost two thirds in their lifetimes. Recent

RICHARD M. TOLMAN; DANIEL ROSEN

2001-01-01

159

Reaching the Disadvantaged Adult  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An area vocational school teacher responsible for working one-third time with disadvantaged and handicapped adults describes techniques and procedures used in assessing needs of the mountain people in a rural area of northern Georgia and in marshalling resources of various state and community agencies to develop an appropriate program in consumer…

Cagle, Eliza

1977-01-01

160

Work Environment and Disadvantagement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a series of empirical evaluations of the work environment and its relation to the disadvantaged worker. Data were collected on 530 subjects in five different industries at both the supervisory and non-supervisory level, using a total ...

D. Searls R. W. Miskimins

1971-01-01

161

Reconnecting Disadvantaged Young Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By several recent counts, the United States is home to 2 to 3 million youth age 16 through 24 who are out of school and out of work. Much has been written on disadvantaged youth, and government policy has gone through many incarnations, yet questions remain unanswered. Why are so many young people "disconnected," and what can public policy do…

Holzer, Harry; Edelman, Peter; Offner, Paul

2006-01-01

162

Development of Literacy Follow-Up Materials for Women and Other Disadvantaged Population. Final Report of the Regional Workshop on the Preparation of Literacy Follow-Up Materials in Asia and the Pacific (9th, Islamabad, Pakistan, November 2-13, 1991).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains materials from a workshop to provide training in audiovisual materials development for women and other disadvantaged populations, such as slum dwellers, minorities, and migrants. The proceedings section contains an introduction, objective, and summaries of opening, workshop, and other presentations. Chapter 1 provides details…

Ministry of Education, Islamabad (Pakistan).

163

Women Are "The Key to Progress." The Situation of Women in Developing Countries and German Efforts To Improve Their Situation. IN Visitors' Information Special Report, SO 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women in developing countries carry out three-quarters of all work in rural areas, are often exposed to great health risks through frequent childbirth, and are disadvantaged compared with men in education and training. Modernization has burdened women with new responsibilities and more work but has improved health care. The economic and social…

Krugmann-Randolf, Inga

164

Managing Assets and Vulnerability Contexts: Vistas of Gendered Livelihoods of Adivasi Women in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, indigenous livelihoods are often adversely incorporated within development processes and policies on account of their multiple disadvantages and discrimination. The paper argues that the ability to build on or manage livelihoods is largely gendered, often exacerbated through the nuanced working of socio-economic forces as women’s experiences of poverty should be located and deconstructed within the configuration of local,

Shoba Arun

2008-01-01

165

HIV Prevalence and Risk Behaviors Among African American Women Who Trade Sex for Drugs Versus Economic Resources.  

PubMed

Trading sex for money, drugs, goods, services, or a place to stay is prevalent among women who use drugs and has been associated with women's risk of HIV acquisition. There is evidence that trading sex for drugs only may be associated with elevated risk of HIV compared with trading sex for money. The purpose of this study was to assess whether HIV risk behaviors and HIV prevalence differ among African American drug using women (N = 92) who traded sex for drugs only, traded sex for economic resources (defined as money, shelter, or other resources) only, or traded sex for both economic resources and drugs. In this study, lower rates of condom use and higher rates of HIV were found among women who traded sex for drugs only compared to women who traded sex for economic resources or for economic resources and drugs. These findings suggest that African American women who trade sex for drugs only represent an understudied yet highly vulnerable group. PMID:24496649

Dunne, Eugene M; Dyer, Typhanye Penniman; Khan, Maria R; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Melnikov, Alex; Latimer, William W

2014-07-01

166

Theme: Teaching Academically Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Will We Serve the Academically Disadvantaged?" (Iverson); "Using Centers of Learning to Reach Academically Disadvantaged Students" (Gentry); "Georgia's Special Lamb Project Adoption Program" (Farmer); "Teacher Expectations" (Powers); "Providing Instruction for Special Populations" (Jewell); and "The Educational Reform Movement and…

Iverson, Maynard J.; And Others

1993-01-01

167

Talent Development in Economically Disadvantaged Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to summarize what is generally known about talent development and schooling by stating some propositions about the way such programs are structured. This article sets the stage for a series of stories of programs that attempt to address the challenge of talent development in diverse low-income populations. The…

Coleman, Laurence

2006-01-01

168

Non-governmental organizations and the socio-economic development of low-income women in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This literature review focuses on the socio-economic development of low-income women in India. The study describes how non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in India attempt to fill gaps in governmental support for marginalized women in the Indian workforce. Some scholars have recommended expanding the boundaries of human resource development (HRD) to include multiple topics in a variety of contexts to investigate the

Meena Razvi; Gene Roth

2010-01-01

169

HIV/AIDS treatment adherence in economically better off women in Colombia.  

PubMed

Studies on HIV/AIDS treatment adherence have been carried out in a limited number of geographic settings, but few studies have explored it in people of higher socioeconomic status in Latin America. This qualitative study explored and compared determinants of adherence behaviors among 52 HIV-positive Colombian women in medium and high socioeconomic positions (SPs). Findings indicated that the two SP groups reported high adherence behaviors related to taking medication, following a diet, and executing lifestyle changes in line with healthcare providers' recommendations. Nevertheless, differences were observed between the two groups. While women with a medium SP disclosed their diagnosis, were empowered, and had acceptable access to economic resources that resulted in favorable adherence, their better off counterparts tended to hide their status and made a conscious effort to keep their adherence behaviors in secret due to HIV-related stigma. More studies on adherence of people living with HIV/AIDS from high SPs should be conducted to better understand how psychosocial support can be provided and to advance the knowledge of how and why adherence practices in these groups are undertaken. PMID:22273077

Arrivillaga, Marcela; Springer, Andrew E; Lopera, Monica; Correa, Diego; Useche, Bernardo; Ross, Michael W

2012-01-01

170

The long term economic impact of severe obstetric complications for women and their children in Burkina Faso.  

PubMed

This study investigates the long term economic impact of severe obstetric complications for women and their children in Burkina Faso, focusing on measures of food security, expenditures and related quality of life measures. It uses a hospital based cohort, first visited in 2004/2005 and followed up four years later. This cohort of 1014 women consisted of two main groups of comparison: 677 women who had an uncomplicated delivery and 337 women who experienced a severe obstetric complication which would have almost certainly caused death had they not received hospital care (labelled a "near miss" event). To analyze the impact of such near miss events as well as the possible interaction with the pregnancy outcome, we compared household and individual level indicators between women without a near miss event and women with a near miss event who either had a live birth, a perinatal death or an early pregnancy loss. We used propensity score matching to remove initial selection bias. Although we found limited effects for the whole group of near miss women, the results indicated negative impacts: a) for near miss women with a live birth, on child development and education, on relatively expensive food consumption and on women's quality of life; b) for near miss women with perinatal death, on relatively expensive foods consumption and children's education and c) for near miss women who had an early pregnancy loss, on overall food security. Our results showed that severe obstetric complications have long lasting consequences for different groups of women and their children and highlighted the need for carefully targeted interventions. PMID:24224028

Ilboudo, Patrick G C; Russell, Steve; D'Exelle, Ben

2013-01-01

171

Rural African women and development.  

PubMed

70-90% of Africans still live in rural areas, and 25-30% of rural households are headed by women. Standards of living in rural areas are lower than in urban areas. Rural African women's involvement in development is in its initial stages, and social development for women is likely to be slow. Increasing women's opportunities for education is a means of promoting social justice and fairness. Schools should offer courses of practical value for those not planning on higher education and special programs and career counseling for gifted girls. Women's organizations, African leaders, and other influential parties should aggressively create awareness about the oppressive aspects of traditional attitudes, beliefs, and views about women. Laws on ownership of property, inheritance, access to credit, and employment must be equitable and enforced. Consciousness-raising among rural women is an effective means of encouraging rural women to seek and assume new roles and for questioning unreasonable expectations and norms. Women's professional associations serve important functions and fulfill the need for role models. The quality of rural women's life is effectively improved through formulation of policies relevant to women's needs and problems and improve rural conditions. Women should have fair representation at local and national levels of government. Women's role in agriculture is likely to be enhanced through improved transportation systems, electricity supply, and introduction of intermediate technology. This assessment of rural African women's contributions to economic growth emphasizes women's involvement in farming and the informal sector and their lack of equal remuneration or low wages. Illiteracy places women in a disadvantaged position when competing for employment in the formal sector. Lack of access to credit and limits on credit are other obstacles in the informal sector. The reduced participation of rural women in the formal and informal sector is due to lack of economic power, limited educational opportunities, and policies that place industry in urban areas. Social development that reduces illiteracy and poverty should be encouraged. PMID:12346826

Kabadaki, K

1994-01-01

172

Women Empowerment and Participation in Economic Activities: Indispensable Tools for Self-Reliance and Development of Nigerian Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of the study was to examine women empowerment and participation in economic activities as tools for self-reliance and development of the Nigerian society. Research questions and hypothesis were used to guide the study. Structured questionnaire was used as the major instrument for data collection. Copies of questionnaires were…

E. N., Ekesionye; A. N., Okolo

2012-01-01

173

The Changing Economic Standing of Minorities and Women in the Chicago Metropolitan Area 1970-1990. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report uses figures from the 1990 Census to present a detailed and comprehensive picture of the changes that occurred in the economic standing of women and minorities during the 1970s and 1980s in the six-county Chicago (Illinois) metropolitan area. The terms African American, Asian American, Latino, and White are used to describe the city's…

Latino Inst., Chicago, IL.

174

Advancing social and economic development by investing in women's and children's health: a new Global Investment Framework.  

PubMed

A new Global Investment Framework for Women's and Children's Health demonstrates how investment in women's and children's health will secure high health, social, and economic returns. We costed health systems strengthening and six investment packages for: maternal and newborn health, child health, immunisation, family planning, HIV/AIDS, and malaria. Nutrition is a cross-cutting theme. We then used simulation modelling to estimate the health and socioeconomic returns of these investments. Increasing health expenditure by just $5 per person per year up to 2035 in 74 high-burden countries could yield up to nine times that value in economic and social benefits. These returns include greater gross domestic product (GDP) growth through improved productivity, and prevention of the needless deaths of 147 million children, 32 million stillbirths, and 5 million women by 2035. These gains could be achieved by an additional investment of $30 billion per year, equivalent to a 2% increase above current spending. PMID:24263249

Stenberg, Karin; Axelson, Henrik; Sheehan, Peter; Anderson, Ian; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Temmerman, Marleen; Mason, Elizabeth; Friedman, Howard S; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Lawn, Joy E; Sweeny, Kim; Tulloch, Jim; Hansen, Peter; Chopra, Mickey; Gupta, Anuradha; Vogel, Joshua P; Ostergren, Mikael; Rasmussen, Bruce; Levin, Carol; Boyle, Colin; Kuruvilla, Shyama; Koblinsky, Marjorie; Walker, Neff; de Francisco, Andres; Novcic, Nebojsa; Presern, Carole; Jamison, Dean; Bustreo, Flavia

2014-04-12

175

Marital Quality for Men and Women in Stepfamilies: Examining the Role of Economic Pressure, Common Stressors, and Stepfamily-Specific Stressors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although economic pressure and family stress models have been examined with samples of men and women in first marriages, previous models have neglected to focus on men and women in stepfamilies and to examine stress sources unique to stepfamilies. This study examines the effect of economic pressure on both common stressors and stepfamily-specific…

Schramm, David G.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca

2012-01-01

176

Sustained economic benefits of resistance training among community-dwelling senior women  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Previously, we demonstrated that 12 months of group based resistance training intervention delivered once or twice weekly provided significantly lower healthcare resource utilization costs and health benefits including improvement in health related quality of life than balance and tone exercises. OBJECTIVE We conducted a 12-month follow-up study to determine whether these health and cost benefits of resistance training were sustained 12 months after formal cessation of the intervention. DESIGN Cost-utility analysis conducted alongside a randomized controlled trial. SETTING Community-dwelling women aged 65 to 75 years living in Vancouver, British Columbia. PARTICIPANTS 123 of the 155 community-dwelling women aged 65 to 75 years who originally were randomly allocated to once-weekly resistance training (n=54), twice-weekly resistance training (n=52), or to twice-weekly balance and tone exercises (i.e., control group) (n=49) participated in the 12-month follow-up study. Of these, 98 took part in the economic evaluation (twice-weekly balance and tone exercises, n=28, once-weekly resistance training, n=35; twice-weekly resistance training, n=35). MEASUREMENTS Our primary outcome measure was incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Healthcare resource utilization was assessed over 21 months (2009 prices); health status was assessed using the EQ-5D to calculate QALYs using a 21 month time horizon. RESULTS Once- and twice-weekly resistance training were less costly than balance and tone classes with incremental mean healthcare costs of Canadian dollars (CAD$) -$1857 and -$1077, respectively. The incremental QALYs for once- and twice weekly resistance training were -0.051 and -0.081, respectively, compared with balance and tone exercises. CONCLUSION The cost benefits of participating in a 12-month resistance training intervention were sustained for both the once- and twice-weekly resistance training group while the health benefits were not.

Marra, Carlo A; Robertson, M Clare; Najafzadeh, Mehdi; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

2014-01-01

177

Kidney disease in disadvantaged populations.  

PubMed

Disadvantaged populations across the globe exhibit a disproportionate burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) because of differences in CKD occurrence and outcomes. Although many CKD risk factors can be managed and modified to optimize clinical outcomes, the prevailing socioeconomic and cultural factors in disadvantaged populations, more often than not, militate against optimum clinical outcomes. In addition, disadvantaged populations exhibit a broader spectrum of CKD risk factors and may be genetically predisposed to an earlier onset and a more rapid progression of chronic kidney disease. A basic understanding of the vulnerabilities of the disadvantaged populations will facilitate the adaptation and adoption of the kidney disease treatment and prevention guidelines for these vulnerable populations. The purpose of this paper is to examine recent discoveries and data on CKD occurrence and outcomes in disadvantaged populations and explore strategies for the prevention and treatment of CKD in these populations based on the established guidelines. PMID:22567281

Martins, David; Agodoa, Lawrence; Norris, Keith

2012-01-01

178

Educational Advancement and Socio-Economic Participation of Women in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational advancement of women in India is not perceived as an important characteristic since education is perceived as irrelevant to their roles. The equality of women in status and opportunity is guaranteed in the 1955 Constitution of India and by the government. Although achievements by women in the local and national levels exist, a…

Doraiswami, Smt. S.

179

Social characteristics of psychological distress in a disadvantaged urban area of Kazakhstan.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to systematically assess the association of socio-economic characteristics and psychological distress in a disadvantaged urban area of a post-Soviet Republic. Psychological distress was assessed in a random sample of 200 persons, aged 18-57, living in a disadvantaged urban area of Kazakhstan using the General Health Questionnaire with 28 items (GHQ-28). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the association of social characteristics and psychological distress. Female gender (P < 0.05), living without a partner (P < 0.01), higher age (P < 0.01), unemployment (P < 0.01), and low perceived income (P < 0.05) were associated with psychological distress in multivariate analyses. Non-Kazakh ethnicity (P < 0.05) was linked with psychological distress in bivariate analyses. The educational level was not significantly associated with psychological distress. Women, aged 38-57, living without partner and with low access to financial resources, were at a very high risk of psychological distress. Possibly due to social drift or status inconsistency, higher educational levels were not associated with lower levels of psychological distress in the disadvantaged area. PMID:23712308

Ignatyev, Yuriy; Assimov, Marat; Dochshanov, Dauren; Ströhle, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas; Mundt, Adrian P

2014-01-01

180

Effects of Employment-Based Programs on Families by Prior Levels of Disadvantage  

PubMed Central

This study examines how welfare and employment policies affect subpopulations of low-income families that have different levels of initial disadvantage. Education, prior earnings, and welfare receipt are used to measure disadvantage. The analysis of data from experiments suggests that employment-based programs have no effects on economic well-being among the least-disadvantaged low-income, single-parent families, but they have positive effects on employment and income for the most-disadvantaged and moderately disadvantaged families. These programs increase school achievement and enrollment in center-based child care of children only in moderately disadvantaged families. The most-disadvantaged families are found to increase use of child care that is not center based. Parents in these families experience depressive symptoms and aggravation. The findings raise questions about how to support families at the lowest end of the economic spectrum.

Alderson, Desiree Principe; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Imes, Amy; Huston, Aletha C.

2011-01-01

181

Training teachers for the army disadvantaged in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Israeli army has an educational system in which disadvantaged soldiers who have not completed elementary school, receive some weeks or months of additional schooling. The teaching is mainly done by women soldiers, some qualified teachers, but most of them volunteers who have finished secondary schools, but are without training in education. All teachers go through a special 3?month course

Abraham Stahl

1982-01-01

182

An analytical comparison of fertility rate among women in Beijing with different social and economic characteristics.  

PubMed

In Beijing, the total fertility rate (TFR) fluctuated between 1.3 and 1.8 in the 1980s, and in 1989 it was 1.3. A preliminary survey of 10% of the city's population involved 1,086,000 people, including 299,700 women aged 15-50. Samples of these women were used in group-specific comparisons of fertility rates in 1989. Women in agricultural residence made up 43.2% of the total, whose TFR was 1.822, vs. 0.925 for women in nonagricultural residence. The average childbearing age for agricultural women was 16 years, and their fertility was declining gradually after the age of 28 as opposed to the precipitous after 28 among nonagricultural women. 54% of the agricultural group had 1 child, 48% had 2 children, and 6% had 3 or more children. In contrast, 98% of nonagricultural women had 1 child. Among employed women, 30.7% were in production and transport, 2.6% were farmers, forest workers, and fishers and 20.5% were professional and technical personnel, with the rest being employed in services, post and telecommunications, civil service, and business. The TFR of unemployed women (mostly housewives with a TFR of 3.42) was 2.367, vs. 1.224 for agricultural women. More than 90% of these housewives were agricultural women. A multivariate analysis with the dependent variable of live births to individual women found that, except for age and housewife (or not) status, all variables were negative. In contrast to illiterates, farmers, forest workers, and fisher women, women with higher educational levels and in other occupations had few children. The average number of children born to women with elementary school education was 0.5 less than among illiterates, and 1 less among university graduates than among illiterates. Elementary and junior high school education had the highest marginal impact. The family planning program has been successful in Beijing in lowering fertility, with further declines expected. However, rural women still had more than 1 child at an early age; this phenomenon, as well as raising their educational level, should be the focus of the program. PMID:12345187

Hao, H; Gaoling; Shen, Q

1993-01-01

183

Why don't they just get married? Barriers to marriage among the disadvantaged.  

PubMed

Kathryn Edin and Joanna Reed review recent research on social and economic barriers to marriage among the poor and discuss the efficacy of efforts by federal and state policymakers to promote marriage among poor unmarried couples, especially those with children, in light of these findings. Social barriers include marital aspirations and expectations, norms about childbearing, financial standards for marriage, the quality of relationships, an aversion to divorce, and children by other partners. Edin and Reed note that disadvantaged men and women highly value marriage but believe they are currently unable to meet the high standards of relationship quality and financial stability they believe are necessary to sustain a marriage and avoid divorce. Despite their regard for marriage, however, poor Americans do not view it as a prerequisite for childbearing, and it is typical for either or both parents in an unmarried-couple family to have a child by another partner. Economic barriers include men's low earnings, women's earnings, and the marriage tax. In view of these findings, Edin and Reed argue that public campaigns to convince poor Americans of the value of marriage are preaching to the choir. Instead, campaigns should emphasize the benefits for children of living with both biological parents and stress the harmful effects for children of high-conflict parental relationships. Programs to improve relationship quality must address head-on the significant problems many couple face. Because disadvantaged men and women view some degree of financial stability as a prerequisite for marriage, policymakers must address the instability and low pay of the jobs they typically hold as well as devise ways to promote homeownership and other asset development to encourage marriage. Moreover, programs need to help couples meet the challenges of parenting families where children are some combination of his, hers, and theirs. Encouraging more low-income couples to marry without giving them tools to help their marriages thrive may simply increase the divorce rate. PMID:16158733

Edin, Kathryn; Reed, Joanna M

2005-01-01

184

HOW DOES ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT AFFECT WOMEN'S RISK OF INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN LOW AND MIDDLE INCOME COUNTRIES? A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF PUBLISHED EVIDENCEy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To identify whether individual and household economic empowerment is associated with lower intimate partner violence in low and middle income country settings. Methods: Systematic PubMed and internet searches. Results: Published data from 41 sites were reviewed. Household assets and women's higher education were generally protective. Evidence about women's involvement in income generation and experience of past year violence was

SEEMA VYAS; CHARLOTTE WATTS

185

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

Online-Offline, 1998

1998-01-01

186

Neighbourhood disadvantage, network capital and restless sleep: Is the association moderated by gender in urban-dwelling adults?  

PubMed

Despite evidence suggesting that social and neighbourhood contexts may relate to sleep in adults, the underlying social and demographic mechanisms involved remain relatively unexplored. This study proposes a conceptual framework for examining the link between social environments and restless sleep, and assesses whether associations among restless sleep, social capital, and neighbourhood environments differ by gender. Data come from the 2008 Montreal Neighborhood Networks and Healthy Aging Study (n = 2707). Participants self-reported restless sleep. Network and cognitive dimensions of social capital were examined. Neighbourhood disadvantage and population density were measured using 2006 Canada Census data. Multilevel logistic analyses adjusting for socio-economic and -demographic variables were used to estimate associations among study variables. The final sample size for this study was 2643 adults (nmen = 930; nwomen = 1713). Women were more likely to experience restless sleep than men (OR: 1.29; 95% CIs: 1.07, 1.55). Network capital increased the likelihood of restless sleep in men (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04-1.50) but not women. High generalized trust decreased the odds of restless sleep in women (OR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.59-0.94); neighbourhood disadvantage increased the odds of restless sleep in women but not men (OR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01-1.38). The association among restless sleep, social capital, and neighbourhood environmental factors differed in male and female Montreal adults. This study contributes to a greater understanding of possible differential associations between social environments and health in men and women. Greater knowledge of the social and environmental factors that contribute to poor sleep in men and women can aid in the design of interventions to improve sleep patterns in the general population. Social and health promotion interventions might aim to improve general neighbourhood environmental conditions to improve the sleep health of women. PMID:24650740

Bassett, Emma; Moore, Spencer

2014-05-01

187

NASA Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) within NASA promotes the utilization of small, disadvantaged, and women-owned small businesses in compliance with Federal laws, regulations, and policies. We assist such firms in obtaining contracts and subcontracts with NASA and its prime contractors. The OSDBU also facilitates the participation of small businesses in NASA's technology transfer and commercialization activities. Our driving philosophy is to consider small businesses as our products. Our customers are the NASA Enterprises, Field Centers, Functional Staff Offices, major prime contractors, and other large institutions. We hone the skills of our products to make them marketable to our customers in the performance of NASA missions.

2001-01-01

188

Preparing Elementary Teachers for Culturally Disadvantaged Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two major considerations are involved in successfully educating culturally disadvantaged youth at the elementary school level. First, it is necessary to determine the characteristics of effective teachers of the disadvantaged. Teachers of the disadvantaged must have good mental health, want to teach the disadvantaged, and be creative, curious,…

O'Brien, Nancy

189

Ping-Pong and the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everyone experiences disadvantages in life. Some disadvantages are the result of forces largely beyond the control of any one individual, including genetic, political, social, and historical disadvantages which no amount of trying is apt to overcome. Some disadvantages are self-inflicted, including being deliberately narrow in viewpoint; avoiding…

Looper, Travis

190

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

191

Economic security, informational resources, and women's reproductive choices in urban Mozambique.  

