Science.gov

Sample records for economically disadvantaged women

  1. 48 CFR 6.207 - Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible...Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB)...

  2. 48 CFR 18.117 - Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible...117 Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB)...

  3. Adherence to Accelerometer Protocols Among Women From Economically Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Patricia A.; Wilcox, Sara; Rooney, Laura J.; Strong, Donna; Hopkins-Campbell, Rosie; Butel, Jean; Ainsworth, Barbara; Parra-Medina, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Objective measurement of physical activity with accelerometers is a challenging task in community-based intervention research. Challenges include distribution of and orientation to monitors, nonwear, incorrect placement, and loss of equipment. Data collection among participants from disadvantaged populations may be further hindered by factors such as transportation challenges, competing responsibilities, and cultural considerations. Methods Research staff distributed accelerometers and provided an orientation that was tailored to the population group. General adherence strategies such as follow-up calls, daily diaries, verbal and written instructions, and incentives were accompanied by population-specific strategies such as assisting with transportation, reducing obstacles to wearing the accelerometer, tailoring the message to the participant population, and creating a nonjudgmental environment. Results Sixty women asked to wear the Actigraph GT1M returned the accelerometer, and 57 of them provided sufficient data for analysis (at least 10 hours a day for a minimum of 4 days) resulting in 95% adherence to the protocol. Participants wore the accelerometers for an average of 5.98 days and 13.15 hours per day. Conclusions The high accelerometer monitoring adherence among this group of economically disadvantaged women demonstrates that collection of high-quality, objective physical activity data from disadvantaged populations in field-based research is possible. PMID:21734316

  4. 48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern or women-owned small business (WOSB) concern eligible...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern...

  5. 13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section...Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? (a)...

  6. 13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section...Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? (a)...

  7. 48 CFR 52.219-29 - Notice of Total Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business (EDWOSB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business (EDWOSB) Concerns...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business (EDWOSB) Concerns...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business (EDWOSB)...

  8. 48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern or women-owned small business (WOSB) concern eligible under...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of...

  9. 48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern or women-owned small business (WOSB) concern eligible under...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of...

  10. 48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business concern or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business concern or women-owned small business concern eligible under the WOSB Program...ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small...

  11. Enhancing Motivation to Reduce the Risk of HIV Infection for Economically Disadvantaged Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Forsyth, Andrew D.; Wright, Ednita M.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2008-01-01

    This research evaluated a motivation-based HIV-risk-reduction intervention for economically disadvantaged urban women. Participants completed a survey that assessed HIV-related knowledge, risk perceptions, behavioral intentions, sexual communication, substance use, and risk behavior. A total of 102 at-risk women (76% African-American) were randomly assigned to either the risk-reduction intervention or to a waiting list. Women were reassessed at three and twelve weeks. Results indicated that treated women increased their knowledge and risk awareness, strengthened their intentions to adopt safer sexual practices, communicated their intentions with partners, reduced substance use proximal to sexual activities, and engaged in fewer acts of unprotected vaginal intercourse. These effects were observed immediately and most were maintained at follow-up. PMID:9256553

  12. 48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Status Protest. SBA's protest regulations are found in subpart F “Protests” at 13 CFR 127.600 through 127... unless overturned on appeal by SBA's Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) pursuant to 13 CFR part 134. (1... as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern or women-owned...

  13. 48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Status Protest. SBA's protest regulations are found in subpart F “Protests” at 13 CFR 127.600 through 127... unless overturned on appeal by SBA's Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) pursuant to 13 CFR part 134. (1... as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern or women-owned...

  14. Engaging Women Who Are Depressed and Economically Disadvantaged in Mental Health Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Nancy K.; Zuckoff, Allan; Swartz, Holly; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Geibel, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    Women disadvantaged by poverty, as well as racial or ethnic minority status, are more likely to experience depression than the rest of the U.S. population. At the same time, they are less likely to seek or remain in treatment for depression in traditional mental health settings. This article explores a therapeutic, psychosocial engagement strategy…

  15. Perceived quality and availability of fruit and vegetables are associated with perceptions of fruit and vegetable affordability among socio-economically disadvantaged women. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Williams LK, Thornton L, Crawford D, Ball K. Perceived quality and availability of fruit and vegetables are associated with perceptions of fruit and vegetable affordability among socio-economically disadvantaged women.

  16. Environmental perceptions as mediators of the relationship between the objective built environment and walking among socio-economically disadvantaged women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods are at increased risk for physical inactivity and associated health outcomes and are difficult to reach through personally tailored interventions. Targeting the built environment may be an effective strategy in this population subgroup. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating role of environmental perceptions in the relationship between the objective environment and walking for transportation/recreation among women from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Baseline data of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality (READI) study were used. In total, 4139 women (18–46 years) completed a postal survey assessing physical environmental perceptions (aesthetics, neighbourhood physical activity environment, personal safety, neighbourhood social cohesion), physical activity, and socio-demographics. Objectively-assessed data on street connectivity and density of destinations were collected using a Geographic Information System database and based on the objective z-scores, an objective destinations/connectivity score was calculated. This index was positively scored, with higher scores representing a more favourable environment. Two-level mixed models regression analyses were conducted and the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients test was used to examine the mediating effects. Results The destinations/connectivity score was positively associated with transport-related walking. The perceived physical activity environment mediated 6.1% of this positive association. The destinations/connectivity score was negatively associated with leisure-time walking. Negative perceptions of aesthetics, personal safety and social cohesion of the neighbourhood jointly mediated 24.1% of this negative association. Conclusion For women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, environmental perceptions were important mediators of the relationship between the objective built environment and walking. To increase both transport-related and leisure-time walking, it is necessary to improve both objective walkability-related characteristics (street connectivity and proximity of destinations), and perceptions of personal safety, favourable aesthetics and neighbourhood social cohesion. PMID:24050686

  17. Human rights violations among economically disadvantaged women with mental illness: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Ramachandra; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Globally women confront manifold violations of human rights and women with poverty and mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. Aim: The aim was to examine the influence of poverty in meeting human rights needs among recovered women with mental illness at family and community level. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study carried out among randomly selected (n = 100) recovered women with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data were collected through face-to-face interview using structured needs assessment questionnaire. Results: Our findings revealed that below poverty line (BPL) participants were not satisfied in meeting their physical needs such as “access to safe drinking water” (?2 = 8.994, P < 0.02), “served in the same utensils” (?2 = 13.648, P < 0.00), had adequate food (?2 = 11.025, P < 0.02), and allowed to use toilet facilities (?2 = 13.565, P < 0.00). The human rights needs in emotional dimension, that is, afraid of family members (?2 = 8.233, P < 0.04) and hurt by bad words (?2 = 9.014, P < 0.02) were rated higher in above poverty line (APL) participants. Similarly, 88.9% of women from APL group expressed that they were discriminated and exploited by the community members (?2 = 17.490, P < 0.00). More than three-fourths of BPL participants (76.1%) believed that there were wondering homeless mentally ill in their community (?2 = 11.848, P < 0.01). Conclusion: There is an urgent need to implement social welfare programs to provide employment opportunities, disability allowance, housing and other social security for women with mental illness. Further, mental health professionals play an essential role in educating the family and public regarding human rights of people with mental illness. PMID:26124524

  18. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. 600...600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. ...economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges,...

  19. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. 600...600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. ...economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges,...

  20. Motivational Dynamics of Disadvantaged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinman, Suki; Bolton, Brian

    1980-01-01

    A study of disadvantaged women showed they exhibited submissiveness, depressed motivation, poor self esteem, but positive work attitudes. Black, less intelligent, and less educated women were less positive toward work and more externally oriented. Counseling procedures should be based on a differentiation between diminished and initial lack of…

  1. Culturally relevant treatment services for perinatal depression in socio-economically disadvantaged women: The design of the MOMCare study*

    PubMed Central

    Grote, Nancy K.; Katon, Wayne J.; Lohr, Mary Jane; Carson, Kathy; Curran, Mary; Galvin, Erin; Russo, Joan E.; Gregory, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression during pregnancy has been demonstrated to be predictive of low birthweight, prematurity, and postpartum depression. These adverse outcomes potentially have lasting effects on maternal and child well-being. Socio-economically disadvantaged women are twice as likely as middle-class women to meet diagnostic criteria for antenatal major depression (MDD), but have proven difficult to engage and retain in treatment. Collaborative care treatment models for depression have not been evaluated for racially/ethnically diverse, pregnant women on Medicaid receiving care in a public health system. This paper describes the design, methodology, culturally relevant enhancements, and implementation of a randomized controlled trial of depression care management compared to public health Maternity Support Services(MSS). Methods Pregnant, public health patients, ?18 years with a likely diagnosis of MDD or dysthymia, measured respectively by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9(PHQ-9) or the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview(MINI), were randomized to the intervention or to public health MSS. The primary outcome was reduction in depression severity from baseline during pregnancy to 18-months post-baseline(one-year postpartum). Baseline Results 168 women with likely MDD (96.4%) and/or dysthymia (24.4%) were randomized. Average age was 27.6 years and gestational age was 22.4 weeks; 58.3% racial/ethnic minority; 71.4% unmarried; 22% no high school degree/GED; 65.3% unemployed; 42.1% making ?$10,000 annually; 80.4% having recurrent depression; 64.6% PTSD, and 72% an unplanned pregnancy. Conclusions A collaborative care team, including a psychiatrist, psychologist, project manager, and 3 social workers, met weekly, collaborated with the patients' obstetrics providers, and monitored depression severity using an electronic tracking system. Potential sustainability of the intervention within a public health system requires further study. PMID:25016216

  2. Mobile Technologies & Socio-Economic Opportunities for Disadvantaged Women: A Study of Information Behavior in a Developing Nation Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potnis, Devendra Dilip

    2010-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been championed by the United Nations and others as one of the key media to open up socio-economic opportunities for disadvantaged populations. Studies lead us to believe that after being introduced to ICTs, users' information behavior changes, enabling them to benefit from socio-economic

  3. Family planning and contraceptive decision-making by economically disadvantaged, African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Eric J.; Collier, Charlene; Hayes, Laura; Curry, Leslie; Fraenkel, Liana

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant racial disparities exist in the US unplanned pregnancy rate. We conducted a qualitative study using the theory of planned behavior as a framework to describe how low-income, African-American women approach family planning. Study Design Structured focus groups were held with adult, low-income, non-pregnant, African-American women in Connecticut. Data were collected using a standardized discussion guide, and audio-taped and transcribed. Four, independent researchers coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method. Codes were organized into over-arching themes. Results Contraceptive knowledge was limited with formal education often occurring after sexual debut. Attitudes about contraception were overtly negative with method effectiveness being judged by the experience of side effects. Family and friends strongly influence contraceptive decisions while male partners are primarily seen as a barrier. Contraceptive pills are perceived as readily accessible although compliance is considered a barrier. Conclusions Contraception education should occur before sexual debut, should involve trusted family and community members, and should positively frame issues in terms of achieving life goals. PMID:23177266

  4. Cycles of Discrimination: Older Women, Cumulative Disadvantages, and Retirement Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Nanette J.

    2005-01-01

    This article identifies typical life course situations that women experience, which contribute to a cycle of discrimination or a recurrence of disadvantages simply because of their sex, race, or age. Although men suffer social, health, psychological, and economic disadvantages as they age, this article focuses primarily on women as a more deprived…

  5. From Disadvantaged Girls to Successful Women: Education and Women's Resiliency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePage-Lees, Pamela

    This book is the result of a 2-year study of women who were disadvantaged as girls but who achieved highly in academics. The participants, all of whom had advanced degrees or had completed two years of graduate school, had been raised in low-income homes, were first-generation college students, and had faced stress as children. Most of these women

  6. Effects of socioeconomic disadvantage and women's status on women's health in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Kuate Defo, B

    1997-04-01

    Research on the effects of socioeconomic disadvantage and women's status on women's health is important for policy makers in developing countries, where limited resources make it crucial to use existing maternal and child health care resources to the best advantage. Using a community-based data set collected prospectively in Cameroon, this study attempts to understand the extent to which socioeconomic factors and women's status have influences on women's health. The most important finding is that the burden of illness rests disproportionately on the economically disadvantaged women and on those with low social status. The long-term effects of social disadvantage are apparent in the excesses of morbidity among women who are not employed at the time of their children's birth, women living in poor neighborhoods, and those living in households without modern amenities. The maternal morbidity patterns during the postpartum period indicate that the women's reports of their recovery and health status from childbirth extend far beyond the first few weeks that previous studies have focused on. From a theoretical perspective, this study has demonstrated the importance of the "intermediate" framework for the study of women's health: the operations of effects of a number of background characteristics are mediated by more proximate determinants of women's health. These results remain robust even after controlling for other measured factors and after correcting for unmeasured heterogeneity and sample selection; this helps to dismiss the potential influence of some artifacts. While this study suggests that there are opportunities within the existing health care system for meeting many of the health care needs of the socially disadvantaged, further biobehavioral and psychosocial research is needed to determine how women's status and social disadvantage influence the demand for health care services, in order to ensure equitable as well as a more effective delivery of health care services and to break the vicious circle of disadvantage. PMID:9089923

  7. Poverty and disadvantage in Australia BANKWEST CURTIN ECONOMICS CENTRE

    E-print Network

    Mucina, Ladislav

    Poverty and disadvantage in Australia BANKWEST CURTIN ECONOMICS CENTRE Focus on the States Report-for-profit sectors. #12;Contents Falling through the cracks Poverty and disadvantage in Australia 1 Foreword executive summary key findings 4 5 5 Part i: income and poverty disadvantage Introduction Background Income

  8. Predicting Career Maturity Attitudes in Rural Economically Disadvantaged Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.

    1994-01-01

    Six predictor variables (gender, race, disadvantage, postsecondary plans, vocational education, career indecision) were 75% accurate in identifying career maturity and immaturity among 90 economically disadvantaged rural ninth graders. Career indecision and race were most important for career immaturity, race and disadvantage for career maturity.…

  9. 13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... disadvantage must describe it in a narrative statement, and must submit personal financial information. (2) When married, an individual claiming economic disadvantage also must submit separate financial... eligibility, the net worth of an individual claiming disadvantage must be less than $250,000. For continued...

  10. 34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Economically disadvantaged appeals. 668.213 Section 668.213 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cohort Default Rates § 668.213 Economically disadvantaged appeals....

  11. A Randomized Trial of a Diet and Exercise Intervention for Overweight and Obese Women from Economically Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: Sisters Taking Action for Real Success (STARS)

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Granner, Michelle; Hutto, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Background Lower socioeconomic status at both the individual and neighborhood level is associated with increased health risks. Weight loss can reduce this risk, but few high quality weight loss studies target this population. Objectives STARS tests a culturally-appropriate, group-based behavioral and social support intervention on body weight and waist circumference in women from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods. Design A stratified (by BMI) randomized trial. Randomization to group was generated by a random numbers table with allocation concealment by opaque envelopes. Methods Participants 25–50 years who had a BMI ? 25 kg/m2 and a waist circumference ? 88 cm were recruited from 18 census tracts in Columbia, SC with high rates of poverty between November 2008 and November 2010. All participants received a dietary and exercise counseling session. Intervention participants then receive 16 theoretically-based and tailored weekly group sessions followed by 8 weeks of telephone maintenance counseling. Control participants receive 16 weekly health education mailings. Measurements correspond to baseline, post-group intervention, and post-telephone counseling, and for intervention participants, after a 12-week no-contact period. Measurement staff was blinded to group assignment. Results Participants (N=155; n=80 intervention, n=75 minimal intervention control) were primarily African American (86.5%) and averaged 38.9 years with a mean BMI of 40.1 kg/m2 and waist circumference of 115.4 cm. Food insecurity was reported by 43% of participants. Summary STARS targets an underserved population with an innovative, tailored, and theoretically-grounded, group-based intervention followed by telephone maintenance. If effective, the approach has the potential to be feasible and cost-effective for community delivery. PMID:21864718

  12. Mediators of Adverse Birth Outcomes Among Socially Disadvantaged Women

    PubMed Central

    Nurius, Paula; Logan-Greene, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous studies find that socially disadvantaged women are more likely than socially advantaged women to deliver infants that weigh less than normal and/or are born weeks prior to their due date. However, little is known about the pathways that link maternal social disadvantage to birth outcomes. Using data from a prospective cohort study, we examined whether antenatal psychosocial stress, substance use, and maternal health conditions in pregnancy mediated the pathway between maternal social disadvantage and birth outcomes. Methods Analyses used structural equation modeling to examine data from a community clinic-based sample (n=2168) of pregnant women who completed questionnaires assessing psychosocial functioning and health behaviors as well as sociodemographic characteristics, which were matched with subsequent birth outcome data. Results Analyses revealed maternal social disadvantage predicted poorer birth outcomes through a mediated pathway including maternal health conditions in pregnancy. Conclusions The findings demonstrate that maternal social disadvantage is associated with poor health status in pregnancy, which in turn adversely affects birth outcomes. Results argue for more systematic attention to the roles of social disadvantage, including life course perspectives that trace social disadvantage prior to and through pregnancy. PMID:22150295

  13. 15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. 1400.4...ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. (a) The...requesting formal designation should establish social or economic disadvantage by a...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage E Appendix...Part 26—Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage The following...modifications, from SBA regulations concerning social and economic disadvantage...

  15. 15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. 1400.4...ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. (a) The...requesting formal designation should establish social or economic disadvantage by a...

  16. 34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Economically disadvantaged appeals. 668.194 Section 668.194 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Two Year Cohort Default Rates § 668.194 Economically...

  17. 34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... selected under paragraph (c)(2) of this section, have an expected family contribution, as defined in 34 CFR... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Economically disadvantaged appeals. 668.213 Section 668.213 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE...

  18. 34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... selected under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, have an expected family contribution, as defined in 34 CFR... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Economically disadvantaged appeals. 668.194 Section 668.194 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE...

  19. 34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... selected under paragraph (c)(2) of this section, have an expected family contribution, as defined in 34 CFR... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Economically disadvantaged appeals. 668.213 Section 668.213 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE...

  20. 34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... selected under paragraph (c)(2) of this section, have an expected family contribution, as defined in 34 CFR... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Economically disadvantaged appeals. 668.213 Section 668.213 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE...

  1. 34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... selected under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, have an expected family contribution, as defined in 34 CFR... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Economically disadvantaged appeals. 668.194 Section 668.194 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE...

  2. 34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... selected under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, have an expected family contribution, as defined in 34 CFR... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Economically disadvantaged appeals. 668.194 Section 668.194 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE...

  3. Troubled Times, Troubled Relationships: How Economic Resources, Gender Beliefs, and Neighborhood Disadvantage Influence Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Shelley D.; Perreira, Krista M.; Durrance, Christine Piette

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV), and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N=1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mother’s reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age three, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women’s risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the race/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women’s economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV. PMID:23300198

  4. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? 26.67...Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption...When an individual's presumption of social and/or economic disadvantage has...

  5. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? 26.67...Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption...When an individual's presumption of social and/or economic disadvantage has...

  6. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... individual's presumption of economic disadvantage is rebutted. You are not required to have a...

  7. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... individual's presumption of economic disadvantage is rebutted. You are not required to have a...

  8. Women Empowerment and Economic Development

    E-print Network

    Duflo, Esther

    Women empowerment and economic development are closely related: in one direction, development alone can play a major role in driving down inequality between men and women; in the other direction, empowering women may benefit ...

  9. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... the determination of his or her disadvantage. (4) When an individual's presumption of social...

  10. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... the determination of his or her disadvantage. (4) When an individual's presumption of social...

  11. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... the determination of his or her disadvantage. (4) When an individual's presumption of social...

  12. 15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic... ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. (a) The representatives of the group requesting formal designation should establish social or economic disadvantage by a preponderance of...

  13. 15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic... ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. (a) The representatives of the group requesting formal designation should establish social or economic disadvantage by a preponderance of...

  14. 15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic... ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. (a) The representatives of the group requesting formal designation should establish social or economic disadvantage by a preponderance of...

  15. 15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic... ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. (a) The representatives of the group requesting formal designation should establish social or economic disadvantage by a preponderance of...

  16. 15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic... ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. (a) The representatives of the group requesting formal designation should establish social or economic disadvantage by a preponderance of...

  17. 13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO...Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO...Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, and Women-Owned SBCs, may also qualify as...

  18. 13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO...Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO...Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, and Women-Owned SBCs, may also qualify as...

  19. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic disadvantage...Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage...citizens of the United States (or lawfully...of Federal or state law, you must not...

  20. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic disadvantage...Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage...citizens of the United States (or lawfully...of Federal or state law, you must not...

  1. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic disadvantage...Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage...citizens of the United States (or lawfully...of Federal or state law, you must not...

  2. Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This article reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate…

  3. Non-Traditional Educational Trajectories: The Educational Aspirations and Expectations of Women Who Are Educationally Disadvantaged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Claudia Ditmar

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the educational aspirations and expectations of a heterogeneous group of women who were enrolled in, or had graduated from, adult education and literacy programs in Boston, Massachusetts. The research questions guiding the inquiry are: (1) Why do educationally disadvantaged women value education--how are these values…

  4. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage E Appendix E to Part 26 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION BY DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Pt. 26, App. E Appendix E to Part...

  5. The "Collateral Impact" of Pupil Behaviour and Geographically Concentrated Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Alex Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Schools in areas of concentrated disadvantage tend to have below-average attainment, but there is no consensus on why. Mental and behavioural disorders in children are correlated with socio-economic disadvantage. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the first phenomenon can at least partly be accounted for by the second phenomenon through…

  6. Training the Socio-Economically Disadvantaged; A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Beverly J.

    This annotated bibliography presents a collection of readings which should be of interest to persons charged with the responsibility of planning programs dealing with the education, counseling, and socialization of the socioeconomically disadvantaged. Taken from various sources, this collection contains: (1) current readings, (2) a listing of…

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK AND IMPACT IN COMMUNITIES OF COLOR AND ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that communities of color and economically/educationally disadvantaged communities are at a greater risk of impact from environmental hazards. In many past studies in environmental justice (EJ) communities, scientists have used surrogate measures of exposure b...

