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1

48 CFR 18.117 - Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible...117 Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB)...

2011-10-01

2

48 CFR 18.117 - Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible...117 Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB)...

2013-10-01

3

48 CFR 6.207 - Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible...Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB)...

2012-10-01

4

48 CFR 18.117 - Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible...117 Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB)...

2012-10-01

5

48 CFR 6.207 - Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible...Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB)...

2013-10-01

6

48 CFR 6.207 - Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible...Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB)...

2011-10-01

7

48 CFR 52.219-29 - Notice of Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns. 52...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns. As...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns (JUL...

2013-10-01

8

48 CFR 52.219-29 - Notice of Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns. 52...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns. As...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns (APR...

2012-10-01

9

48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern or women-owned small business (WOSB) concern eligible...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern...

2013-10-01

10

13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?  

...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section...Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? (a)...

2014-01-01

11

13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section...Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? (a)...

2011-01-01

12

13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section...Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? (a)...

2013-01-01

13

48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern or women-owned small business (WOSB) concern eligible...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern...

2012-10-01

14

13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section...Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? (a)...

2012-01-01

15

48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern or women-owned small business (WOSB) concern eligible...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern...

2011-10-01

16

13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section...Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? (a)...

2010-01-01

17

48 CFR 52.219-29 - Notice of Total Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business (EDWOSB...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business (EDWOSB) Concerns...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business (EDWOSB) Concerns...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business (EDWOSB)...

2011-10-01

18

Engaging Women Who Are Depressed and Economically Disadvantaged in Mental Health Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women disadvantaged by poverty, as well as racial or ethnic minority status, are more likely to experience depression than the rest of the U.S. population. At the same time, they are less likely to seek or remain in treatment for depression in traditional mental health settings. This article explores a therapeutic, psychosocial engagement strategy…

Grote, Nancy K.; Zuckoff, Allan; Swartz, Holly; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Geibel, Sharon

2007-01-01

19

Understanding the Disparities in Cervical Cancer Screening for Economically Disadvantaged Women  

E-print Network

cervical cancer screening among underserved Hispanic and African-American women.cervical cancer screening among low-income HIV- positive African American women.cervical cancer screening [26, 237, 258-260]. Datta and colleagues used 1995 survey of African American women

Gatchell, Melissa Sue

2012-01-01

20

10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. 600...600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. ...economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges,...

2013-01-01

21

10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. 600...600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. ...economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges,...

2011-01-01

22

10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. 600...600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. ...economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges,...

2010-01-01

23

10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. 600...600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. ...economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges,...

2012-01-01

24

10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.  

...2014-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. 600...600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. ...economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges,...

2014-01-01

25

Mobile Technologies & Socio-Economic Opportunities for Disadvantaged Women: A Study of Information Behavior in a Developing Nation Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been championed by the United Nations and others as one of the key media to open up socio-economic opportunities for disadvantaged populations. Studies lead us to believe that after being introduced to ICTs, users' information behavior changes, enabling them to benefit from socio-economic

Potnis, Devendra Dilip

2010-01-01

26

Increasing the Earnings of Disadvantaged Women. Report No. 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Commission for Employment Policy has examined ways that the United States federal government could improve the economic situation of disadvantaged women. In particular, the Commission examined, during 1980, the role of education and employment and training programs in helping women to prepare for better paying occupations, and then…

National Commission for Employment Policy (DOL), Washington, DC.

27

From Disadvantaged Girls to Successful Women: Education and Women's Resiliency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is the result of a 2-year study of women who were disadvantaged as girls but who achieved highly in academics. The participants, all of whom had advanced degrees or had completed two years of graduate school, had been raised in low-income homes, were first-generation college students, and had faced stress as children. Most of these women

LePage-Lees, Pamela

28

Food Insecurity Is Associated with Past and Present Economic Disadvantage and Body Mass Index1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fears and experiences of food restriction influence eating behavior but the association between past and present economic disadvantage, food insecurity and body size is poorly understood. Therefore, we examined these associations in a nationwide, representative sample of 25- to 64-y-old Finnish men and women (n 5 6506). The respondents were classified by their body mass index (BMI) into four groups:

Sirpa Sarlio-Lahteenkorva; Eero Lahelma

29

Globalisation, Women's Economic Rights and Forced Labour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalisation critics are concerned that increased trade openness and foreign direct investment exacerbate existing economic disadvantages of women and foster conditions for forced labour. Defenders of globalisation argue instead that as countries become more open and competition intensifies, discrimination against any group, including women, becomes more difficult to sustain and is therefore likely to recede. The same is argued with

Eric Neumayer; Indra de Soysa

2007-01-01

30

Book Selections of Economically Disadvantaged Black Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author identified books most often selected among a sample of economically disadvantaged Black 8- to 12-year-old participants (N = 293) and investigated reasons participants offered for choosing specific books. Participants self-selected books at a book fair providing 412 books. The most commonly selected books supplied descriptive data.…

Williams, Lunetta M.

2008-01-01

31

The Positive Effects of Mentoring Economically Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on evidence that human performance can be influenced by effective belief systems, formal mentoring programs have been developed. Improvement is found in aspirations of economically disadvantaged students but none of the findings, with respect to self-efficacy and possible selves, indicated significant improvement. Further development of…

Lee, Jongyeun; Cramond, Bonnie

1999-01-01

32

Comparing homeless smokers to economically disadvantaged domiciled smokers.  

PubMed

We compared characteristics of homeless smokers and economically disadvantaged domiciled smokers (Dallas, TX; August 2011-November 2012). Although findings indicated similar smoking characteristics across samples, homeless smokers (n = 57) were exposed to more smokers and reported lower motivation to quit, lower self-efficacy for quitting, more days with mental health problems, and greater exposure to numerous stressors than domiciled smokers (n = 110). The sample groups reported similar scores on measures of affect, perceived stress, and interpersonal resources. Results may inform novel cessation interventions for homeless smokers. PMID:24148069

Businelle, Michael S; Cuate, Erica L; Kesh, Anshula; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Kendzor, Darla E

2013-12-01

33

Troubled times, troubled relationships: how economic resources, gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence intimate partner violence.  

PubMed

We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N = 1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mothers' reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age 3, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women's risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women's economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV. PMID:23300198

Golden, Shelley D; Perreira, Krista M; Durrance, Christine Piette

2013-07-01

34

Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This article reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate…

Barnett, Melissa A.

2008-01-01

35

Economic Security for Older Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quest for economic security for older women calls for a balance between government standards and public programs. Four components of an action agenda to improve the quality of life for older women are education, legislation, litigation, and negotiation. (SK)

Nickols, Sharon Y.; Wanzer, Lydia

1983-01-01

36

Improving dietary habits in disadvantaged women with HIV/AIDS: the SMART/EST women's project.  

PubMed

There is a lack of information on whether brief nutrition education can succeed in improving longer-term dietary patterns in disadvantaged populations with HIV/AIDS. In the SMART/EST II Women's Project 466 disadvantaged women with HIV/AIDS were randomized to one of four groups and received a two-phase training consisting of a coping skills/stress management and nutrition education provided either in a group or individually. At baseline the majority of participants had excessive fat and sugar consumption and suboptimal intakes of vegetables, fruits, calcium-rich foods and whole grains. Dietary patterns for all participants improved after the nutrition intervention primarily due to decreases in high fat and high sugar foods such as soda and fried foods and were still significantly better 18 months later. There were only short-term differences in improvements between the four groups. These findings support the value of even brief nutrition education for disadvantaged women living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:16770694

Segal-Isaacson, C J; Tobin, Jonathan N; Weiss, Stephen M; Brondolo, Elizabeth; Vaughn, Anita; Wang, Cuiling; Camille, Joanne; Gousse, Yolene; Ishii, Mary; Jones, Deborah; Laperriere, Arthur; Lydston, David; Schneiderman, Neil; Ironson, Gail

2006-11-01

37

Women in the Economics Profession  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses evidence from recent literature on gender literature on gender differences among Ph.D. economists. It finds many gender similarities in accomplishments, including undergraduate grades, publication rates (ceteris paribus), and labor market commitment. It finds no evidence of disadvantages for women in admissions to Ph.D. programs or in nonacademic salaries. Yet gender differences remain, ceteris paribus, in GRE scores,

Shulamit B Kahn

1995-01-01

38

13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...  

...Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO...Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO...Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, and Women-Owned SBCs, may also qualify as...

2014-01-01

39

13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO...Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO...Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, and Women-Owned SBCs, may also qualify as...

2011-01-01

40

13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO...Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO...Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, and Women-Owned SBCs, may also qualify as...

2013-01-01

41

13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO...Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO...Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, and Women-Owned SBCs, may also qualify as...

2010-01-01

42

13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO...Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO...Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, and Women-Owned SBCs, may also qualify as...

2012-01-01

43

Education for Rural Development - A Portfolio of Studies. Volume 2: Education for Disadvantaged Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The volume contains two studies from India and Thailand on the education of women, and rural women especially, who are deprived or disadvantaged. The Indian study, "Education of Girls and Women in Deprived Groups," presents a viewpoint on deprivation in society in general, and India specifically. The concomitant of deprivation is defined as the…

Naik, Chitra; And Others

44

ENVIRONMENTAL RISK AND IMPACT IN COMMUNITIES OF COLOR AND ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Research has shown that communities of color and economically/educationally disadvantaged communities are at a greater risk of impact from environmental hazards. In many past studies in environmental justice (EJ) communities, scientists have used surrogate measures of exposure b...

45

Non-Traditional Educational Trajectories: The Educational Aspirations and Expectations of Women Who Are Educationally Disadvantaged  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation focuses on the educational aspirations and expectations of a heterogeneous group of women who were enrolled in, or had graduated from, adult education and literacy programs in Boston, Massachusetts. The research questions guiding the inquiry are: (1) Why do educationally disadvantaged women value education--how are these values…

Coffield, Claudia Ditmar

2012-01-01

46

Exploring Patterns of Achievement and Intellectual Development among Academically Successful Women from Disadvantaged Backgrounds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored the educational experiences of 21 academically successful women who were disadvantaged as children. Results indicate that resilient women who had endured stress as children often developed a highly advanced level of "emotional intelligence" or "interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence." Presents educational strategies for encouraging…

LePage-Lees, Pamela

1997-01-01

47

How Does Childhood Economic Disadvantage Lead to Crime?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study sought to examine the associations between indices of socio-economic deprivation in childhood and later involvement in crime. Method: Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study. In this project a cohort of 1,265 children born in Christchurch in 1977 have been studied from birth to age 21…

Fergusson, David; Swain-Campbell, Nicola; Horwood, John

2004-01-01

48

The Disadvantaged Majority: Biology Education for Women and Minorities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from surveys/studies indicate that women/minorities achieve at lower levels, take fewer science courses, and lack sufficient role models. Most minority students have positive attitudes toward science but girls do not understand, use, or like science. Suggests exploiting positive Black attitudes and eliminating negative female attitudes to…

Kahle, Jane Butler

1982-01-01

49

Building social capital with women in a socially disadvantaged community.  

PubMed

Individual and community health outcomes are strengthened by friendships and social support networks. Community interventions aimed at improving the social factors that influence the health of individuals and communities increasingly include strategies to develop resilience through building networks and social capital. The study reported here used a cross-sectional survey design, administered at two time points, to measure the effect of a community capacity-building programme implemented by Women's Health Nurses. Data described and where possible measured women's perceptions of their physical and mental well-being, friendships and support networks, community connectedness and participation, safety, and knowledge of and access to local community services. The follow-up survey also measured the impact of specific community development initiatives. Overall, findings of both surveys were consistent, with some notable exceptions. For example, at follow up there was a significant improvement in mental health indicators and fewer women believed their physical or emotional problems imposed a considerable burden on their daily activities. They also believed people from other cultures were more likely to be accepted by neighbours and reported increased involvement in community activities as a direct result of the Villawood Icebreakers Project. PMID:19531075

Griffiths, Rhonda; Horsfall, Jan; Moore, Margo; Lane, Di; Kroon, Veronica; Langdon, Rachel

2009-06-01

50

Developmental outcomes of economically disadvantaged adolescents in Hong Kong: a replication.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between economic disadvantage and adolescent and developmental outcomes as well as perceived family qualities in 3580 Secondary 2 students in Hong Kong. Developmental outcomes include positive youth development constructs, problem behavior and drug taking behavior, whereas perceived family qualities include perceived family interaction and parental parenting. Generally speaking, poor and non-poor adolescents differ in terms of overall positive youth development and family life quality. Although adolescents experiencing poverty do not display significant differences from non-poor adolescents in terms of risk behavior and psychosocial competencies, adolescents with economic disadvantage show lower levels of positive identity, family interaction, and perceived paternal parenting than do those without economic disadvantage. PMID:23446936

Shek, Daniel T L; Tsui, Pik-fong

2013-01-01

51

Family and personal adjustment of economically disadvantaged chinese adolescents in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

This study attempted to examine the relationship between poverty and adolescent developmental outcomes in the family and personal domains in 3,328 Chinese secondary school students in Hong Kong. Developmental outcomes included positive youth development constructs, problem behaviors, perceived family interaction, and parental parenting. Results showed that adolescents experiencing poverty did not differ from nonpoor adolescents in terms of risk behavior and in most indicators of positive youth development. On the other hand, adolescents with economic disadvantage displayed lower levels of positive identity, family interaction, and perceived paternal parenting than did those without economic disadvantage. PMID:22919290

Shek, Daniel T L; Tsui, Pik Fong

2012-01-01

52

Gestational Weight Gain as a Predictor of Longitudinal Body Mass Index Transitions Among Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Socioeconomically disadvantaged women are at greater risk for gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention compared to socioeconomically advantaged women. This study examines the effect of gestational weight gain on body mass index (BMI) transitions 5 years after pregnancy in socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Methods Gestational weight gain was assessed in 2136 postpartum women participating in the Fragile Families and Child Well-being study who experienced full-term, singleton gestations. Longitudinal BMI transitions were defined as a change or stability in BMI category between two time points: BMI before the index pregnancy and BMI 5 years after the index pregnancy. Logistic regression models estimated the association between gestational weight gain and longitudinal BMI transitions, controlling for health before the index pregnancy, pregnancy history, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results Excessive gestational weight gain was related to transitioning to a higher BMI category 5 years after the index pregnancy. Compared to white women, black and Hispanic women were more likely to transition or maintain a higher BMI category. Pregnancy history (i.e., parity at index pregnancy, interim pregnancy) and public assistance participation were associated with transitioning to a higher BMI category. Conclusions Among socioeconomically disadvantaged women, excessive gestational weight gain is related to transitioning to, but not maintaining, a higher weight category 5 years after the index pregnancy. Black and Hispanic women who are also socioeconomically disadvantaged and overweight or obese before conception may benefit from preconception or postpartum counseling about the long-term effect of gaining excessive weight during pregnancy and in the years immediately after childbirth. PMID:22694763

2012-01-01

53

Stress Exposure and Depression in Disadvantaged Women: The Protective Effects of Optimism and Perceived Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, the authors predicted that the individual protective factors of optimism and perceived control over acute and chronic stressors would buffer the relations between acute and chronic stress exposure and severity of depression, controlling for household income, in a sample of financially disadvantaged women. Ninety-seven African…

Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Larkin, Jill; Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Brown, Charlotte

2007-01-01

54

Predictors of Parenting among Economically Disadvantaged Latina Mothers: Mediating and Moderating Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role of ecological risk factors, maternal psychological distress, and social network support on the parenting behaviors of 535 economically disadvantaged Latina mothers, who were surveyed for the Welfare Children, & Families: A Three City Study. We predicted that ecological risk would influence…

Prelow, Hazel M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Bowman, Marvella A.; Swenson, Rebecca R.

2010-01-01

55

WWC Quick Review of the Report "Addressing Summer Reading Setback among Economically Disadvantaged Elementary Students"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined whether providing summer reading books to economically disadvantaged first- and second-grade students for three consecutive summers improved reading achievement. The study analyzed data on about 1,300 students from 17 high-poverty elementary schools in two large districts in Florida. Student-level reading achievement was…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

2010-01-01

56

Coordinating Federal Assistance Programs for the Economically Disadvantaged: Recommendations and Background Materials. Special Report No. 31.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special report from the National Commission for Employment Policy on coordinating federal assistance programs for the economically disadvantaged contains two parts. Part 1 includes recommendations for improving public assistance coordination programs in general and employment and training programs in particular. Eight recommendations focus on…

National Commission for Employment Policy (DOL), Washington, DC.

57

Tuberculin Skin Testing among Economically Disadvantaged Youth in a Federally Funded Job Training Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low income, medically underserved communities are at increased risk for tuberculosis. Limited population- based national data are available about tuberculous infection in young people from such backgrounds. To determine the prevalence of a positive tuberculin skin test among economically disadvantaged youth in a federally funded job training program during 1995 and 1996, the authors evaluated data from medical records of

Alan R. Lifson; Linda L. Halcon; Ann M. Johnston; Charles R. Hayman; Peter Hannan; Carol A. Miller; Sarah E. Valway

58

An investigation of the college and career counseling needs of economically disadvantaged, minority gifted students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is an investigation of the college and career counseling needs of economically disadvantaged, academically gifted minority students. Two groups of students were studied and compared ? one group of 50 low?income students, predominantly minority, who were chosen for a special college counseling program, and a second group of 42 middle to high income students, predominantly Asian and Caucasian,

Joy M. Scott

1992-01-01

59

A Role Model Approach to Job Transition for Disadvantaged Cooperative Home Economics Students. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pilot project implemented a role-model approach to job transition for disadvantaged cooperative home economics students in Tulsa and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. From 1974 through 1976, 21 students in four urban high schools were matched with role models on the job. Sixteen of these students retained their jobs. The matches included many different…

Pestle, Ruth

60

Promoting community involvement at brownfields sites in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brownfields programmes provide environmental justice to distressed communities by applying private sector remediation and real estate expertise to abandoned and contaminated properties. This study examines how brownfields developers and community support organisations operating in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods work to increase awareness of projects in the community, build trust between stakeholders and create mechanisms for community members to participate in brownfields

Deborah Rigling Gallagher; Sarah E. Jackson

2008-01-01

61

Political Participation and Cumulative Disadvantage: The Impact of Economic and Social Hardship on Young Citizens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we seek to provide the most comprehensive exploration to date of the effects of economic and social disadvantage on young citizens' voter turnout. We look at four overlapping domains of hardship—those rooted in (a) the family context, (b) the community context, (c) the school context, and (d) major events and life transitions. Our conceptual model of cumulative

Julianna Sandell Pacheco; Eric Plutzer

2008-01-01

62

Educators' Use of Cognitively Challenging Questions in Economically Disadvantaged Preschool Classroom Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: This study investigated the complexity of teacher questions in 14 preschool classrooms serving economically disadvantaged 4-year-olds. The purposes were to explore the frequency and complexity of teacher questions and to determine the extent to which question types varied for different classroom contexts. Using teacher utterances from 24-min transcripts of videotaped classroom observations, we used a logistic regression framework

Susan L. Massey; Khara L. Pence; Laura M. Justice; Ryan P. Bowles

2008-01-01

63

Relation between Reading Problems and Internalizing Behavior in School for Preadolescent Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study of 105 economically disadvantaged children examined the relation between reading problems and internalizing behavior in 3rd- and 5th-grade assessments (8- to 12-year olds). The variable-centered results showed that reading problems predicted change in internalizing behavior in the context of child and family predictors. The…

Ackerman, Brian P.; Izard, Carroll E.; Kobak, Roger; Brown, Eleanor D.; Smith, Clare

2007-01-01

64

The effects of mid-life socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived social support on trajectories of subsequent depressive symptoms among older Taiwanese women  

PubMed Central

Background Scant research has taken a life-course perspective to explore the longitudinal impact of socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived social support on the psychological well-being of older women. We sought to explore whether socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived social support in mid-life are associated with subsequent depressive symptomatology among older Taiwanese women. Methods This study was based on data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging conducted on a nationally representative sample (n?=?1,073) of women aged 50 and above with a 12-year follow up. Mid-life socioeconomic disadvantage was assessed by socioeconomic status (SES) (i.e., educational attainment, major lifetime occupation in adulthood, and employment status) and economic strain. Perceived social support included three dimensions: listening, caring, and sick care. We used the short form of the Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale that measures depressive symptomatology within two domains (negative affect and lack of positive affect). Growth curve models were employed to predict the relationships between mid-life socioeconomic disadvantage, perceived social support, and subsequent depressive trajectories, controlling for aging effects. Results Multivariate analyses demonstrated older women in a socioeconomic disadvantaged position are more likely to report higher initial levels of depressive symptoms in both domains; lack of formal education did not exacerbate depressive symptoms in the lack of positive affect domain over time. In addition, mid-life perceived positive social support in caring and sick care was associated with lower initial levels of depressive symptoms in both domains. Conclusions Our results suggest independent effects of mid-life socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived social support on subsequent depressive symptomatology among older Taiwanese women. PMID:24751187

2014-01-01

65

RISING ECONOMIC INSECURITY AMONG SENIOR SINGLE WOMEN  

E-print Network

RISING ECONOMIC INSECURITY AMONG SENIOR SINGLE WOMEN Tatjana Meschede Martha Cronin Laura Sullivan RESEARCH AND POLICY BRIEF OCTOBER 2011 FIGURE 1. ECONOMIC INSECURITY AMONG SINGLE SENIORS WOMEN 2004-2008 0 Thomas Shapiro A lmost half of single women over the age of 65 face the real crisis of outliving

Snider, Barry B.

66

Longitudinal predictors of frequent vegetable and fruit consumption among socio-economically disadvantaged Australian adolescents.  

PubMed

Adequate vegetable and fruit consumption is necessary for preventing nutrition-related diseases. Socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume relatively few vegetables and fruits. However, despite nutritional challenges associated with socio-economic disadvantage, a minority of adolescents manage to eat vegetables and fruit in quantities that are more in line with dietary recommendations. This investigation aimed to identify predictors of more frequent intakes of fruits and vegetables among adolescents over a 2-year follow-up period. Data were drawn from 521 socio-economically disadvantaged (maternal education ?Year 10 of secondary school) Australian adolescents aged 12-15 years. Participants were recruited from 37 secondary schools and were asked to complete online surveys in 2004/2005 (baseline) and 2006/2007 (follow-up). Surveys comprised a 38-item FFQ and questions based on Social Ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental influences on diet. At baseline and follow-up, respectively, 29% and 24% of adolescents frequently consumed vegetables (?2 times/day); 33% and 36% frequently consumed fruit (?1 time/day). In multivariable logistic regressions, baseline consumption strongly predicted consumption at follow-up. Frequently being served vegetables at dinner predicted frequent vegetable consumption. Female sex, rarely purchasing food or drink from school vending machines, and usually being expected to eat all foods served predicted frequent fruit consumption. Findings suggest nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving eating behaviours among this at-risk population and should focus on younger adolescents, particularly boys; improving adolescent eating behaviours at school; and encouraging families to increase home availability of healthy foods and to implement meal time rules. PMID:24685764

Stephens, Lena D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

2014-07-01

67

Economic crisis helps to "demarginalize" women.  

PubMed

This article discusses processes that demarginalize women in developing countries. The case study pertained to women in the Santa coffee growing area of North West Province, Cameroon. Coffee is the main source of income for families. Women obtain land for growing subsistence crops with the permission of their husbands and with pleading. The sharp fall in coffee prices left families in economic difficulties. It forced families to reduce coffee production or abandon coffee production entirely. Women found an alternative in growing vegetables for retail sale. The women formed associations that provided instruction on how to farm, sell produce, and obtain credit. Men observed the increase in income from the women's sale of produce. Women included the men in discussions about their progress and difficulties. Men were thus encouraged to sell their land to women. Women gained power by becoming the sole source of family income. The women's groups helped women improve land use and the use of income. This experience proved that crises can have positive outcomes. Men's power was based on economic control over resources rather than culture or machismo. Women's cooperation with men in nation building resulted in economic independence. Marginalization of women was based on money. Women proved that participation, rather than power, was the appropriate means to social change and more equitable relations. The obstacles to women's power included cultural expectations about their roles and choices, sex discrimination, and lack of access to leadership networks. PMID:12293703

Forje, C L

1998-05-01

68

What Might Work? Exploring the Perceived Feasibility of Strategies to Promote Physical Activity among Women Living in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to investigate preferences for, perceived feasibility of and barriers to uptake of hypothetical physical activity promotion strategies among women from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 purposively recruited women (18-45 years) living in socioeconomically…

Cleland, Verity; Ball, Kylie

2013-01-01

69

The Impact of a College Counseling Program on Economically Disadvantaged Gifted Students and Their Subsequent College Adjustment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty-four gifted students from economically disadvantaged high schools who attended a college/career counseling program were compared to 16 gifted economically advantaged students who attended a private university summer program. Groups were similar in their motivation to attend college and career readiness. At three-year follow-up, more…

Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Laubscher, Leswin

1996-01-01

70

The impact of a college counseling program on economically disadvantaged gifted students and their subsequent college adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of a college and career counseling program on economically disadvantaged gifted students and their subsequent college adjustment was assessed. Fifty?five students from public high schools in a major urban school district in the midwest were compared to a group of economically advantaged students who participated in a special summer program for high school students at a private midwestern

Leswin Laubscher

1996-01-01

71

Handwriting speed: duration of testing period and relation to socio-economic disadvantage and handedness.  

PubMed

In the course of norm-referencing the Handwriting Speed Test (HST) for 8- to 18-year-olds in the Irish education system, the authors examined the issue of the duration of the handwriting test period, the relation of handwriting speed to socio-economic disadvantage and the comparative handwriting speed of left- and right-handed students. The literature reports some concerns about the generalizability of results from a short-duration handwriting speed test, some evidence that children from poorer backgrounds are less proficient at handwriting, and conflicting results on the relation of handedness to speed of handwriting. The results of this study suggest that the addition of a further 9-minute test to the 3-minute test of the HST would improve its ability to predict handwriting speed problems in everyday extended writing tasks, such as examinations, and would also identify some children who are wrongly classified as slow writers on the 3-minute test. The results also indicate a markedly lower-than-average handwriting speed for children attending designated disadvantaged schools. The results suggest that neither left- nor right-handed children have a consistent advantage in handwriting speed. PMID:18613264

O'Mahony, Paul; Dempsey, Mairead; Killeen, Hazel

2008-01-01

72

Processes of Change for Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Economically Disadvantaged African American Adolescents  

PubMed Central

This study sought to identify Transtheoretical Model processes of change associated with consumption of ? 5 daily servings of FVs in a sample of economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (N = 549; mean (SD) age = 12.44 (.99) years; 61% female; 15% African American Hispanic). Participants completed measures of stages and processes of change, and were ranked according to intake level based on their reported stage. Spearman correlations and independent samples t tests were used in cross-sectional analyses of the relationship between processes of change and FV consumption. Consciousness raising, environmental reevaluation, helping relationships and stimulus control processes were significantly associated with FV consumption (? ? .12; p < .01), and were practiced more often by youths who consumed ? 5 daily servings of FVs relative to those who did not (p < .05). Findings highlight the potential of these processes for increasing FV consumption in this population. PMID:22177398

Thompson, Debbe

2011-01-01

73

Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED) population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods The primary prevention element of Have a Heart Paisley (HaHP) offered risk screening to all eligible individuals. The programme employed two approaches to engaging with the community: a) a social marketing campaign and b) a community development project adopting primarily face-to-face canvassing. Individuals living in areas of SED were under-recruited via the social marketing approach, but successfully recruited via face-to-face canvassing. This paper reports on focus group discussions with participants, exploring their perceptions about and experiences of both approaches. Results Various reasons were identified for low uptake of risk screening amongst individuals living in areas of high SED in response to the social marketing campaign and a number of ways in which the face-to-face canvassing approach overcame these barriers were identified. These have been categorised into four main themes: (1) processes of engagement; (2) issues of understanding; (3) design of the screening service and (4) the priority accorded to screening. The most immediate barriers to recruitment were the invitation letter, which often failed to reach its target, and the general distrust of postal correspondence. In contrast, participants were positive about the face-to-face canvassing approach. Participants expressed a lack of knowledge and understanding about CHD and their risk of developing it and felt there was a lack of clarity in the information provided in the mailing in terms of the process and value of screening. In contrast, direct face-to-face contact meant that outreach workers could explain what to expect. Participants felt that the procedure for uptake of screening was demanding and inflexible, but that the drop-in sessions employed by the community development project had a major impact on recruitment and retention. Conclusion Socio-economically disadvantaged individuals can be hard-to-reach; engagement requires strategies tailored to the needs of the target population rather than a population-wide approach. PMID:20598130

2010-01-01

74

Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ?24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services. PMID:23839061

Hu, Yu; Li, Qian; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Yaping; Qi, Xiaohua

2013-01-01

75

ShopSmart 4 Health - Protocol of a skills-based randomised controlled trial promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women  

PubMed Central

Background There is a need for evidence on the most effective and cost-effective approaches for promoting healthy eating among groups that do not meet dietary recommendations for good health, such as those with low incomes or experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage. This paper describes the ShopSmart 4 Health study, a randomised controlled trial conducted by Deakin University, Coles Supermarkets and the Heart Foundation, to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a skill-building intervention for promoting increased purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables amongst women of low socioeconomic position (SEP). Methods/design ShopSmart 4 Health employed a randomised controlled trial design. Women aged 18–60 years, holding a Coles store loyalty card, who shopped at Coles stores within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods and met low-income eligibility criteria were invited to participate. Consenting women completed a baseline survey assessing food shopping and eating habits and food-related behaviours and attitudes. On receipt of their completed survey, women were randomised to either a skill-building intervention or a wait-list control condition. Intervention effects will be evaluated via self-completion surveys and using supermarket transaction sales data, collected at pre- and post-intervention and 6-month follow-up. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Process evaluation will be undertaken to identify perceived value and effects of intervention components. Discussion This study will provide data to address the currently limited evidence base regarding the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of skill-building intervention strategies aimed at increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women, a target group at high risk of poor diets. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN48771770 PMID:23668896

2013-01-01

76

Race, Labor Market Disadvantage, and Survivalist Entrepreneurship: Black Women in the Urban North During the Great Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resource constraint version of the disadvantage theory of entrepreneurship holds that members of destitute ethnic groups often respond to labor market exclusion by becoming “survivalist entrepreneurs,” that is, persons who start marginal businesses in response to a need to become self-employed. Applying this theory, I analyze survivalist entrepreneurship among Black women in the urban North during the Great Depression,

Robert L. Boyd

2000-01-01

77

At the Forefront: The Role of Women's Community Education in Combating Poverty and Disadvantage in the Republic of Ireland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this report, the role of women's community education in combating poverty and disadvantage in Ireland over the past 10 years was examined, and future directions for policy and practice were suggested. The following data collection approaches were used: literature and policy document reviews; case studies involving regional workshops with…

University Coll. Dublin (Ireland). Women's Education, Research and Resource Centre.

78

Women and Economic Development in Cameroon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a survey of written sources and perspectives of knowledgeable individuals, the report provides information on women's economic roles in Cameroon, and on aspects of social life which effect their economic performance. A description of the importance of traditional social systems and their evolution over the last 30 years follows a brief…

Bryson, Judy C.

79

The NASA Plan: To award eight percent of prime and subcontracts to socially and economically disadvantaged businesses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is NASA's intent to provide small disadvantaged businesses, including women-owned, historically black colleges and universities and minority education institutions the maximum practicable opportunity to receive a fair proportion of NASA prime and subcontracted awards. Annually, NASA will establish socioeconomic procurement goals including small disadvantaged business goals, with a target of reaching the eight percent level by the end of FY 1994. The NASA Associate Administrators, who are responsible for the programs at the various NASA Centers, will be held accountable for full implementation of the socioeconomic procurement plans. Various aspects of this plan, including its history, are discussed.

1990-01-01

80

Risk factors for low birth weight in a socio-economically disadvantaged population: Parity, marital status, ethnicity and cigarette smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low birth weight (LBW) is a public health problem, because it is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The principal aim of this study was to assess risk factors for LBW in a large multi-ethnic and socio-economically disadvantaged population. Data from 3242 mothers, who attended the Well Baby Clinic (Southwestern Sydney, Australia) for the first time, were analysed

H. Phung; A. Bauman; T. V. Nguyen; L. Young; M. Tran; K. Hillman

2003-01-01

81

The Relationship Between Chinese Cultural Beliefs About Adversity and Psychological Adjustment in Chinese Families with Economic Disadvantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between Chinese beliefs about adversity and psychological well-being was studied in 229 economically disadvantaged Chinese families. Results showed that adolescents with stronger endorsement of positive Chinese beliefs about adversity generally displayed better psychological well-being and school adjustment and less problem behavior. Maternal endorsement, but not paternal endorsement, of Chinese beliefs about adversity was related to adolescent adjustment. Parental

Daniel T. L. Shek; Vera Tang; C. M. Lam; M. C. Lam; K. W. Tsoi; K. M. Tsang

2003-01-01

82

Growing up as "Man of the House": Adultification and Transition into Adulthood for Young Men in Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field…

Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

2014-01-01

83

Exposure to interpersonal violence and socioemotional adjustment in economically disadvantaged preschoolers.  