PubMed

Reproductive changes in sub-Saharan Africa are contingent upon women's socioeconomic conditions and informational and cultural resources. This study focuses on socioeconomic and cultural determinants and correlates of the intention to stop childbearing and of contraceptive use among urban women in Mozambique. It uses data from a survey of 1,585 married women conducted in Greater Maputo in 1993, and it employs logistic regression for multivariate analysis. The results of the analysis indicate that although the stopping intention and contraceptive use are interrelated and similarly affected by such factors as education or the area of residence, the intention to stop childbearing is mainly driven by women's perception of their material conditions and socioeconomic security, while contraceptive use is largely a product of social diffusion and the legitimization of innovative, Western-origin information and technologies. The study proposes that these findings may help explain the unique features of the fertility transition in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:9584578

Agadjanian, V

1998-01-01

192

Do Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Affect Children's Verbal Skills? Evaluation Science Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Evaluation Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study evaluating the effects of an early childhood program or environment. This Brief evaluates the study "Durable Effects of Concentrated Disadvantage on Verbal Ability Among African-American Children" (R. Sampson; R. Sharkey; and S. Raudenbush.) Racial and economic

National Forum on Early Childhood Program Evaluation, 2008

2008-01-01

193

The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response.…

Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

2013-01-01

194

Industry Hiring Requirements and the Employment of Disadvantaged Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to improve the economic well-being of the disadvantaged, this study investigated the possibility that excessive hiring requirements might be a major factor in unemployment of particular groups in the population. This was accomplished by surveying a random sample of employers in 10 major entry and near-entry level occupations in the…

Diamond, Daniel E.; Bedrosian, Hrach

195

Evaluating Resources for Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The stated purpose of these materials is to help educators accomplish four tasks: (1) identify "appropriate" instructional resources for disadvantaged students in vocational classes; (2) use an objective checklist to evaluate a resource's "usefulness" (a sample checklist is provided); (3) use criteria to evaluate a resource's "outstandingness" (a…

Hafen, Susan; DeGrey, Gwen-Ellen

196

BOARDING SCHOOLS FOR THE DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SUGGESTED IS THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PUBLIC ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY BOARDING SCHOOLS FOR URBAN DISADVANTAGED AND DISTURBED OR DELINQUENT CHILDREN. THE INSTITUTIONAL FAMILY LIFE OF RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS CAN OFFER THESE CHILDREN AN ESCAPE FROM THE DESTRUCTIVE ENVIRONMENT OF THE URBAN GHETTO. MOREOVER, URBAN SCHOOLS SHOULD INSTITUTE SUMMER PROGRAMS OUT…

CLATWORTHY, F. JAMES

197

Self Concept and the Disadvantaged.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a series of studies which make inquiry into the self-concept of 660 adult disadvantaged workers, in relation to: (a) demographic data on age, sex, marital status, education, and ethnic group status; (b) personal social variables as th...

R. W. Miskimins B. R. Baker

1973-01-01

198

Education and Training Strategies for Disadvantaged Groups in Thailand. Strategies of Education and Training for Disadvantaged Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book looks at the current spectrum of programs dealing with education for disadvantaged youth in Thailand. In spite of a lack of literature on the subject, it presents a diversity of information collected from various public and private organizations. The first chapter brings into focus the negative effects of the recent economic crisis,…

Piromruen, Smarnjit; Keoyote, Sen

199

Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Fighting for Equality on All Fronts" (Fromont); "Three Questions for Mrs. Lucille Caron"; "Women Shoulder the Burden of Cambodia's Economy" (Roess); and "Renewing Their Relationship with the Land" (Mehra-Kerpelman). (SK)

Fromont, Michel; And Others

1994-01-01

200

Coresidence with Parents, Women's Economic Resources, and the Transition to Marriage in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrating three theoretical explanations for declining rates of marriage in Japan, the authors develop hypotheses in which linkages between benefits of coresidence with parents and marriage timing are moderated by women's own socioeconomic characteristics. To evaluate these hypothesized interactive relationships, data from a panel survey of…

Raymo, James M.; Ono, Hiromi

2007-01-01

201

The Future of Young Women's Economic Role in a Globalized Economy: New Opportunities, Persisting Constraints  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young women in advanced industrial countries have been outperforming young men in educational attainment at the same time that their labor market outcomes are still lagging. Sex segregation in education and the labor market is identified as an important source of this imbalance. In this article, the authors advance some thoughts about this…

Buchmann, Marlis; Malti, Tina

2012-01-01

202

The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…

Maroto, Michelle

2012-01-01

203

Capitalizing on Bourdieu: How Useful Are Concepts of "Social Capital" and "Social Field" for Researching "Marginalized" Young Women?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers Bourdieu's concepts of "social capital" and "social fields", comparing and contrasting his use of these concepts with that of James Coleman and Robert Putnam. It examines how Bourdieu's ideas offer a different way of understanding the lives of economically disadvantaged young women designated as "at risk" of leaving school…

Allard, Andrea C.

2005-01-01

204

Gendering Peace and Liberation: A Participatory-Action Approach to Critical Consciousness Acquisition Among Women in a Marginalized Neighborhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many women from marginalized neighborhoods suffer injustices and structural violence due to patriarchal and macho-dominated culture as well as injustices stemming from precarious economic and social conditions (Christie, 2006) . Their disadvantageous living conditions coupled with multiple levels of exclusion have a negative impact upon their well-being at the personal, relational, and community levels. In the field of community psychology,

Violeta Luque-Ribelles; Nelson Portillo

205

Non-Formal Education for Women in Bangladesh. Supplementary Paper No. 5. Program of Studies in Non-Formal Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using certain criteria, 4 out of 35 voluntary and nongovernmental organizations in Bangladesh, which were engaged in nonformal education among economically disadvantaged women, were selected and surveyed to identify and document their nonformal activities. Data were generated through field visits, personal interviews, observations, and examination…

Hoque, Naseem

206

Hopelessness as Mediator of the Link Between Reports of a History of Child Maltreatment and Suicidality in African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Findings from a study comparing reports of a history of child maltreatment and hope- lessness in a sample of economically, socially, and educationally disadvantaged young urban African American women suicide attempters (nD 176) and demographically similar nonattempters (nD 185) revealed higher rates of child maltreatment and hope- lessness among attempters than those among their nonsuicidal counterparts. Using a mediational model

Lindi A. Meadows; Nadine J. Kaslow

2002-01-01

207

Hopelessness as Mediator of the Link Between Reports of a History of Child Maltreatment and Suicidality in African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Findings from a study comparing reports of a history of child maltreatment and hopelessness in a sample of economically, socially, and educationally disadvantaged young urban African American women suicide attempters (n = 176) and demographically similar nonattempters (n = 185) revealed higher rates of child maltreatment and hopelessness among attempters than those among their nonsuicidal counterparts. Using a mediational model

Lindi A. Meadows; Nadine J. Kaslow

2002-01-01

208

Educational Inequalities in Women's Depressive Symptoms: The Mediating Role of Perceived Neighbourhood Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Socio-economically disadvantaged (e.g., less educated) women are at a greater risk of depression compared to less disadvantaged women. However, little is known regarding the factors that may explain socioeconomic inequalities in risk of depression. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of perceived neighbourhood factors in mediating the relationship between education and women’s risk of depression. Cross-sectional data were provided by 4,065 women (aged 18–45). Women self-reported their education level, depressive symptoms (CES-D 10), as well as four neighbourhood factors (i.e., interpersonal trust, social cohesion, neighbourhood safety, and aesthetics). Single and multiple mediating analyses were conducted. Clustering by neighbourhood of residence was adjusted by using a robust estimator of variance. Multiple mediating analyses revealed that interpersonal trust was the only neighbourhood characteristic found to partly explain the educational inequalities in women’s depressive symptoms. Social cohesion, neighbourhood aesthetics and safety were not found to mediate this relationship. Acknowledging the cross-sectional nature of this study, findings suggest that strategies to promote interpersonal trust within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods may help to reduce the educational inequalities in risk of depression amongst women. Further longitudinal and intervention studies are needed to confirm these findings.

Teychenne, Megan; Ball, Kylie; Salmon, Jo

2012-01-01

209

India's Women-led Vegetable Cultivation Improves Economic and Environmental Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

India's food security is heavily dependent on irrigation, yet large rural areas of irrigated land are threatened by increasing salinity and decreasing ground water resources. Therefore, the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation agreed at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 gives importance to sustainable rural development in developing countries. The plan mandates socio-economic development within the carrying capacity of

Govindasamy Agoramoorthy; Minna J. Hsu; Pochuen Shieh

2012-01-01

210

No Exit, No Voice: Women's Economic Dependency and the Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the welfare state has been particularly concerned with variations in inequality between societies. These studies tend to view the family as a unit of shared interests where incomes are pooled and distributed equally This study makes a theoretical and empirical case for why it is important to look at economic dependency within the family in comparative welfare state

Barbara Hobson

1990-01-01

211

The barriers that low-income women face in achieving economic self-sufficiency and homeownership: Reports from a qualitative study in the midwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines the complex, multilevel barriers that low-income women in a medium-sized Midwestern city face when trying to achieve economic self-sufficiency and homeownership. Data on which this dissertation are based include interviews with 25 low-income women enrolled in a local family self-sufficiency program and four of the program's administrators. All interviews were conducted by the author during Fall 2008.

Sharon Lindhorst Everhardt

2009-01-01

212

Economic evaluation of Chagas disease screening of pregnant Latin American women and of their infants in a non endemic area.  

PubMed

Migration is a channel through which Chagas disease is imported, and vertical transmission is a channel through which the disease is spread in non-endemic countries. This study presents the economic evaluation of Chagas disease screening in pregnant women from Latin America and in their newborns in a non endemic area such as Spain. The economic impact of Chagas disease screening is tested through two decision models, one for the newborn and one for the mother, against the alternative hypothesis of no screening for either the newborn or the mother. Results show that the option "no test" is dominated by the option "test". The cost effectiveness ratio in the "newborn model" was 22€/QALYs gained in the case of screening and 125€/QALYs gained in the case of no screening. The cost effectiveness ratio in the "mother model" was 96€/QALYs gained in the case of screening and 1675€/QALYs gained in the case of no screening. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis highlighted the reduction of uncertainty in the screening option. Threshold analysis assessed that even with a drop in Chagas prevalence from 3.4% to 0.9%, a drop in the probability of vertical transmission from 7.3% to 2.24% and with an increase of screening costs up to €37.5, "test" option would still be preferred to "no test". The current study proved Chagas screening of all Latin American women giving birth in Spain and of their infants to be the best strategy compared to the non-screening option and provides useful information for health policy makers in their decision making process. PMID:21396345

Sicuri, Elisa; Muñoz, José; Pinazo, Maria Jesús; Posada, Elizabeth; Sanchez, Joan; Alonso, Pedro L; Gascon, Joaquim

2011-05-01

213

Macroeconomic Performance and the Disadvantaged  

Microsoft Academic Search

A LONG-STANDING, positive relationship between the economic well- being of the poor and the growth of the economy has changed. In the 1960s rapid economic growth and a relatively stable macrpeconomy were associated with a 10 percentage point reduction in the proportion of people living below the official poverty line. Unstable macroeco- nomic conditions in the 1970s were associated with

David M. Cutler; Lawrence F. Katz

1991-01-01

214

Economic Risk Factors for HIV Infection Among Women in Rural Haiti: Implications for HIV Prevention Policies and Programs in Resource-Poor Settings  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims The goals of this study were to (1) estimate the prevalence of HIV infection among women accessing services at a women's health center in rural Haiti and (2) to identify economic risk factors for HIV infection in this population. Methods Women who accessed healthcare services at this center between June 1999 and December 2002 were recruited to participate. The analysis was based on data from a case-control study of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in rural Haiti. HIV prevalence in the study population was 4%. Results In multivariate analyses, partner occupation was associated with HIV infection in women, with mechanic (OR 9.0, 95% CI 1.8-45) and market vendor (OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.6-11) reflecting the strongest partner occupational risk factors. Partner's occupation as a farmer reduced the risk of infection in women by 60% (95% CI 0.14-1.1). Factors indicating low socioeconomic status (SES), such as food insecurity (OR 2.0, 95% CI 0.75-5.6) and using charcoal for cooking (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.72-3.8) suggested an association with HIV infection. Conclusions Given pervasive gender inequality in Haiti, women's economic security often relies on their partners' income earning activities. Our findings show that although factors reflecting poverty are associated with HIV-positive status, stronger associations are observed for women whose partners indicated a more secure occupation (e.g., mechanic or market vendor). Policies and programs that expand access to education and economic opportunities for women and girls may have long-term implications for HIV prevention in Haiti and other resource-poor settings.

Lambert, W.; Boehm, F.; Finkelstein, J.L.; Singler, J.M.; Leandre, F.; Nevil, P.; Bertrand, D.; Claude, M.S.; Bertrand, J.; Louissaint, M.; Jeannis, L.; Farmer, P.E.; Yang, A.T.; Mukherjee, J.S.

2010-01-01

215

Mathematical and Computer Skills and Workplace Literacy in Labor Markets: An Analysis of Their Actual and Potential Effect on the Economic Status of Women. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the Current Population Surveys of October 1984, October 1989, and January 1991 were used to examine the role of computer and mathematical skills in the U.S. labor market from 1984-91. Particular attention was given to their actual and potential effect on the economic status of women. Data confirmed the overall increase in the education…

Joel Popkin and Co., Washington, DC.

216

Interpreting the Economic Growth and Development Policies of Post-Apartheid South Africa: Its Influence on Higher Education and Prospects for Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation is structured as a critical policy analysis employing historical methods. It examines how the post apartheid government's economic growth and development polices have informed the higher education system and how this has changed women's financial, occupational, political, social, and educational prospects in South Africa. Through…

Eynon, Diane E.

2010-01-01

217

Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and gestational weight gain and loss.  

PubMed

We explored the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage (NSED) and gestational weight gain and loss and if the association differed by race. A census tract level NSED index (categorized as low, mid-low, mid-high, and high) was generated from 12 measures from the 2000 US Census data. Gestational weight gain and other individual-level characteristics were derived from vital birth records for Allegheny County, PA for 2003-2010 (n = 55,608). Crude and adjusted relative risks were estimated using modified multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the association between NSED and excessive and inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) and weight loss (versus adequate GWG). Black women lived in neighborhoods that were more likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged compared to white women. Almost 55 % of women gained an excessive amount of weight during pregnancy, and 2 % lost weight during pregnancy. Black women were more likely than white women to have inadequate weight gain or weight loss. Mid-high (aRR = 1.3, 95 % CI 1.2, 1.3) and high (aRR = 1.5, 95 % CI 1.5, 1.6) NSED compared to low NSED was associated with inadequate weight gain while NSED was not associated with excessive weight gain. Among black women, high versus low NSED was associated with weight loss during pregnancy (RR = 1.6, 95 % CI 1.1, 2.5). Among white women, each level of NSED compared to low NSED was associated with weight loss during pregnancy. This study demonstrates how neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics can contribute to our understanding of inadequate weight gain and weight loss during pregnancy, having implications for future research and interventions designed to advance pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24026397

Mendez, Dara D; Doebler, Donna Almario; Kim, Kevin H; Amutah, Ndidi N; Fabio, Anthony; Bodnar, Lisa M

2014-07-01

218

Infrastructure for Reaching Disadvantaged Consumers  

PubMed Central

Both consumers and health service providers need access to up-to-date information, including patient and practice guidelines, that allows them to make decisions in partnership about individual and public health in line with the primary health care model of health service delivery. Only then is it possible for patient preferences to be considered while the health of the general population is improved. The Commonwealth Government of Australia has allocated $250 million over five years, starting July 1, 1997, to support activities and projects designed to meet a range of telecommunication needs in regional, rural, and remote Australia. This paper defines rural and remote communities, then reviews rural and remote health services, information, and telecommunication technology infrastructures and their use in Australia to establish the current state of access to information tools by rural and remote communities and rural health workers in Australia today. It is argued that a suitable telecommunication infrastructure is needed to reach disadvantaged persons in extremely remote areas and that intersectoral support is essential to build this infrastructure. In addition, education will make its utilization possible.

Hovenga, Evelyn J. S.; Hovel, Joe; Klotz, Jeanette; Robins, Patricia

1998-01-01

219

Food subsidy programs and the health and nutritional status of disadvantaged families in high income countries: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Less healthy diets are common in high income countries, although proportionally higher in those of low socio-economic status. Food subsidy programs are one strategy to promote healthy nutrition and to reduce socio-economic inequalities in health. This review summarises the evidence for the health and nutritional impacts of food subsidy programs among disadvantaged families from high income countries. Methods Relevant studies reporting dietary intake or health outcomes were identified through systematic searching of electronic databases. Cochrane Public Health Group guidelines informed study selection and interpretation. A narrative synthesis was undertaken due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity of study design and outcomes. Results Fourteen studies were included, with most reporting on the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in the USA. Food subsidy program participants, mostly pregnant or postnatal women, were shown to have 10–20% increased intake of targeted foods or nutrients. Evidence for the effectiveness of these programs for men or children was lacking. The main health outcome observed was a small but clinically relevant increase in mean birthweight (23–29g) in the two higher quality WIC studies. Conclusions Limited high quality evidence of the impacts of food subsidy programs on the health and nutrition of adults and children in high income countries was identified. The improved intake of targeted nutrients and foods, such as fruit and vegetables, could potentially reduce the rate of non-communicable diseases in adults, if the changes in diet are sustained. Associated improvements in perinatal outcomes were limited and most evident in women who smoked during pregnancy. Thus, food subsidy programs for pregnant women and children should aim to focus on improving nutritional status in the longer term. Further prospective studies and economic analyses are needed to confirm the health benefits and justify the investment in food subsidy programs.

2012-01-01

220

Interactions between microfinance programmes and non-economic empowerment of women associated with intimate partner violence in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aims to examine the associations between microfinance programme membership and intimate partner violence (IPV) in different socioeconomic strata of a nationally representative sample of women in Bangladesh. Methods The cross-sectional study was based on a nationally representative interview survey of 11?178 ever-married women of reproductive age (15–49?years). A total of 4465 women who answered the IPV-related questions were analysed separately using ?2 tests and Cramer's V as a measure of effect size to identify the differences in proportions of exposure to IPV with regard to microfinance programme membership, and demographic variables and interactions between microfinance programme membership and factors related to non-economic empowerment were considered. Results Only 39% of women were members of microfinance programmes. The prevalence of a history of IPV was 48% for moderate physical violence, 16% for severe physical violence and 16% for sexual violence. For women with secondary or higher education, and women at the two wealthiest levels of the wealth index, microfinance programme membership increased the exposure to IPV two and three times, respectively. The least educated and poorest groups showed no change in exposure to IPV associated with microfinance programmes. The educated women who were more equal with their spouses in their family relationships by participating in decision-making increased their exposure to IPV by membership in microfinance programmes. Conclusions Microfinance plans are associated with an increased exposure to IPV among educated and empowered women in Bangladesh. Microfinance firms should consider providing information about the associations between microfinance and IPV to the women belonging to the risk groups.

Dalal, Koustuv; Dahlstrom, Orjan; Timpka, Toomas

2013-01-01

221

Tips for Teachers of the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A variety of teaching materials, developed at an institute for training teachers of disadvantaged youth in rural (predominately Indian) schools, is provided in this handbook designed for teachers of disadvantaged youth. Ideas for bulletin boards are discussed in the first 25 pages of the document, followed by lesson plans (for kindergarten and…

Northeastern State Univ., Tahlequah, OK.

222

Special Counseling for the Disadvantaged Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to aid teachers and administrators who have not had special training in counseling and who are working in educational programs for the disadvantaged adult. Subject areas discussed are: The Counselor and the Client (Duties of the Counselor; Areas of Assistance for the Client); Who Are the Disadvantaged (Characteristics of the…

Kaple, Donald J.; Kaple, Marion Keeler

223

HANDBOOK, TEACHING SCIENCE TO EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DESCRIBED ARE PROCEDURES AND LABORATORY MATERIALS WHICH ARE OUTGROWTHS OF A RESEARCH PROJECT OF THE SOUTHEASTERN EDUCATION LABORATORY FOR THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE TO DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS IN GRADES 7, 8, AND 9. PART 1 DEALS WITH THE CRITERIA USED IN DEVELOPING PROCEDURES AND MATERIALS FOR USE WITH EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED. INCLUDED ARE (1) THE…

BINGHAM, N.E.; AND OTHERS

224

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages and disadvantages of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) as compared to alternative irrigation systems are conceptually discussed. Each category (advantages and disadvantages) is subdivided into three groups: 1) Water and soil issues; 2) Cropping and cultural practices, and 3) System infrastructure issues. The adaptation and adoption of SDI systems into diverse cropping systems, geographical regions, soils and climate depends,

Freddie R. Lamm

225

Promising Practices: Teaching the Disadvantaged Gifted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for teachers, the document offers 10 articles on educating the disadvantaged gifted student. Included are the following titles: "Four Promising Practices for Teaching Gifted Disadvantaged Students" (which describes a workshop with problem solving and creative expressive activities) by E. Paul Torrance; "Cultural Diversity and the…

Miley, James F., Comp.; And Others

226

Socio-economic factors explain differences in public health-related variables among women in Bangladesh: A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide one billion people are living in slum communities and experts projected that this number would double by 2030. Slum populations, which are increasing at an alarming rate in Bangladesh mainly due to rural-urban migration, are often neglected and characterized by poverty, poor housing, overcrowding, poor environment, and high prevalence of communicable diseases. Unfortunately, comparisons between women living in slums and those not living in slums are very limited in Bangladesh. The objectives of the study were to examine the association of living in slums (dichotomized as slum versus non-slum) with selected public health-related variables among women, first without adjusting for the influence of other factors and then in the presence of socio-economic variables. Methods Secondary data was used in this study. 120 women living in slums (as cases) and 480 age-matched women living in other areas (as controls) were extracted from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004. Many socio-economic and demographic variables were analysed. SPSS was used to perform simple as well as multiple analyses. P-values based on t-test and Wald test were also reported to show the significance level. Results Unadjusted results indicated that a significantly higher percent of women living in slums came from country side, had a poorer status by household characteristics, had less access to mass media, and had less education than women not living in slums. Mean BMI, knowledge of AIDS indicated by ever heard about AIDS, knowledge of avoiding AIDS by condom use, receiving adequate antenatal visits (4 or more) during the last pregnancy, and safe delivery practices assisted by skilled sources were significantly lower among women living in slums than those women living in other areas. However, all the unadjusted significant associations with the variable slum were greatly attenuated and became insignificant (expect safe delivery practices) when some socio-economic variables namely childhood place of residence, a composite variable of household characteristics, a composite variable of mass media access, and education were inserted into the multiple regression models. Taken together, childhood place of residence, the composite variable of mass media access, and education were the strongest predictors for the health related outcomes. Conclusion Reporting unadjusted findings of public health variables in women from slums versus non-slums can be misleading due to confounding factors. Our findings suggest that an association of childhood place of residence, mass media access and public health education should be considered before making any inference based on slum versus non-slum comparisons.

