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Sample records for economically disadvantaged women

  1. Women, disadvantage and health.

    PubMed

    Luddy, G

    2007-09-01

    This paper addresses the issue of disadvantage and health and how gender also affects health inequalities. Socio-economic status has been found to influence access to many social determinants of health, such as education and employment, food and nutrition, work opportunities, and housing. Socio-economic status has also been found to greatly impact on a person's access to effective healthcare in Ireland. Ireland has one of the widest gaps between rich and poor in Europe. Women in less well-off socio-economic groups are at the greatest disadvantage with regard to health and have been found to be at greater risk of developing poor health. The health of disadvantaged women is compromised by: lack of education, lack of information, and lack of awareness of factors that contribute to disease. These issues are explored in the paper with special focus on cancer, mental health, cardiovascular disease and sexual health. PMID:17955712

  2. Enhancing Motivation to Reduce the Risk of HIV Infection for Economically Disadvantaged Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Forsyth, Andrew D.; Wright, Ednita M.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2008-01-01

    This research evaluated a motivation-based HIV-risk-reduction intervention for economically disadvantaged urban women. Participants completed a survey that assessed HIV-related knowledge, risk perceptions, behavioral intentions, sexual communication, substance use, and risk behavior. A total of 102 at-risk women (76% African-American) were randomly assigned to either the risk-reduction intervention or to a waiting list. Women were reassessed at three and twelve weeks. Results indicated that treated women increased their knowledge and risk awareness, strengthened their intentions to adopt safer sexual practices, communicated their intentions with partners, reduced substance use proximal to sexual activities, and engaged in fewer acts of unprotected vaginal intercourse. These effects were observed immediately and most were maintained at follow-up. PMID:9256553

  3. Racial Differences in Follow-up of Abnormal Mammography Findings Among Economically Disadvantaged Women

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Swann Arp; Smith, Emily Rose; Hardin, James; Das, Irene Prabhu; Fulton, Jeanette; Hebert, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Background In the United States and particularly South Carolina, African-American women suffer disproportionately higher mortality rates than do European-American women. The timeliness of patient adherence to the follow-up of mammographic abnormalities may influence prognosis and survival. Consequently, the purpose of the present investigation was to examine racial differences in the completion and completion time of a diagnostic work-up following a finding of a suspicious breast abnormality. Methods Study participants of the Best Chance Network, a state-wide service program that provides free mammography screenings to economically disadvantaged and medically underserved women, were included in the study. Racial differences in tumor characteristics and adherence to recommended work-up were tested using Chi-square and t-tests. Logistic and Cox regression modeling was used to assess the relationship between work-up completion and other factors among African-American and European-American women. Results Completion of the work-up was associated with the number of previous procedures and income, with no significant differences noted by race. The amount of time to completion of the work-up was influenced by previous procedures, income, and race. After accounting for completion time, African-American women were 12% less likely than European-American women to complete the recommended work-up (HR=0.88, p-value=0.01). Conclusion This study established a racial disparity in the time to completion of a diagnostic work-up among Best Chance Network participants. These findings highlight the importance of understanding factors associated with delays and adherence in completion of recommended work-up when breast abnormalities are detected in mammograms. PMID:19859902

  4. 48 CFR 52.219-29 - Notice of Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... who are economically disadvantaged in accordance with 13 CFR part 127. It automatically qualifies as a women-owned small business (WOSB) concern eligible under the WOSB Program. WOSB Program Repository means... affiliation applies pursuant to 13 CFR 121.103(h)(3); (2) The EDWOSB participant of the joint venture...

  5. 48 CFR 52.219-29 - Notice of Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... who are economically disadvantaged in accordance with 13 CFR part 127. It automatically qualifies as a women-owned small business (WOSB) concern eligible under the WOSB Program. WOSB Program Repository means... affiliation applies pursuant to 13 CFR 121.103(h)(3); (2) The EDWOSB participant of the joint venture...

  6. Engaging Women Who Are Depressed and Economically Disadvantaged in Mental Health Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Nancy K.; Zuckoff, Allan; Swartz, Holly; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Geibel, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    Women disadvantaged by poverty, as well as racial or ethnic minority status, are more likely to experience depression than the rest of the U.S. population. At the same time, they are less likely to seek or remain in treatment for depression in traditional mental health settings. This article explores a therapeutic, psychosocial engagement strategy…

  7. Human rights violations among economically disadvantaged women with mental illness: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Ramachandra; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Globally women confront manifold violations of human rights and women with poverty and mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. Aim: The aim was to examine the influence of poverty in meeting human rights needs among recovered women with mental illness at family and community level. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study carried out among randomly selected (n = 100) recovered women with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data were collected through face-to-face interview using structured needs assessment questionnaire. Results: Our findings revealed that below poverty line (BPL) participants were not satisfied in meeting their physical needs such as “access to safe drinking water” (χ2 = 8.994, P < 0.02), “served in the same utensils” (χ2 = 13.648, P < 0.00), had adequate food (χ2 = 11.025, P < 0.02), and allowed to use toilet facilities (χ2 = 13.565, P < 0.00). The human rights needs in emotional dimension, that is, afraid of family members (χ2 = 8.233, P < 0.04) and hurt by bad words (χ2 = 9.014, P < 0.02) were rated higher in above poverty line (APL) participants. Similarly, 88.9% of women from APL group expressed that they were discriminated and exploited by the community members (χ2 = 17.490, P < 0.00). More than three-fourths of BPL participants (76.1%) believed that there were wondering homeless mentally ill in their community (χ2 = 11.848, P < 0.01). Conclusion: There is an urgent need to implement social welfare programs to provide employment opportunities, disability allowance, housing and other social security for women with mental illness. Further, mental health professionals play an essential role in educating the family and public regarding human rights of people with mental illness. PMID:26124524

  8. Environmental perceptions as mediators of the relationship between the objective built environment and walking among socio-economically disadvantaged women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods are at increased risk for physical inactivity and associated health outcomes and are difficult to reach through personally tailored interventions. Targeting the built environment may be an effective strategy in this population subgroup. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating role of environmental perceptions in the relationship between the objective environment and walking for transportation/recreation among women from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Baseline data of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality (READI) study were used. In total, 4139 women (18–46 years) completed a postal survey assessing physical environmental perceptions (aesthetics, neighbourhood physical activity environment, personal safety, neighbourhood social cohesion), physical activity, and socio-demographics. Objectively-assessed data on street connectivity and density of destinations were collected using a Geographic Information System database and based on the objective z-scores, an objective destinations/connectivity score was calculated. This index was positively scored, with higher scores representing a more favourable environment. Two-level mixed models regression analyses were conducted and the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients test was used to examine the mediating effects. Results The destinations/connectivity score was positively associated with transport-related walking. The perceived physical activity environment mediated 6.1% of this positive association. The destinations/connectivity score was negatively associated with leisure-time walking. Negative perceptions of aesthetics, personal safety and social cohesion of the neighbourhood jointly mediated 24.1% of this negative association. Conclusion For women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, environmental perceptions were important mediators of the relationship between the

  9. 13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... is economically disadvantaged if she can demonstrate that her ability to compete in the free... disadvantaged, the woman's personal net worth must be less than $750,000, excluding her ownership interest in the concern and her equity interest in her primary personal residence. (2) Income received from...

  10. NEW PASS: Nontraditional Education for Women, Paths to Economic Self-Sufficiency. A Career Awareness Program for Economically Disadvantaged Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Judith

    This manual is designed for social service agencies, educational institutions, and other organizations who want to strengthen their programming for economicaly disadvantaged teenage girls and young women. It provides materials for the development and implementation of NEW PASS, a unique career awareness program that uses nontraditional employment…

  11. A strategy for promoting breastfeeding among economically disadvantaged women and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bryant, C A; Coreil, J; D'Angelo, S L; Bailey, D F; Lazarov, M

    1992-01-01

    Best Start is an innovative social marketing approach to promote breastfeeding among low-income women. Focus group interviews were used to identify the determinants of infant-feeding decisions and the most effective strategies for encouraging women to breastfeed. Motivations and perceived barriers related to breastfeeding and social network influences on feeding choice are discussed. The findings were used to design a multifaceted breastfeeding promotion campaign aimed at new mothers, family members, health professionals, and the community at large. PMID:1476853

  12. Culturally relevant treatment services for perinatal depression in socio-economically disadvantaged women: The design of the MOMCare study*

    PubMed Central

    Grote, Nancy K.; Katon, Wayne J.; Lohr, Mary Jane; Carson, Kathy; Curran, Mary; Galvin, Erin; Russo, Joan E.; Gregory, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression during pregnancy has been demonstrated to be predictive of low birthweight, prematurity, and postpartum depression. These adverse outcomes potentially have lasting effects on maternal and child well-being. Socio-economically disadvantaged women are twice as likely as middle-class women to meet diagnostic criteria for antenatal major depression (MDD), but have proven difficult to engage and retain in treatment. Collaborative care treatment models for depression have not been evaluated for racially/ethnically diverse, pregnant women on Medicaid receiving care in a public health system. This paper describes the design, methodology, culturally relevant enhancements, and implementation of a randomized controlled trial of depression care management compared to public health Maternity Support Services(MSS). Methods Pregnant, public health patients, ≥18 years with a likely diagnosis of MDD or dysthymia, measured respectively by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9(PHQ-9) or the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview(MINI), were randomized to the intervention or to public health MSS. The primary outcome was reduction in depression severity from baseline during pregnancy to 18-months post-baseline(one-year postpartum). Baseline Results 168 women with likely MDD (96.4%) and/or dysthymia (24.4%) were randomized. Average age was 27.6 years and gestational age was 22.4 weeks; 58.3% racial/ethnic minority; 71.4% unmarried; 22% no high school degree/GED; 65.3% unemployed; 42.1% making ≤$10,000 annually; 80.4% having recurrent depression; 64.6% PTSD, and 72% an unplanned pregnancy. Conclusions A collaborative care team, including a psychiatrist, psychologist, project manager, and 3 social workers, met weekly, collaborated with the patients' obstetrics providers, and monitored depression severity using an electronic tracking system. Potential sustainability of the intervention within a public health system requires further study. PMID:25016216

  13. Family planning and contraceptive decision-making by economically disadvantaged, African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Eric J.; Collier, Charlene; Hayes, Laura; Curry, Leslie; Fraenkel, Liana

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant racial disparities exist in the US unplanned pregnancy rate. We conducted a qualitative study using the theory of planned behavior as a framework to describe how low-income, African-American women approach family planning. Study Design Structured focus groups were held with adult, low-income, non-pregnant, African-American women in Connecticut. Data were collected using a standardized discussion guide, and audio-taped and transcribed. Four, independent researchers coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method. Codes were organized into over-arching themes. Results Contraceptive knowledge was limited with formal education often occurring after sexual debut. Attitudes about contraception were overtly negative with method effectiveness being judged by the experience of side effects. Family and friends strongly influence contraceptive decisions while male partners are primarily seen as a barrier. Contraceptive pills are perceived as readily accessible although compliance is considered a barrier. Conclusions Contraception education should occur before sexual debut, should involve trusted family and community members, and should positively frame issues in terms of achieving life goals. PMID:23177266

  14. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed. PMID:26496170

  15. 13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., including her personal income for the past two years (including bonuses, and the value of company stock... woman is economically disadvantaged if she can demonstrate that her ability to compete in the free... her ownership interest in the concern and equity in her primary personal residence. (c) Factors...

  16. Mobile Technologies & Socio-Economic Opportunities for Disadvantaged Women: A Study of Information Behavior in a Developing Nation Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potnis, Devendra Dilip

    2010-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been championed by the United Nations and others as one of the key media to open up socio-economic opportunities for disadvantaged populations. Studies lead us to believe that after being introduced to ICTs, users' information behavior changes, enabling them to benefit from socio-economic…

  17. 48 CFR 52.219-29 - Notice of Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... who are economically disadvantaged in accordance with 13 CFR part 127. It automatically qualifies as a... affiliation applies pursuant to 13 CFR 121.103(h)(3); (2) The EDWOSB participant of the joint venture is... venture. (f) Nonmanufacturer. An EDWOSB concern that is a non-manufacturer, as defined in 13 CFR...

  18. Cycles of Discrimination: Older Women, Cumulative Disadvantages, and Retirement Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Nanette J.

    2005-01-01

    This article identifies typical life course situations that women experience, which contribute to a cycle of discrimination or a recurrence of disadvantages simply because of their sex, race, or age. Although men suffer social, health, psychological, and economic disadvantages as they age, this article focuses primarily on women as a more deprived…

  19. Developmental Levels of Economically Disadvantaged College Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Stephen L.

    The personal developmental levels of students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds were studied; and the hypothesis that students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds would be less mature than other students in the developmental levels of autonomy, purpose, and interpersonal relationships was assessed. The effects of participation in…

  20. Increasing the Earnings of Disadvantaged Women. Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission for Employment Policy (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The National Commission for Employment Policy has examined ways that the United States federal government could improve the economic situation of disadvantaged women. In particular, the Commission examined, during 1980, the role of education and employment and training programs in helping women to prepare for better paying occupations, and then…

  1. [Family structures: social disadvantage of women].

    PubMed

    Irizarry Castro, A

    1999-03-01

    A perspective on the family, based on scientific knowledge and on its appreciation as a unit for health care, is suggested. The contemporary family because of its independent links with society has lived and resisted the consequences of a series of economic, political, technological, cultural and ideological transformations. These forces act as influential forces in the family and it responds adopting new forms to temper to these new times. For these reasons, society at present is characterized by a plurality of family structures. As part of that diversity in families, at present, there are families: nuclear biological, nuclear in series, father or mother alone, extended, and those that share the same sexual orientation. The term family should be redefined to enclose all those types of cohabitation. Is imperative that support is given to families with the greatest social disadvantages such as those families made up of women alone as they are expected to continue growing in all societies both developed and underdeveloped. PMID:10343988

  2. A Randomized Trial of a Diet and Exercise Intervention for Overweight and Obese Women from Economically Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: Sisters Taking Action for Real Success (STARS)

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Granner, Michelle; Hutto, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Background Lower socioeconomic status at both the individual and neighborhood level is associated with increased health risks. Weight loss can reduce this risk, but few high quality weight loss studies target this population. Objectives STARS tests a culturally-appropriate, group-based behavioral and social support intervention on body weight and waist circumference in women from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods. Design A stratified (by BMI) randomized trial. Randomization to group was generated by a random numbers table with allocation concealment by opaque envelopes. Methods Participants 25–50 years who had a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and a waist circumference ≥ 88 cm were recruited from 18 census tracts in Columbia, SC with high rates of poverty between November 2008 and November 2010. All participants received a dietary and exercise counseling session. Intervention participants then receive 16 theoretically-based and tailored weekly group sessions followed by 8 weeks of telephone maintenance counseling. Control participants receive 16 weekly health education mailings. Measurements correspond to baseline, post-group intervention, and post-telephone counseling, and for intervention participants, after a 12-week no-contact period. Measurement staff was blinded to group assignment. Results Participants (N=155; n=80 intervention, n=75 minimal intervention control) were primarily African American (86.5%) and averaged 38.9 years with a mean BMI of 40.1 kg/m2 and waist circumference of 115.4 cm. Food insecurity was reported by 43% of participants. Summary STARS targets an underserved population with an innovative, tailored, and theoretically-grounded, group-based intervention followed by telephone maintenance. If effective, the approach has the potential to be feasible and cost-effective for community delivery. PMID:21864718

  3. The Engagement in Schooling of Economically Disadvantaged Parents and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Carey E.; Crosnoe, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This study considers academic risk and resilience in the context of economic disadvantage, examining the associations among such disadvantage, parental involvement in education, and children's academic orientation in a sample of 489 inner-city families. Neither parents' nor children's engagement in the educational system was significantly…

  4. Women and Economics Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Carole L.; Blankenship, Glen

    1983-01-01

    A content analysis of 22 secondary economics textbooks revealed the textbooks to be less sex-biased than the books examined in earlier studies. However, women are still underrepresented in most of the textbooks, and little attention is given to economic realities which women face. (Author/RM)

  5. 48 CFR 52.219-29 - Notice of Total Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business (EDWOSB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in accordance with 13 CFR part 127. It automatically qualifies as a women-owned small business (WOSB... affiliation applies pursuant to 13 CFR 121.103(h)(3); (2) The EDWOSB participant of the joint venture is... venture. (e) Nonmanufacturer. An EDWOSB that is a non-manufacturer, as defined in 13 CFR 121.406(b) or...

  6. Cognitive aspects of young children's experience of economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Heberle, Amy E; Carter, Alice S

    2015-07-01

    Economic disadvantage is a well-studied risk factor for poorer behavioral and academic functioning in young children. Although the mechanisms by which disadvantage impacts children have long been of interest to researchers, studies to date have predominantly focused on mechanisms that are external to the child (e.g., parental depression, marital conflict). Very few studies have examined the internal, cognitive aspects of the experience of economic disadvantage, and almost none have considered how the effects of disadvantage on children's functioning might be mediated through cognitive processes. This article provides a framework for research into cognitive and social-cognitive mediators of economic disadvantage operating in early-to-middle childhood. The initial section of the article briefly reviews and summarizes the extant literature on childhood poverty and its effects. The second section reviews the evidence that preschool-aged children have the requisite cognitive abilities to recognize social inequality in their environments, to be aware of stereotypes related to social class, and to connect these social concepts to their own experience. The third section reviews and evaluates the small literature on children's appraisals, attributions, stereotypes, and perceptions of or about poverty and inequality. The fourth section defines and evaluates the literature on 2 social-cognitive processes-stereotype threat and status anxiety-that are hypothesized to mediate the effects of economic disadvantage on children's functioning. The article concludes with a series of proposed questions and hypotheses for future research, and elaborates on the potential implications of the proposed area of research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25822131

  7. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT AMONG ECONOMICALLY AND EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GREEN, ROBERT L.

    CURRENT RESEARCH INDICATES THAT SCHOOL AND HOME ENVIRONMENTS STRONGLY INFLUENCE AN INDIVIDUAL'S INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT, ALTHOUGH CERTAIN VERY BROAD HEREDITARY LIMITATIONS MAY ALSO AFFECT IT. THE ECONOMICALLY AND EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH EXPERIENCES AN ENVIRONMENT WHICH LACKS STIMULI ESSENTIAL TO POSITIVE INTELLECTUAL GROWTH AND…

  8. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... individual's presumption of economic disadvantage is rebutted. You are not required to have a...

  9. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... individual's presumption of economic disadvantage is rebutted. You are not required to have a...

  10. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... individual's presumption of economic disadvantage is rebutted. You are not required to have a...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage E Appendix E to Part 26 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION...

  12. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... the determination of his or her disadvantage. (4) When an individual's presumption of social...

  13. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? 26.67 Section 26.67 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION BY... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage....

  14. Troubled times, troubled relationships: how economic resources, gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Golden, Shelley D; Perreira, Krista M; Durrance, Christine Piette

    2013-07-01

    We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N = 1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mothers' reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age 3, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women's risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women's economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV. PMID:23300198

  15. An Investigation of the Sustained Effects of Reading Recovery ® on Economically Disadvantaged Fifth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redding, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the long-term benefits of the Reading Recovery ® program for economically disadvantaged students who were successfully discontinued after the first grade. The hypothesis was tested that students exiting first grade with grade-level reading abilities and with similar low socio-economic status (economically disadvantaged), who…

  16. 15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic... ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. (a) The representatives of the group requesting formal designation should establish social or economic disadvantage by a preponderance of...

  17. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. 600.7 Section 600.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a)...

  18. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. 600.7 Section 600.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a)...