PubMed

Focusing specifically on the experiences of economically disadvantaged preschoolers, the relations between interpersonal violence exposure, behavior problems, and social skills were examined in both the home and school settings. In this racially and ethnically diverse sample of preschoolers from poor, urban households (N = 64; 3-6 years old; 56% female), many children (33%) had been exposed to at least 1 type of interpersonal violence, and even more (70%) had been exposed to any type of potentially traumatic event (PTE). Although exposure to interpersonal violence was not directly associated with parent- or teacher-reported behavior problems or social skills, a significant interaction effect was observed between exposure to interpersonal violence and teacher-reported internalizing problems in predicting teacher-reported social skills; specifically, for children with the highest levels of internalizing problems, a positive relation between interpersonal violence exposure and social skills was observed. This indirect effect was observed only in the school setting, whereas children in this high-risk sample appeared to demonstrate resilience in the home setting. Given these high rates of exposure, additional, clinically relevant research is needed to inform interventions for this vulnerable population. PMID:25175528

Bush, Hillary H; Eisenhower, Abbey

2014-01-01

84

The social-emotional impact of instrumental music performance on economically disadvantaged South African students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent these findings hold true for disadvantaged students. The purpose of this study

Karendra Devroop

2012-01-01

85

Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to provide greater access and support to academically talented students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Originally intended to provide financial support to lower income students, this NSF program also advocated that additional professional development and advising would be strategies to increase undergraduate persistence to graduation. This innovative program for economically disadvantaged students was extended in 2004 to include students from other disciplines including the physical and life sciences as well as the technology fields, and the new name of the program was Scholarships for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (S-STEM). The implementation of these two programs in Louisiana State University (LSU) has shown significant and measurable success since 2000, making LSU a Model University in providing support to economically disadvantaged students within the STEM disciplines. The achievement of these programs is evidenced by the graduation rates of its participants. This report provides details on the educational model employed through the CSEMS/S-STEM projects at LSU and provides a path to success for increasing student retention rates in STEM disciplines. While the LSU's experience is presented as a case study, the potential relevance of this innovative mentoring program in conjunction with the financial support system is discussed in detail.

Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

2012-10-01

86

It Doesn't Happen Here: Eating Disorders in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Economically Disadvantaged, Urban College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulk of eating disorder studies have focused on white, middle-upper class women, excluding ethnically and economically diverse women and men. Accordingly, our knowledge of prevalence rates and risk factors is reliant on this narrow literature. To expand upon the current literature, we examined eating disorders in ethnically diverse low-income, urban college students. We surveyed 884 incoming freshmen during an

Katie Gentile; Chitra Raghavan; Valli Rajah; Katie Gates

2007-01-01

87

Perceived barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from disadvantaged neighborhoods: results from a focus groups assessment.  

PubMed

This study explored perceptions and experiences with barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from predominately African American, disadvantaged neighborhoods. Four focus groups (n = 28) were conducted between April and May 2008 with overweight or obese women (93% African American; 34.3 ± 8.9 years; body mass index [BMI] 40.4 ± 8.5). Individual, social, and environmental factors were frequently mentioned as barriers to exercise and healthy eating. Insults from strangers about their body size (e.g., from children or people at the gym), and feelings of intimidation and embarrassment about not being able to complete exercises due to their body size were described as barriers to exercise. Lack of support and pressure from family, friends, and co-workers were barriers to healthy eating; participants experienced pressure from family and friends to eat more and were told they did not need to lose weight. Participants discussed the importance of not losing their curves; this concern needs to be considered when developing weight control programs for African American women. The findings of this qualitative study guided the development of a weight loss intervention for women from disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:24617795

Baruth, Meghan; Sharpe, Patricia A; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Wilcox, Sara

2014-01-01

88

The Social-Emotional Impact of Instrumental Music Performance on Economically Disadvantaged South African Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent these…

Devroop, Karendra

2012-01-01

89

Economic Crisis and Women’s Employment in Urban Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, women have lagged behind men in terms of entering the labour\\u000aforce, and in many countries, their earnings lag behind male earnings.\\u000aHowever, in recent years, many developed and developing economies have\\u000aexperienced transformations in their labour market structures due to trends\\u000asuch as globalisation and economic restructuring.\\u000aIndeed, the labour market in Kenya has undergone several changes since

W. R. Wamuthenya

2010-01-01

90

The contemporary relevance of Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Women And Economics  

E-print Network

The Sexuo-Economic Relation and Sex Distinction. . . . The Unevolved Home and the Isolation of Women, . . . Toward Social Change. Conclusion. Critique. IV RELEVANCE. 27 37 43 51 52 54 Predictions. The Ideological Sexuo-Economic Relationship... will address five major components of Gilman's theory as developed in Women and Economics: the sexuo-economic relationship and sex distinction, the consequences of the sexuo-economic relationship, the home in its unevolved state and the isolation of women...

Mastagni, Danee M

2012-06-07

91

Indigenous Women Facing Educational Disadvantages: The Case of the Ainu in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the life and educational experiences of Ainu women, using the framework of postcolonial feminist theory. It explores the extent to which two factors--gender and ethnic minority status--affect young Ainu women as they attempt to enter mainstream society. The authors analyse life history interviews from three Ainu women aged 25.…

Takayanagi, Taeko; Shimomura, Takayuki

2013-01-01

92

Essays in development economics : incumbency disadvantage, political competition, and remedial education in India  

E-print Network

(cont.) The remedial education program hires young women from the community to provide remedial assistance to third and fourth grade children who have fallen behind their peers. The program is extremely cheap (five dollars ...

Linden, Leigh L., 1975-

2004-01-01

93

When the Advantaged Become Disadvantaged: Men's and Women's Actions Against Gender Discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intergroup theories suggest that different social identities will either discourage or encourage the taking of action against discrimination (Bartky, 1977; Jost & Banaji, 1994). However, research (e.g., Branscombe, 1998) has shown that discrimination is a less negative experience for men than for women. As such, it is possible that men may take greater action than women, regardless of identity. However,

Mindi D. Foster; Stacey Arnt; Jill Honkola

2004-01-01

94

Experience seeking abortion among unmarried young women in Bihar and Jharkhand, India: delays and disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies suggest that the experiences of unmarried young women seeking abortion in India differ from those of their married counterparts, but the evidence is limited. Research was undertaken among nulliparous young women aged 15–24 who had abortions at the clinics of a leading NGO in Bihar and Jharkhand. Over a 14-month period in 2007–08, 246 married and 549 unmarried young

Shireen J Jejeebhoy; Shveta Kalyanwala; AJ Francis Zavier; Rajesh Kumar; Nita Jha

2010-01-01

95

Building Lectures and Building Bridges with Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is an empirical analysis of the first stage of an ongoing effort to introduce technology to enhance student learning in introductory corporate finance within a multi-campus and multi-mode regional Australian University. The engagement and performance of low socio-economic status (SES) students is of particular interest because…

Phillips, Peter; Loch, Birgit

2011-01-01

96

Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Interactions of Disadvantages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based on a study of 7,372 students in grades 5-10 (aged 11-16) in a representative sample of Norwegian compulsory schools. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between students' reported socio-economic status (SES) and their perceived social inclusion (SI) in school in the whole sample. We also considered separately a…

Veland, Jarmund; Midthassel, Unni Vere; Idsoe, Thormod

2009-01-01

97

An Assessment of Cognitive Behavior of Economically Disadvantaged Young Adults in North Mississippi.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to determine the appropriateness of two conventional intelligence tests for assessing the ability of economically deprived young adults participating in job training programs by comparing their test results with those of the test standardization groups. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), and the Langmuir Oral Direction…

Wolfe, Lillian S.; And Others

98

The Disadvantaged Majority: Science Education for Women. AETS Outstanding Paper for 1983.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although women comprise the majority of the population, fewer than 9 percent are employed as scientists and engineers. Research indicates that girls have poorer attitudes toward science, enroll less often in science courses, demonstrate lower achievement levels in science, and have fewer experiences with science materials or instruments. Among the…

Kahle, Jane Butler

99

"Planned" Teenage Pregnancy: Perspectives of Young Women from Disadvantaged Backgrounds in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reduction of teenage pregnancy has attracted much interest in research, practice and social policy. Little is known about teenagers who report their pregnancies as "planned." Forty-one in-depth interviews were undertaken, in six different parts of England, among young women who reported their pregnancy as "planned". The mean age at conception…

Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

2006-01-01

100

Economic disadvantage and transitional outcomes: a study of young people from low-income families in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

This study draws on data from focus groups involving 50 young people from low-income families in Hong Kong to investigate their school-to-work experiences. In line with the ecological–developmental perspective, our results show that contextual influences, including lower levels of parental involvement and lack of opportunities for further education or skill development, constrain both the formulation and pursuit of educational and career goals. In contrast, service use and supportive interactions with parents and non-family adults were found to help young people find a career direction and foster more adaptive transition. Furthermore, our results indicate a striking difference in intrapersonal agency and coping styles between youths who were attending further education or engaged in jobs with career advancement opportunities and those who were not. We discuss the implications of our findings, both for future research and for policy development to enhance the school-to-work transition of economically disadvantaged young people. PMID:25364087

Ngai, Steven Sek Yum; Cheung, Jacky Chau-Kiu; To, Siu-ming; Luan, Hui; Zhao, Ruiling

2014-01-01

101

Perceived Socio?Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Interactions of Disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on a study of 7,372 students in grades 5–10 (aged 11–16) in a representative sample of Norwegian compulsory schools. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between students' reported socio?economic status (SES) and their perceived social inclusion (SI) in school in the whole sample. We also considered separately a sub?sample of students with

Jarmund Veland; Unni Vere Midthassel; Thormod Idsoe

2009-01-01

102

Types of cultural capital and self-rated health among disadvantaged women in outer Beirut, Lebanon  

PubMed Central

Aims Our study extends research on the social determinants of health by exploring the association between a new, potentially very significant dimension, cultural capital by type and self-rated health among low-income women living in outer Beirut, Lebanon. Methods Self-rated general health was assessed using household data from a cross-sectional survey of 1869 women, conducted in 2003. Three types of cultural capital were included: watching cultural TV programs, producing art (e.g., drawing, theatre performance) and consuming art or literature (e.g., attending exhibits, reading literary books). Associations between self-rated health status and types of cultural capital were assessed using odds ratios from binary logistic regression models. Results With the exception of art production, lack of cultural capital increased the odds of self-perceived poor health status adjusting for socio-demographics and other risk factors. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.86 (95% CI: 1.07 to 3.22) for watching cultural TV programs and 1.52 (95% CI: 1.12 to 2.06) for consuming art. As expected, health risk factors, age, social support and community of residence were also associated with health status. Conclusions Two types of cultural capital were strong predictors of self perceived health status among women living in poor urban communities, regardless of social capital, income and other relevant risk factors. PMID:17852992

Khawaja, Marwan; Mowafi, Mona

2007-01-01

103

Automated depression screening in disadvantaged pregnant women in an urban obstetric clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Objective: A promising means of screening for depression among high-risk perinatal women involves interactive voice response (IVR) technology\\u000a in which patients self-enter data into a database using a touch tone telephone. Our aim was to test the feasibility of using\\u000a IVR to screen for depression among low-income, urban pregnant patients and to solicit their preferences for treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: The

H. Kim; Y. Bracha; A. Tipnis

2007-01-01

104

Referral patterns and proximity to palliative care inpatient services by level of socio-economic disadvantage. A national study using spatial analysis  

PubMed Central

Background A range of health outcomes at a population level are related to differences in levels of social disadvantage. Understanding the impact of any such differences in palliative care is important. The aim of this study was to assess, by level of socio-economic disadvantage, referral patterns to specialist palliative care and proximity to inpatient services. Methods All inpatient and community palliative care services nationally were geocoded (using postcode) to one nationally standardised measure of socio-economic deprivation – Socio-Economic Index for Areas (SEIFA; 2006 census data). Referral to palliative care services and characteristics of referrals were described through data collected routinely at clinical encounters. Inpatient location was measured from each person’s home postcode, and stratified by socio-economic disadvantage. Results This study covered July – December 2009 with data from 10,064 patients. People from the highest SEIFA group (least disadvantaged) were significantly less likely to be referred to a specialist palliative care service, likely to be referred closer to death and to have more episodes of inpatient care for longer time. Physical proximity of a person’s home to inpatient care showed a gradient with increasing distance by decreasing levels of socio-economic advantage. Conclusion These data suggest that a simple relationship of low socioeconomic status and poor access to a referral-based specialty such as palliative care does not exist. Different patterns of referral and hence different patterns of care emerge. PMID:23176397

2012-01-01

105

Higher education and the economic and social empowerment of women -- the Asian experience.  

PubMed

This paper examined the degree of socioeconomic empowerment of Asian women due to higher education (HE). Examples illustrate different cultural contexts and stages in development. Colonial administrations established the first modern educational institutions. These schools trained Western-oriented elites in Western and gender values. Uneven development led to increased socioeconomic differences and disparities by region, ethnicity, religion, and gender. The international focus on women's rights has helped with promotion of education for gender equity. But, the international economic climate has led to adverse outcomes for education. Educational mobility is restricted by exclusion or lack of access to HE. Most of the 15 countries with strong educational systems have minimal gender disparities in primary and secondary education, but even Japan has gender disparities in HE. In 9 South Asian countries, most girls are disadvantaged from birth through the school years. Women are not a homogenous group. Socioeconomic factors affect access to HE. Women are channeled into gender appropriate jobs. Gender division of labor and gender tracking in education limit course and occupational choices. Changes in labor market structures further affect the economic empowerment of female graduates. Demand for female labor migrants siphons off females. Access of women to positions of authority is limited. Women who do reach the top are viewed as role models. Gender based division of labor in the household has changed little. Only India and the Philippines have explicit, conscious policies to promote gender equity. PMID:12348990

Jayaweera, S

1997-10-01

106

The economic impact of infertility on women in developing countries - a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background: It is the responsibility of health systems to provide quality health care and to protect consumers against impoverishing health costs. In the case of infertility in developing countries, quality care is often lacking and treatment costs are usually covered by patients. Additional financial hardship may be caused by various social consequences. The economic implications of infertility and its treatment have not been systematically explored. Methods: A systematic MEDLINE search was conducted to identify English language publications providing original data from developing countries on out-of-pocket payment (OoPP) for infertility treatment and on other economic consequences of involuntary childlessness. Findings: Twenty one publications were included in this review. Information on OoPP was scant but suggests that infertility treatment is associated with a significant risk of catastrophic expenditure, even for basic or ineffective interventions. Other economic disadvantages, which may be profound, are caused by loss of access to child labour and support, divorce, as well as customary laws or negative attitudes which discriminate against infertile individuals. Women in particular are affected. Conclusion: Pertinent data on OoPP and other economic disadvantages of infertility in developing countries are limited. According to the evidence available, infertility may cause impoverishing health costs as well as economic instability or deprivation secondary to social consequences. Health systems in developing countries do not appear to meet their responsibilities vis-à-vis infertile patients. PMID:24753897

Dyer, S.J.; Patel, M.

2012-01-01

107

Time trends in socio-economic inequalities for women and men with disabilities in Australia: evidence of persisting inequalities  

PubMed Central

Introduction The socio-economic circumstances and health of people with disabilities has been relatively ignored in public health research, policy and practice in Australia and internationally. This is despite emerging evidence that the socio-economic circumstances that people with disabilities live in contributes to their poorer health. Compared to other developed countries, Australians with disabilities are more likely to live in disadvantaged circumstances, despite being an economically prosperous country; it is therefore likely that the socio-economic disadvantage experienced by Australians with disabilities makes a significant contribution to their health. Despite the importance of this issue Australia does not routinely monitor the socio-economic inequalities for people with disabilities. This paper addresses this gap by describing time trends in socio-economic conditions for Australians with and without disabilities according to the severity of the disability and sex. Methods Cross-sectional analyses of the Australian Bureau of Statistics Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers were carried out at three time points (1998, 2003 and 2009) to estimate the proportions of women and men (aged between 25 and 64 years) who were living on low incomes, had not completed year 12, were not in paid work, living in private rental and experiencing multiple disadvantage (three or more of the indicators). Results People with disabilities are less likely to have completed year 12, be in paid work and are more likely to be living on low incomes and experiencing multiple disadvantage. These conditions worsened with increasing severity of disability and increased or persisted over time, with most of the increase between 1998 and 2003. While women with milder disabilities tended to fare worse than men, the proportions were similar for those with moderate and severe/profound disabilities. Conclusion People with disabilities experience high levels of socio-economic disadvantage which has increased or persisted over time and these are likely to translate into poorer health outcomes. A large proportion experience multiple forms of disadvantage, reinforcing the need to tackle disadvantage in a coordinated way across sectors. People with disabilities should be a priority population group for public health. Monitoring socio-economic conditions of people with disabilities is critical for informing policy and assessing the impact of disability reforms. PMID:23985044

2013-01-01

108

Individual, social and environmental factors influencing physical activity levels and behaviours of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged urban mothers in Canada: A mixed methods approach  

PubMed Central

Background Existing data provide little insight into the physical activity context of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged mothers in Canada. Our primary objectives were: (1) to use focus group methodology to develop tools to identify the individual, social, and environmental factors influencing utilitarian and leisure time physical activities (LTPA) of multiethnic SED mothers; and (2) to use a women specific physical activity survey tool to assess psychosocial barriers and supports and to quantify individual physical activity (PA) levels of multi-ethnic SED mothers in Canada. Methods Qualitative focus group sessions were conducted in West, Central and Eastern Canada with multiethnic SED mothers (n?=?6 focus groups; n?=?42 SED mothers) and with health and recreation professionals (HRPs) (n?=?5 focus groups; n?=?25 HRPs) involved in community PA programming for multiethnic SED mothers. Administration of the women specific Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) tool was completed by consenting SED mothers (n?=?59). Results More than half of SED mothers were employed and had higher total PA scores with occupation included than unemployed mothers. However, nearly 60% of both groups were overweight or obese. Barriers to LTPA included the lack of available, affordable and accessible LTPA programs that responded to cultural and social needs. Concerns for safety, nonsupportive cultural and social norms and the winter climate were identified as key barriers to both utilitarian and LTPA. Conclusions Findings show that multiethnic SED mothers experience many barriers to utilitarian and LTPA opportunities within their communities. The varying LTPA levels among these multi-ethnic SED mothers and the occurrence of overweight and obesity suggests that current LTPA programs are likely insufficient to maintain healthy body weights. PMID:22500882

2012-01-01

109

Does economic empowerment protect women from intimate partner violence?  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Background: The current study compared working and non-working groups of women in relation to intimate partner violence. The paper aims to explore the relationship between women's economic empowerment, their exposures to IPV and their help seeking behavior using a nationally representative sample in India. Methods: This was a cross sectional study of 124,385 ever married women of reproductive age from all 29 member states in India. Chi-square tests were used to examine differences in proportions of dependent variables (exposure to IPV) and independent variables. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess the independent contribution of the variables of economic empowerment in predicting exposure to IPV. Results: Out of 124,385 women, 69432 (56%) were eligible for this study. Among those that were eligible 35% were working. In general, prevalence of IPV (ever) among women in India were: emotional violence 14%, less severe physical violence 31%, severe physical violence 10% and sexual violence 8%. For working women, the IPV prevalence was: emotional violence 18%, less severe physical violence 37%, severe physical violence 14% and sexual violence 10%; whilst for non-working women the rate was 12, 27, 8 and 8 percents, respectively. Working women seek more help from different sources. Conclusions: Economic empowerment is not the sole protective factor. Economic empowerment, together with higher education and modified cultural norms against women, may protect women from IPV. PMID:21483213

Dalal, Koustuv

2011-01-01

110

A Longitudinal Study of Chinese Cultural Beliefs about Adversity, Psychological Well-Being, Delinquency and Substance Abuse in Chinese Adolescents with Economic Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examines the relationships between Chinese cultural beliefs about adversity and psychological well-being and problem behavior in 199 Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage. Results showed that endorsement of Chinese cultural beliefs about adversity was concurrently related to measures of adolescent psychological…

Shek, Daniel T. L.

2005-01-01

111

Rethinking the Curriculum To Meet the Needs of Underprepared, Underrepresented, and Economically Disadvantaged Students: Majors and Courses for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attracting and assuring the success of students of color requires the rethinking of curricula to meet the needs of underrepresented, underprepared, and economically disadvantaged students. General education offerings should be restructured to give students the skills and resources needed to make sense out of their particular gender and ethnicity,…

Glock, Nancy Clover

112

Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities, and psychological well-being in chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage.  

PubMed

The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques to control their behavior; (b) the extent to which their parents attempted to control them in a way that undermined their psychological development; (c) the parent-child relational qualities, such as the child's readiness to communicate with the parents and perceived mutual trust; and (d) the child's psychological well-being. Although adolescents with economic disadvantage did not differ from adolescents without economic disadvantage on the maternal variables (except on parental knowledge and parental monitoring), adolescents whose families were receiving public assistance generally perceived paternal behavioral control and father-child relational qualities to be more negative than did adolescents who were not receiving public assistance. The author found psychological well-being (shown by hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, self-esteem) of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage to be weaker than that of adolescents not experiencing economic disadvantage. PMID:15906930

Shek, Daniel T L

2005-06-01

113

Three-year change in diet quality and associated changes in BMI among schoolchildren living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.  

PubMed

Findings from research that has assessed the influence of dietary factors on child obesity have been equivocal. In the present study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that a positive change in diet quality is associated with favourable changes in BMI z-scores (zBMI) in schoolchildren from low socio-economic backgrounds and to examine whether this effect is modified by BMI category at baseline. The present study utilised data from a subsample (n 216) of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, a longitudinal cohort study with data collected in 2007-8 (T1) and 2010-11 (T2) in socio-economically disadvantaged women and children (5-12 years at T1). Dietary data were collected using a FFQ and diet quality index (DQI) scores derived at both time points. The objective measures of weight, height and physical activity (accelerometers) were included. The other variables were reported in the questionnaires. We examined the association between change in DQI and change in zBMI, using linear regression analyses adjusted for physical activity, screen sedentary behaviour and maternal education level both in the whole sample and in the sample stratified by overweight status at baseline. After accounting for potential covariates, change in diet quality was found to be inversely associated with change in zBMI only in children who were overweight at baseline (P= 0.035), thus supporting the hypothesis that improvement in diet quality is associated with a concurrent improvement in zBMI among already overweight children, but not among those with a normal BMI status. The identification of modifiable behaviours such as diet quality that affect zBMI longitudinally is valuable to inform future weight gain prevention interventions in vulnerable groups. PMID:24775601

Lioret, Sandrine; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cameron, Adrian J; Crawford, David; Campbell, Karen J; Cleland, Verity J; Ball, Kylie

2014-07-01

114

The feasibility and appeal of mobile 'apps' for supporting healthy food purchasing and consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Aim This pilot study aimed to assess the feasibility and appeal of using existing hand-held mobile technology (iPod or iPad) 'apps' as tools promoting healthy food planning, shopping and eating behaviours among socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Methods Surveys were administered before and immediately after a 4-week trial of seven currently available iPod or iPad apps, each of which addressed known barriers to healthy eating among socioeconomically disadvantaged women. A convenience sample was recruited from a local community in Melbourne, Australia, comprising 19 women with a low education (fewer than 12 years of formal education) or a low income (a household income of less than $1000 per week, and/or having a pension or benefit as the main source of income). Results More than half of the sample (n=11, 61%) used most apps at least weekly over the study period. Few found any of the apps complex or difficult to use, and most (n=14) reported that they would use their preferred apps again. Features liked included portability, simplicity, user-friendliness, and novelty/new knowledge provided by certain apps; less appealing features included requirements for time-consuming data entry and inability to access features offline. Conclusions Selected iPod and iPad apps are useable and appealing to socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Particular features of apps, including simplicity of use and providing seasonal information, appear helpful in assisting women to plan, shop and consume healthy foods. So what? This study demonstrates a promising approach for reaching and engaging socioeconomically disadvantaged target populations in healthy eating, through the use of mobile apps. Further research establishing the effectiveness of these apps in promoting healthy food planning, shopping and eating behaviours is now warranted. PMID:25186008

Ball, Kylie; Mouchacca, Jennifer; Jackson, Michelle

2014-09-01

115

Women's Education for Economic Development in Cross Section of Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International organizations and researchers in the field of education and development have emphasized the importance of women's education for the social and economic development of Third World countries. However, women's educational levels are lower than men's in most countries throughout the world. This paper presents findings of a study that…

Kuroda, Kazuo

116

Women and Rapid Economic Change: The Alaska Case.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Trans Alaska Oil Pipeline project and accompanying increases in economic wealth have had an enormous impact, particularly on Alaskan women. Prior to pipeline construction, the civilian labor force participation by Alaskan women was close to the national average. During and since pipeline construction, this participation rate has soared.…

Thomas, Monica E.

117

The Economic Consequences of Widowhood for Older Minority Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We compare the economic consequences of widowhood for preretirement age and early-retirement age Black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White women. Methods: We use the 1992 and 2000 waves of the Health and Retirement Study to assess the effects of widowhood on the household incomes and assets of non-Hispanic White, Black, and Hispanic women

Angel, Jacqueline L.; Jimenez, Maren A.; Angel, Ronald J.

2007-01-01

118

Electronic Monitoring of Oral Therapies in Ethnically Diverse and Economically Disadvantaged Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Consequences of Low Adherence  

PubMed Central

Background To quantify adherence to oral therapies in ethnically diverse and economically disadvantaged patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using electronic medication monitoring, and to evaluate the clinical consequences of low adherence. Methods 107 patients with RA enrolled in a 2-year prospective cohort study agreed to have their oral RA drug therapy intake electronically monitored, with the Medication Events Monitoring System (MEMS®). Adherence to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and prednisone were determined as the percentage of days (or weeks for methotrexate) in which the patient took the correct dose as prescribed by the physician. Patient outcomes were assessed including the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ), the Disease Activity Index 28 (DAS28), quality of life and radiological damage using Sharp-van der Heijde scores. Results Adherence to the treatment regimen as determined by percent of correct doses was 64% for DMARDs and 70% for prednisone. Patients who had better mental health were statistically more likely to be adherent. Only 23 (21%) of the patients had an average adherence to DMARDs ? 80%. These patients showed significantly better disease activity scores across 2 years of follow-up than those who were less adherent (DAS28 3.3±1.3 vs. 4.1±1.2, p<0.02). Radiological scores were also worse in non-adherent patients at baseline and 12 months. Conclusions Only one fifth of the RA patients had an overall adherence of at least 80%. Less than two thirds of the prescribed DMARD doses were correctly taken. Adherent patients had lower disease activity and radiological damage scores across the 2 years of follow-up. PMID:23728826

Waimann, Christian A.; Marengo, Maria F.; de Achaval, Sofia; Cox, Vanessa L.; Garcia-Gonzalez, Araceli; Reveille, John D.; Richardson, Marsha N.; Almazor, Maria E. Suarez

2013-01-01

119

Islamic Fundamentalism and Women's Economic Role: The Case of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly believed that Islamic fundamentalism is responsible for the low female employment rate in the Middle East and North Africa. I earlier presented evidence from Indonesia indicating that the deteriorating conditions of women's economic role in the 1990s was related to the economic circumstances of the Asian Crisis, not to the rise of political Islam (Bahranitash, 2002). In

Roksana Bahramitash

2003-01-01

120

Abortion Policy and Vulnerable Women in the United States: A Call for Social Work Policy Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repressive abortion policy in the United States creates undue burdens for groups of vulnerable women, including adolescents, women of color, women living in rural areas, and women with economic disadvantages. Repressive abortion policy creates a two-tiered system of access to reproductive health care that is a particular disadvantage to vulnerable women. In this study, current policy is discussed with examples

Gretchen E. Ely; Catherine N. Dulmus

2010-01-01

121

Understanding the Disparities in Cervical Cancer Screening for Economically Disadvantaged Women  

E-print Network

of Community Health Centers, Primary Care Access: Ancommunity health centers in delivering primary care to theCenter for Health Policy Research, August 2003. Selected Presentations: Measuring Cultural Competence among Primary

Gatchell, Melissa Sue

2012-01-01

122

'If the Food Looks Dodgy I Dinnae Eat It': Teenagers' Accounts of Food and Eating Practices in Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how young teenagers living in socio-economically disadvantaged families perceive everyday food and eating practices within the home. From in-depth interviews with 36 Scottish teenagers aged 13-14 years, we analysed teenagers\\\\' accounts of contemporary \\\\'family meals\\\\'. We found that food and eating practices were negotiated amidst complex family arrangements with extended, resident and non-resident kin. Parents were often

Wendy J. Wills; Kathryn Backett-Milburn; Sue Gregory; Julia Lawton

2008-01-01

123

The Do-Well study: protocol for a randomised controlled trial, economic and qualitative process evaluations of domiciliary welfare rights advice for socio-economically disadvantaged older people recruited via primary health care  

PubMed Central

Background Older people in poor health are more likely to need extra money, aids and adaptations to allow them to remain independent and cope with ill health, yet in the UK many do not claim the welfare benefits to which they are entitled. Welfare rights advice interventions lead to greater welfare income, but have not been rigorously evaluated for health benefits. This study will evaluate the effects on health and well-being of a domiciliary welfare rights advice service provided by local government or voluntary organisations in North East England for independent living, socio-economically disadvantaged older people (aged ?60?yrs), recruited from general (primary care) practices. Methods/Design The study is a pragmatic, individually randomised, single blinded, wait-list controlled trial of welfare rights advice versus usual care, with embedded economic and qualitative process evaluations. The qualitative study will examine whether the intervention is delivered as intended; explore responses to the intervention and examine reasons for the trial findings; and explore the potential for translation of the intervention into routine policy and practice. The primary outcome is the effect on health-related quality of life, measured using the CASP 19 questionnaire. Volunteer men and women aged ?60?years (1/household) will be identified from general practice patient registers. Patients in nursing homes or hospitals at the time of recruitment will be excluded. General practice populations will be recruited from disadvantaged areas of North East England, including urban, rural and semi-rural areas, with no previous access to targeted welfare rights advice services delivered to primary care patients. A minimum of 750 participants will be randomised to intervention and control arms in a 1:1 ratio. Discussion Achieving a trial design that is both ethical and acceptable to potential participants, required methodological compromises. The choice of follow-up length required a trade-off between sufficient time to demonstrate health impact and the need to allow the control group access to the intervention as early as possible. The study will have implications for fundamental understanding of social inequalities and how to tackle them, and provides a model for similar evaluations of health-orientated social interventions. If the health benefits of this intervention are proven, targeted welfare rights advice services should be extended to ensure widespread provision for older people and other vulnerable groups. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN Number ISRCTN37380518 PMID:22639988

2012-01-01

124

Integrating Socio-Economic Determinants of Canadian Women's Health  

PubMed Central

Health Issue The association between a number of socio-economic determinants and health has been amply demonstrated in Canada and elsewhere. Over the past decades, women's increased labour force participation and changing family structure, among other changes in the socio-economic environment, have altered social roles considerably and lead one to expect that the pattern of disparities in health among women and men will also have changed. Using data from the CCHS (2000), this chapter investigates the association between selected socio-economic determinants of health and two specific self-reported outcomes among women and men: (a) self-perceived health and (b) self-reports of chronic conditions. Key Findings The descriptive picture demonstrated by this CCHS dataset is that 10% of men aged 65 and over report low income, versus 23% of women within the same age bracket. The results of the logistic regression models calculated for women and men on two outcome variables suggest that the selected socio-economic determinants used in this analysis are important for women and for men in a differential manner. These results while supporting other results illustrate the need to refine social and economic characteristics used in surveys such as the CCHS so that they would become more accurate predictors of health status given that there are personal, cultural and environmental dimensions to take into account. Recommendations Because it was shown that socio economic determinants of health are context sensitive and evolve over time, studies should be designed to examine the complex temporal interactions between a variety of social and biological determinants of health from a life course perspective. Examples are provided in the chapter. PMID:15345097

Vissandjee, Bilkis; Desmeules, Marie; Cao, Zheynuan; Abdool, Shelly

2004-01-01

125

Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to…

Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

2012-01-01

126

78 FR 37692 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Contracting With Women-Owned Small Business Concerns  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Acquisition Regulation; Contracting With Women-Owned Small Business Concerns AGENCY: Department...for set-asides to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business concerns and to women-owned small business concerns eligible...

2013-06-21

127

77 FR 12913 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...9000-AL97 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program...Administration's regulations establishing the Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program...industries to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB)...