  8. Temperament Influences on Parenting and Child Psychopathology: Socio-Economic Disadvantage as Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini

    2008-01-01

    Despite calls for research on how the socio-economic environment may be related to temperament, we still do not know enough about the relationship between temperament and socio-economic disadvantage (SED). A particularly under-researched question in temperament research is how SED may moderate the temperament-parenting and the temperament-child…

  9. Economically Disadvantaged Children's Transitions into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.

    2010-01-01

    Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify "family-based" mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential "school-based" remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation of…

  10. Stress Exposure and Depression in Disadvantaged Women: The Protective Effects of Optimism and Perceived Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Larkin, Jill; Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Brown, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the authors predicted that the individual protective factors of optimism and perceived control over acute and chronic stressors would buffer the relations between acute and chronic stress exposure and severity of depression, controlling for household income, in a sample of financially disadvantaged women. Ninety-seven African…

  11. Male gender preference, female gender disadvantage as risk factors for psychological morbidity in Pakistani women of childbearing age - a life course perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Pakistan, preference for boys over girls is deeply culturally embedded. From birth, many women experience gendered disadvantages; less access to scarce resources, poorer health care, higher child mortality, limited education, less employment outside of the home and circumscribed autonomy. The prevalence of psychological morbidity is exceptionally high among women. We hypothesise that, among women of childbearing age, gender disadvantage is an independent risk factor for psychological morbidity Methods A cross-sectional catchment area survey of 525 women aged 18 to 35 years living in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The effect of gender disadvantage was assessed as a latent variable using structural equation modelling. Indicators were parental gender preference, low parental care, parental overprotection, limited education, early age at marriage, marital dissatisfaction and low autonomy. Psychological morbidity was assessed using the 20 item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ). Results Gender disadvantage was independently predictive of psychological morbidity. Among married women, socio-economic status did not predict psychological morbidity, and the effect of education was mediated through gender disadvantage rather than socioeconomic status (SES). The women's own preference for a male child was strongly predicted by their perceptions of having been disadvantaged by their gender in their families of origin. Conclusions The high prevalence of psychological morbidity among women in Pakistan is concerning given recently reported strong associations with low birth weight and infant stunting. Social action, public policies and legislation are indicated to reduce culturally embedded preferences. Neglect of these fundamentals will entrench consequent inequities including gender bias in access to education, a key millennium development goal. PMID:21958069

  12. Family and Personal Adjustment of Economically Disadvantaged Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Tsui, Pik Fong

    2012-01-01

    This study attempted to examine the relationship between poverty and adolescent developmental outcomes in the family and personal domains in 3,328 Chinese secondary school students in Hong Kong. Developmental outcomes included positive youth development constructs, problem behaviors, perceived family interaction, and parental parenting. Results showed that adolescents experiencing poverty did not differ from nonpoor adolescents in terms of risk behavior and in most indicators of positive youth development. On the other hand, adolescents with economic disadvantage displayed lower levels of positive identity, family interaction, and perceived paternal parenting than did those without economic disadvantage. PMID:22919290

  13. Intimate partner violence and HIV risk behaviors among socially disadvantaged Chilean women.

    PubMed

    Miner, Sarah; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina; Bernales, Margarita; Cabieses, Báltica

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV risk among socioeconomically disadvantaged Chilean women. A correlational analysis with data from the NIH-funded project, "Testing an HIV/AIDS Prevention Intervention for Chilean Women," was conducted. Two hundred and sixty-one women were included in this analysis (n = 261). Those women who had experienced any type of IPV in the past 3 months had significantly higher risk for HIV than those who had not (t = -2.016, p < .05). Also a linear trend was found among those women who had experienced more than one type of IPV in the past 3 months and HIV risk. PMID:21486859

  14. Intimate Partner Violence and HIV Risk Behaviors Among Socially Disadvantaged Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Sarah; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina; Bernales, Margarita; Cabieses, Báltica

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV risk among socioeconomically disadvantaged Chilean women. A correlational analysis with data from the NIH-funded project, “Testing an HIV/AIDS Prevention Intervention for Chilean Women,” was conducted. Two hundred and sixtyone women were included in this analysis (n = 261). Those women who had experienced any type of IPV in the past 3 months had significantly higher risk for HIV than those who had not (t = ?2.016, p < .05). Also a linear trend was found among those women who had experienced more than one type of IPV in the past 3 months and HIV risk. PMID:21486859

  15. Sexual Health Risk and the Movement of Women Between Disadvantaged Communities and Local Jails.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Megha; Kelly, Patricia J

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on cross-sectional data collected in three Kansas City jails, our objective was to describe the social, neighborhood-based context of sexual health risk prior to incarceration for 290 women. Half of the participants were clustered in Kansas City's urban core before their incarceration. Women who lived in these neighborhoods, which had the highest density of our incarcerated participants, were 3 times as likely to report a history of trading sex for money, drugs, or life necessities compared to women who lived elsewhere in the city. Living in a neighborhood that was perceived to have low social capital was also associated with sexually transmitted infection history. Gaining an understanding of these social influences in women's lives-particularly at the neighborhood level-provides key insights that will allow future interventions to change the health outcomes of women who move between disadvantaged communities and local jails. PMID:26332929

  16. Effect of Dropout Prevention Programs on the Attitudes toward School of Economically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, Earl F., II.

    2012-01-01

    Every year, students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds drop out of school and attempt to enter the work force without any specialized training. The purpose of this study was to understand if dropout prevention programs change a potential dropout's attitude toward school in a public school district. A quantitative, quasi-experimental…

  17. Coordinating Federal Assistance Programs for the Economically Disadvantaged: Recommendations and Background Materials. Special Report No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission for Employment Policy (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This special report from the National Commission for Employment Policy on coordinating federal assistance programs for the economically disadvantaged contains two parts. Part 1 includes recommendations for improving public assistance coordination programs in general and employment and training programs in particular. Eight recommendations focus on…

  18. The Achievement of Economically Disadvantaged Fifth Graders in Summer Enrichment Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulden, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    The achievement gap between economically disadvantaged students and their traditional counterparts has continued to be a problem in education. Based on cognitive constructivist theory and enrichment theory, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between scores on a high-stakes achievement test and participation in a summer…

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Perceived Family Functioning and Adolescent Adjustment in Chinese Adolescents With Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the relationships between perceived family functioning and adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage (N = 199). Results showed that perceived family functioning was concurrently related to measures of adolescent psychological well-being (existential…

  20. A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…

  1. Predictors of Quality of Life in Economically Disadvantaged Populations in Montreal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caron, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Most epidemiological studies agree that economically disadvantaged populations are the groups most vulnerable to mental health problems and report lower quality of life among these populations. However, it appears that access to social support plays a role in protecting against the chronic stress resulting from conditions such as poverty. This…

  2. TV Characters at Work: Television's Role in the Occupational Aspirations of Economically Disadvantaged Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffner, Cynthia A.; Levine, Kenneth J.; Sullivan, Quintin E.; Crowell, Dennis; Pedrick, Laura; Berndt, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Television regularly depicts work-related activities of fictional characters and is one of several important sources of occupational information for young people. However, no research appears to have examined the influence of televised occupational portrayals on economically disadvantaged youths, although television may be an especially important…

  3. Relationship between Success in Extracurricular Programs and Student Academic Performance in Economically Disadvantaged High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killgo, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the common characteristics of economically disadvantaged schools that demonstrate success in academics and extracurricular activities. Mixed-method design was used for this study. The quantitative portion of the study determined the correlation between a school's performance in extracurricular activities,…

  4. Economic Disadvantage and Young Children's Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Mechanisms of Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home…

  5. Case Studies of Success: Supporting Academic Success for Students with High Potential from Ethnic Minority and Economically Disadvantaged Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Carol Ann; Jarvis, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    The underrepresentation of ethnic minority and economically disadvantaged students in gifted education must be understood in terms of broader school contexts and practices. This qualitative study investigated how teachers and schools contributed to the academic success of minority students of high potential from economically disadvantaged

  6. Morbidity and Irish Catholic descent in Britain. Relating health disadvantage to socio-economic position.

    PubMed

    Abbotts, J; Williams, R; Ford, G

    2001-04-01

    In common with some other ethnic and religious minorities whose forebears migrated from their country of origin, Irish Catholics in Britain are less well off than the host population in terms of socio-economic position and health. Results are presented from a Scottish study, where Catholic religion of origin mainly indicates Irish ancestry, and it is estimated that about one-third of the population is of significant Irish descent. In this study, excess of physical and mental health problems and disability have previously been reported for those of Catholic background, particularly in the eldest cohort (aged 56 in 1988), and have not been fully explained by health-related behaviour. In this paper, we examine a number of key health measures, namely self-assessed health, number of symptoms in the month prior to interview, sadness or depression, disability and lung function, and various indicators of socio-economic position (head of household social class, main source of income, car ownership, housing tenure and school-leaving age), which all show Catholic disadvantage. Using longitudinal results from the 723 respondents who completed interviews both at sweeps one (1988) and three (1995), it is estimated that about half of the morbidity excess amongst middle-aged Catholics in Glasgow can be explained by socio-economic disadvantage. The health and socio-economic position of white minorities and disadvantaged religious minorities like Catholics in Scotland should be monitored by a co-ordinated information strategy. PMID:11266057

  7. Remedial self-fulfilling prophecy: two field experiments to prevent Golem effects among disadvantaged women.

    PubMed

    Davidson, O B; Eden, D

    2000-06-01

    The Pygmalion effect is a self-fulfilling prophecy (SFP) in which raising leader expectations boosts subordinate performance. Although attempts to produce Pygmalion effects have been successful repeatedly among men, attempts to produce Pygmalion effects with female leaders have yielded null results. Also, only 1 experiment has demonstrated the Golem effect (i.e., negative SFP in which low leader expectations impair subordinate performance). In 2 field experiments testing the SFP hypothesis among women leading disadvantaged women, experimental leaders were led to believe that their trainees had higher than usual potential. In reality, the trainees had been assigned randomly. Manipulation checks confirmed that the treatment raised leader expectations toward experimental trainees. Analysis of variance of performance detected the predicted SFP effects in both experiments. These were the first-ever experimental confirmations of SFP among women as leaders. PMID:10900813

  8. Ebony and Ivory? Interracial dating intentions and behaviors of disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Luke, David J; Oser, Carrie B

    2015-09-01

    Using data from 595 predominantly disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky, this study examines perceptions about racial/ethnic partner availability, cultural mistrust, and racism as correlates of interracial dating intentions and behaviors with both white and Hispanic men. Participants reported levels of dating intentions and behaviors were significantly higher with whites than Hispanics. The multivariate models indicate less cultural mistrust and believing it is easier to find a man of that racial/ethnic category were associated with higher interracial dating intentions. Women were more likely to have dated a white man if they believed it was easier to find a white man and had interracial dating intentions; however, interracial dating intentions was the only significant correlate of having dated a Hispanic man. Findings suggest a shrinking social distance between racial groups, broadening the MMPI for African American women; yet, the low levels of interracial relationships are likely driven by preferences of men. PMID:26188458

  9. An Implication of Health Sector Reform for Disadvantaged Women's Struggle for Birth Control: A Case of Kurdish Rural-Urban Migrant Women in Van, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Him, Miki Suzuki; Ho?gör, Ay?e Gündüz

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we examine how socioeconomically disadvantaged women are affected by health sector reform and family planning policy changes in Turkey through a case study of Kurdish women's struggles for birth control. In Turkey, a family planning program became relatively marginalized in primary health care services as a result of health sector reform as well as a shift of population policy toward a moderately pronatal approach. We argue that an emerging health care system would leave disadvantaged women unable to benefit from contraceptives and would perpetuate reproductive health inequalities between women in the country. PMID:24134209

  10. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false ...economically disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program? 403.114 Section 403.114...

  11. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false ...economically disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program? 403.114 Section 403.114...

  12. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false ...economically disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program? 403.114 Section 403.114...

  13. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false ...economically disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program? 403.114 Section 403.114...

  14. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false ...economically disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program? 403.114 Section 403.114...

  15. A mixed-methods investigation to explore how women living in disadvantaged areas might be supported to improve their diets.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Wendy; Keyte, Jeanette; Tinati, Tannaze; Haslam, Cheryl; Baird, Janis; Margetts, Barrie; Swift, Judy; Cooper, Cyrus; Barker, Mary

    2012-09-01

    Mixed-methods explored the potential for using Sure Start Children's Centres (SSCCs) to deliver an intervention to improve the diets of disadvantaged women and their children. In an 'expert' discussion, SSCC staff described gaining women's trust, meeting needs and bringing about change as key to engaging women successfully. Structured observations in SSCCs showed they host activities in an environment conducive to building relationships and meeting women's needs. However, staff often missed opportunities to support women to make dietary changes. These data suggest that an intervention to help staff make the most of these opportunities would have the best chance of success. PMID:22044913

  16. Women and the Choice to Study Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Tisha L. N.; McGoldrick, KimMarie; Mumford, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Underrepresentation of women in economics is documented in many studies. Investigation of its sources at the undergraduate level is examined through students' decisions to persist in economics, either beyond an introductory course or in their major choices. The authors add to the literature by analyzing students' decisions to take their first…

  17. Women and Economic Development in Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Judy C.

    Based on a survey of written sources and perspectives of knowledgeable individuals, the report provides information on women's economic roles in Cameroon, and on aspects of social life which effect their economic performance. A description of the importance of traditional social systems and their evolution over the last 30 years follows a brief…

  18. Gains by women reversed in economic downturn.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    The impact of globalization on women was discussed by the Women in Development Section of the Social Development Division of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). Feminization of work in much of the Asian region occurred in the context of overall economic growth in the 1980s and the first half of the 1990s. However, the recent economic crisis has led to a downturn in the positive aspects of this change in women's position, although gender gaps will be reduced through the worsening conditions of male workers. The current deflationary adjustment policies of reducing government expenditures will adversely affect women in the workplace and the household. Since women have been forced to earn additional income outside the home, the girl-children are expected to perform household and child care duties that would otherwise be performed by their mothers. Incidence of child labor and dropout rates among girls has increased. Many social and cultural norms also allow cuts in the food supply for women and girl-children when household per-capita access to food declines. These circumstances invite domestic violence against women. Hence, institutions such as ESCAP should assume a more active advocacy role with the governments as they confront the economic crisis and its repercussions. PMID:12295243

  19. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged.... Social disadvantage must stem from circumstances beyond their control. Evidence of individual social... assessing this element. In every case, however, recipients will consider education, employment and...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged.... Social disadvantage must stem from circumstances beyond their control. Evidence of individual social... assessing this element. In every case, however, recipients will consider education, employment and...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged.... Social disadvantage must stem from circumstances beyond their control. Evidence of individual social... assessing this element. In every case, however, recipients will consider education, employment and...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged.... Social disadvantage must stem from circumstances beyond their control. Evidence of individual social... assessing this element. In every case, however, recipients will consider education, employment and...

  3. A longitudinal study of the social and academic competence of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children.

    PubMed

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V; Esquivel, Giselle B; Kaliski, Pamela K; Maniatis, Lisette

    2011-05-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered analysis of 207 Hispanic American preschoolers (ages 4 and 5 years) yielded 6 distinct profiles, 2 of which were socially competent and 1 of which was vulnerable. Findings revealed profile differences in social competence and a significant relationship between bilingualism and social-emotional development. In Study 2, the authors determined which profiles were associated with later academic achievement and growth of English proficiency. Findings indicated a significant relationship of early social-emotional development to later academic success and English acquisition, highlighting the role of bilingualism. PMID:21219064

  4. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...feature that has contributed to social disadvantage, such as race...of substantial and chronic social disadvantage in American society...as denial of equal access to institutions of higher education and vocational training, exclusion from social and professional...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...feature that has contributed to social disadvantage, such as race...of substantial and chronic social disadvantage in American society...as denial of equal access to institutions of higher education and vocational training, exclusion from social and professional...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...feature that has contributed to social disadvantage, such as race...of substantial and chronic social disadvantage in American society...as denial of equal access to institutions of higher education and vocational training, exclusion from social and professional...

  7. Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED) population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods The primary prevention element of Have a Heart Paisley (HaHP) offered risk screening to all eligible individuals. The programme employed two approaches to engaging with the community: a) a social marketing campaign and b) a community development project adopting primarily face-to-face canvassing. Individuals living in areas of SED were under-recruited via the social marketing approach, but successfully recruited via face-to-face canvassing. This paper reports on focus group discussions with participants, exploring their perceptions about and experiences of both approaches. Results Various reasons were identified for low uptake of risk screening amongst individuals living in areas of high SED in response to the social marketing campaign and a number of ways in which the face-to-face canvassing approach overcame these barriers were identified. These have been categorised into four main themes: (1) processes of engagement; (2) issues of understanding; (3) design of the screening service and (4) the priority accorded to screening. The most immediate barriers to recruitment were the invitation letter, which often failed to reach its target, and the general distrust of postal correspondence. In contrast, participants were positive about the face-to-face canvassing approach. Participants expressed a lack of knowledge and understanding about CHD and their risk of developing it and felt there was a lack of clarity in the information provided in the mailing in terms of the process and value of screening. In contrast, direct face-to-face contact meant that outreach workers could explain what to expect. Participants felt that the procedure for uptake of screening was demanding and inflexible, but that the drop-in sessions employed by the community development project had a major impact on recruitment and retention. Conclusion Socio-economically disadvantaged individuals can be hard-to-reach; engagement requires strategies tailored to the needs of the target population rather than a population-wide approach. PMID:20598130

  8. The NASA Plan: To award eight percent of prime and subcontracts to socially and economically disadvantaged businesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    It is NASA's intent to provide small disadvantaged businesses, including women-owned, historically black colleges and universities and minority education institutions the maximum practicable opportunity to receive a fair proportion of NASA prime and subcontracted awards. Annually, NASA will establish socioeconomic procurement goals including small disadvantaged business goals, with a target of reaching the eight percent level by the end of FY 1994. The NASA Associate Administrators, who are responsible for the programs at the various NASA Centers, will be held accountable for full implementation of the socioeconomic procurement plans. Various aspects of this plan, including its history, are discussed.

  9. Delivery of primary health care to persons who are socio-economically disadvantaged: does the organizational delivery model matter?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As health systems evolve, it is essential to evaluate their impact on the delivery of health services to socially disadvantaged populations. We evaluated the delivery of primary health services for different socio-economic groups and assessed the performance of different organizational models in terms of equality of health care delivery in Ontario, Canada. Methods Cross sectional study of 5,361 patients receiving care from primary care practices using Capitation, Salaried or Fee-For-Service remuneration models. We assessed self-reported health status of patients, visit duration, number of visits per year, quality of health service delivery, and quality of health promotion. We used multi-level regressions to study service delivery across socio-economic groups and within each delivery model. Identified disparities were further analysed using a t-test to determine the impact of service delivery model on equity. Results Low income individuals were more likely to be women, unemployed, recent immigrants, and in poorer health. These individuals were overrepresented in the Salaried model, reported more visits/year across all models, and tended to report longer visits in the Salaried model. Measures of primary care services generally did not differ significantly between low and higher income/education individuals; when they did, the difference favoured better service delivery for at-risk groups. At-risk patients in the Salaried model were somewhat more likely to report health promotion activities than patients from Capitation and Fee-For-Service models. At-risk patients from Capitation models reported a smaller increase in the number of additional clinic visits/year than Fee-For-Service and Salaried models. At-risk patients reported better first contact accessibility than their non-at-risk counterparts in the Fee-For-Service model only. Conclusions Primary care service measures did not differ significantly across socio-economic status or primary care delivery models. In Ontario, capitation-based remuneration is age and sex adjusted only. Patients of low socio-economic status had fewer additional visits compared to those with high socio-economic status under the Capitation model. This raises the concern that Capitation may not support the provision of additional care for more vulnerable groups. Regions undertaking primary care model reforms need to consider the potential impact of the changes on the more vulnerable populations. PMID:24341530

  10. Economic Disadvantage, Perceived Family Life Quality, and Emotional Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2008-01-01

    Over three consecutive years, Chinese secondary school students experiencing and not experiencing economic disadvantage (n = 280 and 2,187, respectively) responded to measures of perceived family life quality (parenting attributes and parent-child relational quality) and emotional well-being (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and…

  11. Reducing Risk for Substance Use by Economically Disadvantaged Young Men: Positive Family Environments and Pathways to Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Monica J.; Conger, Rand D.; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Masarik, April S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Using prospective, longitudinal data spanning 10 years (age = 10-20) from a study of 295 economically disadvantaged males, the current investigation evaluated a developmental model that links early family environment and later educational aspirations, extracurricular activities, and educational attainment to substance use in early adulthood. The…

  12. Factors Associated With the Effectiveness of Nutrition Education Among Economically Disadvantaged Youth, St. Landry Parish, Louisiana, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Katheleen F.