  19. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a) DOE encourages the participation in financial assistance awards of small businesses, including those owned by... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned...

  20. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a) DOE encourages the participation in financial assistance awards of small businesses, including those owned by... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned...

  1. Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This article reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate…

  2. The Relationship between Teachers' Collective Efficacy and Student Achievement at Economically Disadvantaged Middle School Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Juan Manuel; Challoo, Linda B.; Kupczynski, Lori

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the collective efficacy of teachers and student achievement at economically disadvantaged middle school campuses. The population of the study consisted of Texas campuses that served economically disadvantaged students and received a campus rating of Exemplary or Academically…

  3. Troubled Times, Troubled Relationships: How Economic Resources, Gender Beliefs, and Neighborhood Disadvantage Influence Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Shelley D.; Perreira, Krista M.; Durrance, Christine Piette

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV), and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N=1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mother’s reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age three, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women’s risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the race/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women’s economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV. PMID:23300198

  4. The Economic Role of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Statistical information pertaining to one of the most important changes in the American economy in this century--the increase in the number of women who work outside the home--is presented as an introduction to the broader range of topics which will be considered by the Advisory Committee on the Economic Role of Women. Job-related aspects of…

  5. Women's Issues Are Economic Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Patricia

    1983-01-01

    Faulty laws, unfair practices, and years of tradition in the workplace keep women from economic equality. The Economic Equity Act proposed by Congress will address inequalities in tax and retirement matters, the need for better dependent care, nondiscrimination in insurance, regulatory reform, and child support enforcement. (IS)

  6. The "Collateral Impact" of Pupil Behaviour and Geographically Concentrated Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Alex Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Schools in areas of concentrated disadvantage tend to have below-average attainment, but there is no consensus on why. Mental and behavioural disorders in children are correlated with socio-economic disadvantage. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the first phenomenon can at least partly be accounted for by the second phenomenon through…

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK AND IMPACT IN COMMUNITIES OF COLOR AND ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that communities of color and economically/educationally disadvantaged communities are at a greater risk of impact from environmental hazards. In many past studies in environmental justice (EJ) communities, scientists have used surrogate measures of exposure b...

  8. Non-Traditional Educational Trajectories: The Educational Aspirations and Expectations of Women Who Are Educationally Disadvantaged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Claudia Ditmar

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the educational aspirations and expectations of a heterogeneous group of women who were enrolled in, or had graduated from, adult education and literacy programs in Boston, Massachusetts. The research questions guiding the inquiry are: (1) Why do educationally disadvantaged women value education--how are these values…

  9. How Does Childhood Economic Disadvantage Lead to Crime?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David; Swain-Campbell, Nicola; Horwood, John

    2004-01-01

    Background: This study sought to examine the associations between indices of socio-economic deprivation in childhood and later involvement in crime. Method: Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study. In this project a cohort of 1,265 children born in Christchurch in 1977 have been studied from birth to age 21…

  10. Economically Disadvantaged Children's Transitions into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.

    2010-01-01

    Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify "family-based" mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential "school-based" remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation of…

  11. Temperament Influences on Parenting and Child Psychopathology: Socio-Economic Disadvantage as Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini

    2008-01-01

    Despite calls for research on how the socio-economic environment may be related to temperament, we still do not know enough about the relationship between temperament and socio-economic disadvantage (SED). A particularly under-researched question in temperament research is how SED may moderate the temperament-parenting and the temperament-child…

  12. Stress Exposure and Depression in Disadvantaged Women: The Protective Effects of Optimism and Perceived Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Larkin, Jill; Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Brown, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the authors predicted that the individual protective factors of optimism and perceived control over acute and chronic stressors would buffer the relations between acute and chronic stress exposure and severity of depression, controlling for household income, in a sample of financially disadvantaged women. Ninety-seven African…

  13. Exceptional Children Conference Papers: Gifted and Developmental Potential in Women and the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.

    In the first of four papers dealing with gifted and developmental potential in women and the disadvantaged, Alexinia Y. Baldwin describes a curriculum package entitled Ecology the Web of Life, designed for high potential students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. It is intended to develop higher level thought processes, features several methods…

  14. Family and Personal Adjustment of Economically Disadvantaged Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Tsui, Pik Fong

    2012-01-01

    This study attempted to examine the relationship between poverty and adolescent developmental outcomes in the family and personal domains in 3,328 Chinese secondary school students in Hong Kong. Developmental outcomes included positive youth development constructs, problem behaviors, perceived family interaction, and parental parenting. Results showed that adolescents experiencing poverty did not differ from nonpoor adolescents in terms of risk behavior and in most indicators of positive youth development. On the other hand, adolescents with economic disadvantage displayed lower levels of positive identity, family interaction, and perceived paternal parenting than did those without economic disadvantage. PMID:22919290

  15. 13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs? 125.13 Section 125.13 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENT..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO...

  16. 13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs? 125.13 Section 125.13 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENT..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO...

  17. 13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs? 125.13 Section 125.13 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENT..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO...

  18. 13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs? 125.13 Section 125.13 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENT..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO...

  19. 13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs? 125.13 Section 125.13 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENT..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO...

  20. Predictors of Quality of Life in Economically Disadvantaged Populations in Montreal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caron, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Most epidemiological studies agree that economically disadvantaged populations are the groups most vulnerable to mental health problems and report lower quality of life among these populations. However, it appears that access to social support plays a role in protecting against the chronic stress resulting from conditions such as poverty. This…

  1. The Impact of an Economically Disadvantaged Student Population on School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, Curtis F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between student poverty levels, defined by the number of students identified as economically disadvantaged by qualifying for free and reduced lunch and school climate. The literature review examined school climate and culture, effects of student socioeconomic (SES) status on education,…

  2. The Achievement of Economically Disadvantaged Fifth Graders in Summer Enrichment Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulden, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    The achievement gap between economically disadvantaged students and their traditional counterparts has continued to be a problem in education. Based on cognitive constructivist theory and enrichment theory, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between scores on a high-stakes achievement test and participation in a summer…

  3. Persistence in the Face of Academic Challenge for Economically Disadvantaged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eleanor D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined persistence in the face of academic challenge for economically disadvantaged children. Participants included 103 children attending Head Start preschools, as well as their caregivers and teachers. Child tasks measured persistence in the face of academic challenge as well as emergent implicit theories of intelligence. Caregiver…

  4. Transition of Students from Economically Disadvantaged Backgrounds to Research Led Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study on software development students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds that have dropped out of universities which have a strong research emphasis. In the UK, these universities are generally part of the Russell Group of Universities. The participants were all male, mainly black, working class and…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…

  6. Economic Disadvantage and Young Children's Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Mechanisms of Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home…

  7. Relationship between Success in Extracurricular Programs and Student Academic Performance in Economically Disadvantaged High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killgo, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the common characteristics of economically disadvantaged schools that demonstrate success in academics and extracurricular activities. Mixed-method design was used for this study. The quantitative portion of the study determined the correlation between a school's performance in extracurricular activities,…

  8. Effect of Dropout Prevention Programs on the Attitudes toward School of Economically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, Earl F., II.

    2012-01-01

    Every year, students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds drop out of school and attempt to enter the work force without any specialized training. The purpose of this study was to understand if dropout prevention programs change a potential dropout's attitude toward school in a public school district. A quantitative, quasi-experimental…

  9. Predictors of Parenting among Economically Disadvantaged Latina Mothers: Mediating and Moderating Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Bowman, Marvella A.; Swenson, Rebecca R.

    2010-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role of ecological risk factors, maternal psychological distress, and social network support on the parenting behaviors of 535 economically disadvantaged Latina mothers, who were surveyed for the Welfare Children, & Families: A Three City Study. We predicted that ecological risk would influence…

  10. Process of change for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study sought to identify Transtheoretical Model processes of change associated with consumption of = 5 daily servings of FVs in a sample of economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (N = 549; mean (SD) age = 12.44 (.99) years; 61% female; 15% African American Hispanic). Participan...

  11. Processes of change for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study sought to identify Transtheoretical model processes of change associated with consumption of >=5 daily servings of fruit and vegetables in a sample of economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (N=549; mean (SD) age=12.44 (.99) years; 61% female; 15% African American Hispanic...

  12. Coordinating Federal Assistance Programs for the Economically Disadvantaged: Recommendations and Background Materials. Special Report No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission for Employment Policy (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This special report from the National Commission for Employment Policy on coordinating federal assistance programs for the economically disadvantaged contains two parts. Part 1 includes recommendations for improving public assistance coordination programs in general and employment and training programs in particular. Eight recommendations focus on…

  13. Using "U-Pace" Instruction to Improve the Academic Performance of Economically Disadvantaged Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, R.; Stoiber, L. C.; Pfeiffer, H. M.; Kienzler, S. E.; Fleming, R. R.; Pedrick, L. E.; Barth, D. J.; Reddy, D. .

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate whether the student success associated with the "U-Pace" instructional approach, which integrates mastery-based learning with proactive instructor support in an online learning environment, would replicate for both economically disadvantaged students and students who are not economically…

  14. 15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. 1400.4 Section 1400.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) MINORITY BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT AGENCY DETERMINATION OF GROUP ELIGIBILITY FOR MBDA ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or...

  15. 15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. 1400.4 Section 1400.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) MINORITY BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT AGENCY DETERMINATION OF GROUP ELIGIBILITY FOR MBDA ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or...

  16. 15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. 1400.4 Section 1400.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) MINORITY BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT AGENCY DETERMINATION OF GROUP ELIGIBILITY FOR MBDA ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or...

  17. Sexual Health Risk and the Movement of Women Between Disadvantaged Communities and Local Jails.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Megha; Kelly, Patricia J

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on cross-sectional data collected in three Kansas City jails, our objective was to describe the social, neighborhood-based context of sexual health risk prior to incarceration for 290 women. Half of the participants were clustered in Kansas City's urban core before their incarceration. Women who lived in these neighborhoods, which had the highest density of our incarcerated participants, were 3 times as likely to report a history of trading sex for money, drugs, or life necessities compared to women who lived elsewhere in the city. Living in a neighborhood that was perceived to have low social capital was also associated with sexually transmitted infection history. Gaining an understanding of these social influences in women's lives-particularly at the neighborhood level-provides key insights that will allow future interventions to change the health outcomes of women who move between disadvantaged communities and local jails. PMID:26332929

  18. Intimate Partner Violence and HIV Risk Behaviors Among Socially Disadvantaged Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Sarah; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina; Bernales, Margarita; Cabieses, Báltica

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV risk among socioeconomically disadvantaged Chilean women. A correlational analysis with data from the NIH-funded project, “Testing an HIV/AIDS Prevention Intervention for Chilean Women,” was conducted. Two hundred and sixtyone women were included in this analysis (n = 261). Those women who had experienced any type of IPV in the past 3 months had significantly higher risk for HIV than those who had not (t = −2.016, p < .05). Also a linear trend was found among those women who had experienced more than one type of IPV in the past 3 months and HIV risk. PMID:21486859

  19. American Women: Dimensions in Economic Interdependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casperson, Luvonia J.

    The economic evolution of American women from the colonial era to 1984 is examined. The labor-scarce environment of the colonial era gave women access to any occupation they wished, e.g., field work, household manufacturing. With the Industrial Revolution, 1820-1865, the role of women changed. Industrialists hired women because they would work for…

  20. Patient Navigation to Improve Follow-Up of Abnormal Mammograms Among Disadvantaged Women

    PubMed Central

    Ashburner, Jeffrey M.; McCarthy, Anne Marie; Piawah, Sorbarikor; Atlas, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Patient navigation (PN) can improve breast cancer care among disadvantaged women. We evaluated the impact of a PN program on follow-up after an abnormal mammogram. Methods: Between 2007 and 2010, disadvantaged women with an abnormal mammogram (Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System [BI-RADS] codes 0, 3, 4, 5) cared for in a community health center (CHC) with PN were compared to those receiving care in 11 network practices without PN. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to compare the percentages receiving appropriate follow-up and time to follow-up between the groups. Results: Abnormal mammography findings were reported for 132 women in the CHC with PN and 168 from practices without PN. The percentage of women with appropriate follow-up care was higher in the practice with PN than in non-PN practices (90.4% vs. 75.3%, adjusted p=0.006). Results varied by BI-RADS score for women in PN and non-PN practices (BI-RADS 0, 93.7% vs. 90.2%, p=0.24; BI-RADS 3, 85.7% vs. 49.2%, p=0.003; BI-RADS 4/5, 95.1% vs. 82.8%, p=0.26). Time to follow-up was similar for BI-RADS 0 and occurred sooner for women in the PN practice than in non-PN practices for BI-RADS 3 and 4/5 (BI-RADS 3, adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.41 [1.36–4.27], BI-RADS 4/5, aHR [95% CI]: 1.41 [0.88–2.24]). Conclusions: Disadvantaged women from a CHC with PN were more likely to receive appropriate follow-up after an abnormal mammogram than were those from practices without PN. Expanding PN to include all disadvantaged women within primary care networks could improve equity in cancer care. PMID:25522246

  1. Violent behavior in Chinese adolescents with an economic disadvantage. Psychological, family and interpersonal correlates.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T; Tang, Vera

    2003-01-01

    Two studies investigating the psychological, family and interpersonal correlates of adolescent violent behavior are reported in this paper. In Study 1, secondary school students (N = 1,519) responded to established scales assessing their psychological attributes, family functioning, parenting qualities and psychosocial support and conflict. Results of Study 1 showed that: a) adolescents who showed higher levels of perceived stress and psychological symptoms displayed more signs of adolescent violence; b) adolescents who had a higher sense of mastery and existential mental health displayed less signs of violence; c) adolescents' attitudes towards poverty and traditional Chinese beliefs about adversity were significantly related to adolescent violence; d) higher levels of family functioning, positive parenting styles as well as interpersonal support and lower levels of interpersonal conflicts were associated with a lower level of adolescent violence. Results further showed that some of the above factors were more strongly related to adolescent violence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage than in adolescents who did not experience economic disadvantage. Some of the findings of Study 1 were replicated in Study 2, where adolescents from 229 families (either families on welfare or low income families) were recruited. These studies suggested that several psychological, family and interpersonal factors are related to adolescent violent behavior, particularly in adolescents with economic disadvantage. PMID:12964444

  2. The Physical and Social Environment of Sleep in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Doering, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe the physical and social environment of sleep self-management in postpartum socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Design Descriptive, exploratory design. Setting Participants were recruited in the hospital after giving birth. Data were collected in participant homes after discharge. Participants Postpartum women on Medicaid with normal healthy infants. Methods Participants completed a survey about features within their physical and social sleep environment at 2 weeks postpartum. Participants then completed three days and nights of sleep diaries at both 4 and 8 weeks postpartum to document perceived awakenings, select sleep hygiene practices, bed sharing, and reasons for sleep disruption. Results The sleep environments of participants were dynamic from night to night. Bed sharing was common with nearly half of participants sharing with a partner, approximately 25 percent with the infant, and 20 percent with older children. Fifty-two percent of participants slept with the television on part (31%) or all (69%) of the night. Eight-five percent of participants drank caffeine and 24 percent smoked. Conclusions These results inform theory-driven postpartum sleep interventions. Modifications to the physical and social sleep environment that attend specifically to how sleep hygiene and environmental factors are manifested in the postpartum period have the potential to improve sleep for socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Future research is needed to articulate which changes can be effectively self-managed by mothers through nursing interventions. PMID:23181913

  3. Black Women Who Head Families: Economic Needs and Economic Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawhill, Isabel V.

    Black women bear a heavy burden of family responsibilities, yet their economic position is marginal relative to other groups in American society. It is this imbalance between economic needs and economic resources which poses the greatest challenge to public policy. This paper examines some aspects of this imbalance. It describes the demographic…

  4. Relation between reading problems and internalizing behavior in school for preadolescent children from economically disadvantaged families.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Brian P; Izard, Carroll E; Kobak, Roger; Brown, Eleanor D; Smith, Clare

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 105 economically disadvantaged children examined the relation between reading problems and internalizing behavior in 3rd- and 5th-grade assessments (8- to 12-year olds). The variable-centered results showed that reading problems predicted change in internalizing behavior in the context of child and family predictors. The person-centered results showed that children with reading problems in both grades had higher internalizing scores in 5th grade but not in 3rd grade than children with reading problems in 3rd grade or no problems. Child-reported negative emotion experiences varied similarly across grade. The results tie reading problems to emotional distress in school and support conclusions about the direction of effects and the internalization of academic difficulty for disadvantaged children. PMID:17381791

  5. Economic Stress, Psychological Well-Being and Problem Behavior in Chinese Adolescents with Economic Disadvantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2003-01-01

    Studied the association between perceived economic stress and adolescent adjustment in 229 Chinese adolescents using children and parent reports of economic stress. Findings show differences in perceived stress between parents and children. A lower level of perceived economic stress was generally related to better adolescent mental health and…

  6. Validity and reliability of a dietary stages of change measure among economically disadvantaged African-American adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of theoretically prescribed behavior change strategies associated with adequate fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption are lacking. This study sought to identify Transtheoretical Model processes of change associated with consumption of five daily servings of FVs among economically disadvantage...

  7. Individual, social and environmental correlates of physical activity among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Verity; Ball, Kylie; Hume, Clare; Timperio, Anna; King, Abby C; Crawford, David

    2010-06-01

    Women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods are at heightened risk for physical inactivity, but little is known about the correlates of physical activity among this group. Using a social-ecological framework, this study aimed to determine the individual, social and neighbourhood environmental correlates of physical activity amongst women living in such neighbourhoods. During 2007-2008 women (n = 4108) aged 18-45 years randomly selected from urban and rural neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status in Victoria, Australia completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long). They reported on individual (self-efficacy, enjoyment, intentions, outcome expectancies, skills), social (childcare, social support from family and friends/colleagues, dog ownership) and neighbourhood environmental (neighbourhood cohesion, aesthetics, personal safety, 'walking environment') factors. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the odds of increasing categories of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and transport-related physical activity (TRPA) for each individual, social and environmental factor. In partially adjusted analyses, all individual, social and environmental variables were positively associated with LTPA, while all individual factors, family and friend support and the walking environment were positively associated with TRPA. In fully adjusted multivariable models, all individual and social factors remained significantly associated with LTPA, while self-efficacy, enjoyment, intentions, social support, and neighbourhood 'walking environment' variables remained significantly associated with TRPA. In conclusion, individual and social factors were most important for LTPA, while individual, social and neighbourhood environmental factors were all associated with TRPA. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design, the findings highlight the importance of different levels of potential influence on physical activity in different domains

  8. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged.... Social disadvantage must stem from circumstances beyond their control. Evidence of individual social... in the DBE program, unless the individual claiming disadvantaged status can demonstrate that...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged.... Social disadvantage must stem from circumstances beyond their control. Evidence of individual social... in the DBE program, unless the individual claiming disadvantaged status can demonstrate that...