2012-03-02

128

“Rulers ruled by women”: an economic analysis of the rise and fall of women’s rights in ancient Sparta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until modern times, most women possessed relatively few formal rights. The women of ancient Sparta were a striking exception.\\u000a Although they could not vote, Spartan women reportedly owned 40 percent of Sparta’s agricultural land, and enjoyed other rights\\u000a that were equally extraordinary. We offer a simple economic explanation for the Spartan anomaly. The defining moment for Sparta\\u000a was its conquest

Robert K. Fleck; F. Andrew Hanssen

2009-01-01

129

India's Missing Women: Disentangling Cultural, Political and Economic Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The severe anti-female bias in natality and child mortality that gives rise to India's missing women has been widely documented and various explanations ranging from agricultural labor demand to dowries have been offered in the literature. In general, the low demand for girls has been interpreted as a rational response to economic constraints. This paper shows the importance of culture

Rubiana Chamarbagwala; Martin Ranger

2006-01-01

130

The effectiveness of antenatal care programmes to reduce infant mortality and preterm birth in socially disadvantaged and vulnerable women in high-income countries: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Infant mortality has shown a steady decline in recent years but a marked socioeconomic gradient persists. Antenatal care is\\u000a generally thought to be an effective method of improving pregnancy outcomes, but the effectiveness of specific antenatal care\\u000a programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in socioeconomically disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women has not\\u000a been rigorously evaluated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted

Jennifer Hollowell; Laura Oakley; Jennifer J Kurinczuk; Peter Brocklehurst; Ron Gray

2011-01-01

131

Examining Alternative Measures of Social Disadvantage Among Asian Americans: The Relevance of Economic Opportunity, Subjective Social Status, and Financial Strain for Health  

PubMed Central

Socioeconomic position is often operationalized as education, occupation, and income. However, these measures may not fully capture the process of socioeconomic disadvantage that may be related to morbidity. Economic opportunity, subjective social status, and financial strain may also place individuals at risk for poor health outcomes. Data come from the Asian subsample of the 2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (n = 2095). Regression models were used to examine the associations between economic opportunity, subjective social status, and financial strain and the outcomes of self-rated health, body mass index, and smoking status. Education, occupation, and income were also investigated as correlates of these outcomes. Low correlations were observed between all measures of socioeconomic status. Economic opportunity was robustly negatively associated with poor self-rated health, higher body mass index, and smoking, followed by financial strain, then subjective social status. Findings show that markers of socioeconomic position beyond education, occupation, and income are related to morbidity among Asian Americans. This suggests that potential contributions of social disadvantage to poor health may be understated if only conventional measures are considered among immigrant and minority populations. PMID:19434494

Gee, Gilbert C.; Takeuchi, David T.

2009-01-01

132

Schools and Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three books reviewed in this essay all have a similar theme: the role that schools and other institutions can play in improving the life-chances of young people and breaking the cycle of socio-economic disadvantage and low educational attainment that is characteristic of school systems around the world. Through an evaluation of the Academies…

Smith, Emma

2011-01-01

133

Intimate partner violence and women's economic and non-economic activities in Minya, Egypt.  

PubMed

Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is widespread, but its implications for their economic and non-economic activities are understudied. Leveraging new data from 564 ever-married women aged 22–65 in rural Minya, Egypt, we estimated logistic regressions and zero-inflated negative binomial regressions to test spillover, compensation, and patriarchal bargaining theories about the influences of women's exposure to IPV on their engagement in and time spent on market, subsistence, domestic, and care work. Supporting compensation theory, exposures to lifetime, recent, and chronic physical or sexual IPV were associated with higher adjusted odds of performing market work in the prior month, and exposures to recent and chronic IPV were associated with higher adjusted odds of performing subsistence work in this period. Supporting compensation and patriarchal bargaining theories, exposures to recent and chronic IPV were associated with more time spent on domestic work in the prior day. Supporting spillover and patriarchal bargaining theories, exposures to lifetime IPV of all forms were associated with lower adjusted odds of performing mostly nonspousal care work in the prior day, and this association was partially mediated by women's generalized anxiety. Women in rural Minya who are exposed to IPV may escalate their housework to fulfill local norms of feminine domesticity while substituting economic activities for nonspousal care work to enhance their economic independence from violent partners. PMID:24659089

Yount, Kathryn M; Zureick-Brown, Sarah; salem, Rania

2014-06-01

134

Latinas and African American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…

Browne, Irene, Ed.

135

Neighborhood socio-economic disadvantage and race/ethnicity as predictors of breast cancer stage at diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Background This study investigated the role of key individual- and community-level determinants to explore persisting racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer stage at diagnosis in California during 1990 and 2000. Methods We examined socio-demographic determinants and changes in breast cancer stage at diagnosis in California during 1990 and 2000. In situ, local, regional, and distant diagnoses were examined by individual (age, race/ethnicity, and marital status) and community (income and education by zip code) characteristics. Community variables were constructed using the California Cancer Registry 1990-2000 and the 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census. Results From 1990 to 2000, there was an overall increase in the percent of in situ diagnoses and a significant decrease in regional and distant diagnoses. Among white and Asian/Pacific Islander women, a significant percent increase was observed for in situ diagnoses, and significant decreases in regional and distant diagnoses. Black women had a significant decrease in distant -stage diagnoses, and Hispanic women showed no significant changes in any diagnosis during this time period. The percent increase of in situ cases diagnosed between 1990 and 2000 was observed even among zip codes with low income and education levels. We also found a significant percent decrease in distant cases for the quartiles with the most poverty and least education. Conclusions Hispanic women showed the least improvement in breast cancer stage at diagnosis from 1990 to 2000. Breast cancer screening and education programs that target under-served communities, such as the rapidly growing Hispanic population, are needed in California. PMID:24209733

2013-01-01

136

The Relationship between Residential Land Use Patterns and the Educational Outcomes of Economically Disadvantaged Students in Texas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disparate outcomes resulting from economic segregation in public primary schools have been the subject of much debate and litigation. Little research, however, examines whether negative outcomes may be exacerbated by inequities in the distribution of housing across metropolitan areas. This article explores connections between residential land use…

Van Zandt, Shannon; Wunneburger, Douglas F.

2011-01-01

137

Working toward Women’s Economic Empowerment: Using Information and Communication Technology in Developing Areas to Market Traditional Crafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Women face many challenges in regard to empowerment, especially economic empowerment. The United Nations (UN) has made a point\\u000a in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that work still needs to be done so women can reach some of the empowerment that\\u000a their male counterparts enjoy. Traditional handicrafts are a rich part of indigenous women’s heritage and these women should\\u000a be

Melissa Secore Levis

138

Women and the Paradox of Economic Inequality in the Twentieth-Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout American history, male\\/female has defined an enduring binary embodied in access to jobs, income, and wealth. Women’s economic history shows how for centuries sex has inscribed a durable inequality into the structure of American labor markets that civil and political rights have moderated but not removed. This economic experience of women reflects the paradox of inequality in America: the

Michael B. Katz; Mark J. Stern; Jamie J. Fader

2005-01-01

139

Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods  

PubMed Central

Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast-food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (N=196, 25–51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index, AHEI) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (Model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in Model 2 but most were not significant in Model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (AHEI) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast-food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods. PMID:23890353

Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

2013-01-01

140

Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods.  

PubMed

Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower-income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (n = 196, 25-51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans-fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in model 2, but most were not significant in model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods. PMID:23890353

Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

2013-08-01

141

77 FR 17352 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Acquisition Regulation; Women-Owned Small Business...and Certifications--Commercial Items. * * * * * Offeror...Executive Orders--Commercial Items. * * * * * Contract...Executive Orders--Commercial Items (APR 2012...Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small...

2012-03-26

142

77 FR 14303 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...9000-AL97 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program...Representations and Certifications--Commercial Items (APR 2012)'' 2. On page...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business...

2012-03-09

143

The general and mental health of movers to more- and less-disadvantaged socio-economic and physical environments within the UK.  

PubMed

Residential mobility may play an important role in influencing both individual health, by determining individual exposures to environments, and area health, by shaping area population composition. This study is the first analysis of migration within the UK to compare general and mental health among adults by age group and consider moves between neighbourhoods with different levels of both socio-economic and physical environment disadvantage. The analysis assesses 122,570 cases from the annual British Household Panel Survey, 1996-2006, based upon pooled data describing moves between consecutive waves of the survey. It assesses the rates and binary logistic regression model odds of self-reported general health and mental health problems of movers and stayers by age group. It also compares movers between Census Area Statistics wards in the UK with different levels of Carstairs and Multiple Environmental Deprivation Index (MEDIx) scores. At all ages, movers had similar or higher odds of poor general and mental health relative to non-movers. Risk of mental health problems were particularly elevated among movers and remained significant after adjustment for socio-demographic variables in most age groups. In adjusted analysis of all adults odds of poor general and mental health were most elevated among movers to more socio-economically deprived areas, with the highest odds for mental health (1.54 95% CI 1.27-1.86). In contrast, risk of poor mental health among total adults was greatest among movers to better physical environments (1.40 95% CI 1.16-1.70). This study therefore finds little evidence of 'healthy migrant effects' among recent movers within the UK and suggests movers have particularly elevated risk of mental health problems. It also indicates that selective migration may not contribute to poor health found in UK neighbourhoods with multiple physical environment deprivation. Further analysis should explore why people with mental health problems are more likely to move to socio-economically deprived neighbourhoods. PMID:25112564

Tunstall, Helena; Mitchell, Richard; Pearce, Jamie; Shortt, Niamh

2014-10-01

144

Development of Human Resources Through a Vocationally Oriented Educational Program for Disadvantaged Families in Depressed Rural Areas, Degree to which Families are Satisfied with Selected Aspects of Family Life in an Economically Depressed Rural Area. Interim Report No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One aspect of Project REDY (Rural Education-Disadvantaged Youth) was to identify elements of family living which were satisfying to residents of an economically depressed rural area in Southern Illinois. McVoy's Wants and Satisfaction scale was administered to 115 family heads to determine the degree to which certain wishes and interests of…

Fuller, Gerald R.; Phipps, Lloyd J.

145

Can we disentangle life course processes of accumulation, critical period and social mobility? An analysis of disadvantaged socio-economic positions and myocardial infarction in the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation hypothesis would propose that the longer the duration of exposure to disadvantaged socio-economic position, the greater the risk of myocardial infarction. However there may be a danger of confounding between accumulation and possibly more complex combinations of critical periods of exposure and social mobility. The objective of this paper is to investigate the possibility of distinguishing between these

Johan Hallqvist; John Lynch; Mel Bartley; Thierry Lang; David Blane

2004-01-01

146

Predictors of alcohol and cocaine use one year postpartum in a disadvantaged population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, research on women and substance use remains one of the most neglected areas of research. The purpose was to examine the relative influence of key variables in predicting postnatal alcohol and cocaine use in an economically disadvantaged sample. Variables examined included: conceptional alcohol use, cocaine use during pregnancy, various demographic characteristics such as age, education, IQ, depression, and ego

Karen F Kopera-Frye

1992-01-01

147

Women's Socio-Economic Development in India: The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jacobs (2000) and McLean (2000) affirm the need to expand boundaries of HRD to include multiple topics in a variety of contexts. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) provide possibilities and limitations for the socio-economic development of women in India. The roles of NGOs in serving the socio-economic needs of women provide a broader,…

Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

2004-01-01

148

Learning Economics: Empowering Women for Action. Facilitator's Guide and Participant Packet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This facilitator's guide and participant packet were designed to teach women how the U.S. economic system works and were developed by a coalition of more than 40 national religious groups working toward economic justice for women. The facilitator's guide consists of a section explaining the coalition, a section on the development of the materials…

Religious Network for Equality for Women, New York, NY.

149

Practitioner perspectives of the economic coping experiences of women of domestic violence abuse.  

PubMed

Through this case study the author investigates women's coping experiences with economic challenges in the spectrum of domestic violence abuse. Women of abuse cope with financial difficulties compounded by other ecologically contributing factors. Eight non-abused, social service practitioners from four different agencies, two providers per agency, described the economic coping experiences of women of abuse they serve. Comprehensive and interdisciplinary care is necessary to meet women's multifaceted, complex economic needs. Study results corroborate with research. Service delivery of care for women of abuse coping with family, schooling, and economic hardships are enhanced through schools and service agencies working together, collaborating networking, and sharing of resources in order to better advocate for women and children. PMID:23368989

Haeseler, Lisa Ann

2013-01-01

150

SocioEconomic Impact of Women Entrepreneurship in Sylhet City, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on exploring the socio-economic impact of women entrepreneurship. Based on primary and secondary sources, it is found that nearly three quarters of the women entrepreneurs in Sylhet city are married and that they are mainly involved in tailoring and beauty parlor businesses. About half of the women entrepreneurs use their income for family purposes and most of

Chowdhury Abdullah Al-Hossienie

2011-01-01

151

The importance of eating rice: changing food habits among pregnant Indonesian women during the economic crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents qualitative and quantitative research findings on food habits of pregnant Indonesian women in relation to the economic crisis that arose in 1997. Between 1996 and 1998, dietary intakes were estimated for 450 pregnant women in Central Java. Between January and June 1999, four focus group discussions, 16 in-depth interviews and four non-participant observations were held with women,

T. Ninuk S. Hartini; R. Siwi Padmawati; Lars Lindholm; Achmad Surjono; Anna Winkvist

2005-01-01

152

Gendered Economic, Social, and Cultural Challenges to HIV\\/AIDS Prevention and Intervention for Chinese Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is experiencing the most rapidly expanding HIV prevalence in the world, with the percentage of Chinese women living with HIV\\/AIDS also increasing significantly. Chinese women's risk of HIV infection is heavily influenced by patriarchal cultural beliefs, Confucian doctrines, and rapid social and economic changes in China. Chinese women generally have a low level of awareness of HIV\\/AIDS. With inherent

Catherine So-kum Tang

2008-01-01

153

Nonmetropolitan Elderly Women: A Portrait of Economic Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women are a majority of elders in America, and they face a greater risk of being poor. This article examines the poverty status of elders, paying special attention to the circumstances of elderly women in nonmetropolitan areas. The oldest women, minorities, divorced or separated women, and widows are particularly likely to be or become poor in old age in both

Diane K. McLaughlin; Karen C. Holden

1993-01-01

154

Examining the Association of NRXN3 SNPs with Borderline Personality Disorder Phenotypes in Heroin Dependent Cases and Socio-economically Disadvantaged Controls*  

PubMed Central

Background Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use disorders frequently cooccur; their dual presence predicts poor prognosis. The genetic underpinnings of BPD have not been well-characterized and could offer insight into comorbidity. The current report focuses on the association of Neurexin 3 (NRXN3) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with BPD symptoms in heroin dependent cases and controls. Methods The sample of the Comorbidity and Trauma Study, a genetic association study of heroin dependence, consists of Australian heroin dependent cases ascertained from opioid replacement therapy clinics and controls ascertained in nearby economically-disadvantaged neighborhoods. The assessment included a screening instrument for BPD, used previously in Australian population surveys. Genotypic and BPD phenotypic data were available for 1439 cases and 507 controls. We examined the association of 1430 candidate gene SNPs with BPD phenotypes. Results One or more NRXN3 SNPs were nominally associated with all BPD phenotypes; however, none met the conservative significance threshold we employed to correct for multiple testing. The most strongly associated SNPs included rs10144398 with identity disturbance (p=4.9 × 10?5) and rs10151731 with affective instability (p=8.8 × 10?5). The strongest association with screening positive for BPD was found for the NRXN3 SNP, rs10083466 (p=.0013). Neither the correlation of BPD phenotypes nor the linkage disequilibrium relationships of the SNPs account for the number of observed associations involving NRXN3 SNPs. Conclusions Our findings provide intriguing preliminary evidence for the association of NRXN3 with BPD phenotypes. The strongest associations were found for traits (i.e., affective instability; identity disturbance) also observed with other disorders. PMID:23245376

Panagopoulos, Vassilis N.; Trull, Timothy J.; Glowinski, Anne L.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Agrawal, Arpana; Henders, Anjali K.; Wallace, Leanne; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Moore, Elizabeth; Degenhardt, Louisa; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Nelson, Elliot C.

2013-01-01

155

The effect of neighborhood disadvantage, social ties, and genetic variation on the antisocial behavior of African American women: A multilevel analysis.  

PubMed

Social disorganization theory posits that individuals who live in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to engage in antisocial behavior than are those who live in advantaged neighborhoods and that neighborhood disadvantage asserts this effect through its disruptive impact on social ties. Past research on this framework has been limited in two respects. First, most studies have concentrated on adolescent males. In contrast, the present study focused on a sample of adult African American females. Second, past research has largely ignored individual-level factors that might explain why people who grow up in disadvantaged neighborhoods often do not engage in antisocial behavior. We investigated the extent to which genetic variation contributes to heterogeneity of response to neighborhood conditions. We found that the impact of neighborhood disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by neighborhood social ties. Further, the analysis indicated that the effects of neighborhood disadvantage and social ties on antisocial behavior were moderated by genetic polymorphisms. Examination of these moderating effects provided support for the differential susceptibility model of Gene × Environment. The effect of Gene × Neighborhood Disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by the effect of Gene × Neighborhood Social Ties, providing support for an expanded view of social disorganization theory. PMID:24713449

Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L; Edmond, Mary Bond; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Cutrona, Carolyn E

2014-11-01

156

Economic Status of Women. Hearing before the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a transcript of a Congressional hearing on the economic status of women held by the Joint Economic Committee on February 3, 1982. Witnesses who testified at the hearing included Representatives Reuss, Richmond, Heckler, Wylie and Schroeder, Senators Jepsen and Kassenbaum, and a number of women active in women's equality programs.…

Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

157

Cumulative gender disadvantage in contract employment.  

PubMed

Women's wages do not grow with experience or tenure as much as men's do. Many accounts of this cumulative gender disadvantage attribute it to women's underinvestment in firm-specific skills. Yet if that were true, this disadvantage would not exist where firm-specific skills are not rewarded by the labor market. This article investigates this argument in the context of contract employment, where demand for firm specificity is minimal. Contrary to expectations, men still receive higher rewards than women over time. Drawing on quantitative evidence and qualitative fieldwork using job histories of high-skill contractors affiliated with a staffing firm, the author finds support for two sources of women's disadvantage: lower rates of movement across clients on the supply side and unmeasured demand-side factors by which similar levels of tenure and client transitions accrue lower rewards to women. Implications for research on gender stratification and career advancement in non-formalized labor markets are discussed. PMID:19824298

Fernandez-Mateo, Isabel

2009-01-01

158

Economic and demographic effects on working women in Latin America.  

PubMed

This analysis of women's work conditions in Latin America includes a description of general trends in female labor force participation in 15 Latin American countries based on census data between 1950 and 1990. Also examined are pay differentials by gender and whether gender alone or individual characteristics of women workers accounted for the sex-wage gap. More extensive treatment is available in the author's other 1992 publications. Trends indicate that marriage and children were important factors determining whether women were in the labor force or not. The probability of being in the labor force was reduced by 50% for married women, and each child reduced the probability by 5%. When marriage and children were controlled for, age had a positive effect on probability of participation. Urban female heads of household had a positive effect on women's labor force participation. The higher a woman's educational qualification, the greater the probability of being in the work force. Earnings increased with increased educational level. An increase of 1 year of schooling for women contributed to an increase in female earnings of 13.1. Investment in education for women has a higher yield for women than for men. Policies that directly or indirectly improve women's employment opportunities, particularly when families are being formed, can have wide distributional effects. Also unresolved was an explanation for why female participation increased during periods of recession and why women are rewarded more for educational effort than men. The suggestion was that public sector employment, which included many women in the labor force, is distorting results. PMID:12286863

Psaharopoulos, G; Tzannatos, Z

1993-01-01

159

Women's economic roles and child survival: the case of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides evidence that women's employment, in spite of its other benefits, probably has one crucial adverse consequence: a higher level of child mortality than is found among women who do not work. We examine various intermediate mechanisms for this relationship and conclude that a shortage of time is one of the major reasons for this negative relation between

Alaka Malwade Basu; Kaushik Basu

1991-01-01

160

THE FEMINIZATION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A CASE FOR A WOMEN'S MODEL IN FOSTERING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper undertakes an examination of the societal structures and environmental changes that have influenced women to pursue business ownership. These factors will be considered to the extend that they may be determining how communities support and encourage job creation and economic expansion. The denouement of how women may be constrained in their perceived capabilities, and societal expectations for company

Barbara K. Mistick

161

The Role of Social Networks in the Economic Opportunities of Bolivian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the role of social networks in determining the participation of Bolivian women in income-generating activities. The empirical analysis intends to explore the impact of this new social variable on the economic choices of women and its relative importance with respect to other individual characteristics, such as education or number of children in the household. The empirical framework

Dante Contreras; Daniela Zapata; Diana Kruger; Marcelo Ochoa

2007-01-01

162

Towards the Social and Economic Promotion of Rural Women in Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report describes the changing image of women in rural Tanzania and the various agencies responsible for their social, economic, cultural, and political promotion in rural areas, including the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), and the Union of Women in Tanganyika (UWT). (LH)

Kokuhirwa, Hilda

1975-01-01

163

Energy and women's economic empowerment: Rethinking the benefits of improved cookstove use in rural India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International development organizations have recently ramped up efforts to promote the use of improved cookstoves (ICS) in developing countries, aiming to reduce the harmful environmental and public health impacts of the burning of biomass for cooking and heating. I hypothesize that ICS use also has additional benefits---economic and social benefits---that can contribute to women's economic empowerment in the developing world. To explore the relationship between ICS use and women's economic empowerment, I use Ordinary Least Squares and Logit models based on data from the India Human Development Survey (IHDS) to analyze differences between women living in households that use ICS and those living in homes that use traditional cookstoves. My regression results reveal that ICS use has a statistically significant and negative effect on the amount of time women and girls spend on fuel collection and a statistically significant and positive effect on the likelihood of women's participation in side businesses, but does not have a statistically significant effect on the likelihood of lost productivity. My analysis shows promise that in addition to health and environmental benefits, fuel-efficient cooking technologies can also have social and economic impacts that are especially beneficial to women. It is my hope that the analysis provided in this paper will be used to further the dialogue about the importance of women's access to modern energy services in the fight to improve women's living standards in the developing world.

Seaward, James Nicholas

164

13 CFR 124.1002 - What is a Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB)?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...accruing directly to the socially and economically disadvantaged...controlled by one or more socially and economically disadvantaged...controlled by one or more socially and economically...must be the project manager responsible for performance of...

2010-01-01

165

Age Differences in the Personality Profiles of Disadvantaged Females.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study systematically investigated age differences in personality characteristics of advantaged and disadvantaged high school and college females. Two hundred and thirty three subjects (Ss) were randomly selected from an urban environment: 83 disadvantaged and 112 advantaged high school girls, and 38 disadvantaged college women. The test norms…

Soares, Louise M.; Soares, Anthony T.

166

LEARNING ABOUT WOMEN. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND THE ENVIRONMENT IN INDIA: A CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

On a recent semester-long stay in India, students from Xavier University (Cincinnati, Ohio) learned about a variety of social and economic development issues, with an emphasis on the role and status of women. This study describes and assesses the impact and effectiveness of their learning with a particular focus on their exposure to Meerut Seva Samaj (MSS), one economic development

NANCY BERTAUX; ELAINE CRABLE

2007-01-01

167

Women, Fertility and Economics: Fifty Years of Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a systematic review of the scientific literature on fertility and its relationship with economics. We explore theoretical and empirical frameworks developed in the last fifty years, emphasizing on the classical (Becker, Easterling) and unorthodox approaches (Bongaarts, Iannaccone, Lehrer). This literature review focused on journals of economics, sociology and demography indexed in the Journal Storage database (JSTOR), Elsevier’s

Felipe Del Río; Nelson Alvis; Martha Yánez; Raúl Quejada; Karina Acevedo

2010-01-01

168

Understanding the Gender Gap: An Economic History of American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a unique set of data drawn from the US census, statistics, city directories, and other sources, the author looks at the differences between men and women in the US labour force. She shows that the `gender gap' in income and job level that has existed throughout history cannot be explained simply as a matter of sex discrimination, nor as

Claudia Goldin

1990-01-01

169

Sex Preferences, Marital Dissolution and the Economic Status of Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American society is confronting the consequences of increase in divorce rates. There is substantial increase in households that are headed by a single female. The possible reasons for the rise in divorces and the labor market outcomes for women are analyzed. It is also noted that if the first-born is a girl, the marriage is less likely to…

Bedard, Kelly; Deschenes, Olivier

2005-01-01

170

Economic Empowerment of Women and Utilization of Maternal Delivery Care in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Objective: Maternal mortality is a major public health problem in low-income countries, such as Bangladesh. Women's empowerment in relation to enhanced utilization of delivery care is underexplored. This study investigates the associations between women's economic empowerment and their utilization of maternal health care services in Bangladesh. Methods: In total, 4925 women (15–49 years of age) with at least one child from whole Bangladesh constituted the study sample. Home delivery without skilled birth attendant and use of institutional delivery services were the main outcome variables used for the analyses. Economic empowerment, neighborhood socioeconomic status, household economic status, and demographic factors were considered as explanatory variables. The chi square test and unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses were applied at the collected data. Results: In the adjusted model, respondent's and husband's education, household economic status, and residency emerged as important predictors for utilization of delivery care services. In the unadjusted model, economically empowered working and microfinanced women displayed more home delivery. Conclusion: The current study shows that use of delivery care services is associated with socioeconomic development and can be enhanced by societies that focus on general issues such as schooling, economic wellbeing, and gender-based discrimination. PMID:23024852

Dalal, Koustuv; Shabnam, Jahan; Andrews-Chavez, Johanna; Martensson, Lena B.; Timpka, Toomas

2012-01-01

171

Migrant women in Australia.  

PubMed

The author compares the status of non-English speaking (NES) migrant women with that of their native-born counterparts in Australia. She concludes that "Australian born women and migrant women have certain experiences in common; low economic position, being the target of discriminatory practices in education and in work, and their overall marginality in the power structure. In addition their jobs have much in common: for all women are disadvantaged compared with men in terms of earnings, occupational status, and job mobility. However,...NES migrant women tend to be employed in much lower-level, lower-status, and lower-paying occupations than Australian born women.... They face circumstances unique to their ethnic groups which they share with the men of their ethnic groups. Migrant women, even more than indigenous working class women see the family as a site of solidarity and supportive alliance against a hostile or new environment...." PMID:12317297

Misztal, B A

1991-01-01

172

Women of the Sisters' Hall: religion and the making of women's alternative space in Taiwan's economic restructuring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against the background of Taiwan's recent economic restructuring, this article investigates the lives of a group of working-class women who were believers of I-Kuan Tao, a sectarian religion, and who had by and large decided to remain single in order to better practice their religious teaching. They lived together in an I-Kuan Tao temple. This article situates singlehood in the

Anru Lee

2008-01-01

173

Disadvantaged populations in maternal health in China who and why?  

PubMed Central

Background China has made impressive progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for maternal and reproductive health, but ensuring that progress reaches all segments of the population remains a challenge for policy makers. The aim of this review is to map disadvantaged populations in terms of maternal health in China, and to explain the causes of these inequities to promote policy action. Methods We searched PUBMED, Popline, Proquest and WanFang and included primary studies conducted in mainland China. Experts were also contacted to identify additional studies. Disadvantaged populations in terms of MDG 5 and the reasons for this disadvantage explored by authors were identified and coded based on the conceptual framework developed by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Results In China, differences in maternal health service utilization and the maternal mortality ratio among different income groups, and among regions with different socio-economic development still exist, although these differences are narrowing. Groups with low levels of education and ethnic minorities utilize maternal health care less frequently and experience higher maternal mortality, although we could not determine whether these differences have changed in the last decade. Rural-to-urban migrants use maternal health care and contraception to a lower extent than permanent residents of cities, and differential maternal mortality shows a widening trend among these groups. Gender inequity also contributes to the disadvantaged position of women. Intermediary factors that explain these inequities include material circumstances such as long distances to health facilities for women living in remote areas, behavioral factors such as traditional beliefs that result in reduced care seeking among ethnic minorities, and health system determinants such as out-of-pocket payments posing financial barriers for the poor. Conclusions Inequity in maternal health continues to be an issue worthy of greater programmatic and monitoring efforts in China. PMID:23561030

Yuan, Beibei; Qian, Xu; Thomsen, Sarah

2013-01-01

174

High-risk behaviors and the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases among women prisoners at the women state penitentiary in Metro Manila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women prisoners in the Philippines are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection. The economic and social disadvantages that women endure in mainstream society are magnified once they are committed to penitentiaries where control over one’s own life is even more restricted and limited. Outside prison, impoverished and uninformed about the ways of protecting their health, women have engaged in unprotected sex

Nymia P. Simbulan; Angela S. Aguilar; Timothy Flanigan; Susan Cu-Uvin

2001-01-01

175

48 CFR 970.1907 - Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business Concerns. 970...CONTRACTS Small, Small Disadvantaged and Women-Owned Small Business Concerns 970...Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business...

2010-10-01

176

Women in economics: Moving up or falling off the academic career ladder?  

E-print Network

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Women in Economics: Moving Up or Falling Off the Academic Career Ladder? Donna K Ginther; Shulamit Kahn The Journal of Economic Perspectives...; Summer 2004; 18, 3; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 193 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission...

Ginther, Donna K.; Kahn, S.

2004-01-01

177

Attitudes of women toward intimate partner violence: a study of rural women in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Predictors of rural women's attitudes in Nigeria toward intimate partner violence (IPV) were investigated using a random sample of rural women (n = 3911) aged 15-49 years from the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). Findings were suggestive of social, religious, and cultural influences in the women's attitudes towards IPV. Women resident in the three northern regions, the South South region, Muslim women, women with low levels of education and low household wealth were more likely to tolerate IPV. This is reflective of the socio-economic disadvantages they face, as well as the cultural and religious restrictions imposed on these women. PMID:18842071

Antai, Diddy E; Antai, Justina B

2008-01-01

178

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE HEADSCARF BAN ON WOMEN IN TURKEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The headscarf ban in Turkey has provoked heated debate both in and outside the country. A great deal of research considers the broader philosophical, political, historical, and social implications of the ban but to this point, no large-scale study has focused on the social and economic implications for the women themselves. This study addresses this issue, arguing that the intensification

Ayse Guveli

2011-01-01

179

The Current Attack on Women's Rights: A Political-Economic Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The right-wing attack on women's rights in the United States manifests itself in the regulation of reproductive rights, the family, and the workplace and corresponds to the changing needs of capital in an era of social and economic crises. Against this background, anti-abortion legislation, the Family Protection Act, and discrimination in the…

Kress, June

180

Programs To Create Economic Self-Sufficiency for Women in Public Housing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wheeling Housing Authority in Wheeling, West Virginia, conducted two residential programs to help women living in public housing develop economic self-sufficiency. The Learning Independence from Employment (LIFE) program was an intensive 3-week program designed to accomplish the following objectives: improve participants' communication skills…

Smith, Cynthia; DeTardo-Bora, Kimberly; Durbin, Latrisha

181

The Economic Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse for Adult Lesbian Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study extends investigation of the long-term consequences of child sexual abuse into the workplace and considers the economic effects on Lesbian women as determined by the National Lesbian Health Care Survey. It considers the effects of child sexual abuse on four spheres of a woman's life: her physical health, mental health, educational…

Hyman, Batya

2000-01-01

182

Household economic strategies and nutritional anthropometry of women in American Samoa and highland Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares findings from research projects involving different genetic, environmental, and cultural contexts: a study of lifestyle and health from American Samoa (ASLS) and the Bolivian project, Reproduction and Ecology in Provincia Aroma (REPA). This paper presents analyses of varying economic strategies and their association with nutritional status indicators in each population. The ASLS sample includes 66 Samoan women

James R. Bindon; Virginia J. Vitzthum

2002-01-01

183

The Changing Importance of White Women's Economic Prospects for Assortative Mating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given recent changes in the labor force participation and economic standing of women, we ask whether a woman's position in the labor market has become a more important determinant of her position in the marriage market. Unlike much prior research on trends over time in assortative mating, we take an individual-level approach to the analysis and…

Sweeney, Megan M.; Cancian, Maria

2004-01-01

184

SocioEconomic Status of Women in Rural Poultry Production in Selected Areas of Kwara State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the socio-economic status of women in rural poultry production in selected areas of Kwara State, Nigeria. This is based on the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between women's participation and their socio-economic status such as age, marital status, level of education and occupation. The study was conducted in selected villages in Kwara State. A total

I. Ogunlade; S. A. Adebayo

2009-01-01

185

76 FR 5083 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DBE subcontractor is not a responsible contractor; (vi) The listed...types of work in which the socially and economically disadvantaged...or control of the firm by socially and economically disadvantaged...The firm is not otherwise responsible for further...

2011-01-28

186

Economic Status of Women in the Labor Market and Prospects for Pay Equity Over the Life Cycle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social and economic forces in the post-war era have lead to an increased commitment by women of all ages to the labor force. In contrast, the labor force participation rate for men has declined. With women's continued predominance in the service sector and jobs lost in the traditionally male manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy, men and women

Figart, Deborah M.

187

The Dilemma of the Contribution of African Women Toward and the Benefits They Derive from Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Africa and Third World countries do not include women in economic development projects. Women have benefited little from the minimum development done so far. These governments' lack of recognition and expansion of women's critical activities in producing and distributing food and cash crops will perpetuate underdevelopment and poverty. (PS)

Amuge, Immaculate Mary

1986-01-01

188

Women, poverty and adverse maternal outcomes in Nairobi, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The link between poverty and adverse maternal outcomes has been studied largely by means of quantitative data. We explore poor urban Kenyan women's views and lived experiences of the relationship between economic disadvantage and unpleasant maternal outcomes. METHOD: Secondary analysis of focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews data with women in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: Urban

Chimaraoke O Izugbara; David P Ngilangwa

2010-01-01

189

Increased stress among women following an economic collapse--a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

There is a scarcity of data on mental health effects of the global economic recession. In this study, we investigated potential change in self-reported levels of psychological stress in the Icelandic population as a result of the major national economic collapse that occurred in 2008. We used a national cohort of 3,755 persons who responded to a survey administered in 2007 and 2009, including demographic questions and a stress measure (the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale). We used repeated-measures analysis of variance and logistic regression models to assess change in mean stress levels and risk of high stress levels (>90th percentile) in 2009 as compared with 2007. Age-adjusted mean stress levels increased between 2007 and 2009 (P = 0.004), though the increase was observed only for women (P = 0.003), not for men (P = 0.34). Similarly, the odds ratios for experiencing high stress levels were increased only among women (odds ratio (OR) = 1.37), especially among women who were unemployed (OR = 3.38), students (OR = 2.01), had middle levels of education (OR = 1.65), or were in the middle income bracket (OR = 1.59). The findings indicate that psychological stress may have increased following the economic collapse in Iceland, particularly among females in economically vulnerable groups. PMID:23408547

Hauksdóttir, Arna; McClure, Christopher; Jonsson, Stefan Hrafn; Olafsson, Orn; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur A

2013-05-01

190

A randomized controlled trial to improve health among women receiving welfare in the US: the relationship between employment outcomes and the economic recession.  