    This study sought to determine the factors associated with the effectiveness of the nutrition education program among economically disadvantaged youth of St. Landry Parish, La. Sex, race, and age differences were found relative to food consumption. Farm youth and those with gardens tended to have a better diet. (Author/DM)

  13. Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Principals in Economically Disadvantaged High Schools with High African American Male Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillard, Rhonda Cherie Crutchfield

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study examined the self-efficacy beliefs of three high school principals in economically disadvantaged high schools with consistently high graduation rates for African American males. With the demand on school systems to perform in a politically driven, assessment-based paradigm, there is a need to describe and analyze the…

  14. A Comprehensive Partnership Approach Increasing High School Graduation Rates and College Enrollment of Urban Economically Disadvantaged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Yvette; Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Described is a 4-year model of a Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Program (GEAR UP) offered to 294 academically and economically disadvantaged students and their parents during in- and out-of-school time activities through partnerships forged with school personnel and community-based agencies. In an urban high school where…

  15. Growing up as "Man of the House": Adultification and Transition into Adulthood for Young Men in Economically Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field…

  16. Contextual Risk, Maternal Negative Emotionality, and the Negative Emotion Dysregulation of Preschool Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Ackerman, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined relations between contextual risk, maternal negative emotionality, and preschool teacher reports of the negative emotion dysregulation of children from economically disadvantaged families. Contextual risk was represented by cumulative indexes of family and neighborhood adversity. The results showed a direct…

  17. Career Information Systems: Guidelines and Considerations for Agencies Assisting the Economically Disadvantaged, Unemployed or Underemployed. Second Edition, Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartz, John; Lambert, Roger

    Developed to aid agencies assisting the economically disadvantaged, unemployed, or underemployed in selecting good career information and the most useful career/occupational information systems, these guidelines present basic background on and criteria for evaluating career information and the systems which deliver the information. Preliminary…

  18. Learning to (Dis)Engage? The Socialising Experiences of Young People Living in Areas of Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Carolynne; Cremin, Hilary; Warwick, Paul; Harrison, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Young people are increasingly required to demonstrate civic engagement in their communities and help deliver the aspirations of localism and Big Society. Using an ecological systems approach this paper explores the experiences of different groups of young people living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage. Using volunteering as an example of…

  19. The Relationship between Teachers' Collective Efficacy and Student Achievement at Economically Disadvantaged Middle School Campuses in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Juan Manuel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the collective efficacy of teachers and student achievement at economically disadvantaged middle school campuses. Schools of today are expected to show continuous improvement in student achievement from year to year, regardless of the students' family background, ethnicity, or…

  20. Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

    2012-10-01

    Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to provide greater access and support to academically talented students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Originally intended to provide financial support to lower income students, this NSF program also advocated that additional professional development and advising would be strategies to increase undergraduate persistence to graduation. This innovative program for economically disadvantaged students was extended in 2004 to include students from other disciplines including the physical and life sciences as well as the technology fields, and the new name of the program was Scholarships for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (S-STEM). The implementation of these two programs in Louisiana State University (LSU) has shown significant and measurable success since 2000, making LSU a Model University in providing support to economically disadvantaged students within the STEM disciplines. The achievement of these programs is evidenced by the graduation rates of its participants. This report provides details on the educational model employed through the CSEMS/S-STEM projects at LSU and provides a path to success for increasing student retention rates in STEM disciplines. While the LSU's experience is presented as a case study, the potential relevance of this innovative mentoring program in conjunction with the financial support system is discussed in detail.

  1. Exposure to interpersonal violence and socioemotional adjustment in economically disadvantaged preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Bush, Hillary H; Eisenhower, Abbey

    2014-01-01

    Focusing specifically on the experiences of economically disadvantaged preschoolers, the relations between interpersonal violence exposure, behavior problems, and social skills were examined in both the home and school settings. In this racially and ethnically diverse sample of preschoolers from poor, urban households (N = 64; 3-6 years old; 56% female), many children (33%) had been exposed to at least 1 type of interpersonal violence, and even more (70%) had been exposed to any type of potentially traumatic event (PTE). Although exposure to interpersonal violence was not directly associated with parent- or teacher-reported behavior problems or social skills, a significant interaction effect was observed between exposure to interpersonal violence and teacher-reported internalizing problems in predicting teacher-reported social skills; specifically, for children with the highest levels of internalizing problems, a positive relation between interpersonal violence exposure and social skills was observed. This indirect effect was observed only in the school setting, whereas children in this high-risk sample appeared to demonstrate resilience in the home setting. Given these high rates of exposure, additional, clinically relevant research is needed to inform interventions for this vulnerable population. PMID:25175528

  2. Health care workers' knowledge, attitudes and practices on tobacco use in economically disadvantaged dominican republic communities.

    PubMed

    Prucha, Michael G; Fisher, Susan G; McIntosh, Scott; Grable, John C; Holderness, Heather; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; de Monegro, Zahíra Quiñones; Sánchez, José Javier; Bautista, Arisleyda; Díaz, Sergio; Ossip, Deborah J

    2015-04-01

    Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR) where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW) interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153) in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted with anonymous surveys. Approximately 70% (N = 107) completed the primary outcome item, asking about tobacco use at each encounter. Despite >85% strongly agreeing that they should ask about tobacco use at each encounter, only 48.6% reported doing so. While most (94.39%) strongly agreed that smoking is harmful, knowledge of specific health consequences varied from 98.13% for lung cancer to 41.12% for otitis media. Few received training in tobacco intervention (38.32%). Exploratory analyses revealed that always asking even if patients are healthy, strongly agreeing that tobacco causes cardiac disease, and always advising smoke-free homes were associated with always asking. Overall, results demonstrate a disconnect between HCW belief and practice. Though most agreed that always asking about tobacco was important, fewer than half did so. Gaps in HCW knowledge and practices suggest a need for education and policy/infrastructure support. To our knowledge, this is the first reported survey of DR HCWs regarding tobacco, and provides a foundation for future tobacco control in the DR. PMID:25872018

  3. Health Care Workers’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Tobacco Use in Economically Disadvantaged Dominican Republic Communities

    PubMed Central

    Prucha, Michael G.; Fisher, Susan G.; McIntosh, Scott; Grable, John C.; Holderness, Heather; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Quiñones de Monegro, Zahíra; Sánchez, José Javier; Bautista, Arisleyda; Díaz, Sergio; Ossip, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR) where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW) interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153) in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted with anonymous surveys. Approximately 70% (N = 107) completed the primary outcome item, asking about tobacco use at each encounter. Despite >85% strongly agreeing that they should ask about tobacco use at each encounter, only 48.6% reported doing so. While most (94.39%) strongly agreed that smoking is harmful, knowledge of specific health consequences varied from 98.13% for lung cancer to 41.12% for otitis media. Few received training in tobacco intervention (38.32%). Exploratory analyses revealed that always asking even if patients are healthy, strongly agreeing that tobacco causes cardiac disease, and always advising smoke-free homes were associated with always asking. Overall, results demonstrate a disconnect between HCW belief and practice. Though most agreed that always asking about tobacco was important, fewer than half did so. Gaps in HCW knowledge and practices suggest a need for education and policy/infrastructure support. To our knowledge, this is the first reported survey of DR HCWs regarding tobacco, and provides a foundation for future tobacco control in the DR. PMID:25872018

  4. Economically Disadvantaged Children’s Transitions Into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy

    PubMed Central

    Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.

    2010-01-01

    Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify family-based mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential school-based remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation of markers of economic disadvantage reduced math and reading testing gains across the primary grades. Such disparities were partially mediated by corresponding differences in children’s socioemotional problems, parenting stress, and parents’ human capital investments. These patterns appeared to be robust to observed and unobserved confounds. Various teacher qualifications and classroom practices were assessed as moderators of these family mediators, revealing teacher experience in grade level as a fairly consistent buffer against family-based risks for reading. PMID:20711417

  5. Cohort study of smoke-free homes in economically disadvantaged communities in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Dozier, Ann M.; Diaz, Sergio; Guido, Joseph; de Monegro, Zahira Quiñones; McIntosh, Scott; Fisher, Susan G.; Ossip, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze household smoking bans over time and predictors of bans among communities in the Dominican Republic, historically a significant tobacco-growing country with few tobacco control regulations. Methods Baseline (2004) and follow-up surveillance surveys (2006, 2007) (each n > 1 000 randomly selected households) conducted in six economically disadvantaged communities (three tobacco-growing and two each urban, peri-urban, and rural) assessed household members’ demographics, health status, and household characteristics, including smoking restrictions. Results Between 2004 and 2007, household smoking-ban prevalence increased in all communities (24%–45%). Households with smokers (versus those without) adopted bans at lower rates (6%–17%; 35%–58%). Logistic regression models demonstrated that allowing smoking in nonsmoking households was more likely in tobacco-growing communities, Catholic households, and those with a member with a cardiovascular problem. Having a child under age 5 or a member with a respiratory condition was not significantly related to establishing smoking bans. Conclusions Prevalence of households banning smoking increased in all communities but remained well below rates in industrialized countries. For low- and middle-income countries or those early in tobacco control, small awareness-raising measures (including surveillance activities) may lead to significant increases in household-ban adoption, particularly among nonsmoking households. Increasing household-ban prevalence may affect community norms that can lead to greater adoption. Having household members who smoke and being in a tobacco-growing community may mitigate the establishment of household bans. Increasing individuals’ knowledge about the far-reaching health effects of secondhand smoke exposure on children and nonsmoking adults (healthy or unhealthy) may help overcome these obstacles. PMID:24626445

  6. Reducing Risk for Substance Use by Economically Disadvantaged Young Men: Positive Family Environments and Pathways to Educational Attainment.

    PubMed

    Martin, Monica J; Conger, Rand D; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Masarik, April S; Forbes, Erika E; Shaw, Daniel S

    2015-11-01

    Using prospective, longitudinal data spanning 10 years (age = 10-20) from a study of 295 economically disadvantaged males, the current investigation evaluated a developmental model that links early family environment and later educational aspirations, extracurricular activities, and educational attainment to substance use in early adulthood. The results indicate that a positive family environment during adolescence (low family conflict, high family warmth, and effective child management) predicted educational involvements during adolescence that promoted educational attainment during early adulthood. Finally, higher levels of educational attainment were associated with less substance use in early adulthood, even after controlling for adolescent substance use. These findings suggest that positive parenting promotes educational achievements that increase resilience to substance use for economically disadvantaged males. PMID:26307026

  7. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...contributed to social disadvantage, such as race, ethnic origin, gender, disability, long-term residence in an environment isolated...Disabilities Act (ADA) was passed in recognition of the discrimination faced by people with disabilities. It is plausible that...

  8. Indigenous Women Facing Educational Disadvantages: The Case of the Ainu in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayanagi, Taeko; Shimomura, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the life and educational experiences of Ainu women, using the framework of postcolonial feminist theory. It explores the extent to which two factors--gender and ethnic minority status--affect young Ainu women as they attempt to enter mainstream society. The authors analyse life history interviews from three Ainu women aged 25.…

  9. Effects of Economic Disadvantaged Status and Secondary Vocational Education on Adolescent Work Experience and Postsecondary Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.

    1997-01-01

    Of a sample from the National Educational Longitudinal Study who were high school seniors in 1992, nondisadvantaged and vocational track participants were more likely to be employed in 1996 than disadvantaged and nonvocational students. Vocational track participants were more likely to be employed over 20 hours per week. (SK)

  10. The Social-Emotional Impact of Instrumental Music Performance on Economically Disadvantaged South African Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devroop, Karendra

    2012-01-01

    Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent these…

  11. Treatment Effects of a Relationship-Strengthening Intervention for Economically Disadvantaged New Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Pajarita; Jones, Anne; Guo, Shenyang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the treatment effects of a relationship skills and family strengthening intervention for n = 726 high-risk, disadvantaged new parents. Method: Hierarchical linear modeling and regression models were used to assess intervention treatment effects. These findings were subsequently verified…

  12. School-level economic disadvantage and obesity in middle school children in central Texas, USA: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Although children of lower socio-economic status (SES) in the United States have generally been found to be at greater risk for obesity, the SES-obesity association varies when stratified by racial/ethnic groups-with no consistent association found for African American and Hispanic children. Research on contextual and setting-related factors may provide further insights into ethnic and SES disparities in obesity. We examined whether obesity levels among central Texas 8th grade students (n=2682) vary by school-level economic disadvantage across individual-level family SES and racial/ethnicity groups. As a secondary aim, we compared the association of school-level economic disadvantage and obesity by language spoken with parents (English or Spanish) among Hispanic students. Methods Multilevel regression models stratified by family SES and ethnicity were run using cross-sectional baseline data from five school districts participating in the Central Texas CATCH Middle School project. For family SES, independent multi-level logistic regression models were run for total sample and by gender for each family SES stratum (poor/near poor/just getting by, living comfortably, and very well off), adjusting for age, ethnicity, and gender. Similarly, multi-level regression models were run by race/ethnic group (African American, Hispanic, and White), adjusting for age, family SES, and gender. Results Students attending highly economically disadvantaged (ED) schools were between 1.7 (95% CI: 1.1-2.6) and 2.4 (95% CI: 1.2-4.8) times more likely to be obese as students attending low ED schools across family SES groups (p<.05). African American (ORAdj =3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-11.4), Hispanic (ORAdj=1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.0) and White (ORAdj=3.8, 95% CI: 1.6-8.9) students attending high ED schools were more likely to be obese as counterparts at low ED schools (p<.05). Gender-stratified findings were similar to findings for total sample, although fewer results reached significance. While no obesity differences across school ED categories were found for Hispanic Spanish-speaking students, Hispanic English-speaking students (HES) attending high ED schools were 2.4 times more likely to be obese as HES students at low ED schools (p=.003). Conclusion Findings support the need to prioritize economically disadvantaged schools for obesity prevention efforts and support further exploration of school SES context in shaping children’s physical activity and dietary behaviors. PMID:26222099

  13. Lack of Knowledge Deters Women from Studying Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, John; Evans, Lynne

    1999-01-01

    A study of 719 men and 464 women (of whom 416 were studying advanced-level economics) found no gender differences in attitudes toward economics once they are studying it. Among those who chose not to study it, women identify lack of knowledge as the principal reason. (SK)

  14. Essays in development economics : incumbency disadvantage, political competition, and remedial education in India

    E-print Network

    Linden, Leigh L., 1975-

    2004-01-01

    (cont.) The remedial education program hires young women from the community to provide remedial assistance to third and fourth grade children who have fallen behind their peers. The program is extremely cheap (five dollars ...

  15. Time trends in socio-economic inequalities for women and men with disabilities in Australia: evidence of persisting inequalities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The socio-economic circumstances and health of people with disabilities has been relatively ignored in public health research, policy and practice in Australia and internationally. This is despite emerging evidence that the socio-economic circumstances that people with disabilities live in contributes to their poorer health. Compared to other developed countries, Australians with disabilities are more likely to live in disadvantaged circumstances, despite being an economically prosperous country; it is therefore likely that the socio-economic disadvantage experienced by Australians with disabilities makes a significant contribution to their health. Despite the importance of this issue Australia does not routinely monitor the socio-economic inequalities for people with disabilities. This paper addresses this gap by describing time trends in socio-economic conditions for Australians with and without disabilities according to the severity of the disability and sex. Methods Cross-sectional analyses of the Australian Bureau of Statistics Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers were carried out at three time points (1998, 2003 and 2009) to estimate the proportions of women and men (aged between 25 and 64 years) who were living on low incomes, had not completed year 12, were not in paid work, living in private rental and experiencing multiple disadvantage (three or more of the indicators). Results People with disabilities are less likely to have completed year 12, be in paid work and are more likely to be living on low incomes and experiencing multiple disadvantage. These conditions worsened with increasing severity of disability and increased or persisted over time, with most of the increase between 1998 and 2003. While women with milder disabilities tended to fare worse than men, the proportions were similar for those with moderate and severe/profound disabilities. Conclusion People with disabilities experience high levels of socio-economic disadvantage which has increased or persisted over time and these are likely to translate into poorer health outcomes. A large proportion experience multiple forms of disadvantage, reinforcing the need to tackle disadvantage in a coordinated way across sectors. People with disabilities should be a priority population group for public health. Monitoring socio-economic conditions of people with disabilities is critical for informing policy and assessing the impact of disability reforms. PMID:23985044

  16. "Planned" Teenage Pregnancy: Perspectives of Young Women from Disadvantaged Backgrounds in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The reduction of teenage pregnancy has attracted much interest in research, practice and social policy. Little is known about teenagers who report their pregnancies as "planned." Forty-one in-depth interviews were undertaken, in six different parts of England, among young women who reported their pregnancy as "planned". The mean age at conception…

  17. The Disadvantaged Majority: Science Education for Women. AETS Outstanding Paper for 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahle, Jane Butler

    Although women comprise the majority of the population, fewer than 9 percent are employed as scientists and engineers. Research indicates that girls have poorer attitudes toward science, enroll less often in science courses, demonstrate lower achievement levels in science, and have fewer experiences with science materials or instruments. Among the…

  18. Economic Stress, Emotional Quality of Life, and Problem Behavior in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between perceived economic stress (current economic hardship and future economic worry) and emotional quality of life (existential well-being, life satisfaction, self-esteem, sense of mastery, psychological morbidity) as well as problem behavior (substance abuse and delinquency) were examined in 1519 Chinese adolescents with and…

  19. Identifying Successful Strategies Implemented by Teachers in High Performing, High Poverty Schools to Address the Diverse Needs of Economically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Statom, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    This research study sought to identify the successful strategies used by teachers in high performing, high poverty schools to address the needs of economically disadvantaged students. The study examined teacher perceptions, motivation factors, and instructional strategies as they relate to the improvement of the academic progress of economically

  20. Women with schizophrenia and broken marriages--doubly disadvantaged? Part I: patient perspective.

    PubMed

    Thara, R; Kamath, Shanta; Kumar, Shuba

    2003-09-01

    This is a qualitative study of 76 women with schizophrenia whose marriages had broken. The sample was drawn from three different centres. Using qualitative methods of exploration, information regarding their illness, the marriage and its separation and the various consequences of this event was gathered. Many of them had not separated legally and were not receiving any maintenance from their husbands. Their concerns centred around their future, the fact they would be a burden to their ageing parents and in some cases about their children. Stigma attached to separation was as poignant as that of being mentally ill, if not more. However, a striking aspect was that even after several years of separation, these women still harboured a lot of hope that they would be able to reunite with their husbands. PMID:14626365

  1. Types of cultural capital and self-rated health among disadvantaged women in outer Beirut, Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Marwan; Mowafi, Mona

    2007-01-01

    Aims Our study extends research on the social determinants of health by exploring the association between a new, potentially very significant dimension, cultural capital by type and self-rated health among low-income women living in outer Beirut, Lebanon. Methods Self-rated general health was assessed using household data from a cross-sectional survey of 1869 women, conducted in 2003. Three types of cultural capital were included: watching cultural TV programs, producing art (e.g., drawing, theatre performance) and consuming art or literature (e.g., attending exhibits, reading literary books). Associations between self-rated health status and types of cultural capital were assessed using odds ratios from binary logistic regression models. Results With the exception of art production, lack of cultural capital increased the odds of self-perceived poor health status adjusting for socio-demographics and other risk factors. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.86 (95% CI: 1.07 to 3.22) for watching cultural TV programs and 1.52 (95% CI: 1.12 to 2.06) for consuming art. As expected, health risk factors, age, social support and community of residence were also associated with health status. Conclusions Two types of cultural capital were strong predictors of self perceived health status among women living in poor urban communities, regardless of social capital, income and other relevant risk factors. PMID:17852992

  2. The contemporary relevance of Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Women And Economics 

    E-print Network

    Mastagni, Danee M

    2000-01-01

    Charlotte Perkins Gilman's main theoretical work, Women and Economics, was largely forgotten after her death, and, despite its recovery as a feminist document, is usually ignored within mainstream sociological theory. Her work, however, contains...

  3. Women and Rapid Economic Change: The Alaska Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Monica E.

    The Trans Alaska Oil Pipeline project and accompanying increases in economic wealth have had an enormous impact, particularly on Alaskan women. Prior to pipeline construction, the civilian labor force participation by Alaskan women was close to the national average. During and since pipeline construction, this participation rate has soared.…

  4. Economic disadvantage and transitional outcomes: a study of young people from low-income families in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Ngai, Steven Sek Yum; Cheung, Jacky Chau-Kiu; To, Siu-ming; Luan, Hui; Zhao, Ruiling

    2014-01-01

    This study draws on data from focus groups involving 50 young people from low-income families in Hong Kong to investigate their school-to-work experiences. In line with the ecological–developmental perspective, our results show that contextual influences, including lower levels of parental involvement and lack of opportunities for further education or skill development, constrain both the formulation and pursuit of educational and career goals. In contrast, service use and supportive interactions with parents and non-family adults were found to help young people find a career direction and foster more adaptive transition. Furthermore, our results indicate a striking difference in intrapersonal agency and coping styles between youths who were attending further education or engaged in jobs with career advancement opportunities and those who were not. We discuss the implications of our findings, both for future research and for policy development to enhance the school-to-work transition of economically disadvantaged young people. PMID:25364087

  5. Equitable Learning Outcomes: Supporting Economically and Culturally Disadvantaged Students in "Formative Learning Environments"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The central and distinguishing thesis of social and cultural perspectives on outcome equity is that public school classrooms are culturally biased environments. Such environments disaffect children who arrive at school from the economic or cultural margin. The "formative learning environment" (FoLE) establishes and sustains legitimate…

  6. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Interactions of Disadvantages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veland, Jarmund; Midthassel, Unni Vere; Idsoe, Thormod

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on a study of 7,372 students in grades 5-10 (aged 11-16) in a representative sample of Norwegian compulsory schools. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between students' reported socio-economic status (SES) and their perceived social inclusion (SI) in school in the whole sample. We also considered separately a…

  7. Socio-economic status of Muslim women.

    PubMed

    Bhatty, Z

    1994-01-01

    The Indian sociological literature neglects the role of women in social relationships within the family system, their status in society, and the interactions between Indian minorities and the majority community. Indian institutions and cultural norms have perpetuated the role of Indian women as subservient. Orthodox Muslims uphold the low position of women as a symbol of cultural identity. Indian Muslims have tried to prevent conversion and integration of other views, but have failed to eliminate the Hindu influence on the general pattern of living, the system of social stratification, and customs and attitudes regarding women. Muslims hold conformist ideals and beliefs from the Quran and the Hadis. Although Indian women live under the Hindu Code Bill that gives equal rights to women, most Muslim women are restricted under the Muslim Personal Law. Muslims who are ignorant of the Quran are unaware of the allowances in the Shariat for social adjustment, change, and accommodation. In fact, Indian Muslim communities follow four different Shariats: the Hanafi, the Shaafi, the Hambali, and the Maliki. Islamic scholars state that the Shariat is not unchangeable. There is also disparity between the actual practice of polygamy and the Quran's strict provision that all wives must be treated equally. Islamic practices have been manipulated to suit male interests. Indian Muslims are either Ashrafs or nonAshrafs. Ashrafs are the upper social class and are made up of the Sayyads, the Sheikhs, the Mughals, and the Pathans, in descending order of hierarchy. There are differences in the treatment of women within this stratification. For instance, many nonAshraf women do not observe purdah, but the tendency among the Ashraf is to impose purdah. PMID:12347368

  8. 78 FR 37692 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Contracting With Women-Owned Small Business Concerns

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ...Federal Acquisition Regulation; Contracting With Women-Owned Small Business Concerns AGENCY: Department...for set-asides to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business concerns and to women-owned small business concerns eligible...