  10. Longitudinal predictors of frequent vegetable and fruit consumption among socio-economically disadvantaged Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Lena D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2014-07-01

    Adequate vegetable and fruit consumption is necessary for preventing nutrition-related diseases. Socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume relatively few vegetables and fruits. However, despite nutritional challenges associated with socio-economic disadvantage, a minority of adolescents manage to eat vegetables and fruit in quantities that are more in line with dietary recommendations. This investigation aimed to identify predictors of more frequent intakes of fruits and vegetables among adolescents over a 2-year follow-up period. Data were drawn from 521 socio-economically disadvantaged (maternal education ≤Year 10 of secondary school) Australian adolescents aged 12-15 years. Participants were recruited from 37 secondary schools and were asked to complete online surveys in 2004/2005 (baseline) and 2006/2007 (follow-up). Surveys comprised a 38-item FFQ and questions based on Social Ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental influences on diet. At baseline and follow-up, respectively, 29% and 24% of adolescents frequently consumed vegetables (≥2 times/day); 33% and 36% frequently consumed fruit (≥1 time/day). In multivariable logistic regressions, baseline consumption strongly predicted consumption at follow-up. Frequently being served vegetables at dinner predicted frequent vegetable consumption. Female sex, rarely purchasing food or drink from school vending machines, and usually being expected to eat all foods served predicted frequent fruit consumption. Findings suggest nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving eating behaviours among this at-risk population and should focus on younger adolescents, particularly boys; improving adolescent eating behaviours at school; and encouraging families to increase home availability of healthy foods and to implement meal time rules. PMID:24685764

  11. What Might Work? Exploring the Perceived Feasibility of Strategies to Promote Physical Activity among Women Living in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Verity; Ball, Kylie

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate preferences for, perceived feasibility of and barriers to uptake of hypothetical physical activity promotion strategies among women from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 purposively recruited women (18-45 years) living in socioeconomically…

  12. An Implication of Health Sector Reform for Disadvantaged Women's Struggle for Birth Control: A Case of Kurdish Rural-Urban Migrant Women in Van, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Him, Miki Suzuki; Hoşgör, Ayşe Gündüz

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we examine how socioeconomically disadvantaged women are affected by health sector reform and family planning policy changes in Turkey through a case study of Kurdish women's struggles for birth control. In Turkey, a family planning program became relatively marginalized in primary health care services as a result of health sector reform as well as a shift of population policy toward a moderately pronatal approach. We argue that an emerging health care system would leave disadvantaged women unable to benefit from contraceptives and would perpetuate reproductive health inequalities between women in the country. PMID:24134209

  13. The Economic Slowdown and Women's Employment Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werneke, Diane

    1978-01-01

    Analyzes the effects of the recent recession and subsequent recovery on the position of women in the labor market in four European countries (Belgium, France, Sweden, United Kingdom), and specifically, ascertains whether in general women's job opportunities were more vulnerable to the fluctuations in economic activity than those of men. (SH)

  14. Motivation and Barriers for Leisure-Time Physical Activity in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Women

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Inês; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Teixeira, Pedro J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between motivation and barriers for physical activity, and physical activity behavior in women living in socioeconomic disadvantage. This study also examined whether weight control intentions moderate those associations. Methods Data from 1664 women aged 18–46 years was collected at baseline and three-year follow-up as part of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study. In mail-based surveys, women reported sociodemographic and neighborhood environmental characteristics, intrinsic motivation, goals and perceived family barriers to be active, weight control intentions and leisure-time physical activity (assessed through the IPAQ-L). Linear regression models assessed the association of intrinsic motivation, goals and barriers with physical activity at baseline and follow-up, adjusting for environmental characteristics and also physical activity at baseline (for longitudinal analyses), and the moderating effects of weight control intentions were examined. Results Intrinsic motivation and, to a lesser extent, appearance and relaxation goals for being physically active were consistently associated with leisure-time physical activity at baseline and follow-up. Perceived family barriers, health, fitness, weight and stress relief goals were associated with leisure-time physical activity only at baseline. Moderated regression analyses revealed that weight control intentions significantly moderated the association between weight goals and leisure-time physical activity at baseline (β = 0.538, 99% CI = 0.057, 0.990) and between intrinsic motivation and leisure-time physical activity at follow-up (β = 0.666, 99% CI = 0.188, 1.145). For women actively trying to control their weight, intrinsic motivation was significantly associated with leisure-time physical activity at follow-up (β = 0.184, 99% CI = 0.097, 0.313). Conclusions Results suggest that

  15. Health, behavioral, cognitive, and social correlates of breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cleland, Verity J; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-11-01

    Breakfast skipping is a potentially modifiable behavior that has negative effects on health and is socioeconomically patterned. This study aimed to examine the intrapersonal (health, behavioral, and cognitive) and social factors associated with breakfast skipping. Nonpregnant women (n = 4123) aged 18-45 y from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods throughout Victoria, Australia, completed a postal questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and cognitive and social factors were assessed by self-report. Breakfast skipping was defined in 2 ways: 1) "rarely/never" eating breakfast (n = 498) and 2) eating breakfast ≤2 d/wk (includes those who rarely/never ate breakfast; n = 865). Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios and linear trends, adjusting for covariates. The P values for linear trends are reported below. Compared with breakfast consumers, women who reported rarely/never eating breakfast tended to have poorer self-rated health (P-trend < 0.001), be current smokers (P-trend < 0.001), pay less attention to health (P-trend < 0.001), not prioritize their own healthy eating when busy looking after their family (P-trend < 0.001), have less nutrition knowledge (P-trend < 0.001), and a lower proportion were trying to control their weight (P-trend < 0.020). When breakfast skipping was defined as eating breakfast ≤2 d/wk, additional associations were found for having lower leisure-time physical activity (P-trend = 0.012) and less self-efficacy for eating a healthy diet (P-trend < 0.043). In conclusion, a range of intrapersonal and social factors were significantly associated with breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design and need for causal confirmation, programs that aim to promote breakfast consumption in this population group should consider targeting family-related barriers to healthy eating and nutrition

  16. Women and the Choice to Study Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Tisha L. N.; McGoldrick, KimMarie; Mumford, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Underrepresentation of women in economics is documented in many studies. Investigation of its sources at the undergraduate level is examined through students' decisions to persist in economics, either beyond an introductory course or in their major choices. The authors add to the literature by analyzing students' decisions to take their first…

  17. Women and Economic Development in Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Judy C.

    Based on a survey of written sources and perspectives of knowledgeable individuals, the report provides information on women's economic roles in Cameroon, and on aspects of social life which effect their economic performance. A description of the importance of traditional social systems and their evolution over the last 30 years follows a brief…

  18. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged individuals are those who have been subjected to racial or ethnic prejudice or cultural bias within American... contributed to social disadvantage, such as race, ethnic origin, gender, disability, long-term residence in...

  19. Socio-economic differences in food group and nutrient intakes among young women in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McCartney, Daniel M A; Younger, Katherine M; Walsh, Joanne; O'Neill, Marie; Sheridan, Claire; Kearney, John M

    2013-12-14

    The present study aimed to investigate socio-economic disparities in food and nutrient intakes among young Irish women. A total of 221 disadvantaged and seventy-four non-disadvantaged women aged 18-35 years were recruited. Diet was assessed using a diet history protocol. Of the total population, 153 disadvantaged and sixty-three non-disadvantaged women were classified as plausible dietary reporters. Food group intakes, nutrient intakes and dietary vitamin and mineral concentrations per MJ of energy consumed were compared between the disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged populations, as was compliance with dietary fibre, macronutrient and micronutrient intake guidelines. The disadvantaged women had lower intakes than the non-disadvantaged women of fruit, vegetables, fish, breakfast cereals, low-fat milk and wholemeal bread (all P< 0·001), yogurt (P= 0·001), low-fat spread (P= 0·002) and fresh meat (P= 0·003). They also had higher intakes of butter, processed red meats, white bread, sugar-sweetened beverages, fried potatoes and potato-based snacks (all P< 0·001) and full-fat milk (P= 0·014). Nutritionally, the disadvantaged women had higher fat, saturated fat and refined sugar intakes; lower dietary fibre, vitamin and mineral intakes; and lower dietary vitamin and mineral densities per MJ than their more advantaged peers. Non-achievement of carbohydrate (P= 0·017), fat (P< 0·001), saturated fat (P< 0·001), refined sugar (P< 0·001), folate (P= 0·050), vitamin C (P< 0·001), vitamin D (P= 0·047) and Ca (P= 0·019) recommendations was more prevalent among the disadvantaged women. Both groups showed poor compliance with Fe and Na guidelines. We conclude that the nutritional deficits present among these socially disadvantaged women are significant, but may be potentially ameliorated by targeted food-based interventions. PMID:23721781

  20. Case Studies of Success: Supporting Academic Success for Students with High Potential from Ethnic Minority and Economically Disadvantaged Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Carol Ann; Jarvis, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    The underrepresentation of ethnic minority and economically disadvantaged students in gifted education must be understood in terms of broader school contexts and practices. This qualitative study investigated how teachers and schools contributed to the academic success of minority students of high potential from economically disadvantaged…

  1. A longitudinal study of the social and academic competence of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children.

    PubMed

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V; Esquivel, Giselle B; Kaliski, Pamela K; Maniatis, Lisette

    2011-05-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered analysis of 207 Hispanic American preschoolers (ages 4 and 5 years) yielded 6 distinct profiles, 2 of which were socially competent and 1 of which was vulnerable. Findings revealed profile differences in social competence and a significant relationship between bilingualism and social-emotional development. In Study 2, the authors determined which profiles were associated with later academic achievement and growth of English proficiency. Findings indicated a significant relationship of early social-emotional development to later academic success and English acquisition, highlighting the role of bilingualism. PMID:21219064

  2. ShopSmart 4 Health – Protocol of a skills-based randomised controlled trial promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a need for evidence on the most effective and cost-effective approaches for promoting healthy eating among groups that do not meet dietary recommendations for good health, such as those with low incomes or experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage. This paper describes the ShopSmart 4 Health study, a randomised controlled trial conducted by Deakin University, Coles Supermarkets and the Heart Foundation, to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a skill-building intervention for promoting increased purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables amongst women of low socioeconomic position (SEP). Methods/design ShopSmart 4 Health employed a randomised controlled trial design. Women aged 18–60 years, holding a Coles store loyalty card, who shopped at Coles stores within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods and met low-income eligibility criteria were invited to participate. Consenting women completed a baseline survey assessing food shopping and eating habits and food-related behaviours and attitudes. On receipt of their completed survey, women were randomised to either a skill-building intervention or a wait-list control condition. Intervention effects will be evaluated via self-completion surveys and using supermarket transaction sales data, collected at pre- and post-intervention and 6-month follow-up. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Process evaluation will be undertaken to identify perceived value and effects of intervention components. Discussion This study will provide data to address the currently limited evidence base regarding the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of skill-building intervention strategies aimed at increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women, a target group at high risk of poor diets. Trial registration Current

  3. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... professional association with students or teachers, denial of educational honors rightfully earned, and social patterns or pressures which discouraged the individual from pursuing a professional or business...

  4. At the Forefront: The Role of Women's Community Education in Combating Poverty and Disadvantage in the Republic of Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University Coll. Dublin (Ireland). Women's Education, Research and Resource Centre.

    In this report, the role of women's community education in combating poverty and disadvantage in Ireland over the past 10 years was examined, and future directions for policy and practice were suggested. The following data collection approaches were used: literature and policy document reviews; case studies involving regional workshops with…

  5. Economic Liberalization and Its Impact on Women and Women's Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Ratna

    1996-01-01

    Externally imposed macroeconomic restructuring in developing nations (termed economic liberalization or neoliberalism) has specific effects on women because free-market processes undervalue anything without direct monetary value. Two immediate effects on education are privatization and budget cutbacks, which result in differential access to…

  6. Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu; Li, Qian; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Yaping; Qi, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ≤24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services. PMID:23839061

  7. The NASA Plan: To award eight percent of prime and subcontracts to socially and economically disadvantaged businesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    It is NASA's intent to provide small disadvantaged businesses, including women-owned, historically black colleges and universities and minority education institutions the maximum practicable opportunity to receive a fair proportion of NASA prime and subcontracted awards. Annually, NASA will establish socioeconomic procurement goals including small disadvantaged business goals, with a target of reaching the eight percent level by the end of FY 1994. The NASA Associate Administrators, who are responsible for the programs at the various NASA Centers, will be held accountable for full implementation of the socioeconomic procurement plans. Various aspects of this plan, including its history, are discussed.

  8. Delivery of primary health care to persons who are socio-economically disadvantaged: does the organizational delivery model matter?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As health systems evolve, it is essential to evaluate their impact on the delivery of health services to socially disadvantaged populations. We evaluated the delivery of primary health services for different socio-economic groups and assessed the performance of different organizational models in terms of equality of health care delivery in Ontario, Canada. Methods Cross sectional study of 5,361 patients receiving care from primary care practices using Capitation, Salaried or Fee-For-Service remuneration models. We assessed self-reported health status of patients, visit duration, number of visits per year, quality of health service delivery, and quality of health promotion. We used multi-level regressions to study service delivery across socio-economic groups and within each delivery model. Identified disparities were further analysed using a t-test to determine the impact of service delivery model on equity. Results Low income individuals were more likely to be women, unemployed, recent immigrants, and in poorer health. These individuals were overrepresented in the Salaried model, reported more visits/year across all models, and tended to report longer visits in the Salaried model. Measures of primary care services generally did not differ significantly between low and higher income/education individuals; when they did, the difference favoured better service delivery for at-risk groups. At-risk patients in the Salaried model were somewhat more likely to report health promotion activities than patients from Capitation and Fee-For-Service models. At-risk patients from Capitation models reported a smaller increase in the number of additional clinic visits/year than Fee-For-Service and Salaried models. At-risk patients reported better first contact accessibility than their non-at-risk counterparts in the Fee-For-Service model only. Conclusions Primary care service measures did not differ significantly across socio-economic status or primary care delivery

  9. Reducing Risk for Substance Use by Economically Disadvantaged Young Men: Positive Family Environments and Pathways to Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Monica J.; Conger, Rand D.; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Masarik, April S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Using prospective, longitudinal data spanning 10 years (age = 10-20) from a study of 295 economically disadvantaged males, the current investigation evaluated a developmental model that links early family environment and later educational aspirations, extracurricular activities, and educational attainment to substance use in early adulthood. The…

  10. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program? 403.114 Section 403.114 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of...

  11. Contextual Risk, Maternal Negative Emotionality, and the Negative Emotion Dysregulation of Preschool Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Ackerman, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined relations between contextual risk, maternal negative emotionality, and preschool teacher reports of the negative emotion dysregulation of children from economically disadvantaged families. Contextual risk was represented by cumulative indexes of family and neighborhood adversity. The results showed a direct…

  12. Growing up as "Man of the House": Adultification and Transition into Adulthood for Young Men in Economically Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field…

  13. Learning to (Dis)Engage? The Socialising Experiences of Young People Living in Areas of Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Carolynne; Cremin, Hilary; Warwick, Paul; Harrison, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Young people are increasingly required to demonstrate civic engagement in their communities and help deliver the aspirations of localism and Big Society. Using an ecological systems approach this paper explores the experiences of different groups of young people living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage. Using volunteering as an example of…

  14. Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Principals in Economically Disadvantaged High Schools with High African American Male Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillard, Rhonda Cherie Crutchfield

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study examined the self-efficacy beliefs of three high school principals in economically disadvantaged high schools with consistently high graduation rates for African American males. With the demand on school systems to perform in a politically driven, assessment-based paradigm, there is a need to describe and analyze the…

  15. Contextual Risk, Caregiver Emotionality, and the Problem Behaviors of Six- and Seven-Year-Old Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Brian P.; Izard, Carroll E.; Schoff, Kristen; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Kogos, Jen

    1999-01-01

    Explored relations between additive and cumulative representations of contextual risk, caregiver emotionality, child adaptability, and teacher reports of problem behaviors of 6- and 7-year-olds from economically disadvantaged families. Found evidence that the relation for cumulative risk may be moderated by caregiver negative emotionality and…

  16. A Comprehensive Partnership Approach Increasing High School Graduation Rates and College Enrollment of Urban Economically Disadvantaged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Yvette; Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Described is a 4-year model of a Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Program (GEAR UP) offered to 294 academically and economically disadvantaged students and their parents during in- and out-of-school time activities through partnerships forged with school personnel and community-based agencies. In an urban high school where…

  17. The Relationship between Teachers' Collective Efficacy and Student Achievement at Economically Disadvantaged Middle School Campuses in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Juan Manuel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the collective efficacy of teachers and student achievement at economically disadvantaged middle school campuses. Schools of today are expected to show continuous improvement in student achievement from year to year, regardless of the students' family background, ethnicity, or…

  18. Economic Disadvantage, Perceived Family Life Quality, and Emotional Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2008-01-01

    Over three consecutive years, Chinese secondary school students experiencing and not experiencing economic disadvantage (n = 280 and 2,187, respectively) responded to measures of perceived family life quality (parenting attributes and parent-child relational quality) and emotional well-being (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and…

  19. Health care workers' knowledge, attitudes and practices on tobacco use in economically disadvantaged dominican republic communities.

    PubMed

    Prucha, Michael G; Fisher, Susan G; McIntosh, Scott; Grable, John C; Holderness, Heather; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; de Monegro, Zahíra Quiñones; Sánchez, José Javier; Bautista, Arisleyda; Díaz, Sergio; Ossip, Deborah J

    2015-04-01

    Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR) where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW) interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153) in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted with anonymous surveys. Approximately 70% (N = 107) completed the primary outcome item, asking about tobacco use at each encounter. Despite >85% strongly agreeing that they should ask about tobacco use at each encounter, only 48.6% reported doing so. While most (94.39%) strongly agreed that smoking is harmful, knowledge of specific health consequences varied from 98.13% for lung cancer to 41.12% for otitis media. Few received training in tobacco intervention (38.32%). Exploratory analyses revealed that always asking even if patients are healthy, strongly agreeing that tobacco causes cardiac disease, and always advising smoke-free homes were associated with always asking. Overall, results demonstrate a disconnect between HCW belief and practice. Though most agreed that always asking about tobacco was important, fewer than half did so. Gaps in HCW knowledge and practices suggest a need for education and policy/infrastructure support. To our knowledge, this is the first reported survey of DR HCWs regarding tobacco, and provides a foundation for future tobacco control in the DR. PMID:25872018

  20. Health Care Workers’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Tobacco Use in Economically Disadvantaged Dominican Republic Communities

    PubMed Central

    Prucha, Michael G.; Fisher, Susan G.; McIntosh, Scott; Grable, John C.; Holderness, Heather; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Quiñones de Monegro, Zahíra; Sánchez, José Javier; Bautista, Arisleyda; Díaz, Sergio; Ossip, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR) where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW) interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153) in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted with anonymous surveys. Approximately 70% (N = 107) completed the primary outcome item, asking about tobacco use at each encounter. Despite >85% strongly agreeing that they should ask about tobacco use at each encounter, only 48.6% reported doing so. While most (94.39%) strongly agreed that smoking is harmful, knowledge of specific health consequences varied from 98.13% for lung cancer to 41.12% for otitis media. Few received training in tobacco intervention (38.32%). Exploratory analyses revealed that always asking even if patients are healthy, strongly agreeing that tobacco causes cardiac disease, and always advising smoke-free homes were associated with always asking. Overall, results demonstrate a disconnect between HCW belief and practice. Though most agreed that always asking about tobacco was important, fewer than half did so. Gaps in HCW knowledge and practices suggest a need for education and policy/infrastructure support. To our knowledge, this is the first reported survey of DR HCWs regarding tobacco, and provides a foundation for future tobacco control in the DR. PMID:25872018

  1. Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

    2012-10-01

    Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to provide greater access and support to academically talented students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Originally intended to provide financial support to lower income students, this NSF program also advocated that additional professional development and advising would be strategies to increase undergraduate persistence to graduation. This innovative program for economically disadvantaged students was extended in 2004 to include students from other disciplines including the physical and life sciences as well as the technology fields, and the new name of the program was Scholarships for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (S-STEM). The implementation of these two programs in Louisiana State University (LSU) has shown significant and measurable success since 2000, making LSU a Model University in providing support to economically disadvantaged students within the STEM disciplines. The achievement of these programs is evidenced by the graduation rates of its participants. This report provides details on the educational model employed through the CSEMS/S-STEM projects at LSU and provides a path to success for increasing student retention rates in STEM disciplines. While the LSU's experience is presented as a case study, the potential relevance of this innovative mentoring program in conjunction with the financial support system is discussed in detail.