PubMed

The high prevalence of health conditions among U.S. women receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF, or 'welfare') impedes the ability of many in this group to move from 'welfare-to-work', and the economic recession has likely exacerbated this problem. Despite this, few interventions have been developed to improve employment outcomes by addressing the health needs of women receiving TANF, and little is known about the impact of economic downturns on the employment trajectory of this group. Using data from a recent randomized controlled trial (RCT) that tested the efficacy of a public health nursing (PHN) intervention to address the chronic health condition needs of 432 American women receiving TANF, we examine the effect of the intervention and of recession exposure on employment. We further explore whether intervention effects were modified by select sociodemographic and health characteristics. Both marginal and more robust intervention effects were noted for employment-entry outcomes (any employment, p = 0.05 and time-to-employment, p = 0.01). There were significant effects for recession exposure on employment-entry (any employment, p = 0.002 and time-to-employment, p < 0.001). Neither the intervention nor recession exposure influenced longer-term employment outcomes (employment rate or maximum continuous employment). Intervention effects were not modified by age, education, prior TANF receipt, functional status, or recession exposure, suggesting the intervention was equally effective in improving employment-entry across a fairly heterogeneous group both before and after the recession onset. These findings advance our understanding of the health and employment dynamics among this group of disadvantaged women under variable macroeconomic conditions, and have implications for guiding health and TANF-related policy. PMID:22963921

Kneipp, Shawn M; Kairalla, John A; Sheely, Amanda L

2013-03-01

191

The Economic Outcomes of Community College Attendance. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest discusses research on economic gains for community college students and explores whether a community college education serves to minimize the wage gap between women and men and between advantaged and disadvantaged groups. It summarizes research that supports the assertion that a community college education offers economic advancement…

Bryant, Alyssa N.

192

PROVIDING OPPORTUNITIES FOR DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE TERM "DISADVANTAGED" IS USED TO REPRESENT ENVIRONMENTS THAT ARE INADEQUATE FOR A FULL LIFE. INCLUDED WOULD BE GROUPS IDENTIFIED AS MIGRANTS, LINGUALLY DISADVANTAGED, CULTURALLY DEPRIVED, AND EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED. A CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILD IS UNABLE TO CONFORM TO PRESENT GROUP EXPECTANCIES. THIS WORKSHOP REPORT IS THE RESULT OF…

POTTS, ALFRED M.; AND OTHERS

193

The role of sexual violence in creating and maintaining economic insecurity among asset-poor women of color.  

PubMed

This article argues that economic instability and sexual violence reinforce each other in two ways. First, the devastating psychological consequences of sexual assault can diminish work performance and disrupt income, creating economic instability, particularly for the asset-poor. Latina and African American women face particular risk due to barriers to appropriate post-assault resources and low rates of asset ownership. Second, income- and asset poverty increase women's risk for sexual violence and complicate recovery. Women with financial and social resources can leverage these assets to both avoid and recover from sexual assault, whereas women without such resources lack these options. Policy solutions are proposed. PMID:25288596

Loya, Rebecca M

2014-11-01

194

Rhetoric and Social Change: Women's Struggles for Economic and Political Equality, 1900–1917  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay explores the protest rhetoric and extra-discursive actions of wage earning women in their economic and political struggles in the early twentieth century. Wage earning activists employed a rhetoric of collectivity in speeches and pamphlets, using this rhetorical framework as a foundation for extra-verbal actions such as strikes and walk-outs. This essay attempts to shed light on the ways

Mary E. Triece

2000-01-01

195

Overweight and obesity among women by economic stratum in urban India.  

PubMed

Using data of the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 2005-2006, this study examined the prevalence of overweight and obesity among women from different economic strata in urban India. The study used a separate wealth index for urban India constructed using principal components analysis (PCA). The result shows that prevalence of overweight and obesity is very high in urban areas, more noticeably among the non-poor households. Furthermore, overweight and obesity increase with age, education, and parity of women. The results of multinomial logistic regression show that non-poor women are about 2 and 3 times more at risk of being overweight and obese respectively. Marital status and media exposure are the other covariates associated positively with overweight and obesity. Thus, the growing demand which now appears before the Government or urban health planners is to address this rising urban epidemic with equal importance as given to other issues in the past. PMID:24847596

Gouda, Jitendra; Prusty, Ranjan Kumar

2014-03-01

196

Overweight and Obesity among Women by Economic Stratum in Urban India  

PubMed Central

Using data of the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 2005-2006, this study examined the prevalence of overweight and obesity among women from different economic strata in urban India. The study used a separate wealth index for urban India constructed using principal components analysis (PCA). The result shows that prevalence of overweight and obesity is very high in urban areas, more noticeably among the non-poor households. Furthermore, overweight and obesity increase with age, education, and parity of women. The results of multinomial logistic regression show that non-poor women are about 2 and 3 times more at risk of being overweight and obese respectively. Marital status and media exposure are the other covariates associated positively with overweight and obesity. Thus, the growing demand which now appears before the Government or urban health planners is to address this rising urban epidemic with equal importance as given to other issues in the past. PMID:24847596

Prusty, Ranjan Kumar

2014-01-01

197

ENGLISH AND THE DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PART 1 OF THIS COLLECTION OF ARTICLES BY THE STAFF AND PARTICIPANTS OF AN NDEA SUMMER INSTITUTE IN ENGLISH FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH DESCRIBES ATTITUDES AND VIEWPOINTS ON THE PLACE OF ENGLISH IN THE DAILY LIVES OF STUDENTS AND CONTAINS ARTICLES ON "ENGLISH FOR WHAT" BY CHARLES WEINGARTNER, "ENGLISH TEACHING AND DROP-OUTS" AND "ENGLISH AND THE…

FAGAN, EDWARD R., ED.

198

“This Place Makes me Proud to be a Woman”: Theoretical explanations for success in entrepreneurship education for low-income women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite serving women who are socially and economically disadvantaged, and despite being chronically under-funded and short-staffed, Women’s Business Centers (WBCs) in the United States have been extraordinarily successful in helping women start businesses [Langowitz, N., Sharpe, N., & Godwyn, M. (2006). Women’s Business Centers in the United States: Effective entrepreneurship training and policy implementation. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship,

Mary Godwyn

2009-01-01

199

Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of a community-based comparative effectiveness trial to prevent type 2 diabetes in economically disadvantaged adults: the RAPID Study.  

PubMed

Reaching Out and Preventing Increases in Diabetes (RAPID) is a community-based randomized trial evaluating the comparative costs and effectiveness of a group-based adaption of the DPP lifestyle intervention developed and implemented in partnership with the YMCA. RAPID enrolled adult primary care patients, with BMI 24 kg/m(2) or higher and abnormal glucose metabolism (HbA1c 5.7-6.9% or fasting plasma glucose 100-125 mg/dL). 509 participants were enrolled and randomized to one of two groups: standard clinical advice plus free-of-charge access to a group-based adaption of the DPP offered by the Y, versus standard clinical advice alone. Key outcomes for future analysis will include differences in body weight and other cardiovascular risk factors over a 24-month intervention period. At baseline, RAPID participants had a mean (SD) age of 51 ± 12.1 years, weight of 225.1 ± 56.2 lbs, and BMI of 36.9 ± 8.6 kg/m(2). 70.7% were women, 57.2% were African American, 35.4% were non-Hispanic White, and 3.2% were Hispanic. Mean HbA1c was 6.05 ± 0.34%. Additionally, 55.4% of participants had a baseline systolic blood pressure of ?130 mmHg, 33.1% had a total blood cholesterol exceeding 200mg/dL, and 74% reported a household income of <$25,000. The RAPID Study successfully randomized a large cohort of participants with a wide distribution of age, body weight, and race who are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes. PMID:24177413

Ackermann, Ronald T; Finch, Emily A; Schmidt, Karen K; Hoen, Helena M; Hays, Laura M; Marrero, David G; Saha, Chandan

2014-01-01

200

Development of Literacy Follow-Up Materials for Women and Other Disadvantaged Population. Final Report of the Regional Workshop on the Preparation of Literacy Follow-Up Materials in Asia and the Pacific (9th, Islamabad, Pakistan, November 2-13, 1991).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains materials from a workshop to provide training in audiovisual materials development for women and other disadvantaged populations, such as slum dwellers, minorities, and migrants. The proceedings section contains an introduction, objective, and summaries of opening, workshop, and other presentations. Chapter 1 provides details…

Ministry of Education, Islamabad (Pakistan).

201

Maternal mortality, women's status, and economic dependency in less developed countries: a cross-national analysis.  

PubMed

While much has been written about the medical, economic, and social causes of cross-national differences in some mortality related phenomena such as in life expectancy and infant mortality, much less attention has been given to maternal mortality, the focus of the present study. In the studies of maternal mortality that have been done, there has been very little effort to assess the potential relevance of the gender stratification and dependency theory perspectives. Using lagged cross-sectional and path analysis with a sample of 79 less developed countries, this article focuses on the impact of predictors linked to three theoretical perspectives - modernization, economic dependency, and gender stratification. We find that women's status, as measured by indicators such as level of education relative to men, age at first marriage, and reproductive autonomy, is a strong predictor of maternal mortality. We find that economic dependency, especially multinational corporate investment, has a detrimental effect on maternal mortality that is mediated by its harmful impacts on economic growth and the status of women. We also find support for developmental theory, a variant of modernization theory. PMID:10414829

Shen, C; Williamson, J B

1999-07-01

202

Poverty, diet and health behaviours. A quantitative and qualitative study among young urbanised women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demographic, socio-economic, attitudinal, dietary, health behavioural and anthropometric data were collected from 221 “disadvantaged” and 74 “advantaged” women aged 18-35 years across Dublin, according to the provisions of a novel socio-economic sampling frame. Internal and external validation techniques established the dietary assessment method of choice and identified “valid” dietary reporters (n=216, 153 disadvantaged, 63 advantaged) among this sample. Five qualitative

Daniel McCartney

2008-01-01

203

Domestic Violence in the Lives of Women Receiving Welfare: Mental Health, Substance Dependence, and Economic Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from a random sample of women from the welfare caseload in an urban Michi- gan county, the authors investigate the prevalence of domestic violence and its associa- tion with mental health, health, and economic well-being. Nearly a quarter of the women experienced physical partner violence in the past 12 months, and almost two thirds in their lifetimes. Recent

RICHARD M. TOLMAN; DANIEL ROSEN

2001-01-01

204

Evaluating the Return to the Education of Women: Economic Rationale for Sex Differences in Education. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study, using a subsample of young men and women from the 1969 National Longitudinal Survey, examined the effects of differences in educational attainment on wages and occupational status by sex and race. In particular, the economic rationale for women's higher rates of high school graduation and lower rates of college attendance and graduation…

Madden, Janice Fanning

205

Gender Role Beliefs and Family Migration Decision-Making - Consequences for Married Women's Economic and Labor Force Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite significant gains in educational attainment and attitudes toward women in the labor force, women continue to lag behind men in economic and labor market success. The role of family migration in social science and policy discussions of this gender-gap has gone unnoticed, in spite of the fact that nearly 25 years ago the noted economist Jacob Mincer proposed that

Thomas Cooke

2005-01-01

206

Why do Women feel the way they do about market work: the role of familial, social and economic factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various empirical studies find evidence of that women tend to underestimate the probability that they will work in the market in the future. This can lead to initial under-investment in market human capital and resulting earnings penalties later in life. However, virtually no study investigates the familial, social and economic factors that cause women to plan\\/expect not to work. Thus

Bisakha Sen

2003-01-01

207

Access to Higher Education and Disadvantaged Young People  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will highlight the difficulties faced by qualified but disadvantaged young people in accessing higher education. This is an issue which has strong implications for education policy, economic efficiency and social justice. Over the past two decades, despite large increases in overall access to higher education, the gap in level of participation between the most affluent and most disadvantaged

ALASDAIR FORSYTH; ANDY FURLONG

2003-01-01

208

Measures of redress: Defining disadvantage in a university access programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creating alternative avenues to higher education for learners from disadvantaged educational contexts is one of several official redress objectives for South African universities attempting to rectify the injustices of apartheid. Yet how disadvantage is to be defined in a nation characterised by profound economic inequalities and the legacy of racialised political domination is not straightforward. This article presents a case

Thembisa Waetjen

2006-01-01

209

Women Are "The Key to Progress." The Situation of Women in Developing Countries and German Efforts To Improve Their Situation. IN Visitors' Information Special Report, SO 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women in developing countries carry out three-quarters of all work in rural areas, are often exposed to great health risks through frequent childbirth, and are disadvantaged compared with men in education and training. Modernization has burdened women with new responsibilities and more work but has improved health care. The economic and social…

Krugmann-Randolf, Inga

210

Theme: Teaching Academically Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Will We Serve the Academically Disadvantaged?" (Iverson); "Using Centers of Learning to Reach Academically Disadvantaged Students" (Gentry); "Georgia's Special Lamb Project Adoption Program" (Farmer); "Teacher Expectations" (Powers); "Providing Instruction for Special Populations" (Jewell); and "The Educational Reform Movement and…

Iverson, Maynard J.; And Others

1993-01-01

211

Empowering rural women's groups for strengthening economic linkages: some Indian experiments.  

PubMed

Through organizing informal self-help groups (SHGs), rural women in India are provided credit and extension support for various production-oriented income-generating activities. These activities usually include garment-making, embroidery, food processing, bee-keeping, basketry, gem cutting, weaving, and knitting. SHGs are self-governed, with decisions about production and marketing taken collectively, although the group leader is responsible for identifying potential marketing centers and consumers. These groups represent a new culture in rural development, breaking with traditional bureaucracy and top-down management. Informal groups empower rural women to manage rural industries and make decisions collectively for their common economic interests. Experience with SHGs in Orissa, lessons from nongovernmental organization intervention, and a model for empowering poor people in a small town in Kerala are discussed. PMID:12295206

Rajagopal

1999-05-01

212

Money Doesn't Talk, It Swears: How Economic Stress and Resistance Resources Impact Inner-City Women's Depressive Mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the differential impact of chronic versus acute economic stress on depressive mood among a sample of 1241 low-income, single, European and African American women. Based on Hobfoll's (1988, 1989) conservation of resources (COR) theory, we predicted that acute resource loss would be more distressing than chronic economic lack. That is, although chronically impoverished conditions are stressful, the attendant

Nicole E. Ennis; Stevan E. Hobfoll; Kerstin E. E. Schröder

2000-01-01

213

Women's Electoral Participation in Egypt: The Implications of Gender for Voter Recruitment and Mobilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

To what extent do gender considerations impact voter recruitment strategies in Middle Eastern elections? Based on an examination of voting behavior in Egypt, we find that clientelist voter recruitment tends to empower women economically rather than politically as elections provide an opportunity for disadvantaged women to sell their vote to local vote brokers or offer their vote to a local

Lisa Blaydes

2009-01-01

214

Women and Sustainability: Creating Community based literacy for climate solutions Women are particularly vulnerable to economic downturns and the impacts of climate change may  

E-print Network

are particularly vulnerable to economic downturns and the impacts of climate change may increase that vulnerability. Water is the biggest limiting factor in Colorado and climate change is anticipated to reduce its Accord (2009) acknowledges disproportionate impacts of climate change on women in developing countries

Boone, Randall B.

215

Making a livelihood at the fish-landing site: exploring the pursuit of economic independence amongst Ugandan women  

PubMed Central

Qualitative life history data were used to explore the experiences of women who live at five fish-landing sites on Lake Victoria, Uganda. We explored what economic and social opportunities women have in order to try to understand why some women are more vulnerable to violence and other risks than others and why some women are able to create successful enterprises while others struggle to make a living. The ability of women to create a viable livelihood at the landing sites was influenced by a wide variety of factors. Women who had or were able to access capital when they arrived at the landing site to set up their own enterprise had a significant advantage over those who did not, particularly in avoiding establishing sexual relationships in order to get support. Being able to establish their own business enabled women to avoid lower paid and more risky work such as fish processing and selling or working in bars. The development of landing sites and the leisure industry may be having an impact on how women earn money at the landing sites, with the most desirable economic opportunities not necessarily being connected directly to fishing.

Pearson, Georgina; Barratt, Caroline; Seeley, Janet; Ssetaala, Ali; Nabbagala, Georgina; Asiki, Gershim

2013-01-01

216

The Long Term Economic Impact of Severe Obstetric Complications for Women and Their Children in Burkina Faso  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the long term economic impact of severe obstetric complications for women and their children in Burkina Faso, focusing on measures of food security, expenditures and related quality of life measures. It uses a hospital based cohort, first visited in 2004/2005 and followed up four years later. This cohort of 1014 women consisted of two main groups of comparison: 677 women who had an uncomplicated delivery and 337 women who experienced a severe obstetric complication which would have almost certainly caused death had they not received hospital care (labelled a “near miss” event). To analyze the impact of such near miss events as well as the possible interaction with the pregnancy outcome, we compared household and individual level indicators between women without a near miss event and women with a near miss event who either had a live birth, a perinatal death or an early pregnancy loss. We used propensity score matching to remove initial selection bias. Although we found limited effects for the whole group of near miss women, the results indicated negative impacts: a) for near miss women with a live birth, on child development and education, on relatively expensive food consumption and on women’s quality of life; b) for near miss women with perinatal death, on relatively expensive foods consumption and children’s education and c) for near miss women who had an early pregnancy loss, on overall food security. Our results showed that severe obstetric complications have long lasting consequences for different groups of women and their children and highlighted the need for carefully targeted interventions. PMID:24224028

Ilboudo, Patrick G. C.; Russell, Steve; D'Exelle, Ben

2013-01-01

217

Educational Inequalities in Women’s Depressive Symptoms: The Mediating Role of Perceived Neighbourhood Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Socio-economically disadvantaged (e.g., less educated) women are at a greater risk of depression compared to less disadvantaged women. However, little is known regarding the factors that may explain socioeconomic inequalities in risk of depression. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of perceived neighbourhood factors in mediating the relationship between education and women’s risk of depression. Cross-sectional data were provided by 4,065 women (aged 18–45). Women self-reported their education level, depressive symptoms (CES-D 10), as well as four neighbourhood factors (i.e., interpersonal trust, social cohesion, neighbourhood safety, and aesthetics). Single and multiple mediating analyses were conducted. Clustering by neighbourhood of residence was adjusted by using a robust estimator of variance. Multiple mediating analyses revealed that interpersonal trust was the only neighbourhood characteristic found to partly explain the educational inequalities in women’s depressive symptoms. Social cohesion, neighbourhood aesthetics and safety were not found to mediate this relationship. Acknowledging the cross-sectional nature of this study, findings suggest that strategies to promote interpersonal trust within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods may help to reduce the educational inequalities in risk of depression amongst women. Further longitudinal and intervention studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:23330219

Teychenne, Megan; Ball, Kylie; Salmon, Jo

2012-01-01

218

Adolescent Fertility and the Educational Attainment of Young Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

then public policies that focus on reduc- ing teenage pregnancy and childbearing may do little to improve the life chances of many disadvantaged young women. Proving, or disproving, the theory that teenage childbearing undermines a wom- an's chances of social and economic suc- cess in adulthood is essential if policies to reduce poverty and welfare dependence are to be grounded

Daniel H. Klepinger; Shelly Lundberg; Robert D. Plotnick

1995-01-01

219

Teaching Literature to the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation proposes a strategy for teaching literature to disadvantaged students. These students are characterized by an inadequate self-concept, a lack of social skills, restricted language development, and behavior motivated by immediate needs. Most of the disadvantaged are Negroes, Puerto Ricans, Mexicans, and Appalachian whites. A…

Bachner, Saul

220

The long term economic impact of severe obstetric complications for women and their children in Burkina Faso.  

PubMed

This study investigates the long term economic impact of severe obstetric complications for women and their children in Burkina Faso, focusing on measures of food security, expenditures and related quality of life measures. It uses a hospital based cohort, first visited in 2004/2005 and followed up four years later. This cohort of 1014 women consisted of two main groups of comparison: 677 women who had an uncomplicated delivery and 337 women who experienced a severe obstetric complication which would have almost certainly caused death had they not received hospital care (labelled a "near miss" event). To analyze the impact of such near miss events as well as the possible interaction with the pregnancy outcome, we compared household and individual level indicators between women without a near miss event and women with a near miss event who either had a live birth, a perinatal death or an early pregnancy loss. We used propensity score matching to remove initial selection bias. Although we found limited effects for the whole group of near miss women, the results indicated negative impacts: a) for near miss women with a live birth, on child development and education, on relatively expensive food consumption and on women's quality of life; b) for near miss women with perinatal death, on relatively expensive foods consumption and children's education and c) for near miss women who had an early pregnancy loss, on overall food security. Our results showed that severe obstetric complications have long lasting consequences for different groups of women and their children and highlighted the need for carefully targeted interventions. PMID:24224028

Ilboudo, Patrick G C; Russell, Steve; D'Exelle, Ben

2013-01-01

221

Reclaiming the fairy tale as a feminist genre among contemporary British women writers: a discussion of motherhood, economics, and marriage  

E-print Network

, and simultaneously addressing issues of economic status that force women to marry. Because the publications in this study occur within a thirteen-year time period (1977-90), they suggest a cultural motivation for the uniformity of the revisions. The value...

Holcombe, Heather E

2013-02-22

222

The Effect of Integrated Basic Education Programs on Women's Social and Economic Well-Being in Bolivia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large-scale longitudinal study in Bolivia examined the relationship between adult women's basic education and their social and economic well-being and development. A random sample of 1,600 participants and 600 nonparticipants, aged 15-45, was tracked for 3 years (the final sample included 717 participants and 224 controls). The four adult…

Hua, Haiyan; Burchfield, Shirley

223

Women Empowerment and Participation in Economic Activities: Indispensable Tools for Self-Reliance and Development of Nigerian Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of the study was to examine women empowerment and participation in economic activities as tools for self-reliance and development of the Nigerian society. Research questions and hypothesis were used to guide the study. Structured questionnaire was used as the major instrument for data collection. Copies of questionnaires were…

E. N., Ekesionye; A. N., Okolo

2012-01-01

224

Influential Factors on Choice of Home Economics as a Major for Black and White Women Attending Land-Grant Colleges in the Southern Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative importance of selected significant other, social origin, and curricular-related educational and work experience variables on choice of major was determined. A stepwise form of discriminant analysis was used to distinguish black women (N = 1198) majoring in home economics at predominantly black land-grant colleges from white women (N = 1005) majoring in home economics at predominantly white institutions

Betty L. Stout; Anne L. Huber; Treva M. Babcock; Thomas A. Lyson; Victoria R. LeNoir; Leola Adams

1981-01-01

225

Marital Quality for Men and Women in Stepfamilies: Examining the Role of Economic Pressure, Common Stressors, and Stepfamily-Specific Stressors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although economic pressure and family stress models have been examined with samples of men and women in first marriages, previous models have neglected to focus on men and women in stepfamilies and to examine stress sources unique to stepfamilies. This study examines the effect of economic pressure on both common stressors and stepfamily-specific…

Schramm, David G.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca

2012-01-01

226

Women in Transition, 1983. Hearing before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on Examination of Problems Faced by Women in Transition from Work without Pay to Economic Self-Sufficiency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a Congressional hearing on an examination of problems faced by women in transition from work without pay to economic self-sufficiency. Testimony includes statements from individuals representing the Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor; the Career Training Program, Women's Center, Enterprise State Junior College, Alabama; the National…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

227

48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Small Disadvantaged Business Certification and Eligibility...Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Report...accomplished through using the Electronic Subcontracting Reporting...System's Small Disadvantaged Business Participation...

2010-10-01

228

HIV infection in disadvantaged out-of-school youth: prevalence for U.S. Job Corps entrants, 1990 through 1996.  

PubMed

To describe HIV infection prevalence and prevalence trends for disadvantaged out-of-school youth in the United States, we analyzed the HIV prevalence for and demographic characteristics of youth, aged 16 through 21 years, who entered the U.S. Job Corps from January 1990 through December 1996. Job Corps is a federally funded jobs training program for socially and economically disadvantaged out-of-school youth. All 357,443 entrants residing at Job Corps centers during their training were tested for HIV infection; 822 (2.3 per 1000) were HIV-positive. HIV prevalence was higher for women than for men (2.8 per 1000 versus 2.0 per 1000; relative risk [RR]=1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.2-1.6). Among racial/ethnic groups, prevalence was highest for African Americans (3.8 per 1000). Prevalence was higher for African American women (4.9 per 1000) than for any other gender and racial/ethnic group. From 1990 through 1996, standardized HIV prevalence-stratified by age, race/ethnicity, home region, population of home metropolitan statistical area, and year of entry--declined for women and for men: for women, from 4.1 per 1000 in 1990 to 2.1 per 1000 in 1996 (p=.001); and for men, from 2.8 per 1000 in 1990 to 1.4 per 1000 in 1996 (p=.001). These data suggest that HIV prevalence for disadvantaged out-of-school youth declined from 1990 through 1996. However, considering their youth, prevalence was still high, particularly for women and African Americans, most notably African American women. These data support the need for ongoing HIV prevention programs targeting such youth. PMID:9732072

Valleroy, L A; MacKellar, D A; Karon, J M; Janssen, R S; Hayman, C R

1998-09-01

229

28 CFR 0.18a - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Attorney General, who shall be responsible to, and report directly...Director shall: (a) Be responsible for the implementation and...businesses owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged...businesses owned and controlled by socially and economically...

2010-07-01

230

Lightening the load for women.  

PubMed

Research is confirming the fact that women suffer more from poverty than men and that the consequences of poverty in women are felt for succeeding generations. Female poverty is linked to the rise of female-headed households with children to support. Also, between 1965 and 1988, the number of rural women living in poverty rose 51% versus 41% for men. As women have sought low-income employment or spent more of their time in unpaid community work to compensate for government cutbacks associated with structural adjustment programs, a vicious cycle of poverty has developed. Overburdened women workers hand over child care responsibilities to their oldest daughters who must then leave school, thus ensuring a continuation of the cycle of poverty. On the other hand, women's employment has a more positive effect on their children's health and nutrition than does a father's earnings. Women prefer to invest their earnings to insure the well-being of their children; therefore, the earnings of women have greater benefit to society at large than the earnings of men. It is likely that women must earn a certain level of income to avoid perpetuating poverty. Policies should be implemented that enforce the virtuous cycle of investment in children instead of the vicious cycle of deprivation. Agricultural policies should target poor farmers and give women farmers access to land, credit, and technical assistance; financial policies should promote the growth of small enterprises and foster entrepreneurship among women; and labor-intensive economic growth policies should be "pro-poor." Policy-oriented research will be necessary in such areas as the dynamics of families headed by women, the transmission of disadvantage between mothers and children, changes in women's work which occur with changes in economic conditions, and analyses of the consequences of targeting interventions to women who are heads of households and poor women. PMID:12319335

Buvinic, M

1995-01-01

231

Women in Management in the New Economic Environment: The Case of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liberalization of the Indian economy has created considerable employment opportunities for those, including women, who possess marketable??skills and talent. Historically, women in India have not enjoyed a good status in workplace settings whether in managerial or operative roles. This traditional positioning of women has restricted the intensity of their efforts towards realizing the benefits of the globalisation process. An attempt

PAWAN S. BUDHWAR; DEBI S. SAINI; JYOTSNA BHATNAGAR

2005-01-01

232

Government policies, industry/economics, social trends, and educational opportunities in 'women's decisions to work outside versus inside the home.  

PubMed

Research on the career decision processes of women has focused primarily on internal considerations such as mathematical ability, intelligence, and self-esteem; however, the external environment also has an influence on these processes. To date, the environmental factors have primarily been researched separately, if at all. They include government policies, industry/economics, social trends/expected sex roles, and educational opportunities. This pilot study investigated these four external factors simultaneously. In addition, a survey of literature on career decision indicated such research to be based on a limited pool of highly educated, management/professional women. This study also uses a wider group including housewives, blue collar, and pink collar women. PMID:12585520

Bosco, Susan M

2002-12-01

233

Disadvantaged persons' participation in health promotion projects: some structural dimensions.  

PubMed

A structural perspective was used in studying community participation of disadvantaged groups (poor women, street youth, and disabled persons) in health promotion projects. Five community projects in the Canadian Health Promotion Contribution Program were examined in a comparative case study utilizing in-depth interviews, documents, and secondary sources. Analysis revealed relatively low numbers and restricted range of participants, difficulties in recruiting and maintaining participants, declining rates of active participation over time, and limited target group influence and power. This paper reports on the relationship between various dimensions of structure (social-cultural, organizational, political-legal-economic) and the community participation process. Participation was influenced by structural factors such as bureaucratic rules and regulators, perceived minority group rights and relations, agency reputations and responsibilities, available resources, and organizational roles. Control of projects by target group members, rather than by service agencies, was an important overall organizational structural factor which allowed community members to achieve influence in projects. The study concludes that a conceptual model based on structural factors is useful in explaining how key factors from federal and local levels can restrict or facilitate the community participation process. PMID:11314851

Boyce, W F

2001-05-01

234

Money, men and markets: Economic and sexual empowerment of market women in southwestern Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market trading requires access to cash, independent decision?making, mobility and social interaction. This study sought to explore whether market work empowers women with respect to spending decisions and negotiation over sex and condom?use. A semi?structured questionnaire was administered to 212 market women; and 12 focus group discussions and 52 in?depths interviews were conducted among market women in southwestern Uganda. Market

Barbara Nyanzi; Stella Nyanzi; Brent Wolff; James Whitworth

2005-01-01

235

Gender norms, poverty and armed conflict in Côte D'Ivoire: engaging men in women's social and economic empowerment programming.  

PubMed

Engaging men is a critical component in efforts to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV). Little is known regarding men's perspectives of approaches that challenge inequitable gender norms, particularly in settings impacted by armed conflict. This article describes men's experiences with a women's empowerment program and highlights men's perceptions of gender norms, poverty and armed conflict, as they relate to achieving programmatic goals. Data are from 32 Ivorian men who participated in indepth interviews in 2012. Interviews were undertaken as part of an intervention that combined gender dialogue groups for both women and their male partners with women's only village savings and loans programs to reduce IPV against women. Findings suggested that in the context of armed conflict, traditional gender norms and economic stressors experienced by men challenged fulfillment of gender roles and threatened men's sense of masculinity. Men who participated in gender dialogue groups discussed their acceptance of programming and identified improvements in their relationships with their female partners. These men further discussed increased financial planning along with their partners, and attributed such increases to the intervention. Addressing men's perceptions of masculinity, poverty and armed conflict may be key components to reduce men's violence against women in conflict-affected settings. PMID:25274720

Falb, K L; Annan, J; King, E; Hopkins, J; Kpebo, D; Gupta, J

2014-12-01

236

NASA Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) within NASA promotes the utilization of small, disadvantaged, and women-owned small businesses in compliance with Federal laws, regulations, and policies. We assist such firms in obtaining contracts and subcontracts with NASA and its prime contractors. The OSDBU also facilitates the participation of small businesses in NASA's technology transfer and commercialization activities. Our driving philosophy is to consider small businesses as our products. Our customers are the NASA Enterprises, Field Centers, Functional Staff Offices, major prime contractors, and other large institutions. We hone the skills of our products to make them marketable to our customers in the performance of NASA missions.

2001-01-01

237

The Disadvantaged and His Milieu.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report comprises a critical analysis of research in the area of the disadvantaged student, mostly on population characteristics and on educational programs offered them. Much of the research on such factors as genetic and environmental influences, verbal ability, motivation, school achievement, attrition rate, demographic characteristics,…

Gordon, Edmund W.

238

Non-Intellectual Correlates of Attrition Among Disadvantaged Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study described in this report was conducted in order to determine the effects of self concept and selected demographic and economic variables on attrition. Data are drawn from a group of 74 disadvantaged adult students who enrolled in a college preparatory program at the Syracuse Educational Opportunity Center (S.E.O.C.). Demographic…

Wingate, James G.