  9. 77 FR 12913 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ...9000-AL97 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program...Administration's regulations establishing the Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program...industries to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB)...

  10. Beyond income: Material resources among drug users in economically-disadvantaged New York City neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Ompad, Danielle C.; Nandi, Vijay; Cerdá, Magdalena; Crawford, Natalie; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about material resources among drug users beyond income. Income measures can be insensitive to variation among the poor, do not account for variation in cost-of-living, and are subject to non-response bias and underreporting. Further, most do not include illegal income sources that may be relevant to drug-using populations. Methods We explored the reliability and validity of an 18-item material resource scale and describe correlates of adequate resources among 1593 current, former and non-drug users recruited in New York City. Reliability was determined using coefficient ?, ?h, and factor analysis. Criterion validity was explored by comparing item and mean scores by income and income source using ANOVA; content validity analyses compared scores by drug use. Multiple linear regression was used to describe correlates of adequate resources. Results The coefficient ? and ?h for the overall scale were 0.91 and 0.68, respectively, suggesting reliability was at least adequate. Legal income >$5000 (vs. ? $5000) and formal (vs. informal) income sources were associated with more resources, supporting criterion validity. We observed decreasing resources with increasing drug use severity, supporting construct validity. Three factors were identified: basic needs, economic resources and services. Many did not have their basic needs met and few had adequate economic resources. Correlates of adequate material resources included race/ethnicity, income, income source, and homelessness. Conclusions The 18-item material resource scale demonstrated reliability and validity among drug users. These data provide a different view of poverty, one that details specific challenges faced by low-income communities. PMID:21835561

  11. Three-year change in diet quality and associated changes in BMI among schoolchildren living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Lioret, Sandrine; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cameron, Adrian J; Crawford, David; Campbell, Karen J; Cleland, Verity J; Ball, Kylie

    2014-07-28

    Findings from research that has assessed the influence of dietary factors on child obesity have been equivocal. In the present study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that a positive change in diet quality is associated with favourable changes in BMI z-scores (zBMI) in schoolchildren from low socio-economic backgrounds and to examine whether this effect is modified by BMI category at baseline. The present study utilised data from a subsample (n 216) of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, a longitudinal cohort study with data collected in 2007-8 (T1) and 2010-11 (T2) in socio-economically disadvantaged women and children (5-12 years at T1). Dietary data were collected using a FFQ and diet quality index (DQI) scores derived at both time points. The objective measures of weight, height and physical activity (accelerometers) were included. The other variables were reported in the questionnaires. We examined the association between change in DQI and change in zBMI, using linear regression analyses adjusted for physical activity, screen sedentary behaviour and maternal education level both in the whole sample and in the sample stratified by overweight status at baseline. After accounting for potential covariates, change in diet quality was found to be inversely associated with change in zBMI only in children who were overweight at baseline (P= 0.035), thus supporting the hypothesis that improvement in diet quality is associated with a concurrent improvement in zBMI among already overweight children, but not among those with a normal BMI status. The identification of modifiable behaviours such as diet quality that affect zBMI longitudinally is valuable to inform future weight gain prevention interventions in vulnerable groups. PMID:24775601

  12. Inclusive Transition Processes--Considering Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Parents' Views and Actions for Their Child's Successful School Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothe, Antje; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has noted that the transition to primary school is important for future school success. As a result, an inclusive transition process to school has become increasingly important. However, this process is particularly difficult for socio-economically disadvantaged children in Germany. The study considers parents' views and…

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Chinese Cultural Beliefs about Adversity, Psychological Well-Being, Delinquency and Substance Abuse in Chinese Adolescents with Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the relationships between Chinese cultural beliefs about adversity and psychological well-being and problem behavior in 199 Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage. Results showed that endorsement of Chinese cultural beliefs about adversity was concurrently related to measures of adolescent psychological…

  14. Rethinking the Curriculum To Meet the Needs of Underprepared, Underrepresented, and Economically Disadvantaged Students: Majors and Courses for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glock, Nancy Clover

    Attracting and assuring the success of students of color requires the rethinking of curricula to meet the needs of underrepresented, underprepared, and economically disadvantaged students. General education offerings should be restructured to give students the skills and resources needed to make sense out of their particular gender and ethnicity,…

  15. Return to work, economic hardship, and women's postpartum health.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Jenna N; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Leng, Iris; Clinch, C Randall; Arcury, Thomas A

    2010-10-01

    This study followed a sample of 217 new mothers in a North Carolina county as they returned to work full-time, measuring their mental and physical health-related quality of life through 16 months postpartum. In general, working mothers of infants had mental health scores that were comparable to the general population of U.S. women, and physical health that was slightly better than women in general. Using ANCOVA and controlling for important demographic characteristics, health-related quality of life was compared between mothers experiencing low and high levels of economic hardship. Across the study period, women with high economic hardship, who constituted 30.7% of the sample, had levels of mental and physical health below those of women with low economic hardship. Mothers with high economic hardship also had less stable health trajectories than mothers with low economic hardship. The findings highlight the importance of reconsidering the traditionally accepted postpartum recovery period of six weeks and extending benefits, such as paid maternity and sick leave, as well as stable yet flexible work schedules. PMID:21104566

  16. How can we improve socio-economic condition of women?

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, P C; Pattanaik, B E

    Aspects of discrimination against women in India are summarized, a case study of a rural district in Orissa is presented, and the article follows with a suggested 3-part strategy of education, employment and appropriate technology. The economic role played by women is difficult to quantitate because of their lifestyle that combines domestic work and unpaid family or low-paid outside farm or cottage industry labor. Besides these tasks, women usually care for dairy animals, and carry water and firewood. Discrimination against women in this system is evident, however, from some available statistics. 46% of women, as opposed to 20% of men, work as agricultural laborers. Women are denied education because they are not expected to do responsible work, then they are denied employment because they are not educated. Their work is counted as worth only half that of men, and based on this assumption, they are paid less then men. The male heads of 124 households in 7 villages in the Orissa area were interviewed to study labor participation of household members. 89% of the people worked in agriculture, 94% in rice paddy and 6% in oilseed or pulses for cash crops. The average farm size was 2.29 acres. Female literacy had risen to 14.3% from 1% 10 years before. Women usually worked in transplantation, weeding, harvesting and threshing, but also in heavier farm labor, construction of roads and buildings, quarrying and forestry. In this poor, hilly region, the custom of purdah was not practiced to the extent of keeping women from doing day labor outside the home. The authors' suggested strategy for women's development included appropriate technology such as the Gobar methane gas plant, provision of credit for women's industries, retention of girls in school and literacy programs for girls and women, and higher wages for women. PMID:12281792

  17. Welfare Reform and Black Women's Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2007-01-01

    In 1996, the United States Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, placing emphasis on individuals to take responsibility for separating themselves from governmental dependence by becoming economically self-sufficient through employment. Using a qualitative approach, this study explored the experiences…

  18. The Enrollment Rates, Dropout Rates and Economic Benefits That Characterize the Experience of the Disadvantaged in Oklahoma's Occupational Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, James Lee

    Because occupational training for the disadvantaged presents special problems for the educator, this study provides information on some of the needs of disadvantaged students. Data were collected by the Occupational Training Information System and the Oklahoma Research Coordinating Unit from the full time occupational students in the state. The…

  19. Economic and Social Psychological Independence: Dilemmas for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Beverly

    1985-01-01

    Reviews three volumes which provide considerable material on the cultural, economic, psychological, and social factors which affect Black and White women and their families: "Common Differences: Conflicts in Black and White Feminist Perspectives" (Joseph and Lewis); "The Black Woman Cross-Culturally" (Steady); and "Household Composition and Racial…

  20. Electronic Monitoring of Oral Therapies in Ethnically Diverse and Economically Disadvantaged Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Consequences of Low Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Waimann, Christian A.; Marengo, Maria F.; de Achaval, Sofia; Cox, Vanessa L.; Garcia-Gonzalez, Araceli; Reveille, John D.; Richardson, Marsha N.; Almazor, Maria E. Suarez

    2013-01-01

    Background To quantify adherence to oral therapies in ethnically diverse and economically disadvantaged patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using electronic medication monitoring, and to evaluate the clinical consequences of low adherence. Methods 107 patients with RA enrolled in a 2-year prospective cohort study agreed to have their oral RA drug therapy intake electronically monitored, with the Medication Events Monitoring System (MEMS®). Adherence to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and prednisone were determined as the percentage of days (or weeks for methotrexate) in which the patient took the correct dose as prescribed by the physician. Patient outcomes were assessed including the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ), the Disease Activity Index 28 (DAS28), quality of life and radiological damage using Sharp-van der Heijde scores. Results Adherence to the treatment regimen as determined by percent of correct doses was 64% for DMARDs and 70% for prednisone. Patients who had better mental health were statistically more likely to be adherent. Only 23 (21%) of the patients had an average adherence to DMARDs ? 80%. These patients showed significantly better disease activity scores across 2 years of follow-up than those who were less adherent (DAS28 3.3±1.3 vs. 4.1±1.2, p<0.02). Radiological scores were also worse in non-adherent patients at baseline and 12 months. Conclusions Only one fifth of the RA patients had an overall adherence of at least 80%. Less than two thirds of the prescribed DMARD doses were correctly taken. Adherent patients had lower disease activity and radiological damage scores across the 2 years of follow-up. PMID:23728826

  1. Predictors of Co-Occurring Risk Behavior Trajectories among Economically Disadvantaged African American Youth: Contextual and Individual Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Henry, David; Byck, Gayle; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose African American youth, particularly those from low-income backgrounds, evidence high rates of negative outcomes associated with three problem behaviors, conduct problems, risky sexual behavior, and substance use. This study used a contextually-tailored version of Problem Behavior Theory (PBT) to examine predictors of the simultaneous development of problem behaviors in this specific cultural group. Methods Socio-contextual and individual variables representing four PBT predictor categories, controls protection, support protection, models risk, and vulnerability risk, were examined as predictors of co-occurring problem behaviors among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (n = 949). Specifically, the likelihood of following three classes of multiple problem behavior trajectories spanning ages 12 to 18, labeled the “early experimenters,” “increasing high risk-takers,” and “adolescent-limited” classes, as opposed to a “normative” class was examined. Results Among other findings, controls protection in the form of a more stringent household curfew at age 12 was related to a lower likelihood of being in the “early experimenters” and “increasing high risk-takers” classes. Conversely, vulnerability risk manifested as stronger attitudes of violence inevitability was associated with a higher likelihood of being in the “early experimenters” class. However, the PBT category of support protection was not associated with risk trajectory class. More distal neighborhood-level manifestations of PBT categories also did not predict co-occurring behavior problems. Conclusion Guided by an incorporation of contextually-salient processes into PBT, prevention programs aiming to decrease co-occurring problem behaviors among low-income African American adolescents would do well to target both proximal systems and psychological constructs related to perceived security throughout adolescence. PMID:24755141

  2. Family migration and the economic status of women in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, A

    1997-01-01

    "The impact of family migration on women's economic position in a developing country setting is an area that has received relatively little research attention. Incorporating a lifetime perspective, this study makes use of the retrospective migration histories of husbands and wives from the second round of the Malaysian Family Life Survey to estimate how joint migration with the husband affects women's socioeconomic achievement. The findings show that family migration depresses the chances of working, but it does not significantly reduce socioeconomic attainment of those who do work. However, when a woman migrates with her husband she does forgo the substantial advantage she could have derived had she moved alone." PMID:12292875

  3. Latinas and African American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Irene, Ed.

    The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…

  4. 13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs? 125...Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENT...Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs?...

  5. 13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs? 125...Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENT...Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs?...

  6. 13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs? 125...Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENT...Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs?...

  7. Women Still in Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    Poverty remains a persistent problem for many women, and certain features of American life serve to keep them in a disadvantaged economic position. The welfare system is so arranged that many of its programs (such as the Work Incentive Program) favor men or (as in the case of Aid to Families with Dependent Children) force poor women to place their…

  8. Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to…

  9. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED...? Secondary, Postsecondary, and Adult Vocational Education Programs § 403.114 How does a State determine...

  10. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED...? Secondary, Postsecondary, and Adult Vocational Education Programs § 403.114 How does a State determine...

  11. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED...? Secondary, Postsecondary, and Adult Vocational Education Programs § 403.114 How does a State determine...

  12. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED...? Secondary, Postsecondary, and Adult Vocational Education Programs § 403.114 How does a State determine...

  13. Examining Alternative Measures of Social Disadvantage Among Asian Americans: The Relevance of Economic Opportunity, Subjective Social Status, and Financial Strain for Health

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Gilbert C.; Takeuchi, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomic position is often operationalized as education, occupation, and income. However, these measures may not fully capture the process of socioeconomic disadvantage that may be related to morbidity. Economic opportunity, subjective social status, and financial strain may also place individuals at risk for poor health outcomes. Data come from the Asian subsample of the 2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (n = 2095). Regression models were used to examine the associations between economic opportunity, subjective social status, and financial strain and the outcomes of self-rated health, body mass index, and smoking status. Education, occupation, and income were also investigated as correlates of these outcomes. Low correlations were observed between all measures of socioeconomic status. Economic opportunity was robustly negatively associated with poor self-rated health, higher body mass index, and smoking, followed by financial strain, then subjective social status. Findings show that markers of socioeconomic position beyond education, occupation, and income are related to morbidity among Asian Americans. This suggests that potential contributions of social disadvantage to poor health may be understated if only conventional measures are considered among immigrant and minority populations. PMID:19434494

  14. Process evaluation for the FEeding Support Team (FEST) randomised controlled feasibility trial of proactive and reactive telephone support for breastfeeding women living in disadvantaged areas

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Leone; MacLennan, Graeme; Boyers, Dwayne; Vale, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility, acceptability and fidelity of a feeding team intervention with an embedded randomised controlled trial of team-initiated (proactive) and woman-initiated (reactive) telephone support after hospital discharge. Design Participatory approach to the design and implementation of a pilot trial embedded within a before-and-after study, with mixed-method process evaluation. Setting A postnatal ward in Scotland. Sample Women initiating breast feeding and living in disadvantaged areas. Methods Quantitative data: telephone call log and workload diaries. Qualitative data: interviews with women (n=40) with follow-up (n=11) and staff (n=17); ward observations 2?weeks before and after the intervention; recorded telephone calls (n=16) and steering group meetings (n=9); trial case notes (n=69); open question in a telephone interview (n=372). The Framework approach to analysis was applied to mixed-method data. Main outcome measures Quantitative: telephone call characteristics (number, frequency, duration); workload activity. Qualitative: experiences and perspectives of women and staff. Results A median of eight proactive calls per woman (n=35) with a median duration of 5?min occurred in the 14?days following hospital discharge. Only one of 34 control women initiated a call to the feeding team, with women undervaluing their own needs compared to others, and breast feeding as a reason to call. Proactive calls providing continuity of care increased women's confidence and were highly valued. Data demonstrated intervention fidelity for woman-centred care; however, observing an entire breast feed was not well implemented due to short hospital stays, ward routines and staff–team–woman communication issues. Staff pragmatically recognised that dedicated feeding teams help meet women's breastfeeding support needs in the context of overstretched and variable postnatal services. Conclusions Implementing and integrating the FEeding Support Team (FEST) trial within routine postnatal care was feasible and acceptable to women and staff from a research and practice perspective and shows promise for addressing health inequalities. Trial registration ISRCTN27207603. The study protocol and final report is available on request. PMID:22535794

  15. Pathways of disadvantage and smoking careers: evidence and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Hilary; Inskip, Hazel M; Francis, Brian; Harman, Juliet

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate in older industrialised societies (a) how social disadvantage contributes to smoking risk among women (b) the role of social and economic policies in reducing disadvantage and moderating wider inequalities in life chances and living standards. Methods Review and analysis of (a) the effects of disadvantage in childhood and into adulthood on women's smoking status in early adulthood (b) policy impacts on the social exposures associated with high smoking risk. Main results (a) Smoking status—ever smoking, current smoking, heavy smoking, and cessation—is influenced not only by current circumstances but by longer term biographies of disadvantage (b) social and economic policies shape key social predictors of women's smoking status, including childhood circumstances, educational levels and adult circumstances, and moderate inequalities in the distribution of these dimensions of life chances and living standards. Together, the two sets of findings argue for a policy toolkit that acts on the distal determinants of smoking, with interventions targeting the conditions in which future and current smokers live. Conclusions An approach to tobacco control is advocated that combines changing smoking habits with reducing inequalities in the social trajectories in which they are embedded. Policies to level up opportunities and living standards across the lifecourse should be championed as part of an equity oriented approach to reducing the disease burden of cigarette smoking. PMID:17708005

  16. Women's Socio-Economic Development in India: The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

    2004-01-01

    Jacobs (2000) and McLean (2000) affirm the need to expand boundaries of HRD to include multiple topics in a variety of contexts. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) provide possibilities and limitations for the socio-economic development of women in India. The roles of NGOs in serving the socio-economic needs of women provide a broader,…

  17. Gaps in the Digital Divide in Higher Education: Economically Disadvantaged Students and a Lack of Access and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    The digital divide between students who have access to and skills with information technology resources and those who do not is growing wider. This dissertation documents a quantitative study on the effect and relationship between age, gender, ethnicity and low economic status on students' access to computers and the Internet, as well as…

  18. The Relationship between Residential Land Use Patterns and the Educational Outcomes of Economically Disadvantaged Students in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zandt, Shannon; Wunneburger, Douglas F.

    2011-01-01

    Disparate outcomes resulting from economic segregation in public primary schools have been the subject of much debate and litigation. Little research, however, examines whether negative outcomes may be exacerbated by inequities in the distribution of housing across metropolitan areas. This article explores connections between residential land use…

  19. Depressive symptoms are associated with dietary intake but not physical activity among overweight and obese women from disadvantaged neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Kara M.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that depressive symptoms are associated with poorer dietary intake and inadequate physical activity; however, this association has not been examined in lower income overweight and obese African American women. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the associations between depressive symptoms and diet and physical activity in 196 women (87% African American, ages 25–51). Higher depressive symptoms were hypothesized to predict poorer diet quality, greater emotional eating, lower physical activity levels, and greater sedentary time. Depressive symptoms were measured using the validated short form of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10). Dietary intake and quality were assessed using three 24-hour dietary recalls. Emotional eating was evaluated using four items from the emotional eating subscale of the Eating Behavior Patterns Questionnaire. Physical activity and sedentary time were objectively measured using the ActiGraph accelerometer. Linear regression models tested the associations between depressive symptoms and each dietary and physical activity outcome variable. Symptoms of depression were positively associated with total daily caloric intake from saturated fat and total sugars, as well as emotional eating scores (p values < .05). While not statistically significant, depressive symptoms were positively associated with sweetened beverage consumption (p=.06) and added sugars (p=.07). Depressive symptoms were not associated with total fat, sodium, fruit and vegetables, fast food consumption, the Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity or sedentary time. Future studies should explore the mechanisms linking the identified associations between depressive symptoms and dietary intake, such as the role of emotional eating. PMID:24774065

  20. Depressive symptoms are associated with dietary intake but not physical activity among overweight and obese women from disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara M; Sharpe, Patricia A; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E

    2014-04-01

    Evidence suggests that depressive symptoms are associated with poorer dietary intake and inadequate physical activity; however, this association has not been examined in lower-income overweight and obese African American women. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the associations between depressive symptoms and diet and physical activity in 196 women (87% African American; age, 25-51 years). Higher depressive symptoms were hypothesized to predict poorer diet quality, greater emotional eating, lower physical activity levels, and greater sedentary time. Depressive symptoms were measured using the validated short form of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Dietary intake and quality were assessed using three 24-hour dietary recalls. Emotional eating was evaluated using 4 items from the emotional eating subscale of the Eating Behavior Patterns Questionnaire. Physical activity and sedentary time were objectively measured using the ActiGraph accelerometer. Linear regression models tested the associations between depressive symptoms and each dietary and physical activity outcome variable. Symptoms of depression were positively associated with total daily caloric intake from saturated fat and total sugars, as well as emotional eating scores (P < .05). Although not statistically significant, depressive symptoms were positively associated with sweetened beverage consumption (P = .06) and added sugars (P = .07). Depressive symptoms were not associated with total fat, sodium, fruit and vegetables, fast food consumption, the Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, or sedentary time. Future studies should explore the mechanisms linking the identified associations between depressive symptoms and dietary intake, such as the role of emotional eating. PMID:24774065

  1. The Conversation and Company of Educated Women. A Colloquy on Home Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterat, Linda, Ed.

    The papers in this publication are the result of a symposium assessing the role of home economics in women's education. In her paper entitled "The Human Sciences and Home Economics: An Emerging Conversation," Francine H. Hultgren questions the possibilities for home economics within the human sciences. "Hestian Hermeneutics: A Lens of Analysis for…

  2. 13 CFR 124.1002 - What is a Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED...the criteria of social and economic disadvantage...individual claiming economic disadvantage...form an ongoing relationship to conduct business...created by such a relationship would not...

  3. The general and mental health of movers to more- and less-disadvantaged socio-economic and physical environments within the UK.