  2. Economically Disadvantaged Children’s Transitions Into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy

    PubMed Central

    Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.

    2010-01-01

    Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify family-based mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential school-based remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation of markers of economic disadvantage reduced math and reading testing gains across the primary grades. Such disparities were partially mediated by corresponding differences in children’s socioemotional problems, parenting stress, and parents’ human capital investments. These patterns appeared to be robust to observed and unobserved confounds. Various teacher qualifications and classroom practices were assessed as moderators of these family mediators, revealing teacher experience in grade level as a fairly consistent buffer against family-based risks for reading. PMID:20711417

  3. Biopolitical management, economic calculation and "trafficked women".

    PubMed

    Berman, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Narratives surrounding human trafficking, especially trafficking in women for sex work, employ gendered and racialized tropes that have among their effects, a shrouding of women's economic decision-making and state collusion in benefiting from their labour. This paper explores the operation of these narratives in order to understand the ways in which they mask the economics of trafficking by sensationalizing the sexual and criminal aspects of it, which in turn allows the state to pursue political projects under the guise of a benevolent concern for trafficked women and/or protection of its own citizens. This paper will explore one national example: Article 18 of Italian Law 40 (1998). I argue that its passage has led to an increase in cooperation with criminal prosecution of traffickers largely because it approaches trafficked women as capable of making decisions about how and what they themselves want to do. This paper will also consider a more global approach to trafficking embedded in the concept of "migration management", an International Organization for Migration (IOM) framework that is now shaping EU, US and other national immigration laws and policies that impact trafficking. It will also examine the inherent limitations of both the national and global approach as an occasion to unpack how Article 18 and Migration Management function as forms of biopolitical management that participate in the production of "trafficking victims" into a massified population to be managed, rather than engender a more engaged discussion of what constitutes trafficking and how to redress it. PMID:20645471

  4. Tobacco Use in Six Economically Disadvantaged Communities in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Ossip-Klein, Deborah J.; Fisher, Susan; Diaz, Sergio; Quiñones, Zahira; Sierra, Essie; Dozier, Ann; McIntosh, Scott; Guido, Joseph; Winters, Paul; Diaz, Omar; Armstrong, LaToya

    2008-01-01

    The Dominican Republic (DR) is a tobacco-growing country and tobacco control efforts have been virtually nonexistent. This study provides a first systematic surveillance of tobacco use in 6 economically disadvantaged DR communities (2 small urban, 2 peri-urban, 2 rural; half were tobacco-growing). Approximately 175 households were randomly selected in each (total N=1048) and an adult household member reported on household demographics and resources (e.g., electricity), tobacco use and health conditions of household members, and household policies on tobacco use. Poverty and unemployment were high in all communities, and significant gaps in access to basic resources such as electricity, running water, telephones/cell phones, and secondary education were present. Exposure to tobacco smoke was high, with 38.4% of households reporting ≥1 tobacco user, and 75.5% allowing smoking in the home. Overall, 22.5% reported using tobacco, with commercial cigarettes (58.0%) or self-rolled cigarettes (20.1%) the most commonly used types. Considerable variability in prevalence and type of use was found across communities. Overall, tobacco use was higher in males, illiterate groups, ages 45+, rural dwellers, and tobacco-growing communities. Based on reported health conditions, tobacco attributable risks, and WHO mortality data, it is estimated that at least 2254 lives could potentially be saved each year in the DR with tobacco cessation. While it is expected that the reported prevalence of tobacco use and health conditions represent underestimates, these figures provide a starting point for understanding tobacco use and its prevalence in the Dominican Republic. PMID:18569759

  5. What might work? Exploring the perceived feasibility of strategies to promote physical activity among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Verity; Ball, Kylie

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate preferences for, perceived feasibility of and barriers to uptake of hypothetical physical activity promotion strategies among women from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 purposively recruited women (18-45 years) living in socioeconomically disadvantaged urban and rural areas of Victoria, Australia. Participants indicated the most and least appealing of nine hypothetical strategies, strategies most likely to use and strategies most likely to increase physical activity. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic and interpretive content analyses were used to identify emergent common and contrasting themes. A community centre-based program with free childcare, the provision of a cleaner while physical activity is undertaken and a neighbourhood-based program were the three most popular strategies. Mobile-telephone-delivered text messages, an online interactive diary and subsidized gym memberships were considered least useful. Irrespective of the strategy, components of importance commonly identified were social support; being accountable to someone; having the option of a structured or flexible attendance design; integration of multiple strategies and financial considerations. Issues around trust and privacy and weight loss also emerged as important. The findings provide important insights for the development of physical activity programs targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged women. PMID:22987863

  6. Perceived barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from disadvantaged neighborhoods: results from a focus groups assessment.

    PubMed

    Baruth, Meghan; Sharpe, Patricia A; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This study explored perceptions and experiences with barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from predominately African American, disadvantaged neighborhoods. Four focus groups (n = 28) were conducted between April and May 2008 with overweight or obese women (93% African American; 34.3 ± 8.9 years; body mass index [BMI] 40.4 ± 8.5). Individual, social, and environmental factors were frequently mentioned as barriers to exercise and healthy eating. Insults from strangers about their body size (e.g., from children or people at the gym), and feelings of intimidation and embarrassment about not being able to complete exercises due to their body size were described as barriers to exercise. Lack of support and pressure from family, friends, and co-workers were barriers to healthy eating; participants experienced pressure from family and friends to eat more and were told they did not need to lose weight. Participants discussed the importance of not losing their curves; this concern needs to be considered when developing weight control programs for African American women. The findings of this qualitative study guided the development of a weight loss intervention for women from disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:24617795

  7. Perceived barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from disadvantaged neighborhoods: Results from a focus groups assessment

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Patricia A.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This study explored perceptions and experiences with barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from predominately African American, disadvantaged neighborhoods. Four focus groups (n=28) were conducted between April and May 2008 with overweight or obese women (93% African American; 34.3±8.9 years; BMI 40.4±8.5). Individual, social, and environmental factors were frequently mentioned as barriers to exercise and healthy eating. Insults from strangers about their body size (e.g. from children, people at the gym), and feelings of intimidation and embarrassment about not being able to complete exercises due to their body size were described as barriers to exercise. Lack of support and pressure from family, friends, and co-workers were barriers to healthy eating; participants experienced pressure from family and friends to eat more and were told they did not need to lose weight. Participants discussed the importance of not losing their curves; this concern needs to be considered when developing weight control programs for African American women. The findings of this qualitative study guided the development of a weight loss intervention for women from disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:24617795

  8. EDPA Summer Institute for Home Economics-Gainful Teachers of the Disadvantaged. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Coll., Orangeburg.

    OBJECTIVES: The institute was organized around five of the major components believed to influence the quality of the relationship between the learner and the teacher: 1) characteristics of the disadvantaged learner, 2) perceptions and beliefs of the teacher, 3) facilitators of learning, 4) curriculum material, and 5) teaching skills. DURATION:…

  9. Treatment Effects of a Relationship-Strengthening Intervention for Economically Disadvantaged New Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Pajarita; Jones, Anne; Guo, Shenyang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the treatment effects of a relationship skills and family strengthening intervention for n = 726 high-risk, disadvantaged new parents. Method: Hierarchical linear modeling and regression models were used to assess intervention treatment effects. These findings were subsequently verified…

  10. The Social-Emotional Impact of Instrumental Music Performance on Economically Disadvantaged South African Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devroop, Karendra

    2012-01-01

    Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent these…

  11. Indigenous Women Facing Educational Disadvantages: The Case of the Ainu in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayanagi, Taeko; Shimomura, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the life and educational experiences of Ainu women, using the framework of postcolonial feminist theory. It explores the extent to which two factors--gender and ethnic minority status--affect young Ainu women as they attempt to enter mainstream society. The authors analyse life history interviews from three Ainu women aged 25.…

  12. Women's Economic Empowerment: Realities and Challenges for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taborga, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    Despite an international consensus on the importance of women's economic empowerment, expressed through such agreements as the Beijing Platform for Action, a recent study by the World Economic Forum noted that no country has yet managed to eliminate the gap between the economic participation of women and men. Even countries with high empowerment…

  13. School-level economic disadvantage and obesity in middle school children in central Texas, USA: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Although children of lower socio-economic status (SES) in the United States have generally been found to be at greater risk for obesity, the SES-obesity association varies when stratified by racial/ethnic groups-with no consistent association found for African American and Hispanic children. Research on contextual and setting-related factors may provide further insights into ethnic and SES disparities in obesity. We examined whether obesity levels among central Texas 8th grade students (n=2682) vary by school-level economic disadvantage across individual-level family SES and racial/ethnicity groups. As a secondary aim, we compared the association of school-level economic disadvantage and obesity by language spoken with parents (English or Spanish) among Hispanic students. Methods Multilevel regression models stratified by family SES and ethnicity were run using cross-sectional baseline data from five school districts participating in the Central Texas CATCH Middle School project. For family SES, independent multi-level logistic regression models were run for total sample and by gender for each family SES stratum (poor/near poor/just getting by, living comfortably, and very well off), adjusting for age, ethnicity, and gender. Similarly, multi-level regression models were run by race/ethnic group (African American, Hispanic, and White), adjusting for age, family SES, and gender. Results Students attending highly economically disadvantaged (ED) schools were between 1.7 (95% CI: 1.1-2.6) and 2.4 (95% CI: 1.2-4.8) times more likely to be obese as students attending low ED schools across family SES groups (p<.05). African American (ORAdj =3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-11.4), Hispanic (ORAdj=1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.0) and White (ORAdj=3.8, 95% CI: 1.6-8.9) students attending high ED schools were more likely to be obese as counterparts at low ED schools (p<.05). Gender-stratified findings were similar to findings for total sample, although fewer results reached significance. While

  14. Study of the Advantages and Disadvantages of Student Loans to Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froomkin (Joseph) Inc., Washington, DC.

    Historically, proportionately fewer women than men enter college and those that enter are faced with higher out-of-pocket expenses. Often they depend on borrowing to meet college costs. This document examines the suitability of existing loan arrangements for financing the postsecondary education of women. It also evaluates other, alternative, loan…

  15. Giving Economically Disadvantaged, Minority Food Pantry Patrons' a Voice: Implications for Equitable Access to Sufficient, Nutritious Food.

    PubMed

    Greer, Anna E; Cross-Denny, Bronwyn; McCabe, Michelle; Castrogivanni, Brianna

    2016-01-01

    This study provides economically disadvantaged, minority food pantry patrons (hereafter, patrons) a meaning-ful voice by examining their experiences trying to obtain sufficient, nutritious food. Five focus groups were conducted using a semistructured discussion guide. Atlast.ti software was used to manage and analyze the data. Patrons reported that pantry staff who preserved their dignity by showing compassion were highly valued. Stigma and shame associated with pantry use were major concerns. Patrons suggested environmental and policy changes to improve their food acquisition experiences. These findings suggest that multilevel interventions addressing food access, food distribution policies, and patron-staff interactions are warranted. PMID:27214675

  16. Women at Work: Barriers to Economic Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women Employed Inst., Chicago, IL.

    While the past 10 years have been marked by major gains for working women, the overall status of working women has improved very little. The profile of the working woman today is different from that of 25 years ago. Today over 44 million women work. Of these, 7 million belong to minority groups. Since 1930 families headed by women have tripled in…

  17. Economic value of safe water for the infrastructurally disadvantaged urban household: A case study in Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Purnamita; Dasgupta, Rajib

    2004-11-01

    Delhi has witnessed rapid urbanization during the past 50 years, with ever increasing growth in population and economic activity leading to water stress in several parts of the city. This paper looks at the valuation of water as an economic resource in the context of a low-income, infrastructurally disadvantaged urban household, through the results of a primary survey. In doing so, it examines several issues, often interlinked, concerning the quality and quantity of water being "accessed" by households. While there is no one perfect way of estimating household demand for improved water services, the study uses the contingent valuation approach and evaluates the findings in terms of the health benefits from safe water and the costs of provision of safe supplies.

  18. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-03-01

    On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage in Hong Kong (N = 199) responded to instruments measuring perceived parental parenthood qualities (indexed by perceived parenting styles, support and help from parents, and conflict and relationship with the parents) and psychosocial adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency). Results showed that parental parenthood variables were concurrently associated with different measures of adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. While paternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in existential well-being and delinquency in adolescent boys, but not in adolescent girls, at Time 2, maternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in the mental health and problem behavior in adolescent girls, but not in adolescent boys, at Time 2. There is no strong support for the thesis that adolescent adjustment influences perceived parental parenthood qualities over time. The present study suggests that the influences of fathers and mothers on the adjustment of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage vary with the gender of adolescent children. PMID:15515041

  19. Behavior and weight correlates of weight-control efforts in Australian women living in disadvantage: The READI study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With increasing obesity rates worldwide, more and more people are actively attempting to lose weight or avoid weight gain, but relatively little is known about what specific behaviors comprise these efforts and which, if any, are associated with better weight control over time. Methods This paper reports relationships between body weight, weight-control efforts and related behaviors over a three-year period in 1,634 Australian women. The women were purposefully recruited from 80 disadvantaged neighborhoods in Victoria, Australia. Weight loss efforts were categorized as trying to lose weight, trying to prevent weight gain and no weight-control efforts. Behavioral correlates examined included different kinds of physical activity and consumption of a number of specific foods types. Results and discussion Self-reported body weight at baseline was higher in women trying to lose weight. Frequency of consumption of low energy density foods was positively associated with reported weight-control efforts, as was frequency of reported total and leisure-time physical activity. Longitudinal associations between changes in weight-control efforts and changes in behaviors were consistent with the cross-sectional findings. At three-year follow up, however, weight-control efforts were not associated with change in body weight. More detailed analyses of specific food choices suggested that part of the explanation of no effect of reported weight-control efforts and weight over time might be that people are not as well-informed as they should be about the energy density of some common foods. In particular, those reporting engagement in weight-control efforts reported reducing consumption of carbohydrate-containing foods such as bread and potatoes more than is justified by their energy content, while they reported increasing consumption of some high energy density foods (e.g., cheese and nuts). Conclusion It is tentatively concluded that women living in disadvantaged

  20. "Planned" Teenage Pregnancy: Perspectives of Young Women from Disadvantaged Backgrounds in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The reduction of teenage pregnancy has attracted much interest in research, practice and social policy. Little is known about teenagers who report their pregnancies as "planned." Forty-one in-depth interviews were undertaken, in six different parts of England, among young women who reported their pregnancy as "planned". The mean age at conception…

  1. A Growing Crisis: Disadvantaged Women and Their Children. Clearinghouse Publication 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    This report is based on the 1982 Current Population Survey data from the Bureau of Census and examines the declining status of female-headed households in the United States. The study concentrates on White, Black, and Hispanic women and their children. Factors associated with poverty are examined, including marital status, employment, and training…

  2. Higher education and the economic and social empowerment of women -- the Asian experience.

    PubMed

    Jayaweera, S

    1997-10-01

    This paper examined the degree of socioeconomic empowerment of Asian women due to higher education (HE). Examples illustrate different cultural contexts and stages in development. Colonial administrations established the first modern educational institutions. These schools trained Western-oriented elites in Western and gender values. Uneven development led to increased socioeconomic differences and disparities by region, ethnicity, religion, and gender. The international focus on women's rights has helped with promotion of education for gender equity. But, the international economic climate has led to adverse outcomes for education. Educational mobility is restricted by exclusion or lack of access to HE. Most of the 15 countries with strong educational systems have minimal gender disparities in primary and secondary education, but even Japan has gender disparities in HE. In 9 South Asian countries, most girls are disadvantaged from birth through the school years. Women are not a homogenous group. Socioeconomic factors affect access to HE. Women are channeled into gender appropriate jobs. Gender division of labor and gender tracking in education limit course and occupational choices. Changes in labor market structures further affect the economic empowerment of female graduates. Demand for female labor migrants siphons off females. Access of women to positions of authority is limited. Women who do reach the top are viewed as role models. Gender based division of labor in the household has changed little. Only India and the Philippines have explicit, conscious policies to promote gender equity. PMID:12348990

  3. The Disadvantaged Woman in America. How Adult Education Can Promote Her Growth and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploetz, Greta N.

    Educationally, economically, or psychologically disadvantaged women suffer from even more social and economic injustices than do other women. Although a woman's ability to provide for herself rises with her educational level, approximately half of all American women lack a high school diploma. Family relationships, religious tradition, school…

  4. Identifying solutions to increase participation in physical activity interventions within a socio-economically disadvantaged community: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need to increase population levels of physical activity, particularly amongst those who are socio-economically disadvantaged. Multiple factors influence physical activity behaviour but the generalisability of current evidence to such ‘hard-to-reach’ population subgroups is limited by difficulties in recruiting them into studies. Also, rigorous qualitative studies of lay perceptions and perceptions of community leaders about public health efforts to increase physical activity are sparse. We sought to explore, within a socio-economically disadvantaged community, residents’ and community leaders’ perceptions of physical activity (PA) interventions and issues regarding their implementation, in order to improve understanding of needs, expectations, and social/environmental factors relevant to future interventions. Methods Within an ongoing regeneration project (Connswater Community Greenway), in a socio-economically disadvantaged community in Belfast, we collaborated with a Community Development Agency to purposively sample leaders from public- and voluntary-sector community groups and residents. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 leaders. Residents (n = 113), of both genders and a range of ages (14 to 86 years) participated in focus groups (n = 14) in local facilities. Interviews and focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic framework. Results Three main themes were identified: awareness of PA interventions; factors contributing to intervention effectiveness; and barriers to participation in PA interventions. Participants reported awareness only of interventions in which they were involved directly, highlighting a need for better communications, both inter- and intra-sectoral, and with residents. Meaningful engagement of residents in planning/organisation, tailoring to local context, supporting volunteers, providing relevant resources and an ‘exit strategy

  5. An Assessment of Cognitive Behavior of Economically Disadvantaged Young Adults in North Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Lillian S.; And Others

    This study sought to determine the appropriateness of two conventional intelligence tests for assessing the ability of economically deprived young adults participating in job training programs by comparing their test results with those of the test standardization groups. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), and the Langmuir Oral Direction…

  6. Influence of Schools on Economically Disadvantageous Attitudes: A Solomon Islands Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeth, Alastair M.

    1976-01-01

    This study examines the economically detrimental attitude of regionalism in a Solomon Islands secondary school and measures changes in regionalism with exposure to school experience that stressed regional integration. Significant decreases in regionalism were recorded. (Available from Plenum Publishing Corporation, 227 West 17 Street, New York, NY…

  7. Motivation and Self-Regulation as Predictors of Achievement in Economically Disadvantaged Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howse, Robin R.; Lange, Garrett; Farran, Dale C.; Boyles, Carolyn D.