239

The Early Childhood Education of Disadvantaged Children in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2010, the Chinese government has adopted a series of services and policies to provide early childhood education for disadvantaged children. The rapid economic development and urbanisation process since the mid-1980s have led to great changes in social structure and demographics in China. This creates new challenges for the education of…

Song, Zhanmei; Zhu, Jiaxiong; Xia, Zhuyun; Wu, Xin

2014-01-01

240

Against the Odds: Disadvantaged Students Who Succeed in School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report explores the factors and conditions that could help more students succeed at school despite challenging socio-economic backgrounds. It does this by studying resilient students and what sets them apart from their less successful peers. Understanding how educational systems can support disadvantaged students and help them "beat the odds"…

OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

2011-01-01

241

The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response.…

Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

2013-01-01

242

Virtues of SIN: Can Intensified Public Efforts Help Disadvantaged Immigrants?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The labor market integration of immigrants is a top political priority throughout the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Social and fiscal gains, as well as sustained future labor supply make governments search for effective policies to increase employment among the mostly disadvantaged. The author studies SIN,…

Aslund, Olof; Johansson, Per

2011-01-01

243

Trends in Educational Disadvantage in Dutch Primary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central question in this study is whether the language and math delays of the different socio-economic and ethnic minority groups targeted by Dutch educational disadvantage policy have diminished or not. Data are from the years 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2008. Information from a total of 90,000 pupils in Grades 2 and 8 was selected to represent the…

Driessen, Geert; Merry, Michael S.

2014-01-01

244

Research Overview: Economics At the Women's Foundation of Minnesota, we know that  

E-print Network

with the Women's Foundation of Minnesota. #12;Minnesota's higher education system remains gendered. Business opportunity, including access to education, employment, workforce development, and child care. From unequal or low wages to work-family balance, addressing these barriers will improve the lives of women and of all

Blanchette, Robert A.

245

The impact of intimate partner violence on low-income women's economic well-being: the mediating role of job stability.  

PubMed

This study sought to extend our understanding of the mechanisms by which intimate partner violence (IPV) harms women economically. We examined the mediating role of job instability on the IPV-economic well-being relationship among 503 welfare recipients. IPV had significant negative effects on women's job stability and economic well-being. Job stability was at least partly responsible for the deleterious economic consequences of IPV, and the effects lasted up to three years after the IPV ended. This study demonstrates the need for services and policies that address barriers to employment as a means of improving the economic well-being of low-income women with abusive partners. PMID:23419274

Adams, Adrienne E; Tolman, Richard M; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M; Kennedy, Angie C

2012-12-01

246

HOW DOES ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT AFFECT WOMEN'S RISK OF INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN LOW AND MIDDLE INCOME COUNTRIES? A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF PUBLISHED EVIDENCEy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To identify whether individual and household economic empowerment is associated with lower intimate partner violence in low and middle income country settings. Methods: Systematic PubMed and internet searches. Results: Published data from 41 sites were reviewed. Household assets and women's higher education were generally protective. Evidence about women's involvement in income generation and experience of past year violence was

SEEMA VYAS; CHARLOTTE WATTS

247

Freestanding midwifery units versus obstetric units: does the effect of place of birth differ with level of social disadvantage?  

PubMed Central

Background Social inequity in perinatal and maternal health is a well-documented health problem even in countries with a high level of social equality. We aimed to study whether the effect of birthplace on perinatal and maternal morbidity, birth interventions and use of pain relief among low risk women intending to give birth in two freestanding midwifery units (FMU) versus two obstetric units in Denmark differed by level of social disadvantage. Methods The study was designed as a cohort study with a matched control group. It included 839 low-risk women intending to give birth in an FMU, who were prospectively and individually matched on nine selected obstetric/socio-economic factors to 839 low-risk women intending OU birth. Educational level was chosen as a proxy for social position. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results Women intending to give birth in an FMU had a significantly higher likelihood of uncomplicated, spontaneous birth with good outcomes for mother and infant compared to women intending to give birth in an OU. The likelihood of intact perineum, use of upright position for birth and water birth was also higher. No difference was found in perinatal morbidity or third/fourth degree tears, while birth interventions including caesarean section and epidural analgesia were significantly less frequent among women intending to give birth in an FMU. In our sample of healthy low-risk women with spontaneous onset of labour at term after an uncomplicated pregnancy, the positive results of intending to give birth in an FMU as compared to an OU were found to hold for both women with post-secondary education and the potentially vulnerable group of FMU women without post-secondary education. In all cases, women without post-secondary education intending to give birth in an FMU had comparable and, in some respects, more favourable outcomes when compared to women with the same level of education intending to give birth in an OU. In this sample of low-risk women, we found that the effect of intended place on birth outcomes did not differ with women’s level of education. Conclusion FMU care appears to offer important benefits for birthing women with no additional risk to the infant. Both for women with and without post-secondary education, intending to give birth in an FMU significantly increased the likelihood of a spontaneous, uncomplicated birth with good outcomes for mother and infant compared to women intending to give birth in an OU. All women should be provided with adequate information about different care models and supported in making an informed decision about the place of birth. PMID:22726575

2012-01-01

248

Young Disadvantaged Men as Fathers  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the existing literature on young disadvantaged fathers’ involvement with children. It first outlines the predominant theoretical perspectives regarding father involvement among resident (married and cohabiting) biological fathers, resident social fathers (unrelated romantic partners of children’s mothers), and nonresident biological fathers. Second, it presents a brief discussion of the ways in which fathers contribute to childrearing. Third, it describes the socioeconomic characteristics of men who enter fatherhood at a young age, highlighting that they tend to be socioeconomically disadvantaged. Fourth, it reviews the empirical research on both antecedents of father involvement and patterns of involvement across father types. Finally, it describes the limitations of existing research and provides suggestions for future research and policy. PMID:21643452

Berger, Lawrence M.; Langton, Callie

2010-01-01

249

Empowering Women: The Role of Economic Development, Political Culture and Institutional Design in the World’s Societies  

E-print Network

conditions and attitudes that structure women’s leadershipto rising attitudes supportive of women’s social andand attitudes determinant of broader social equality between genders in ways that facilitate or restrict women

Alexander, Amy C.

2007-01-01

250

women  

Microsoft Academic Search

background: More than 15 million women, many of reproductive age, were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at the end of 2007. As the HIV epidemic evolves, heterosexual intercourse is increasingly risky: the risk of infection in exposed young women is 4- to 7-fold higher than in young men and nearly half a million newborns annually have HIV. This review

Oskari Heikinheimo; Pekka Lahteenmaki

2002-01-01

251

Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and adult disorders Why do children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families suffer  

E-print Network

socioeconomic disadvantage and adult disorders 2 Approved abbreviations: Confidence Interval: CI; Relative RiskChildhood socioeconomic disadvantage and adult disorders 1 Why do children from socioeconomically, University of Otago, New Zealand Running title: Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and adult disorders

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

252

Toward improving identification of talent potential among minority and disadvantaged students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The under?inclusion of economically disadvantaged and children of minority cultures in programs for the gifted is well documented. Suggestions are made for the elements of anew paradigm for identifying talent potential in underserved populations. In coming to grips with more effective approaches to the identification and development of talents among minority and disadvantaged gifted, educators will better understand how to

A. Harry Passow; Mary M. Frasier

1996-01-01

253

Hopelessness as Mediator of the Link Between Reports of a History of Child Maltreatment and Suicidality in African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Findings from a study comparing reports of a history of child maltreatment and hopelessness in a sample of economically, socially, and educationally disadvantaged young urban African American women suicide attempters (n = 176) and demographically similar nonattempters (n = 185) revealed higher rates of child maltreatment and hopelessness among attempters than those among their nonsuicidal counterparts. Using a mediational model

Lindi A. Meadows; Nadine J. Kaslow

2002-01-01

254

Gendering Peace and Liberation: A Participatory-Action Approach to Critical Consciousness Acquisition Among Women in a Marginalized Neighborhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many women from marginalized neighborhoods suffer injustices and structural violence due to patriarchal and macho-dominated culture as well as injustices stemming from precarious economic and social conditions (Christie, 2006) . Their disadvantageous living conditions coupled with multiple levels of exclusion have a negative impact upon their well-being at the personal, relational, and community levels. In the field of community psychology,

Violeta Luque-Ribelles; Nelson Portillo

255

THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD--ISSUES AND INNOVATIONS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PART ONE OF THIS COLLECTION OF PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED ARTICLES CONTAINS DISCUSSIONS OF THE DEFINITIONS OF "THE DISADVANTAGED" AND OF THE SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM OF POVERTY. THE ARTICLES IN PART TWO DISCUSS THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DISADVANTAGED, THE ETIOLOGY OF SCHOOL DROPOUT, A SOCIOLOGICAL VIEWPOINT ON THE EDUCATION OF CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED

FROST, JOE L.; HAWKES, GLENN R.

256

Schooling Disadvantaged Children: Racing against Catastrophe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating disadvantaged students will demand a national commitment to increasing the resources devoted to the task, restructuring the schools in which the disadvantaged are educated, and conducting research needed to make those schools more effective. Educationally disadvantaged students have been exposed to insufficient educational experiences in…

Natriello, Gary; And Others

257

EDUCATING THE DISADVANTAGED--TRENDS AND PROSPECTS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

COMPENSATORY AND DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION IS EMPHASIZED AS THE MAJOR MOVING FORCE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED. THE DEVELOPMENT OF DISADVANTAGED PEOPLE IS NECESSARY FOR THE CONTINUED GROWTH OF THEIR COMMUNITIES, PROGRAMS SHOULD BE DEVELOPED WHICH INVOLVE DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AT EVERY STAGE OF THEIR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. TO THAT END,…

BRAZZIEL, WILLIAM F.

258

76 FR 8221 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...its owners and managers will most often...who qualify as socially and economically...the concern is a responsible business for the...the disadvantaged manager works for the firm...as the project manager responsible for...

2011-02-11

259

Coresidence with Parents, Women's Economic Resources, and the Transition to Marriage in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrating three theoretical explanations for declining rates of marriage in Japan, the authors develop hypotheses in which linkages between benefits of coresidence with parents and marriage timing are moderated by women's own socioeconomic characteristics. To evaluate these hypothesized interactive relationships, data from a panel survey of…

Raymo, James M.; Ono, Hiromi

2007-01-01

260

Jobs: women's double burden.  

PubMed

Whereas international conventions and national laws provide equal opportunities for women in employment, the reality of women's lives keeps a disproportionate number of women unemployed, underemployed, and living in poverty. The UN itself, which officially is working toward equity among its employees, has a staff composed of just 32.6% women, and women comprise only 10.5% of the top end of the hierarchy. In areas where women's labor force participation has increased dramatically, women typically earn 30-40% less than men doing the same job or else their employment is limited to "traditional female" service positions. The fact that women and girls have received an inadequate education makes it extremely difficult to break the barriers of discrimination in developing countries. The empowerment of women will break the education barrier, and, when that falls, many other barriers will follow suit. Efforts are already underway to break structural barriers caused by economic and social policies. For example, a more flexible pattern of work has been proposed which will include the voluntary assumption of flexible hours, job-sharing, and part-time work. The concept of work is also being broadened to include the important human services that women traditionally provide on a volunteer basis. This will lead to a valuation of women's contribution to society which can be added to calculations of gross domestic product. Women also need protection as they attempt to eke out a living in the informal sector which has been the traditional avenue for women to earn money. This sector is not protected by law and is subject to extortion by officials and by male competitors. A variety of measures is under consideration to increase the protection of informal sector workers. Women also need protection in the conventional work place, especially as they enter fields traditionally reserved for men. These questions are important even in the context of global unemployment because these issues must be addressed or their resolution to women's disadvantage will gain the mantle of tradition. PMID:12157784

1995-01-01

261

Multimodal exercise improves quality of life of women being treated for breast cancer, but at what cost? Randomized trial with economic evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the efficacy and economic efficiency of a multimedia, multimodal physical activity program for women undergoing\\u000a adjuvant therapy following surgery for breast cancer. We conducted a randomized trial with concurrent incremental cost-effectiveness\\u000a analysis and blinded baseline, 3, 6 and 12-month follow-up assessments amongst women undergoing adjuvant therapy following\\u000a surgery for breast cancer (n = 89). The intervention was a multimedia, multimodal

Terry P. Haines; Patricia Sinnamon; Neil G. Wetzig; Margot Lehman; Euan Walpole; Tony Pratt; Amanda Smith

2010-01-01

262

The short-term, medium-term, and long-term economic performance of immigrant women in Canada and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies and compares the factors that influence the short-term, medium-term, and long-term employment income\\u000a of immigrant women in Canada and the United States. It is widely documented that immigrant women in both countries face barriers\\u000a to employment, high status occupational attainment, and reasonable economic returns to their education, but studies typically\\u000a fail to consider the various stages of

Lori Wilkinson; Tracey Peter; Renuka Chaturvedi

2006-01-01

263

Race and Ethnicity During an Economic Transition: The Withdrawal of Puerto Rican Women from New York City's Labour Force, 1960–1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

DAPONTE B. O. (1996) Race and ethnicity during an economic transition: the withdrawal of Puerto Rican women from New York City's Labour Force, 1960–1980, Reg. Studies30, 151–166. This research shows how broad shifts in the demand for labour can affect racial and ethnic groups differently. Specifically, the paper investigates why, in the 1960s, Puerto Rican women withdrew from the labour

Beth Osborne Daponte

1996-01-01

264

Exploring relations between crime and disadvantage on merseyside  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sets out some of the conceptual and methodological issues underpinning a two-year study into relations between crime and disadvantage in Merseyside, northwest England. The study forms part of the British Economic and Social Research Council's (ESRC) Crime and Social Order Research Programme; a five-year initiative with resources of 2.1 million pounds funding 21 separate projects (ESRC, 1994). Merseyside,

A. Hirschfield; K. J. Bowers; P. J. B. Brown

1995-01-01

265

Economic comparison of diagnostic approaches for evaluating osteoporosis in older women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the technologies available, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the hip or femoral neck (DXA-FN) is the best predictor of hip fractures. Diagnostic approaches utilizing measures of peripheral sites with office-based technology, such as calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS), may reduce costs although clinical and economic outcomes have not been evaluated. The objective was to compare three approaches for diagnosing osteoporosis in

Dale F. Kraemer; Heidi D. Nelson; Douglas C. Bauer; Mark Helfand

2006-01-01

266

The economic burden shouldered by public and private entities as a consequence of health disparities between men and women.  

PubMed

On average, American men live shorter, less healthy lives than women. They are more likely to be the victim of a violent crime, die in a car crash, commit suicide, and be injured at work. In addition, men have higher death rates in 9 of the top 10 causes of death, and are less likely to receive routine preventative care, leaving men with a life span that is significantly shorter than women's. Recently, policy makers and researchers have been paying more attention to health disparities including race, sex, and ethnicity. However, men are still noticeably absent from these discussions despite being significantly harmed by disparities in preventive care, quality of life, and overall health outcomes. Ignoring these disparities is costly in terms of lost productivity, lives lost, and financial costs incurred by the government and employers each year. Premature death and morbidity in men costs federal, state, and local governments in excess of $142 billion annually. It also costs U.S.employers and society as a whole in excess of $156 billion annually in direct medical payments and lost productivity and an additional $181 billion annually in decreased quality of life. As federal and state governments and the private sector struggle with increasing health entitlement burdens-including escalating health care costs-eliminating male health inequities emerges as an important source of savings. This analysis will examine the economic and intangible costs associated with the health disparities that exist between genders and the benefits reaped if these disparities are reduced or eliminated. PMID:22064880

Brott, Armin; Dougherty, Adam; Williams, Scott T; Matope, Janet H; Fadich, Ana; Taddelle, Muguleta

2011-11-01

267

Personal, social and environmental correlates of healthy weight status amongst mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: findings from the READI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers are at high risk of obesity, yet the aetiology of obesity in this group remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the perceived personal, social and physical environmental factors associated with resilience to obesity among mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. METHODS: Survey data were provided by a cohort of 1840 women aged

Abbie MacFarlane; Gavin Abbott; David Crawford; Kylie Ball

2010-01-01

268

Economic Risk Factors for HIV Infection Among Women in Rural Haiti: Implications for HIV Prevention Policies and Programs in Resource-Poor Settings  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims The goals of this study were to (1) estimate the prevalence of HIV infection among women accessing services at a women's health center in rural Haiti and (2) to identify economic risk factors for HIV infection in this population. Methods Women who accessed healthcare services at this center between June 1999 and December 2002 were recruited to participate. The analysis was based on data from a case-control study of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in rural Haiti. HIV prevalence in the study population was 4%. Results In multivariate analyses, partner occupation was associated with HIV infection in women, with mechanic (OR 9.0, 95% CI 1.8-45) and market vendor (OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.6-11) reflecting the strongest partner occupational risk factors. Partner's occupation as a farmer reduced the risk of infection in women by 60% (95% CI 0.14-1.1). Factors indicating low socioeconomic status (SES), such as food insecurity (OR 2.0, 95% CI 0.75-5.6) and using charcoal for cooking (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.72-3.8) suggested an association with HIV infection. Conclusions Given pervasive gender inequality in Haiti, women's economic security often relies on their partners' income earning activities. Our findings show that although factors reflecting poverty are associated with HIV-positive status, stronger associations are observed for women whose partners indicated a more secure occupation (e.g., mechanic or market vendor). Policies and programs that expand access to education and economic opportunities for women and girls may have long-term implications for HIV prevention in Haiti and other resource-poor settings. PMID:20380576

Lambert, W.; Boehm, F.; Finkelstein, J.L.; Singler, J.M.; Leandre, F.; Nevil, P.; Bertrand, D.; Claude, M.S.; Bertrand, J.; Louissaint, M.; Jeannis, L.; Farmer, P.E.; Yang, A.T.; Mukherjee, J.S.

2010-01-01

269

Toward a New Model of Fertility: The Effects of the World Economic System and the Status of Women on Fertility Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A relationship exists between high birth rates and the lowered status of women in developing nations, resulting from their country's economic development. Research was based on data from various sources on 34 developed nations and 92 developing nations throughout the world. Variables included income inequality, foreign trade structure and…

Ward, Kathryn B.

270

Interpreting the Economic Growth and Development Policies of Post-Apartheid South Africa: Its Influence on Higher Education and Prospects for Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation is structured as a critical policy analysis employing historical methods. It examines how the post apartheid government's economic growth and development polices have informed the higher education system and how this has changed women's financial, occupational, political, social, and educational prospects in South Africa. Through…

Eynon, Diane E.

2010-01-01

271

Food subsidy programs and the health and nutritional status of disadvantaged families in high income countries: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Less healthy diets are common in high income countries, although proportionally higher in those of low socio-economic status. Food subsidy programs are one strategy to promote healthy nutrition and to reduce socio-economic inequalities in health. This review summarises the evidence for the health and nutritional impacts of food subsidy programs among disadvantaged families from high income countries. Methods Relevant studies reporting dietary intake or health outcomes were identified through systematic searching of electronic databases. Cochrane Public Health Group guidelines informed study selection and interpretation. A narrative synthesis was undertaken due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity of study design and outcomes. Results Fourteen studies were included, with most reporting on the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in the USA. Food subsidy program participants, mostly pregnant or postnatal women, were shown to have 10–20% increased intake of targeted foods or nutrients. Evidence for the effectiveness of these programs for men or children was lacking. The main health outcome observed was a small but clinically relevant increase in mean birthweight (23–29g) in the two higher quality WIC studies. Conclusions Limited high quality evidence of the impacts of food subsidy programs on the health and nutrition of adults and children in high income countries was identified. The improved intake of targeted nutrients and foods, such as fruit and vegetables, could potentially reduce the rate of non-communicable diseases in adults, if the changes in diet are sustained. Associated improvements in perinatal outcomes were limited and most evident in women who smoked during pregnancy. Thus, food subsidy programs for pregnant women and children should aim to focus on improving nutritional status in the longer term. Further prospective studies and economic analyses are needed to confirm the health benefits and justify the investment in food subsidy programs. PMID:23256601

2012-01-01

272

Special Counseling for the Disadvantaged Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to aid teachers and administrators who have not had special training in counseling and who are working in educational programs for the disadvantaged adult. Subject areas discussed are: The Counselor and the Client (Duties of the Counselor; Areas of Assistance for the Client); Who Are the Disadvantaged (Characteristics of the…

Kaple, Donald J.; Kaple, Marion Keeler

273

HANDBOOK, TEACHING SCIENCE TO EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DESCRIBED ARE PROCEDURES AND LABORATORY MATERIALS WHICH ARE OUTGROWTHS OF A RESEARCH PROJECT OF THE SOUTHEASTERN EDUCATION LABORATORY FOR THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE TO DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS IN GRADES 7, 8, AND 9. PART 1 DEALS WITH THE CRITERIA USED IN DEVELOPING PROCEDURES AND MATERIALS FOR USE WITH EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED. INCLUDED ARE (1) THE…

BINGHAM, N.E.; AND OTHERS

274

Marriageable Women: A Focus on Participants in a Community Healthy Marriage Program  

PubMed Central

Although disadvantaged women are the targets of marriage programs, little attention has been paid to women's marriage constraints and their views of marriage. Drawing on an exchange framework and using qualitative data collected from single women participating in a marriage initiative, we introduce the concept of marriageable women—the notion that certain limitations may make women poor marriage partners. Like their male counterparts, we find women also possess qualities that are not considered assets in the marriage market, such as economic constraints, mental and physical health issues, substance use, multiple partner fertility, and gender distrust. We also consider how women participating in a marriage program frame their marriage options, whereas a few opt out of the marriage market altogether. PMID:23258947

Manning, Wendy D.; Trella, Deanna; Lyons, Heidi; Toit, Nola Cora Du

2012-01-01

275

The expanding role of township women: a community investigation on the political and economic participation and educational status of the female population of Jinghai Town.  

PubMed

A sample survey of women in Jianghai Town near Tianjin in Jinghai County along China's northern coastal area was conducted in 1991. The study aim was to provide descriptive characteristics of women's marriage and reproduction, and political, economic, and educational participation. In 1990 female population was 21,600, or 43.5% of total town population. 80% of the town area was nonagricultural. Study materials included town records, interviews with government personnel and professional employees, and interviews with 150 women. 2365 female students and 2263 male students and 99 school administrators and teachers were interviewed. Results indicated that few changes in the proportion of government jobs occurred between 1982 and 1990, but women's acquisition of People's Congress positions increased dramatically. Communist Party platforms required female representation. 38.83% of the 25,786 employed population and 63.43% of total population were female in 1990. Between 1982 and 1990 female employment declined by 14%. 90% of teachers were women professionals. Other professional occupations were primarily male dominated. 32.45% of state owned enterprises (415) employed women, who were mainly in lower assistant positions. 46.7% of women of all ages and 7.7% of men were waiting for jobs; women had lower educational attainment. Although gaps existed between men and women educationally, 3.15% of women and 5.36% of men had college degrees. 6.16% of women and 1.7% of men were illiterate. School entrance rates in 1981 for those aged 13-18 years were 48% for females and 77% for males. By 1990 the high school entrance rate was 87% for females and 93.7% for males. A comparison of drop out rates showed that both sexes dropped out for family reasons. The recommendations were for improvement in women's social and family status, promotion of female education in a variety of ways in order to close the gap, improvement in the employment of women, and encouragement of women's participation in community activities. PMID:12288177

Tan, L; Wang, Y; He, Y; Shen, S; Li, H

1994-01-01

276

The Dynamics of a Racialized, Gendered, Ethnicized, and Economically Stratified Society: Understanding the SocioEconomic Status of Women in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feminist literature attempting to understand the status of women in Zimbabwe has seldom considered patterns of social exclusion and the dynamics of a racialized society that institutionalized racial supremacy as an ideology for organizing social life. Even now, too often we believe, feminist theorists analyze the status of women with the assumption that patriarchy is the single source of the

Otrude N. Moyo; Saliwe M. Kawewe

2002-01-01

277

Advantages and Disadvantages of Individualized Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of individualized instruction, known as the personalized system of instruction (PSI), in teaching college physical science courses. Tables summarizing the advantages and disadvantages of PSI from the viewpoints of students, teachers, and administrators are presented. (HM)

Jones, Merriam A.

1977-01-01

278

Optimizing secure communication standards for disadvantaged networks  

E-print Network

We present methods for optimizing standardized cryptographic message protocols for use on disadvantaged network links. We first provide an assessment of current secure communication message packing standards and their ...

Okano, Stephen Hiroshi

2009-01-01

279

Research Apprenticeships for Disadvantaged High Schooler (RADHS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Research Apprenticeships for Disadvantaged High Schoolers (RADHS) program was initiated in 1980 at the suggestion of Frank Press, Science Advisor to the President. The objectives are to stimulate broader interest in minority communities in careers in ...

R. B. Cowin

1981-01-01

280

Research Apprenticeships for Disadvantaged High Schoolers (RADHS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Research Apprenticeships for Disadvantaged High Schoolers (RADHS) program was initiated in 1980 at the suggestion of Frank Press, Science Advisor to the President. The objectives are to stimulate broader interest in minority communities in careers in ...

R. B. Cowin

1982-01-01

281

Women in Mauritania: The Effects of Drought and Migration on Their Economic Status and Implications for Development Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to indicate potential income-generating programs for women, 67 women in the river region and selected sites in the Assaba and the Guidimakha were interviewed in 1980 to illuminate effects of the 1970s-80s drought and male migration on Mauritanian women. Hypotheses were based on the drought causing unprecedented disruption to Mauritanian…

Smale, Melinda

282

“When the money's low”: Economic participation among disadvantaged young Australians  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a generational group, children and young people are rarely independent financial actors but are nonetheless active consumers of goods and services related to their social identities and enduring orientations to learning, work and community. Many young Australians, however, do not have adequate access to the financial resources that permit their engagement with youth cultures constructed around commodity consumption nor

Jen Skattebol

2011-01-01

283

34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...than the amount listed in the Department of Health and Human Services poverty guidelines for the size of the student's...least a half-time basis in an eligible program...the Armed Forces of the United States within 1 year after...

2011-07-01

284

34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...than the amount listed in the Department of Health and Human Services poverty guidelines for the size of the student's...least a half-time basis in an eligible program...the Armed Forces of the United States within 1 year after...

2013-07-01

285

34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...than the amount listed in the Department of Health and Human Services poverty guidelines for the size of the student's...least a half-time basis in an eligible program...the Armed Forces of the United States within 1 year after...

2012-07-01

286

34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...than the amount listed in the Department of Health and Human Services poverty guidelines for the size of the student's...least a half-time basis in an eligible program...the Armed Forces of the United States within 1 year after...

2012-07-01

287

34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...than the amount listed in the Department of Health and Human Services poverty guidelines for the size of the student's...least a half-time basis in an eligible program...the Armed Forces of the United States within 1 year after...

2011-07-01

288

34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...than the amount listed in the Department of Health and Human Services poverty guidelines for the size of the student's...least a half-time basis in an eligible program...the Armed Forces of the United States within 1 year after...

2010-07-01

289

34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...than the amount listed in the Department of Health and Human Services poverty guidelines for the size of the student's...least a half-time basis in an eligible program...the Armed Forces of the United States within 1 year after...

2013-07-01

290

34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...than the amount listed in the Department of Health and Human Services poverty guidelines for the size of the student's...least a half-time basis in an eligible program...the Armed Forces of the United States within 1 year after...

2010-07-01

291

Promotion of Physical Activity Among Mexican-Origin Women in Texas and South Carolina: An Examination of Social, Cultural, Economic, and Environmental Factors  

PubMed Central

Interventions to improve physical activity levels among Latinos must take into consideration the social, cultural, economic, and environmental contexts of Latino communities. We report findings of formative assessments related to Mexican-origin women’s levels of readiness, willingness, and ability to participate in regular leisure time physical activity in two diverse locations, the Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley and the South Carolina Midlands. The ENLACE project employed a Community-Based Participatory Research approach. Formative assessment activities focused on identification of community assets and resources and exploration of community members’ experiences, opinions, values, preferences, and perceived needs related to physical activity. Data sources included windshield tours, walkability assessments of local neighborhoods; community inventory exercises, focus groups, and individual interviews. Barriers to regular physical activity included the dominance of work and family responsibilities, social norms, lack of social support, social isolation, environmental constraints, economics, and low levels of personal knowledge and motivation. PMID:21731409

Parra-Medina, Deborah; Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K.

2011-01-01

292

48 CFR 1552.219-73 - Small Disadvantaged Business Targets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...219-73 Small Disadvantaged Business Targets. As prescribed in...clause: Small Disadvantaged Business Targets (OCT 2000) (a) In accordance with...following small disadvantaged business (SDB) participation...

2010-10-01

293

48 CFR 1519.204 - Small disadvantaged business participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...participation of Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB) concerns in the performance...219-73, Small Disadvantaged Business Targets, or one substantially...219-74, Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Evaluation... [65 FR 58923, Oct. 3,...

2010-10-01

294

77 FR 65164 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 2105-AE08 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation...entitled, ``Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation...modifications of the Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE) Program...programs and to identify trends or problem areas in the program....

2012-10-25

295

The Impact of Maternal Cocaine Use on Neonates in Socioeconomic Disadvantaged Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews literature on prevalence, mechanisms of fetal toxicity, effects of exposure, socioeconomic factors, and social-support programs to increase awareness of the effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine. Emphasizes the need for drug education and social-support programs for disadvantaged pregnant women to prevent and control cocaine use. (EMK)

Sun, Wei Yue; Chen, William

1997-01-01

296

Children's Perspectives on Economic Adversity: A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews some of the recent qualitative literature on children's perspectives on economic disadvantage. The idea of asking people who experience disadvantage about their own situations is still a relatively new one in the social sciences, and the idea of asking children about their own perceptions of economic and social disadvantage is even more recent. Nine analyses, all published

Gerry Redmond

2008-01-01

297

High-risk behaviors and the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases among women prisoners at the women state penitentiary in Metro Manila.  

PubMed

Women prisoners in the Philippines are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection. The economic and social disadvantages that women endure in mainstream society are magnified once they are committed to penitentiaries where control over one's own life is even more restricted and limited. Outside prison, impoverished and uninformed about the ways of protecting their health, women have engaged in unprotected sex with their male partners, many of whom have had casual sex or extra-marital affairs. Within prison, it is therefore not surprising that over 25% of women were already infected with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). None were infected with HIV. The presence of STDs among female inmates highlights the importance of addressing health needs while at the correctional facility. It also raises the need for educational and prevention programs and health services that will help reduce women's vulnerability to HIV, AIDS and STDs. PMID:11206656

Simbulan, N P; Aguilar, A S; Flanigan, T; Cu-Uvin, S

2001-02-01

298

Educational Interests of Disadvantaged and Non-Disadvantaged Iowa Household Heads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was made of 538 disadvantaged and 247 non-disadvantaged household heads in Iowa -- their occupation, training desired, material possessions, membership and participation. The sample included 643 males and 142 females and was distributed in zones from open country to large urban areas. According to the prescribed criteria 14% of the…

Arendt, Donald Philip

299

Private Economic Benefit/Cost Ratios of a College Investment for Men and Women, 1967 to 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue analyzed the income/cost ratios of a college investment decision for individuals. The analysis for men and women was done separately, because men and women have very different incomes at similar levels of educational attainment. Calculations were performed for each year from 1967 through 1999. Benefit (income) data were derived from the…

Postsecondary Education Opportunity, 2000

2000-01-01

300

Guardians of Tradition and Handmaidens to Change: Women's Roles in Creek Economic and Social Life during the Eighteenth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that, during the eighteenth century, Creek women were central elements in both cultural preservation and adaptation to white ways. Discusses the deerskin trade, matrilineal customs, male and female roles, sexuality, marriage, intermarriage between Creek women and white traders, and the role of mixed bloods as cultural intermediaries. (SV)

Braund, Kathryn E. Holland

1990-01-01

301

Structural explanations of fertility change: the demographic transition, the economic status of women, and the world system.  