Khan, Md Mobarak H; Kraemer, Alexander

2008-01-01

227

Choices Made by Low-Income Women Provided with an Economic Supplement for Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Purchase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vouchers for fresh fruit and vegetable purchase were provided to low-income women participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in Los Angeles, CA. As the program is currently constituted, the supplemental foods provided contain no fresh produce except for carrots for exclusively breastfeeding women. This study investigated whether providing supplemental financial support specifically for

Dena R. Herman; Gail G. Harrison; Eloise Jenks

2006-01-01

228

Choices Made by Low-Income Women Provided with an Economic Supplement for Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Purchase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vouchers for fresh fruit and vegetable purchase were provided to low-income women participating in the Spe- cial Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, In- fants, and Children (WIC) in Los Angeles, CA. As the program is currently constituted, the supplemental foods provided contain no fresh produce except for carrots for exclusively breastfeeding women. This study investigated whether providing supplemental financial support

DENA R. HERMAN; GAIL G. HARRISON; ELOISE JENKS

229

Rural Development and Women in Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The World Employment Conference in June 1976 noted that in many developing countries women are particularly disadvantaged in respect of employment, poverty, education, training and status. Within the International Labor Office, the Program on Rural Women ...

1984-01-01

230

Father Absence and Self-Esteem Amongst Economically Disadvantaged Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children begin to build self-esteem in early childhood based on social and emotional development. Previous research has shown that children inhabiting homes where the biological, adoptive, or step father are present have shown to exhibit higher levels of self esteem and social functioning. However, further information regarding the positive male influence, lesbian parenting, or the absence of “paternal absence” stigmas

Casey Kevorkian

2010-01-01

231

34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or more and— (1) You offer an associate, baccalaureate, graduate, or professional...more; or (2) You do not offer an associate, baccalaureate, graduate, or professional...2, that is equal to or less than the largest expected family contribution...

2010-07-01

232

34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or more and— (1) You offer an associate, baccalaureate, graduate, or professional...more; or (2) You do not offer an associate, baccalaureate, graduate, or professional...2, that is equal to or less than the largest expected family contribution that...

2010-07-01

233

Summer Reading Program for Disadvantaged Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the summer of 1969, Vicore, Inc. simultaneously conducted four classes in reading improvement skills for disadvantaged youth employed as Summer Aids at the Naval Weapons Laboratory in Dahlgren, Virginia. (Author/EB)

Ramig, Robert R.

1971-01-01

234

Virtues of SIN: can intensified public efforts help disadvantaged immigrants?  

PubMed

The labor market integration of immigrants is a top political priority throughout the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Social and fiscal gains, as well as sustained future labor supply make governments search for effective policies to increase employment among the mostly disadvantaged. The author studies SIN, a Swedish pilot workplace introduction program targeting these groups, using very detailed individual data and allowing for effects through several channels. The results show increased transitions from unemployment to work experience schemes and improved future employment probabilities for those who entered these schemes. A rough calculation suggests that each job year created cost about Euro 30,000. PMID:22020008

Åslund, Olof; Johansson, Per

2011-08-01

235

Social and economic consequences of diabetes in women from low-income countries: a case study from Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Diabetes poses a serious threat to low-income countries such as Bangladesh. It is one of the leading causes of premature morbidity and mortality, and requires life-long healthcare services. Women with diabetes are affected in all stages of their lives. Uniquely, diabetes affects the health of mothers and their unborn children. Poverty, ignorance, and gender discrimination adversely affect women with diabetes. However, the Diabetic Association of Bangladesh has played an increasingly effective role in providing comprehensive socio-medicare and life-long follow-up of diabetic women, free of charge. This is reflected by the increasing attendance of women with diabetes, especially from rural areas. PMID:19155001

Mahtab, Hajera; Habib, Samira H

2009-03-01

236

Young smokers' narratives: public health, disadvantage and structural violence.  

PubMed

This research article on youth smoking in disadvantaged communities is the product of a qualitative study to understand the issues faced by young smokers--and those trying not to be smokers--in such communities. Environmental factors and peer influence are widely recognised influences on adolescents' take-up and continuation of smoking but less is known about whether, what, how and why circumstances in disadvantaged communities affect young people's pathways towards and away from smoking. Focusing on a youth club in a disadvantaged neighbourhood in the North East of England, narratives about young people's relationships with tobacco provide an ethnographically rich, thick description of the experiences of a group that is too often easily ignored. We argue that young people are caught between competing domains that together exert a form of structural violence. These are, first, the economic and political structures that have overseen de-industrialisation; second, the media structures that create desire for what they cannot afford; third the structures of international organised crime that conspire to provide them with the means to consume from which 'legitimate' structures effectively exclude them. Rather than expecting young people to comply with the health imperative, interventions need to bridge issues of agency and critical consciousness, which structural violence otherwise insidiously erodes. PMID:23145793

Lewis, Sue; Russell, Andrew

2013-06-01

237

Community-Based Program Testing: Issues for Disadvantaged Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A career assessment plan that takes into account life experiences, personal circumstances, self-esteem, barriers, expectations, and feelings of those being assessed is more reflective of the whole person. Therefore, a plan can be formulated that is tailored to meet the career development needs of the participant. (Author/JOW)

Reixach, Deborah N.

1996-01-01

238

Smoking and smoking cessation in disadvantaged women: Assessing genetic contributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundant evidence from family, adoption and twin studies points to large genetic contributions to individual differences in vulnerability to develop dependence on one or more addictive substances, including tobacco. Twin data suggests that much of this genetic vulnerability is shared by individuals who are dependent on a variety of addictive substances. Interestingly, some twin data also supports substantial differences in

George R. Uhl; Tomas Drgon; Chuan-Yun Li; Catherine Johnson; Qing-Rong Liu

2009-01-01

239

Guardians of Tradition and Handmaidens to Change: Women's Roles in Creek Economic and Social Life during the Eighteenth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that, during the eighteenth century, Creek women were central elements in both cultural preservation and adaptation to white ways. Discusses the deerskin trade, matrilineal customs, male and female roles, sexuality, marriage, intermarriage between Creek women and white traders, and the role of mixed bloods as cultural intermediaries. (SV)

Braund, Kathryn E. Holland

1990-01-01

240

Outdoor Programmes for Women Only?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need for women-only outdoor programs as an alternative to mixed programs, socialization and stereotyping of gender roles and behavior in society, and barriers to outdoor participation for women. Describes some women-only outdoor programs and their benefits and disadvantages. Provides recommendations concerning program design and…

Nolan, Tammy Leigh; Priest, Simon

1993-01-01

241

A Functional Assessment of the Impact of Advantages and Disadvantages on Breastfeeding Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although health and other benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child have been repeatedly shown, there is still a large proportion of women who do not initiate or continue breastfeeding. The aim of the current study is to analyze the contribution of the presentation of advantages and disadvantages of breastfeeding in developing an attitude…

Van Acker, Frederik; Bakker, Esther

2012-01-01

242

Structural explanations of fertility change: the demographic transition, the economic status of women, and the world system.  

PubMed

The current study departs from existing analyses by examining change in crude birthrates in a large sample of societies spanning all levels of development and by considering the effects of changes in independent variables on unit changes in fertility rates. It tests for the effects of levels and changes in female labor force representation and for effects of levels and changes in variables derived from classic demographic transition theory -- energy consumption per capita and child mortality. Additionally, it considers the possibility that these variables have differing impacts in least-developed (periphery) and developing (semiperiphery) nations than they had in already developed (core) nations. Data on dependent and independent variables were obtained from tables compiled by the World Bank (1980). In the 1st stage of the analysis, associations between coterminous trends in the dependent and independent variables were examined. To measure trends in fertility between 1960-77 the 1960 crude birthrates were sXrtracted from 1977 crude birthrates. Also obtained from the World Tables were child mortality rates (ages 1-4), female labor force representation (females per 100 persons in the labor force), and energy consumption per capita for both 1960 and 1977. Energy consumption per capita was chosen as the indicator of general development. Both 1960 values and changes between 1960 and 1977 were used as independent variables in the analysis. The blocks derived by Snyder and Kick (1979) were used to assign nations to either the core, semiperiphery, or periphery of the world system. It was possible to classify 93 of the original 100 cases, meaning only 7 cases were excluded in the analyses of subgroups. In the 2nd stage of the analysis, associations between fertility change and lagged changes in its proposed determinants were examined. Analysis of coterminous trends allowed for determining if overall trends in the dependent and independent variables were associated. All 3 theories underlying the hypotheses on causes of fertility change -- demographic transition theory, Caldwell's (1978) revision of the latter as it would be reflected in the economic status of women, and world system theory -- received some support, but it is argued that the evidence from the indirect test of Caldwell's theory of fertility decline was mixed, second, that a number of the results converged in their support for demographic transition theory, and third, that the overall pattern of findings failed to correspond well with expectations based on world system's theory. PMID:12340268

Nolan, P D; White, R B

1984-01-01

243

[Women in labor and migration. The female labor market between 1950 and 1990 and migration of women to Santiago, Chile].  

PubMed

Changes in the volume of female migration to Santiago and in the employment patterns of migrant women are analyzed in relationship to changes in the female labor market from 1950 onward, with special emphasis on the years 1970-90. Data sources include published works, the censuses of 1952 to 1982, a 1962 survey on in-migration to Santiago, employment surveys conducted by the University of Chile and the National Institute of Statistics, special tabulations for subsamples of the 1970 and 1982 censuses, and household employment survey information from the fourth quarter of 1993. In 1973 Chile embarked on a process of structural adjustments that affected social expenditures and employment, profoundly modifying urban labor markets. The Chilean economy is currently in a phase of consolidating its productive transformation, with positive results for economic growth and recuperation of employment, but with no reduction of poverty. The explanation of the growth in poverty should be sought in modifications in the conditions of employment of the Chilean population during the productive transformation. Modernization processes such as increased education and access to fertility control contributed to an increase in the number of highly educated women in nonmanual occupations in Santiago, but have not significantly influenced the volume or direction of female migration or modified the disadvantageous occupational profile of migrant women. Gender considerations including cultural norms governing female sexual behavior and nuptiality appear to exercise a decisive influence on the occupational status of migrant women in Santiago. Low status, single women migrating to Santiago have been concentrated in domestic service in part because of their need to find work providing safe living quarters. After 1975, migrant women encountered an increasing proportion of urban women working and looking for work and a structural transformation of domestic service marked by massive absorption of low status nonmigrant women. The disadvantages of migrant women related to their lower age, education, and urban experience have declined or disappeared, but disadvantages related to lack of family and housing in the city have persisted. Continuing high rates of urban poverty in Santiago and substitution of precarious employment for open unemployment have resulted in continuing high rates of female employment. The lack of dynamism in the expansion of female employment, the persistence of gender segmentation of the labor market, continuing tertiarization of female employment, and new trends to precarious employment and increased economic participation of nonmigrant women suggest that occupational patterns of migrant women will not change greatly in the 1990s. Although they have become better educated and prefer to avoid live-in domestic service, their employment options appear limited. PMID:12288287

Szasz, I

1994-06-01

244

Geography and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Location and climate have large effects on income levels and income growth through their effects on transport costs, disease burdens, and agricultural productivity, among other channels. Geography also seems to affect economic policy choices. Many geographic regions that have not been conducive to modern economic growth have high population densities and are experiencing rapid increases in population. At particular disadvantage

John Luke Gallup; Jeffrey D. Sachs; Andrew D. Mellinger

1999-01-01

245

Bio-Social Roles in Peasant Small Ruminant Production: The Importance of Children and Women in Secondary Economic Activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previous research has concluded that women have primary responsibility for small ruminant production in Indonesia. This research, however, has suffered from the lack of an appropriate methodology and theoretical base. We address both of these issues in th...

S. W. Handayani R. B. Brown C. Valdivia

1993-01-01

246

"I do what I have to do to survive": An investigation into the perceptions, experiences and economic considerations of women engaged in sex work in Northern Namibia  

PubMed Central

Background There is little published research investigating sex work in Namibia, particularly in rural areas. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to determine the views of women engaged in sex work in the Oshakati area of Namibia concerning the main factors influencing their use, or non-use, of male condoms during transactional sexual exchanges. Methods Qualitative interviews were used to better understand the perceptions, experiences and economic considerations of female sex workers in Namibia who were involved in a Behavior Change Communication Program encouraging safer sex practices among high-risk populations in 2006 and 2007. Results While the Behavior Change Communication Program has made significant strides in educating and empowering young women to negotiate more consistent condom use with sexual partners, the gendered economic inequalities and power imbalances within rural and semi-urban Namibian society that favor men hinder further advancement towards positive behavioral change for HIV prevention and also hinder the development of the loving relationships sought by some sex workers. Conclusion This study found that sex workers and transactional sex encounters are heterogeneous entities dependent upon the characteristics of the man (known, stranger, wealthy, attractive to the woman) and the woman (in financial need, desiring love). These features all influence condom use. The 3 E's 'education, empowerment and economic independence' are critical factors needed to encourage and facilitate consistent condom use to prevent HIV transmission. Without financial independence and occupational alternatives building on their health education and empowerment, women who engage in sex work-and transactional sex more generally-will remain largely marginalized from Namibian society, and will continue engaging in risky sexual practices that facilitate HIV acquisition and transmission throughout the community.

2011-01-01

247

Teaching the Disadvantaged: A Curriculum Guide for Classes of Disadvantaged Students in Agricultural Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide begins with some observations on teaching disadvantaged students, a list of successful types of learning activities, and recommendations for planning and conducting an effective classroom situation. Also included are 13 general objectives of a program for the disadvantaged. The guide, intended as a source of ideas and directions in…

Crunkilton, John R.

248

Advantage: Disadvantaged Gifted. Presentations from the Third National Conference on Disadvantaged Gifted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The presentations in this volume deal with various aspects of education for the gifted disadvantaged. Maija Blaubergs describes disadvantages experienced by gifted and talented girls in obtaining access to opportunities for achievement congruent with their potentialities. Some of the topics examined are sexist barriers, marriage, institutional and…

Rivlin, Harry N.; And Others

249

Economic evaluation of chemoprevention of breast cancer with tamoxifen and raloxifene among high-risk women in Japan.  

PubMed

Raloxifene was approved for chemoprevention against breast cancer among high-risk women in addition to tamoxifen by the US Food and Drug Administration. This study aims to evaluate cost-effectiveness of these agents under Japan's health system. A cost-effectiveness analysis with Markov model consisting of eight health states such as healthy, invasive breast cancer, and endometrial cancer is carried out. The model incorporated the findings of National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 and P-2 trial, and key costs obtained from health insurance claim reviews. Favourable results, that is cost saving or cost-effective, are found by both tamoxifen and raloxifene for the introduction of chemoprevention among extremely high-risk women such as having a history of atypical hyperplasia, a history of lobular carcinoma in situ or a 5-year predicted breast cancer risk of > or =5.01% starting at younger age, whereas unfavourable results, that is 'cost more and gain less' or cost-ineffective, are found for women with a 5-year predicted breast cancer risk of < or =5.00%. Therapeutic policy switch from tamoxifen to raloxifene among postmenopausal women are implied cost-effective. Findings suggest that introduction of chemoprevention targeting extremely high-risk women in Japan can be justifiable as an efficient use of finite health-care resources, possibly contributing to cost containment. PMID:19142182

Kondo, M; Hoshi, S-L; Toi, M

2009-01-27

250

The Risk Group: Education and Training Policies for Disadvantaged Young People in Sweden and Denmark.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sweden and Denmark are becoming aware that the "at risk" group of unemployed young people present a double-edged risk in that they are economically and socially disadvantaged and constitute a risk for society at large. Sweden and Denmark differ in their responses to the problem. (BRR)

Plunkett, Dudley

1982-01-01

251

The Displaced vs. the Disadvantaged: A Necessary Dichotomy? Occasional Paper 1994-2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current displaced worker initiative towers over the 30-year effort to bring the economically disadvantaged into the mainstream of the labor market. The Congressional Budget Office defines displacement as all workers 18 years of age and older who lose full-time employment due to slack work, job abolition, or plant closure. Major displaced…

Levitan, Sar A.; Mangum, Stephen L.

252

Rehabilitation, Sheltered Workshops, and the Disadvantaged: An Exploration in Manpower Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains presentations and summary of a conference designed to explore the potential of the rehabilitation model in providing rehabilitation and manpower services to the disadvantaged through sheltered workshops. Presented by scholars and practitioners in the fields of manpower economics, psychology, social psychology, sociology,…

State Univ. of New York, Ithaca. School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell Univ.

253

Resources for Working with Disadvantaged Students and Limited English Speaking Students: An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Resources are enumerated for community college personnel working with economically and/or academically disadvantaged students and with students who speak limited English. The document first provides operational definitions for these groups and then lists and discusses resources under the following headings: (1) needs assessment, (2) instruction…

Miller, Susan W., Comp.

254

Maternal Relationship Instability and the School Behavior of Children from Disadvantaged Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examined the relation between the instability of maternal intimate relationships and school behavior of economically disadvantaged third-graders. After ecological correlates were controlled, chronic relationship instability was found to predict externalizing behavior for boys and girls and internalizing behavior for girls,…

Ackerman, Brian P.; Brown, Eleanor D.; D'Eramo, Kristen Schoff; Izard, Carroll E.

2002-01-01

255

Enhancing the Phonological Awareness and Language Skills of Socially Disadvantaged Preschoolers: An Interdisciplinary Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research reported investigated the efficacy of intervention, developed by a speech-language therapist and implemented by a teacher, for the language and phonological awareness (PA) abilities of pre-school, socially disadvantaged children. One study established that children from low socio-economic (SES) backgrounds had poorer skills on both…

McIntosh, Beth; Crosbie, Sharon; Holm, Alison; Dodd, Barbara; Thomas, Sian

2007-01-01

256

Special Environmental Education Project for Disadvantaged Gifted Primary Grade Students: 1980-81.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Outdoor Activity Center (Atlanta, Georgia) provides enriched experiences in a natural environment for economically disadvantaged gifted primary grade students and has developed materials incorporating creative activities used at the Center to expand the elementary science curriculum of the Atlanta Public Schools. Fifty-eight gifted students…

Ballagas, Linda D.

257

Education and the Disadvantaged 20 Years Later.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflects on the rationale for federal involvement in education (particularly on behalf of the disadvantaged), considers the Reagan Administration's efforts to diminish the federal role, discusses research on the effectiveness of federal initiatives, proposes an appropriate federal role, and examines the impact of existing legislation. (Author/PGD)

Stickney, Benjamin D.; Marcus, Laurence R.

1985-01-01

258

Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from Add Health, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community and school controls. Neighborhood violence…

Harding, David J.

2009-01-01

259

Teenage Childbearing and Social Disadvantage: Unprotected Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Continues dialogue begun with two articles on teenage pregnancy and childbearing published in Family Relations in 1991 ("As the Pendulum Swings: Teenage Childbearing and Social Concern" and "Teenage Childbearing and Social and Reproductive Disadvantage: The Evolution of Complex Questions and the Demise of Simple Answers") and responds to previous…

Geronimus, Arline T.

1992-01-01

260

The Leftouts; Disadvantaged Children in Heterogeneous Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work by a social psychologist is concerned with the consequences of the values, attitudes, and behavior of teachers and more advantaged peers for the educational experience of disadvantaged youngsters in heterogeneous schools. The academic, social, and emotional factors in these schools are interdependent and equally important for the…

Warden, Sandra A.

261

LIMITATIONS OF ADMISSIONS TESTING FOR THE DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE USE OF STANDARD ADMISSIONS TESTS HAS OFTEN BEEN CALLED DISCRIMINATORY TOWARDS DISADVANTAGED YOUTHS. TO EXAMINE THE VALIDITY OF THESE COLLEGE ENTRANCE EXAMINATIONS, THE AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION (ACE) TEST SCORES OF 66 HONOR GRADUATES AT NORTH CAROLINA COLLEGE BETWEEN 1954 AND 1959 WERE EXAMINED. IT WAS FOUND THAT 58 OF THEM WOULD NOT HAVE…

BROWN, WALTER M.; RUSSELL, ROGER D.

262

Neighborhood Disadvantage and Reliance on the Police  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary theories suggest that, due to limited access and generalized distrust, residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods are relatively unlikely to report matters to police. Although existing studies reveal few ecological differences in crime reporting, findings may be limited to victim/offense subsets represented in aggregated victimization…

Schaible, Lonnie M.; Hughes, Lorine A.

2012-01-01

263

Lightning protection systems: advantages and disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanics and interaction of lightning producing thunder clouds and earth, are discussed. Compared to the Franklin Air Terminal (rod) and Faraday Cage, the debatable advantages and disadvantages of the Early Streamer Emission Enhanced Ionizing Air Terminal, and Multipoint Discharge Systems, are examined along with conceptual future methods of lightning protection

D. W. Zipse

1993-01-01

264

Pre-testing Orientation for the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pre-testing orientation was incorporated into the Work Incentives Program, a pre-vocational program for disadvantaged youth. Test-taking skills were taught in seven and one half hours of instruction and a variety of methods were used to provide a sequential experience with distributed learning, positive reinforcement, and immediate feedback of…

Mihalka, Joseph A.

265

Children--An Educationally Disadvantaged Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the issue of educational disadvantage in relation to each sex, discusses the dehumanizing effect of sexist education on people in general, and outlines a new concept of humanness, totally divorced from our stereotyped notions of appropriate masculine and feminine behavior. (Author/AJM)

Cust, Marlene A.

1976-01-01

266

Educational Issues of the Socially Disadvantaged Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though enrollment in elementary schools and national literacy rates have increased greatly in India since its independence in 1949, the number of dropouts and illiterate individuals will also continue to increase unless the needs of the socially disadvantaged are identified and met. The majority of the dropouts and the illiterates belong to…

Sreedhar, M. V.

267

Nurturing the Potential of the Gifted Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper traces the concept of the "gifted disadvantaged" child and reviews the development of educational resources for this special population. The National Merit Scholarship Program is described as an example of a program which, though designed to provide opportunities for students from all social strata, until 1964, did not initiate a…

Passow, A. Harry

268

A GENERAL TECHNICIAN PROGRAM FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 2-YEAR GENERAL TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM HAS BEEN PLANNED BY RUTGERS UNIVERSITY AND THE NEWARK SCHOOL SYSTEM AS A MEANS OF PREPARING DISADVANTAGED YOUTH TO ENTER GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT AND ENHANCE THEIR OPPORTUNITY TO IMPROVE THEIR STATION IN LIFE. THE STUDENTS WILL BE DEPRIVED AREA YOUTH WHO ARE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES OR THE EQUIVALENT, GENERALLY FROM THE…

GILLIE, ANGELO C.

269

Academic Enrichment Project for Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the project is to facilitate academically disadvantaged nursing students' success in a baccalaureate nursing program. The program's three main components are student support services, faculty development, and peer tutoring. Student services include diagnostic testing, group sessions, individual tutoring as needed, special workshops…

Burris, Berlean M.

270

Collective Bargaining, Transfer Rights, and Disadvantaged Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collective bargaining is common in American public education, but its consequences are poorly understood. We focus here on key contractual provisions--seniority-based transfer rights--that affect teacher assignments, and we show that these transfer rights operate to burden disadvantaged schools with higher percentages of inexperienced teachers. We…

Anzia, Sarah F.; Moe, Terry M.