    2003-01-01

    Studied the roles of motivation and self-regulated task behavior for early school achievement differences among young (aged 5 through 8) economically at-risk (n=85) and not at-risk (n=42) children. Findings show that child- and teacher-reported motivation levels were comparable among at-risk and not-at risk children, but at-risk children showed…

  8. Equitable Learning Outcomes: Supporting Economically and Culturally Disadvantaged Students in "Formative Learning Environments"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The central and distinguishing thesis of social and cultural perspectives on outcome equity is that public school classrooms are culturally biased environments. Such environments disaffect children who arrive at school from the economic or cultural margin. The "formative learning environment" (FoLE) establishes and sustains legitimate…

  9. Building Lectures and Building Bridges with Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Peter; Loch, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an empirical analysis of the first stage of an ongoing effort to introduce technology to enhance student learning in introductory corporate finance within a multi-campus and multi-mode regional Australian University. The engagement and performance of low socio-economic status (SES) students is of particular interest because…

  10. Same Landscape, Different Lens: Variations in Young People's Socio-Economic Experiences and Perceptions in Their Disadvantaged Working-Class Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brann-Barrett, Mary Tanya

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I compare socio-economic experiences and community perceptions expressed by socially and economically disadvantaged young people with those of university students living in the same post-industrial community. I consider markers of distinction among these young people in relation to their family and educational experiences. I also…

  11. Economic disadvantage and transitional outcomes: a study of young people from low-income families in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Ngai, Steven Sek Yum; Cheung, Jacky Chau-Kiu; To, Siu-ming; Luan, Hui; Zhao, Ruiling

    2014-01-01

    This study draws on data from focus groups involving 50 young people from low-income families in Hong Kong to investigate their school-to-work experiences. In line with the ecological–developmental perspective, our results show that contextual influences, including lower levels of parental involvement and lack of opportunities for further education or skill development, constrain both the formulation and pursuit of educational and career goals. In contrast, service use and supportive interactions with parents and non-family adults were found to help young people find a career direction and foster more adaptive transition. Furthermore, our results indicate a striking difference in intrapersonal agency and coping styles between youths who were attending further education or engaged in jobs with career advancement opportunities and those who were not. We discuss the implications of our findings, both for future research and for policy development to enhance the school-to-work transition of economically disadvantaged young people. PMID:25364087

  12. Beyond income: Material resources among drug users in economically-disadvantaged New York City neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Ompad, Danielle C.; Nandi, Vijay; Cerdá, Magdalena; Crawford, Natalie; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about material resources among drug users beyond income. Income measures can be insensitive to variation among the poor, do not account for variation in cost-of-living, and are subject to non-response bias and underreporting. Further, most do not include illegal income sources that may be relevant to drug-using populations. Methods We explored the reliability and validity of an 18-item material resource scale and describe correlates of adequate resources among 1593 current, former and non-drug users recruited in New York City. Reliability was determined using coefficient α, ωh, and factor analysis. Criterion validity was explored by comparing item and mean scores by income and income source using ANOVA; content validity analyses compared scores by drug use. Multiple linear regression was used to describe correlates of adequate resources. Results The coefficient α and ωh for the overall scale were 0.91 and 0.68, respectively, suggesting reliability was at least adequate. Legal income >$5000 (vs. ≤ $5000) and formal (vs. informal) income sources were associated with more resources, supporting criterion validity. We observed decreasing resources with increasing drug use severity, supporting construct validity. Three factors were identified: basic needs, economic resources and services. Many did not have their basic needs met and few had adequate economic resources. Correlates of adequate material resources included race/ethnicity, income, income source, and homelessness. Conclusions The 18-item material resource scale demonstrated reliability and validity among drug users. These data provide a different view of poverty, one that details specific challenges faced by low-income communities. PMID:21835561

  13. Women and Rapid Economic Change: The Alaska Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Monica E.

    The Trans Alaska Oil Pipeline project and accompanying increases in economic wealth have had an enormous impact, particularly on Alaskan women. Prior to pipeline construction, the civilian labor force participation by Alaskan women was close to the national average. During and since pipeline construction, this participation rate has soared.…

  14. Recruitment, retention, and compliance results from a probability study of children's environmental health in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Ken; Adgate, John L; Church, Timothy R; Greaves, Ian A; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Fredrickson, Ann L; Geisser, Mindy S; Ryan, Andrew D

    2003-05-01

    The School Health Initiative: Environment, Learning, and Disease (SHIELD) study used a probability sample of children (second through fifth grades) from two low-income and racially mixed neighborhoods of Minneapolis, Minnesota, to assess childhood environmental health. Children were eligible to participate in SHIELD regardless of whether they or their families spoke a foreign language, their household had a telephone, or they were enrolled in a special education program. The overall enrollment rate in year 1 was 57%, with a substantial disparity between children from English-speaking (42%) versus non-English-speaking (71%) families. At the end of year 1, 85% were retained in the study. A relatively high percentage of children provided the two requested blood (82%) and urine (86%) samples in year 1, and 90% provided a valid spirometry sample. Eighty-two percent provided both requested volatile organic chemical badge samples, and both time-activity logs were obtained from 66%. However, only 32% provided both peak flow measurements. All percentages increased for those participating in the second year of the study. Results indicate that a school-based research design makes it feasible and practical to conduct probability-based assessments of children's environmental health in economically disadvantaged and ethnically diverse neighborhoods. There is an ongoing need, however, to improve understanding of the cultural, economic, psychologic, and social determinants of study participation among this population. PMID:12727602

  15. Recruitment, retention, and compliance results from a probability study of children's environmental health in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Ken; Adgate, John L; Church, Timothy R; Greaves, Ian A; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Fredrickson, Ann L; Geisser, Mindy S; Ryan, Andrew D

    2003-01-01

    The School Health Initiative: Environment, Learning, and Disease (SHIELD) study used a probability sample of children (second through fifth grades) from two low-income and racially mixed neighborhoods of Minneapolis, Minnesota, to assess childhood environmental health. Children were eligible to participate in SHIELD regardless of whether they or their families spoke a foreign language, their household had a telephone, or they were enrolled in a special education program. The overall enrollment rate in year 1 was 57%, with a substantial disparity between children from English-speaking (42%) versus non-English-speaking (71%) families. At the end of year 1, 85% were retained in the study. A relatively high percentage of children provided the two requested blood (82%) and urine (86%) samples in year 1, and 90% provided a valid spirometry sample. Eighty-two percent provided both requested volatile organic chemical badge samples, and both time-activity logs were obtained from 66%. However, only 32% provided both peak flow measurements. All percentages increased for those participating in the second year of the study. Results indicate that a school-based research design makes it feasible and practical to conduct probability-based assessments of children's environmental health in economically disadvantaged and ethnically diverse neighborhoods. There is an ongoing need, however, to improve understanding of the cultural, economic, psychologic, and social determinants of study participation among this population. PMID:12727602

  16. Individual, social and environmental factors influencing physical activity levels and behaviours of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged urban mothers in Canada: A mixed methods approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Existing data provide little insight into the physical activity context of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged mothers in Canada. Our primary objectives were: (1) to use focus group methodology to develop tools to identify the individual, social, and environmental factors influencing utilitarian and leisure time physical activities (LTPA) of multiethnic SED mothers; and (2) to use a women specific physical activity survey tool to assess psychosocial barriers and supports and to quantify individual physical activity (PA) levels of multi-ethnic SED mothers in Canada. Methods Qualitative focus group sessions were conducted in West, Central and Eastern Canada with multiethnic SED mothers (n = 6 focus groups; n = 42 SED mothers) and with health and recreation professionals (HRPs) (n = 5 focus groups; n = 25 HRPs) involved in community PA programming for multiethnic SED mothers. Administration of the women specific Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) tool was completed by consenting SED mothers (n = 59). Results More than half of SED mothers were employed and had higher total PA scores with occupation included than unemployed mothers. However, nearly 60% of both groups were overweight or obese. Barriers to LTPA included the lack of available, affordable and accessible LTPA programs that responded to cultural and social needs. Concerns for safety, nonsupportive cultural and social norms and the winter climate were identified as key barriers to both utilitarian and LTPA. Conclusions Findings show that multiethnic SED mothers experience many barriers to utilitarian and LTPA opportunities within their communities. The varying LTPA levels among these multi-ethnic SED mothers and the occurrence of overweight and obesity suggests that current LTPA programs are likely insufficient to maintain healthy body weights. PMID:22500882

  17. Economic Hardship and Depression Among Women in Latino Farmworker Families.

    PubMed

    Pulgar, Camila A; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia; Ip, Edward H; Arcury, Thomas A; Quandt, Sara A

    2016-06-01

    Farmworker family members risk poor mental health due to stressors including poverty, relocation, and documentation status. This paper explores the relationship between farm-work related stressors and depressive symptoms in women of Latino farmworker families. 248 mothers of young children completed fixed-response interviews in Spanish. Measures included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Migrant Farmworker Stress Inventory, and USDA Household Food Security Survey Module. Bivariate analyses indicated greater depressive symptoms with more economic hardship, more farm work-related stressors, greater age, and being unmarried. In multivariable logistic regression, economic hardship remained the only factor associated with depressive symptoms. Greater economic hardship, but not general farm work-related stress, is a main factor associated with depression in women of Latino farmworker families. Maternal depression can have consequences for both mothers and families. Mental health services for women in farmworker families should be targeted to those with the greatest economic challenges. PMID:26022147

  18. Peer-mentoring for first-time mothers from areas of socio-economic disadvantage: A qualitative study within a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Christine A; Cupples, Margaret E; Percy, Andrew; Halliday, Henry L; Stewart, Moira C

    2008-01-01

    Background Non-professional involvement in delivering health and social care support in areas of socio-economic deprivation is considered important in attempting to reduce health inequalities. However, trials of peer mentoring programmes have yielded inconsistent evidence of benefit: difficulties in implementation have contributed to uncertainty regarding their efficacy. We aimed to explore difficulties encountered in conducting a randomised controlled trial of a peer-mentoring programme for first-time mothers in socially disadvantaged areas, in order to provide information relevant to future research and practice. This paper describes the experiences of lay-workers, women and health professionals involved in the trial. Methods Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with women (n = 11) who were offered peer mentor support, lay-workers (n = 11) who provided mentoring and midwives (n = 2) who supervised the programme, which provided support, from first hospital antenatal visit to one year postnatal. Planned frequency of contact was two-weekly (telephone or home visit) but was tailored to individuals' needs. Results Despite lay-workers living in the same locality, they experienced difficulty initiating contact with women and this affected their morale adversely. Despite researchers' attempts to ensure that the role of the mentor was understood clearly it appeared that this was not achieved for all participants. Mentors attempted to develop peer-mentor relationships by offering friendship and sharing personal experiences, which was appreciated by women. Mentors reported difficulties developing relationships with those who lacked interest in the programme. External influences, including family and friends, could prevent or facilitate mentoring. Time constraints in reconciling flexible mentoring arrangements with demands of other commitments posed major personal difficulties for lay-workers. Conclusion Difficulties in initiating contact, developing peer

  19. Three-year change in diet quality and associated changes in BMI among schoolchildren living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Lioret, Sandrine; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cameron, Adrian J; Crawford, David; Campbell, Karen J; Cleland, Verity J; Ball, Kylie

    2014-07-28

    Findings from research that has assessed the influence of dietary factors on child obesity have been equivocal. In the present study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that a positive change in diet quality is associated with favourable changes in BMI z-scores (zBMI) in schoolchildren from low socio-economic backgrounds and to examine whether this effect is modified by BMI category at baseline. The present study utilised data from a subsample (n 216) of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, a longitudinal cohort study with data collected in 2007-8 (T1) and 2010-11 (T2) in socio-economically disadvantaged women and children (5-12 years at T1). Dietary data were collected using a FFQ and diet quality index (DQI) scores derived at both time points. The objective measures of weight, height and physical activity (accelerometers) were included. The other variables were reported in the questionnaires. We examined the association between change in DQI and change in zBMI, using linear regression analyses adjusted for physical activity, screen sedentary behaviour and maternal education level both in the whole sample and in the sample stratified by overweight status at baseline. After accounting for potential covariates, change in diet quality was found to be inversely associated with change in zBMI only in children who were overweight at baseline (P= 0.035), thus supporting the hypothesis that improvement in diet quality is associated with a concurrent improvement in zBMI among already overweight children, but not among those with a normal BMI status. The identification of modifiable behaviours such as diet quality that affect zBMI longitudinally is valuable to inform future weight gain prevention interventions in vulnerable groups. PMID:24775601

  20. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities, and psychological well-being in chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-06-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques to control their behavior; (b) the extent to which their parents attempted to control them in a way that undermined their psychological development; (c) the parent-child relational qualities, such as the child's readiness to communicate with the parents and perceived mutual trust; and (d) the child's psychological well-being. Although adolescents with economic disadvantage did not differ from adolescents without economic disadvantage on the maternal variables (except on parental knowledge and parental monitoring), adolescents whose families were receiving public assistance generally perceived paternal behavioral control and father-child relational qualities to be more negative than did adolescents who were not receiving public assistance. The author found psychological well-being (shown by hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, self-esteem) of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage to be weaker than that of adolescents not experiencing economic disadvantage. PMID:15906930

  1. Health Care for the Economically Disadvantaged. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on Finance, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

    These hearings examine ways of ensuring access to quality health care, especially for low-income persons ineligible for Medicaid. The problems of determining who the economically disadvantaged are, what services they are provided with, and how those services are provided and financed are all addressed. An Urban Institute researcher testifies that…

  2. Inclusive Transition Processes--Considering Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Parents' Views and Actions for Their Child's Successful School Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothe, Antje; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has noted that the transition to primary school is important for future school success. As a result, an inclusive transition process to school has become increasingly important. However, this process is particularly difficult for socio-economically disadvantaged children in Germany. The study considers parents' views and…

  3. Corporate Career Demonstration Project: Impact of a Thirteen-Week Training Program on the Personal, Interpersonal, and Academic Skills of Economically Disadvantaged Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berneman, Louis P.; And Others

    The Corporate Career Demonstration Project is a Federally funded program designed to provide economically disadvantaged young adults with specialized training, counseling and educational experiences. The project's major goal is to prepare these youth for entry level corporate career positions they would otherwise be unable to obtain. Applicants…

  4. Association of socio-economic, gender and health factors with common mental disorders in women: a population-based study of 5703 married rural women in India

    PubMed Central

    Shidhaye, Rahul; Patel, Vikram

    2010-01-01

    Background There are few population-based studies from low- and middle-income countries that have described the association of socio-economic, gender and health factors with common mental disorders (CMDs) in rural women. Methods Population-based study of currently married rural women in the age group of 15–39 years. The baseline data are from the National Family Health Survey-II conducted in 1998. A follow-up study was conducted 4 years later in 2002–03. The outcome of CMD was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Due to the hierarchical nature and complex survey design, data were analysed using mixed-effect logistic regression with random intercept model. Results A total of 5703 women (representing 83.5% of eligible women) completed follow-up. The outcome of CMD was observed in 609 women (10.7%, 95% confidence interval 9.8–11.6). The following factors were independently associated with the outcome of CMD in the final multivariable model: higher age, low education, low standard of living, recent intimate partner violence (IPV), husband’s unsatisfactory reaction to dowry, husband’s alcohol use and women’s own tobacco use. Conclusions Socio-economic and gender disadvantage factors are independently associated with CMDs in this population of women. Strategies that address structural determinants, for example to promote women’s education and reduce their exposure to IPV, may reduce the burden of CMDs in women. PMID:21037247

  5. Welfare Reform and Black Women's Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2007-01-01

    In 1996, the United States Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, placing emphasis on individuals to take responsibility for separating themselves from governmental dependence by becoming economically self-sufficient through employment. Using a qualitative approach, this study explored the experiences…

  6. A school-based strategy to assess children's environmental exposures and related health effects in economically disadvantaged urban neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Sexton, K; Greaves, I A; Church, T R; Adgate, J L; Ramachandran, G; Tweedie, R L; Fredrickson, A; Geisser, M; Sikorski, M; Fischer, G; Jones, D; Ellringer, P

    2000-01-01

    The School Health Initiative: Environment, Learning, Disease (SHIELD) study is a novel school-based investigation of children's environmental health in economically disadvantaged urban neighborhoods of Minneapolis. This article describes the study design and summarizes lessons learned about recruiting and monitoring this historically understudied population. The SHIELD study focused on measuring children's exposures to multiple environmental stressors [volatile organic chemicals (VOCs), environmental tobacco smoke, allergens, bioaerosols, metals, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), phthalates] and exploring related effects on respiratory health (e.g., lung function) and learning outcomes (e.g., standardized test scores, academic achievement). It involved intensive exposure monitoring, including environmental measurements inside and outside the children's schools and inside their homes, personal measurements with passive dosimeters worn by the children, and biological marker measurements in blood and urine. The SHIELD participants comprised a stratified random sample of 153 "index" children and 51 of their siblings enrolled in grades 2-5 at two adjacent elementary schools. The Minneapolis Public Schools (MPS) assisted with identifying, contacting, recruiting, and monitoring this population, which traditionally is difficult to study because families/children are highly mobile, speak a diversity of languages, frequently do not have a telephone, endure economic hardships, often do not trust researchers, and have a spectrum of unconventional lifestyles and living arrangements. Using a school-based approach, the overall SHIELD enrollment (response) rate was 56.7%, with a wide disparity between English-speaking (41.7%) and non-English-speaking (71.0%) families/children. Most children remained involved in the study through both monitoring sessions and exhibited an acceptable degree of compliance with study protocols, including providing blood and urine samples

  7. Paternal Lifelong Socioeconomic Position and Low Birth Weight Rates: Relevance to the African-American Women's Birth Outcome Disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Collins, James W; Rankin, Kristin M; David, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    Objectives To determine the relation of paternal lifelong socioeconomic position (SEP) to the racial disparity in low birth weight (<2500 g, LBW) rates. Methods Stratified and multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on an Illinois transgenerational dataset of infants (1989-1991) and their parents (1956-1976) with appended U.S. census income data. The neighborhood incomes of father's place of residence at the time of his birth and at the time of his infant's birth were used to measure of lifelong SEP. Population attributable risk (PAR) percentages were calculated to estimate the percentage of LBW infants attributable to paternal low SEP. Results In Cook County, infants (n = 10,168) born to fathers with a lifelong high SEP had a LBW rate of 3.7 %. LBW rates rose among infants born to fathers with early-life (n = 7224), adulthood (n = 2913), or lifelong (n = 7288) low SEP: 5.2, 6.9, and 9.3 %, respectively. The adjusted (controlling for maternal demographic characteristics) OR of LBW for fathers with an early-life, adulthood, or lifelong low (compared to lifelong high) SEP equaled 1.4 (1.2, 1.6), 1.5 (1.3, 1.9), and 2.0 (1.7, 2.3), respectively. The PAR percentages of LBW for paternal low SEP were 40 and 9 % among African-American and White mothers, respectively. Among fathers with a lifelong high SEP, the adjusted OR of LBW for African-American (compared to White) mothers was 1.1 (0.7, 1.7). Conclusions Low paternal SEP is a novel risk factor for infant LBW independent of maternal demographic characteristics. This phenomenon is particularly relevant to the African-American women's birth outcome disadvantage. PMID:27000848

  8. How can we improve socio-economic condition of women?

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, P C; Pattanaik, B E

    Aspects of discrimination against women in India are summarized, a case study of a rural district in Orissa is presented, and the article follows with a suggested 3-part strategy of education, employment and appropriate technology. The economic role played by women is difficult to quantitate because of their lifestyle that combines domestic work and unpaid family or low-paid outside farm or cottage industry labor. Besides these tasks, women usually care for dairy animals, and carry water and firewood. Discrimination against women in this system is evident, however, from some available statistics. 46% of women, as opposed to 20% of men, work as agricultural laborers. Women are denied education because they are not expected to do responsible work, then they are denied employment because they are not educated. Their work is counted as worth only half that of men, and based on this assumption, they are paid less then men. The male heads of 124 households in 7 villages in the Orissa area were interviewed to study labor participation of household members. 89% of the people worked in agriculture, 94% in rice paddy and 6% in oilseed or pulses for cash crops. The average farm size was 2.29 acres. Female literacy had risen to 14.3% from 1% 10 years before. Women usually worked in transplantation, weeding, harvesting and threshing, but also in heavier farm labor, construction of roads and buildings, quarrying and forestry. In this poor, hilly region, the custom of purdah was not practiced to the extent of keeping women from doing day labor outside the home. The authors' suggested strategy for women's development included appropriate technology such as the Gobar methane gas plant, provision of credit for women's industries, retention of girls in school and literacy programs for girls and women, and higher wages for women. PMID:12281792