    PubMed

    Tunstall, Helena; Mitchell, Richard; Pearce, Jamie; Shortt, Niamh

    2014-10-01

    Residential mobility may play an important role in influencing both individual health, by determining individual exposures to environments, and area health, by shaping area population composition. This study is the first analysis of migration within the UK to compare general and mental health among adults by age group and consider moves between neighbourhoods with different levels of both socio-economic and physical environment disadvantage. The analysis assesses 122,570 cases from the annual British Household Panel Survey, 1996-2006, based upon pooled data describing moves between consecutive waves of the survey. It assesses the rates and binary logistic regression model odds of self-reported general health and mental health problems of movers and stayers by age group. It also compares movers between Census Area Statistics wards in the UK with different levels of Carstairs and Multiple Environmental Deprivation Index (MEDIx) scores. At all ages, movers had similar or higher odds of poor general and mental health relative to non-movers. Risk of mental health problems were particularly elevated among movers and remained significant after adjustment for socio-demographic variables in most age groups. In adjusted analysis of all adults odds of poor general and mental health were most elevated among movers to more socio-economically deprived areas, with the highest odds for mental health (1.54 95% CI 1.27-1.86). In contrast, risk of poor mental health among total adults was greatest among movers to better physical environments (1.40 95% CI 1.16-1.70). This study therefore finds little evidence of 'healthy migrant effects' among recent movers within the UK and suggests movers have particularly elevated risk of mental health problems. It also indicates that selective migration may not contribute to poor health found in UK neighbourhoods with multiple physical environment deprivation. Further analysis should explore why people with mental health problems are more likely to move to socio-economically deprived neighbourhoods. PMID:25112564

  4. Towards the Social and Economic Promotion of Rural Women in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokuhirwa, Hilda

    1975-01-01

    The report describes the changing image of women in rural Tanzania and the various agencies responsible for their social, economic, cultural, and political promotion in rural areas, including the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), and the Union of Women in Tanganyika (UWT). (LH)

  5. Women Education and Economic Development in Kenya: Implications for Curriculum Development and Implementation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syomwene, Anne; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the relationship between women education and sustainable economic development in Kenya and its implications for curriculum development and implementation processes. The argument advanced in this paper is that the solution to the development problems in Kenya and other developing nations lies on women education.…

  6. Energy and women's economic empowerment: Rethinking the benefits of improved cookstove use in rural India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaward, James Nicholas

    International development organizations have recently ramped up efforts to promote the use of improved cookstoves (ICS) in developing countries, aiming to reduce the harmful environmental and public health impacts of the burning of biomass for cooking and heating. I hypothesize that ICS use also has additional benefits---economic and social benefits---that can contribute to women's economic empowerment in the developing world. To explore the relationship between ICS use and women's economic empowerment, I use Ordinary Least Squares and Logit models based on data from the India Human Development Survey (IHDS) to analyze differences between women living in households that use ICS and those living in homes that use traditional cookstoves. My regression results reveal that ICS use has a statistically significant and negative effect on the amount of time women and girls spend on fuel collection and a statistically significant and positive effect on the likelihood of women's participation in side businesses, but does not have a statistically significant effect on the likelihood of lost productivity. My analysis shows promise that in addition to health and environmental benefits, fuel-efficient cooking technologies can also have social and economic impacts that are especially beneficial to women. It is my hope that the analysis provided in this paper will be used to further the dialogue about the importance of women's access to modern energy services in the fight to improve women's living standards in the developing world.

  7. Kenyan women in physics: Overcoming cultural, economic, and professional challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baki, Paul; Kasina, Angeline; Nyamwandha, Cecilia; Kawira, Millien; Mburu, Jane; King'ori, Gladys; Kahonge, Teresia; Gichana, Zubeda

    2013-03-01

    Efforts to attract, retain, and improve the status of girls and women in Kenya to the sciences, in particular physics, are outlined. Areas in which positive change has been observed are noted. Issues that still need to be addressed to realize the full potential of women undertaking physics are discussed.

  8. Women's relative immunity to the socio-economic health gradient: artifact or real?

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Susan P.; Hamberg, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background Individual and area socio-economic status (SES) are significant predictors of morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. However, the span in health from poorest to richest, that is, the socio-economic gradient, appears steeper for men than women. Objective Our aim is to understand women's apparent immunity to the health harms of the SES gradient. Design Findings from a non-systematic search of Medline for population-based, SES gradient studies reporting results for both men and women and with health outcomes of morbidity, mortality or self-rated health (SRH) were reflectively analyzed. Results The 36 papers reviewed generally showed women to be relatively immune to the SES gradient for all but cardiovascular health outcomes. However, addressing the interconnected nature of socio-economic circumstances, exploring whether some measures of SES had ambiguous meanings for either women or men, including modifiers of SES such as household circumstances, social capital or area gender equity, or using indicators of area SES that were contextual rather than aggregates of individual, compositional measures increased the SES gradient for women. Outcome measures that combined mental and physical health, accounted for gender differences in SRH and adjusted for sex-specific differences in causes of mortality also explained some of the observed amelioration of the SES gradient among women. Conclusions Socio-economic circumstances have a real and sustained impact on individual health. The SES gradient appears stronger for men than for women for all health outcomes other than heart disease. However, some of the observed variability between men and women may be an artifact of biased methodology. Considering webs of causation rather than individual markers of SES along with other sources of gender bias can explain much of women's blunted socio-economic gradient and deepen understanding of the pathways from SES to morbidity and mortality overall. PMID:25947541

  9. Ethics, equity, and economics: a primer on women in medicine.

    PubMed

    Essary, Alison C; Coplan, Bettie

    2014-05-01

    Women account for more than 70% of physician assistant (PA) students, 62% of practicing PAs, and 57% of faculty in PA programs. About half of all US medical students, 30% of actively practicing physicians, and 37% of faculty at academic medical centers are female. However, women in medicine are paid less than men for equal work effort and achieve fewer leadership positions within academia and medicine. Neglecting the skills and talents of women may lead to a workforce that fails to represent our patient and student populations. PMID:24758976

  10. Migrant women in Australia.

    PubMed

    Misztal, B A

    1991-01-01

    The author compares the status of non-English speaking (NES) migrant women with that of their native-born counterparts in Australia. She concludes that "Australian born women and migrant women have certain experiences in common; low economic position, being the target of discriminatory practices in education and in work, and their overall marginality in the power structure. In addition their jobs have much in common: for all women are disadvantaged compared with men in terms of earnings, occupational status, and job mobility. However,...NES migrant women tend to be employed in much lower-level, lower-status, and lower-paying occupations than Australian born women.... They face circumstances unique to their ethnic groups which they share with the men of their ethnic groups. Migrant women, even more than indigenous working class women see the family as a site of solidarity and supportive alliance against a hostile or new environment...." PMID:12317297

  11. The effect of neighborhood disadvantage, social ties, and genetic variation on the antisocial behavior of African American women: A multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    LEI, MAN-KIT; SIMONS, RONALD L.; EDMOND, MARY BOND; SIMONS, LESLIE GORDON; CUTRONA, CAROLYN E.

    2015-01-01

    Social disorganization theory posits that individuals who live in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to engage in antisocial behavior than are those who live in advantaged neighborhoods and that neighborhood disadvantage asserts this effect through its disruptive impact on social ties. Past research on this framework has been limited in two respects. First, most studies have concentrated on adolescent males. In contrast, the present study focused on a sample of adult African American females. Second, past research has largely ignored individual-level factors that might explain why people who grow up in disadvantaged neighborhoods often do not engage in antisocial behavior. We investigated the extent to which genetic variation contributes to heterogeneity of response to neighborhood conditions. We found that the impact of neighborhood disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by neighborhood social ties. Further, the analysis indicated that the effects of neighborhood disadvantage and social ties on antisocial behavior were moderated by genetic polymorphisms. Examination of these moderating effects provided support for the differential susceptibility model of Gene×Environment. The effect of Gene×Neighborhood Disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by the effect of Gene×Neighborhood Social Ties, providing support for an expanded view of social disorganization theory. PMID:24713449

  12. The effect of neighborhood disadvantage, social ties, and genetic variation on the antisocial behavior of African American women: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L; Edmond, Mary Bond; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Cutrona, Carolyn E

    2014-11-01

    Social disorganization theory posits that individuals who live in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to engage in antisocial behavior than are those who live in advantaged neighborhoods and that neighborhood disadvantage asserts this effect through its disruptive impact on social ties. Past research on this framework has been limited in two respects. First, most studies have concentrated on adolescent males. In contrast, the present study focused on a sample of adult African American females. Second, past research has largely ignored individual-level factors that might explain why people who grow up in disadvantaged neighborhoods often do not engage in antisocial behavior. We investigated the extent to which genetic variation contributes to heterogeneity of response to neighborhood conditions. We found that the impact of neighborhood disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by neighborhood social ties. Further, the analysis indicated that the effects of neighborhood disadvantage and social ties on antisocial behavior were moderated by genetic polymorphisms. Examination of these moderating effects provided support for the differential susceptibility model of Gene × Environment. The effect of Gene × Neighborhood Disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by the effect of Gene × Neighborhood Social Ties, providing support for an expanded view of social disorganization theory. PMID:24713449

  13. 48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business concern or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Program. (a) Definition. Interested party, as used in this section, has the meaning given in 13 CFR 127... protest regulations are found in subpart F “Protests” at 13 CFR 127.600 through 127.605. (c) Protests... Program, without setting forth specific facts or allegations, will not be considered by SBA (see 13...

  14. 48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Status Protest. SBA's protest regulations are found in subpart F “Protests” at 13 CFR 127.600 through 127... unless overturned on appeal by SBA's Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) pursuant to 13 CFR part 134. (1... the apparent successful offeror's status as an EDWOSB concern or WOSB concern eligible under the...

  15. Divorced women at retirement: projections of economic well-being in the near future.

    PubMed

    Butrica, B A; Iams, H M

    2000-01-01

    The Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) data system projects retirement income for persons retiring in the 1990s through 2020. Using those data, we examine the economic well-being of divorced women at retirement. The MINT data system improves upon previous estimates of Social Security benefits by: Measuring and projecting years of marriage to determine if the 10-year requirement has been met, Projecting lifetime earnings until retirement and eligibility for Social Security retirement benefits, and Estimating lifetime earnings of former spouses. MINT also makes independent projections of each retiree's income from pensions, assets, and earnings (for working beneficiaries). As a result of changes in marital patterns, MINT projects that the proportion of women who are divorced will increase. At the same time, the proportion of those women who are eligible for auxiliary benefits is projected to decrease, for two main reasons. First, changes in women's earnings and work patterns result in more women receiving retired-worker benefits based on their own earnings. Second, an increased number of divorced women will not meet the 10-year marriage requirement for auxiliary benefits. Despite the projected decrease over time in eligibility rates for auxiliary benefits, the level of Social Security benefits is projected to change little between the older and younger birth cohorts of divorced women entering retirement. According to the MINT data, the most vulnerable of divorced women will be those who have not met the 10-year marriage requirement. Poverty rates will be higher for them than for all other divorced women. This group of divorced women is projected to grow as more and more women divorce from shorter marriages. With more women divorcing and with fewer divorced women meeting the 10-year marriage requirement, the proportion of economically vulnerable aged women will increase when the baby boom retires. Further research is warranted on this long neglected subject. Analyses of divorced women's economic well-being by major socioeconomic characteristics such as race and ethnicity and education are of particular interest. Such analyses can be supported by the MINT data system. PMID:11439704

  16. Contextualizing Women Domestic Violence Survivors' Economic and Emotional Dependencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronister, Krista M.

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the article by Robert Bornstein, "The Complex Relationship Between Dependency and Domestic Violence,". Bornstein's attention to both types of dependency and women's experiences of domestic violence. I believe that his discussion of these complex relationships and social policy recommendations may be enhanced with a more integrated and…

  17. The importance of eating rice: changing food habits among pregnant Indonesian women during the economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Hartini, T Ninuk S; Padmawati, R Siwi; Lindholm, Lars; Surjono, Achmad; Winkvist, Anna

    2005-07-01

    This article presents qualitative and quantitative research findings on food habits of pregnant Indonesian women in relation to the economic crisis that arose in 1997. Between 1996 and 1998, dietary intakes were estimated for 450 pregnant women in Central Java. Between January and June 1999, four focus group discussions, 16 in-depth interviews and four non-participant observations were held with women, two in-depth interviews were held with traditional birth attendants, and four with midwives. Women were categorized as urban or rural, rich or poor, and according to rice field ownership. The women reported that before the crisis they bought more foods and cooked more meals and snacks. During the crisis, cooking methods became simpler and cooking tasty foods was more important than cooking nutritious foods. This involved using plenty of spices and cooking oil, but reducing the use of expensive nutritious foods. The herbal drink jamu was drunk by 15% of pregnant women; its consumption was lower during than before the economic crisis. Twenty-six percent of the women avoided certain foods due to food taboos, and most of these women avoided beneficial foods; this phenomenon decreased during the crisis among the rich and the rural, poor, landless women. In spite of increased prices for rice, women did not decrease their rice consumption during the crisis because rice was believed to have the highest value for survival, to provide strength during pregnancy and delivery, and to be easier to store and cook. Finally, children and husbands had highest priority in being served food, and women were the last to eat. PMID:15847972

  18. Women's roundtable discussion on the economic, social and political impacts of the Southeast Asian financial crisis.

    PubMed

    Kelkar, G

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes the main issues revealed at a women's roundtable discussion on the Economic, Social, and Political Impacts of the Southeast Asian Financial Crisis. The discussion was organized by the Development Alternatives of Women for the New Era (DAWN) and was held during April 12-14, 1998, in Manila, the Philippines. The aim was to explore the effects of the financial crisis and its management by states and multilateral agencies on women's political, economic, cultural, and social status; and to reach regional understanding of new issues for the women's movement in Asia and to identify areas of advocacy. Participants included women scholars and activists from Southeast, East, and South Asia; Africa; the Caribbean; Latin America; and the Pacific. Participants came from a wide variety of backgrounds. Nine issues were emphasized. For example, some predicted the currency devaluation before July 1997. The financial crisis is linked with globalization. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the primary institution for addressing the financial crisis. IMF conditions on inflation rates and budget surpluses are recessionary and government budget oriented. The crisis has exposed cronyism and corruption within capitalism. Patriarchal values have reemerged as Asian values. Women have lost jobs and income, while the cost of living continues to increase. Prostitution has become more acceptable as legitimate work. Women's human rights are not legally protected. State ideology assumes domestic and sex roles. Issues in each region are identified. 14 key issues pertain to all regions. PMID:12179933

  19. Knowledge of Cervical Cancer Screening among Women across Different Socio-Economic Regions of China

    PubMed Central

    Di, Jiangli; Rutherford, Shannon; Wu, Jiuling; Song, Bo; Ma, Lan; Chen, Jingyi; Chu, Cordia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective China has a high burden of cervical cancer (CC) and wide disparities in CC burden exist among different socio-economic regions. In order to reduce these disparities, China’s government launched the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NCCSPRA) in 2009. Understanding the factors associated with underutilization of CC screening among target populations is important to improve the screening participation rate, and a high participation rate is key to achieving the goals of a screening program. However, data on the knowledge of CC among target populations in program areas is lacking in China. This study will investigate the knowledge of CC prevention and control among women in specific project counties to develop a better understanding of factors that might influence CC screening participation in order to improve the implementation of the NCCSPRA. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted and face-to-face interview questionnaires were completed by 308 women who received CC screening services in 6 project counties of NCCSPRA across different socio-economic regions of China. ANOVA and Chi-square tests were used to compare the knowledge rates and scores across the different subgroups. Logistic regression was conducted to examine factors associated with knowledge level. Results The overall CC knowledge rate of the target population was only 19.5%. Regional socio-economic level, advice from doctors, age, and educational status were strong predictors of knowledge level of CC screening. Significantly lower knowledge rates and scores were identified in older women (55–64 years old), less educated women (with primary school or illiterate), women in less developed regions and women who did not receive any advice about screening results from doctors. Conclusion The knowledge of CC screening among women in the project counties of NCCSPRA was found to be very poor. Given the importance of knowledge in encouraging women to participate in screening is key to reducing CC burden in rural women in China, it is urgent that a targeted health promotion intervention is developed and implemented in project counties, especially targeting older women, women with less education and women in less developed regions, and focus on improving their CC knowledge and encouraging them to communicate with health care providers. The health promotion intervention targeting health care providers is also important to improve their knowledge of CC and provide best advice to women. PMID:26657110

  20. Challenging assumptions about women's empowerment: social and economic resources and domestic violence among young married women in urban South India

    PubMed Central

    Rocca, Corinne H; Rathod, Sujit; Falle, Tina; Pande, Rohini P; Krishnan, Suneeta

    2009-01-01

    Background Although considerable research has documented the widespread prevalence of spousal violence in India, little is known about specific risk or protective factors. This study examines the relationships between factors that are often considered to be social and economic resources for women and recent occurrence of domestic violence. Methods Data were collected from 744 young married women in slum areas of Bangalore, India. Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine factors associated with having been hit, kicked or beaten by one's husband in the past 6 months. Results Over half (56%) of the study participants reported having ever experienced physical domestic violence; about a quarter (27%) reported violence in the past 6 months. In a full multivariable model, women in ‘love’ marriages (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.5) and those whose families were asked for additional dowry after marriage (OR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.5–3.4) were more likely to report domestic violence. Women who participated in social groups (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.0–2.4) and vocational training (OR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.7–5.8) were also at higher risk. Conclusions Efforts to help women empower themselves through vocational training, employment opportunities and social groups need to consider the potential unintended consequences for these women, such as an increased risk of domestic violence. The study findings suggest that the effectiveness of anti-dowry laws may be limited without additional strategies that mobilize women, families and communities to challenge the widespread acceptance of dowry and to promote gender equity. Longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the complex causal relationships between ‘love’ marriages and domestic violence. PMID:18952621

  1. Economic Status of Women in the Labor Market and Prospects for Pay Equity Over the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figart, Deborah M.

    Social and economic forces in the post-war era have lead to an increased commitment by women of all ages to the labor force. In contrast, the labor force participation rate for men has declined. With women's continued predominance in the service sector and jobs lost in the traditionally male manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy, men and women

  2. The Economic Contributions of Women in a Rural Western Navajo Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Scott C.; McDonald, Mark B.

    1982-01-01

    Examines and enumerates economic changes that have occurred in the traditional rural Navajo community of Shonto. While women's net income contributions to Shonto's economy has declined, their position has seen only a slight erosion; their activities (sheep and goat husbandry, agriculture, arts and crafts) are still considered necessary and…

  3. The Current Attack on Women's Rights: A Political-Economic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, June

    The right-wing attack on women's rights in the United States manifests itself in the regulation of reproductive rights, the family, and the workplace and corresponds to the changing needs of capital in an era of social and economic crises. Against this background, anti-abortion legislation, the Family Protection Act, and discrimination in the…

  4. 48 CFR 970.1907 - Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business Concerns. 970...CONTRACTS Small, Small Disadvantaged and Women-Owned Small Business Concerns 970...Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business...