2014-01-01

271

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED STATUS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE RECENT CONCERN FOR THE PROBLEMS OF THE POOR IS BEING REFLECTED IN CHANGES IN EDUCATIONAL THEORY AND PRACTICES. EDUCATORS NOW FEEL THAT THE DISADVANTAGED YOUTH IS EDUCABLE AND THAT IT IS THE SCHOOL'S RESPONSIBILITY TO EDUCATE HIM. THERE IS, HOWEVER, THE DANGER THAT THIS PRESENT CONCERN IS ONLY A "FAD" AND THUS WILL PASS. IN THEIR INCREASED…

RIESSMAN, FRANK

272

Thermal disadvantage factor; An efficient calculation  

SciTech Connect

A method is described where reactor cell flux and the disadvantage factor are calculated by using diffusion theory in the moderator and integral transport in the fuel. The method is efficient (noniterative) and provides results that agree well with Monte Carlo, P{sub 5} and ABH results.

Abdullah, K.M.S.; Loyalka, S.K. (Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

1990-01-01

273

Still penalized? Parity, age at first birth and women's income in later life.  

PubMed

Despite policies aimed at decreasing old-age income inequality, such as Social Security and Supplemental Security Income, research consistently finds that later-life poverty is highly concentrated among women. While the early-life economic disadvantages of motherhood are well established, little work has examined whether these disadvantages persist into later life. Life course research consistently demonstrates the relationship between early-life choices and later-life inequality, but few studies have examined whether the reproductive phase of a woman's life is associated with her later-life income. Using data from the 2003 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women cohort, this research examines whether women's age at first birth and parity are associated with her later-life income within the context of marriage. From a set of multivariate analyses, I find that despite a marginal statistically significant effect, substantively for the women in this cohort the effects of childbearing are not particularly consequential for later-life income. The results suggest that as women age the economic penalties associated with motherhood are less important to financial well-being than are other factors. PMID:22757761

Jokinen-Gordon, Hanna

2012-01-01

274

Women in Mauritania: The Effects of Drought and Migration on their Economic Status and Implications for Development Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

What effects did the drought of the 1970's and male migration have on the lives and income-generating ability of Mauritanian women. This report, based on a study of selected sites in Mauritania, answers that question. A Mauritanian woman's ability to earn...

M. Smale

1980-01-01

275

Women Farmers' Perceptions of the Economic Problems Influencing Their Productivity in Agricultural Systems: Meme Division of the Southwest Province, Cameroon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women farmers produce about 60% of the food in Cameroon, but face more problems and constraints than men in performing their agricultural activities. Cash crop farmers (mostly men) are the targeted beneficiaries of government and international aids, and have better access to extension services, loans, subsidized production input (herbicides,…

Endeley, Joyce B.

276

Expressing the sense of the House regarding women's helath and economic security (H RES 94; 113th Congress)  

Cancer.gov

The resolution notes that “uninsured women are 3 times less likely to have had a Pap test in the last 3 years, with a 60 percent greater risk of late-stage cervical cancer diagnosis,” and that “federally funded research is a critical component to understanding

277

Women-Owned Businesses: 1972.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents basic economic data on businesses owned by all women and on minority firms owned by women. These data were compiled for the first time from administrative record information obtained from the 1972 Economic Censuses. Statistics publishe...

1976-01-01

278

Gender Differences in the Social Pathways Linking Neighborhood Disadvantage to Depressive Symptoms in Adults  

PubMed Central

Depression debilitates the lives of millions and is projected to be the second leading disease burden worldwide by 2020. At the population level, the causes of depression are found in the everyday social and physical environments in which people live. Research has shown that men and women often experience neighbourhood environments differently and that these variations are often reflected in health outcomes. The current study examines whether social and environmental correlates of depression are similar in men and women. This study examines whether (i) there are gender differences in the association between neighbourhood disadvantage and depressive symptoms, and (ii) dimensions of social capital and cohesion mediate these associations. Data come from the Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging Study, which consists of a cluster stratified sample of Montreal census tracts (nct?=?300) and individuals within those tracts (ni?=?2707). Depressive symptoms and social capital were measured with a questionnaire. Neighbourhood disadvantage was measured at the census tract level using data from the 2006 Canada Census. Multilevel logistic regression stratified by gender and a three-step mediation analysis procedure were used. Final sample size for these analyses was 2574 adults. Depressive symptoms had a prevalence of 17.3% in the overall sample. Disadvantage was associated with depressive symptoms in women only (OR?=?1.25, 95% CI?=?1.01–1.55). Perceived neighbourhood cohesion was shown to mediate the association of disadvantage and depressive symptoms in women (ab?=?0.02; 95% CI?=?0.003–0.04, p<0.05). Other socio-relational variables, specifically generalized trust and trust in neighbours were associated with depression in women but did not act as mediating variables. Health promotion initiatives meant to combat depression may wish to consider gender differences in the design and implementation of neighbourhood or peer-based programs.

Bassett, Emma; Moore, Spencer

2013-01-01

279

The intergenerational transmission of inequality: maternal disadvantage and health at birth.  

PubMed

Health at birth is an important predictor of long-term outcomes, including education, income, and disability. Recent evidence suggests that maternal disadvantage leads to worse health at birth through poor health behaviors; exposure to harmful environmental factors; worse access to medical care, including family planning; and worse underlying maternal health. With increasing inequality, those at the bottom of the distribution now face relatively worse economic conditions, but newborn health among the most disadvantaged has actually improved. The most likely explanation is increasing knowledge about determinants of infant health and how to protect it along with public policies that put this knowledge into practice. PMID:24855261

Aizer, Anna; Currie, Janet

2014-05-23

280

Economic evaluation of chemoprevention of breast cancer with tamoxifen and raloxifene among high-risk women in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raloxifene was approved for chemoprevention against breast cancer among high-risk women in addition to tamoxifen by the US Food and Drug Administration. This study aims to evaluate cost-effectiveness of these agents under Japan's health system. A cost-effectiveness analysis with Markov model consisting of eight health states such as healthy, invasive breast cancer, and endometrial cancer is carried out. The model

M Kondo; S-L Hoshi; M Toi

2009-01-01

281

Lightning protection systems: advantages and disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful 200-year-old method of using a (Franklin) rod to collect, control, and convey to earth the awesome and destructive power of lightning has produced other controversial, potential alternate methods. The mechanics and interaction of lightning-producing thunderclouds and earth are discussed. Compared to the Franklin air terminal (rod) and Faraday cage method, the debatable advantages and disadvantages of the early

Donald W. Zipse

1994-01-01

282

Lessons from Successful Schools in Disadvantaged Settings: It's Both What You Do and the Way That You Do It, That's What Gets Results!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the UK, and elsewhere in the world, schools with a higher level of pupil socio-economic disadvantage generally have lower levels of pupil attainment. However, some primary schools in Wales buck this trend. They have both high levels of disadvantage and high levels of attainment. The authors studied 18 of these schools to answer the questions:…

James, Chris; Dunning, Gerald; Connolly, Michael; Elliott, Tony

2006-01-01

283

How does gender influence immigrant and refugee women's postpartum depression help-seeking experiences?  

PubMed

The number of migrants arriving in Canada from non-European countries has grown significantly over the past three decades. How best to assist these escalating numbers of immigrant and refugee women to adapt to their new environment and to cope with postpartum depression (PPD) is a pressing issue for healthcare providers. Evidence has shown that immigrant and refugee women experience difficulties in accessing care and treatment for PPD. This qualitative study was conducted with 30 immigrant and refugee women using in-depth interviews to obtain information about the women's PPD experiences. The primary aim was to explore how cultural, social, political, historical and economic factors intersect with race, gender and class to influence the ways in which immigrant and refugee women seek help to manage PPD. Results reveal that immigrant and refugee women experience many complex gender-related challenges and facilitators in seeking equitable help for PPD treatment and prevention. We will demonstrate that (a) structural barriers and gender roles hinder women's ability to access necessary mental healthcare services and (b) insecure immigration status coupled with emotional and economic dependence may leave women vulnerable and disadvantaged in protecting themselves against PPD. PMID:22962942

O'Mahony, J M; Donnelly, T T

2013-10-01

284

Working Class Women as Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While numerous surveys have shown that women academics are being hired in increasing numbers, white women from working class backgrounds are disadvantaged in obtaining tenure track university positions, because they have degrees from less prestigious universities, and their backgrounds have not prepared them for the publish or perish atmosphere of…

Tokarczyk, Michelle M.

285

Evolution of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Disadvantaged  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the scope, function, and history of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Disadvantaged (ERIC-UD). This clearinghouse was formerly the Information Retrieval Center on the Disadvantaged (IRCD). (DE)

Smith, Paul M., Jr.; Jablonsky, Adelaide

1970-01-01

286

77 FR 36924 - Airport Concessions Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OST-2011-0101] RIN 2105-AE10 Airport Concessions Disadvantaged Business Enterprise...amends the Department of Transportation's Airport Concessions Disadvantaged Business Enterprise...DBE) rule for highway, transit, and airport financial assistance programs. This...

2012-06-20

287

48 CFR 52.219-22 - Small Disadvantaged Business Status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...certification as a small disadvantaged business concern or submission of its...authorized small disadvantaged business procurement mechanisms and...http://www.acquisition.gov/References/sdbadjustments...offeror as listed on the Small Business Administrations register...

2013-10-01

288

48 CFR 1519.204 - Small disadvantaged business participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Small disadvantaged business participation. 1519.204 Section...AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.204 Small disadvantaged business participation. (a) The...

2013-10-01

289

The impact of disadvantage on the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Background Disadvantaged people include those experiencing economic, social or educational deprivation and, in some cases, those undergoing rapid transition from subsistence to industrial economies. Disadvantaged people worldwide are affected disproportionately by the global epidemic of diabetes. They are also at increased risk of kidney disease attributable to diabetes, and for many, the cost of managing their kidney disease far exceeds their available resources. Methods We review factors associated with disadvantage that may increase the risk of diabetic kidney disease, and the barriers to care that hinder attempts to provide an adequate therapeutic response. Results and conclusions A rapidly rising prevalence and magnitude of obesity among children and adults, increasing frequency of intrauterine exposure to diabetes, and inadequate access to healthcare are responsible, in part, for a surge in the frequency of diabetes and, in turn, diabetic kidney disease among disadvantaged people. These factors may also predispose to an earlier onset of diabetes and kidney disease, thereby perpetuating the disadvantage by reducing the earning potential of those affected through illness and disability.

Weil, E.J.; Curtis, J.M.; Hanson, R.L.; Knowler, W.C.; Nelson, R.G.

2012-01-01

290

Social stability and health: exploring multidimensional social disadvantage.  

PubMed

Social stability is an understudied construct in public health that offers a useful framework for understanding social disadvantage across multiple domains. This study investigated prevalence and patterns of cooccurrence among a hypothesized set of social stability characteristics (housing, residential transition, employment, income, incarceration, and partner relationship), evaluated the possibility of underlying subgroups of social stability, and investigated the association between social stability and health outcomes. Data were from comprehensive interviews with primarily African-American low income urban women and their female social network members (n?=?635) in Baltimore. Analysis included exploratory statistics, latent class analysis, and latent class regression accounting for clustered data using Stata and Mplus software. Social stability characteristics cooccurred in predictable directions, but with heterogeneity. Respondents had an average of three stability characteristics (S.D.: 1.4). Latent class analysis identified two classes of social stability: low (25%) and high (75%), with the higher class less likely to experience each of the included indicators. In controlled models, higher social stability was significantly correlated with social network characteristics and neighborhood integration. Higher social stability was independently associated with reduced risk of chronic illness (AOR: 0.54, 95% C.I.: 0.31, 0.94), mental illness history (AOR: 0.24, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.39), and current depressive symptoms (AOR: 0.35, 95% C.I.: 0.22, 0.57). The current set of social stability characteristics appears to represent a single construct with identifiable underlying subgroups and associated health disparities. Findings suggest a need for comprehensive policies and programs that address structural determinants of cooccurring social disadvantage and help to mitigate the likely spiral effect of instability experiences. PMID:22131164

German, Danielle; Latkin, Carl A

2012-02-01

291

Reading Instruction for the Disadvantaged: Is It Adequate?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that some progress has been made in teaching the socially disadvantaged to read, defines the socially disadvantaged, lists the causes of reading retardation among disadvantaged children, and suggests actions to overcome present inadequacies. Includes a pro-reaction and a con-reaction paper. Bibliography. (WB)

Lloyd, Helene M.

1968-01-01

292

Beliefs About Rape and Women's Social Roles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hypothesis that views of rape which place women at a disadvantage are positively related to beliefs which restrict the rights and roles of women in our society is tested. Two scales, the R scale and the W scale, based on a survey of beliefs about rape (Hubert Feild) and the attitudes toward women's scale (Janet Spence and Robert Helmreich),…

Costin, Frank; And Others

293

Beliefs about rape and women's social roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis tested was that beliefs about rape that place women at a disadvantage are positively related to beliefs that restrict the rights and roles of women in our society. Two scales, the R scale and the W scale, based on a survey of beliefs about rape (Feild, 1978) and the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (Spence and Helmreich, 1972), were

Frank Costin

1985-01-01

294

Women who sell sex in a Ugandan trading town: life histories, survival strategies and risk.  

PubMed

Little is known about the background of commercial sex workers in Africa. This study investigated how women in a trading town on the trans-Africa highway in southwest Uganda become involved in commercial sex work, which factors contribute to their economic success or lack of success, and what effect life trajectories and economic success have on negotiating power and risk behaviour. Over the course of two years detailed life histories of 34 women were collected through recording open, in-depth interviews, the collection of sexual and income and expenditure diaries, visits to the women's native villages, and participant observation. The women share similar disadvantaged backgrounds and this has played a role in their move into commercial sex. They have divergent experiences, however, in their utilisation of opportunities and in the level of success they achieve. They have developed different life styles and a variety of ways of dealing with sexual relationships. Three groups of women were identified: (1) women who work in the back-street bars, have no capital of their own and are almost entirely dependent on selling sex for their livelihood; (2) waitresses in the bars along the main road who engage in a more institutionalised kind of commercial sex, often mediated by middlemen and (3) the more successful entrepreneurs who earn money from their own bars as well as from commercial sex. The three groups had different risk profiles. Due partly to their financial independence from men, women in the latter group have taken control of sexual relationships and can negotiate good sexual deals for themselves, both financially and in terms of safe sex. The poorer women were more vulnerable and less able to negotiate safer sex. A disadvantaged background and restricted access to economic resources are the major reasons for women gravitating to commercial sex work. Various aspects of personality play a role in utilising income from commercial sex to set up an economic basis that then makes the selling of sex unnecessary. This has implications for interventions, and part of the longer-term solution should lie in improving the economic position of women vis-à-vis men. PMID:11824924

Gysels, Marjolein; Pool, Robert; Nnalusiba, Betty

2002-01-01

295

The decade for women...1985 and beyond.  

PubMed

This special issue of "The Tribune" attempts to answer the many requests for information on the Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace. There has been a particular need for specific information on plans and preparations for the 1985 World Conference. Information is gathered in this issue on background to the Decade, the views of various governmental and nongovernmental groups concerning the issues and priorities of the Conference, the preparations underway, some of the major initiatives taken in the Decade, and some useful addresses for soliciting further information. The Program of Action for the 2nd half of the UN Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace focuses on ensuring women's increased participation in the realization of the objectives of the World Plan of Action. In particular, the World Plan of Action gives high priority to improving the conditions of the most disadvantaged groups of women, especially the rural and urban poor and the vast group of women workers in the tertiary sector. The Program of Action reiterates these priorities, particularly those disadvantaged because of socioeconomic and historic conditions, with emphasis on the rural and urban poor and on the subthemes: employment; education; and health. The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) invited nongovermental organizations (NGOs); intergovernmental organizations; UN specialized agencies, organs, and organizations; regional commissions; and member states to submit their views on their contributions to the World Conference and the possible themes and issues of the Conference, in writing, to the Center for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs, for consolidated presentation to the preparatory body. Summaries of the views expressed by these groups are provided. Overall, there was an emphasis given by the Member States to the importance of involving women and women's organizations in the preparations for the Conference. In many replies it was indicated that the review and appraisal of the achievements of the Decade should be the primary task of the Conference. As a corollary, and of equal importance, that Conference should consider actions to be taken to resolve the problems that are faced by the women and to hasten their advancement. PMID:12264953

1983-01-01

296

Women’s preference for laparoscopic or abdominal hysterectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, women’s preferences on advantages and disadvantages of laparoscopic hysterectomy (LH) and abdominal\\u000a hysterectomy (AH) have been studied. Patients’ preferences were evaluated in individual, structured interviews in women scheduled\\u000a for hysterectomy and questionnaires in nurses. Forty-three patients and 39 nurses were included. After general information,\\u000a 84% of patients and 74% of nurses preferred LH over AH. This

Kirsten B. Kluivers; Brent C. Opmeer; Peggy M. Geomini; Marlies Y. Bongers; Mark E. Vierhout; Gérard L. Bremer; Ben W. J. Mol

2009-01-01

297

Reconceptualizing the Association between Food Insufficiency and Body Weight: Distinguishing Hunger from Economic Hardship  

PubMed Central

What is the association between food insufficiency and body weight? Although common sense would suggest a negative association, research often finds the opposite. We contrast commodity theories of material privation with stress theories, proposing that the seemingly counterintuitive association results from the confounding influence of economic hardship. Because it is a chronic stressor, economic hardship may contribute to overweight. Data from the WCF project of 2,402 disadvantaged women in Chicago, Boston, and San Antonio show that people who experience economic hardship weigh more; and that the true negative association between body weight and food insufficiency—especially going hungry because one cannot afford food—is revealed only after adjustment for economic hardship.

Ross, Catherine E.; Hill, Terrence D.

2013-01-01

298

Overcoming Disadvantage through the Innovative Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australia is a high performing but low equity country with regards to educational attainment. Low socio-economic background students and schools with large numbers of these students perform less well than higher socio-economic background students and schools. Yet some schools are turning around student learning outcomes despite the impact of…

Black, Rosalyn

2006-01-01

299

Adjustment to university and academic performance among disadvantaged students in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adjustment to the university environment is regarded as an important factor in predicting university outcomes. This study explores the pathways taken by adjustment and other psychosocial variables (help?seeking, academic motivation, self?esteem, perceived stress, and perceived academic overload), in relation to the success of economically and educationally disadvantaged students at university. Participants were 194 first?year students on need?based financial aid at

Johann Louw; Kitty Dumont

2009-01-01

300

Economic considerations related to providing adequate pain relief for women in labour: comparison of epidural and intravenous analgesia.  

PubMed

Epidural analgesia and intravenous analgesia with opioids are two techniques for providing pain relief for women in labour. Labour pain is comparable to surgical pain in its severity, and epidural analgesia provides better relief from this pain than intravenous analgesia; a meta-analysis quantified this improvement to be 40 mm on a 100mm pain scale during the first stage of labour. Epidural analgesia also has fewer adverse effects. However, providing epidural analgesia for labour pain costs more. The full cost of providing epidural analgesia can be divided into two components: a baseline-cost component, which captures the costs of hospital care to parturients receiving intravenous analgesia for labour pain; and an incremental-cost component, which estimates the costs arising from incremental care specific to epidural analgesia. The baseline component may be constructed using hospital cost-accounting data pertaining to actual obstetric patients. The incremental component is constructed from a set of recognised complications of epidural and intravenous analgesia, associated incidence rates and estimates of the costs involved, from society's perspective. The incremental expected cost per patient to society of providing epidural analgesia was calculated to be approximately $US338 (1998 values). This cost difference results primarily from increased professional costs (and is particularly sensitive to the method used to estimate the cost of anaesthesia professional services) and increased complication costs associated with epidural analgesia. A rational social policy for providing labour analgesia must weigh the value of improved pain relief from epidural analgesia against the increased cost of epidural analgesia. PMID:11994040

Huang, Cecil; Macario, Alex

2002-01-01

301

Jobs for Disadvantaged Workers: The Economics of Employment Subsidies. Studies in Social Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These nine papers are from a conference held at Brookings Institution on April 3-4, 1980, focusing on subsidizing private sector job creation for workers with structural employment problems. Chapter 1 summarizes the papers and conference proceedings. The remaining nine chapters are divided into three parts consisting of three papers each. Part 1…

Haveman, Robert H., Ed.; Palmer, John L., Ed.

302

Women as Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This examination of structural changes in the U.S. economy and its effect on the role of working women presents a policy agenda for alleviating some of the economic strains facing today's working woman. Material is arranged into 3 parts. Part 1 provides an historical backdrop and discusses women's shift out of housework, women as providers, and…

Barrett, Nancy S.

303

Helping Women into Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With women bearing a disproportionate share of economic hardship, their poor representation on training designed to tackle barriers to work is a critical concern. The author asks what can be done to improve women's access to this sort of learning. As the underrecruitment of women to ESF pre-employment programmes demonstrates, the author suggests…

Ward, Jane

2011-01-01

304

HIV, poverty and women.  

PubMed

This review examines the interactions of financial status and HIV and its implications for women. MEDLINE and Google scholar were searched using the keywords 'women', 'poverty' and 'HIV' in any field of the article. The search was limited to articles published in English over the last 10 years. The first section of the article tries to establish whether poverty or wealth is a risk factor for HIV. There is credible evidence for both arguments. While wealth shows an increased risk for both sexes, poverty places women at a special disadvantage. The second section explains how the financial status interacts with other 'non biological' factors to put women at increased risk. While discrimination based on these factors disadvantage women, there are some paradoxical observations that do not fit with the traditional line of explanation (e.g. paradoxical impact of wealth and education on HIV). The final section assesses the impact of HIV in driving poverty and the role of women in interventional programmes. The specific impact of poverty on females in families living with HIV is less explored. Though microfinance initiatives to empower women are a good idea in theory, the actual outcome of such a programme is less convincing. PMID:24037044

Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Rajapakse, Senaka

2010-03-01

305

Women in the American Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trends in the economic status of women in the United States and their implications for society and women themselves are traced in this publication. The report focuses on women in the work force, including occupation and wage gains relative to men; poverty status; economic consequence of changes in trends related to living arrangements, education,…

Taeuber, Cynthia M.; Valdisera, Victor

1986-01-01

306

Women and Development - A Case for Development of Women Entrepreneurship? With Special Reference to Indian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic independence is a pre-requisite for women's movement towards gender equality. It is high time that the planners realise that women are contributories in the development process and not mere beneficiaries- they do not need welfare schemes but income generation opportunities. Regardless of social taboos more and more women are being pushed towards paid employment because of economic hardships. Development

Jyotsna Sethi

1998-01-01

307

Multiple disadvantages among older citizens: what a multidimensional measure of poverty can show.  