  9. The effectiveness of antenatal care programmes to reduce infant mortality and preterm birth in socially disadvantaged and vulnerable women in high-income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Infant mortality has shown a steady decline in recent years but a marked socioeconomic gradient persists. Antenatal care is generally thought to be an effective method of improving pregnancy outcomes, but the effectiveness of specific antenatal care programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in socioeconomically disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women has not been rigorously evaluated. Methods We conducted a systematic review, focusing on evidence from high income countries, to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative models of organising or delivering antenatal care to disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women vs. standard antenatal care. We searched Medline, Embase, Cinahl, PsychINFO, HMIC, CENTRAL, DARE, MIDIRS and a number of online resources to identify relevant randomised and observational studies. We assessed effects on infant mortality and its major medical causes (preterm birth, congenital anomalies and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)) Results We identified 36 distinct eligible studies covering a wide range of interventions, including group antenatal care, clinic-based augmented care, teenage clinics, prenatal substance abuse programmes, home visiting programmes, maternal care coordination and nutritional programmes. Fifteen studies had adequate internal validity: of these, only one was considered to demonstrate a beneficial effect on an outcome of interest. Six interventions were considered 'promising'. Conclusions There was insufficient evidence of adequate quality to recommend routine implementation of any of the programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in disadvantaged/vulnerable women. Several interventions merit further more rigorous evaluation. PMID:21314944

  10. Predictors of Co-Occurring Risk Behavior Trajectories among Economically Disadvantaged African American Youth: Contextual and Individual Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Henry, David; Byck, Gayle; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose African American youth, particularly those from low-income backgrounds, evidence high rates of negative outcomes associated with three problem behaviors, conduct problems, risky sexual behavior, and substance use. This study used a contextually-tailored version of Problem Behavior Theory (PBT) to examine predictors of the simultaneous development of problem behaviors in this specific cultural group. Methods Socio-contextual and individual variables representing four PBT predictor categories, controls protection, support protection, models risk, and vulnerability risk, were examined as predictors of co-occurring problem behaviors among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (n = 949). Specifically, the likelihood of following three classes of multiple problem behavior trajectories spanning ages 12 to 18, labeled the “early experimenters,” “increasing high risk-takers,” and “adolescent-limited” classes, as opposed to a “normative” class was examined. Results Among other findings, controls protection in the form of a more stringent household curfew at age 12 was related to a lower likelihood of being in the “early experimenters” and “increasing high risk-takers” classes. Conversely, vulnerability risk manifested as stronger attitudes of violence inevitability was associated with a higher likelihood of being in the “early experimenters” class. However, the PBT category of support protection was not associated with risk trajectory class. More distal neighborhood-level manifestations of PBT categories also did not predict co-occurring behavior problems. Conclusion Guided by an incorporation of contextually-salient processes into PBT, prevention programs aiming to decrease co-occurring problem behaviors among low-income African American adolescents would do well to target both proximal systems and psychological constructs related to perceived security throughout adolescence. PMID:24755141

  11. Women's Marginalization, Economic Flows, and Environmental Flows: A Classroom Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Lear, Shannon

    1999-01-01

    Discusses environmental security, focusing on the meaning of "security." Defines the global economy as a process in which the security of groups is sought, maintained, or threatened. Illustrates connections among environmental security, the global economy, and abuse of women and children in less economically developed places, incorporating the…

  12. The Economic Consequences of Widowhood for Older Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Jacqueline L.; Jimenez, Maren A.; Angel, Ronald J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We compare the economic consequences of widowhood for preretirement age and early-retirement age Black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White women. Methods: We use the 1992 and 2000 waves of the Health and Retirement Study to assess the effects of widowhood on the household incomes and assets of non-Hispanic White, Black, and Hispanic women…

  13. The Influx of Women into Legal Professions: An Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Joe G.

    2002-01-01

    Data from the 1993 National Survey of College Graduates show that women are increasingly attracted to the field of law, possibly because of its favorable economic factors, such as relatively high earnings early in the career and ease of reentry after periods of nonparticipation in the labor force. (Contains 30 references.) (JOW)

  14. Economic and Social Psychological Independence: Dilemmas for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Beverly

    1985-01-01

    Reviews three volumes which provide considerable material on the cultural, economic, psychological, and social factors which affect Black and White women and their families: "Common Differences: Conflicts in Black and White Feminist Perspectives" (Joseph and Lewis); "The Black Woman Cross-Culturally" (Steady); and "Household Composition and Racial…

  15. Economic and Employment Status of Asian-Pacific Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Pauline L.; Cabezas, Amado Y.

    This report deals with the employment and economic status of Asian and Pacific women in the United States. Data collected for a set of socioeconomic variables were analyzed and interpreted. Variables were analyzed by specific Asian ethnicity and by age. Data aggregated at the standard metropolitan statistical area level were used whenever…

  16. The Do-Well study: protocol for a randomised controlled trial, economic and qualitative process evaluations of domiciliary welfare rights advice for socio-economically disadvantaged older people recruited via primary health care

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Older people in poor health are more likely to need extra money, aids and adaptations to allow them to remain independent and cope with ill health, yet in the UK many do not claim the welfare benefits to which they are entitled. Welfare rights advice interventions lead to greater welfare income, but have not been rigorously evaluated for health benefits. This study will evaluate the effects on health and well-being of a domiciliary welfare rights advice service provided by local government or voluntary organisations in North East England for independent living, socio-economically disadvantaged older people (aged ≥60 yrs), recruited from general (primary care) practices. Methods/Design The study is a pragmatic, individually randomised, single blinded, wait-list controlled trial of welfare rights advice versus usual care, with embedded economic and qualitative process evaluations. The qualitative study will examine whether the intervention is delivered as intended; explore responses to the intervention and examine reasons for the trial findings; and explore the potential for translation of the intervention into routine policy and practice. The primary outcome is the effect on health-related quality of life, measured using the CASP 19 questionnaire. Volunteer men and women aged ≥60 years (1/household) will be identified from general practice patient registers. Patients in nursing homes or hospitals at the time of recruitment will be excluded. General practice populations will be recruited from disadvantaged areas of North East England, including urban, rural and semi-rural areas, with no previous access to targeted welfare rights advice services delivered to primary care patients. A minimum of 750 participants will be randomised to intervention and control arms in a 1:1 ratio. Discussion Achieving a trial design that is both ethical and acceptable to potential participants, required methodological compromises. The choice of follow-up length required

  17. Family migration and the economic status of women in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, A

    1997-01-01

    "The impact of family migration on women's economic position in a developing country setting is an area that has received relatively little research attention. Incorporating a lifetime perspective, this study makes use of the retrospective migration histories of husbands and wives from the second round of the Malaysian Family Life Survey to estimate how joint migration with the husband affects women's socioeconomic achievement. The findings show that family migration depresses the chances of working, but it does not significantly reduce socioeconomic attainment of those who do work. However, when a woman migrates with her husband she does forgo the substantial advantage she could have derived had she moved alone." PMID:12292875

  18. Intimate partner violence and women's economic and non-economic activities in Minya, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Yount, Kathryn M; Zureick-Brown, Sarah; salem, Rania

    2014-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is widespread, but its implications for their economic and non-economic activities are understudied. Leveraging new data from 564 ever-married women aged 22–65 in rural Minya, Egypt, we estimated logistic regressions and zero-inflated negative binomial regressions to test spillover, compensation, and patriarchal bargaining theories about the influences of women's exposure to IPV on their engagement in and time spent on market, subsistence, domestic, and care work. Supporting compensation theory, exposures to lifetime, recent, and chronic physical or sexual IPV were associated with higher adjusted odds of performing market work in the prior month, and exposures to recent and chronic IPV were associated with higher adjusted odds of performing subsistence work in this period. Supporting compensation and patriarchal bargaining theories, exposures to recent and chronic IPV were associated with more time spent on domestic work in the prior day. Supporting spillover and patriarchal bargaining theories, exposures to lifetime IPV of all forms were associated with lower adjusted odds of performing mostly nonspousal care work in the prior day, and this association was partially mediated by women's generalized anxiety. Women in rural Minya who are exposed to IPV may escalate their housework to fulfill local norms of feminine domesticity while substituting economic activities for nonspousal care work to enhance their economic independence from violent partners. PMID:24659089

  19. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.). (ii) The program for aid to Families with Dependent... disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education... School Vocational Education Program? (a) For the purposes of § 403.113, a State may determine the...

  20. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.). (ii) The program for aid to Families with Dependent... disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education... School Vocational Education Program? (a) For the purposes of § 403.113, a State may determine the...

  1. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.). (ii) The program for aid to Families with Dependent... disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education... School Vocational Education Program? (a) For the purposes of § 403.113, a State may determine the...

  2. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.). (ii) The program for aid to Families with Dependent... disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education... School Vocational Education Program? (a) For the purposes of § 403.113, a State may determine the...

  3. Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to…

  4. Perceived discrimination amongst young people in socio-economically disadvantaged communities: Parental support and community identity buffer (some) negative impacts of stigma.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Daragh; Jay, Sarah; McNamara, Namh; Stevenson, Clifford; Muldoon, Orla T

    2016-06-01

    There is increasing acceptance that children are not unaware of when they are targets of discrimination. However, discrimination as a consequence of socio-economic disadvantage remains understudied. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of perceived discrimination on well-being, perceptions of safety and school integration amongst children growing up within socio-economically disadvantaged communities in Limerick, Ireland. Mediation analysis was used to explore these relationships and to examine the potential role of parental support and community identity in boys and girls in the 6th to 9th year of compulsory education (N = 199). Results indicate perceived discrimination contributed to negative outcomes in terms of school integration, perceptions of safety and levels of well-being. Age and gender differences were observed which disadvantaged boys and younger children. All negative outcomes were buffered by parental support. Community identity also protected young people in terms of feelings of school integration and risk but not in terms of psychological well-being. Findings are discussed in terms of the different role of family and community supports for children negotiating negative social representations of their community. PMID:26490256

  5. Latinas and African American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Irene, Ed.

    The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…

  6. Socio-Economic Disparities in Use of Family Planning Methods among Pakistani Women: Findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Syeda Kanwal; Zaheer, Sidra; Qureshi, Muhammad Sameer; Aslam, Syeda Nisma; Shafique, Kashif

    2016-01-01

    Background Several developing countries like Pakistan step into Sustainable Development Goals period with crucial maternal and child health needs that need to be addressed for improving health outcomes among people. We aim to explore existent socio-economic disparities in use of family planning methods (FPM) among Pakistani women, and compare any such inequalities between the years 2006 and 2013. Setting Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) 2006–7 (n = 9177) and the most recent 2012–13(n = 13558) data were used to conduct secondary analysis. Participants were ever married women aged between 15 and 49 years. Socio-economic status was assessed by the education level and wealth index. Inequalities were measured through Odds Ratio (OR), Relative Index of inequality (RII), and Slope index of inequality (SII) on non-use of FPM. Results Although the prevalence of FPM use has increased over time (28% in 2006 versus 54% in 2013), the socio-economic inequalities persistently exist. Comparing results of PDHS 2006 with PDHS 2013, education related absolute inequalities among urban dwellers increased from -0.41 (95% CI -0.67, -0.13, p-value < 0.01) to -0.83 (95% CI -1.02, -0.63, p-value < 0.01); and increased from -0.93 (95% CI -1.21, -0.64, p-value < 0.01) to -0.98 (95% CI -1.20, -0.76, p-value < 0.01) among rural dwellers. Similarly wealth related absolute inequalities are also existent. Conclusions Although the FPM use has increased over time, but it is important to note that socio-economic gap in use of FPM persists. Such differences have disadvantaged the poor and the illiterate. Family planning programs may target the disadvantaged subgroups for ensuring well-being of women and children in Pakistan. PMID:27055164

  7. Schools and Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emma

    2011-01-01

    The three books reviewed in this essay all have a similar theme: the role that schools and other institutions can play in improving the life-chances of young people and breaking the cycle of socio-economic disadvantage and low educational attainment that is characteristic of school systems around the world. Through an evaluation of the Academies…

  8. Gaps in the Digital Divide in Higher Education: Economically Disadvantaged Students and a Lack of Access and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    The digital divide between students who have access to and skills with information technology resources and those who do not is growing wider. This dissertation documents a quantitative study on the effect and relationship between age, gender, ethnicity and low economic status on students' access to computers and the Internet, as well as…

  9. The Relationship between Residential Land Use Patterns and the Educational Outcomes of Economically Disadvantaged Students in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zandt, Shannon; Wunneburger, Douglas F.

    2011-01-01

    Disparate outcomes resulting from economic segregation in public primary schools have been the subject of much debate and litigation. Little research, however, examines whether negative outcomes may be exacerbated by inequities in the distribution of housing across metropolitan areas. This article explores connections between residential land use…

  10. Closing the Achievement Gap: A Summer School Program to Accelerate the Academic Performance of Economically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Ramon Michael

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing disparity in educational outcomes among economically and racially different groups of students, summer school has received attention from school reformers as a means to close the achievement gap. Given the interest in this topic by educators, researchers, and policymakers, there is little research on the impact of summer school…

  11. Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

    2013-08-01

    Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower-income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (n = 196, 25-51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans-fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in model 2, but most were not significant in model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods. PMID:23890353

  12. Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

    2013-01-01

    Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast-food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (N=196, 25–51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index, AHEI) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (Model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in Model 2 but most were not significant in Model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (AHEI) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast-food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods. PMID:23890353

  13. Women's Socio-Economic Development in India: The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

    2004-01-01

    Jacobs (2000) and McLean (2000) affirm the need to expand boundaries of HRD to include multiple topics in a variety of contexts. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) provide possibilities and limitations for the socio-economic development of women in India. The roles of NGOs in serving the socio-economic needs of women provide a broader,…

  14. Learning Economics: Empowering Women for Action. Facilitator's Guide and Participant Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Religious Network for Equality for Women, New York, NY.

    This facilitator's guide and participant packet were designed to teach women how the U.S. economic system works and were developed by a coalition of more than 40 national religious groups working toward economic justice for women. The facilitator's guide consists of a section explaining the coalition, a section on the development of the materials…

  15. Introductory Economics Textbooks and the Treatment of Issues Relating to Women and Minorities, 1984 and 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiner, Susan F.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of introductory college economics textbooks on the quality and quantity of coverage of the economic status of women and minorities. Finds that textbooks still have a tendency to exclude women and minorities from the general discussion and disguise the multiplicity of explanations for observed differences. (CFR)

  16. The Impact of Integrating Scholarship on Women into Introductory Economics: Evidence from One Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lage, Maureen J.; Treglia, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Articulates five phases of integrating women's studies issues into a traditional curriculum. Examines the impact of integrating phase three, applying accepted economic theory to the realm of women, in an undergraduate introductory economics course. Includes a curriculum comparison of traditional and gender-inclusive courses. (MJP)

  17. Developmental Perspectives on the Education and Economic Activities of Japanese Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Mary Jean; Osawa, Machiko

    This document explores the role played by women in the economic success of Japan in recent decades. Part 1 provides a brief history of Japan's rural legacy and describes its urbanization process. Part 2 reveals trends in the nature and extent of the economic activity of Japanese women using data on cohort age-groups at 5-year intervals beginning…

  18. THE CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FISHER, NANETTE HUNT

    THIS STUDY, BASED ON THE HYPOTHESIS THAT PREPARATION FOR MARRIAGE IS INADEQUATE IN OUR SOCIETY, INCLUDES A SURVEY OF LITERATURE RELATING TO THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF MODERN WOMEN AND THE PROPER ROLE OF HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION, TOGETHER WITH RESULTS OF A SURVEY OF HUNTER COLLEGE HOME ECONOMICS MAJORS AND OTHER WOMEN REGARDING PROBLEMS IN FAMILY…

  19. The Economic Consequences of Marital Dissolution for Women in the Middle Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Mary

    1979-01-01

    This article uses longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to explore how changes in marital status affect the economic status of married women in their middle years. Results demonstrate that the economic status of women declines sharply when their marriages end. (Author/MC)

  20. Educationally and Economically Disadvantaged Children. Joint Hearing Reviewing Available Education Opportunities for Disadvantaged Children, Focusing on Those Children Living in Poverty, Those from Single-Parent Families, and Those Whose Parents Are Teenagers, before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate and the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This joint hearing before the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources and the House Committee on Education and Labor focused on educationally and economically disadvantaged children. Of special concern were children living in poverty, those from single parent families, and those whose parents are teenagers. Educational programs are needed to…

  1. Does car ownership reflect socio-economic disadvantage in rural areas? A cross-sectional geographical study in Wales, UK.