  5. Economic comparison of diagnostic approaches for evaluating osteoporosis in older women.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Dale F; Nelson, Heidi D; Bauer, Douglas C; Helfand, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Of the technologies available, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the hip or femoral neck (DXA-FN) is the best predictor of hip fractures. Diagnostic approaches utilizing measures of peripheral sites with office-based technology, such as calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS), may reduce costs although clinical and economic outcomes have not been evaluated. The objective was to compare three approaches for diagnosing osteoporosis in older women. The design was a decision-analytic model using diagnostic measures and clinical and economic outcomes from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures, a prospective cohort of older white women that measured BMD and QUS and assessed fracture outcomes. The setting and patients were a hypothetical cohort of older white women presenting for diagnosis of osteoporosis. For the diagnostic and treatment alternatives, three diagnostic approaches-DXA-FN alone, QUS alone and a sequential approach (first QUS, then DXA-FN for those with low values for QUS)-were compared to no diagnosis. The outcome measures were the number of women identified for treatment, number of hip fractures prevented following diagnosis and subsequent treatment, number of women needed to treat to prevent one hip fracture and total direct medical costs. The sequential approach identified fewer women to treat, prevented more hip fractures and incurred lower total costs than using DXA alone. Diagnosis with QUS alone identified more women to treat and incurred higher total costs than DXA alone under most conditions. Compared to other approaches for diagnosing osteoporosis, sequential use of QUS followed by DXA resulted in fewer women treated and lower total costs. PMID:15889313

  6. Disadvantaged populations in maternal health in China who and why?

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Beibei; Qian, Xu; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background China has made impressive progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for maternal and reproductive health, but ensuring that progress reaches all segments of the population remains a challenge for policy makers. The aim of this review is to map disadvantaged populations in terms of maternal health in China, and to explain the causes of these inequities to promote policy action. Methods We searched PUBMED, Popline, Proquest and WanFang and included primary studies conducted in mainland China. Experts were also contacted to identify additional studies. Disadvantaged populations in terms of MDG 5 and the reasons for this disadvantage explored by authors were identified and coded based on the conceptual framework developed by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Results In China, differences in maternal health service utilization and the maternal mortality ratio among different income groups, and among regions with different socio-economic development still exist, although these differences are narrowing. Groups with low levels of education and ethnic minorities utilize maternal health care less frequently and experience higher maternal mortality, although we could not determine whether these differences have changed in the last decade. Rural-to-urban migrants use maternal health care and contraception to a lower extent than permanent residents of cities, and differential maternal mortality shows a widening trend among these groups. Gender inequity also contributes to the disadvantaged position of women. Intermediary factors that explain these inequities include material circumstances such as long distances to health facilities for women living in remote areas, behavioral factors such as traditional beliefs that result in reduced care seeking among ethnic minorities, and health system determinants such as out-of-pocket payments posing financial barriers for the poor. Conclusions Inequity in maternal health continues to be an issue worthy of greater programmatic and monitoring efforts in China. PMID:23561030

  7. Increased stress among women following an economic collapse--a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hauksdóttir, Arna; McClure, Christopher; Jonsson, Stefan Hrafn; Olafsson, Orn; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur A

    2013-05-01

    There is a scarcity of data on mental health effects of the global economic recession. In this study, we investigated potential change in self-reported levels of psychological stress in the Icelandic population as a result of the major national economic collapse that occurred in 2008. We used a national cohort of 3,755 persons who responded to a survey administered in 2007 and 2009, including demographic questions and a stress measure (the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale). We used repeated-measures analysis of variance and logistic regression models to assess change in mean stress levels and risk of high stress levels (>90th percentile) in 2009 as compared with 2007. Age-adjusted mean stress levels increased between 2007 and 2009 (P = 0.004), though the increase was observed only for women (P = 0.003), not for men (P = 0.34). Similarly, the odds ratios for experiencing high stress levels were increased only among women (odds ratio (OR) = 1.37), especially among women who were unemployed (OR = 3.38), students (OR = 2.01), had middle levels of education (OR = 1.65), or were in the middle income bracket (OR = 1.59). The findings indicate that psychological stress may have increased following the economic collapse in Iceland, particularly among females in economically vulnerable groups. PMID:23408547

  8. Exploring the association between women's access to economic resources and intimate partner violence in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Seema; Jansen, Henrica Afm; Heise, Lori; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between women's access to economic resources, e.g. employment or access to micro-credit, and experience of intimate partner violence is complex. Empirical evidence documents that in some settings women's employment is associated with higher risk of partner violence but in other settings with lower risk. Evidence also shows that these conflicting associations exist not only between countries but also within different country settings. Using two population-based data sets gathered in 2002 in contrasting Tanzania settings-Dar es Salaam and Mbeya-, we used multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationship between women's access to economic resources and partner violence. Two indicators of economic resources were examined: whether women earned money and whether women owned a business either with someone or exclusively. In Dar es Salaam we found evidence of a higher risk association among women who earned money and who owned a business exclusively by themselves and a lower risk association among women who owned a business with someone. We found no relationship between either indicator of economic resources and partner violence in Mbeya. Other factors were similarly associated with partner violence in both settings and the strongest associations found were related to the respondents' partners: refusal to give money; alcohol use and relationships with other women. The findings support the assertion that women's access to economic resources operate differently in different country settings, thus highlighting the need for targeted prevention efforts that are relevant for the context. PMID:26494417

  9. The role of sexual violence in creating and maintaining economic insecurity among asset-poor women of color.

    PubMed

    Loya, Rebecca M

    2014-11-01

    This article argues that economic instability and sexual violence reinforce each other in two ways. First, the devastating psychological consequences of sexual assault can diminish work performance and disrupt income, creating economic instability, particularly for the asset-poor. Latina and African American women face particular risk due to barriers to appropriate post-assault resources and low rates of asset ownership. Second, income- and asset poverty increase women's risk for sexual violence and complicate recovery. Women with financial and social resources can leverage these assets to both avoid and recover from sexual assault, whereas women without such resources lack these options. Policy solutions are proposed. PMID:25288596

  10. The Special Needs of Women Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiberg, Mary M.; Mayor, Marie

    1985-01-01

    Disadvantaged women (pregnant teenagers, teenaged parents, single parents, displaced homemakers) need support services (child care, transportation, counseling in self-esteem, career guidance) as well as employment training to gain marketable skills that lead to a good job and economic independence. (CT)

  11. The impact of socio-economic disadvantage on rates of hospital separations for diabetes-related foot disease in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Information describing variation in health outcomes for individuals with diabetes related foot disease, across socioeconomic strata is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate variation in rates of hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease and the relationship with levels of social advantage and disadvantage. Methods Using the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD) each local government area (LGA) across Victoria was ranked from most to least disadvantaged. Those LGAs ranked at the lowest end of the scale and therefore at greater disadvantage (Group D) were compared with those at the highest end of the scale (Group A), in terms of total and per capita hospital separations for peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, foot ulceration, cellulitis and osteomyelitis and amputation. Hospital separations data were compiled from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Database. Results Total and per capita separations were 2,268 (75.3/1,000 with diabetes) and 2,734 (62.3/1,000 with diabetes) for Group D and Group A respectively. Most notable variation was for foot ulceration (Group D, 18.1/1,000 versus Group A, 12.7/1,000, rate ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.3, 1.6) and below knee amputation (Group D 7.4/1,000 versus Group A 4.1/1,000, rate ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.5, 2.2). Males recorded a greater overall number of hospital separations across both socioeconomic strata with 66.2% of all separations for Group D and 81.0% of all separations for Group A recorded by males. However, when comparing mean age, males from Group D tended to be younger compared with males from Group A (mean age; 53.0 years versus 68.7 years). Conclusion Variation appears to exist for hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease across socioeconomic strata. Specific strategies should be incorporated into health policy and planning to combat disparities between health outcomes and social status. PMID:21682928

  12. Women Are "The Key to Progress." The Situation of Women in Developing Countries and German Efforts To Improve Their Situation. IN Visitors' Information Special Report, SO 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krugmann-Randolf, Inga

    Women in developing countries carry out three-quarters of all work in rural areas, are often exposed to great health risks through frequent childbirth, and are disadvantaged compared with men in education and training. Modernization has burdened women with new responsibilities and more work but has improved health care. The economic and social…

  13. Overweight and obesity among women by economic stratum in urban India.

    PubMed

    Gouda, Jitendra; Prusty, Ranjan Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Using data of the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 2005-2006, this study examined the prevalence of overweight and obesity among women from different economic strata in urban India. The study used a separate wealth index for urban India constructed using principal components analysis (PCA). The result shows that prevalence of overweight and obesity is very high in urban areas, more noticeably among the non-poor households. Furthermore, overweight and obesity increase with age, education, and parity of women. The results of multinomial logistic regression show that non-poor women are about 2 and 3 times more at risk of being overweight and obese respectively. Marital status and media exposure are the other covariates associated positively with overweight and obesity. Thus, the growing demand which now appears before the Government or urban health planners is to address this rising urban epidemic with equal importance as given to other issues in the past. PMID:24847596

  14. The Effects of a School-Family-Community Partnership on the Academic Achievement, High School Graduation, and College Enrollment Rate of Economically Disadvantaged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Yvette

    2012-01-01

    A school-family-community partnership to improve student achievement was examined at a comprehensive high school located in a low income urban community in Long Island City, New York. In this causal comparative analyses study, the researcher examines the effect of a school-family-community partnership on the educational outcomes of economically

  15. Dialogue on the Disadvantaged. Response to Stakeholders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reingold, Janet

    In April 1994, the U.S. Department of Labor initiated a systemwide dialogue to identify ways of improving job training and employment preparation for economically disadvantaged individuals. The dialogue process was intended to help achieve broad consensus among system partners and serve as a model of ongoing communication to ensure continuous…

  16. Making a livelihood at the fish-landing site: exploring the pursuit of economic independence amongst Ugandan women

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Georgina; Barratt, Caroline; Seeley, Janet; Ssetaala, Ali; Nabbagala, Georgina; Asiki, Gershim

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative life history data were used to explore the experiences of women who live at five fish-landing sites on Lake Victoria, Uganda. We explored what economic and social opportunities women have in order to try to understand why some women are more vulnerable to violence and other risks than others and why some women are able to create successful enterprises while others struggle to make a living. The ability of women to create a viable livelihood at the landing sites was influenced by a wide variety of factors. Women who had or were able to access capital when they arrived at the landing site to set up their own enterprise had a significant advantage over those who did not, particularly in avoiding establishing sexual relationships in order to get support. Being able to establish their own business enabled women to avoid lower paid and more risky work such as fish processing and selling or working in bars. The development of landing sites and the leisure industry may be having an impact on how women earn money at the landing sites, with the most desirable economic opportunities not necessarily being connected directly to fishing. PMID:25400694

  17. 48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... businesses. 706.302-71 Section 706.302-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Small disadvantaged businesses. (a) Authority. (1) Citations: Sec. 579, Pub. L. 101-167 (Fiscal Year (FY... business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals...

  18. A Systematic Review of the Physical, Mental, Social, and Economic Problems of Immigrant Women in the Perinatal Period in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kita, Sachiko; Minatani, Mariko; Hikita, Naoko; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi

    2015-12-01

    The perinatal mortality of immigrants in Japan is higher than that of Japanese women. However, details of the problems of immigrant perinatal women that contribute to worsening of their health are still unknown. This review describes the physical, psychological, social, and economic problems of immigrant women during the perinatal period in Japan. Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Igaku-Chuo Zasshi were searched and 36 relevant articles were reviewed. The related descriptions were collected and analyzed by using content analysis. The results showed that immigrant perinatal women in Japan experienced the following problems: language barriers, a problematic relationship with a partner, illegal residency, emotional distress, physical distress, adjustment difficulties, lack of utilization of services, social isolation, lack of support, lack of information, low economic status, unsatisfactory health care, and discrimination. These results indicated that multilingual services, strengthening of social and support networks, and political action are necessary to resolve their problems. PMID:25784144

  19. ENGLISH AND THE DISADVANTAGED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FAGAN, EDWARD R., ED.

    PART 1 OF THIS COLLECTION OF ARTICLES BY THE STAFF AND PARTICIPANTS OF AN NDEA SUMMER INSTITUTE IN ENGLISH FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH DESCRIBES ATTITUDES AND VIEWPOINTS ON THE PLACE OF ENGLISH IN THE DAILY LIVES OF STUDENTS AND CONTAINS ARTICLES ON "ENGLISH FOR WHAT" BY CHARLES WEINGARTNER, "ENGLISH TEACHING AND DROP-OUTS" AND "ENGLISH AND THE…

  20. Reconnecting Disadvantaged Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Harry; Edelman, Peter; Offner, Paul

    2006-01-01

    By several recent counts, the United States is home to 2 to 3 million youth age 16 through 24 who are out of school and out of work. Much has been written on disadvantaged youth, and government policy has gone through many incarnations, yet questions remain unanswered. Why are so many young people "disconnected," and what can public policy do…

  1. Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of a community-based comparative effectiveness trial to prevent type 2 diabetes in economically disadvantaged adults: the RAPID Study.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Ronald T; Finch, Emily A; Schmidt, Karen K; Hoen, Helena M; Hays, Laura M; Marrero, David G; Saha, Chandan

    2014-01-01

    Reaching Out and Preventing Increases in Diabetes (RAPID) is a community-based randomized trial evaluating the comparative costs and effectiveness of a group-based adaption of the DPP lifestyle intervention developed and implemented in partnership with the YMCA. RAPID enrolled adult primary care patients, with BMI 24 kg/m(2) or higher and abnormal glucose metabolism (HbA1c 5.7-6.9% or fasting plasma glucose 100-125 mg/dL). 509 participants were enrolled and randomized to one of two groups: standard clinical advice plus free-of-charge access to a group-based adaption of the DPP offered by the Y, versus standard clinical advice alone. Key outcomes for future analysis will include differences in body weight and other cardiovascular risk factors over a 24-month intervention period. At baseline, RAPID participants had a mean (SD) age of 51 ± 12.1 years, weight of 225.1 ± 56.2 lbs, and BMI of 36.9 ± 8.6 kg/m(2). 70.7% were women, 57.2% were African American, 35.4% were non-Hispanic White, and 3.2% were Hispanic. Mean HbA1c was 6.05 ± 0.34%. Additionally, 55.4% of participants had a baseline systolic blood pressure of ?130 mmHg, 33.1% had a total blood cholesterol exceeding 200mg/dL, and 74% reported a household income of <$25,000. The RAPID Study successfully randomized a large cohort of participants with a wide distribution of age, body weight, and race who are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes. PMID:24177413

  2. Gender norms, poverty and armed conflict in Côte D’Ivoire: engaging men in women’s social and economic empowerment programming

    PubMed Central

    Falb, K. L.; Annan, J.; King, E.; Hopkins, J.; Kpebo, D.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    Engaging men is a critical component in efforts to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV). Little is known regarding men’s perspectives of approaches that challenge inequitable gender norms, particularly in settings impacted by armed conflict. This article describes men’s experiences with a women’s empowerment program and highlights men’s perceptions of gender norms, poverty and armed conflict, as they relate to achieving programmatic goals. Data are from 32 Ivorian men who participated in indepth interviews in 2012. Interviews were undertaken as part of an intervention that combined gender dialogue groups for both women and their male partners with women’s only village savings and loans programs to reduce IPV against women. Findings suggested that in the context of armed conflict, traditional gender norms and economic stressors experienced by men challenged fulfillment of gender roles and threatened men’s sense of masculinity. Men who participated in gender dialogue groups discussed their acceptance of programming and identified improvements in their relationships with their female partners. These men further discussed increased financial planning along with their partners, and attributed such increases to the intervention. Addressing men’s perceptions of masculinity, poverty and armed conflict may be key components to reduce men’s violence against women in conflict-affected settings. PMID:25274720

  3. Energy intake during economic crisis depends on initial wealth and access to rice fields: the case of pregnant Indonesian women.

    PubMed

    Hartini, T N S; Winkvist, A; Lindholm, L; Stenlund, H; Surjono, A; Hakimi, M

    2002-07-01

    Starting in August 1997, Indonesia experienced a radical and rapid deterioration in its economy. Between 1996 and 1998, dietary intake during the second trimester was measured in 450 pregnant women in Purworejo, Central Java, Indonesia. Using six 24 h recalls we describe the consequences of the economic crisis on the energy intake of pregnant Indonesian women. Depending on the date of data collection, women were grouped into 'before crisis', 'transition' and 'during crisis'. Mean energy intake among groups was compared using ANOVA and Student's t-test. All groups of pregnant women already had a mean energy intake before the emerging crisis that was lower than the Indonesian recommended dietary allowances (RDA). Nevertheless, energy intake differed significantly among women with different education levels (P = 0.00) and from different socio-economic groups (P = 0.00). 'During transition', a significant decrease in energy intake was experienced by urban poor women (P = 0.01). Poor women with access to rice fields had a higher rice consumption than other groups throughout the period. Our results most likely reflect the effect of higher rice price on income and welfare. 'During crisis', energy intake improved among vulnerable groups, perhaps reflecting government intervention. PMID:12173497

  4. Orlistat with behavioral weight loss for obesity with versus without binge eating disorder: Randomized placebo-controlled trial at a community mental health center serving educationally and economically disadvantaged Latino/as

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was a randomized placebo-controlled trial testing the addition of orlistat to behavioral weight loss for obesity in Spanish-speaking-only Latino/as with versus without binge eating disorder (BED) performed at a community mental health center serving educationally- and economically-disadvantaged patients. Latino/as have high rates of obesity but are under-represented in obesity treatment studies and despite comparable-to-or-higher rates of BED than Whites, Latino/as are under-represented in BED treatment studies. BED is associated with obesity but whether it predicts/moderates treatment outcomes remains uncertain. Thus, this study also tested whether BED prospectively predicts/moderates outcomes. Methods Seventy-nine obese Spanish-speaking-only Latino/as with BED (N = 40) versus without BED (N = 39) at a community mental health center were randomly assigned to four-months of orlistat-plus-BWL or placebo-plus-BWL. BWL was culturally-enhanced modification of Diabetes-Prevention-Program delivered in weekly sessions in Spanish. Orlistat (120 mg tid) and matching-placebo delivered with standard clinical-management. Participants were assessed independently throughout treatment, post-treatment, and six-month follow-up. Results 78% completed treatments; completion rates did not differ significantly by medication or BED. Intent-to-treat mixed-models analyses revealed significant improvements in binge eating, eating-psychopathology, and depression, and significant – albeit modest – weight-loss. Overall, the addition of orlistat to BWL was not associated with greater improvements; however, BED moderated weight-loss: orlistat-plus-BWL produced significantly greater weight-loss in non-BED group but not in BED. Improvements were maintained through 6-month follow-up; BED significantly predicted/moderated increases in eating concerns and depression following treatment. Within BED-group, binge-eating remission rates were 65% (post-treatment) and 50% (follow-up). Conclusions In this controlled trial performed at community mental health center serving educationally- and economically-disadvantaged Spanish-speaking-only Latino/as with co-morbid psychiatric needs, we observed outcomes for the BWL plus orlistat/placebo medication that approximate or are slightly dampened relative to the literature for efficacy trials with much more restrictive obese and BED samples. In this complex patient group, adding orlistat to BWL produced greater weight-loss than adding placebo among obese patients without BED but not among those with BED. Although 50% of BED patients maintained abstinence from binge-eating following these specific obesity treatments (BWL plus orlistat/placebo), BED was a negative prognostic indicator for some outcome variables. PMID:23376451

  5. Women in Transition, 1983. Hearing before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on Examination of Problems Faced by Women in Transition from Work without Pay to Economic Self-Sufficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This is a Congressional hearing on an examination of problems faced by women in transition from work without pay to economic self-sufficiency. Testimony includes statements from individuals representing the Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor; the Career Training Program, Women's Center, Enterprise State Junior College, Alabama; the National…

  6. HIV/AIDS treatment adherence in economically better off women in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Springer, Andrew E; Lopera, Monica; Correa, Diego; Useche, Bernardo; Ross, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    Studies on HIV/AIDS treatment adherence have been carried out in a limited number of geographic settings, but few studies have explored it in people of higher socioeconomic status in Latin America. This qualitative study explored and compared determinants of adherence behaviors among 52 HIV-positive Colombian women in medium and high socioeconomic positions (SPs). Findings indicated that the two SP groups reported high adherence behaviors related to taking medication, following a diet, and executing lifestyle changes in line with healthcare providers' recommendations. Nevertheless, differences were observed between the two groups. While women with a medium SP disclosed their diagnosis, were empowered, and had acceptable access to economic resources that resulted in favorable adherence, their better off counterparts tended to hide their status and made a conscious effort to keep their adherence behaviors in secret due to HIV-related stigma. More studies on adherence of people living with HIV/AIDS from high SPs should be conducted to better understand how psychosocial support can be provided and to advance the knowledge of how and why adherence practices in these groups are undertaken. PMID:22273077

  7. Theme: Teaching Academically Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Maynard J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Will We Serve the Academically Disadvantaged?" (Iverson); "Using Centers of Learning to Reach Academically Disadvantaged Students" (Gentry); "Georgia's Special Lamb Project Adoption Program" (Farmer); "Teacher Expectations" (Powers); "Providing Instruction for Special Populations" (Jewell); and "The Educational Reform Movement and…

  8. The Impact of Social Institutions on the Economic Role of Women in Developing Countries. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 234

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrisson, Christian; Jutting, Johannes

    2004-01-01

    Donor agencies and policy makers tend to agree that increased access of women to education, health, credit, formal legal rights and employment opportunities, in conjunction with economic growth, will substantially improve the socio-economic role of women in developing countries. This paper challenges that view. It argues that these measures might…

  9. Marital Quality for Men and Women in Stepfamilies: Examining the Role of Economic Pressure, Common Stressors, and Stepfamily-Specific Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, David G.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Although economic pressure and family stress models have been examined with samples of men and women in first marriages, previous models have neglected to focus on men and women in stepfamilies and to examine stress sources unique to stepfamilies. This study examines the effect of economic pressure on both common stressors and stepfamily-specific…

  10. Women Empowerment and Participation in Economic Activities: Indispensable Tools for Self-Reliance and Development of Nigerian Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    E. N., Ekesionye; A. N., Okolo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine women empowerment and participation in economic activities as tools for self-reliance and development of the Nigerian society. Research questions and hypothesis were used to guide the study. Structured questionnaire was used as the major instrument for data collection. Copies of questionnaires were…

  11. Sweeping out Home Economics: Curriculum Reform at Connecticut College for Women, 1952-1962

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marthers, Paul Philip

    2011-01-01

    At the moment of its founding in 1911, Connecticut College for Women exhibited a curricular tension between an emphasis on the liberal arts, which mirrored the elite men's and women's colleges of the day, and vocational aspects, which made it a different type of women's college, one designed to prepare women for the kind of lives they would lead…

  12. Perceived quality and availability of fruit and vegetables are associated with perceptions of fruit and vegetable affordability among socio-economically disadvantaged women. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  13. The Effect of Earnings Discrimination Against Women on the Economic Position of Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Albert

    1977-01-01

    The results of an examination of the 1970 census show that discrimination against women does not affect the median annual income of males, but that the greater the discrimination against women, the more equal the male earnings distribution. (Author)

  14. The Impact of Nontraditional Training on the Occupational Attainment of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streker-Seeborg, Irmtraud; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Using a logit model of occupational attainment, researchers found that economically disadvantaged women who received nontraditional training were much less likely to be employed in male-dominated occupations and received lower hourly wages. Direct labor market discrimination seems to be responsible for the inhibited occupational attainment of…

  15. Out-of-School Education for Women in African Countries: UN Economic Commission for Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Convergence, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Chief concern of the Women's Programme of Africa has been the participation of women as human resources in the process of development. Limited educational/training opportunities have existed for women; necessary strategies identified were vocational education training programs evaluation, literacy programs review, study of girl school-leavers, and…

  16. Marriage or dissolution? Union transitions among poor cohabiting women.

    PubMed

    Lichter, Daniel T; Qian, Zhenchao; Mellott, Leanna M

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the incentives and barriers to marriage among cohabiting women, especially disadvantaged mothers who are targets of welfare reform. We use the newly released cohabitation data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-2000), which tracks the partners of cohabiting women across survey waves. Our results support several conclusions. First, cohabiting unions are short-lived--about one-half end within one year, and over 90% end by the fifth year. Unlike most previous research, our results show that most cohabiting unions end by dissolution of the relationship rather than by marriage. Second, transitions to marriage are especially unlikely among poor women; less than one-third marry within five years. Cohabitation among poor women is more likely than that among nonpoor women to be a long-term alternative or substitute for traditional marriage. Third, our multinomial analysis of transitions from cohabitation into marriage or dissolution highlights the salience of economically disadvantaged family backgrounds, cohabitation and fertility histories, women's economic resources, and partner characteristics. These results are interpreted in a policy environment that increasingly views marriage as an economic panacea for low-income women and their children. PMID:16889126

  17. Chronic kidney disease in disadvantaged populations.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Garcia, G; Jha, V

    2015-05-01

    The increased burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health care disparities and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biological predisposition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expanding the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expansion of deceased donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of World Kidney Day 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to end-stage renal disease, by increasing community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities. PMID:25760025

  18. Chronic kidney disease in disadvantaged populations

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Garcia, G.; Jha, V.