PubMed

Using the newly created Freedom Poverty Measure, a multidimensional measure of poverty, it can be seen that there were 534,700 individuals who were in freedom poverty, who had either poor health or poor education in addition to having low incomes. This multidimensional disadvantage would not normally be captured by single measures of poverty, such as income poverty measures. Men were significantly less likely to be in freedom poverty than women (OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.54-0.74, p < .0001), and the proportion of individuals in freedom poverty increased with age, with those older than 85 being 2.3 times more likely to be in freedom poverty than those aged 65 to 69 years (95% CI: 1.73-3.11, p < .0001). Policy responses to address the marginalization of disadvantaged older people should take a multidisciplinary approach, addressing health inequalities in particular, not just low income. PMID:23216346

Callander, Emily J; Schofield, Deborah J; Shrestha, Rupendra N

2012-01-01

308

Adjustment to Parenthood Among a Select Group of Disadvantaged Parents: An Affective Evaluation Study. Parent Involvement Report No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty disadvantaged couples are compared with a cross-sectional norm group from a previous study in order to determine if socio-economic status is a significant variable in the difficulty experienced in adjusting to first time parenthood, and to determine if there is a statistical significant difference between selected variables such as sex, pre-…

Tooke, Sharon K.; Lind, Robert W.

309

No Gift Wasted: Effective Strategies for Educating Highly Able, Disadvantaged Students in Mathematics and Science. Volume I: Findings. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

General findings from an analysis of district-wide and school-level efforts to develop highly able, economically disadvantaged students' academic skills and creative talents in mathematics and science are described. Data were collected from 29 school districts or schools located throughout the United States. Telephone interviews were conducted…

Alamprese, Judith A.; Erlanger, Wendy J.

310

Prevalence of behavioral and emotional disturbance and specific problem types in a sample of disadvantaged preschool?aged children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goals of this study were to document the prevalence of behavioral and emotional disturbance in a sample of economically disadvantaged preschool?aged children, and to establish base rates of specific problem types through a method of systematic categorization. In conjunction with a large screening project, 462 Head Start children were rated by their teachers on the Preschool Behavior Questionnaire

David R. Anderson

1983-01-01

311

Migration and women's health.  

PubMed

Women have been migrating at similar rates to men for the past 40 years, and comprised about half of all migrants in 2005. Women and children are most affected by displacement as a result of wars and human trafficking. In some cases, the health of female migrants is improved via integration into better health systems in the host country. More often, however, the health of female migrants is affected negatively. Women are doubly disadvantaged because they are discriminated against as women and as migrants. Female migrants are also highly vulnerable to acts of sexual abuse, rape, and violence. This is especially true for women in refugee camps, whose reproductive health needs are often overlooked. To improve the health of female migrants it is important to develop and implement policies that recognize and insist on the respect of the rights of migrants. PMID:19539929

Adanu, Richard M K; Johnson, Timothy R B

2009-08-01

312

Nuclear reactor operator training for disadvantaged Americans  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics Department of the University of Virginia was awarded a grant by the US Department of Energy in 1984 to establish and administer a reactor operator training program for disadvantaged Americans. Stipends were provided by the US DOE for five trainees with the anticipation that four other educational facilities would participate in the program. Sub-contracts were awarded to four other Universities: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The University of Missouri at Columbia, Oregon State University, and The State University of New York at Buffalo. The initial two year program was very successful and the grant was renewed in late 1986 for another two years. MIT declined to participate in the second program and was replaced by Ohio State University. U.VA. was notified in September, 1987 that new funding would no longer be provided for this program after December, 1987. U.VA. requested and was granted a no cost extention for the program through December, 1990, since sufficient funds remained in the initial grant to pursue the program further. DOE subsequently approved a no cost extension through November, 1992.

Farrar, J.P.; Mulder, R.U.

1992-12-01

313

Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.  

PubMed

The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

Porter, M E

1992-01-01

314

Newer antiepileptic drugs: advantages and disadvantages.  

PubMed

The choice of an antiepileptic drug depends firstly on its efficacy in specific seizure types and epilepsies. However, it is imperative to consider whether possible adverse events will outweigh any benefits. The advantages and disadvantages of vigabatrin, lamotrigine, gabapentin, topiramate, tiagabine and felbamate are considered in some detail, and oxcarbazepine, stiripentol, remacemide, zonisamide and levetiracetam more briefly. Vigabatrin is effective for partial seizures and infantile spasms, but visual field defects are limiting its use. Lamotrigine has a wide spectrum, needs to be prescribed with care. Gabapentin is unlikely to cause adverse effects, but has relatively poor efficacy. Topiramate is widely effective, but can be poorly tolerated. Tiagabine is relatively untried in childhood epilepsies. The use of felbamate is restricted to severe refractory epilepsies. Stiripentol can be effective in severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy. Zonisamide has a special place in the progressive myoclonus epilepsies. Levetiracetam, remacemide and oxcarbazepine have been used mainly for partial seizures: further studies of their roles in other circumstances are required. PMID:11504596

Wallace, S J

2001-08-01

315

Women, poverty and adverse maternal outcomes in Nairobi, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background The link between poverty and adverse maternal outcomes has been studied largely by means of quantitative data. We explore poor urban Kenyan women's views and lived experiences of the relationship between economic disadvantage and unpleasant maternal outcomes. Method Secondary analysis of focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews data with women in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya. Results Urban poor women in Nairobi associate poverty with adverse maternal outcomes. However, their accounts and lived experiences of the impact of poverty on maternal outcomes underscore dynamics other than those typically stressed in the extant literature. To them, poverty primarily generates adverse maternal outcomes by exposing women to exceedingly hard and heavy workloads during pregnancy and the period surrounding it; to intimate partner violence; as well as to inhospitable and unpleasant treatment by service providers. Conclusions Poverty has wider and more intricate implications for maternal outcomes than are acknowledged in extant research. To deliver their expected impact, current efforts to promote better maternal outcomes must be guided by a more thorough perspective of the link between women's livelihoods and their health and wellbeing.

2010-01-01

316

Affiliation to youth gangs during adolescence: the interaction between childhood psychopathic tendencies and neighborhood disadvantage.  

PubMed

Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join. In this study, we tested whether a combination of individual propensity and facilitating neighborhood conditions amplifies the probabilities of youth gang affiliation. A subset of 3,522 adolescents was selected from a nationally representative, prospective sample of Canadian youth. Psychopathic tendencies (i.e., a combination of high hyperactivity, low anxiety, and low prosociality as compared to national norms) were assessed through parent reports, while neighborhood characteristics (i.e., concentrated economic disadvantage and residential instability) were derived from the 2001 Census of Canada. Our results indicated that neighborhood residential instability, but not neighborhood concentrated economic disadvantage, interacted with individual propensity to predict youth gang membership. Adolescents with preexisting psychopathic tendencies appeared especially vulnerable mainly if they were raised in residentially unstable neighborhoods. PMID:17610153

Dupéré, Véronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

2007-12-01

317

Hopes and Fears: The Life Choices, Aspirations and Well-Being of Young Rural Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An Australian study of 40,000 women found that the age at which young women have children is related to broader patterns of social inequality and to the disadvantagement of young rural women. Of particular concern is the increasing polarization between better-educated young women who defer motherhood and less-educated women who have children at a…

Warner-Smith, Penny; Lee, Christina

2001-01-01

318

Characterizing the Bilingual Disadvantage in Noun Phrase Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Up to now, evidence on bilingual disadvantages in language production comes from tasks requiring single word retrieval. The present study aimed to assess whether there is a bilingual disadvantage in multiword utterances, and to determine the extent to which such effect is present in onset latencies, articulatory durations, or both. To do so, we…

Sadat, Jasmin; Martin, Clara D.; Alario, F. Xavier; Costa, Albert

2012-01-01

319

Language Development of Socially Disadvantaged Preschool Children. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between various aspects of mother-child interaction and the language performance of young disadvantaged Negro children is assessed in this study. An exploratory survey was conducted to determine if mothers in socially disadvantaged families were willing to enter a parent participation preschool program. Subjects for this study,…

Leler, Hazel

320

Fathers' accounts of struggle and growth in early adulthood: an exploratory study of disadvantaged men.  

PubMed

This chapter explores how fatherhood prompts struggle and growth in the psychological, social, and economic changes associated with the transition to adulthood. Little is known about these connections, especially for disadvantaged Latino and White fathers who live in small and mid-sized American communities. We draw on eight in-depth focus groups with 48 fathers (27 Latino and 21 White) who have children in low-income schools in a small and mid-sized American community. These men face significant challenges in establishing themselves at work-a central task of both adulthood and fatherhood-and in balancing these demands alongside the strong expectation that they also be involved fathers. Involved fathering is key to understanding dynamics related to identity and meaning and to relationships with spouses and friends, which are also intertwined with the process of becoming adult. The discussion considers how fatherhood can promote and constrain adult development for disadvantaged men. PMID:24677649

Settersten, Richard A; Day, Jack K; Cancel-Tirado, Doris; Driscoll, Debra Minar

2014-03-01

321

Improving the life-course development of socially disadvantaged mothers: a randomized trial of nurse home visitation.  

PubMed Central

We evaluated a comprehensive program of prenatal and postpartum nurse home visitation for socially disadvantaged women bearing first children. Eighty-five per cent of the participating women were either teenagers (less than 19 years at registration), unmarried, or of low socioeconomic status. Women were randomly assigned to either nurse home visitation or comparison services (free transportation for prenatal and well-child care and/or sensory and developmental screening for the child). During the first four years after delivery of their first child, in contrast to their counterparts in the comparison group, nurse-visited White women who had not graduated from high school when they registered in the study returned to school more rapidly; nurse-visited, poor, unmarried White women showed an 82 per cent increase in the number of months they were employed, had 43 per cent fewer subsequent pregnancies, and postponed the birth of second children an average of 12 months longer.

Olds, D L; Henderson, C R; Tatelbaum, R; Chamberlin, R

1988-01-01

322

Meeting the Needs of Rural Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the gender order that operates in rural areas of Australia, ensuring that women are accorded secondary status, that their contributions are discounted, and that their concerns are trivialized. Women are disadvantaged by patriarchal gender relations that dominate rural society and that are reinforced by ideologies of family and…

Alston, Margaret

323

Disadvantaged and Non-Disadvantaged Urban High School Students' Perceptions of Work within General Merchandise Retail Department Stores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identifies the perceptions of urban disadvantaged 10th grade students toward employment in distributive education occupations within general merchandise department stores, and compares these perceptions with those held by urban 10th grade students not considered disadvantaged and with those already employed in department stores. Based…

Bennett, James Gordon, Jr.

324

Factors associated with health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agriculture  

PubMed Central

Background Women facing social and economic disadvantage in stressed communities of developing countries are at greater risk due to health problems. This paper investigates the relationships between structural, health and psychosocial predictors among women in mining and agricultural communities. This paper is a report of a study of the predictors of the health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agricultural communities. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional research design was used. The instruments used are SF-36 Health Survey and Coping Strategy Checklist. ANOVA, MANOVA and GLM were used in the analysis. The study was conducted between January-September 2008 with randomly selected women in a mining (145) and an agricultural community (133) in India. Results Women in the agricultural community had significantly increased Physical Health, Mental Health and SF36 scores compared with those in the mining community. Years of stay, education and employment were significant predictors among women in the agricultural community. 39% (33%) and 40% (26%) of the variance in Physical and Mental health respectively among women in agricultural and mining communities are predicted by the structural, health and psychosocial variables. Conclusion Perceived health status should be recognised as an important assessment of Physical and Mental Health among women in rural stressed communities. Cognitive, emotional and behavioural coping strategies are significant predictors of health related quality of life. Implications. Nurses should use the SF-36 as a diagnostic tool for assessing health related quality of life among women and discuss coping strategies, so that these can target women’s adaptive behaviour. This should be an essential part of the nursing process for facilitating adaptive process for improved health related quality of life.

2013-01-01

325

Social and cultural factors in the etiology of low birthweight among disadvantaged blacks.  

PubMed

This report gives results from eight intensive, exploratory interviews with Black women who suffered infant deaths within one year after delivery. Interviews were conducted as a final step in a research project to discover the correlates of very low birthweight among disadvantaged women in a city which maintains among the highest low birthweight and infant mortality rates in the United States. Qualitative results are presented within the context of a case/control study based on an in-depth medical record review. Statistical results showed that prenatal care, alcoholism, migrant status, smoking, hypertension history and previous poor pregnancy outcome distinguished women with very low birthweight infants. The medical record review also implicated violence, weak social support systems, poor social and psychological adjustments and ineffective contraception. Interview results further explore the social and psychological context of pregnancy for the disadvantaged inner city Black woman. Three-quarters of all women are unmarried at the time of delivery, and interviewed women expressed bitterness and resentment toward the men in their livers for non-support. They received the most help from 'girlfriends', and not consistent support--as expected--from mothers and female kin. Answers to open-ended questions and responses to a specially designed interview section on attitudes and beliefs suggest that these women conceptually dissociate three important areas of cultural focus: relationships with men, pregnancy and childbirth; and, that they value the 'gestator' role as separate from the role of 'mother'. They espouse contradictory beliefs about men: they believe that men are predatory and not trustworthy, but also more mainstream beliefs that call for reliance on the opposite sex. Because of their unstable relationships with men and their long histories of poor pregnancy outcome and termination, they face frequent disappointment. Responses to items in the attitudes and beliefs section suggest that these women feel powerless, hopeless and that life is somewhat meaningless. However, items designed to test Lewis' 'culture of poverty' do not support the concept of a consistent intergenerational poverty lifestyle. The report closes with a section on program and policy development in several areas: public health recordkeeping, health style education programs, special training programs for physicians and other health personnel, and some type of program to combat the social alienation and psychological distress of inner city women during pregnancy. PMID:4012345

Boone, M S

1985-01-01

326

The Role of Older Women in the Work Force. Hearing before the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents witness testimony and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine the role of older women in the work force. The opening statement from Representative Olympia J. Stowe stresses the need for Congress to recognize the social realities facing older women when it considers changes in education, job…

Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

327

Problems of Working Women. Hearing before the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Testimony from a congressional hearing on the dual role women play as wage earners and as mothers is presented. Other focuses of the hearing include what is being done and what needs to be done by the public and private sectors to facilitate the entry of women into a broad range of occupations, including higher paid nontraditional areas.…

Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

328

Problems and Potentials of Individualized Instruction for Disadvantaged Students.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the operation and results of an individualized center funded under an Office of Education grant for the provision of special services to disadvantaged students. This center is designed to apply individualized instructional techniques ...

H. R. Boylan

1976-01-01

329

Review of ADHD Pharmacotherapies: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Clinical Pearls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advantages, disadvantages, as well as helpful hints on when to use several drug therapies against attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are discussed. The drugs discussed are methylphenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, and bupropion.

Daughton, Joan M.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

2009-01-01

330

76 FR 5083 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the follow-on NPRM the Department is planning to issue. Miscellaneous Comments Several...cause recipients to expend significant resources on program modifications. For these...PARTICIPATION BY DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

2011-01-28

331

Advantages and Disadvantages of Greek Universities: Implications for Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the present situation in Greek universities, their goals and characteristics, and the conditions under which these goals can be accomplished. The advantages and disadvantages and legislative framework and internal regulations of Greek universities are discussed. (Author/VWL)

Spyrou, Nicholas K.

1997-01-01

332

Rethinking the Issues Regarding the Culturally Disadvantaged Gifted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aspects covered include definitions, identification, and appropriate educational programing. Several programing strategies are briefly described, and attention is given to the problem of creating an effective learning environment for the disadvantaged gifted child. (DLS)

Frasier, Mary M.

1979-01-01

333

48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disadvantaged business status. 19.304 Section 19.304 ...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs...

2013-10-01

334

Social disadvantage, genetic sensitivity, and children's telomere length  

PubMed Central

Disadvantaged social environments are associated with adverse health outcomes. This has been attributed, in part, to chronic stress. Telomere length (TL) has been used as a biomarker of chronic stress: TL is shorter in adults in a variety of contexts, including disadvantaged social standing and depression. We use data from 40, 9-y-old boys participating in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to extend this observation to African American children. We report that exposure to disadvantaged environments is associated with reduced TL by age 9 y. We document significant associations between low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure, and harsh parenting and TL. These effects were moderated by genetic variants in serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways. Consistent with the differential susceptibility hypothesis, subjects with the highest genetic sensitivity scores had the shortest TL when exposed to disadvantaged social environments and the longest TL when exposed to advantaged environments.

Mitchell, Colter; Hobcraft, John; McLanahan, Sara S.; Siegel, Susan Rutherford; Berg, Arthur; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Garfinkel, Irwin; Notterman, Daniel

2014-01-01

335

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Australian Adults: Prevalence, Persistence, Conduct Problems and Disadvantage  

PubMed Central

Background The Prevalence and persistence of ADHD have not been described in young Australian adults and few studies have examined how conduct problems (CP) are associated with ADHD for this age group. We estimate lifetime and adult prevalence and persistence rates for three categories of ADHD for 3795 Australian adults, and indicate how career, health and childhood risk factors differ for people with ADHD symptoms and ADHD symptoms plus CP. Methodology Trained interviewers collected participant experience of ADHD, CP, education, employment, childhood experience, relationship and health variables. Three diagnostic definitions of ADHD used were (i) full DSM-IV criteria; (ii) excluding the age 7 onset criterion (no age criterion); (iii) participant experienced difficulties due to ADHD symptoms (problem symptoms). Results Prevalence rates in adulthood were 1.1%, 2.3% and 2.7% for each categorization respectively. Persistence of ADHD from childhood averaged across gender was 55.3% for full criteria, 50.3% with no age criterion and 40.2% for problem symptoms. ADHD symptoms were associated with parental conflict, poor health, being sexually assaulted during childhood, lower education, income loss and higher unemployment. The lifetime prevalence of conduct problems for adults with ADHD was 57.8% and 6.9% for adults without ADHD. The greatest disadvantage was experienced by participants with ADHD plus CP. Conclusion The persistence of ADHD into adulthood was greatest for participants meeting full diagnostic criteria and inattention was associated with the greatest loss of income and disadvantage. The disadvantage associated with conduct problems differed in severity and was relevant for a high proportion of adults with ADHD. Women but not men with ADHD reported more childhood adversity, possibly indicating varied etiology and treatment needs. The impact and treatment needs of adults with ADHD and CP and the report of sexual assault during childhood by women and men with ADHD also deserve further study.

Ebejer, Jane L.; Medland, Sarah E.; van der Werf, Julius; Gondro, Cedric; Henders, Anjali K.; Lynskey, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G.; Duffy, David L.

2012-01-01

336

Effects of Welfare Reform on Education Acquisition of Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes.

Dave, Dhaval M.; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

337

16 Extraordinary American Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student book presents short biographies of notable women from diverse economic, ethnic, racial, social, and geographic backgrounds. Women highlighted include: (1) Helen Keller; (2) Eleanor Roosevelt; (3) Georgia O'Keeffe; (4) Julia Morgan; (5) Wilma P. Mankiller; (6) Rachel Carson; (7) Dorothea Lange; (8) Rosalyn Sussman Yalow; (9) Ella…

Hahn, Emma

338

Variations in food and drink advertising in UK monthly women's magazines according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers: a descriptive study of publications over 12 months  

PubMed Central

Background Overweight and obesity are recognised nationally and internationally as key public health challenges. Food and drink advertising is one of the array of factors that influence both diet and physical activity choices and, hence, body weight and obesity. Little previous work has focused on food and drink advertising in magazines. We studied food and drink advertising in a wide range of popular UK monthly women's magazines published over a full year. We explored differences in the prevalence of food and drink advertising and the type of food and drinks advertised according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. Methods All advertisements in all issues of 18 popular UK monthly women's magazines published over 12 months were identified. For each food or drink advertisement, branded food and drinks were noted and categorised into one of seven food groups. All analyses were at the level of the individual advertisement. Results A total of 35 053 advertisements were identified; 1380 (3.9%) of these were for food or drink. The most common food group represented was 'food and drinks high in fat and/or sugar' (28.0% of food advertisements), the least common group was 'fruits & vegetables' (2.0% of food advertisements). Advertisements for alcohol accounted for 10.1% of all food advertisements. Food and drink advertisements were most common in summer, general interest magazines, and those with the most affluent readerships. There were some differences in the type of food and drink advertised across season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. Conclusions Food and drink advertisements represented only a small proportion of advertisements in UK women's monthly magazines. Food and drink advertisements in these magazines feature a high proportion of 'less healthy' foods. There were a number of differences across season, magazine type and according to the socio-economic profile of readers in the prevalence of food and drink advertisements. Fewer differences were seen in the type of food and drinks advertised.

2011-01-01

339

75 FR 71137 - Vendor Outreach Workshop for Women Owned Small Businesses in the National Capitol Region of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Secretary Vendor Outreach Workshop for Women Owned Small Businesses in the National...hosting a Vendor Outreach Workshop for women owned small businesses in the National...small, small disadvantaged, 8(a), woman-owned, HUBZone, and...

2010-11-22

340

Marriageable Women: A Focus on Participants in a Community Healthy Marriage Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although disadvantaged women are the targets of marriage programs, little attention has been paid to women's marriage constraints and their views of marriage. Drawing on an exchange framework and using qualitative data collected from single women participating in a marriage initiative, we introduce the concept of marriageable women--the notion…

Manning, Wendy D.; Trella, Deanna; Lyons, Heidi; Du Toit, Nola Cora

2010-01-01

341

48 CFR 3419.201-70 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). 3419... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 3419.201-70 Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). The...

2013-10-01

342

Women and the Information Revolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a social and economic context to the information revolution and women's part in it. Speculates on how current and near-term developments in information technology can benefit women scientists from all disciplines. Discusses some of the efforts of the National Science Foundation (NSF) to increase the participation of women in computer and…

Bajcsy, Ruzena; Reynolds, Craig

2000-01-01

343

The World of Work and Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Posits that work done by women in providing services for their families and society is not economically rewarded, is a distortion of reality, and one of the main causes of discrimination against women. Discusses the role of women in the economic growth of United States, United Kingdom, Hungary, Mauritius, USSR, and Egypt. (JOW)

Hosken, Fran P.; And Others

1981-01-01

344

American Women Workers in a Full Employment Economy. A Compendium of Papers Submitted to the Subcommittee on Economic Growth and Stabilization of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, 95th Congress, 1st Session, September 15, 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compendium of seventeen papers discusses women's overall role in a full employment economy and their problems in fulfilling that role. It begins with a comprehensive summary of the authors' views and then presents the papers in six sections: (1) overview; (2) overcoming barriers; (3) support services and adjusted conditions; (4) education and…

Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

345

Women Helping Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes effort of mental health center staff to implement non-traditional programming for women in situational life crises. Successes in the work have helped overcome some objections to special approaches to women. Projects have community interest and support, have answered many unmet needs of women, and have enhanced service delivery.…

Habib, Miriam; Landgraf, Barbara Joslin

1977-01-01

346

Women Physicists in Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Women constitute more than half the total population of Nepal. They are, however, far behind men in all aspects of life. There are wide gender gaps in the social, economic, administrative, political, and legal fields. Data from 1960 to 2001 show that the proportion of female students varied inconsistently at the postgraduate level, and no women held PhD degrees. From 2002 to mid-2008, the number of female students at the MSc and PhD levels has gradually increased. It is expected that this will bring significant improvement in the education of women as a whole, and will help to promote the study of physics by women in the country.

Shrestha, N.; Shrestha, S.; Bhattarai, P. K.

2009-04-01

347

Behavioural therapy for smoking cessation: The effectiveness of different intervention types for disadvantaged and affluent smokers?  