    PubMed

    Christie, S M; Fone, D L

    2003-03-01

    It is widely believed that area-based deprivation indices that include the car ownership census variable are poor indicators of deprivation in rural areas since car ownership is a necessity of rural life. In this cross-sectional geographical study, we assess whether the relation between lack of car ownership and socio-economic deprivation varies between urban and rural enumeration districts of Wales, UK. We classified the 6376 census enumeration districts in Wales into rural (1636, 26%) and urban (4740, 74%), using the Office for National Statistics' classification based on land use. Rank correlation coefficients between the proportion of households with no car and a range of other proxy deprivation census variables were strongly positive in urban and the most densely populated rural enumeration districts. However, these correlations were weaker in sparsely populated rural enumeration districts, with a declining trend across deciles of population density. Exclusion of the car ownership variable from the Townsend index of deprivation re-categorized rural enumeration districts as more deprived and urban enumeration districts as less deprived compared with the standard Townsend index. Our results suggest that lack of car ownership is a poor proxy for social deprivation in the most sparsely populated rural areas of Wales, and therefore, deprivation indices that include the car ownership variable are less valid for use in rural areas. PMID:12802977

  2. Economic abuse in the lives of women abused by an intimate partner: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Cynthia K

    2015-01-01

    This article presents qualitative findings of a study that examined the role of financial issues and economic factors in the lives of women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Eight themes emerged in discussions with women about the ways in which money and economic issues played a role in their experiences of abuse. Taken together, women's discussions clearly support an "economic abuse" dimension of IPV. Implications for safely advancing the economic well-being of low-income survivors are discussed. PMID:25548376

  3. Economic solvency in the context of violence against women: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, Heidi; Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this concept analysis is to define economic solvency in the context of violence against women. Poverty, or lack of resources, is often discussed as a risk factor for intimate partner violence. The concept of economic solvency, which may be a protective factor for women, is less often discussed and not well defined. Databases searched for the analysis included EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PubMed and Gender Watch. The Rodgers evolutionary method was used to perform the concept analysis. A total of 134 articles were retrieved, using the specified search terms 'economic solvency and women', 'economic self-reliance and women' and 'economic self-sufficiency and women'. Articles were included if they were peer reviewed, contained the keywords with sufficient context to determine the author's intended meaning, and focused on women only or contrasted men to women. Thirty-five articles were used in the concept analysis. The definition of economic solvency drawn from the concept analysis is: a long-term state that occurs when there is societal structure that supports gender equity and external resources are available and can be used by a woman who has necessary human capital, sustainable employment and independence. Just as poverty and violence are cyclical, so are economic solvency and empowerment of women. To decrease women's risk of intimate partner violence around the world and further improve the status of women, we recommend continued research on economic solvency, including the individual, family, community and societal resources required to obtain economic solvency and the human capital characteristics needed for sustainability. PMID:24628877

  4. Self-reported depression is increasing among socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents – repeated cross-sectional surveys from Finland from 2000 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent depression is more common in lower socio-economic groups. Whether this pattern has changed over time, is not known. We examined the prevalence of self-reported depression and its changes in socio-economic groups from 2000 to 2011 among Finnish adolescents. Methods Data were based on classroom surveys every second year from 2000–2001 to 2010–2011 using nationwide samples of 14–16-year old Finns (n = 618,084). Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires including questions on health, health behaviours, and school experiences. Depression was measured with a Finnish modification of the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory, and divided into no, mild, moderate and severe depression. The association between depression and the social background (parents’ education and employment) over time was studied using a multinomial regression analysis. Results The prevalence of self-reported severe depression slightly increased from 2000–2001 to 2010–2011 in girls. In boys a slight increase was observed when adjusting for background variables. The differences in the prevalence of depression between the social background groups persisted over the entire study period. In both sexes, severe depression nearly doubled among those adolescents whose parents were unemployed and had a low education level; among boys, the prevalence was 6.5% in 2000–2001 and 12.8% in 2010–2011, and among girls 6.4% and 11.4% respectively. Conclusion The largest increases in prevalence of severe depression are seen among socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents. This suggests that inequalities in mental health may become an increasing concern. PMID:24775269

  5. Economic violence to women and girls: is it receiving the necessary attention?

    PubMed

    Fawole, Olufunmilayo I

    2008-07-01

    Most studies on gender-based violence (GBV) have focused on its physical, sexual, and psychological manifestations. This paper seeks to draw attention to the types of economic violence experienced by women, and describes its consequences on health and development. Economic violence experienced included limited access to funds and credit; controlling access to health care, employment, education, including agricultural resources; excluding from financial decision making; and discriminatory traditional laws on inheritance, property rights, and use of communal land. At work women experienced receiving unequal remuneration for work done equal in value to the men's, were overworked and underpaid, and used for unpaid work outside the contractual agreement. Some experienced fraud and theft from some men, illegal confiscation of goods for sale, and unlawful closing down of worksites. At home, some were barred from working by partners; while other men totally abandoned family maintenance to the women. Unfortunately, economic violence results in deepening poverty and compromises educational attainment and developmental opportunities for women. It leads to physical violence, promotes sexual exploitation and the risk of contracting HIV infection, maternal morbidity and mortality, and trafficking of women and girls. Economic abuse may continue even after the woman has left the abusive relationship. There is need for further large-scale studies on economic violence to women. Multi-strategy interventions that promote equity between women and men, provide economic opportunities for women, inform them of their rights, reach out to men and change societal beliefs and attitudes that permit exploitative behavior are urgently required. PMID:18495936

  6. The Conversation and Company of Educated Women. A Colloquy on Home Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterat, Linda, Ed.

    The papers in this publication are the result of a symposium assessing the role of home economics in women's education. In her paper entitled "The Human Sciences and Home Economics: An Emerging Conversation," Francine H. Hultgren questions the possibilities for home economics within the human sciences. "Hestian Hermeneutics: A Lens of Analysis for…

  7. An Examination of the First/Second-Grade Form of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance: Factor Structure and Stability by Grade and Gender across Groups of Economically Disadvantaged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Brian F.; Mantzicopoulos, Panayota

    2007-01-01

    We tested the structure of the Pictorial Scale of Competence and Social Acceptance (PSPCSA) across groups of first and second grade children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. We used confirmatory factor analysis, including latent mean structures analysis, to test the fit of competing PSPCSA factor models and examined invariance across…

  8. Economic Status of Women. Hearing before the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    This document is a transcript of a Congressional hearing on the economic status of women held by the Joint Economic Committee on February 3, 1982. Witnesses who testified at the hearing included Representatives Reuss, Richmond, Heckler, Wylie and Schroeder, Senators Jepsen and Kassenbaum, and a number of women active in women's equality programs.…

  9. Economic and demographic effects on working women in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Psaharopoulos, G; Tzannatos, Z

    1993-01-01

    This analysis of women's work conditions in Latin America includes a description of general trends in female labor force participation in 15 Latin American countries based on census data between 1950 and 1990. Also examined are pay differentials by gender and whether gender alone or individual characteristics of women workers accounted for the sex-wage gap. More extensive treatment is available in the author's other 1992 publications. Trends indicate that marriage and children were important factors determining whether women were in the labor force or not. The probability of being in the labor force was reduced by 50% for married women, and each child reduced the probability by 5%. When marriage and children were controlled for, age had a positive effect on probability of participation. Urban female heads of household had a positive effect on women's labor force participation. The higher a woman's educational qualification, the greater the probability of being in the work force. Earnings increased with increased educational level. An increase of 1 year of schooling for women contributed to an increase in female earnings of 13.1. Investment in education for women has a higher yield for women than for men. Policies that directly or indirectly improve women's employment opportunities, particularly when families are being formed, can have wide distributional effects. Also unresolved was an explanation for why female participation increased during periods of recession and why women are rewarded more for educational effort than men. The suggestion was that public sector employment, which included many women in the labor force, is distorting results. PMID:12286863

  10. Benevolent Ideology and Women's Economic Decision-Making: When Sexism Is Hurting Men's Wallet.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Aude; Sarlet, Marie; Huart, Johanne; Dardenne, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Can ideology, as a widespread "expectation creator," impact economic decisions? In two studies we investigated the influence of the Benevolent Sexism (BS) ideology (which dictates that men should provide for passive and nurtured women) on women's economic decision-making. In Study 1, using a Dictator Game in which women decided how to share amounts of money with men, results of a Generalized Linear Mixed Model analysis show that higher endorsement of BS and contextual expectations of benevolence were associated with more very unequal offers. Similarly, in an Ultimatum Game in which women received monetary offers from men, Study 2's Generalized Linear Mixed Model's results revealed that BS led women to reject more very unequal offers. If women's endorsement of BS ideology and expectations of benevolence prove contrary to reality, they may strike back at men. These findings show that BS ideology creates expectations that shape male-female relationships in a way that could be prejudicial to men. PMID:26870955

  11. Energy and women's economic empowerment: Rethinking the benefits of improved cookstove use in rural India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaward, James Nicholas

    International development organizations have recently ramped up efforts to promote the use of improved cookstoves (ICS) in developing countries, aiming to reduce the harmful environmental and public health impacts of the burning of biomass for cooking and heating. I hypothesize that ICS use also has additional benefits---economic and social benefits---that can contribute to women's economic empowerment in the developing world. To explore the relationship between ICS use and women's economic empowerment, I use Ordinary Least Squares and Logit models based on data from the India Human Development Survey (IHDS) to analyze differences between women living in households that use ICS and those living in homes that use traditional cookstoves. My regression results reveal that ICS use has a statistically significant and negative effect on the amount of time women and girls spend on fuel collection and a statistically significant and positive effect on the likelihood of women's participation in side businesses, but does not have a statistically significant effect on the likelihood of lost productivity. My analysis shows promise that in addition to health and environmental benefits, fuel-efficient cooking technologies can also have social and economic impacts that are especially beneficial to women. It is my hope that the analysis provided in this paper will be used to further the dialogue about the importance of women's access to modern energy services in the fight to improve women's living standards in the developing world.

  12. Women Education and Economic Development in Kenya: Implications for Curriculum Development and Implementation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syomwene, Anne; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the relationship between women education and sustainable economic development in Kenya and its implications for curriculum development and implementation processes. The argument advanced in this paper is that the solution to the development problems in Kenya and other developing nations lies on women education.…

  13. The Impact of Education on Rural Women's Participation in Political and Economic Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishaw, Alemayehu

    2014-01-01

    This study endeavored to investigate the impact of education on rural women's participation in political and economic activities. Six hundred rural women and 12 gender Activists were selected for this study from three Zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia using multi-stage random sampling technique and purposeful sampling techniques respectively.…

  14. Women's Formal Education and Economic Growth: The Case of the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, LouEllen; Sidener, Nancy L.

    Research indicates that the education of Philippine women pays off in the economic growth of the country. Previous research which examined women's contribution to national income in six countries indicated that levels of educational attainment and levels of per capita national income were positively or moderately associated in five of the…

  15. The other side of economic success: poverty, inequality, and women in Chile.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, S

    1993-10-01

    The economic liberalization and overall economic success achieved by the former military dictatorship in Chile paradoxically increased inequities and "feminized" poverty. By 1990, when a democratically elected government came into power, 40% of the population was living in poverty and suffering from large-scale reductions in state welfare. This led to a huge increase in self-help community organizations, many run by women and set-up by the church, to insure survival. These groups have been an important catalyst to women's ability to create political organizations. One factor which led to increased poverty was the involvement of women in "flexible," low-paid jobs. In 1987, women earned 65% of male wages, although women and men had approximately the same level of education. The democratic government is committed to helping women and has created a National Women's Service to develop public policies for women in the areas of legal reform, labor laws, welfare, rights, economic support, and domestic violence. Issues such as divorce and abortion, however, remain highly divisive. It is ironic that the traditional gender-based division of labor was shaken during the military dictatorship but that a return to democracy had failed to decrease the pressures on women. PMID:12320730

  16. Ethics, equity, and economics: a primer on women in medicine.

    PubMed

    Essary, Alison C; Coplan, Bettie

    2014-05-01

    Women account for more than 70% of physician assistant (PA) students, 62% of practicing PAs, and 57% of faculty in PA programs. About half of all US medical students, 30% of actively practicing physicians, and 37% of faculty at academic medical centers are female. However, women in medicine are paid less than men for equal work effort and achieve fewer leadership positions within academia and medicine. Neglecting the skills and talents of women may lead to a workforce that fails to represent our patient and student populations. PMID:24758976

  17. Exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and associated health risks of socio-economically disadvantaged population in a "hot spot" in Camden, New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiangmei (May); Fan, Zhihua (Tina); Zhu, Xianlei; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Weisel, Clifford P.; Lioy, Paul J.

    2012-09-01

    To address disparities in health risks associated with ambient air pollution for racial/ethnic minority groups, this study characterized personal and ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a suspected hot spot of air pollution - the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), and an urban reference community - the Copewood/Davis Streets (CDS) neighborhood in Camden, New Jersey. Both are minority-dominant, impoverished communities. We collected 24-h integrated personal air samples from 54 WFS residents and 53 CDS residents, with one sample on a weekday and one on a weekend day during the summer and winter seasons of 2004-2006. Ambient air samples from the center of each community were also collected simultaneously during personal air sampling. Toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (TEX) presented higher (p < 0.05) ambient levels in WFS than in CDS, particularly during weekdays. A stronger association between personal and ambient concentrations of MTBE and TEX was found in WFS than in CDS. Fourteen to forty-two percent of the variation in personal MTBE, hexane, benzene, and TEX was explained by local outdoor air pollution. These observations indicated that local sources impacted the community air pollution and personal exposure in WFS. The estimated cancer risks resulting from two locally emitted VOCs, benzene and ethylbenzene, and non-cancer neurological and respiratory effects resulting from hexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes exceeded the US EPA risk benchmarks in both communities. These findings emphasized the need to address disparity in health risks associated with ambient air pollution for the socio-economically disadvantaged groups. This study also demonstrated that air pollution hot spots similar to WFS can provide robust setting to investigate health effects of ambient air pollution.

  18. Exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and associated health risks of socio-economically disadvantaged population in a “hot spot” in Camden, New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiangmei (May); Fan, Zhihua (Tina); Zhu, Xianlei; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Weisel, Clifford P.; Lioy, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    To address disparities in health risks associated with ambient air pollution for racial/ethnic minority groups, this study characterized personal and ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a suspected hot spot of air pollution – the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), and an urban reference community – the Copewood/Davis Streets (CDS) neighborhood in Camden, New Jersey. Both are minority-dominant, impoverished communities. We collected 24-h integrated personal air samples from 54 WFS residents and 53 CDS residents, with one sample on a weekday and one on a weekend day during the summer and winter seasons of 2004–2006. Ambient air samples from the center of each community were also collected simultaneously during personal air sampling. Toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (TEX) presented higher (p < 0.05) ambient levels in WFS than in CDS, particularly during weekdays. A stronger association between personal and ambient concentrations of MTBE and TEX was found in WFS than in CDS. Fourteen to forty-two percent of the variation in personal MTBE, hexane, benzene, and TEX was explained by local outdoor air pollution. These observations indicated that local sources impacted the community air pollution and personal exposure in WFS. The estimated cancer risks resulting from two locally emitted VOCs, benzene and ethylbenzene, and non-cancer neurological and respiratory effects resulting from hexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes exceeded the US EPA risk benchmarks in both communities. These findings emphasized the need to address disparity in health risks associated with ambient air pollution for the socio-economically disadvantaged groups. This study also demonstrated that air pollution hot spots similar to WFS can provide robust setting to investigate health effects of ambient air pollution. PMID:25674036

  19. Women's relative immunity to the socio-economic health gradient: artifact or real?

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Susan P.; Hamberg, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background Individual and area socio-economic status (SES) are significant predictors of morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. However, the span in health from poorest to richest, that is, the socio-economic gradient, appears steeper for men than women. Objective Our aim is to understand women's apparent immunity to the health harms of the SES gradient. Design Findings from a non-systematic search of Medline for population-based, SES gradient studies reporting results for both men and women and with health outcomes of morbidity, mortality or self-rated health (SRH) were reflectively analyzed. Results The 36 papers reviewed generally showed women to be relatively immune to the SES gradient for all but cardiovascular health outcomes. However, addressing the interconnected nature of socio-economic circumstances, exploring whether some measures of SES had ambiguous meanings for either women or men, including modifiers of SES such as household circumstances, social capital or area gender equity, or using indicators of area SES that were contextual rather than aggregates of individual, compositional measures increased the SES gradient for women. Outcome measures that combined mental and physical health, accounted for gender differences in SRH and adjusted for sex-specific differences in causes of mortality also explained some of the observed amelioration of the SES gradient among women. Conclusions Socio-economic circumstances have a real and sustained impact on individual health. The SES gradient appears stronger for men than for women for all health outcomes other than heart disease. However, some of the observed variability between men and women may be an artifact of biased methodology. Considering webs of causation rather than individual markers of SES along with other sources of gender bias can explain much of women's blunted socio-economic gradient and deepen understanding of the pathways from SES to morbidity and mortality overall. PMID

  20. The Social and Economic Statuses of Black Women in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Walter R.

    1981-01-01

    Cites aggregate statistics summarizing the social and economic statuses of Black women and interprets their implications for the quality of life experienced by Black females. Focuses on educational attainment, marital and fertility patterns, health status, labor force participation rates, and economic roles. (GC)

  1. Understanding the social and economic contexts surrounding women engaged in street-level prostitution.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Lyn Stankiewicz

    2010-12-01

    Prostitution involves the exchange of sexual services for economic compensation. Due to the sexual promiscuity surrounding prostitution, women involved in prostitution constitute a high-risk group for contracting and transmitting STDs, including HIV. Prostitution is not only a public health concern, but also an economic one. Cities throughout the United States spent an average of $7.5 to $16 million per year enforcing prostitution laws and addressing negative outcomes associated with prostitution. Thus, women involved in prostitution are a cause for concern from both public health and economic perspectives. However, little is known about why women remain in this type of behavior given the risks prostitution presents, and even less is known about how to intervene and interrupt the complex cycle of prostitution. Thus, the purpose of this study was to understand what factors contribute to a woman's decision to remain in prostitution. A series of interviews were conducted with 12 women engaged in street-level prostitution. Results of the study revealed that drug use not only spurs entry into prostitution, but also contributes to the tenure of prostitution. Further, social support and economic stability are plausible reasons for women remaining in prostitution. These findings lead us to recommendations for policy and program development. Women involved in prostitution are a highly marginalized population, rarely recognized as individuals with life histories. Understanding why women remain in prostitution is important, because until these determinants are known, intervention programs designed to interrupt the cycle, and ultimately prevent prostitution, cannot be formulated. PMID:21142598

  2. Economic empowerment and reproductive behaviour of young women in Osun state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odutolu, Oluwole; Adedimeji, Adebola; Odutolu, Omobola; Baruwa, Olatunde; Olatidoye, Funmilayo

    2003-12-01

    Women are increasingly being recognised as equal partners in development. However, there is a growing awareness that negative health, social and economic consequences act as barriers in their efforts to contribute to sustainable development. Consequently, to fully harness the potentials of women in this regard, these barriers have to be addressed. This paper utilises qualitative data collected as part of an intervention programme designed to increase access to reproductive health information/services and economic resources among young women in Osogbo, Nigeria. The aim was to provide reproductive health information and training in basic business skills and micro-credit facilities to enable beneficiaries to establish private businesses. Findings from the study highlight the importance of the relationship between female education, access to economic resources as a means of furthering empowerment of women especially in terms of their reproductive behaviour. The paper argues that increased access to resources is a major factor toward ensuring the much desired empowerment. PMID:15055152

  3. Economics: Discipline Analysis. Women in the Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Julie A.

    This essay examines the ways in which economics, as a discipline, has been influenced by feminist scholarship in the field. It explains that feminist work in transforming economics began to gain ground only in the early 1990s, and that the impact of feminist or multicultural insights on the core research assumptions of the discipline has been…

  4. The effect of neighborhood disadvantage, social ties, and genetic variation on the antisocial behavior of African American women: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L; Edmond, Mary Bond; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Cutrona, Carolyn E

    2014-11-01

    Social disorganization theory posits that individuals who live in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to engage in antisocial behavior than are those who live in advantaged neighborhoods and that neighborhood disadvantage asserts this effect through its disruptive impact on social ties. Past research on this framework has been limited in two respects. First, most studies have concentrated on adolescent males. In contrast, the present study focused on a sample of adult African American females. Second, past research has largely ignored individual-level factors that might explain why people who grow up in disadvantaged neighborhoods often do not engage in antisocial behavior. We investigated the extent to which genetic variation contributes to heterogeneity of response to neighborhood conditions. We found that the impact of neighborhood disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by neighborhood social ties. Further, the analysis indicated that the effects of neighborhood disadvantage and social ties on antisocial behavior were moderated by genetic polymorphisms. Examination of these moderating effects provided support for the differential susceptibility model of Gene × Environment. The effect of Gene × Neighborhood Disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by the effect of Gene × Neighborhood Social Ties, providing support for an expanded view of social disorganization theory. PMID:24713449

  5. The effect of neighborhood disadvantage, social ties, and genetic variation on the antisocial behavior of African American women: A multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    LEI, MAN-KIT; SIMONS, RONALD L.; EDMOND, MARY BOND; SIMONS, LESLIE GORDON; CUTRONA, CAROLYN E.