PubMed

The current study departs from existing analyses by examining change in crude birthrates in a large sample of societies spanning all levels of development and by considering the effects of changes in independent variables on unit changes in fertility rates. It tests for the effects of levels and changes in female labor force representation and for effects of levels and changes in variables derived from classic demographic transition theory -- energy consumption per capita and child mortality. Additionally, it considers the possibility that these variables have differing impacts in least-developed (periphery) and developing (semiperiphery) nations than they had in already developed (core) nations. Data on dependent and independent variables were obtained from tables compiled by the World Bank (1980). In the 1st stage of the analysis, associations between coterminous trends in the dependent and independent variables were examined. To measure trends in fertility between 1960-77 the 1960 crude birthrates were sXrtracted from 1977 crude birthrates. Also obtained from the World Tables were child mortality rates (ages 1-4), female labor force representation (females per 100 persons in the labor force), and energy consumption per capita for both 1960 and 1977. Energy consumption per capita was chosen as the indicator of general development. Both 1960 values and changes between 1960 and 1977 were used as independent variables in the analysis. The blocks derived by Snyder and Kick (1979) were used to assign nations to either the core, semiperiphery, or periphery of the world system. It was possible to classify 93 of the original 100 cases, meaning only 7 cases were excluded in the analyses of subgroups. In the 2nd stage of the analysis, associations between fertility change and lagged changes in its proposed determinants were examined. Analysis of coterminous trends allowed for determining if overall trends in the dependent and independent variables were associated. All 3 theories underlying the hypotheses on causes of fertility change -- demographic transition theory, Caldwell's (1978) revision of the latter as it would be reflected in the economic status of women, and world system theory -- received some support, but it is argued that the evidence from the indirect test of Caldwell's theory of fertility decline was mixed, second, that a number of the results converged in their support for demographic transition theory, and third, that the overall pattern of findings failed to correspond well with expectations based on world system's theory. PMID:12340268

Nolan, P D; White, R B

1984-01-01

302

Women's Studies (undergraduate)  

E-print Network

of women. Ways in which cultural definitions of "femaleness" affect attitudes toward women348 Women's Studies (undergraduate) The Women's Studies Program offers an interdisciplinary course of study in the historical, economic, political, social and cultural experi- ence of women. The program

Suzuki, Masatsugu

303

Minority Women and Advocacy for Women's Health  

PubMed Central

US minority health issues involve racial/ethnic disparities that affect both women and men. However, women's health advocacy in the United States does not consistently address problems specific to minority women. The underlying evolution and political strength of the women's health and minority health movements differ profoundly. Women of color comprise only one quarter of women's health movement constituents and are, on average, socioeconomically disadvantaged. Potential alliances may be inhibited by vestiges of historical racial and social divisions that detract from feelings of commonality and mutual support. Nevertheless, insufficient attention to minority women's issues undermines the legitimacy of the women's health movement and may prevent important advances that can be achieved only when diversity is fully considered. PMID:11527764

Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Morssink, Christiaan B.; Nestle, Marion

2001-01-01

304

Geography and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Location and climate have large effects on income levels and income growth through their effects on transport costs, disease burdens, and agricultural productivity, among other channels. Geography also seems to affect economic policy choices. Many geographic regions that have not been conducive to modern economic growth have high population densities and are experiencing rapid increases in population. At particular disadvantage

John Luke Gallup; Jeffrey D. Sachs; Andrew D. Mellinger

1999-01-01

305

The Possible Effects on Socio-Economic Inequalities of Introducing HPV Testing as Primary Test in Cervical Cancer Screening Programs  

PubMed Central

Background: Screening with HPV is more effective than Pap test in preventing cervical cancer. HPV as primary test will imply longer intervals and a triage test for HPV positive women. It will also permit the development of self-sampling devices. These innovations may affect population coverage, participation, and compliance to protocols, and likely in a different way for less educated, poorer, and disadvantaged women. Aim: To describe the impact on inequalities, actual or presumed, of the introduction of HPV-based screening. Methods: The putative HPV-based screening algorithm has been analyzed to identify critical points for inequalities. A systematic review of the literature has been conducted searching PubMed on HPV screening coverage, participation, and compliance. Results were summarized in a narrative synthesis. Results: Knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer was lower in women with low socio-economic status and in disadvantaged groups. A correct communication can reduce differences. Longer intervals will make it easier to achieve high-population coverage, but higher cost of the test in private providers could reduce the use of opportunistic screening by disadvantaged women. There are some evidences that inviting for HPV test instead of Pap increases participation, but there are no data on social differences. Self-sampling devices are effective in increasing participation and coverage. Some studies showed that the acceptability of self-sampling is higher in more educated women, but there is also an effect on hard-to-reach women. Communication of HPV positivity may increase anxiety and impact on sexual behaviors, the effect is stronger in low educated and disadvantaged women. Finally, many studies found indirect evidence that unvaccinated women are or will be more probably under-screened. Conclusion: The introduction of HPV test may increase population coverage, but non-compliance to protocols and interaction with opportunistic screening can increase the existing inequalities. PMID:24575388

Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Baldacchini, Flavia; Ronco, Guglielmo

2014-01-01

306

Lightning protection systems: advantages and disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanics and interaction of lightning producing thunder clouds and earth, are discussed. Compared to the Franklin Air Terminal (rod) and Faraday Cage, the debatable advantages and disadvantages of the Early Streamer Emission Enhanced Ionizing Air Terminal, and Multipoint Discharge Systems, are examined along with conceptual future methods of lightning protection

D. W. Zipse

1993-01-01

307

Neighborhood Disadvantage and Reliance on the Police  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary theories suggest that, due to limited access and generalized distrust, residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods are relatively unlikely to report matters to police. Although existing studies reveal few ecological differences in crime reporting, findings may be limited to victim/offense subsets represented in aggregated victimization…

Schaible, Lonnie M.; Hughes, Lorine A.

2012-01-01

308

Urban Catholic High Schools and Disadvantaged Females  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to discover the life experiences of disadvantaged female graduates of urban Catholic high schools and what they say about the capacity of Catholic education to meet their academic, emotional, social, and spiritual needs. Based on narrative inquiry, this study was conducted using a series of in-depth, semistructured…

Merritt, Corinne R.

2008-01-01

309

Pre-testing Orientation for the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pre-testing orientation was incorporated into the Work Incentives Program, a pre-vocational program for disadvantaged youth. Test-taking skills were taught in seven and one half hours of instruction and a variety of methods were used to provide a sequential experience with distributed learning, positive reinforcement, and immediate feedback of…

Mihalka, Joseph A.

310

Optimizing Secure Communication Standards for Disadvantaged Networks  

E-print Network

, we offer a few extensions to the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) to wrap secure group messages for chat on disadvantaged networks and to reduce XMPP message overhead in secure group that these optimizations have on message overhead, extensibility, and usability of both CMS and XMPP. We have developed

311

Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from Add Health, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community and school controls. Neighborhood violence…

Harding, David J.

2009-01-01

312

How children from disadvantaged areas keep safe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper sets out to describe how children from disadvantaged areas perceive their communities and actively negotiate threats in their lives. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 60 interviews and 16 discussions groups were held with 8 to 14-year-olds sampled from four deprived communities located in the West of Scotland. Participants were asked about their local area and how

Katrina M. Turner; Malcolm Hill; Anne Stafford; Moira Walker

2006-01-01

313

Values and Educational Success among Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A research study shows the strong positive relationship between traditional personal values and academic success of students from various disadvantaged backgrounds. Four categories of values were examined: (1) the work ethic, (2) religious commitment, (3) parental support of success in school, and (4) peer group support of success in school. A…

Ginsburg, Alan L.; Hanson, Sandra L.

314

On William Julius Wilson's "Truly Disadvantaged."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A premise of this paper is that in his book "The Truly Disadvantaged" (1987), William Julius Wilson fails to recognize the effect of covert racism on the plight of the African American underclass. Wilson asserts that historical racism has contributed to the present predicament of the underclass, who have been abandoned in the ghettos by their…

Burns, John

315

A GENERAL TECHNICIAN PROGRAM FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 2-YEAR GENERAL TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM HAS BEEN PLANNED BY RUTGERS UNIVERSITY AND THE NEWARK SCHOOL SYSTEM AS A MEANS OF PREPARING DISADVANTAGED YOUTH TO ENTER GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT AND ENHANCE THEIR OPPORTUNITY TO IMPROVE THEIR STATION IN LIFE. THE STUDENTS WILL BE DEPRIVED AREA YOUTH WHO ARE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES OR THE EQUIVALENT, GENERALLY FROM THE…

GILLIE, ANGELO C.

316

Technology and the Education of the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational intervention programs involving disadvantaged children have not sufficiently succeeded in the remediation of their academic deficiencies. Gains made appear to be very short term and generally unimpressive. Accepting the assumption that the deficiencies are not genetic, one is led to suspect the adequacy of the educational system.…

Martin, John Henry

317

MEDIA AND THE EDUCATION OF THE DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE CONTENTS OF THIS JOURNAL ISSUE OF "AUDIOVISUAL INSTRUCTION," VOLUME 10, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1965, ARE DEVOTED TO WAYS OF INSTRUCTING THE SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILD THROUGH MORE EFFECTIVE USE OF MATERIALS. SOME OF THE ARTICLES BRIEFLY DISCUSS THE USE OF AUDIOVISUAL INSTRUCTION IN PRESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN PROGRAMS, IN A PEACE CORPS PROJECT,…

SMITH, RICHARD W.; AND OTHERS

318

School Effectiveness and the Disadvantaged Schools Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Disadvantaged Schools Program (DSP) has been an important and integral part of education for many Australian students for over a decade. After reviewing eight school effectiveness variables, this paper argues that adding a new emphasis on academic success and cognitive skills will enhance the DSP program. Includes 3 tables and 20 references.…

Walker, Allan; Murphy, Joseph

1986-01-01

319

Gaining Access or Losing Ground? Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students in Undergraduate Engineering, 1994-2003  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expanding access to engineering for underrepresented groups has by and large focused on ethnicity/race and gender, with little understanding of socioeconomic disadvantages. In this study, we use economic, human, and cultural capital theories to frame and then describe access to undergraduate engineering degree programs and bachelor's degrees.…

Lundy-Wagner, Valerie C.; Veenstra, Cindy P.; Orr, Marisa K.; Ramirez, Nichole M.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Long, Russell A.

2014-01-01

320

Structural Impediments to Success: A Look at Disadvantaged Young Men in Urban Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores how recent economic, demographic, and social changes have created the conditions that are presently constricting the opportunities and future expectations of today's urban young men. While research indicates that all disadvantaged youth in urban areas are facing impediments to their success, the paper focuses on the realities…

Jones, Sarah E.

321

The Impact of Educational Disadvantage on Adult Citizenship and Participation in Ireland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Annually a little over 2,000 young people leave school in Ireland without any formal qualification (i.e. before taking the Junior Certificate). Indeed, according to the National Economic and Social Forum (NESF) an estimated 1,000 pupils do not transfer annually from primary to post primary education. More often than not educational disadvantage is…

Connolly, Tracey

2005-01-01

322

Quantifying Access Disadvantage and Gathering Information in Rural and Remote Localities: The Griffith Service Access Frame.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A purely geographic classification is not the best way to measure rural disadvantage in Australia. A service access model is described that incorporates the following elements: population center size; distance, time, and cost of travel to the service center; and a measure of the economic capacity of residents to overcome the cost of travel.…

Griffith, Dennis A.

2003-01-01

323

The Displaced vs. the Disadvantaged: A Necessary Dichotomy? Occasional Paper 1994-2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current displaced worker initiative towers over the 30-year effort to bring the economically disadvantaged into the mainstream of the labor market. The Congressional Budget Office defines displacement as all workers 18 years of age and older who lose full-time employment due to slack work, job abolition, or plant closure. Major displaced…

Levitan, Sar A.; Mangum, Stephen L.

324

Academically Disadvantaged Minority Group Students in Public Two-Year Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of disadvantaged students in 2-year colleges concludes that they usually come from minority groups, are underrepresented in institutions of higher education, have little economic support and are characterized by marginal traditional academic qualifications. A number of classification schemes used by social scientists are discussed…

Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Planning and Evaluation.

325

New Labour and Educational Disadvantage: The Limits of Area-Based Initiatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since coming to power in 1997, New Labour has adopted area-based initiatives (ABIs) as a key strategy to combat economic, social and (especially) educational disadvantage. This paper briefly outlines the history of ABIs within the UK and explores the discontinuities and continuities between recent initiatives and their earlier counterparts. It…

Power, Sally; Rees, Gareth; Taylor, Chris

2005-01-01

326

Employment and Earnings of Disadvantaged Young Men in a Labor Shortage Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study contrasts the economic position of youths across local labor markets that differ in their rates of unemployment using the annual merged files of the Current Population Survey and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The paper finds: (1) Local labor market shortages raise the employment-population rate arid reduce the unemployment rate of disadvantaged youths by substantial amounts. (2)

Richard B. Freeman

1990-01-01

327

"I do what I have to do to survive": An investigation into the perceptions, experiences and economic considerations of women engaged in sex work in Northern Namibia  

PubMed Central

Background There is little published research investigating sex work in Namibia, particularly in rural areas. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to determine the views of women engaged in sex work in the Oshakati area of Namibia concerning the main factors influencing their use, or non-use, of male condoms during transactional sexual exchanges. Methods Qualitative interviews were used to better understand the perceptions, experiences and economic considerations of female sex workers in Namibia who were involved in a Behavior Change Communication Program encouraging safer sex practices among high-risk populations in 2006 and 2007. Results While the Behavior Change Communication Program has made significant strides in educating and empowering young women to negotiate more consistent condom use with sexual partners, the gendered economic inequalities and power imbalances within rural and semi-urban Namibian society that favor men hinder further advancement towards positive behavioral change for HIV prevention and also hinder the development of the loving relationships sought by some sex workers. Conclusion This study found that sex workers and transactional sex encounters are heterogeneous entities dependent upon the characteristics of the man (known, stranger, wealthy, attractive to the woman) and the woman (in financial need, desiring love). These features all influence condom use. The 3 E's 'education, empowerment and economic independence' are critical factors needed to encourage and facilitate consistent condom use to prevent HIV transmission. Without financial independence and occupational alternatives building on their health education and empowerment, women who engage in sex work-and transactional sex more generally-will remain largely marginalized from Namibian society, and will continue engaging in risky sexual practices that facilitate HIV acquisition and transmission throughout the community. PMID:21813006

2011-01-01

328

Are minority women sociologists in double jeopardy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine whether minority women in academic sociology face disadvantages that exceed those that would be expected by simply\\u000a compounding the disadvantage of being a woman with that of being nonwhite or Hispanic. In a national survey of sociology departments,\\u000a evidence of such “double jeopardy” appears in minority women’s severe underrepresentation among full professors, in both very\\u000a small and very

Stephen Kulis; Karen A. Miller

1988-01-01

329

Gender Differences in the Social Pathways Linking Neighborhood Disadvantage to Depressive Symptoms in Adults  

PubMed Central

Depression debilitates the lives of millions and is projected to be the second leading disease burden worldwide by 2020. At the population level, the causes of depression are found in the everyday social and physical environments in which people live. Research has shown that men and women often experience neighbourhood environments differently and that these variations are often reflected in health outcomes. The current study examines whether social and environmental correlates of depression are similar in men and women. This study examines whether (i) there are gender differences in the association between neighbourhood disadvantage and depressive symptoms, and (ii) dimensions of social capital and cohesion mediate these associations. Data come from the Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging Study, which consists of a cluster stratified sample of Montreal census tracts (nct?=?300) and individuals within those tracts (ni?=?2707). Depressive symptoms and social capital were measured with a questionnaire. Neighbourhood disadvantage was measured at the census tract level using data from the 2006 Canada Census. Multilevel logistic regression stratified by gender and a three-step mediation analysis procedure were used. Final sample size for these analyses was 2574 adults. Depressive symptoms had a prevalence of 17.3% in the overall sample. Disadvantage was associated with depressive symptoms in women only (OR?=?1.25, 95% CI?=?1.01–1.55). Perceived neighbourhood cohesion was shown to mediate the association of disadvantage and depressive symptoms in women (ab?=?0.02; 95% CI?=?0.003–0.04, p<0.05). Other socio-relational variables, specifically generalized trust and trust in neighbours were associated with depression in women but did not act as mediating variables. Health promotion initiatives meant to combat depression may wish to consider gender differences in the design and implementation of neighbourhood or peer-based programs. PMID:24146888

Bassett, Emma; Moore, Spencer

2013-01-01

330

Development of Human Resources Through a Vocationally Oriented Educational Program for Disadvantaged Families in Depressed Rural Areas. Interim Report 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore the degree of upward social and occupational mobility which could be expected from residents of rural economically depressed areas under existing circumstances, interviews were conducted with a random sample of 85 families from an economically depressed county and 30 severely disadvantaged families. Some findings were: (1) The majority…

Fuller, Gerald R.; Phipps, Lloyd J.

331

The intergenerational transmission of inequality: maternal disadvantage and health at birth.  

PubMed

Health at birth is an important predictor of long-term outcomes, including education, income, and disability. Recent evidence suggests that maternal disadvantage leads to worse health at birth through poor health behaviors; exposure to harmful environmental factors; worse access to medical care, including family planning; and worse underlying maternal health. With increasing inequality, those at the bottom of the distribution now face relatively worse economic conditions, but newborn health among the most disadvantaged has actually improved. The most likely explanation is increasing knowledge about determinants of infant health and how to protect it along with public policies that put this knowledge into practice. PMID:24855261

Aizer, Anna; Currie, Janet

2014-05-23

332

Lightning protection systems: advantages and disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful 200-year-old method of using a (Franklin) rod to collect, control, and convey to earth the awesome and destructive power of lightning has produced other controversial, potential alternate methods. The mechanics and interaction of lightning-producing thunderclouds and earth are discussed. Compared to the Franklin air terminal (rod) and Faraday cage method, the debatable advantages and disadvantages of the early

Donald W. Zipse

1994-01-01

333

TELEVISED TRIALS: WEIGHING ADVANTAGES AGAINST DISADVANTAGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent arguments over televised trials juxtapose purported advantages—education about judicial process, restoration of public confidence in the courts, and crime deterrent value—against potential disadvantages—increased prejudicial publicity and public embarrassment of defendants. Although no empirical research has been conducted to test either hypothesis, anecdotal evidence—concerned with news viewing motivation and attention, news recall and retention, and television's function in shaping public

SUSANNA R. BARBER; Suzanna R. Barber

1985-01-01

334

Women's Job Training Agenda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Coalition on Women and Job Training has developed a women's job training agenda that focuses on nine issues related to women's full participation in training and achievement of economic self-sufficiency. The issues highlighted in the agenda are as follows: (1) the need to make long-term economic self-sufficiency the goal of all employment and…

Women Work! The National Network for Women's Employment, Washington, DC.

335

Does Head Start Work? A 1Year Follow-Up Comparison of Disadvantaged Children Attending Head Start, No Preschool, and Other Preschool Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how successful Project Head Start has been as a preschool program for economically disadvantaged children. Most Head Start evaluations have not controlled for initial differences between Head Start and comparison groups. They have also limited comparisons to those with no preschool experience, rather than considering other preschools as an alternative comparison group. Subjects were 969 disadvantaged children

Valerie E. Lee; J. Brooks-Gunn; Elizabeth Schnur

1988-01-01

336

Expressing the sense of the House regarding women's helath and economic security (H RES 94; 113th Congress)  

Cancer.gov

The resolution notes that “uninsured women are 3 times less likely to have had a Pap test in the last 3 years, with a 60 percent greater risk of late-stage cervical cancer diagnosis,” and that “federally funded research is a critical component to understanding

337

Does socio-economic status and health consciousness influence how women respond to health related messages in media?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past few decades, people have been increasingly exposed to health-related messages in the mass media, conveying recommendations for healthy lifestyles. The present study inves- tigates whether these messages represent a stressor, and whether coping responses increase levels of motivation or levels of negative affect. A sample of 403 women aged 45 years were surveyed twice, at an interval

Anette Christine Iversen; Pal Kraft

2006-01-01

338

Women Farmers' Perceptions of the Economic Problems Influencing Their Productivity in Agricultural Systems: Meme Division of the Southwest Province, Cameroon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women farmers produce about 60% of the food in Cameroon, but face more problems and constraints than men in performing their agricultural activities. Cash crop farmers (mostly men) are the targeted beneficiaries of government and international aids, and have better access to extension services, loans, subsidized production input (herbicides,…

Endeley, Joyce B.

339

Does Socio-Economic Status and Health Consciousness Influence How Women Respond to Health Related Messages in Media?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the past few decades, people have been increasingly exposed to health-related messages in the mass media, conveying recommendations for healthy lifestyles. The present study investigates whether these messages represent a stressor, and whether coping responses increase levels of motivation or levels of negative affect. A sample of 403 women

Iversen, Anette Christine; Kraft, Pal

2006-01-01

340

Women in academic medicine.  

PubMed

Women now constitute 43% of US medical students, 37% of residents, and 27% of full-time medical school faculty. Less than 11% of women faculty are full professors, however, compared to 31% of men, and these proportions haven't changed in more than 15 years. Since the proportion of women reaching the top ranks remains relatively low, the pool of women available for leadership positions in academic medicine is still small. This review article first summarizes recent data on women's representation in academic medicine and then discusses why they are not succeeding at the same pace as men. Reasons include a complex combination of women's choices, sexism, cultural stereotypes, constraints in combining family responsibilities with professional opportunities, and lack of effective mentoring. Multiple approaches are required to overcome these "cumulative disadvantages," among them improving the gender climate at academic medical centers; the mentoring of women faculty, residents, and students; and skill-building opportunities for women. PMID:10680399

Bickel, J

2000-01-01

341

48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...identified as a small disadvantaged business concern by accessing SBA's...Office of Small Disadvantaged Business Certification and Eligibility...officer shall notify the Small Business Administration Assistant...65 FR 60545, Oct. 11,...

2010-10-01

342

48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Small disadvantaged businesses. 706.302-71 Section...DEVELOPMENT ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS...302-71 Small disadvantaged businesses. (a) Authority...to award contracts to small business concerns owned and...

2010-10-01

343

HIV-serostatus disclosure in the context of free antiretroviral therapy and socio-economic dependency: experiences among women living with HIV in Tanzania.  

PubMed

The worldwide implementation of free antiretroviral therapy (ART) raised great hopes among policy makers and health organisations about the positive changes it would bring about in attitudes and behaviours towards HIV and AIDS, as well as for infected people's lives. A change in illness perception was anticipated, leading to the hypothesis of a possible change in disclosure rates, patterns and the choice of significant others to inform. In the era of free treatment availability in the United Republic of Tanzania, we examined reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure among HIV-seropositive women enrolled on ART and their choice of significant others to inform. In so doing, we contribute to the necessary yet neglected debate about the social impact of ART on the lives of infected women. The study, for which an ethnographic cross-sectional pilot approach was chosen, was conducted at the Care and Treatment Center (CTC) at Bombo Regional Hospital (BRH) in Tanga city, Tanzania. Data presented here derive from participant observation, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews conducted with 59 HIV-seropositive women on ART. Interestingly, and despite treatment availability, the choice of significant others to inform, as well as reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure, mirror findings from previous studies conducted before the introduction of free ART. The main reason for non-disclosure was fear of discrimination. The hope for social, economic or health support was the main motivation for disclosure, followed by the need for a 'clinic companion' in order to receive ART, as requested by hospital staff. Nevertheless, healthcare staff were not unanimous in thinking that disclosure is always beneficial, thus the recommended extent of disclosure varied. ART and concomitant factors were raised as an entirely new and significant reason for disclosure by interviewees. Finally, findings confirm that despite ART, disclosure remains a highly stressful event for women. PMID:25388976

Bohle, Leah F; Dilger, Hansjörg; Groß, Uwe

2014-09-01

344

Women in Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The country is filled with powerful women, but women in power remain significantly underrepresented across a variety of professional fields, in business, academe, politics, and the media. With more women enrolled in colleges today than men, continued underrepresentation of women in leadership roles throughout society is not just morally unacceptable, it is economically damaging. The nation needs to maximize all

Margaret A. McKenna

2007-01-01

345

The relationship between transport and disadvantage in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Resource Sheet is designed to provide practitioners and policy-makers who plan and\\/or deliver services to children and families, especially within disadvantaged communities, with an understanding of how transport and disadvantage intersect and why some groups are especially vulnerable to transport disadvantage.Ongoing difficulties associated with access to transport are commonly referred to as “transport disadvantage”. As Australia has comparatively high

Kate Rosier; Myfanwy McDonald

2011-01-01

346

Rethinking consumer disadvantage: the importance of qualitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides insight into the behaviour and attitudes of an under-researched group of consumers, and identifies some useful pointers for future research on consumer disadvantage. More specifically, the paper explores the relationships between the potential causes of consumer disadvantage, forms of consumer disadvantage and accessibility. The exploratory study consisted of a combination of quantitative (diary survey) and qualitative (semi-structured

Lucy Woodliffe

2004-01-01

347

Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and mortality after stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective: Residence in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community is associated with mortality, but the mechanisms are not well understood. We examined whether socioeconomic features of the residential neighborhood contribute to poststroke mortality and whether neighborhood influences are mediated by traditional behavioral and biologic risk factors. Methods: We used data from the Cardiovascular Health Study, a multicenter, population-based, longitudinal study of adults ?65 years. Residential neighborhood disadvantage was measured using neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES), a composite of 6 census tract variables representing income, education, employment, and wealth. Multilevel Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to determine the association of NSES to mortality after an incident stroke, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, stroke type, and behavioral and biologic risk factors. Results: Among the 3,834 participants with no prior stroke at baseline, 806 had a stroke over a mean 11.5 years of follow-up, with 168 (20%) deaths 30 days after stroke and 276 (34%) deaths at 1 year. In models adjusted for demographic characteristics, stroke type, and behavioral and biologic risk factors, mortality hazard 1 year after stroke was significantly higher among residents of neighborhoods with the lowest NSES than those in the highest NSES neighborhoods (hazard ratio 1.77, 95% confidence interval 1.17–2.68). Conclusion: Living in a socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with higher mortality hazard at 1 year following an incident stroke. Further work is needed to understand the structural and social characteristics of neighborhoods that may contribute to mortality in the year after a stroke and the pathways through which these characteristics operate. PMID:23284071

Liang, Li-Jung; Vassar, Stefanie D.; Merkin, Sharon Stein; Longstreth, W.T.; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Yan, Tingjian; Escarce, Jose J.

2013-01-01

348

How does gender influence immigrant and refugee women's postpartum depression help-seeking experiences?  

PubMed

The number of migrants arriving in Canada from non-European countries has grown significantly over the past three decades. How best to assist these escalating numbers of immigrant and refugee women to adapt to their new environment and to cope with postpartum depression (PPD) is a pressing issue for healthcare providers. Evidence has shown that immigrant and refugee women experience difficulties in accessing care and treatment for PPD. This qualitative study was conducted with 30 immigrant and refugee women using in-depth interviews to obtain information about the women's PPD experiences. The primary aim was to explore how cultural, social, political, historical and economic factors intersect with race, gender and class to influence the ways in which immigrant and refugee women seek help to manage PPD. Results reveal that immigrant and refugee women experience many complex gender-related challenges and facilitators in seeking equitable help for PPD treatment and prevention. We will demonstrate that (a) structural barriers and gender roles hinder women's ability to access necessary mental healthcare services and (b) insecure immigration status coupled with emotional and economic dependence may leave women vulnerable and disadvantaged in protecting themselves against PPD. PMID:22962942

O'Mahony, J M; Donnelly, T T

2013-10-01

349

Social Disadvantage and Asthma Control in Children  

PubMed Central

Summary This review discusses various aspects of social disadvantage and their association with poor asthma control, including socioeconomic status, exposure to psychosocial stress and violence, minority affiliation, environmental concerns such as allergens and pollution, and poverty in rural settings. Each of these elements has been linked with worsened asthma outcomes in children. Known and hypothesized mechanisms behind these associations are described in an effort to further understand the complex entity of poorly controlled asthma among socially deprived children. Intervention studies to improve asthma outcomes in these vulnerable populations are also described. PMID:24928775

Kopel, Lianne S.; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Gaffin, Jonathan M.

2014-01-01

350

Disadvantages of Preferential Dispersals in Fluctuating Environments  

E-print Network

It has not been known whether preferential dispersal is adaptive in fluctuating environments. We investigate the effect of preferential and random dispersals in bet-hedging systems by using a discrete stochastic metapopulation model, where each site fluctuates between good and bad environments with temporal correlation. To explore the optimal migration pattern, an analytical estimation of the total growth is derived by mean field approximation. We found that the preference for fertile sites is disadvantageous when transportation among sites has a cost or the sensitivity of preference is high.

Morita, Satoru

2014-01-01

351

Communicating health information to disadvantaged populations.  

PubMed

Interest in the communication of health information among disadvantaged populations has increased in recent years with the shift from a model of patient-provider communication to one of a more empowered healthcare consumer; with the use of new communication technologies that increase the number of channels through which health information may be accessed; and with the steadily increasing number of people without health insurance. Three separate research literatures contribute to our current understanding of this issue. In the medicine and public health literature, disparities in health access and outcomes among socioeconomic, ethnic, and racial groups are now well documented. In the information sciences literature, scholars note that on a continuum of health information behaviors, ranging from information avoidance and nonseeking to active seeking, nonseeking behaviors are associated with disadvantaged populations. In the communication literature, enthusiasm over the technology-driven growth of online health information seeking is tempered by evidence supporting the knowledge gap hypothesis, which indicates that as potential access to health information increases, systematic gaps in health knowledge also increase as groups with higher socioeconomic status acquire this information at a faster rate than those with lower socioeconomic status. A number of diverse strategies show promise in reducing information and health disparities, including those that focus on technology, such as programs to increase computer and Internet access, skills, and comprehension; those that focus on interpersonal communication, such as the community health worker model; and those that focus on mass media channels, such as entertainment education. PMID:20216358

Beacom, Amanda M; Newman, Sandra J

2010-01-01

352

Teaching Culturally Disadvantaged Pupils (Grades K-12). Unit III: The Culturally Disadvantaged Negro Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third of a series of teacher education units on teaching the disadvantaged contains material specifically about the Negro student. Reviewed are the scope and significance of the problem of educating these students, with some brief remarks on their location. The factors which contribute to the cultural deprivation of Negroes are…

Johnson, Kenneth R.

353

Seeds of HOPE: a model for addressing social and economic determinants of health in a women's obesity prevention project in two rural communities.  

PubMed

Socioeconomic status (SES) and income disparity are strong predictors of health, and health promotion interventions that address them are more likely to be meaningful to participants and to sustain positive effects. Seeds of HOPE is an innovative project that is the result of a long-standing collaboration between the University of North Carolina (UNC) Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Prevention Research Center, and communities in rural North Carolina. Initial formative work, including key informant interviews, community surveys, and focus groups, strengthened our understanding of the link between hope and health and the importance of addressing social and economic issues as part of our health promotion interventions. A Seeds of HOPE strategic plan was developed using a community-based participatory process and led to the idea to start Threads of HOPE, an enterprise that will serve as a business laboratory where women will produce and market a unique product and also learn business skills. Threads of HOPE will be a health-enhancing business and will serve as a training program for a new cadre of women entrepreneurs in two rural communities. PMID:17937563

Benedict, Salli; Campbell, Marci; Doolen, Anne; Rivera, Imana; Negussie, Tezita; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle

2007-10-01

354

Adjustment to university and academic performance among disadvantaged students in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adjustment to the university environment is regarded as an important factor in predicting university outcomes. This study explores the pathways taken by adjustment and other psychosocial variables (help?seeking, academic motivation, self?esteem, perceived stress, and perceived academic overload), in relation to the success of economically and educationally disadvantaged students at university. Participants were 194 first?year students on need?based financial aid at

Johann Louw; Kitty Dumont

2009-01-01

355

Reconceptualizing the Association between Food Insufficiency and Body Weight: Distinguishing Hunger from Economic Hardship  

PubMed Central

What is the association between food insufficiency and body weight? Although common sense would suggest a negative association, research often finds the opposite. We contrast commodity theories of material privation with stress theories, proposing that the seemingly counterintuitive association results from the confounding influence of economic hardship. Because it is a chronic stressor, economic hardship may contribute to overweight. Data from the WCF project of 2,402 disadvantaged women in Chicago, Boston, and San Antonio show that people who experience economic hardship weigh more; and that the true negative association between body weight and food insufficiency—especially going hungry because one cannot afford food—is revealed only after adjustment for economic hardship. PMID:24244066

Ross, Catherine E.; Hill, Terrence D.

2013-01-01

356

Women's sexual empowerment and contraceptive use in Ghana.  

PubMed

Pervasive gendered inequities and norms regarding the subordination of women give Ghanaian men disproportionately more power than women, particularly in relation to sex. We hypothesize that lack of sexual empowerment may pose an important barrier to reproductive health and adoption of family planning methods. Using the 2008 Ghana Demographic Health Survey, we examine the association between women's sexual empowerment and contraceptive use in Ghana among nonpregnant married and partnered women not desiring to conceive in the next three months. Increasing levels of sexual empowerment are found to be associated with use of contraceptives, even after adjusting for demographic predictors of contraceptive use. This association is moderated by wealth. Formal education, increasing wealth, and being in an unmarried partnership are associated with contraceptive use, whereas women who identify as being Muslim are less likely to use contraceptives than those who identify as being Christian. These findings suggest that to achieve universal access to reproductive health services, gendered disparities in sexual empowerment, particularly among economically disadvantaged women, need to be better addressed. PMID:23185863

Crissman, Halley P; Adanu, Richard M; Harlow, Siobán D

2012-09-01

357

Jobs for Disadvantaged Workers: The Economics of Employment Subsidies. Studies in Social Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These nine papers are from a conference held at Brookings Institution on April 3-4, 1980, focusing on subsidizing private sector job creation for workers with structural employment problems. Chapter 1 summarizes the papers and conference proceedings. The remaining nine chapters are divided into three parts consisting of three papers each. Part 1…

Haveman, Robert H., Ed.; Palmer, John L., Ed.

358

Women's body dissatisfaction, social class, and social mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies indicate that socially advantaged women are more dissatisfied with their bodies than socially disadvantaged women. These findings have been based on women's current social class, and no attention has been paid to the social class of her family of origin or to intergenerational social mobility. In the present research 912 54-year-old women from a prospective birth cohort study

Lindsay McLaren; Diana Kuh

2004-01-01

359

The relation between disadvantaged groups: a social psychological approach  

E-print Network

their self-esteem: attributing negative feedback to discrimination; chiefly making less harmful, ingroup comparisons; and devaluing deficient areas. Jones and Morris (1993) describe the ambivalence present for disadvantaged groups in their attributional... by attributing the unequal dimension to discrimination (Crocker & Major, 1990), an upward comparison with a disadvantaged group member cannot be so easily dismissed, and therefore, is potentially harmful to one's self-esteem. Comparisons between disadvantaged...