PubMed Central

Background Disadvantaged smokers are less likely to be successful when trying to stop smoking than more affluent smokers. In the UK, NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSS) provide a range of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support, delivered by advisors with a range of backgrounds. Whether the types of support provided and who provides it influence differences in quit rates amongst low SES smokers compared with high SES smokers has not previously been examined. Methods 202,084 records of smokers in England who attended a NHS Stop Smoking Service between July 2010 and June 2011 were acquired. Smokers were followed-up by services at four weeks post quit date. Multilevel logistic regression models of CO validated quits were employed. Disadvantage was explored through the National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification (NS-SEC) and by eligibility for free prescriptions, an indicator of low income amongst adults aged between 19 and 59 in England. Results Affluent smokers were more likely to quit than disadvantaged smokers (OR 1.38 (1.35 to 1.42) for clients who paid for prescriptions compared to those eligible for free prescriptions). 80% of service clients received one-to-one counselling but open group forms of behavioural therapy were more successful (main effect OR 1.26 (1.12 to 1.41)) except amongst some of the most disadvantaged clients (long-term unemployed and prisoners). Closed groups were little deployed and they were not significantly more successful than one-to-one behavioural therapy after controls. Who delivered treatment did make a difference for some clients, with all but the most affluent less likely to be successful if they had been treated by a nurse compared with other types of advisers, including smoking cessation specialists (main effect OR 0.73 (0.65 to 0.83)). Conclusion This study provides further evidence that disadvantaged smokers find quitting more difficult even when they have attended a smoking cessation programme. The findings suggest that open groups should be promoted, although they may not be as effective as other forms of behavioural therapy for the long-term unemployed or prisoners. Further research is required to explore why most groups of smokers who attended services staffed by nurses were less likely to quit than those who received treatment from other types of advisors.

Hiscock, Rosemary; Murray, Susan; Brose, Leonie S.; McEwen, Andy; Bee, Jo Leonardi; Dobbie, Fiona; Bauld, Linda

2013-01-01

348

Equal Employment Opportunity for Women: U.S. Policies. United States Report for the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Working Party Number 6 on the Role of Women in the Economy (Paris, France, June 1982).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study analyzed past and present United States initiatives for promoting equal employment opportunity and wage equality for women. It was determined that, during the past 20 years, the United States Government has established the legal procedures to combat inequities in educational opportunities and employment-related practices. While these…

Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

349

New Strategies for Inner-City Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Revitalizing America's inner cities requires an economic strategy to build viable businesses that can provide sorely needed, nearby employment opportunities. Economic development in inner cities will come only from recognizing the potential advantages of an inner-city location and building on the base of existing companies, while dealing frontally with the present disadvantages of inner cities as business locations. The economic

Michael E. Porter

1997-01-01

350

Forum on Economic Freedom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Forum on Economic Freedom web site was developed by the Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE) to build and strengthen democracy around the world through promoting private enterprise. The highlight of the site is Economic Reform Today, a journal published by CIPE to help educate policymakers on successful economic strategies. Recent issues have focused on challenges for policymakers in new democracies, globalization, reshaping government and market solutions to social issues. Other resources available include materials from CIPE "Central and Eastern Europe: Economic Policy Roundtables" and "Women in Business" programs.

1998-01-01

351

Knowledge of neonatal car seat location in a predominantly disadvantaged prenatal population.  

PubMed

In order to assess knowledge of correct car seat location in prenatal patients of predominant lower socioeconomic status, an anonymous survey was performed at 2 inner city obstetric clinics. The survey participants (n = 688) were asked to select from among 3 drawings the correct location of a neonatal car seat. The choices showed an infant facing backward in the rear seat, forward in the rear seat, and backward in the front seat. The correct location of the car seat was selected by 61% of the participating subjects. Knowledge of correct location was related to age (p = 0.047), race (p = 0.002), and parity (p = 0.001) on univariate analysis. Education, survey site, and attendance at prenatal classes did not significantly correlate with car seat knowledge. Multiple regression analysis revealed that Caucasian race compared to African-American race predicted correct knowledge of car seat location with an Odds Ratio of 2.11 (CI 1.38-3.24). Multiparous women were more likely to know where to install a car seat relative to nulliparous women with an Odds Ratio of 1.63 (CI 1.12-2.38). Age was not significantly correlated with car seat knowledge on multivariate analysis. Knowledge of neonatal car seat location was suboptimal in our predominantly disadvantaged population, particularly in nulliparous, African-American women. Further prenatal education is needed during pregnancy or before hospital discharge to address this knowledge deficit. PMID:12365306

Robinson, Dale C; Reitan, Rachel E; Jones, Glenn N; Gist, Richard S

2002-09-01

352

Women's housing conditions in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women. PMID:12347277

Shefali, M K

1996-01-01

353

The Early College Challenge: Navigating Disadvantaged Students' Transition to College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful early college high schools (ECHSs) are formed through partnerships between high schools and colleges (usually community colleges). Think of it as preparation through acceleration. ECHSs enroll disadvantaged students who have not excelled with ordinary grade-level academic content and have them take college courses while still in high…

Rosenbaum, James E.; Becker, Kelly Iwanaga

2011-01-01

354

Developmental Skills of Advantaged and Disadvantaged Children of Perceptual Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of perceptual and motor tests were administered to 155 advantaged and disadvantaged student. The results are discussed in terms of differential perceptual-motor and motor growth and need to structure educational experience that will contribute to growth. (Author)

Richmond, Bert O.; Aliotti, Nicholas C.

1977-01-01

355

The Effectiveness of Policy Programs for Disadvantaged Pupils  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dutch schools have to deal with policy programs that generally are aimed at the improvement of the cognitive and social functioning of 3 groups of disadvantaged students. These are (a) pupils with special educational needs, (b) pupils at risk, and (c) non-Dutch pupils. The Dutch Integrated School Policy Project examines the implementation and…

Hofman, Roelande H.; Steenbergen, Hilde

2004-01-01

356

Preventing Summer Reading Declines in Children Who Are Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined effects of a summer reading instruction program as part of an 8-week summer day camp experience for 61 disadvantaged first grade children. Two hours of direct explicit reading instruction daily were supplemented with a literacy-rich camping experience. Post-tests indicated the experimental group not only obviated usual summer…

Schacter, John

2003-01-01

357

What's in a Name: "Education and the Disadvantaged American" (1962)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Education and the Disadvantaged American" represented an attempt by the leaders of the American elementary and secondary education enterprise to come to terms with the failure to learn of a significant portion of the school population. The dimension of race surrounded the discussion leading to publication, but it was never addressed…

Urban, Wayne J.

2009-01-01

358

Living Conditions of Some Basic School Children: Pointers to Disadvantage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, conducted by the Bernard Van Leer Foundation Project for Early Childhood Education (PECE), presents the results of a survey which was carried out to identify home deficits in socioeconomically disadvantaged children's preparation for schooling. The study was conducted in Jamaica during July, August, and September, 1970, and was…

Grant, D. R. B.

359

Educational and Vocational Rehabilitation of Disadvantaged Handicapped Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some 276 handicapped and socially disadvantaged youth aged 16 to 18, who were likely to drop out of high school, received rehabilitation services from the Philadelphia Jewish Employment and Vocational Service (JEVS) and the Board of Education. The services included intense vocational and personal evaluation, work adjustment training, individual…

Leshner, Saul S.; Snyderman, George S.

360

Advantages and Disadvantages of Weighted Grading. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the advantages and disadvantages of weighted grading? The primary purpose of weighted grading has been to encourage high school students to take more rigorous courses. This effort is then acknowledged by more weight being given to the grade for a specified class. There are numerous systems of weighted grading cited in the literature from…

Walker, Karen

2004-01-01

361

Disadvantages in mental health care among African Americans.  

PubMed

African Americans experience mental health disadvantages relative to European Americans with respect to financial barriers, barriers to help seeking, and poorer quality services. This paper provides an overview of these mental health inequalities, and offers recommendations for addressing them. PMID:19711490

Holden, Kisha Braithwaite; Xanthos, Clare

2009-05-01

362

Development through Sport: Building Social Capital in Disadvantaged Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional delivery of sport development programs, especially at the community level, faces particular challenges under neoliberal ideology. While several issues are evident, this paper addresses only the issue of development through sport for disadvantaged communities. It reviews models where sport was employed to develop better community and citizen life outcomes and to deal with social issues previously addressed through \\

James Skinner; Dwight H. Zakus; Jacqui Cowell

2008-01-01

363

A Summer Academic Research Experience for Disadvantaged Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience…

Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N.

2013-01-01

364

Programs for Disadvantaged Students in the California Community Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This in-depth study sought to identify effective programs for disadvantaged students through the use of student and faculty questionnaires. The shortage of evaluative research and criteria of effectiveness preclude making a qualitative judgment on the relative success of the programs or offering a model program. The commonest program is the series…

Berg, Ernest H.; Axtell, Dayton

365

Predicting Success among Prospective Disadvantaged Students in Natural Scientific Fields  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred and fifty-nine Grade 11 prospective disadvantaged students in the natural sciences at the University of Pretoria completed the Study Orientation Questionnaire in Mathematics and the Senior Aptitude Test (Advanced). Fifty-nine male students (M age = 16.05; SD = 0.57) and 100 females (M age = 16.02; SD = 0.512) scored significantly…

Maree, J. G.; Fletcher, L.; Sommerville, J.

2011-01-01

366

URBAN DISADVANTAGED PUPILS, A SYNTHESIS OF 99 RESEARCH REPORTS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS DESCRIPTION OF THE CHARACTERISTICS AND EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF URBAN DISADVANTAGED PUPILS IS A SYNTHESIS OF 99 RESEARCH REPORTS. THE RESEARCH SUGGESTS THAT SUCH CHILDREN LIVE IN A WORLD OF ISOLATION, LIMITED EXPERIENCE, AND REJECTION. HOUSING CONDITIONS, A DEMORALIZING NEIGHBORHOOD, AND A DISORGANIZED FAMILY LIFE ALL CONTRIBUTE TO THE…

MCCLOSKEY, ELINOR F.

367

Helping the Disadvantaged Choose Their Own Behavior Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project involved 50 members of a culturally disadvantaged group who had come to a neighborhood settlement house for help in obtaining and maintaining a job, and who were subsequently enrolled in a work preparation program at a large rehabilitation facility. The counselees were given the option of having or not having themselves videotaped…

Hartlage, Lawrence C.

368

Self-Employment Programs and Outcomes for Disadvantaged Jobseekers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation of Australia's New Enterprise Initiative Scheme, which provides job search information to disadvantaged job seekers, found the following: of 81 long-term unemployed, 76.5% were self-employed after participation; of 51 non-English speaking individuals, 65% were self-employed; and 84% of 400 participants overall were in some form of…

Kelly, Ross; Mulvey, Charles; Lewis, P. E. T.

2002-01-01

369

Urban disadvantage and delayed nephrology referral in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the relationship between area level measures of social disadvantage and the late referral of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) to a nephrologist. Patients who were referred late were those who needed to commence dialysis within 3 months of referral to a nephrologist. Late referral has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We studied 3334 patients

Alan Cass; Joan Cunningham; Paul Snelling; Zhiqiang Wang; Wendy Hoy

2003-01-01

370

Childhood social disadvantage, cardiometabolic risk, and chronic disease in adulthood.  

PubMed

Adverse social environments in early life are hypothesized to become biologically embedded during the first few years of life, with potentially far-reaching implications for health across the life course. Using prospective data from a subset of a US birth cohort, the Collaborative Perinatal Project, started in 1959-1966 (n = 566), we examined associations of social disadvantage assessed in childhood with cardiometabolic function and chronic disease status more than 40 years later (in 2005-2007). Social disadvantage was measured with an index that combined information on adverse socioeconomic and family stability factors experienced between birth and age 7 years. Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) was assessed by combining information from 8 CMR biomarkers; an index of chronic disease status was derived by assessing 8 chronic diseases. Poisson models were used to investigate associations between social disadvantage and CMR or chronic disease scores while adjusting for childhood covariates and potential pathway variables. A high level of social disadvantage was significantly associated with both higher CMR (incident rate ratio = 1.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.39) and with a higher number of chronic diseases (incident rate ratio = 1.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.92) in minimally adjusted models. Associations with CMR persisted even after accounting for childhood and adult covariates. PMID:24970845

Non, Amy L; Rewak, Marissa; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gilman, Stephen E; Loucks, Eric B; Appleton, Allison A; Román, Jorge C; Buka, Stephen L; Kubzansky, Laura D

2014-08-01

371

78 FR 57336 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...should register at least five business days before the date of the...entitled, ``Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation...i.e., DBE and non-DBE quotes, DBE subcontracts) from the...of this notice at least five business days prior to the date of...

2013-09-18

372

SOME PSYCHOSOCIAL ASPECTS OF LEARNING IN THE DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PARTICULAR FACTORS INFLUENCE THE LEARNING OF THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS CAN INCREASE THE LIKELIHOOD OF LEARNING COGNITIVE STRATEGIES. VARIATIONS WITHIN THE ENVIRONMENT INFLUENCE VARIATIONS IN COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT. PARENTAL INFLUENCE MAY AFFECT THE LEARNING ABILITY OF THEIR CHILDREN. LOWER-CLASS PARENTS HAVE SELDOM SUBJECTED…

DEUTSCH, MARTIN

373

Nutritional Supplementation of Disadvantaged Elementary-School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined with 177 disadvantaged elementary school students (5-9 years old, 99 percent Blacks) were the effects of the provision of a nutritionally fortified low-lactose food supplement on hematocrit values (volume percentage of erythrocytes in whole blood), growth, absenteeism, and lunch consumption. (IM)

Paige, David M.; And Others

1976-01-01

374

An Experimental Engineering Technology Career Program for Disadvantaged Minority Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the six-year period (1975-80) the College of Technology of Temple University conducted an experimental project at the pre-college level aimed at the early identification of disadvantaged minority students seeking careers in engineering and/or engineering technology. The program was designed to encourage inner-city Philadelphia black and…

Vassallo, Theodore P.; And Others

375

HEALTH AND THE EDUCATION OF SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE POOR HEALTH OF THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD IS A PRIMARY VARIABLE IN HIS EDUCATIONAL FAILURE. AN EXTENSIVE REVIEW OF HEALTH STUDIES SHOWS THAT NEGROES, PUERTO RICANS, AND INDIANS SUFFER FROM THE GREATEST HEALTH PROBLEMS. THE HEALTH FACTORS WHICH THESE STUDIES FOUND TO RELATE SPECIFICALLY TO INTELLECTUAL AND EDUCATIONAL DEFICITS ARE PREMATURITY,…

BIRCH, HERBERT G.

376

A Study of Four Library Programs for Disadvantaged Persons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a study of four projects in New York City which were established with federal grants to offer library service to the disadvantaged in the area. The four programs studied are the Preschool Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the Community Coordinator Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the North Manhattan Project of the New York…

Winsor, Charlotte B.; Burrows, Lodema

377

The Use of Individually Prescribed Instruction for the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The adaptation and use of individually prescribed instruction (IPI) in adult basic education for the disadvantaged are discussed. The discussion describes a model IPI system (The Draper Model); recommends certain considerations if it is to be used successfully; and shows that programmed instructional (PI) materials work best in a learning system…

McKee, John M.; Seay, Donna M.

378

Educating Disadvantaged Urban Children in Suburban Schools: An Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A one-year experimental program that transported a total of 38 "volunteer" disadvantaged city children to schools in a nearby suburban community was evaluated in grades 1 and 2. Twenty-six of the 38 children were in a total of 12 different classes at these two grade levels. At the conclusion of the program, transported first graders displayed…

Zdep, S. M.

379

Programming Mathematics: A New Approach in Teaching the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of an instructional model for teaching formal mathematical concepts (probability concepts) to disadvantaged high school students through computer programming and some results from a field test are described in this document. The instructional model takes into account both learner characteristics (cognitive, affective, and…

Bar-On, Ehud; Or-Bach, Rachel

380

Are new entrants to the residential property market informationally disadvantaged?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sets out to test whether, as a consequence of being informationally disadvantaged, new entrants to residential property markets pay significantly higher prices for a hypothetical standardized property. The paper analyses data on house sales in Glasgow between April 1991 and March 1992. The transactions data are subdivided into mutually exclusive groups of households and the prices paid are

Craig Watkins

1998-01-01

381

Head Start Helps Disadvantaged Students Prepare for Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the correlation between the DIAL-3 scores of disadvantaged students from Head Start, students from other preschools, and students that did not attend a preschool. The study consisted of 110 students who were currently attending kindergarten at an elementary school in Rockland County. The instrument used for this study was the…

Seemungal, Emmeline

2009-01-01

382

Education and Training and the Avoidance of Financial Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Making use of the longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, this study examines the relationship between post-school qualifications and financial disadvantage among Australians during the period 2001 to 2008. Specifically, it is concerned with the extent that education and training, vis-a-vis…

Marks, Gary N.

2011-01-01

383

What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Individualized Instruction?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details extensively the advantages and disadvantages of the individualized approach to reading instruction, suggests combination programs as a means of phasing in the individualized approach and indicates the need for highly competent teachers to handle the complexities. Includes a pro-reaction and a con-reaction paper. Bibliography. (WB)

Sartain, Harry W.

1968-01-01

384

Do the Advantages of Ungraded Schools Outweigh the Disadvantages?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concludes that at present it is not possible to state whether the advantages of the nongraded school outweigh the disadvantages because lack of operational meaning has resulted in a wide variety of organizational programs labeled nongraded, and non conclusive data are available which favor either the nongraded or graded organizations. Includes a…

Kingston, Albert J.

1968-01-01

385

Female Leadership Advantage and Disadvantage: Resolving the Contradictions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United States, women are increasingly praised for having excellent skills for leadership and, in fact, women, more than men, manifest leadership styles associated with effective performance as leaders. Nevertheless, more people prefer male than female bosses, and it is more difficult for women than men to become leaders and to succeed in…

Eagly, Alice H.

2007-01-01

386

The interplay between child and maternal health: reciprocal relationships and cumulative disadvantage during childhood and adolescence.  

PubMed

While many studies use parental socioeconomic status and health to predict children's health, this study examines the interplay over time between child and maternal health across childhood and adolescence. Using data from women in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 cohort and their children (N = 2,225), autoregressive cross-lagged models demonstrate a reciprocal relationship between child activity limitations and maternal health limitations in direct effects of child activity limitations on maternal health limitations two years later and vice versa-net of a range of health-relevant time-varying and time-invariant covariates. Furthermore, there are indirect effects of child activity limitations on subsequent maternal health limitations and indirect effects of maternal health limitations on subsequent child activity limitations via intervening health statuses. This study examines how the interplay between child and maternal health unfolds over time and describes how these interdependent statuses jointly experience health disadvantages. PMID:24578398

Garbarski, Dana

2014-03-01

387

Teaching Culturally Disadvantaged Pupils (Grades K-12). Unit V: Teaching the Culturally Disadvantaged Student--Part I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fifth in a series of teacher education units emphasizes the specific problems of teaching disadvantaged students. Discussed are research and its relationship to classroom teachers, the need for research about pupils, the teacher-pupil relationship, and the instructional program. One section of the document is devoted to ways in which teachers…

Johnson, Kenneth R.

388

Women's Health  

MedlinePLUS

Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

389

Women, Democracy and Participation in the Information Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the disadvantaged state of women in South Africa, including statistics that illustrate effects of their lack of status on their health and well being. It then focuses on the role in South Africa of the community library and information services in empowering especially women. Barriers experienced in information delivery to…

Mayer, Louisa

390

The Relative Rewards and Costs of Childlessness for Older Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviewed currently married or widowed women aged 60-75 (N=719), either childless or with one or more children, about advantages and disadvantages of childlessness and about other family-related and social areas. Results indicated that childless older women did not conform to a stereotype of unhappiness and dissatisfaction. (BH)

Houser, Betsy Bosak; And Others

1984-01-01

391

48 CFR 19.1506 - Contract clauses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-owned Small Business Concerns, in...reserved for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB)...

2013-10-01

392

Socio-Economic Outcomes of Teen Pregnancy and Parenthood: A Review of the Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews literature examining the socioeconomic consequences of teen pregnancy and childbearing and the birth intentions of teenage mothers. Teen mothers, as opposed to women who delay childbearing, are more likely to become socioeconomically disadvantaged. Socioeconomic disadvantage is correlated with, but not necessarily a consequence of, early…

Bissell, Mary

2000-01-01

393

Vocational Rehabilitation for Women with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women with disabilities have limited access to the labor market owing to the double disadvantage of being both disabled and female. The current rehabilitation system is inadequate to meet this population's needs. Further research, broader action programs, changes in vocational rehabilitation, and active measures against discrimination are needed.…

Stace, Sheila

1987-01-01

394

Social Security reform: implications for women.  

PubMed

Despite recent economic gains for women, a substantial gender gap in financial security during old age remains, making women more dependent than men upon Social Security. Social Security plays an important role in providing for women's economic security. The implications for women of several proposed changes in Social Security policy, including the call for the partial privatization of Social Security via the introduction of individual accounts, are analyzed. Many of the proposals would have the effect of asking women, particularly low-income women, to shoulder a disproportionate share of the risks and burdens associated with the changes. PMID:11148830

Williamson, J B; Rix, S E

2000-01-01

395

Literacy Learning and Economic Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case studies of two women use the concept of sponsor--an agent who supported or hampered their literacy learning. The relationship between literacy learning and economic change is revealed as both women experienced the decline of agriculture ad rise in industrialization and corporate control. (SK)

Brandt, Deborah

1999-01-01

396

In Search of Economic Equity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is an evaluation of where Hispanic American women rank in the areas of education, employment, compensation, health, and politics. For Hispanics, both men and women, education is vitally important, and this importance is underscored by data that show that Hispanics overall lack the ability to cope economically. High dropout rates and…

Rodriguez, Patricia; Crocker, Elvira Valenzuela

397

Another development with Women.  

PubMed

The objective of this discussion of "Another Development with Women" is to add some thoughts to the scientific approach, which combines survey techniques and computer style data analysis (measurability, detachment, and objectivity). Its purpose is to tilt the balance of the development process a bit further towards women, and it proposes to introduce another element into the discussion on development with women--that of experiential knowledge (knowledge based on collective experience). Women researchers have a double consciousness, similar to that of the black or other discriminated minority, an awareness of the motives and strategies of the oppressor as well as the inner view of the oppressed. To find some answers to the question why the development debate is sometimes obscure, sometimes sterile, and usually frustrating, and to understand why the goals of development remain distant oases, it is necessary to turn attention to the actual contribution women are making to development. Fundamentally, most of women's activities seem to fall outside the definition of "gainful employment." The activities are labeled "nonmarket" or "nonmonetized" activities. It is the differential between work and creativity that fundamentally affects women and erodes their economic and social status. Another unperceived dimension to women's work, which further conceals their efforts and prevents them from surfacing, is the fact that until recently socioeconomic series and indicators were not desegregated by sex. Consequently, the available data on key economic and social questions could not answer the fundamental questions of where are women working, in what numbers, in which activities, and at what wage levels. During the last 2 years some global data for an international information base on women has become available, and the new data will make it possible to follow much more closely, and on a comparative basis for a much larger number of countries, new developments concerning women's employment, working conditions, and their contributions to society. To gain some insights into the processes of development, 4 different economic and social indicators are examined: agriculture, industry, health, and education. Also examined are women's main roles in food production, industrial work, health provision, and education. It is clear that in any theory of power and its distribution, women bear the brunt of inequality in terms of income and rewards, assets, and resources. Another Development will have to find ways by which the unexplored creative energies of women are released. PMID:12279570

Ahooja-patel, K

1982-01-01

398

Women's Self-Ratings of Skills: Issues and Strategies for Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses underestimation of women's skills as an issue of concern for all women and for socioeconomically disadvantaged women in particular. Factors contributing to underestimation are gender-biased expectations, socialization, gender-biased definitions of skills, discrimination, and low self-esteem. Presents interventions to increase skills…

Reixach, Deborah

1995-01-01

399

Molecular Identification of Human Hookworm Infections in Economically Disadvantaged Communities in Peninsular Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Species identification of human hookworm infections among eight communities in rural areas of Peninsular Malaysia was determined during 2009–2011. Fecal samples were examined by microscopy and subsequently, the internal transcribed spacer 2 and 28S ribosomal RNA region of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp. were sequenced. Overall, 9.1% (58 of 634) were identified positive by microscopy for hookworm infection, and 47 (81.0%) of 58 were successfully amplified and sequenced. Sequence comparison found that N. americanus (87.2%) was the most predominant hookworm identified, followed by Ancylostoma ceylanicum (23.4%). No A. duodenale infection was detected in this study. Detection of A. ceylanicum in humans highlighted the zoonotic transmission among humans living near dogs. Thus, implementation of effective control measures for hookworm infections in future should seriously consider this zoonotic implication.