    2015-01-01

    Social disorganization theory posits that individuals who live in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to engage in antisocial behavior than are those who live in advantaged neighborhoods and that neighborhood disadvantage asserts this effect through its disruptive impact on social ties. Past research on this framework has been limited in two respects. First, most studies have concentrated on adolescent males. In contrast, the present study focused on a sample of adult African American females. Second, past research has largely ignored individual-level factors that might explain why people who grow up in disadvantaged neighborhoods often do not engage in antisocial behavior. We investigated the extent to which genetic variation contributes to heterogeneity of response to neighborhood conditions. We found that the impact of neighborhood disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by neighborhood social ties. Further, the analysis indicated that the effects of neighborhood disadvantage and social ties on antisocial behavior were moderated by genetic polymorphisms. Examination of these moderating effects provided support for the differential susceptibility model of Gene×Environment. The effect of Gene×Neighborhood Disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by the effect of Gene×Neighborhood Social Ties, providing support for an expanded view of social disorganization theory. PMID:24713449

  6. Household economic strategies and nutritional anthropometry of women in American Samoa and highland Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Bindon, James R; Vitzthum, Virginia J

    2002-04-01

    This study compares findings from research projects involving different genetic, environmental, and cultural contexts: a study of lifestyle and health from American Samoa (ASLS) and the Bolivian project. Reproduction and Ecology in Provincia Aroma (REPA). This paper presents analyses of varying economic strategies and their association with nutritional status indicators in each population. The ASLS sample includes 66 Samoan women and the REPA sample includes 210 Aymara women. Principle components analysis of household economic resources within each sample extracted two significant factors: one represents modernizing influences including education and occupational status, and the other represents ethnographically salient traditional economic behavior. The traditional pattern includes adding household members in Samoa and selling agricultural products in Bolivia. This analysis places each woman along two continua, traditional and modern, based on her household mobilization of economic resources, permitting an understanding of the patterns underlying household economic behavior that is not possible in univariate analyses of socioeconomic variables. For the Bolivian women the strategy involving more education and higher occupational status was associated with higher measures of several nutritional status indicators, including body mass index, arm muscle area, and peripheral skinfolds. But among the Samoan women, where substantial obesity was the norm, there were no significant differences in anthropometric measurements based on economic strategies. These data argue for the importance of directly measuring the potential consequences of variation in household economic strategies rather than merely inferring such, and of assessing ethnographically relevant aspects of household economic production rather than limiting analyses to non-context-specific economic indicators such as income. This focus on household strategy is likely to be fruitful especially where economic and

  7. Sex Preferences, Marital Dissolution and the Economic Status of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Kelly; Deschenes, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    American society is confronting the consequences of increase in divorce rates. There is substantial increase in households that are headed by a single female. The possible reasons for the rise in divorces and the labor market outcomes for women are analyzed. It is also noted that if the first-born is a girl, the marriage is less likely to…

  8. Women and Minorities in Introductory Economics Textbooks: 1974 to 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiner, Susan F.; Morgan, Barbara A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews widely-used introductory economics textbooks, examining how issues relating to race and gender are treated. Suggests how stereotypical roles could be avoided in the future. Includes a table summarizing data from 21 textbooks. (Author/DH)

  9. Marginalia: Women in the Academic Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadet, Nancy

    1989-01-01

    Looks at the function and status of women faculty at colleges and universities in the United States. Focuses on how the adjunct faculty position when used as an economizing strategy by administrators places women in permanent disadvantaged and dead-end positions. Reviews adjunct faculty organizational efforts to make demands for pay equity and…

  10. The Economic Future of Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitz, Joan

    Later marriage ages, longer life expectancy, higher divorce rates, and the feminization of poverty will all figure in the economic future of modern girls. Values about work, marriage, and motherhood are in flux during adolescence, and the messages they receive are often contradictory. Steps must be taken to educate girls to make clearheaded and…

  11. The Relations between Cluster Indexes of Risk and Promotion and the Problem Behaviors of 6- and 7-Year-Old Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Brian P.; Schoff, Kristen; Levinson, Karen; Youngstrom, Eric; Izard, Carroll E.

    1999-01-01

    Examined relations between alternative representations of poverty cofactors and promotion processes, and problem behaviors of 6- and 7-year-olds from disadvantaged families. Found that single-index risk representations and promotion variables predicted aggression but not anxiety/depression. An additive model of individual risk indicators performed…

  12. Beyond the simple economics of cesarean section birthing: women's resistance to social inequality.

    PubMed

    Béhague, Dominique P

    2002-12-01

    This research explored the reasons for women's preferences for cesarean section births in Pelotas, Brazil. It is argued that women strategize and appropriate both medical knowledge and the technology of cesarean sections as a creative form of responding to larger public debates (and the practices that produced them) on the need for and causes of (de)medicalization. Questioning the reasons why some women engage more actively in this process than others elucidates the ways local forms of power engage gender, economic and medical ideologies. The current debate on why some women prefer c-section deliveries, or indeed if they really do at all, has diverted attention from the utility of the technology itself. This paper argues that for some women, the effort to medicalize the birth process represents a practical solution to problems found within the medical system itself. I end by exploring the socio-biological conditions that have produced a need for the technology. PMID:12572770

  13. Women's roundtable discussion on the economic, social and political impacts of the Southeast Asian financial crisis.

    PubMed

    Kelkar, G

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes the main issues revealed at a women's roundtable discussion on the Economic, Social, and Political Impacts of the Southeast Asian Financial Crisis. The discussion was organized by the Development Alternatives of Women for the New Era (DAWN) and was held during April 12-14, 1998, in Manila, the Philippines. The aim was to explore the effects of the financial crisis and its management by states and multilateral agencies on women's political, economic, cultural, and social status; and to reach regional understanding of new issues for the women's movement in Asia and to identify areas of advocacy. Participants included women scholars and activists from Southeast, East, and South Asia; Africa; the Caribbean; Latin America; and the Pacific. Participants came from a wide variety of backgrounds. Nine issues were emphasized. For example, some predicted the currency devaluation before July 1997. The financial crisis is linked with globalization. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the primary institution for addressing the financial crisis. IMF conditions on inflation rates and budget surpluses are recessionary and government budget oriented. The crisis has exposed cronyism and corruption within capitalism. Patriarchal values have reemerged as Asian values. Women have lost jobs and income, while the cost of living continues to increase. Prostitution has become more acceptable as legitimate work. Women's human rights are not legally protected. State ideology assumes domestic and sex roles. Issues in each region are identified. 14 key issues pertain to all regions. PMID:12179933

  14. Knowledge of Cervical Cancer Screening among Women across Different Socio-Economic Regions of China

    PubMed Central

    Di, Jiangli; Rutherford, Shannon; Wu, Jiuling; Song, Bo; Ma, Lan; Chen, Jingyi; Chu, Cordia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective China has a high burden of cervical cancer (CC) and wide disparities in CC burden exist among different socio-economic regions. In order to reduce these disparities, China’s government launched the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NCCSPRA) in 2009. Understanding the factors associated with underutilization of CC screening among target populations is important to improve the screening participation rate, and a high participation rate is key to achieving the goals of a screening program. However, data on the knowledge of CC among target populations in program areas is lacking in China. This study will investigate the knowledge of CC prevention and control among women in specific project counties to develop a better understanding of factors that might influence CC screening participation in order to improve the implementation of the NCCSPRA. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted and face-to-face interview questionnaires were completed by 308 women who received CC screening services in 6 project counties of NCCSPRA across different socio-economic regions of China. ANOVA and Chi-square tests were used to compare the knowledge rates and scores across the different subgroups. Logistic regression was conducted to examine factors associated with knowledge level. Results The overall CC knowledge rate of the target population was only 19.5%. Regional socio-economic level, advice from doctors, age, and educational status were strong predictors of knowledge level of CC screening. Significantly lower knowledge rates and scores were identified in older women (55–64 years old), less educated women (with primary school or illiterate), women in less developed regions and women who did not receive any advice about screening results from doctors. Conclusion The knowledge of CC screening among women in the project counties of NCCSPRA was found to be very poor. Given the importance of knowledge in encouraging

  15. [Economic development and married women's employment in Taiwan: a study of female marginalization].

    PubMed

    Lu, Y

    1994-07-01

    As in other developing countries, the industrial development in Taiwan seems to marginalize female workers. This study tries to examine the trend of women's employment status, using both macro- and micro-level data. The statistics suggest that female employment had significantly declined during the early stages of industrialization. Although rapid economic development has expanded women's job opportunities, most women are concentrated in lower-status jobs and the informal sector. Informal employment is especially prevalent among married women. In the micro-level analysis the study examines the factors that led to the marginalization of women's labor force. The empirical analysis applies a multinomial logistic model to a 1980 KAP (knowledge, attitude, and practice) survey sample of 3859 married women. The results suggest that married women's work patterns in terms of formal vs. informal employment are determined by the family organization rather than by labor market conditions. Wives from families with small businesses are more likely to be involved in informal employment. Wives also tend to work informally when they have young children. On the other hand, the effects of labor market conditions are mediated by the types of family economy. Therefore the women's informal employment in Taiwan, as a characteristic of female marginalization, is the result of the sexual division of labor in the family organization and the prevalence of the family business, rather than that of being excluded into the marginal forms of employment through the process of capitalistic production, as argued by the female marginalization theorists. PMID:12222451

  16. The Economic Contributions of Women in a Rural Western Navajo Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Scott C.; McDonald, Mark B.

    1982-01-01

    Examines and enumerates economic changes that have occurred in the traditional rural Navajo community of Shonto. While women's net income contributions to Shonto's economy has declined, their position has seen only a slight erosion; their activities (sheep and goat husbandry, agriculture, arts and crafts) are still considered necessary and…

  17. Comment and Reply on "The Impact of Integrating Scholarship on Women into Introductory Economics."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birks, Stuart; Lage, Maureen J.; Treglia, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Maintains that there is an inconsistency in the regression analysis of the data presented in Maureen J. Lage and Michael Treglia's 1996 article, "The Impact of Integrating Scholarship on Women into Introductory Economics." The authors admit the error, correct it, and report no difference in their original conclusions. (MJP)

  18. The Status of Women in the States. Politics, Economics, Health, Demographics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Women's Policy Research, Washington, DC.

    This report presents information from a variety of sources (primarily government agencies) regarding the status of women in the United States. The report presents data for each state on 20 component indicators as well as on 4 composite indices: political participation; employment and earnings; economic autonomy; and reproductive rights. Discussed…

  19. The Current Attack on Women's Rights: A Political-Economic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, June

    The right-wing attack on women's rights in the United States manifests itself in the regulation of reproductive rights, the family, and the workplace and corresponds to the changing needs of capital in an era of social and economic crises. Against this background, anti-abortion legislation, the Family Protection Act, and discrimination in the…

  20. The Economic Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse for Adult Lesbian Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Batya

    2000-01-01

    This study extends investigation of the long-term consequences of child sexual abuse into the workplace and considers the economic effects on Lesbian women as determined by the National Lesbian Health Care Survey. It considers the effects of child sexual abuse on four spheres of a woman's life: her physical health, mental health, educational…

  1. The Dilemma of the Contribution of African Women Toward and the Benefits They Derive from Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amuge, Immaculate Mary

    1986-01-01

    Africa and Third World countries do not include women in economic development projects. Women have benefited little from the minimum development done so far. These governments' lack of recognition and expansion of women's critical activities in producing and distributing food and cash crops will perpetuate underdevelopment and poverty. (PS)

  2. Cultural and Socio-Economic Factors on Changes in Aging among Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the cultural and socio-economic factors that influence changes in aging among Iranian women. This qualitative study was part of a more extensive study designed according to grounded theory method. A purposeful, snowball and theoretical sampling technique was used. Data collection instruments were interviews and field notes. Duration of interviews differed and ranged from 38 to 110 minutes. Data collection process, coding and analysis were performed simultaneously. Collected data were analyzed using the recommended method by Corbin and Straus (1998 and 2008). The factors were formed from 6 subcategories: cultural and socio-economic status in the past, urban/rural life, companionship status, beliefs and attitudes, higher responsibilities of women and women’s financial capability. This study explained the various aspects of cultural and socio-economic changes in the elderly participants based on their real experiences. PMID:24762357

  3. The impact of socio-economic disadvantage on rates of hospital separations for diabetes-related foot disease in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Information describing variation in health outcomes for individuals with diabetes related foot disease, across socioeconomic strata is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate variation in rates of hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease and the relationship with levels of social advantage and disadvantage. Methods Using the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD) each local government area (LGA) across Victoria was ranked from most to least disadvantaged. Those LGAs ranked at the lowest end of the scale and therefore at greater disadvantage (Group D) were compared with those at the highest end of the scale (Group A), in terms of total and per capita hospital separations for peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, foot ulceration, cellulitis and osteomyelitis and amputation. Hospital separations data were compiled from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Database. Results Total and per capita separations were 2,268 (75.3/1,000 with diabetes) and 2,734 (62.3/1,000 with diabetes) for Group D and Group A respectively. Most notable variation was for foot ulceration (Group D, 18.1/1,000 versus Group A, 12.7/1,000, rate ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.3, 1.6) and below knee amputation (Group D 7.4/1,000 versus Group A 4.1/1,000, rate ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.5, 2.2). Males recorded a greater overall number of hospital separations across both socioeconomic strata with 66.2% of all separations for Group D and 81.0% of all separations for Group A recorded by males. However, when comparing mean age, males from Group D tended to be younger compared with males from Group A (mean age; 53.0 years versus 68.7 years). Conclusion Variation appears to exist for hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease across socioeconomic strata. Specific strategies should be incorporated into health policy and planning to combat disparities between health outcomes and social status. PMID:21682928

  4. Increased stress among women following an economic collapse--a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hauksdóttir, Arna; McClure, Christopher; Jonsson, Stefan Hrafn; Olafsson, Orn; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur A

    2013-05-01

    There is a scarcity of data on mental health effects of the global economic recession. In this study, we investigated potential change in self-reported levels of psychological stress in the Icelandic population as a result of the major national economic collapse that occurred in 2008. We used a national cohort of 3,755 persons who responded to a survey administered in 2007 and 2009, including demographic questions and a stress measure (the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale). We used repeated-measures analysis of variance and logistic regression models to assess change in mean stress levels and risk of high stress levels (>90th percentile) in 2009 as compared with 2007. Age-adjusted mean stress levels increased between 2007 and 2009 (P = 0.004), though the increase was observed only for women (P = 0.003), not for men (P = 0.34). Similarly, the odds ratios for experiencing high stress levels were increased only among women (odds ratio (OR) = 1.37), especially among women who were unemployed (OR = 3.38), students (OR = 2.01), had middle levels of education (OR = 1.65), or were in the middle income bracket (OR = 1.59). The findings indicate that psychological stress may have increased following the economic collapse in Iceland, particularly among females in economically vulnerable groups. PMID:23408547

  5. A Quantitative and Qualitative Investigation of Variability and Contextual Sources Related to the Academic Engagement of Minority and Economically Disadvantaged Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Joan Carlin

    2009-01-01

    Research consistently has indicated that academic achievement outcomes for most minority students, and for students from economically impoverished backgrounds, are marginal as compared with the achievement of their Asian and Caucasian classmates and of individuals with higher socio-economic status (STS). Academic engagement has been linked to…

  6. Exploring the association between women's access to economic resources and intimate partner violence in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Seema; Jansen, Henrica Afm; Heise, Lori; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between women's access to economic resources, e.g. employment or access to micro-credit, and experience of intimate partner violence is complex. Empirical evidence documents that in some settings women's employment is associated with higher risk of partner violence but in other settings with lower risk. Evidence also shows that these conflicting associations exist not only between countries but also within different country settings. Using two population-based data sets gathered in 2002 in contrasting Tanzania settings-Dar es Salaam and Mbeya-, we used multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationship between women's access to economic resources and partner violence. Two indicators of economic resources were examined: whether women earned money and whether women owned a business either with someone or exclusively. In Dar es Salaam we found evidence of a higher risk association among women who earned money and who owned a business exclusively by themselves and a lower risk association among women who owned a business with someone. We found no relationship between either indicator of economic resources and partner violence in Mbeya. Other factors were similarly associated with partner violence in both settings and the strongest associations found were related to the respondents' partners: refusal to give money; alcohol use and relationships with other women. The findings support the assertion that women's access to economic resources operate differently in different country settings, thus highlighting the need for targeted prevention efforts that are relevant for the context. PMID:26494417

  7. Disadvantaged populations in maternal health in China who and why?

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Beibei; Qian, Xu; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background China has made impressive progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for maternal and reproductive health, but ensuring that progress reaches all segments of the population remains a challenge for policy makers. The aim of this review is to map disadvantaged populations in terms of maternal health in China, and to explain the causes of these inequities to promote policy action. Methods We searched PUBMED, Popline, Proquest and WanFang and included primary studies conducted in mainland China. Experts were also contacted to identify additional studies. Disadvantaged populations in terms of MDG 5 and the reasons for this disadvantage explored by authors were identified and coded based on the conceptual framework developed by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Results In China, differences in maternal health service utilization and the maternal mortality ratio among different income groups, and among regions with different socio-economic development still exist, although these differences are narrowing. Groups with low levels of education and ethnic minorities utilize maternal health care less frequently and experience higher maternal mortality, although we could not determine whether these differences have changed in the last decade. Rural-to-urban migrants use maternal health care and contraception to a lower extent than permanent residents of cities, and differential maternal mortality shows a widening trend among these groups. Gender inequity also contributes to the disadvantaged position of women. Intermediary factors that explain these inequities include material circumstances such as long distances to health facilities for women living in remote areas, behavioral factors such as traditional beliefs that result in reduced care seeking among ethnic minorities, and health system determinants such as out-of-pocket payments posing financial barriers for the poor. Conclusions Inequity in maternal health continues to be an

  8. Overweight and Obesity among Women by Economic Stratum in Urban India

    PubMed Central

    Prusty, Ranjan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Using data of the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 2005-2006, this study examined the prevalence of overweight and obesity among women from different economic strata in urban India. The study used a separate wealth index for urban India constructed using principal components analysis (PCA). The result shows that prevalence of overweight and obesity is very high in urban areas, more noticeably among the non-poor households. Furthermore, overweight and obesity increase with age, education, and parity of women. The results of multinomial logistic regression show that non-poor women are about 2 and 3 times more at risk of being overweight and obese respectively. Marital status and media exposure are the other covariates associated positively with overweight and obesity. Thus, the growing demand which now appears before the Government or urban health planners is to address this rising urban epidemic with equal importance as given to other issues in the past. PMID:24847596

  9. ENDURING ECONOMIC HARDSHIP, WOMEN'S EDUCATION, MARRIAGE AND FERTILITY TRANSITION IN KINSHASA.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, David

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines fertility transition in Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and second-largest city in sub-Saharan Africa. Shapiro (1996) documented the onset of fertility transition in the city, using data from 1990. Women's education was strongly inversely related to fertility, beginning with secondary schooling, and increases in women's education were important in initiating fertility transition in the city. The paper uses data from the 2007 Demographic and Health Survey in the DRC to examine fertility in Kinshasa and assess fertility transition since 1990, a period characterized by severe adverse economic conditions in the DRC. Fertility transition has continued at a strong pace. In part this reflects increased educational attainment of women, but it appears also to be largely a consequence of enduring economic hardship. The ongoing fertility decline has been accompanied by substantial delays in entry to marriage and childbearing, reflecting adverse economic conditions, which in turn have contributed to continuing declines in fertility. PMID:24650711

  10. Women and medicine.

    PubMed

    Dacre, Jane; Shepherd, Susan

    2010-12-01

    It is now clear that women doctors will soon make up the majority of the medical workforce. Research shows that women often prefer part time and flexible working, and are inclined to favour some specialist fields over others. Although these facts are widely known, as yet it appears that little account has been taken of their economic and organisational consequences. All doctors require sound careers advice, but women doctors reported that this is often poor or inconsistent. Women's preference for flexible working at certain stages of their careers could be a major advantage in health service planning; models need to be developed that recognise women's willingness to work in new ways. Although women are under-represented in positions of national leadership, there is no evidence to suggest that they are disadvantaged in their endeavours, or unwilling to deliver the commitment necessary. However, they may need timely advice and encouragement to reach their full potential. PMID:21413474