Rothgerber, Hank

2012-06-07

360

Instrument Application Capabilities Advantages Disadvantages Recommendations Contact Qiagen Qiacube  

E-print Network

Instrument Application Capabilities Advantages Disadvantages Recommendations Contact Qiagen Qiacube per run Fully automated; DNase over column; Flexible to handle cells and tissues Efficiency of columns

Cui, Yan

361

How Community Development Programmes Can Foster Re-Engagement with Learning in Disadvantaged Communities: Leadership as Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family and community capacity building projects in Tasmania are attempting to address the disadvantage of communities marginalised by socio-economic and other influences. Collaborations between the projects, community members and groups, and education and training organisations, have resulted in a leadership process which has fostered reengagement…

Millar, Pat; Kilpatrick, Sue

2005-01-01

362

Shared Reading Interactions between Mothers and Pre-School Children: Case Studies of Three Dyads from a Disadvantaged Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that adult-child shared book reading can enhance language and literacy development in the early years, although little is known about how mothers and children from socio-economically disadvantaged communities interact around books. This study investigated the shared reading interactions of three mother-child dyads living in such…

Morgan, Anne

2005-01-01

363

Adjustment to Parenthood Among a Select Group of Disadvantaged Parents: An Affective Evaluation Study. Parent Involvement Report No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty disadvantaged couples are compared with a cross-sectional norm group from a previous study in order to determine if socio-economic status is a significant variable in the difficulty experienced in adjusting to first time parenthood, and to determine if there is a statistical significant difference between selected variables such as sex, pre-…

Tooke, Sharon K.; Lind, Robert W.

364

Airtraq optical laryngoscope: advantages and disadvantages.  

PubMed

Difficult or unsuccesful tracheal intubation is one of the important causes for morbidity and mortality in susceptible patients. Almost 30% of the anesthesia-related deaths are induced by the complications of difficult airway management and more than 85% of all respiratory related complications cause brain injury or death. Nowadays, due to the advances in technology, new videolaryngoscopic devices became available. Airtraq is a novel single-use laryngoscope which provides glottis display without any deviation in the normal position of the oral, pharyngeal or the tracheal axes. With the help of the display lens glottis and the surrounding structures are visualised and under direct view of its tip the tracheal tube is introduced between the vocal cords. In patients having restricted neck motion or limited mouth opening (provided that it is greater than 3 cm) Airtraq offers the advantage of a better display. Moreover the video image can be transfered to an external monitor thus an experienced specialist can provide assistance and an educational course can be conducted simultaneously. On the other hand the Airtraq videolaryngoscopic devices possess certain disadvantages including the need of experience and the time demand for the operator to learn how to use them properly, the rapid deterioration of their display in the presence of a swelling or a secretion and the fact that they are rather complicated and expensive devices. The Airtraq device has already documented benefits in the management of difficult airways, however serial utilization obviously necessitates experience. PMID:24180160

Saracoglu, Kemal Tolga; Eti, Zeynep; Gogus, Fevzi Yilmaz

2013-06-01

365

Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.  

PubMed

The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

Porter, M E

1992-01-01

366

Nuclear reactor operator training for disadvantaged Americans  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics Department of the University of Virginia was awarded a grant by the US Department of Energy in 1984 to establish and administer a reactor operator training program for disadvantaged Americans. Stipends were provided by the US DOE for five trainees with the anticipation that four other educational facilities would participate in the program. Sub-contracts were awarded to four other Universities: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The University of Missouri at Columbia, Oregon State University, and The State University of New York at Buffalo. The initial two year program was very successful and the grant was renewed in late 1986 for another two years. MIT declined to participate in the second program and was replaced by Ohio State University. U.VA. was notified in September, 1987 that new funding would no longer be provided for this program after December, 1987. U.VA. requested and was granted a no cost extention for the program through December, 1990, since sufficient funds remained in the initial grant to pursue the program further. DOE subsequently approved a no cost extension through November, 1992.

Farrar, J.P.; Mulder, R.U.

1992-12-01

367

Co?education—the disadvantages for schoolgirls  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that the advance of co?education has not been without problems for girls. There is now a significant amount of evidence to indicate that girls’ achievement, self?esteem and willingness to take an active role are endangered in mixed schools. Sex?stereotyping affecting subject choice, underachievement in mathematics, science and technology, the absence of women in authority positions, and constant

Averil Burgess

1990-01-01

368

Contesting the Culture of Silence in Muslim Women's Writing: Women, Sex and Marriage in Alifa Rifaat's Distant View of a Minaret  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muslim women's writing has been noted for foregrounding the many ways in which society operates to the disadvantage of women, creating ‘nervous conditions’ (Dangarembga, Nervous Conditions.1988. London: The Women's Press) intended to keep women outside the realms of power. Matters relating to women's choices in marriage as well as sexual intimacy are often suppressed in public discourses. The Egyptian writer,

Naomi Nkealah

2009-01-01

369

Disadvantaged Learners and VET to Higher Education Transitions. Occasional Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vocational education and training (VET) system can provide an entry point to the education sector for people who have experienced disadvantage in their lives. Participation in VET can provide personal benefits as well as lead to further study and/or employment. How disadvantaged learners participate in vocational education and training is an…

Griffin, Tabatha

2014-01-01

370

Institute in Consumer Education for Disadvantaged Adults. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This two week professional development institute was designed to equip vocational education personnel for work with the disadvantaged. Participants (business educators and home economists) were expected to acquire basic understanding of the problems of disadvantaged adults; explore consumer education services now available to the poor; identify…

Paolucci, Beatrice; And Others

371

Education and training and the avoidance of financial disadvantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poverty and other forms of financial disadvantage are the most obvious categories of social disadvantage. Being in poverty or suffering financial stress has serious detrimental implications for housing, debt reduction and the ability to obtain credit, future career prospects, marriage and partnering, health, crime and children’s education. Generally, they reduce the ability to fully and actively participate in society. Not

Marks Gary N

2011-01-01

372

Educational Program Development for the Rural Disadvantaged. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a far-reaching research project on educational needs of the rural disadvantaged, this phase of the Rural Education Disadvantaged Youth Project (Project REDY) dealt with the development and evaluation of a vocationally-oriented family-centered educational program. The model program, which was field-tested at a single site, focused upon:…

Thomas, Hollie B.; And Others

373

Practical Problems of Schoolbook Selection for Disadvantaged Pupils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every year the purchase of unsuitable books for disadvantaged children wastes millions of dollars. The use of these unsuitable books results in extensive reading failure. In order to overcome this waste of money and human resources, book committees need to employ standards and methods of evaluation to identify books appropriate for disadvantaged

Whipple, Gertrude

374

The New Challenge: A Relevant Program for the Disadvantaged Gifted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Programs for disadvantaged gifted students require teachers with a number of positive characteristics and a relevant curriculum. The New Challenge Program created by the University of Texas Pan-American College of Education is a Saturday morning enrichment program for disadvantaged gifted children. Students select from classes such as Basic and…

Goertz, Mary Jean; Phemister, Linda

375

Measures of Disadvantage: Is Car Ownership a Good Indicator?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A need to better understand the multidimensional nature of disadvantage is leading to the adoption of a wider range of measurement variables. One variable now commonly adopted is zero car ownership. This paper challenges the logic of including "not having a car" as an indicator of disadvantage. It argues that this can distort the real picture of…

Johnson, Victoria; Currie, Graham; Stanley, Janet

2010-01-01

376

Counseling the Disadvantaged Caucasian: A Statistically Significant Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary objective of this study was to determine whether counseling of disadvantaged students during the course of the academic school year would produce an improvement in their emotional problems and lessen the probability of their becoming school dropouts. The 26 disadvantaged Caucasian subjects received extensive counseling therapy for a…

Titison, Chessadar

377

Women and Development - A Case for Development of Women Entrepreneurship? With Special Reference to Indian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic independence is a pre-requisite for women's movement towards gender equality. It is high time that the planners realise that women are contributories in the development process and not mere beneficiaries- they do not need welfare schemes but income generation opportunities. Regardless of social taboos more and more women are being pushed towards paid employment because of economic hardships. Development

Jyotsna Sethi

1998-01-01

378

Women, poverty and adverse maternal outcomes in Nairobi, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background The link between poverty and adverse maternal outcomes has been studied largely by means of quantitative data. We explore poor urban Kenyan women's views and lived experiences of the relationship between economic disadvantage and unpleasant maternal outcomes. Method Secondary analysis of focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews data with women in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya. Results Urban poor women in Nairobi associate poverty with adverse maternal outcomes. However, their accounts and lived experiences of the impact of poverty on maternal outcomes underscore dynamics other than those typically stressed in the extant literature. To them, poverty primarily generates adverse maternal outcomes by exposing women to exceedingly hard and heavy workloads during pregnancy and the period surrounding it; to intimate partner violence; as well as to inhospitable and unpleasant treatment by service providers. Conclusions Poverty has wider and more intricate implications for maternal outcomes than are acknowledged in extant research. To deliver their expected impact, current efforts to promote better maternal outcomes must be guided by a more thorough perspective of the link between women's livelihoods and their health and wellbeing. PMID:21122118

2010-01-01

379

Women as agents of change: Female income and mobility in India  

PubMed Central

Economic globalization will give many women in developing countries access to steady and relatively remunerative employment for the first time, potentially shifting bargaining power within their households and changing the choices that are made for their children. This paper exploits a unique setting — a group of tea plantations in South India where women are employed in permanent wage labor and where incomes do not vary by caste — to anticipate the impact of globalization on mobility across social groups in the future. The main result of the paper is that a relative increase in female income weakens the family's ties to the ancestral community and the traditional economy, but these mobility enhancing effects are obtained for certain historically disadvantaged castes alone. Although the paper provides a context-specific explanation for why the women from these castes emerge as agents of change, the first general implication of the analysis is that the incentive and the ability of women to use their earnings to influence household decisions depends importantly on their social background. The second implication is that historically disadvantaged groups may, in fact, be especially responsive to new opportunities precisely because they have fewer ties to the traditional economy to hold them back. PMID:24319310

Luke, Nancy; Munshi, Kaivan

2013-01-01

380

Blacks and the Women's Movement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Black female leaders were influential in creating the modern women's movement, feminism has evolved differently for both Black and White women. Suggests that, although Black women have struggled largely against racial and economic inequalities, women of all colors and backgrounds should embrace their diversity and unite to oppose racism…

Loiacono, Stephanie

1989-01-01

381

Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics  

E-print Network

Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics BSc Economics and Politics #12;www.bath.ac.uk/economics Welcome to the Department of Economics The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching is internationally respected and our students are in demand by employers

Burton, Geoffrey R.

382

Rural Women Empowerment and Entrepreneurship Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empowerment of women has emerged as an important issue in recent times. The economic empowerment of women is being regarded these days as a Sine-quo-non of progress for a country; hence, the issue of economic empowerment of women is of paramount importance to political thinkers, social scientists and reformers. The Self Help Groups (SHGs) have paved the way for economic

Sathiabama K

2010-01-01

383

Rethinking the Issues Regarding the Culturally Disadvantaged Gifted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aspects covered include definitions, identification, and appropriate educational programing. Several programing strategies are briefly described, and attention is given to the problem of creating an effective learning environment for the disadvantaged gifted child. (DLS)

Frasier, Mary M.

1979-01-01

384

48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disadvantaged business status. 19.304 Section 19.304 ...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs...

2011-10-01

385

48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disadvantaged business status. 19.304 Section 19.304 ...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs...

2012-10-01

386

48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disadvantaged business status. 19.304 Section 19.304 ...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs...

2013-10-01

387

Social disadvantage, genetic sensitivity, and children’s telomere length  

PubMed Central

Disadvantaged social environments are associated with adverse health outcomes. This has been attributed, in part, to chronic stress. Telomere length (TL) has been used as a biomarker of chronic stress: TL is shorter in adults in a variety of contexts, including disadvantaged social standing and depression. We use data from 40, 9-y-old boys participating in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to extend this observation to African American children. We report that exposure to disadvantaged environments is associated with reduced TL by age 9 y. We document significant associations between low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure, and harsh parenting and TL. These effects were moderated by genetic variants in serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways. Consistent with the differential susceptibility hypothesis, subjects with the highest genetic sensitivity scores had the shortest TL when exposed to disadvantaged social environments and the longest TL when exposed to advantaged environments. PMID:24711381

Mitchell, Colter; Hobcraft, John; McLanahan, Sara S.; Siegel, Susan Rutherford; Berg, Arthur; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Garfinkel, Irwin; Notterman, Daniel

2014-01-01

388

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Australian Adults: Prevalence, Persistence, Conduct Problems and Disadvantage  

PubMed Central

Background The Prevalence and persistence of ADHD have not been described in young Australian adults and few studies have examined how conduct problems (CP) are associated with ADHD for this age group. We estimate lifetime and adult prevalence and persistence rates for three categories of ADHD for 3795 Australian adults, and indicate how career, health and childhood risk factors differ for people with ADHD symptoms and ADHD symptoms plus CP. Methodology Trained interviewers collected participant experience of ADHD, CP, education, employment, childhood experience, relationship and health variables. Three diagnostic definitions of ADHD used were (i) full DSM-IV criteria; (ii) excluding the age 7 onset criterion (no age criterion); (iii) participant experienced difficulties due to ADHD symptoms (problem symptoms). Results Prevalence rates in adulthood were 1.1%, 2.3% and 2.7% for each categorization respectively. Persistence of ADHD from childhood averaged across gender was 55.3% for full criteria, 50.3% with no age criterion and 40.2% for problem symptoms. ADHD symptoms were associated with parental conflict, poor health, being sexually assaulted during childhood, lower education, income loss and higher unemployment. The lifetime prevalence of conduct problems for adults with ADHD was 57.8% and 6.9% for adults without ADHD. The greatest disadvantage was experienced by participants with ADHD plus CP. Conclusion The persistence of ADHD into adulthood was greatest for participants meeting full diagnostic criteria and inattention was associated with the greatest loss of income and disadvantage. The disadvantage associated with conduct problems differed in severity and was relevant for a high proportion of adults with ADHD. Women but not men with ADHD reported more childhood adversity, possibly indicating varied etiology and treatment needs. The impact and treatment needs of adults with ADHD and CP and the report of sexual assault during childhood by women and men with ADHD also deserve further study. PMID:23071800

Ebejer, Jane L.; Medland, Sarah E.; van der Werf, Julius; Gondro, Cedric; Henders, Anjali K.; Lynskey, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G.; Duffy, David L.

2012-01-01

389

Low prospects and high risk: structural determinants of health associated with sexual risk among young african american women residing in resource-poor communities in the South.  

PubMed

African American women at increased risk of HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) may engage in risky sex as a coping mechanism for depressed economic conditions. This study examines the association between high-risk sexual behavior and structural determinants of sexual health among a sample of young African American women. 237 young African American women (16-19 years old) from economically disadvantaged neighborhoods in North Carolina were enrolled into a randomized trial testing the efficacy of an adapted HIV/STI prevention intervention. Logistic regression analyses predicted the likelihood that young women reporting lack of food at home, homelessness and low future prospects would also report sexual risk behaviors. Young women reporting a lack of food at home (22 %), homelessness (27 %), and low perceived education/employment prospects (19 %) had between 2.2 and 4.7 times the odds as those not reporting these risk factors of reporting multiple sex partners, risky sex partners including older men and partners involved in gangs, substance use prior to sex, and exchange sex. Self-reported structural determinants of sexual health were associated with myriad sexual risk behaviors. Diminished economic conditions among these young women may lead to sexual risk due to hopelessness, the need for survival or other factors. PMID:25134798

Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Carry, Monique; Browne, Felicia A; Doherty, Irene; Wechsberg, Wendee M

2014-12-01

390

48 CFR 19.305 - Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Small Disadvantaged Business Certification and Eligibility...submitted before bid opening or notification of...small disadvantaged business, and the date of such...4) The date of bid opening or date on which notification...Small Disadvantaged Business Certification...

2010-10-01

391

48 CFR 1552.219-72 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...219-72 Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program. ...clause: Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program (OCT 2000) (a) Section M of this...participation of small disadvantaged business (SDB) concerns in...

2010-10-01

392

76 FR 30898 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements for Airport Concessions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 2105-AE10 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements...Airport Concessions Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (ACDBE) regulation...regulation for the disadvantaged business enterprise (DBE) program...Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or you...

2011-05-27

393

48 CFR 52.219-26 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Incentive Subcontracting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...219-26 Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program... Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program—Incentive Subcontracting (OCT 2000) (a) Of the total...to small disadvantaged business concerns in the...

2010-10-01

394

48 CFR 1552.219-74 - Small disadvantaged business participation evaluation factor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...219-74 Small disadvantaged business participation evaluation factor...clause: Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Evaluation Factor (OCT 2000) Under this factor...participation of small disadvantaged business (SDB) concerns in...

2010-10-01

395

48 CFR 52.219-24 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Targets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...219-24 Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program—Targets...following: Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program—Targets (OCT 2000) (a) This solicitation...participation of small disadvantaged business (SDB) concerns in...

2010-10-01

396

48 CFR 19.1203 - Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROGRAMS Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program 19...subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns. The contracting...219-26, Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program Incentive...at 65 FR 46057, July 26,...

2010-10-01

397

Economic Aspects of Arts Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Background Many people working in arts education will have had the experience of needing to spell out the economic impacts of some project or activity in which they are engaged. It may be a research investigation into the effects of music education on children in primary school; it may be a proposal to teach theatre skills to disadvantaged youth;

David Throsby

398

The Road to Poverty: A Report on the Economic Status of Midlife and Older Women in America. Mother's Day Report 1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women of all ages continue to enter the work force in greater numbers while the work force participation rate for males is declining. Women are disproportionately concentrated in low-paying, dead-end jobs. Employment discrimination continues to be a significant problem. Job interruptions necessitated by family responsibilities are a major factor…

Older Women's League, Washington, DC.

399

Women and Literacy in Rural Mali: A Study of the Socio-economic Impact of Participating in Literacy Programs in Four Villages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women's literacy programs in rural Mali were studied through observation and surveys of 42 participants and 29 nonparticipants. Few participants acquired literacy skills, those that did rarely used them, and literacy acquisition had little socioeconomic impact on women's lives. General constraints on literacy usage in rural villages are discussed,…

Puchner, L.

2003-01-01

400

The Role of Older Women in the Work Force. Hearing before the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents witness testimony and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine the role of older women in the work force. The opening statement from Representative Olympia J. Stowe stresses the need for Congress to recognize the social realities facing older women when it considers changes in education, job…

Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

401

Women and retirement.  

PubMed

A feminist analysis of retirement is presented by questioning the applicability of traditional definitions and theories of retirement to retired women. The effects of marriage, caregiving and other family obligations on women's retirement are examined within the context of salient social, psychological and economic factors. An empowerment-oriented perspective that considers interactions and connections between family and work roles, public and private and personal and political levels are recommended to alleviate the high poverty rates among older women, to promote parity among men and women during retirement and to emancipate women from substantial involvement in unpaid work, specifically, caregiving and home labor. PMID:10568096

Richardson, V E

1999-01-01

402

Effects of Welfare Reform on Education Acquisition of Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes. PMID:23504449

Dave, Dhaval M.; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

403

48 CFR 219.1203 - Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program 219...subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns. The contracting...at 65 FR 50149, Aug. 17,...

2010-10-01

404

75 FR 71137 - Vendor Outreach Workshop for Women Owned Small Businesses in the National Capitol Region of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Secretary Vendor Outreach Workshop for Women Owned Small Businesses in the National...hosting a Vendor Outreach Workshop for women owned small businesses in the National...small, small disadvantaged, 8(a), woman-owned, HUBZone, and...

2010-11-22

405

Women's experiences of factors that facilitate or inhibit gestational diabetes self-management  

PubMed Central

Background Gestational diabetes rates have increased dramatically in the past two decades and this pattern of increase appears to relate primarily to the obesity epidemic, older maternal age and migration from world areas of high GDM risk. Women from disadvantaged and migrant backgrounds are most at risk of developing and of mismanaging this condition. The aim of the study was to explore the factors that facilitated or inhibited gestational diabetes self-management among women in a socially deprived area. Methods Fifteen pregnant women, with a diagnosis of gestational diabetes, were purposively recruited for this study. Qualitative semi structured interviews and 1 focus group were conducted when participants were approximately 28–38 weeks gestation. The study’s theoretical framework was based on interpretative phenomenology and data was analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Results Women in this study identified a number of factors that complicated their task of GDM self-management. Barriers included: (1) time pressures; (2) physical constraints; (3) social constraints; (4) limited comprehension of requirements, and (5) insulin as an easier option. Factors facilitating GDM self-management included: thinking about the baby and psychological support from partners and families. Conclusion Women from low socio economic and migrant backgrounds often struggle to comprehend GDM self-management requirements. To improve adherence to management plans, these women require educational and supportive services that are culturally appropriate and aimed at a low level of literacy. PMID:22988897

2012-01-01

406

Shared reading interactions between mothers and pre-school children: Case studies of three dyads from a disadvantaged community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that adult-child shared book reading can enhance language and literacy development in the early years, although little is known about how mothers and children from socio-economically disadvantaged communities interact around books. This study investigated the shared reading interactions of three mother-child dyads living in such a community. Mothers were interviewed and videotaped reading at home with their

Anne Morgan

2005-01-01

407

Making the most of the mosaic: facilitating post-school transitions to higher education of disadvantaged students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research studies of post-school education and training conducted in Australia and internationally have revealed a mosaic of students’ education and employment experiences, with a multiplicity of nonlinear pathways. These tend to be more fragmentary\\u000a for disadvantaged students, especially those of low socio-economic background, rural students, and mature aged students seeking\\u000a a ‘second chance’ education. Challenges faced by students in their

Joan Abbott-Chapman

2011-01-01

408

Behavioral risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in working and nonworking women of urban slums  

PubMed Central

Background: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are an emerging public health problem, accounting for 80% of deaths in low and middle-income countries leading to a global epidemic. The increasing burden of NCDs is affecting poor and disadvantaged women population disproportionately, contributing to widening health gaps between and within countries. Globalization and urbanization have led to lifestyle changes among urban poor, which need to be understood, as the urban areas are undergoing rapid transitions. Objectives: To know prevalence and pattern of behavioral risk factors for NCDs in working and nonworking women of urban slums to initiate steps for preventive interventions. Materials and Methods: This was community based cross-sectional study conducted among women of urban slums in the age-group of 30-45 years on a voluntary basis. Data were collected by the house-to-house survey using predesigned and pretested proforma World Health Organization-Stepwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance (WHO-STEPS 1 and 2 questionnaires). Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used for analysis. Results: Majority, 49% women were in the age-group of 30-35 years, with 60.5% belonging to Class IV socio-economic status. Stress was present in 38% working women as compared to 17% nonworking women (?2 = 22.12, df = 1, P < 0.0001, HS). Nonworking women (25%) were less aware about common NCDs compared to (48%) working women (?2 = 22.82, df = 1, P < 0.0001, HS). It was also found that 11% women were newly diagnosed with hypertension. Conclusion: Most of the women were not aware of the risk factors leading to NCDs. Screening and IEC activities need to be strengthened and hence that diagnosis and preventive measures can be implemented at an early stage of life.

Manjrekar, Shivani S.; Sherkhane, Mayur S.; Chowti, Jayaprakash V.

2014-01-01

409

Women & Development Aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 30 years, study after study by academics, development practitioners, and international agencies has demonstrated the seemingly self-evident fact that women are equal to men, and sometimes surpass men, in contributing to social and economic development. Researchers have also documented the significant eco- nomic dividends of investing in women and girls. Studies conducted by the World Bank, United

Ritu R. Sharma

2001-01-01

410

Marriageable Women: A Focus on Participants in a Community Healthy Marriage Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although disadvantaged women are the targets of marriage programs, little attention has been paid to women's marriage constraints and their views of marriage. Drawing on an exchange framework and using qualitative data collected from single women participating in a marriage initiative, we introduce the concept of marriageable women--the notion…

Manning, Wendy D.; Trella, Deanna; Lyons, Heidi; Du Toit, Nola Cora

2010-01-01

411

Family and neighborhood disadvantage, home environment, and children's school readiness.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine associations between family socioeconomic risk, neighborhood disadvantage, and children's school readiness. A sample of 420 children from 48 early childcare programs yielded multi-informant data. The average age was 55.3 months (SD = 6.4), with 38% of children being Black, non-Hispanic, Hispanic, or other minority race (American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander). One third (32.4%) of the parents had annual incomes less than $30,000. We used multilevel structural equation modeling to test direct and indirect associations among family socioeconomic risk and neighborhood disadvantage and children's cognitive and social-emotional development through home learning environment and parental depression. Children with a greater number of family socioeconomic risks and a higher level of neighborhood disadvantage demonstrated lower scores on cognitive skills. The degree of family socioeconomic risk was indirectly associated with children's cognitive ability through parents' cognitive stimulation at home. Parents who had more family socioeconomic risks and neighborhood disadvantage reported more depressive symptoms, which, in turn, suggested children's greater probability of having social-emotional problems. In other words, home learning environments explained associations between family socioeconomic disadvantage and children's cognitive skills, while parental depression explained associations between family/neighborhood disadvantages and children's social-emotional problems. Results suggest the importance of intervention or prevention strategies for parents to improve cognitive stimulation at home and to reduce depressive symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25150370

Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K; Hur, Eunhye

2014-10-01

412

Women and Representation in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan's high level of socio-economic advancement notwithstanding, the level of women's representation in Japan lags behind that in not only other advanced countries but also many developing countries. This article aims to elucidate the causes of the under-representation of women in Japan. Preceding studies suggest that multiple, intertwining factors have had a collective influence on the number of women representatives.

Mikiko Eto

2010-01-01

413

Women's Health, Poverty and Globalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wendy Harcourt maps out some concerns about the impact of globalization on poor women's health. She argues that in a pro-poor health strategy it is crucial to understand the different realities of poor women and men's lives and the complex economic and social factors determining their health and well-being. She focuses on how women's reproductive rights and health groups have

Wendy Harcourt

2001-01-01

414

Gender Differences in the Economic Well-Being of Nonaged Adults in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attainment of economic parity between men and women has been a focal point of the women's movements in many countries. How much worse off are women economically? What are the net, gender differences in economic well-being when other factors are taken into account? What factors explain the level of economic well-being of women compared to men's? This article reports

Martha N. Ozawa; Hong-Sik Yoon

2003-01-01

415

An economical single to three phase converter for induction motors  

E-print Network

There are several different types of single to three phase converters for induction motors available today. However, many of the presently available phase converters suffer from disadvantages such as high cost or low performance. An economical...

Di Zerega, Philp Van Uytandaele

2012-06-07

416

Vietnamese women at solidarity meeting of world women in Cuba.  

PubMed

This article summarizes experiences of a Vietnamese delegation at a solidarity meeting of world women during April 13-16, 1998, in Cuba. The President of the Viet Nam Women's Union headed the delegation. The advisor was the vice-chairperson of the Vietnamese National Assembly. The delegation participated in 6 forums: women and sustainable economic development; women, health, education, and social security; women, communication and the mass media; women in politics and decision-making; women, violence and discrimination; and national independence, sovereignty, peace, and women. The delegation also participated in sessions on women's issues; implementation issues; women parliamentarians; and migrant and displaced women. The delegation met with delegates from other countries and participated in a world meeting and an Asian-Pacific meeting to support Cuban women. The entire delegation presented a stage show of songs, which was well received by the 3000 participants. The delegation met with Cuban delegates to discuss the formation of women's groups and to build better relations between the women of both countries. The delegation visited a training center of women cadres and the center for gender education. Participants adopted the Havana Declaration, which states the intention of world women to eradicate poverty and war and to promote peace, progress, and happiness in all countries. The Havana Declaration condemned the US embargo against Cuba. Fidel Castro spoke and expressed gratitude for the strong support from world women, especially Vietnamese women. PMID:12294602

1998-01-01

417

Women in public life.  

PubMed

The UN Division for the Advancement of Women publication has devoted an issue to the role of women in public lie based on an analysis of women's status in industrialized countries presented in Vienna, Austria, in May 1991. Women already contribute to political life and make a difference in politics, but societal institutions and government processes have not yet adapted to this fact. Women's nongovernmental organizations promote women's interests at the governmental level, but often do not have the economic or political power as do other interests groups such as trade unions. Women often participation public life via their membership in women's organizations, community action groups, voluntary organizations, and other close to home groups. They prefer to participate in activities which are problem solving rather than institution building. These activities and groups operate outside established political institutions and are not considered as part of public and political life. Society's exclusion of women from leadership positions in public life keeps it from benefiting from the special contributions that women bring to decision making. Women show a tendency to have different leadership styles than men (e.g., ability to relate to people affected by their decisions), which are most needed for the modern world. They often do not campaign just for women's issues, but, once in office, they do tend to become more involved in women's issues. Women have affected positive changes in career and child care, often on a non-Socialist agenda, in various countries (e.g. Norway). This effect is referred to as the politics of motherhood. More access to politics and public life calls for removal of structural and situational barriers including the glass ceiling, discrimination, insufficient funds, and bearing most of the responsibility for child care. The UN women's groups has drafted a platform for interregional consultation on women's role in public life and scheduled the 4th world conference on women for 1995. PMID:12317888

1992-01-01

418

Introducing Computer Science to Educationally Disadvantaged High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An approach to the teaching and learning of high school computer science (CS) to and by educationally disadvantaged students (EDS) is described, as well as the implementation of six pedagogical principles in two learning environments developed for Israeli schools. Following a brief description of the main characteristics of EDS classes and a…

Paz, Tamar; Levy, Dalit

2005-01-01

419

The Early College Challenge: Navigating Disadvantaged Students' Transition to College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful early college high schools (ECHSs) are formed through partnerships between high schools and colleges (usually community colleges). Think of it as preparation through acceleration. ECHSs enroll disadvantaged students who have not excelled with ordinary grade-level academic content and have them take college courses while still in high…

Rosenbaum, James E.; Becker, Kelly Iwanaga

2011-01-01

420

Concrete vs. Abstract Problem Formats: A Disadvantage of Prior Knowledge  

E-print Network

Concrete vs. Abstract Problem Formats: A Disadvantage of Prior Knowledge Andrew F. Heckler experiments examine the effects of varying the relative concreteness of physics word problems on student performance.Previous studies have found that concrete representations benefit performance for relatively

Heckler, Andrew F.

421

MATERIALS THE DISADVANTAGED NEED--AND DON'T NEED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE ASSUMPTION THAT SOME CHILDREN ARE LOW ACHIEVERS BECAUSE OF CULTURAL, SENSORY, OR DEVELOPMENTAL DEPRIVATION IS CRITICIZED BECAUSE IT LEADS MAINLY TO A GRASPING FOR NEW AND DIFFERENT TEACHING TECHNOLOGIES. WHAT SHOULD BE INCLUDED IN A COHESIVE VIEW OF THE DISADVANTAGED ARE THEORETICAL UNDERPINNINGS FROM WHICH ACTION PROGRAMS CAN BE DERIVED. THE…

HABERMAN, MARTIN

422

A Summer Academic Research Experience for Disadvantaged Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience…

Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N.

2013-01-01

423

Loan for Disadvantaged University of Tennessee Health Science Center  

E-print Network

and Human Services found at http://bhpr.hrsa.gov/dsa/sfag/health_professions/bk1prt2.htm. To begin-448-1570 UTHSC participates in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Loan for Disadvantaged Students

Cui, Yan

424

78 FR 57336 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...should register at least five business days before the date of the...entitled, ``Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation...of this notice at least five business days prior to the date of the...representative will make an opening statement outlining the...

2013-09-18

425

Development of a Cooperative Retailing Program for the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents a two-year junior college retailing curriculum for the disadvantaged, proposed on the basis of answers to questionnaires sent to retailing industries in the Metropolitan Rochester area. The questionnaires were designed to assess the need and feasibility of such a retailing program and to ascertain qualifications required to…

Litzinger, F. Donald; And Others.

426

Barriers to Healthier Eating in a Disadvantaged Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The research objective was to identify how healthy eating was understood in a disadvantaged community and how barriers to healthy eating might be overcome. Design: Participatory action research. Setting: Communities in Gurnos, Merthyr Tydfil, one of the most deprived areas in the UK. Method: Trainees on a participative methods course…

O'Neill, Martin; Rebane, Deanne; Lester, Carolyn

2004-01-01

427

Educating the Disadvantaged, 1970-1971. An AMS Anthology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This anthology includes newly published essays by Daniel U. Levine, Robert J. Havighurst, and J. McVicker Hunt, two previously unpublished reports from the National Study of American Indian Education, and a new guide to resource centers. In addition, 35 papers by 55 contributors concerned with educating disadvantaged and culturally different…

Doll, Russell C., Ed.; Hawkins, Maxine, Ed.

428

Preparing Counselors for Disadvantaged Students Using Videotape and IPR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program describes an experimental series of six training workshops, directed toward the unique needs of counselors in inner-city schools. The workshops attempted to counteract insularity in current counselor education programs (textbooks and tape recorded interviews) by providing new and more potent methods for counseling disadvantaged

Maslon, Patricia J.

429

Facilitating the Creative Functioning of Disadvantaged Young Black Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study hypothesized that disadvantaged black children could achieve higher creativity scores if they were provided with stimulating experiences appropriate to psychological warm-up immediately before they were tested for figural and verbal creative thinking ability. The subjects were 105 first grade children divided into three experimental…

Nash, William Roscoe

430

Disadvantaged Children in Canada. Bibliographies in Education, Number 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprised of 191 items, this bibliography on the disadvantaged children in Canada is principally concerned with younger children. It is recommended that this bibliography should be used in conjunction with an earlier one of the series, Number 2, "School Dropouts." The compilation covers the period of the decade of the sixties, and is arranged…

Canadian Teachers' Federation, Ottawa (Ontario).