Ngui, Romano; Ching, Lee Soo; Kai, Tan Tiong; Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Lim, Yvonne A. L.

2012-01-01

400

An Analysis of Water Safety Behaviors among Migrant and Economically/Educationally Disadvantaged Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This water safety study was both descriptive and exploratory in nature. The purpose was for middle school students to assess their own water safety experiences and to help school decision-makers determine the extent of drowning/water accidents. In July 2009, a water safety survey was administered to 122 students participating in the local Summer…

Sbarbaro, Victor S.; Enyeart Smith, Theresa M.

2011-01-01

401

Beliefs about the Causes of Poverty in Parents and Adolescents Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 2 consecutive years, parents and their adolescent children from 199 poor families in Hong Kong responded to the Chinese Perceived Causes of Poverty Scale, which assesses beliefs about the causes of poverty. The author abstracted 4 factors from the scale. Analyses showed that these factors (personal problems, exploitation, lack of opportunity,…

Shek, Daniel T. L.

2004-01-01

402

English and socio-economic disadvantage: learner voices from rural Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

L2 education research has shown immense interest in learners and their views of L2 learning. Nevertheless, the different directions of learner-focused research have been inadequate in highlighting learners' learning experiences in relation to their social backgrounds, particularly in the developing world. Drawing on the first author's PhD research, this paper analyses school learners' perceptions and experiences of learning English in

M. Obaidul Hamid; Richard B. Baldauf Jr

2011-01-01

403

School Improvement Based on Effective Schools Research: A Promising Approach for Economically Disadvantaged and Minority Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay addresses the school improvement process based on Effective Schools Research (ESR) and its commitment to equitable and quality education for minority and poor children. After briefly discussing general attributes of ESR-based programs, the essay explains major premises of the effective school. The first premise sets teaching and…

Lezotte, Lawrence W.; Bancroft, Beverly A.

404

Extending the Purposes of Science Education: Addressing Violence within Socio-Economic Disadvantaged Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current discourses about science education show a wide concern towards humanisation and a more socio-cultural perspective of school science. They suggest that science education can serve diverse purposes and be responsive to social and environmental situations we currently face. However, these discourses and social approaches to science education…

Castano, Carolina

2012-01-01

405

English and Socio-Economic Disadvantage: Learner Voices from Rural Bangladesh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

L2 education research has shown immense interest in learners and their views of L2 learning. Nevertheless, the different directions of learner-focused research have been inadequate in highlighting learners' learning experiences in relation to their social backgrounds, particularly in the developing world. Drawing on the first author's PhD…

Hamid, M. Obaidul; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

2011-01-01

406

Mothers' Parenting and Young Economically Disadvantaged Children's Relational and Overt Bullying  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined links between mothers' parenting and children's relational bullying and overt bullying in a sample of children attending a Head Start program. Mothers completed surveys and face-to-face interviews. Head Start teachers completed assessments on children. Results indicated that a small percentage of children in the sample was rated by teachers as engaging in relational bullying “frequently to almost always,”

Mary E. Curtner-Smith; Anne M. Culp; Rex Culp; Carrie Scheib; Kelly Owen; Angela Tilley; Molly Murphy; Lauren Parkman; Peter W. Coleman

2006-01-01

407

An Afterschool Program for Economically Disadvantaged Youth: Perceptions of Parents, Staff, and Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated perceived effects of an afterschool program located in 6 Title 1 schools on students' achievement, self-esteem, and attitudes. Data sources comprised surveys (n = 257), 5 focus groups (n= 23), and an individual interview with the program director (n = 1). Survey data indicated overall satisfaction with the program.…

Hall, Katrina W.; Williams, Lunetta M.; Daniel, Larry G.

2010-01-01

408

Pupil Disaffection in Areas of Socio-Economic Disadvantage: Implications for Effective School Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines specific elements of a much wider study that attempted to ascertain the reasons for under-achievement in a large comprehensive school in the Welsh valleys. Specific Academic performance at General Certificate of Secondary Education (G.C.S.E.) level was poor in Randall, the main case school, in relation to other schools with…

Lloyd-Nesling, Norma

2006-01-01

409

Predicting Kindergarten Success for Economically Disadvantaged Head Start Children: A Latent Curve Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to use data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 database for public use (version 2.9.2.1; Westat, 2000) to examine a sample of Head Start children and families to predict kindergarten and first grade success, The study controlled family variables of income level, family…

Jiang, Ying Hong; Mok, Doris; Weaver, Robert R.

410

Preschool Quality and the Development of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: The influence of preschool quality on the development of 67 4-year-old children from poor and rural families in South India was examined. Children's developmental status was assessed using a modified version of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and through physician ratings. Preschool quality was assessed through…

Rao, Nirmala

2010-01-01

411

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...factors as denial of equal access to institutions of higher education and vocational training, exclusion from social and professional association with students or teachers, denial of educational honors rightfully earned, and social patterns or...

2013-10-01

412

Women in Physics in Perú  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The numbers of women receiving undergraduate and master's degrees in physics from San Marcos National University and undergraduate physics degrees from San Luis Gonzaga National University in Perú are reported. The number of undergraduate degrees in physics has increased for women in San Marcos University, but not for women earning master's degrees. Why don't women complete their post-degree studies? Economics and gender stereotypes are factors that women in Perú have to fight each day. Perú does not have a good scholar program in science, so few students are interested in beginning their university careers in science. Improvements in science education are needed for our country to reach its potential.

Loayza, María Luisa Cerón; Vásquez, Yezeña Huaypar; Cabrejos, Jorge Aurelio Bravo

2009-04-01

413

Development of Kondh women.  

PubMed

This article presents a profile of the living conditions of the Kondh ethnic group, with particular attention to women's conditions. The Kondhs are the largest tribal community in Orissa state, India. Kondh tribes are concentrated in Phulbani, Koraput, and Kalahandi districts. The Kondh consist of three subgroups. In Phulbani district the Kondh are one of several tribal populations and together with scheduled castes and tribes are the dominant populations. Phulbani district has limited educational resources and low levels of literacy, particularly among women. Female literacy in 1991 was only 16.59%. Girl's educational institutions are few in number and poor in quality. Female literacy is low due to parental ignorance of the importance of female education, the need to use girl children as domestic helpers, the cultural practice of facial tattooing that causes injury and shame among parents and children, the inadequacy of district schools, and the reputation of better private boarding as "cages." Economic life is based on a sexual division of labor, and women and men work according to their capacity. Agricultural tasks are shared, but men perform ploughing and clearing of jungle. Women perform all domestic tasks in addition collection of daily firewood and additional forest products that are sold jointed with husbands in local markets. During the slack agricultural periods, men relax and women work. Both men and women work if construction work is available nearby. Although tubewells were installed in villages, women prefer distant pond or stream water for drinking. The loss of tribal land for women places them in more vulnerable sexual and economic positions. Many voluntary groups promote land ownership for women as a means of security and social status. Phulbani district has little urbanization and no major industries. Bride-price was replaced by dowry, which downgrades Kondh women's status. The Kondh suffer from malnutrition, malaria, and anemia. Health services are insufficient, and Kondh cultural practices interfere with acceptance of modern medicine and healthy lifestyles. PMID:12291436

Baral, J K; Bakshi, S P

1994-10-01

414

The Economic Thinking on Low Carbon Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low carbon economy is the inevitable result of the capitalist production model, and is economic development model which mankind is forced to adopt. The measures to reduce carbon emissions mainly include laws and regulations, carbon taxes or carbon trading, subsidies or tax cuts on clean production, technological innovation and demand reduction. These measures have respective advantages and disadvantages. The paper

Niu Yongping

2011-01-01

415

Social and Economic Context. Trends and Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools are very sensitive to the rapid social, economic, and demographic changes that the United States is presently undergoing. They are at a disadvantage compared to most other social institutions because, in serving a younger population, they have less lead time to prepare for changes in the complexion of society. Young people in today's world…

Lumsden, Linda, Comp.; Coffey, Elizabeth, Comp.

416

48 CFR 52.219-23 - Notice of Price Evaluation Adjustment for Small Disadvantaged Business Concerns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Notice of Price Evaluation Adjustment for Small Disadvantaged...219-23 Notice of Price Evaluation Adjustment for Small Disadvantaged...following clause: Notice of Price Evaluation Adjustment for Small...

2013-10-01

417

76 FR 68026 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Small Disadvantaged Business Self-Certification  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION...Small Disadvantaged Business Self-Certification AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services...disadvantaged businesses (SDBs) to self-represent their SDB...

2011-11-02

418

48 CFR 419.201-70 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). 419.201-70... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 419.201-70 Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). The...

2013-10-01

419

48 CFR 719.271-2 - The USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB). 719.271-2...DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.271-2 The USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB). (a) SDB...

2013-10-01

420

48 CFR 1519.201-71 - Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 1519.201-71... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.201-71...Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. The...

2013-10-01

421

48 CFR 1519.201-72 - Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists. 1519...AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.201-72 Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists. (a)...

2013-10-01

422

Residential Selection across the Life Course: Adolescent Contextual and Individual Determinants of Neighborhood Disadvantage in Mid-Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous cross-sectional studies have examined neighborhood effects on health. Residential selection in adulthood has been stressed as an important cause of selection bias but has received little empirical attention, particularly its determinants from the earlier life course. The present study aims to examine whether neighborhood, family, school, health behaviors and health in adolescence are related to socioeconomic disadvantage of one's neighborhood of residence in adulthood. Methods Based on the prospective Northern Swedish Cohort (analytical N?=?971, 90.6% retention rate), information was collected at age 16 years concerning family circumstances, school adjustment, health behaviors and mental and physical health. Neighborhood register data was linked to the cohort and used to operationalize aggregated measures of neighborhood disadvantage (ND) at age 16 and 42. Data was analyzed with linear mixed models, with ND in adulthood regressed on adolescent predictors and neighborhood of residence in adolescence as the level-2 unit. Results Neighborhood disadvantage in adulthood was clustered by neighborhood of residence in adolescence (ICC?=?8.6%). The clustering was completely explained by ND in adolescence. Of the adolescent predictors, ND (b?=?.14 (95% credible interval?=?.07–.22)), final school marks (b?=??.18 (?.26–?.10)), socioeconomic disadvantage (b?=?.07 (.01–.14)), and, with borderline significance, school peer problems (b?=?.07 (?.00–.13)), were independently related to adulthood ND in the final adjusted model. In sex-stratified analyses, the most important predictors were school marks (b?=??.21 (?.32–?.09)) in women, and neighborhood of residence (ICC?=?15.5%) and ND (b?=?.20 (.09–.31)) in men. Conclusions These findings show that factors from adolescence – which also may impact on adult health – could influence the neighborhood context in which one will live in adulthood. This indicates that residential selection bias in neighborhood effects on health research may have its sources in early life.

Gustafsson, Per E.; San Sebastian, Miguel; Janlert, Urban; Theorell, Tores; Westerlund, Hugo; Hammarstrom, Anne

2013-01-01

423

'Inconvenient biology:' advantages and disadvantages of first-time parenting after age 40 using in vitro fertilization  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND As ages at first birth have steadily risen in the industrial west over the last several decades, the phenomenon of ‘delayed childbearing’ has come under research scrutiny by demographers, medical specialists and social scientists. In this study, we specifically explore the perceived advantages and disadvantages of postponed conception as well as participants’ retrospective opinions on the ‘optimal age’ for parenting. METHODS To this end, we examined a cohort purposely chosen to epitomize delayed childbearing, i.e. men and women who used IVF to conceive at the very end of their reproductive capability. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted between 2009 and 2011 with 46 couples and 15 individual self-selected US women and men who had used IVF to conceive their first child when the woman was aged 40 or older at the time of delivery. Although the demographics of this cohort were consistent with others who use IVF in the USA, their median income was 3–4 times higher than that of the average US family, which may bias their largely positive parenting experiences. RESULTS Most women and men believed that childbearing later in life resulted in advantages for themselves and their families. These included having established careers with financial security and career-time flexibility, enhanced emotional preparedness, committed co-parenting relationships and a positive overall family experience. The main disadvantage was the unexpected difficulty in conceiving that culminated in the use of IVF and resulted in a smaller family than desired, although many expressed feeling ‘lucky’ to have children at all. Other disadvantages were lack of energy for parenting, less available lifetime to spend with children and anticipated stigma as older parents. CONCLUSIONS These disadvantages appear to have influenced conception and parenting experiences so that in hindsight the majority of participants identified the optimal age for first-time parenting as 5–10 years earlier than they had conceived. This age range was imagined to maximize the financial and emotional advantages of later parenting while minimizing the impact of age-related infertility, diminished energy, anticipated health issues and the social stigma of appearing too old to parent.

Mac Dougall, K.; Beyene, Y.; Nachtigall, R.D.

2012-01-01

424

Writing for Women: Civic Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly 360 million women who live in the countries of Asia and the Pacific are illiterate. In this region, and in much of the world, women have restricted access to education, and are the victims of economic, social, and political marginalization. In recent years, governments have become increasingly aware that the inferior position assigned to…

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

425

Women Trustees: An Untapped Resource  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In these uncertain economic times, leadership is among the most frequently used (and misused) terms in public discourse. And the vast literature on this topic certainly encompasses considerable discussion of the policies and practices that can equalize leadership opportunities for women and people of color. In reviewing the status of women in…

Glazer-Raymo, Judith

2008-01-01

426

Women Engineers: Stories of Persistence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More engineers are needed to support the infrastructure of the United States and to solve economic, human, and environmental problems. Women have been cited as the untapped resource who can provide new perspectives, solutions, and diversity. Unfortunately, over the last 20 years, colleges have not learned how to graduate more women, keeping…

Kuzmak, Nancy

2010-01-01

427

National Organization for Women (NOW)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Organization of Women (NOW) Web page offers extensive information about issues NOW is involved in, such as economic equity, electoral politics, global feminism, racial and ethnic diversity, and violence against women. Also available is contact information for chapter and state organizations and the NOW Action Center. Links to other feminist resources on the Internet include the University of Maryland's Women's Studies Database and feminist activists resources on the Net.

1998-01-01

428

Socioeconomic disadvantage and changes in health risk behaviours in Australia: 1989-90 to 2001.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated in industrialized countries with unhealthy lifestyle characteristics, such as smoking, physical inactivity and being overweight or obese. This paper examines changes over time in the association between SES and smoking status, physical activity and being overweight or obese in Australia. METHODS: Data were taken from three successive national health surveys in Australia carried out in 1989-90 (n = 54,576), 1995 (n = 53,828) and 2001 (n = 26,863). Participants in these surveys were selected using a national probability sampling strategy, and aggregated data for geographical areas are used to determine the changing association between SES and lifestyle over time. FINDINGS: Overall, men had less healthy lifestyles. In 2001 inverse SES trends for both men and women showed that those living in lower SES areas were more likely to smoke and to be sedentary and obese. There were some important socioeconomic changes over the period 1989-90 to 2001. The least socioeconomically disadvantaged areas had the largest decrease in the percentage of people smoking tobacco (24% decrease for men and 12% for women) and the largest decrease in the percentage of people reporting sedentary activity levels (25% decrease for men and 22% for women). While there has been a general increase in the percentage over time of those who are overweight or obese, there is a modest trend for being overweight to have increased (by about 16% only among females) among those living in areas of higher SES. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic inequalities have been increasing for several key risk behaviours related to health; this suggests that specific population-based prevention strategies intended to reduce health inequalities are needed.

Najman, Jake M.; Toloo, Ghasem; Siskind, Victor

2006-01-01

429

The Many Faces of the Economic Bulletin Board.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Economic Bulletin Board (EBB), a one-stop site for economic statistics and government-sponsored business information, can be accessed on the World Wide Web, gopher, telnet, file transfer protocol, dial-up, and fax. Each access method has advantages and disadvantages related to connections, pricing, depth of access, retrieval, and system…

Boettcher, Jennifer

1996-01-01

430

Contingency contracting with disadvantaged youths: Improving classroom performance  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the effects of a student-teacher contracting procedure on adolescent students' academic productivity. Participants were 13 youths enrolled in a vocational training program for disadvantaged youth and their classroom teacher. During the baseline conditions students were paid contingent on attendance alone, the system operating in the program prior to this research. During contracting conditions students were paid contingent on contract fulfillment of academic productivity goals set by mutual agreement between the student and teacher. Contracting and contingent pay procedures were developed with, and implemented by, the classroom teacher. A reversal experimental design showed that student's productivity more than doubled during contracting conditions as compared with their productivity during baseline.

Kelley, Mary Lou; Stokes, Trevor F.

1982-01-01

431

[Advantages and disadvantages of cervical esophageal anastomosis using a stapler].  

PubMed

The authors evaluate the advantages and shortcomings of cervical anastomosis of the oesophagus by means of stapler according to the following criteria: 1. difficulty of implementation, 2. immediate results--fistulae, 3. long-term results--stenoses, 4. costs. The authors operated, using a stapler, 26 patients who developed in four instances /15.4%/ a fistula. By comparison with a retrospective group of 21 patients with eight fistule /38%/ where the anastomosis was sutured manually, they found that by using a stapler the number of complications declined. A disadvantage is the high price of staplers. PMID:8629182

Král, V; Neoral, C; Aujeský, R

1995-12-01

432

Development of Women Education in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women constitute almost half of the population of the world. Education for women is the best way to improve the health, nutrition and economic status of a household that constitute a micro unit of a nation economy. In this context, it can be argued that lack of woman education can be an impediment to the country’s economic development. In India,

N Sharmila; Albert Christopher Dhas

2010-01-01

433

Advantages and disadvantages of a municipal solid waste collection service for citizens of Hanoi City, Vietnam.  

PubMed

Governments of municipalities in Vietnam experiencing dynamic economic growth and dramatic population increases have been struggling to manage increased amounts of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study aimed to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of the current MSW collection service for citizens of the four central districts of Hanoi city, Vietnam, by conducting interviews with 200 households and 200 business entities regarding their satisfaction with the service. The survey results showed that Hanoi city provides an economical collection service with sufficient frequency and at appropriate times for citizens. However, a number of citizens complained about unsanitary conditions in the area surrounding their residence. Business entities had sufficient motivation to sell recyclable waste (RW) to the informal sector, not only to derive revenue from selling RW, but also to reduce the amount of MSW generated, thus reducing the MSW collection fee. Households were not motivated to reduce MSW by selling RW to the informal sector because they paid a fixed collection fee. As a result, an improvement in living standards in the near future is expected to contribute to increasing the amount of MSW generated from households. PMID:23315363

Kawai, Kosuke; Osako, Masahiro

2013-03-01

434

Health improvement for disadvantaged people in Nepal - an evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background An evaluation of progress with participatory approaches for improvement of health knowledge and health experiences of disadvantaged people in eight Districts of Eastern Nepal has been undertaken. Methods A random selection of Village Development Committees and households, within the eight Districts where participation and a Rights-based Approach had been promoted specifically by local NGOs were compared with similar villages and households in eight Districts where this approach had not been promoted. Information was sought by structured interview and observation by experienced enumerators from both groups of householders. Health knowledge and experiences were compared between the two sets of households. Adjustments were made for demographic confounders. Results Complete data sets were available for 628 of the 640 households. Health knowledge and experiences were low for both sets of households. However, health knowledge and experiences were greater in the participatory households compared with the non-participatory households. These differences remained after adjustment for confounders. Conclusions The study was designed to evaluate progress with participatory processes delivered by non-governmental organisations over a five year period. Improvements in health knowledge and experiences of disadvantaged people were demonstrated in a consistent and robust manner where interventions had taken place.

2012-01-01

435

Appalachian Women. An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography compiles annotations of 178 books, journal articles, ERIC documents, and dissertations on Appalachian women and their social, cultural, and economic environment. Entries were published 1966-93 and are listed in the following categories: (1) authors and literary criticism; (2) bibliographies and resource guides; (3) economics,…

Hamm, Mary Margo

436

Nutritional impacts of a fruit and vegetable subsidy programme for disadvantaged Australian Aboriginal children.  

PubMed

Healthy food subsidy programmes have not been widely implemented in high-income countries apart from the USA and the UK. There is, however, interest being expressed in the potential of healthy food subsidies to complement nutrition promotion initiatives and reduce the social disparities in healthy eating. Herein, we describe the impact of a fruit and vegetable (F&V) subsidy programme on the nutritional status of a cohort of disadvantaged Aboriginal children living in rural Australia. A before-and-after study was used to assess the nutritional impact in 174 children whose families received weekly boxes of subsidised F&V organised through three Aboriginal medical services. The nutritional impact was assessed by comparing 24 h dietary recalls and plasma carotenoid and vitamin C levels at baseline and after 12 months. A general linear model was used to assess the changes in biomarker levels and dietary intake, controlled for age, sex, community and baseline levels. Baseline assessment in 149 children showed low F&V consumption. Significant increases (P< 0.05) in ?-cryptoxanthin (28.9 nmol/l, 18%), vitamin C (10.1 ?mol/l, 21%) and lutein-zeaxanthin (39.3 nmol/l, 11%) levels were observed at the 12-month follow-up in 115 children, although the self-reported F&V intake was unchanged. The improvements in the levels of biomarkers of F&V intake demonstrated in the present study are consistent with increased F&V intake. Such dietary improvements, if sustained, could reduce non-communicable disease rates. A controlled study of healthy food subsidies, together with an economic analysis, would facilitate a thorough assessment of the costs and benefits of subsidising healthy foods for disadvantaged Aboriginal Australians. PMID:23742751

Black, Andrew P; Vally, Hassan; Morris, Peter; Daniel, Mark; Esterman, Adrian; Karschimkus, Connie S; O'Dea, Kerin

2013-12-01

437

International Resource Book for Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons: 2001-2008. An Update to the International Resource Book for Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons: 1931-2001  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2001, the Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons (LSDP) Section of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA), published the "International Resource Book for Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons." This publication is a seventy year retrospective which chronicles the history of the Section from 1931 to 2001.…

Locke, Joanne; Panella, Nancy M.