    2015-01-01

    The increased burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health care disparities and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biological predisposition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expanding the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expansion of deceased donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of World Kidney Day 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to end-stage renal disease, by increasing community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities. PMID:25760025

  19. 48 CFR 970.1907 - Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business Concerns. 970.1907 Section 970.1907... MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Small, Small Disadvantaged and Women-Owned Small Business Concerns 970.1907 Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned......

  20. Opening Opportunities for Disadvantaged Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passow, A. Harry, Ed.

    Contents of this book include: "Urban environment in the 1970's," A. Harry Passow; "Educational strategies and the disadvantaged," S.M. Miller and Pamela Roby; "A critique of the concept of 'compensatory education,'" Basil Bernstein; "Early childhood education for the disadvantaged," Helen Robison; "Up from poverty: the price of 'making it' in a…

  1. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ANNOTATIONS ON BOOKS ABOUT DISADVANTAGED YOUTH ARE GIVEN. INCLUDED ARE SUCH SUBJECTS AS PUERTO RICAN LINGUAL AND NONLINGUAL MEASURES, APPROACHES TO COMBAT JUVENILE DELINQUENCY, THE URBAN PROBLEMS OF NEGROES SETTLING OUTSIDE THE SOUTH, THE SCHOOLS' OBLIGATIONS AND SERVICES TO MEET THE PROBLEMS OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN, CULTURALLY DEPRIVED NEGROES,…

  2. Effects of Employment-Based Programs on Families by Prior Levels of Disadvantage

    PubMed Central

    Alderson, Desiree Principe; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Imes, Amy; Huston, Aletha C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how welfare and employment policies affect subpopulations of low-income families that have different levels of initial disadvantage. Education, prior earnings, and welfare receipt are used to measure disadvantage. The analysis of data from experiments suggests that employment-based programs have no effects on economic well-being among the least-disadvantaged low-income, single-parent families, but they have positive effects on employment and income for the most-disadvantaged and moderately disadvantaged families. These programs increase school achievement and enrollment in center-based child care of children only in moderately disadvantaged families. The most-disadvantaged families are found to increase use of child care that is not center based. Parents in these families experience depressive symptoms and aggravation. The findings raise questions about how to support families at the lowest end of the economic spectrum. PMID:22081729

  3. Economic Liberalization and Women's Education: Prospects for Post-Apartheid South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines women's education and related issues in South Africa in light of restrictions on educational spending imposed by Structural Adjustment Programs stipulated by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. Argues that the contraction of educational resources will have a strong negative effect on women's education, particularly for black…

  4. Tobacco Industry Marketing to Low Socio-economic Status Women in the US

    PubMed Central

    Brown-Johnson, Cati G.; England, Lucinda J.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Describe tobacco companies’ marketing strategies targeting low socioeconomic-status (SES) females in the US. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Results Tobacco companies focused marketing on low SES women starting in the late 1970s, including military wives, low-income inner-city minority women, “discount-susceptible” older female smokers, and less-educated young white women. Strategies included distributing discount coupons with food stamps to reach the very poor, discount offers at point-of-sale and via direct mail to keep cigarette prices low, developing new brands for low SES females, and promoting luxury images to low SES African American women. More recently, companies integrated promotional strategies targeting low-income women into marketing plans for established brands. Conclusions Tobacco companies used numerous marketing strategies to reach low SES females in the US for at least four decades. Strategies to counteract marketing to low SES women could include: 1) counter-acting price discounts and direct mail coupons that reduce the price of tobacco products, 2) instituting restrictions on point-of-sale advertising and retail display, and 3) creating counter-advertising that builds resistance to psychosocial targeting of low SES women. To achieve health equity, tobacco control efforts are needed to counteract the influence of tobacco industry marketing to low-income women. PMID:24449249

  5. New Economic Trends for Women's Employment: Implications for Girls' Vocational Education. Working Paper Series No. 247.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burbridge, Lynn C.

    A literature review was conducted to determine the impact of secondary vocational education on females. Literature on the following topics was reviewed: women in the labor market (wages and occupations, the role of women's wages in family income, and the future labor market); the vocational education system (issues and problems in vocational…

  6. Jobs: women's double burden.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Whereas international conventions and national laws provide equal opportunities for women in employment, the reality of women's lives keeps a disproportionate number of women unemployed, underemployed, and living in poverty. The UN itself, which officially is working toward equity among its employees, has a staff composed of just 32.6% women, and women comprise only 10.5% of the top end of the hierarchy. In areas where women's labor force participation has increased dramatically, women typically earn 30-40% less than men doing the same job or else their employment is limited to "traditional female" service positions. The fact that women and girls have received an inadequate education makes it extremely difficult to break the barriers of discrimination in developing countries. The empowerment of women will break the education barrier, and, when that falls, many other barriers will follow suit. Efforts are already underway to break structural barriers caused by economic and social policies. For example, a more flexible pattern of work has been proposed which will include the voluntary assumption of flexible hours, job-sharing, and part-time work. The concept of work is also being broadened to include the important human services that women traditionally provide on a volunteer basis. This will lead to a valuation of women's contribution to society which can be added to calculations of gross domestic product. Women also need protection as they attempt to eke out a living in the informal sector which has been the traditional avenue for women to earn money. This sector is not protected by law and is subject to extortion by officials and by male competitors. A variety of measures is under consideration to increase the protection of informal sector workers. Women also need protection in the conventional work place, especially as they enter fields traditionally reserved for men. These questions are important even in the context of global unemployment because these issues must be addressed or their resolution to women's disadvantage will gain the mantle of tradition. PMID:12157784

  7. Influences on Employment Discrimination in the Caribbean: The Case of the Marginalized Men and Wasted Women of Dominica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, Tony

    A study considered the global problem of employment discrimination as it is reenacted in the Caribbean. It takes Dominica as a micro-example of how factors of differential education and cultural expectation interact within the influences of changing global economic policies to disadvantage men and women across the spectrum of employment…

  8. Family Factors Related to Competence in Young, Disadvantaged Mexican-American Children. Part of the Final Report on Head Start Evaluation and Research: 1968-69 to the Office of Economic Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, James M.; McKenzie, Richard E.

    As part of the continuing search for the environmental antecedents of competence in young children, this study investigated several parameters of a population of disadvantaged Mexican-American children. The factors of child competence on which this study focused were behavioral adjustment and linguistic ability. The antecedents of competence were…

  9. The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response. This research examines the relationship between exposure to neighborhood stressors and salivary cortisol reactivity in a sample of 163 at-risk African American adolescents (average age 21; 50% female) living in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. More specifically, the relationship between neighborhood stressors and physiological stress, measured by baseline cortisol and cortisol reactivity is assessed. This research also examines several moderating pathways between exposure to neighborhood disadvantage and cortisol reactivity including substance use, high effort coping, psychological stress and social support. Results indicate that both individual and neighborhood-level factors influence adolescent cortisol. High effort coping and psychological stress were associated with cortisol in the sample, and exposure to neighborhood socio-economic disadvantage resulted in an atypical cortisol response. In addition, neighborhood disadvantage interacted with intra- and interpersonal factors to affect cortisol indirectly. Thus, living in disadvantaged neighborhoods may take a psychological and physiological toll on adolescents, and it also may exert synergistic effects through individual coping and vulnerabilities. PMID:23086016

  10. The physiological expression of living in disadvantaged neighborhoods for youth.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Allison B; Zimmerman, Marc A; Bauermeister, Jose A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2013-06-01

    Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response. This research examines the relationship between exposure to neighborhood stressors and salivary cortisol reactivity in a sample of 163 at-risk African American adolescents (average age 21; 50% female) living in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. More specifically, the relationship between neighborhood stressors and physiological stress, measured by baseline cortisol and cortisol reactivity is assessed. This research also examines several moderating pathways between exposure to neighborhood disadvantage and cortisol reactivity including substance use, high effort coping, psychological stress and social support. Results indicate that both individual and neighborhood-level factors influence adolescent cortisol. High effort coping and psychological stress were associated with cortisol in the sample, and exposure to neighborhood socio-economic disadvantage resulted in an atypical cortisol response. In addition, neighborhood disadvantage interacted with intra- and interpersonal factors to affect cortisol indirectly. Thus, living in disadvantaged neighborhoods may take a psychological and physiological toll on adolescents, and it also may exert synergistic effects through individual coping and vulnerabilities. PMID:23086016

  11. Disadvantaged persons' participation in health promotion projects: some structural dimensions.

    PubMed

    Boyce, W F

    2001-05-01

    A structural perspective was used in studying community participation of disadvantaged groups (poor women, street youth, and disabled persons) in health promotion projects. Five community projects in the Canadian Health Promotion Contribution Program were examined in a comparative case study utilizing in-depth interviews, documents, and secondary sources. Analysis revealed relatively low numbers and restricted range of participants, difficulties in recruiting and maintaining participants, declining rates of active participation over time, and limited target group influence and power. This paper reports on the relationship between various dimensions of structure (social-cultural, organizational, political-legal-economic) and the community participation process. Participation was influenced by structural factors such as bureaucratic rules and regulators, perceived minority group rights and relations, agency reputations and responsibilities, available resources, and organizational roles. Control of projects by target group members, rather than by service agencies, was an important overall organizational structural factor which allowed community members to achieve influence in projects. The study concludes that a conceptual model based on structural factors is useful in explaining how key factors from federal and local levels can restrict or facilitate the community participation process. PMID:11314851

  12. NASA Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) within NASA promotes the utilization of small, disadvantaged, and women-owned small businesses in compliance with Federal laws, regulations, and policies. We assist such firms in obtaining contracts and subcontracts with NASA and its prime contractors. The OSDBU also facilitates the participation of small businesses in NASA's technology transfer and commercialization activities. Our driving philosophy is to consider small businesses as our products. Our customers are the NASA Enterprises, Field Centers, Functional Staff Offices, major prime contractors, and other large institutions. We hone the skills of our products to make them marketable to our customers in the performance of NASA missions.

  13. The Effect of Economic, Physical, and Psychological Abuse on Mental Health: A Population-Based Study of Women in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Antai, Diddy; Oke, Ayo; Braithwaite, Patrick; Lopez, Gerald Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Background. The comparative effect of economic abuse and other forms of abuse in predicting depression and other mental health disorders has not been previously investigated despite its relevance for mental illness prevention. Objective. To determine the differential association of economic abuse on psychological distress and suicide attempts. Study Design. We used cross-sectional data from women aged 15–49 years in the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) (N = 9,316). Results. Adjusting for sociodemographic confounders revealed positive associations between economic, physical, or psychological abuse and suicide attempts and psychological distress. Psychological and economic abuse were the strongest predictors of suicide attempts and psychological distress, respectively. Economic abuse was also negatively associated with psychological distress. Comorbidity with one mental health disorder greatly increased the odds of reporting the other mental health disorder. Conclusion. Overall, the results elucidate the differential effects of these forms of abuse on women's mental health. PMID:25525517

  14. Trends in Educational Disadvantage in Dutch Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert; Merry, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    The central question in this study is whether the language and math delays of the different socio-economic and ethnic minority groups targeted by Dutch educational disadvantage policy have diminished or not. Data are from the years 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2008. Information from a total of 90,000 pupils in Grades 2 and 8 was selected to represent the…

  15. 77 FR 54951 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ...We propose adding a second component to this statement...whether a more bright-line approach would be preferable...economic disadvantage. Second, we have learned of...to form their initial line of questioning prior...being the first line of defense against program...

  16. The Early Childhood Education of Disadvantaged Children in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Zhanmei; Zhu, Jiaxiong; Xia, Zhuyun; Wu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010, the Chinese government has adopted a series of services and policies to provide early childhood education for disadvantaged children. The rapid economic development and urbanisation process since the mid-1980s have led to great changes in social structure and demographics in China. This creates new challenges for the education of…

  17. The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response.…

  18. Do Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Affect Children's Verbal Skills? Evaluation Science Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Forum on Early Childhood Program Evaluation, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Evaluation Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study evaluating the effects of an early childhood program or environment. This Brief evaluates the study "Durable Effects of Concentrated Disadvantage on Verbal Ability Among African-American Children" (R. Sampson; R. Sharkey; and S. Raudenbush.) Racial and economic

  19. Race, Employment Disadvantages, and Heavy Drinking: A Multilevel Model.

    PubMed

    Lo, Celia C; Cheng, Tyrone C

    2015-01-01

    We intended to determine (1) whether stress from employment disadvantages led to increased frequency of heavy drinking and (2) whether race had a role in the relationship between such disadvantages and heavy drinking. Study data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a prospective study that has followed a representative sample of youth since 1979. Our study employed data from 11 particular years, during which the survey included items measuring respondents' heavy drinking. Our final sample numbered 10,171 respondents, which generated 75,394 person-waves for data analysis. Both of our hypotheses were supported by results from multilevel mixed-effects linear regression capturing the time-varying nature of three employment disadvantages and of the heavy-drinking outcome. Results show that more-frequent heavy drinking was associated with employment disadvantages, and that disadvantages' effects on drinking were stronger for Blacks and Hispanics than for Whites. That worsening employment disadvantages have worse effects on minority groups' heavy drinking (compared to Whites) probably contributes to the racial health disparities in our nation. Policies and programs addressing such disparities are especially important during economic downturns. PMID:26121125

  20. Coresidence with Parents, Women's Economic Resources, and the Transition to Marriage in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymo, James M.; Ono, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    Integrating three theoretical explanations for declining rates of marriage in Japan, the authors develop hypotheses in which linkages between benefits of coresidence with parents and marriage timing are moderated by women's own socioeconomic characteristics. To evaluate these hypothesized interactive relationships, data from a panel survey of…

  1. The Future of Young Women's Economic Role in a Globalized Economy: New Opportunities, Persisting Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchmann, Marlis; Malti, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Young women in advanced industrial countries have been outperforming young men in educational attainment at the same time that their labor market outcomes are still lagging. Sex segregation in education and the labor market is identified as an important source of this imbalance. In this article, the authors advance some thoughts about this…

  2. Women and the Economics of Divorce in the Contemporary United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendell, Terry J.

    1987-01-01

    Households headed by women are more likely to be poor than those headed by men. The number of impoverished female-headed families is increasing due in part to the rising divorce rate. Other factors are the following: (1) lack of child care; (2) wage discrimination; (3) unfair divorce settlements; and (4) inadequate public assistance. (VM)

  3. The Economic Progress of Black Women, 1940-1980: Occupational Distribution and Relative Wages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, James S.; Zalokar, Nadja

    1992-01-01

    Census data from 1940-80 illustrate that African-American women's increased relative wages resulted from entry into occupations in which they were previously unrepresented. Their increased wages and occupational status are largely a result of decreases in racial discrimination by occupation and industry, although in the South discrimination had…

  4. The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroto, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…

  5. Socio-economic correlates of contraceptive knowledge among women in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Salleh, N M; Peng, T N; Arshat, H

    1986-12-01

    Knowledge about contraception was examined in relation to selected socioeconomic variables. A total of 2567 currently married women aged 15-49 years residing in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya were interviewed. The majority of the women knew of at least 1 contraceptive method. An index termed Contraceptive Knowledge Score (CKS) was used to measure the level of knowledge about contraception. The CKS achieved differed significantly by age, area of residence and ethnic group. The other socioeconomic variables significantly associated with CKS are schooling, occupation, income, childhood residence and age at marriage. These relationships persisted even after adjusting for differences in age, ethnicity and area of residence. Overall the CKS attained have a wide range and there is no significant difference of the mean CKS attained, between users and non-users of contraceptives. PMID:12314886

  6. Free Schools and Disadvantaged Intakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The Free Schools policy in England has led to the opening of a number of new autonomous state-funded schools. This article uses data from the Annual Schools Census to present the proportions of socioeconomically disadvantaged children attending the first three waves of these schools. It updates and builds on previous work that focused on the…

  7. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  8. Interpreting the Economic Growth and Development Policies of Post-Apartheid South Africa: Its Influence on Higher Education and Prospects for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eynon, Diane E.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is structured as a critical policy analysis employing historical methods. It examines how the post apartheid government's economic growth and development polices have informed the higher education system and how this has changed women's financial, occupational, political, social, and educational prospects in South Africa. Through…

  9. Bridging the Gender Gap: The Economic Status of Women in New York City, 1980-1990. IUME Research Report 94-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Batiz, Francisco L.

    This research report presents data that show that substantial progress was made toward economic equality on the basis of gender in New York (New York) during the 1980s. Using the 1980 and 1990 U.S. Census of Population for New York, the study demonstrates that, in the 1980s: (1) the labor force participation of women grew sharply while that of men…

  10. Gender differences in economic support and well-being of older Asians.

    PubMed

    Ofstedal, Mary Beth; Reidy, Erin; Knodel, John

    2004-09-01

    This report provides a comprehensive analysis of gender differences in economic support and well-being in eight countries in Southern and Eastern Asia (Bangladesh, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines, and Taiwan). We examine multiple economic indicators, including sources of income, receipt of financial and material support, income levels, ownership of assets, and subjective well-being. Results show substantial variation in gender differences across indicators and provide an important qualification to widely held views concerning the globally disadvantaged position of older women. Whereas men tend to report higher levels of income than women, there is generally little gender difference in housing characteristics, asset ownership, or reports of subjective economic well-being. Unmarried women are economically advantaged compared to unmarried men in some respects, in part because they are more likely to be embedded in multigenerational households and receive both direct and indirect forms of support from family members. PMID:15243197

  11. Review of Higher Education for the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnick, Murray

    In this essay on higher education for the disadvantaged, the author discusses the definition of "disadvantaged," assessment procedures of disadvantaged students, and the predictive value of aptitude tests. The author concludes that more and better controlled studies are needed, preferably longitudinal, and offering clear information on the extent…

  12. Residential Stability and the Social Impact of Neighborhood Disadvantage: A Study of Gender- and Race-Contingent Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieman, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Is neighborhood disadvantage associated with social support? If so, does residential stability modify that association? And are there gender- and race-contingent patterns? Among a sample of adults aged 65 years and older, neighborhood disadvantage is associated positively with received and donated support among black women, but only in…

  13. 78 FR 57336 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ...RIN 2105-AE08 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications...Department's Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE) Program. In a later notice...entitled, ``Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation...

  14. The disadvantage of combinatorial communication.

    PubMed Central

    Lachmann, Michael; Bergstrom, Carl T.

    2004-01-01

    Combinatorial communication allows rapid and efficient transfer of detailed information, yet combinatorial communication is used by few, if any, non-human species. To complement recent studies illustrating the advantages of combinatorial communication, we highlight a critical disadvantage. We use the concept of information value to show that deception poses a greater and qualitatively different threat to combinatorial signalling than to non-combinatorial systems. This additional potential for deception may represent a strategic barrier that has prevented widespread evolution of combinatorial communication. Our approach has the additional benefit of drawing clear distinctions among several types of deception that can occur in communication systems. PMID:15556886

  15. Community Influences on Married Women's Safer Sex Negotiation Attitudes in Bangladesh: A Multilevel Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Cready, Cynthia M

    2016-02-01

    The influence of disadvantaged or deprived community on individuals' health risk-behaviors is increasingly being documented in a growing body of literature. However, little is known about the effects of community characteristics on women's sexual attitudes and behaviors. To examine community effects on married women's safer sex negotiation attitudes, we analyzed cross-sectional data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys on a sample of 15,134 married women in 600 communities. We estimated two multilevel logistic regression models. Model 1, which included only individual-level variables, showed that women's autonomy/empowerment, age, and HIV knowledge had significant associations with their safer sex negotiation attitudes. We did not find any socioeconomic status gradient in safer sex negotiation attitudes at the individual level. Adding community-level variables in Model 2 significantly improved the fit of the model. Strikingly, we found that higher community-level poverty was associated with greater positive safer sex negotiation attitudes. Prevailing gender norms and overall women's empowerment in the community also had significant effects. While research on community influences calls for focusing on disadvantaged communities, our research highlights the importance of not underestimating the challenges that married women in economically privileged communities may face in negotiating safer sex. To have sufficient and equitable impact on married women's sexual and reproductive health, sexual and reproductive health promotion policies and programs need to be directed to women in wealthier communities as well. PMID:26162431

  16. [Women in labor and migration. The female labor market between 1950 and 1990 and migration of women to Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Szasz, I

    1994-06-01

    Changes in the volume of female migration to Santiago and in the employment patterns of migrant women are analyzed in relationship to changes in the female labor market from 1950 onward, with special emphasis on the years 1970-90. Data sources include published works, the censuses of 1952 to 1982, a 1962 survey on in-migration to Santiago, employment surveys conducted by the University of Chile and the National Institute of Statistics, special tabulations for subsamples of the 1970 and 1982 censuses, and household employment survey information from the fourth quarter of 1993. In 1973 Chile embarked on a process of structural adjustments that affected social expenditures and employment, profoundly modifying urban labor markets. The Chilean economy is currently in a phase of consolidating its productive transformation, with positive results for economic growth and recuperation of employment, but with no reduction of poverty. The explanation of the growth in poverty should be sought in modifications in the conditions of employment of the Chilean population during the productive transformation. Modernization processes such as increased education and access to fertility control contributed to an increase in the number of highly educated women in nonmanual occupations in Santiago, but have not significantly influenced the volume or direction of female migration or modified the disadvantageous occupational profile of migrant women. Gender considerations including cultural norms governing female sexual behavior and nuptiality appear to exercise a decisive influence on the occupational status of migrant women in Santiago. Low status, single women migrating to Santiago have been concentrated in domestic service in part because of their need to find work providing safe living quarters. After 1975, migrant women encountered an increasing proportion of urban women working and looking for work and a structural transformation of domestic service marked by massive absorption of low status nonmigrant women. The disadvantages of migrant women related to their lower age, education, and urban experience have declined or disappeared, but disadvantages related to lack of family and housing in the city have persisted. Continuing high rates of urban poverty in Santiago and substitution of precarious employment for open unemployment have resulted in continuing high rates of female employment. The lack of dynamism in the expansion of female employment, the persistence of gender segmentation of the labor market, continuing tertiarization of female employment, and new trends to precarious employment and increased economic participation of nonmigrant women suggest that occupational patterns of migrant women will not change greatly in the 1990s. Although they have become better educated and prefer to avoid live-in domestic service, their employment options appear limited. PMID:12288287

  17. Training in Managerial Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Hartley, Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Basic mathematical concepts of Managerial Economics, a way of quantitatively analyzing and structuring the making of a business decision, are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of its use in business are discussed and several recent applications are given. (DT)

  18. The Potential of Community Colleges as Bridges to Opportunity for the Disadvantaged: Can It Be Achieved on a Large Scale?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis

    This paper analyzes the role the community college plays as a bridge to opportunity for the working poor and economically disadvantaged. Because educating the disadvantaged is expensive and often under-funded--particularly in the area of basic or remedial education--many community colleges opt to focus on educating more advantaged students in…

  19. Infrastructure for Reaching Disadvantaged Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Hovenga, Evelyn J. S.; Hovel, Joe; Klotz, Jeanette; Robins, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Both consumers and health service providers need access to up-to-date information, including patient and practice guidelines, that allows them to make decisions in partnership about individual and public health in line with the primary health care model of health service delivery. Only then is it possible for patient preferences to be considered while the health of the general population is improved. The Commonwealth Government of Australia has allocated $250 million over five years, starting July 1, 1997, to support activities and projects designed to meet a range of telecommunication needs in regional, rural, and remote Australia. This paper defines rural and remote communities, then reviews rural and remote health services, information, and telecommunication technology infrastructures and their use in Australia to establish the current state of access to information tools by rural and remote communities and rural health workers in Australia today. It is argued that a suitable telecommunication infrastructure is needed to reach disadvantaged persons in extremely remote areas and that intersectoral support is essential to build this infrastructure. In addition, education will make its utilization possible. PMID:9609497

  20. Special Counseling for the Disadvantaged Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaple, Donald J.; Kaple, Marion Keeler

    This book is designed to aid teachers and administrators who have not had special training in counseling and who are working in educational programs for the disadvantaged adult. Subject areas discussed are: The Counselor and the Client (Duties of the Counselor; Areas of Assistance for the Client); Who Are the Disadvantaged (Characteristics of the…

  1. Strategies for the Education of the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riessman, Frank

    This conference paper maintains that to more effectively motivate disadvantaged students certain basic changes within the school system must be made. Educational intervention should not be limited to preschool education. The use of indigenous nonprofessionals in the schools may benefit the older disadvantaged student by providing him with a role…

  2. Women's Job Training Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women Work! The National Network for Women's Employment, Washington, DC.