431

Developing the Potential of the Gifted Disadvantaged in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In dealing with this topic I will draw from my personal experience as a former disadvantaged gifted South African from the underdeveloped rural area in KwaZulu-Natal. I will commence my argument by stating that every child born in this world has some kind of gift which, if well developed, can benefit the community, the nation or even the world in

Surgeon Xolo

2007-01-01

432

Developing Social Giftedness in Disadvantaged Girls at an Indian School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes developmental interactions with a group of female students at an Indian public school situated in a disadvantaged section of the community. Through a series of activities, the author makes an intensive effort to develop social giftedness in these students. The article describes various activities together with the author's…

Sharma, Yukti

2012-01-01

433

From Here to Where?--"Disadvantaged Schools," Literacy and Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the abolishment of the Disadvantaged Schools Program (DSP) in South Australia represented a shift away from a focus on the social to the individual, from curriculum to instruction, from school-based inquiry and teacher research to expert solutions, and from various contexted and contested outcomes to a singular and simplistic version…

Thomson, Pat

2001-01-01

434

Teaching Low Achieving and Disadvantaged Students, 3rd Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This new edition updates and expands the previous volume and continues to reflect the concepts and the reasons behind learning and behavior problems of low achieving and disadvantaged students. Through the chapters, the author describes instructional levels and independent levels, emphasizing that success is produced by finding the place on the…

Hargis, Charles H.

2006-01-01

435

OHRO Digest. Health Career Opportunity Grants for the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This first edition of the OHRO (Office of Health Resources Opportunity) Digest contains brief summaries of each active project in the Health Careers Opportunity Grant Program. (Projects funded under this federal program are designed to increase the number of health professionals from disadvantaged backgrounds. The project grants meet costs related…

Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

436

Development of Human Resources through a Vocationally Oriented Education Program for Disadvantaged Families in Depressed Rural Areas. Interim Report No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One aspect of Project REDY (Rural Education-Disadvantaged Youth) was to explore the degree of upward social and occupational mobility which society might realiztically expect from residents of a rural economically depressed area. Social class structure was identified as a related factor and examined in a rural, Southern Illinois county. It was…

Fuller, Gerald R.; Phipps, Lloyd J.

437

Getting Our Best Teachers into Disadvantaged Schools: Differences in the Professional and Personal Factors Attracting More Effective and Less Effective Teachers to a School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of the school-level factors that have an impact on student learning, one of the most powerful appears to be the effectiveness of the individual teacher. The most effective teachers are, therefore, one of the most important tools schools and systems have at their disposal to lift the achievement of socio-economically disadvantaged students and…

Rice, Suzanne M.

2010-01-01

438

Challenges facing women entrepreneurs in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study seeks to examine the business and social profiles of 67 women entrepreneurs in three regions of Nigeria in order to identify patterns of entrepreneurship and social and economic challenges facing women business owners in Nigeria. The study aims to support and encourage sustainable small-scale economic development activities by Nigerian women and determine ways to integrate these

Daphne Halkias; Chinedum Nwajiuba; Nicholas Harkiolakis; Sylva M. Caracatsanis

2011-01-01

439

Race, Gender, and Chains of Disadvantage: Childhood Adversity, Social Relationships, and Health  

PubMed Central

We use a life course approach to guide an investigation of relationships and health at the nexus of race and gender. We consider childhood as a sensitive period in the life course, during which significant adversity may launch chains of disadvantage in relationships throughout the life course that then have cumulative effects on health over time. Data from a nationally representative panel study (Americans’ Changing Lives, N=3,477) reveal substantial disparities between black and white adults, especially pronounced among men, in the quality of close relationships and in the consequences of these relationships for health. Greater childhood adversity helps to explain why black men have worse health than white men, and some of this effect appears to operate through childhood adversity’s enduring influence on relationship strain in adulthood. Stress that occurs in adulthood plays a greater role than childhood adversity in explaining racial disparities in health among women. PMID:24578394

Umberson, Debra; Williams, Kristi; Thomas, Patricia A.; Liu, Hui; Thomeer, Mieke Beth

2014-01-01

440

Health and nutrition economics: diet costs are associated with diet quality.  

PubMed

The WHO asserts that the global food price crisis threatens public health and jeopardizes the health of the most disadvantaged groups such as women, children, the elderly and low-income families. Economic factors play a crucial role and could affect personal nutrition status and health. Economic decision factors such as food price and income do influence people's food choices. Moreover, food costs are a barrier for low income-families to healthier food choices. Several studies indicate that diet costs are associated with dietary quality and also food safety. Food prices have surged over the past couple of years (2007-9) and raised serious concerns about food security around the world. Rising food prices are having severe impacts on population health and nutritional status. Therefore, people who change their diet pattern for economic reasons may develop a range of nutritionally-related disorders and diseases, from so-called over-nutrition to or with under-nutrition even within the one household. This is likely to increase with growing food insecurity. Presently, economics is not integrated with mainstream nutrition science or practice, other than in "home economics", but it can enable greater understanding of how socioeconomic status may interplay with human nutritional status and health and how these situations might be resolved. Collaborative, cross-disciplinary nutritional economics research should play a greater role in the prevention and management of food crises. PMID:19965354

Lo, Yuan-Ting; Chang, Yu-Hung; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Wahlqvist, Mark L

2009-01-01

441

Women Physicists in Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Women constitute more than half the total population of Nepal. They are, however, far behind men in all aspects of life. There are wide gender gaps in the social, economic, administrative, political, and legal fields. Data from 1960 to 2001 show that the proportion of female students varied inconsistently at the postgraduate level, and no women held PhD degrees. From 2002 to mid-2008, the number of female students at the MSc and PhD levels has gradually increased. It is expected that this will bring significant improvement in the education of women as a whole, and will help to promote the study of physics by women in the country.

Shrestha, N.; Shrestha, S.; Bhattarai, P. K.

2009-04-01

442

A decision impact, decision conflict and economic assessment of routine Oncotype DX testing of 146 women with node-negative or pNImi, ER-positive breast cancer in the UK  

PubMed Central

Background: Tumour gene expression analysis is useful in predicting adjuvant chemotherapy benefit in early breast cancer patients. This study aims to examine the implications of routine Oncotype DX testing in the UK. Methods: Women with oestrogen receptor positive (ER+), pNO or pN1mi breast cancer were assessed for adjuvant chemotherapy and subsequently offered Oncotype DX testing, with changes in chemotherapy decisions recorded. A subset of patients completed questionnaires about their uncertainties regarding chemotherapy decisions pre- and post-testing. All patients were asked to complete a diary of medical interactions over the next 6 months, from which economic data were extracted to model the cost-effectiveness of testing. Results: Oncotype DX testing resulted in changes in chemotherapy decisions in 38 of 142 (26.8%) women, with 26 of 57 (45.6%) spared chemotherapy and 12 of 85 (14.1%) requiring chemotherapy when not initially recommended (9.9% reduction overall). Decision conflict analysis showed that Oncotype DX testing increased patients' confidence in treatment decision making. Economic analysis showed that routine Oncotype DX testing costs £6232 per quality-adjusted life year gained. Conclusion: Oncotype DX decreased chemotherapy use and increased confidence in treatment decision making in patients with ER+ early-stage breast cancer. Based on these findings, Oncotype DX is cost-effective in the UK setting. PMID:23695023

Holt, S; Bertelli, G; Humphreys, I; Valentine, W; Durrani, S; Pudney, D; Rolles, M; Moe, M; Khawaja, S; Sharaiha, Y; Brinkworth, E; Whelan, S; Jones, S; Bennett, H; Phillips, C J

2013-01-01

443

Beliefs in Equality for Women and Men as Related to Economic Factors in Central and Eastern Europe and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do economic indicators predict the general level of support for gender equality? This question was investigated in a sample\\u000a of countries in Central and Eastern Europe, a region that has been undergoing rapid economic changes since the early 1990s.\\u000a In this overall sample of male and female college students from ten countries, including the United States as a comparison,\\u000a the

Josephine E. Olson; Irene H. Frieze; Sally Wall; Bozena Zdaniuk; Anuška Ferligoj; Tina Kogovšek; Jasna Horvat; Nataša Šarlija; Eva Jarošová; Daniela Pauknerová; Lan Anh Nguyen Luu; Mònika Kovacs; Jolanta Miluska; Aida Orgocka; Ludmila Erokhina; Olga V. Mitina; Ludmila V. Popova; Nijol? Petkevi?i?t?; Mirjana Pejic-Bach; Slavka Kubušová; Maja Rus Makovec

2007-01-01

444

The Role of Support Services in Promoting Social Inclusion for the Disadvantaged Urban-dwelling Elderly  

PubMed Central

Background Disadvantaged older adults living in non-family situations in Toronto are more likely than older adults living in family situations to have less economic security, less social support, and less choice in housing. Older adults who live in poverty and are precariously housed are more likely to be chronically ill, to live with multiple illnesses, to have poor nutrition, high stress and loneliness, all of which are strongly associated with the determinant of health social exclusion. The aim of this study is to: 1) evaluate the level of social disadvantage and exclusion experienced by low-income older adults 65 years of age and older living alone or in non-family situations; 2) assess the level of dependency on government and community services (support services) to maintain a reasonable standard of living (minimize effects of social exclusion); and 3) identify consequences of social exclusion not addressed by current available services. Methods Fifteen male older adult members of the Good Neighbours’ Club in downtown Toronto were interviewed. Semi-structured questionnaires assessed barriers to, utility of, and perceived impact of support services available to disadvantaged older adults living in the central core of southeast Toronto. Results Support services for income, housing, food security, social support, and health care do mitigate the effects of social exclusion in the study participants. Data gathered from interviews identified factors that counter the efforts by support services to increase social inclusion in this population. Conclusions Support services reduce social isolation experienced by these older adults. Evidence of the detrimental impact of low financial literacy suggests a need to design and implement training programs to build the older adults’ capacity to manage their own finances effectively, and resist falling victim to financial fraud. PMID:24278093

Nguyen, Vicky P.K.H.; Sarkari, Feroz; MacNeil, Kate; Cowan, Laura; Rankin, Joyce

2013-01-01

445

75 FR 82424 - The Secretary of State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership AGENCY...the International Council on Women's Business Leadership, in...negotiations, business outreach and commercial diplomacy, particularly pertaining...the economic empowerment of women for global economic...

2010-12-30

446

76 FR 81005 - The Secretary of State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership; Notice of Open...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership; Notice...State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership (ICWBL...negotiations, business outreach, and commercial diplomacy, particularly pertaining...the economic empowerment of women for global economic...

2011-12-27

447

77 FR 65928 - The Secretary of State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership; Notice of Open...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership; Notice...State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership (ICWBL...negotiations, business outreach, and commercial diplomacy, particularly pertaining...the economic empowerment of women for global economic...

2012-10-31

448

Work and housework conditions and depressive symptoms among married women: the importance of occupational status.  

PubMed

Using the American Changing Lives Survey, a nationally representative sample of adults residing in the United States, this research examines housewives' subjective evaluations of their housework and the subjective evaluations of paid employment among three groups of married women--professionals, sales-clerical, and service-blue collar wives. A major goal was to assess the usefulness of disaggregating employed women by occupational status. Depressive symptoms were regressed on five work conditions--autonomy, physical and time demands, boredom, and feeling appreciated--along with sociodemographic characteristics. The results indicate professional wives report fewer symptoms than homemakers, sales-clerical, and service-blue collar wives. Differences between professionals and homemakers are largely accounted for by professional women's more advantaged economic position. Nonprofessional employed women are more depressed than professionals even when their disadvantaged working conditions are controlled. We discuss the findings in view of research on the stress of combining full-time employment with homemaking and argue that balancing these two roles may be more difficult for some employed women than for others. PMID:14750773

Riley, Anna L; Keith, Verna M

2003-01-01

449

Orientations to Work and Care and Women's Agency in an Enlarged Europe: An assessment of institutional, economic and cultural effects on maternal employment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the substantial differences in the employment behaviour of mothers that exist within and across countries and sets out to investigate how these may be explained. Based on comparative survey data, it investigates the determinants of maternal employment with women's attitudes toward maternal employment as potentially important predictors, alongside cost-benefit considerations and the influence of national policy, labour

Nadia Steiber; Barbara Haas

450

Is family planning an economic decision?  

PubMed

This study examines economic models of household choice and the role of economic factors in determining the timing of births. A static economic model is presented and tested with data from the Netherlands. After the availability of contraceptives, the family size variable shifted from being an exogenous to an endogenous one, because births could be regulated. Costs of childbearing were construed to have maintenance costs for parents and society, attendance costs of care, and intangible costs such as anxiety or personal freedom. Benefits were intangible ones, such as joy and happiness; income; public benefits; and attendance benefits. Intangible benefits enlarged the utility of children, but maintenance costs diminished resources available for consumption. Child quality was a product of market goods purchased by parents and others and household labor. Household time allocation varied with child's age. Private responsibility for children varied by country. Quality of child care varied between countries and over time. Quality was dependent upon economies of scale, variable costs by the age of the child, variable time commitments by age of the child, and market substitutes for private child care. Higher income families spent more money but less time on children. It is pointed out that Becker's model explained number of children, but not timing of births. Postponement of birth was unlikely for those with a limited education, an unpleasant job, and low wages. When the advantages and disadvantages of having a baby were positive, spouses or single women with a high subjective preference were expected to bear a child as soon as possible. Government policy can affect the average family size by increasing or decreasing the financial and/or time burden of children. Postponement may be chosen based on long term analysis of a couple's future, the formation and use of capital, and/or high subjective time preference. Before and after first birth are different frames of reference for couples. Before the birth, the future may be vague. After the birth, life without a child becomes unimaginable. PMID:12291178

Wunderink, S R

1995-09-01

451

Women in the University: A Policy Report. Report of the University of Queensland Senate Working Party on the Status of Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of all staff of the University of Queensland was conducted to gather: information on the participation of women in the university, particularly with regard to structural barriers and direct or indirect discriminatory practices that disadvantage women more than men; and information on opinions regarding the standing of women in the…

Wilson, Brian G., Ed.; Byrne, Eileen M., Ed.

452

Women's Music in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this presentation was to: (1) describe the history of women's music in the United States; (2) define women's music; (3) report on the status of the large women's recording companies; and (4) focus on a recent controversy in the women's music industry involving the desire for political purity versus the need for economic security.…

Lont, Cynthia M.

453

Working women's sexual risk taking in Jamaica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the rates of HIV are increasing among female populations in developing countries, there is little information available about factors influencing sexual risk taking among working class women. This paper describes some of the issues discussed by two groups of 58 women working in Jamaica: Informal Commercial Importers and women working in the Freezone. These women discuss their economic vulnerability,

Elsie Le Franc; Gail Elizabeth Wyatt; Claudia Chambers; Denise Eldemire; Brendan Bain; Heather Ricketts

1996-01-01

454

Rutgers University Institute for Women's Leadership  

E-print Network

around the globe grapple with new and entrenched challenges to women's rights and, more broadly to define and achieve women's human rights. The Center's research and programs focus on advancing economic1 Rutgers University Institute for Women's Leadership ADVANCING WOMEN'S LEADERSHIP FOR A JUST WORLD

Garfunkel, Eric

455

Does living in a disadvantaged area mean fewer opportunities to purchase fresh fruit and vegetables in the area? Findings from the Brisbane food study.  

PubMed

Understanding the particularly low intake of fruits and vegetables among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups is an important issue for public health. This study investigated whether access to retail outlets is similar across areas of varying socioeconomic disadvantage in an Australian urban setting, in terms of distance, the numbers of local shops, and their opening hours. This ecological cross-sectional study used 50 randomly sampled census collection districts and their nearby shopping environment (i.e. within 2.5 km), and generally found minimal or no socioeconomic differences in shopping infrastructure. Important methodological and social/economic issues may explain this contrast with overseas findings. PMID:16546696

Winkler, Elisabeth; Turrell, Gavin; Patterson, Carla

2006-09-01

456

Association of life course socioeconomic disadvantage with future problem drinking and heavy drinking: gender differentials in the west of Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To examine gender differentials in the association between life course socioeconomic disadvantage and the risk of exceeding\\u000a internationally recognised weekly and daily guidelines for ‘sensible’ alcohol consumption and problem drinking.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A population-representative cohort study of 1,218 men and women from the west of Scotland, UK was conducted. Data on life\\u000a course socioeconomic position were collected in 1987\\/1988 (at around 35 years

G. David Batty; Abita Bhaskar; Carol Emslie; Michaela Benzeval; Geoff Der; Heather Lewars; Kate Hunt

457

Women in Prison: How We Are.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reprint of a 1978 article that describes the alienation and escapism that prevail among Black women inmates of Riker's Island prison in New York City. Calls for Black women to unite against racial, sexual, and economic oppression. (GC)

Shakur, Assata

1981-01-01

458

Women, Democracy and Participation in the Information Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the disadvantaged state of women in South Africa, including statistics that illustrate effects of their lack of status on their health and well being. It then focuses on the role in South Africa of the community library and information services in empowering especially women. Barriers experienced in information delivery to…

Mayer, Louisa

459

Patterns of entrepreneurship of Arab women in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Drawing upon the disadvantage theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate patterns of entrepreneurship evolving under conditions of double discrimination characterizing the situation of Arab women entrepreneurs in Israel. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A comprehensive questionnaire was administered in 2006 to a sample of 405 Arab-Muslim women entrepreneurs in the northern and southern “triangle” of Israel. The authors

Khaled Mohammed Abu-Asbah; Sibylle Heilbrunn

2011-01-01

460

WOMEN'S RIGHTS BEFORE THE FEDERAL DISTRICT COURTS, 1971-1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes opinions published by federal district judges in women's rights and racial minority discrimination cases in the period 1971-1977. Our analysis revealed that the petitioner in women's rights cases was only slightly more likely to be victorious than litigants from other disadvantaged groups. Using a regional variable, we found no significant differences between northern and southern judges deciding

RONALD STIDHAM; ROBERT A. CARP; C. K. ROWLAND

1983-01-01

461

Taking it ot the next level. As reform settles in and economic woes wear on, the Top Women in Healthcare keep moving forward.  

PubMed

As the effects of reform start to settle in, the Top 25 Women in Healthcare are helping show how integral changes can be made to the system. "They clearly understand the vision. They asked me to be bold," says Dr. Tracy Gaudet, left, says of the VA. She's leading an effort there to redesign the delivery of healthcare to more than 6 million veterans nationwide. PMID:21553414

Vesely, Rebecca

2011-04-18

462

The Downside of Patriarchal Benevolence: Ambivalence in Addressing Domestic Violence and SocioEconomic Considerations for Women of Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social values and status cause diverse obstacles for escaping abuse (e.g., belief in the sanctity of marriage vs. financial\\u000a necessity to stay for survival). India provides a unique opportunity to explore the interplay of status and corresponding\\u000a patriarchal values in relation to the incidence of domestic violence and how it is viewed, coped with, and psychologically\\u000a impacting native women. Sixty-four

Lauren L. Tichy; Judith V. Becker; Melissa M. Sisco

2009-01-01

463

Effects of Welfare Reform on Education Acquisition of Adult Women.  

PubMed

Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women's education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes. PMID:23504449

Dave, Dhaval M; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E

2012-06-01

464

Integrating Equality: Globalization, Women's Rights, and Human Trafficking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically investigates whether globalization can improve women's rights. Using panel data from 150 countries over the 1981-2008 period, I find that social globalization positively affects women's economic and social rights. When controlling for social globalization however, economic globalization does not have any effect on women's rights. Despite the positive effect of (social) globalization on women's standing in a

Seo-Young Cho

2012-01-01

465

Essays in public finance and labor economics  

E-print Network

This thesis examines three questions of causality relevant to public finance and labor economics: the effect of racial segregation on city characteristics, the effect of divorce on women's economic outcomes, and the effect ...

Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans

2006-01-01

466

Socio-Economic Outcomes of Teen Pregnancy and Parenthood: A Review of the Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews literature examining the socioeconomic consequences of teen pregnancy and childbearing and the birth intentions of teenage mothers. Teen mothers, as opposed to women who delay childbearing, are more likely to become socioeconomically disadvantaged. Socioeconomic disadvantage is correlated with, but not necessarily a consequence of, early…

Bissell, Mary

2000-01-01

467

Nursing scholarship to empower underprivileged women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Notre Dame Australia, Sydney Campus, is delighted to announce a new nursing scholarship opportunity, available through the Sisters of Charity Foundation, for young women who have recently left out of home care.\\u000aThe scholarship offers women who have experienced a disadvantaged start in life the opportunity to complete tertiary education, with tuition fully paid for Notre Dame’s

Elizabeth Fenech

2011-01-01

468

48 CFR 19.1506 - Contract clauses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-owned Small Business Concerns, in...reserved for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB)...

2013-10-01

469

48 CFR 19.1506 - Contract clauses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-owned Small Business (EDWOSB) Concerns...set aside for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business concerns under...

2011-10-01

470

48 CFR 19.1506 - Contract clauses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-owned Small Business Concerns, in...reserved for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB)...

2012-10-01

471

Variations in food and drink advertising in UK monthly women's magazines according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers: a descriptive study of publications over 12 months  

PubMed Central

Background Overweight and obesity are recognised nationally and internationally as key public health challenges. Food and drink advertising is one of the array of factors that influence both diet and physical activity choices and, hence, body weight and obesity. Little previous work has focused on food and drink advertising in magazines. We studied food and drink advertising in a wide range of popular UK monthly women's magazines published over a full year. We explored differences in the prevalence of food and drink advertising and the type of food and drinks advertised according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. Methods All advertisements in all issues of 18 popular UK monthly women's magazines published over 12 months were identified. For each food or drink advertisement, branded food and drinks were noted and categorised into one of seven food groups. All analyses were at the level of the individual advertisement. Results A total of 35 053 advertisements were identified; 1380 (3.9%) of these were for food or drink. The most common food group represented was 'food and drinks high in fat and/or sugar' (28.0% of food advertisements), the least common group was 'fruits & vegetables' (2.0% of food advertisements). Advertisements for alcohol accounted for 10.1% of all food advertisements. Food and drink advertisements were most common in summer, general interest magazines, and those with the most affluent readerships. There were some differences in the type of food and drink advertised across season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. Conclusions Food and drink advertisements represented only a small proportion of advertisements in UK women's monthly magazines. Food and drink advertisements in these magazines feature a high proportion of 'less healthy' foods. There were a number of differences across season, magazine type and according to the socio-economic profile of readers in the prevalence of food and drink advertisements. Fewer differences were seen in the type of food and drinks advertised. PMID:21605388

2011-01-01

472

Women's health  

MedlinePLUS

Women’s health refers to the branch of medicine that focuses on the treatment and diagnosis of diseases and ... Women’s health includes a wide range of specialties and focus areas, such as: Birth control, sexually transmitted infections, ...

473

Women's Health  

MedlinePLUS

Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

474

Vocational Rehabilitation for Women with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women with disabilities have limited access to the labor market owing to the double disadvantage of being both disabled and female. The current rehabilitation system is inadequate to meet this population's needs. Further research, broader action programs, changes in vocational rehabilitation, and active measures against discrimination are needed.…

Stace, Sheila

1987-01-01

475

Potential roles of high salt intake and maternal malnutrition in the development of hypertension in disadvantaged populations.  

PubMed

1. It has been argued that all major risk factors for cardiovascular disease have been identified. Yet, epidemiological studies undertaken to identify risk factors have largely focused on populations in developed nations or on the urban or relatively affluent rural populations of developing countries. Poor rural populations are seldom studied. 2. Somewhat different risk factors may operate in poor rural populations. Evidence for this is provided by the finding that, in disadvantaged rural India, the prevalence of hypertension is greater than would be expected based on established risk factors in these populations. One risk factor to be considered is a poor intrauterine environment. 3. In animals, maternal macro- and micronutrient malnutrition can lead to reduced nephron endowment. Nephron deficiency, in turn, can render blood pressure salt sensitive. The combination of nephron deficiency and excessive salt intake will predispose to hypertension. 4. Human malnutrition may have similar effects, particularly in regions of the world where malnutrition is endemic and where women are disadvantaged by existing social practices. 5. Moreover, high salt intake is endemic in many parts of Asia, including India. Therefore, we propose that maternal malnutrition (leading to reduced nephron endowment), when combined with excessive salt intake postnatally, will account, at least in part, for the unexpectedly high prevalence of hypertension in disadvantaged rural communities in India and elsewhere. PMID:19650789

Thrift, Amanda G; Srikanth, Velandai; Fitzgerald, Sharyn M; Kalyanram, Kartik; Kartik, Kamakshi; Hoppe, Chantal C; Walker, Karen Z; Evans, Roger G

2010-02-01

476

The Color of Hospitalization Over the Adult Life Course: Cumulative Disadvantage in Black and White?  

PubMed Central

Objectives Drawing from cumulative disadvantage theory, this research addresses the following questions: Do hospital admission and discharge rates differ for White and Black adults? If yes, do the differences amplify in later life? Methods This study made use of hospital records abstracted from a long-term prospective study of adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I: Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (N = 6,833). Semi-Markov models were specified to examine the likelihood of hospital admission and discharge for Black and White adults aged 25 to 74 years old at baseline. Results Black adults were less likely than White adults to be admitted to the hospital, but they had longer lengths of stay. The risk of death in the hospital was greater for both Black men and women than for White men and women. In addition, the observed racial differences in hospitalization experiences amplified in later life. Discussion Health inequality in America is manifest in how White and Black adults enter and exit hospitals. The findings demonstrate growing heterogeneity in later life by race. PMID:17114309

Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Thorpe, Roland J.; McCabe, George P.; Kelley-Moore, Jessica A.; Jiang, Zhen

2009-01-01

477

Economics Postgraduate MSc Economics  

E-print Network

of Masters programmes, all designed to give you a competitive advantage in an increasingly challenging future career. The programme focuses on the key areas of advanced economics, quantitative methods. The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching and research

Burton, Geoffrey R.

478

Early maternal employment and childhood obesity among economically disadvantaged families in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in low-income urban communities in the USA (n?=?322). Logistic regression and propensity

Rebekah Levine Coley; Caitlin McPherran Lombardi

2012-01-01

479

Extending the purposes of science education: addressing violence within socio-economic disadvantaged communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current discourses about science education show a wide concern towards humanisation and a more socio-cultural perspective of school science. They suggest that science education can serve diverse purposes and be responsive to social and environmental situations we currently face. However, these discourses and social approaches to science education tend to focus on global issues. They do not respond to the immediate needs and local context of some communities. I discuss in this paper why the purposes of science education need to be extended to respond to the local issue of violence. For this, I present a case study with a group of 38 students from a poor population in Bogotá, Colombia, located in one of the suburbs with highest levels of crime in the city. I examine the ways that science education contributes to and embodies its own forms of violence and explore how a new approach to science education could contribute to break the cycle of violence.

Castano, Carolina

2012-09-01

480

Household type, economic disadvantage, and residential segregation: empirical patterns and findings from simulation analysis  

E-print Network

(Black), Family Type (Single Mother), and Socioeconomic Status (Poverty)??????????...?.. 31 2 Analysis of How Contact with White, Married Couples with Children Varies by Race (Hispanic), Family Type (Single Mother), and Socioeconomic Status... (Poverty)?????...??.. 39 3 Analysis of How Contact with White, Married Couples with Children Varies by Race (Asian), Family Type (Single Mother), and Socioeconomic Status (Poverty)???????...????.. 40 4 Dissimilarity by Inequality...

Howden, Lindsay Michelle

2005-08-29

481

Strategies for Closing the Gap: Predicting Student Performance in Economically Disadvantaged Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, assumes the significance of socioeconomic status (SES) or input factors in explaining achievement, and considers the impact of other "process" variables, that is, factors over which schools have some control. Using the Texas Academic Excellence Indicator System (AEIS) data, it examines these variables to determine the elements that can…

Tajalli, Hassan; Opheim, Cynthia

2005-01-01

482

Psychosocial Development and Black Male Masculinity: Implications for Counseling Economically Disadvantaged African American Male Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the developmental and sex role factors of male adolescent African Americans and their importance for counseling interventions and the counselor-client relationship. This article discusses the relationship between tasks of psychosocial development and expressions of masculinity, examines the effects of this relationship on their response…

Harris, Shanette M.

1995-01-01

483

Preschool Quality and the Development of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: The influence of preschool quality on the development of 67 4-year-old children from poor and rural families in South India was examined. Children's developmental status was assessed using a modified version of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and through physician ratings. Preschool quality was assessed through…

Rao, Nirmala

2010-01-01

484

Sexual Responsibility, Fatherhood and Discourses of Masculinity among Socially and Economically Disadvantaged Young Men in Ireland  

E-print Network

and masculinity are represented in the popular media which young men watched, and the possible impact activity, their role as fathers and how they view themselves as men. Men can have a big influence Greene, from the Children's Research Centre, Trinity College Dublin, for their hard work and commitment

O'Mahony, Donal E.

485

Early Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity among Economically Disadvantaged Families in the USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in…

Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

2012-01-01

486

Violent backgrounds of economically disadvantaged youth: Risk factors for perpetrating violence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent Job Corps residents (n=474) reported the violence they had experienced, witnessed, and perpetrated with regards to parents, siblings, friends, and strangers. Results indicated that there was a high prevalence of all types of violence in this atrisk adolescent sample. Moreover, the majority of adolescents who reported violent experiences indicated threat or use of a weapon was involved. Gender differences

Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling; Peter Neidig

1995-01-01

487

The relationship of parenting stress and child temperament to language development among economically disadvantaged preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral language skills in the preschool years are predictive of children's later reading success and literacy acquisition, and among these language skills, vocabulary and narrative ability play important roles. Children from low socioeconomic families face risks to their language develop- ment and because of threats to these skills it is important to identify factors that promote their development among high-risk

MELANIE NOEL; CAROLE PETERSON; BEULAH JESSO

2008-01-01

488

Molecular Identification of Human Hookworm Infections in Economically Disadvantaged Communities in Peninsular Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Species identification of human hookworm infections among eight communities in rural areas of Peninsular Malaysia was determined during 2009–2011. Fecal samples were examined by microscopy and subsequently, the internal transcribed spacer 2 and 28S ribosomal RNA region of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp. were sequenced. Overall, 9.1% (58 of 634) were identified positive by microscopy for hookworm infection, and 47 (81.0%) of 58 were successfully amplified and sequenced. Sequence comparison found that N. americanus (87.2%) was the most predominant hookworm identified, followed by Ancylostoma ceylanicum (23.4%). No A. duodenale infection was detected in this study. Detection of A. ceylanicum in humans highlighted the zoonotic transmission among humans living near dogs. Thus, implementation of effective control measures for hookworm infections in future should seriously consider this zoonotic implication. PMID:22556084

Ngui, Romano; Ching, Lee Soo; Kai, Tan Tiong; Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Lim, Yvonne A. L.

2012-01-01

489

An Afterschool Program for Economically Disadvantaged Youth: Perceptions of Parents, Staff, and Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated perceived effects of an afterschool program located in 6 Title 1 schools on students' achievement, self-esteem, and attitudes. Data sources comprised surveys (n = 257), 5 focus groups (n= 23), and an individual interview with the program director (n = 1). Survey data indicated overall satisfaction with the program.…

Hall, Katrina W.; Williams, Lunetta M.; Daniel, Larry G.

2010-01-01

490

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...that it has suffered chronic racial or ethnic prejudice or...2) Evidence of employment discrimination suffered by members of the...Evidence of educational discrimination in comparison to educational...school, based solely upon racial and/or ethnic...

2011-01-01

491

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...that it has suffered chronic racial or ethnic prejudice or...2) Evidence of employment discrimination suffered by members of the...Evidence of educational discrimination in comparison to educational...school, based solely upon racial and/or ethnic...

2013-01-01

492

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

...that it has suffered chronic racial or ethnic prejudice or...2) Evidence of employment discrimination suffered by members of the...Evidence of educational discrimination in comparison to educational...school, based solely upon racial and/or ethnic...

2014-01-01

493

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...that it has suffered chronic racial or ethnic prejudice or...2) Evidence of employment discrimination suffered by members of the...Evidence of educational discrimination in comparison to educational...school, based solely upon racial and/or ethnic...

2012-01-01

494

Extending the Purposes of Science Education: Addressing Violence within Socio-Economic Disadvantaged Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current discourses about science education show a wide concern towards humanisation and a more socio-cultural perspective of school science. They suggest that science education can serve diverse purposes and be responsive to social and environmental situations we currently face. However, these discourses and social approaches to science education…

Castano, Carolina

2012-01-01

495

English and Socio-Economic Disadvantage: Learner Voices from Rural Bangladesh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

L2 education research has shown immense interest in learners and their views of L2 learning. Nevertheless, the different directions of learner-focused research have been inadequate in highlighting learners' learning experiences in relation to their social backgrounds, particularly in the developing world. Drawing on the first author's PhD…

Hamid, M. Obaidul; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

2011-01-01

496

7 CFR 761.208 - Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged groups.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged...Funds to State Offices § 761.208 Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged...General. (1) The Agency establishes target participation rates for providing...

2010-01-01