2010-01-01

438

Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for fetal sex determination: benefits and disadvantages from the service users' perspective  

PubMed Central

Prenatal fetal sex determination is clinically indicated for women who are at risk of having a child with a serious genetic disorder affecting a particular sex. Ultrasound has been the traditional method used, but early fetal sex determination using non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) can now be performed using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma. The study aim was to assess the views and experiences of service users who had used NIPD for fetal sex determination. In this paper, we report on the perceived benefits and disadvantages. A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was used. A total of 44 participants (38 women and 6 partners of participating women) were recruited. Participants' views and experiences of NIPD were overwhelmingly positive. Concerning benefits over traditional methods, three themes emerged: (1) technical aspects of technology; (2) timing; and (3) enhanced decision-making. Practical advantages of NIPD included avoiding miscarriage, and there were a number of psychological advantages associated with timing such as perceived control, early re-engagement, normalization of pregnancy and peace of mind. Participants also valued NIPD as it enabled a stepwise approach to decision-making. A number of disadvantages were discussed including concerns about social sexing and increased bonding at a time in pregnancy when miscarriage risk is high. However, participants felt these were fairly minor in comparison with the advantages of NIPD. Until definitive genetic diagnosis using NIPD is available, NIPD for fetal sex determination is perceived as a good interim measure with a number of notable advantages over traditional methods.

Lewis, Celine; Hill, Melissa; Skirton, Heather; Chitty, Lyn S

2012-01-01

439

Overlapping and distinct representations of advantageous and disadvantageous inequality.  

PubMed

Advantageous inequality (AI) aversion, or paying at a personal cost to achieve equal reward distribution, represents a unique feature of human behavior. Here, we show that individuals have strong preferences for fairness in both disadvantageous (DI) and advantageous inequality (AI) situations, such that they alter others' payoff at a personal financial cost. At the neural level, we found that both types of inequality activated the putamen, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula, regions implicated in motivation. Individual difference analyses found that those who spent more money to increase others' payoff had stronger activity in putamen when they encountered AI and less functional connectivity between putamen and both orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula. Conversely, those who spent more money to reduce others' payoff had stronger activity in amygdala in response to DI and less functional connectivity between amygdala and ventral anterior cingulate cortex. These dissociations suggest that both types of inequality are processed by similar brain areas, yet modulated by different neural pathways. PMID:25050425

Yu, Rongjun; Calder, Andrew J; Mobbs, Dean

2014-07-01

440

Perfect in Her Place. Women at Work in Industrial America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economic role of American women is traced from colonial times through the 19th century. In colonial America women shared the economic responsibilities of family livelihood with their husbands and were engaged primarily in the production of food and clothing. Early 19th century America saw a redefinition of the social and economic spheres of…

Warner, Deborah J.

441

Women Reap More Benefits from Higher Education, Study Finds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education offers a variety of benefits, both economic and non-economic, and women seem to reap much bigger economic benefits from earning an associate's degree or a bachelor's degree than their male counterparts, according to a new study. The study's author said this revelation could shed some light on why the numbers of women in college…

Troumpoucis, Patricia

2004-01-01

442

Beliefs about rape and women's social roles.  

PubMed

The hypothesis tested was that beliefs about rape that place women at a disadvantage are positively related to beliefs that restrict the rights and roles of women in our society. Two scales, the R scale and the W scale, based on a survey of beliefs about rape (Feild, 1978) and the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (Spence and Helmreich, 1972), were administered as a single instrument. Subjects included 432 female undergraduates, 140 male undergraduates, 114 employed women, and 76 employed men. The latter two groups were predominantly from managerial, technical, and professional occupations. Product moment correlations between responses on the R scale and responses on the W scale were calculated for total scores as well as for three factors: women's responsibility and causal role in rape; role of consent in rape; and rapist's role and motivation. Correlations consistently supported the hypothesis for all four groups. PMID:4051719

Costin, F

1985-08-01

443

Health Inequalities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Lower Healthy Life Expectancy in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Areas  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated deprivation and inequalities in life expectancy and healthy life expectancy by location in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods. We conducted a health survey of 576 adults in 2006. Census tracts were stratified by income level and categorization as a slum. We determined health status by degree of functional limitation, according to the approach proposed by the World Health Organization. We calculated healthy life expectancies by Sullivan's method with abridged life table. Results. We found the worst indicators in the slum stratum. The life expectancy at birth of men living in the richest parts of the city was 12.8 years longer than that of men living in deprived areas. For both men and women older than age 65 years, healthy life expectancy was more than twice as high in the richest sector as in the slum sector. Conclusions. Our analysis detailed the excess burden of poor health experienced by disadvantaged populations of Rio de Janeiro. Policy efforts are needed to reduce social inequalities in health in this city, especially among the elderly.

Correa da Mota, Jurema; Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Sardinha Pereira, Tatiana Guimaraes

2011-01-01

444

Milder is better? advantages and disadvantages of "mild" ovarian stimulation for human in vitro fertilization  

PubMed Central

In the last decades, several steps have been made aiming at rendering human IVF more successful on one side, more tolerable on the other side. The "mild" ovarian stimulation approach, in which a lower-than-average dose of exogenous gonadotropins is given and gonadotropin treatment is started from day 2 to 7 of the cycle, represents a significant step toward a more patient's friendly IVF. However, a clear view of its virtues and defects is still lacking, because only a few prospective randomized trials comparing "mild" vs. conventional stimulation exist, and they do not consider some important aspects, such as, e.g., thawing cycles. This review gives a complete panorama of the "mild" stimulation philosophy, showing its advantages vs. conventional ovarian stimulation, but also discussing its disadvantages. Both patients with a normal ovarian responsiveness to exogenous gonadotropins and women with a poor ovarian reserve are considered. Overall, we conclude that the level of evidence supporting the use of "mild" stimulation protocols is still rather poor, and further, properly powered prospective studies about "mild" treatment regimens are required.

2011-01-01

445

Improving knowledge of antenatal care (ANC) among pregnant women: a field trial in central Java, Indonesia.  

PubMed

The need for reducing maternal mortality has become a paramount concern in developing countries including Indonesia. One of the strategies for reducing maternal mortality in Indonesia is the provision of antenatal care (ANC). Previous studies have reported the advantages and disadvantages of ANC. The purpose of this study is to ascertain if a new approach to ANC can improve pregnant women's knowledge of its benefits. An experimental design with 60 pregnant women from 10 cluster villages is used in this study. The intervention group received the new approach to ANC, while the control group received routine ANC. The findings show that the improvement of knowledge in the intervention group is significant particularly in the knowledge about healthy pregnancy (p=0.012), pregnancy complications (p=0.01), safe birth (p=0.01) and taking care of the newborn (p=0.012). The improvement of knowledge was significantly influenced by the respondents' educational back ground (p=0.002) and socio-economic status (p=0.027). This study recommends that the new approach to ANC be considered to educate pregnant women regarding safe birth and it is considered as one of the strategies that may be adopted to reduce maternal mortality. PMID:16044824

Nuraini, E; Parker, E

2005-01-01

446

Best Practices in Federal Procurement: A Study of the Successes and Barriers for Women-Owned Businesses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on a 2004 procurement roundtable, the NWBC commissioned this study to identify best practices among the Offices of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) which result in assistance to women-owned businesses interested in federal contra...

2006-01-01

447

Divorce and Women's Risk of Health Insurance Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health…

Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J.

2012-01-01

448

Testing the economic independence hypothesis: the effect of an exogenous increase in child support on subsequent marriage and cohabitation.  

PubMed

We examine the effects of an increase in income on the cohabitation and marriage of single mothers. Using data from an experiment that resulted in randomly assigned differences in child support receipt for welfare-receiving single mothers, we find that exogenous income increases (as a result of receiving all child support that was paid) are associated with significantly lower cohabitation rates between mothers and men who are not the fathers of their child(ren). Overall, these results support the hypothesis that additional income increases disadvantaged women's economic independence by reducing the need to be in the least stable type of partnerships. Our results also show the potential importance of distinguishing between biological and social fathers. PMID:24728708

Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R

2014-06-01

449

The quality of life of women of Chinese origin.  

PubMed

This paper draws upon qualitative data to explore the quality of life of Chinese mothers with preschool children in the central part of Manchester. In doing this it considers their own self-reported health conditions. Both semi-structured and conversational face-to-face interviews were used with mothers in their homes. The names of Chinese mothers were drawn from the immunization records of the Health Authority and Hospital Trust of Central Manchester. The final interview sample of 30 had a Chinese surname in the record. 'Lee' as a surname was excluded because it was used both by Chinese and English people. The mothers' socio-economic background and their quality of life in terms of work conditions and leisure, housing and residential environment, marital support and life satisfaction were examined. The findings indicate that since they settled in the United Kingdom, the women have been under great psychological stress from a variety of sources. These sources included hardship and overwork, poverty and deprivation, poor social support and social isolation, unhappy family relationships, gambling husbands and domestic violence, together with language and cultural difficulties. All of these contributed to poor quality of living standards as well as indirectly causing negative psychosocial health outcomes. The unsatisfactory self-reported health conditions and poor quality of life of Chinese mothers were naturally interrelated and might be determined by the disadvantages of migration. However, the mothers themselves expressed little satisfaction with the health services and it may be that improvements are necessary in this area to ameliorate some of the disadvantages of migration. PMID:11560691

Chan, Christine

2000-05-01

450

Increasing Women's Influence in Government and Politics: The Inclusion of Women of Color.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the history, current status, and accomplishments of women in United States politics. Identifies opposing perspectives on such political issues as child care, abortion, and the Equal Rights Amendment, stressing the role of minority women. Concludes with strategies women of color may use to overcome the triple bind of race, sex, and economic

Berry, Mary Frances

1986-01-01

451

Effectiveness and Empowerment in Women's Shelter: A Study of Working Women's Hostels in Bangalore, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy debates on shelter for women have focused on family structure, gender roles and the importance of shelter in women's economic development. They emphasize the need for shelter that is generally effective and empowering for women. Although valuable, these general policy proposals are often unable to account for the particular situations in specific cultural contexts in which family structure, roles

Kameshwari Pothukuchi

2001-01-01

452

Introducing Women's Self-Help in the Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A good introductory course in women's health would consist of all or a variety of issues which would include: the economics of women's health, terminology, hysterectomies, breast cancer, hormone therapy, childbirth, and patient-practitioner relationships. (JN)

Reagan, Patricia

1981-01-01

453

Pregnancy Rates for U.S. Women Continue to Drop  

MedlinePLUS

... women have been associated with a variety of demographic, social, and economic factors, and related program and ... totals by the Guttmacher Institute ( 9 – 11 ). The demographic information on the women who obtain abortions in ...

454

Economic Development, Gender Inequality, and Demographic Outcomes: Evidence from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the determinants of fertility, child mortality, and female disadvantage in child survival in India, using a district-level panel data set linking 1981 and 1991 censuses. The results question the dominant view that variables directly related to women's agency (specifically, the female literacy rate and the female labor force participation rate) have played the crucial roles here. Instead,

Prabir C. Bhattacharya

2006-01-01

455

Creating and sustaining disadvantage: the relevance of a social exclusion framework.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, public home-care services for elderly people have been subject to increased rationing and changes in resource allocation. We argue that a social exclusion framework can be used to explain the impacts of current policy priorities and organisational practices. In this paper, we use the framework of social exclusion to highlight the disadvantages experienced by elderly people, particularly those who cannot afford to supplement public care with private services. We illustrate our argument by drawing on examples from previous studies with persons giving and receiving care in the province of Québec. Our focus is on seven forms of exclusion: symbolic, identity, socio-political, institutional, economic, exclusion from meaningful relations, and territorial exclusion. These illustrations suggest that policy-makers, practitioners and researchers must address the various ways in which current policy priorities can create and sustain various types of exclusion of elderly people. They also highlight the need to reconsider the current decisions made regarding the allocation of services for elderly people. PMID:18700868

Grenier, Amanda M; Guberman, Nancy

2009-03-01

456

Behavioral Economics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albiet highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects ...

S. R. Hursh

1984-01-01

457

Advantages and disadvantages of killed and live poliomyelitis vaccines*  

PubMed Central

Decision-making on the use of poliomyelitis vaccines in the WHO Expanded Immunization Programme, and particularly in the developing nations, needs to be based on an understanding of the epidemiology of poliomyelitis in different parts of the globe. Even with two safe and effective kinds of poliomyelitis vaccine available, poliomyelitis has by no means been eradicated from the world. In developed countries that are considered well-vaccinated, certain sectors of the population may be inadequately protected against risk of infection by indigenous or imported wild polioviruses. In developing nations that are in transition toward an epidemic phase of poliomyelitis, wild polioviruses will continue to be a threat until thorough immunization is established and maintained. Killed-virus poliomyelitis vaccines have proved to be effective in certain countries that have used them exclusively; these are small countries with excellent public health systems, where coverage by the killed vaccine has been wide and frequent. Live vaccines, administered to hundreds of millions of persons during the past decade, have also been remarkably safe and effective. However, in certain warm-climate countries induction of antibodies in a satisfactorily high proportion of vaccinees has been difficult to accomplish. The advantages and disadvantages of each kind of poliomyelitis vaccine need to be weighed with respect to the particular setting in which a vaccine has been or will be used.

Melnick, Joseph L.

1978-01-01

458

Economic Sanctions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Institute for International Economics (IIE) (reviewed in the December 4, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics), this site is a useful resource for Economics or International Relations courses. Using testimony, speeches, articles, working papers, and an interesting case study (of Myanmar), the site explains and explores the economic and political goals and impact of sanctions. Additional Hot Topics features include the Japan Crisis, the Asian Financial Crisis, and the Euro Conversion.

1999-01-01

459

The unlikely terrorist: women and Islamic resistance in Lebanon and the Palestinian territories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Islamic resistance groups in Lebanon and the Palestinian territories have been accused of using terrorist tactics to achieve their aims. Although some critics suggest that such groups may also have hijacked the democratic agenda in ways that disadvantage women, their supporters claim that they are promoting a model of modernity that is empowering women. This article examines the reasons why

Maria Holt

2010-01-01

460

Nutritional risks of vegan diets to women and children: Are they preventable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential health risks of vegan diets specifically for women and children are discussed. Women and children are at higher risk of malnutrition from consumption of unsupplemented vegan diets than are adult males. Those who are very young, pregnant, lactating, elderly, or who suffer from poverty, disease or other environmentally induced disadvantages are at special risk. The size of these

Johanna Dwyer; Franklin M. Loew

1994-01-01

461

Creative Business Ownership for Women. Final Report from July 1, 1986 to June 30, 1987.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Creative Business Ownership for Women Project was established at Valencia Community College (Florida) to provide displaced homemakers and single parents with the special help they need to achieve entrepreneurial success. During the course of the project, displaced homemakers, single parents, and rural disadvantaged women interested in owning a…

Fisher, Constance Q.; Poitier, Vera R.

462

Ricardo's Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book, together with Marx's Economic and Walras' Economics, completes a sequence of titles by Professor Morishima on the first generation of scientific economists. The author's assessment of Ricardo differs substantially from the established views adopted by economists and historians of economic thought. While economists such as Pasinetti, Caravale and Samuelson have concentrated on macroeconomic interpretations of Ricardo, and historians

Michio Morishima

463

Television Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended as an introduction to the economics of commercial television for the general reader, this volume considers the theory and analytical basis of television and the policy implications of those economics. Part I considers the economics of television markets with particular attention of the determinants of viewer markets; the supply of…

Owen, Bruce M.; And Others

464

The Effect of Incentives on Achievement & Behavior of Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mesa School District (Arizona) "Incentives Only" Project--carried out via a performance contract with the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity in 1970-71 through the Mesa Education Association (MEA)--is described in terms of rationale for the use of incentives, background, program procedures, the incentives model, the delivery system,…

Barnard, Douglas P.

465

2 WOMEN'S RIGHTS IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

personal status issues—such as marriage, divorce, child custody, and inher- itance—were decided by judges based on their interpretations of Shari'a (Islamic law), the process which was often arbitrary and detrimental to women's rights. While the new law is perceived as a notable improvement over the old system, women remain disadvantaged in comparison to men. In addition, the Supreme Council for

Sanja Kelly; Julia Breslin

2010-01-01

466

Women physicists in Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Women constitute more than half of the total population of Nepal but are far behind men in all aspects of life. There is a wide gender gap socially, economically, and politically. Data for 1960 through 2001 show that the proportion of female students varied at the postgraduate level and there was no woman with a PhD degree. From 2002 through mid-2010 the number of female students increased gradually at both the MSc and in PhD levels, due to study opportunities abroad. We expect that this trend will continue, with significant improvement in furthering the education of women as a whole, and will lead to an increase in women physicists in the country.

Shrestha, Nilam; Shrestha, Sanju

2013-03-01

467

Career Trajectories of Older Women: Implications for Career Guidance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As work and employment transitions become more frequent and difficult, the demand for formal career guidance increases. Women are likely to experience structural labour market disadvantage and may benefit from formal support that is sympathetic to their particular needs. Yet the traditional psychological paradigms that dominate career guidance…

Bimrose, Jenny; McMahon, Mary; Watson, Mark

2013-01-01

468

The Czech women in the labour market: a European comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of the paper is to analyse the position of the Czech women in the labour market in a comparison to the EU-15 countries. The paper critically reviews three domains of female labour market participation: general characteristics of the female employment, work-life balance indicators, and disadvantages of the female labour force related to motherhood. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The

Marie Valentova

2005-01-01

469

Women in the American economy.  

PubMed

Striking changes in the economic pursuits and status of women have marked the last 2 decades: 1) more women are in the labor force than ever before, 2) they are more likely to have continuous lifetime work experience, 3) they are better educated, and 4) the law mandates greater opportunity for equal employment. Still, as a group, most women continue to work in traditionally female, low-paying occupations. This report addresses 2 questions: 1) why some economic differences between men and women have narrowed, and 2) why they still continue to narrow. Over the past few years, women have been spending more years prior to marriage supporting themselves; in marriage, they have been contributing more to the household income, and a greater number of divorced women have been rearing children alone, often with little or no financial help. Some of the highlights reported in this study are: 1) in 1985, 31.5 million women held full-time, year-round jobs; 2) younger women are increasingly delaying marriage and childbirth to attend college and establish careers; 3) over 1/2 of all children under 18 had a mother in the labor force in 1985; 4) 48% of women with babies under 1 were in the labor force in 1985 as were over 1/2 the mothers with toddlers under 3; 5) by 1995, 61.4 million women are projected to be in the labor force--a participation rate of 60%; and 6) 13% of women who worked year-round, full-time in 1984 had earnings greater than $25,000 compared with 46% of men. PMID:12314705

Taeuber, C M; Valdisera, V

1986-11-01

470

ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES FOR ISCO METHODS IN-SITU FENTON OXIDATION IN-SITU PERMANGANATE OXIDATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ Fenton oxidation and in-situ permanganate oxidation will be presented. This presentation will provide a brief overview of each technology and a detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each technology. Included in the ...

471

The Effect of Social Disadvantage on Motor Development in Young Children: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Empirical research suggests that social disadvantage has a negative effect on the development of language, and related cognitive skills such as reading. There is, however, no corresponding body of research on the impact of social disadvantage on motor development. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of…

McPhillips, Martin; Jordan-Black, Julie-Anne

2007-01-01

472

Children aged 9–14 living in disadvantaged areas in England: Opportunities and barriers for cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to take a holistic perspective to explore levels of cycling and opportunities and barriers to increase children’s safer cycling in disadvantaged areas in England. The study was one part of a larger study which explored the factors underlying the high level of road traffic casualties especially among children in the most disadvantaged areas of

Nicola Christie; Richard Kimberlee; Elizabeth Towner; Sarah Rodgers; Heather Ward; Judith Sleney; Ronan Lyons

2011-01-01

473

Multiple Levels of Social Disadvantage and Links to Obesity in Adolescence and Young Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The rise in adolescent obesity has become a public health concern, especially because of its impact on disadvantaged youth. This article examines the role of disadvantage at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level, to determine which contexts are related to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. Methods: We analyzed…

Lee, Hedwig; Harris, Kathleen M.; Lee, Joyce

2013-01-01

474

Do Disadvantaged Students Have Equal Access to Effective Teaching? NCEE Study Snapshot. NCEE 2014-4001  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study snapshot offers a summary of "Access to Effective Teaching for Disadvantaged Students. NCEE 2014-4001," the first report from a study initiated by the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences to examine access to effective teaching for disadvantaged students in 29 diverse school districts. The study…

National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, 2013

2013-01-01

475

Access to Effective Teaching for Disadvantaged Students: Executive Summary. NCEE 2014-4002  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes disadvantaged students' access to effective teaching in grades 4 through 8 in 29 diverse school districts, using value-added analysis to measure effective teaching. Recent federal initiatives emphasize measuring teacher effectiveness and ensuring that disadvantaged students have equal access to effective teachers. These…

Isenberg, Eric; Max, Jeffrey; Gleason, Philip; Potamites, Liz; Santillano, Robert; Hock, Heinrich; Hansen, Michael

2013-01-01

476

Neighborhood Disadvantage, Residential Stability, and Perceptions of Instrumental Support among New Mothers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing survey (N = 4,211), this study examines neighborhood disadvantage and perceptions of instrumental support among mothers with young children. The authors find that (a) living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with less instrumental support, particularly financial…

Turney, Kristin; Harknett, Kristen

2010-01-01

477

State Planning for the Disadvantaged. A Report of the National Dissemination Project for Community Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major elements in a general process model for state and local planning for minority and disadvantaged education are discussed. These elements are: (1) needs assessment and public discussion of issues, (2) state goals and objectives for disadvantaged education, (3) local community college goals, objectives, and commitments, (4) provision of…

Carlson, Dennis; Das, Deb

478

Project P-BLISS: An Experiment in Curriculum for Gifted Disadvantaged High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can high schools counteract deterrents to achievement that disadvantaged students face? "Project P-BLISS: Problem-Based Learning in the Social Sciences" presents "hidden" disadvantaged gifted students with a curriculum that first captures their interest and challenges them to realize their true potential. (MLH)

Gallagher, Shelagh A.

2000-01-01

479

Hidden Educators and the Seduction of College Students: Higher Education's Competitive Disadvantage. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper suggests that undergraduate higher education is at a severe competitive disadvantage vis-a-vis other socializing and educating agencies in society and proposes some strategies to compensate for this disadvantage. First, the paper notes difficulties with mandated assessment as a major means of educational improvement. It then identifies…

Bess, James L.

480

Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors of American Youth with an Emphasis on Youth from Disadvantaged Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Environmental Education and Training Foundation commissioned a survey on environmental attitudes and behaviors of disadvantaged youth in America to identify the critical gaps in environmental education so that resources can be targeted more effectively. Phase 1 consisted of qualitative research among disadvantaged students through…

Roper Starch Worldwide Inc.

481

Disadvantaged Former Miners' Perspectives on Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To explore disadvantaged former miners' perspectives in north Derbyshire, United Kingdom (UK) on smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: In-depth, audiotaped interviews with 16 disadvantaged former miners who smoked or had stopped smoking within six months. Results: Perceptions of being able to stop smoking with minimal difficulty…

White, Simon; Baird, Wendy

2013-01-01

482

Montessori for the Disadvantaged: An Application of Montessori Educational Principles to the War on Poverty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is devoted to a number of original articles on the application of the Montessori method for the education of the disadvantaged. The development of the method, its specific advantages for disadvantaged youngsters, special features of Montessori