    The Coalition on Women and Job Training has developed a women's job training agenda that focuses on nine issues related to women's full participation in training and achievement of economic self-sufficiency. The issues highlighted in the agenda are as follows: (1) the need to make long-term economic self-sufficiency the goal of all employment and…

  3. Guardians of Tradition and Handmaidens to Change: Women's Roles in Creek Economic and Social Life during the Eighteenth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braund, Kathryn E. Holland

    1990-01-01

    Argues that, during the eighteenth century, Creek women were central elements in both cultural preservation and adaptation to white ways. Discusses the deerskin trade, matrilineal customs, male and female roles, sexuality, marriage, intermarriage between Creek women and white traders, and the role of mixed bloods as cultural intermediaries. (SV)

  4. A Functional Assessment of the Impact of Advantages and Disadvantages on Breastfeeding Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Acker, Frederik; Bakker, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Although health and other benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child have been repeatedly shown, there is still a large proportion of women who do not initiate or continue breastfeeding. The aim of the current study is to analyze the contribution of the presentation of advantages and disadvantages of breastfeeding in developing an attitude…

  5. Reclaiming the fairy tale as a feminist genre among contemporary British women writers: a discussion of motherhood, economics, and marriage 

    E-print Network

    Holcombe, Heather E

    2013-02-22

    A considerable number of British women writers have drawn on fairy tale narratives or themes in contemporary works from the late 1970's to the early 1990's. This trend is surprising because fairy tales have been criticized ...

  6. Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Harding, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from Addhealth, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community, and school controls. Neighborhood violence accounts for almost half the conditional association between neighborhood disadvantage and high school graduation among males and almost all of the association among females. Violence also accounts for about one fifth of the conditional association between disadvantage and teenage pregnancy among adolescents of both genders. Violence is a critical social characteristic of disadvantaged neighborhoods, one that explains a sizable portion of the effects of growing up in such neighborhoods. PMID:20676355

  7. Optimizing secure communication standards for disadvantaged networks

    E-print Network

    Okano, Stephen Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    We present methods for optimizing standardized cryptographic message protocols for use on disadvantaged network links. We first provide an assessment of current secure communication message packing standards and their ...

  8. 77 FR 65164 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ...RIN 2105-AE08 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications...entitled, ``Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications...modifications of the Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE) Program, including four...

  9. 34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...program by a full-time student; or (2) For a student who is initially enrolled less than full-time, the amount of time that it would take the student to complete the program...you must send us your management's written...

  10. 34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...program by a full-time student; or (2) For a student who is initially enrolled less than full-time, the amount of time that it would take the student to complete the program...you must send us your management's written...

  11. Challenging Change: Transformative Education for Economically Disadvantaged Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland-Russell, Tara; Syrnyk, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the results of a mixed-methods study of 13 participants in a Radical Humanities programme designed as a transformative learning space for low-income adults who have experienced barriers to learning. Using demographic questionnaires, semi-structured narrative interviews and course evaluations this study examined participants'…

  12. Efforts to recruit the economically disadvantaged to national clinical trials.

    PubMed

    McCabe, M S; Varricchio, C G; Padberg, R M

    1994-05-01

    Clinical trials are vital for the development of state-of-the-art cancer prevention and treatment. A goal for trial recruitment should be to have a representative sample of the total population by gender, race, culture, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status as appropriate. Increased sensitivity to the unique barriers and access to care issues required to achieve a representative sample are necessary. Knowledge and understanding of recruitment problems and strategies to resolve them are developing; however, much more is needed before we can fully address and resolve all of the relevant issues. Nurses have a key role in identification, education, and recruitment of special populations including the SED to clinical trials. PMID:8059110

  13. Gender and Reinforcing Associations between Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Body Mass over the Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Reither, Eric; Logan, Ellis; Sherman-Wilkins, Kyler

    2014-01-01

    Using the 1957–1993 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we explore reciprocal associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and body mass in this 1939 birth cohort of non-Hispanic white men and women. We integrate the fundamental cause theory, the gender relations theory, and the life-course perspective to analyze gender differences in (a) the ways that early socioeconomic disadvantage launches bidirectional associations of body mass and SES, and (b) the extent to which these mutually-reinforcing effects generate socioeconomic disparities in midlife body mass. Using structural equation modeling, we find that socioeconomic disadvantage at age 18 is related to higher body mass index and a greater risk of obesity at age 54, and that this relationship is significantly stronger for women than men. Moreover, women are more adversely affected by two mechanisms underlying the focal association: the obesogenic effect of socioeconomic disadvantage and the SES-impeding effect of obesity. These patterns were also replicated in propensity score matching models. Gender and SES act synergistically over the life course to shape reciprocal chains of two disadvantaged statuses: heavier body mass and lower SES. PMID:25138198

  14. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under-privileged section of the society. PMID:26094178

  15. "The Rolling Store" An economical and environmental approach to the prevention of weight gain in African American women.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to test the feasibility of the "Rolling Store," an innovative food delivery medium to provide healthy food choices (fruits and vegetables) to prevent weight gain in African American women. A randomized trial design was used in the study. Eligible participants from the community wer...

  16. Women Farmers' Perceptions of the Economic Problems Influencing Their Productivity in Agricultural Systems: Meme Division of the Southwest Province, Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endeley, Joyce B.

    Women farmers produce about 60% of the food in Cameroon, but face more problems and constraints than men in performing their agricultural activities. Cash crop farmers (mostly men) are the targeted beneficiaries of government and international aids, and have better access to extension services, loans, subsidized production input (herbicides,…

  17. HIV-serostatus disclosure in the context of free antiretroviral therapy and socio-economic dependency: experiences among women living with HIV in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Bohle, Leah F; Dilger, Hansjörg; Groß, Uwe

    2014-09-01

    The worldwide implementation of free antiretroviral therapy (ART) raised great hopes among policy makers and health organisations about the positive changes it would bring about in attitudes and behaviours towards HIV and AIDS, as well as for infected people's lives. A change in illness perception was anticipated, leading to the hypothesis of a possible change in disclosure rates, patterns and the choice of significant others to inform. In the era of free treatment availability in the United Republic of Tanzania, we examined reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure among HIV-seropositive women enrolled on ART and their choice of significant others to inform. In so doing, we contribute to the necessary yet neglected debate about the social impact of ART on the lives of infected women. The study, for which an ethnographic cross-sectional pilot approach was chosen, was conducted at the Care and Treatment Center (CTC) at Bombo Regional Hospital (BRH) in Tanga city, Tanzania. Data presented here derive from participant observation, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews conducted with 59 HIV-seropositive women on ART. Interestingly, and despite treatment availability, the choice of significant others to inform, as well as reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure, mirror findings from previous studies conducted before the introduction of free ART. The main reason for non-disclosure was fear of discrimination. The hope for social, economic or health support was the main motivation for disclosure, followed by the need for a 'clinic companion' in order to receive ART, as requested by hospital staff. Nevertheless, healthcare staff were not unanimous in thinking that disclosure is always beneficial, thus the recommended extent of disclosure varied. ART and concomitant factors were raised as an entirely new and significant reason for disclosure by interviewees. Finally, findings confirm that despite ART, disclosure remains a highly stressful event for women. PMID:25388976

  18. Women’s identity-related participation and engagement in literacy courses in Turkey 

    E-print Network

    Yazlik, Ozlem

    2014-07-04

    This dissertation explores women’s participation and engagement in literacy courses from an identity perspective within the broader context of women’s life stories and the socio-cultural, economic and institutional ...

  19. Structural Impediments to Success: A Look at Disadvantaged Young Men in Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sarah E.

    This paper explores how recent economic, demographic, and social changes have created the conditions that are presently constricting the opportunities and future expectations of today's urban young men. While research indicates that all disadvantaged youth in urban areas are facing impediments to their success, the paper focuses on the realities…

  20. Everybody's Problem: Novice Teachers in Disadvantaged Mexican Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, Nora H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the difficulties that novice teachers confront at two economically, socially, and academically disadvantaged schools in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The researchers employed the action research tradition. Problems were identified using participant observation during reflexive workshops conducted with novice teachers and…

  1. Discriminant Analysis of Scholastic Aptitude and Critical Thinking Tests and Levels of "Disadvantagement."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follman, John; and Others

    Differences among school children are typically measured by achievement, aptitude and/or intelligence tests. This study investigates the use of critical thinking tests to differentiate between schools of varying racial, economic, and "disadvantagement" factors; the latter being determined by Title I ESEA qualifications and U. S. Office of…

  2. Do Public Schools Disadvantage Students Living in Public Housing? Working Paper #09-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Amy Ellen; McCabe, Brian J.; Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Chellman, Colin

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, public housing developments are predominantly located in neighborhoods with low median incomes, high rates of poverty and disproportionately high concentrations of minorities. While research consistently shows that public housing developments are located in economically and socially disadvantaged neighborhoods, we know little…

  3. A Parent-Based Book-Reading Intervention for Disadvantaged Children with Language Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colmar, Susan Hilary

    2014-01-01

    Children with delayed language skills, who were from a socio-economic area defined as disadvantaged, made significant improvements in language skills after their parents were trained in easily learned strategies, enabling them to make simple changes in the way they interacted with their children. The 36 children, mean age five years, were…

  4. 76 FR 8221 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    .... 74 FR 55694. Some of the proposed changes involve technical issues. Others are more substantive and... January 28, 2010. 74 FR 65040. In addition to providing a 90-day comment period, SBA also solicited the... requiring individuals claiming social and economic disadvantage status to reside in the United States....

  5. Gaining Access or Losing Ground? Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students in Undergraduate Engineering, 1994-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy-Wagner, Valerie C.; Veenstra, Cindy P.; Orr, Marisa K.; Ramirez, Nichole M.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Long, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Expanding access to engineering for underrepresented groups has by and large focused on ethnicity/race and gender, with little understanding of socioeconomic disadvantages. In this study, we use economic, human, and cultural capital theories to frame and then describe access to undergraduate engineering degree programs and bachelor's degrees.…

  6. Improve the Quality of Vocational Education for Handicapped/Disadvantaged Students. Program Improvement. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quin Rivers Agency for Community Action, Inc., Providence Forge, VA.

    This project, conducted under the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act, Public Law 98-24, provided outreach to 49 Charles City County (Virginia) economically and educationally disadvantaged handicapped youth, aged 16 through 21. Various services were provided to facilitate their entrance into vocational education, employment, or other…

  7. Quantifying Access Disadvantage and Gathering Information in Rural and Remote Localities: The Griffith Service Access Frame.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Dennis A.

    2003-01-01

    A purely geographic classification is not the best way to measure rural disadvantage in Australia. A service access model is described that incorporates the following elements: population center size; distance, time, and cost of travel to the service center; and a measure of the economic capacity of residents to overcome the cost of travel.…

  8. The Effect of Neighborhood Disadvantage on the Racial Disparity in Ovarian Cancer-Specific Survival in a Large Hospital-Based Study in Cook County, Illinois

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Caryn E.; Rauscher, Garth H.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Kirschner, Carolyn V.; Freels, Sally; Barrett, Richard E.; Kim, Seijeoung; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Joslin, Charlotte E.; Davis, Faith G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on racial disparities in ovarian cancer-specific survival. Despite treatment advances for ovarian cancer, survival remains shorter for African-American compared to White women. Neighborhood disadvantage is implicated in racial disparities across a variety of health outcomes and may contribute to racial disparities in ovarian cancer-specific survival. Data were obtained from 581 women (100 African-American and 481 White) diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between June 1, 1994, and December 31, 1998 in Cook County, IL, USA, which includes the city of Chicago. Neighborhood disadvantage score at the time of diagnosis was calculated for each woman based on Browning and Cagney’s index of concentrated disadvantage. Cox proportional hazard models measured the association of self-identified African-American race with ovarian cancer-specific survival after adjusting for age, tumor characteristics, surgical debulking, and neighborhood disadvantage. There was a statistically significant negative association (?0.645) between ovarian cancer-specific survival and neighborhood disadvantage (p?=?0.008). After adjusting for age and tumor characteristics, African-American women were more likely than Whites to die of ovarian cancer (HR?=?1.59, p?=?0.003). After accounting for neighborhood disadvantage, this risk was attenuated (HR?=?1.32, p?=?0.10). These findings demonstrate that neighborhood disadvantage is associated with ovarian cancer-specific survival and may contribute to the racial disparity in survival. PMID:25657992

  9. The effect of neighborhood disadvantage on the racial disparity in ovarian cancer-specific survival in a large hospital-based study in cook county, illinois.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Caryn E; Rauscher, Garth H; Johnson, Timothy P; Kirschner, Carolyn V; Freels, Sally; Barrett, Richard E; Kim, Seijeoung; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Joslin, Charlotte E; Davis, Faith G

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on racial disparities in ovarian cancer-specific survival. Despite treatment advances for ovarian cancer, survival remains shorter for African-American compared to White women. Neighborhood disadvantage is implicated in racial disparities across a variety of health outcomes and may contribute to racial disparities in ovarian cancer-specific survival. Data were obtained from 581 women (100 African-American and 481 White) diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between June 1, 1994, and December 31, 1998 in Cook County, IL, USA, which includes the city of Chicago. Neighborhood disadvantage score at the time of diagnosis was calculated for each woman based on Browning and Cagney's index of concentrated disadvantage. Cox proportional hazard models measured the association of self-identified African-American race with ovarian cancer-specific survival after adjusting for age, tumor characteristics, surgical debulking, and neighborhood disadvantage. There was a statistically significant negative association (-0.645) between ovarian cancer-specific survival and neighborhood disadvantage (p?=?0.008). After adjusting for age and tumor characteristics, African-American women were more likely than Whites to die of ovarian cancer (HR?=?1.59, p?=?0.003). After accounting for neighborhood disadvantage, this risk was attenuated (HR?=?1.32, p?=?0.10). These findings demonstrate that neighborhood disadvantage is associated with ovarian cancer-specific survival and may contribute to the racial disparity in survival. PMID:25657992

  10. Local area disadvantage and gambling involvement and disorder: Evidence for gene-environment correlation and interaction.

    PubMed

    Slutske, Wendy S; Deutsch, Arielle R; Statham, Dixie J; Martin, Nicholas G

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that local area characteristics (such as disadvantage and gambling outlet density) and genetic risk factors are associated with gambling involvement and disordered gambling. These 2 lines of research were brought together in the present study by examining the extent to which genetic contributions to individual differences in gambling involvement and disorder contributed to being exposed to, and were also accentuated by, local area disadvantage. Participants were members of the national community-based Australian Twin Registry who completed a telephone interview in which the past-year frequency of gambling and symptoms of disordered gambling were assessed. Indicators of local area disadvantage were based on census data matched to the participants' postal codes. Univariate biometric model-fitting revealed that exposure to area disadvantage was partially explained by genetic factors. Bivariate biometric model-fitting was conducted to examine the evidence for gene-environment interaction while accounting for gene-environment correlation. These analyses demonstrated that: (a) a small portion of the genetic propensity to gamble was explained by moving to or remaining in a disadvantaged area, and (b) the remaining genetic and unique environmental variation in the frequency of participating in electronic machine gambling (among men and women) and symptoms of disordered gambling (among women) was greater in more disadvantaged localities. As the gambling industry continues to grow, it will be important to take into account the multiple contexts in which problematic gambling behavior can emerge-from genes to geography-as well as the ways in which such contexts may interact with each other. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26147321

  11. Local Area Disadvantage and Gambling Involvement and Disorder: Evidence for Gene-Environment Correlation and Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Slutske, Wendy S.; Deutsch, Arielle R.; Statham, Dixie B.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that local area characteristics (such as disadvantage and gambling outlet density) and genetic risk factors are associated with gambling involvement and disordered gambling. These two lines of research were brought together in the present study by examining the extent to which genetic contributions to individual differences in gambling involvement and disorder contributed to being exposed to, and were also accentuated by, local area disadvantage. Participants were members of the national community-based Australian Twin Registry who completed a telephone interview in which the past-year frequency of gambling and symptoms of disordered gambling were assessed. Indicators of local area disadvantage were based on census data matched to the participants' postal codes. Univariate biometric model-fitting revealed that exposure to area disadvantage was partially explained by genetic factors. Bivariate biometric model-fitting was conducted to examine the evidence for gene-environment interaction while accounting for gene-environment correlation. These analyses demonstrated that: (a) a small portion of the genetic propensity to gamble was explained by moving to or remaining in a disadvantaged area, and (b) the remaining genetic and unique environmental variation in the frequency of participating in electronic machine gambling (among men and women) and symptoms of disordered gambling (among women) was greater in more disadvantaged localities. As the gambling industry continues to grow, it will be important to take into account the multiple contexts in which problematic gambling behavior can emerge -- from genes to geography -- as well as the ways in which such contexts may interact with each other. PMID:26147321

  12. Socio-Economic Characteristics of Women Enrolled in Higher Education Programs at the National Open University of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chibuogwu, Nnaka V.

    2015-01-01

    In Nigeria, as in most developing countries, there is gender disparity in education access especially at the higher education level. Research reports on this subject link this phenomenon to the prevailing socio-cultural and economic values and practices in Nigeria. Efforts are on ground to widen access to tertiary education for all including…

  13. Technology and the Education of the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John Henry

    Educational intervention programs involving disadvantaged children have not sufficiently succeeded in the remediation of their academic deficiencies. Gains made appear to be very short term and generally unimpressive. Accepting the assumption that the deficiencies are not genetic, one is led to suspect the adequacy of the educational system.…

  14. On William Julius Wilson's "Truly Disadvantaged."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, John

    A premise of this paper is that in his book "The Truly Disadvantaged" (1987), William Julius Wilson fails to recognize the effect of covert racism on the plight of the African American underclass. Wilson asserts that historical racism has contributed to the present predicament of the underclass, who have been abandoned in the ghettos by their…

  15. IMPROVING THE READING LEVEL OF DISADVANTAGED ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEE, JOHN M.; AND OTHERS

    TO HELP DISADVANTAGED INMATES WITH LOW READING LEVELS AND THOSE CONSIDERED FUNCTIONALLY ILLITERATE, THE DRAPER CORRECTIONAL CENTER IN ALABAMA EXPERIMENTED WITH VARIOUS READING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS. MOST SUCCESSFUL WAS THE READING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM USING THE PERCEPTOSCOPE. ALL APPLICANTS WHO SCORED BELOW THE SEVENTH GRADE READING LEVEL IN THE…

  16. A GENERAL TECHNICIAN PROGRAM FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GILLIE, ANGELO C.

    A 2-YEAR GENERAL TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM HAS BEEN PLANNED BY RUTGERS UNIVERSITY AND THE NEWARK SCHOOL SYSTEM AS A MEANS OF PREPARING DISADVANTAGED YOUTH TO ENTER GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT AND ENHANCE THEIR OPPORTUNITY TO IMPROVE THEIR STATION IN LIFE. THE STUDENTS WILL BE DEPRIVED AREA YOUTH WHO ARE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES OR THE EQUIVALENT, GENERALLY FROM THE…

  17. Teaching English to Disadvantaged High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zilliax, John

    1968-01-01

    Removing a disadvantaged student from his environment and giving him the advantages of a middle-class education may be a mixed blessing for him educationally. Yet many compensatory summer programs, including Project ABC (A Better Chance) at Carleton College (Minnesota), appear to have caused no deleterious effects. The summer programs are intended…

  18. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Variations in Blood Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Peachey, Andrew; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Schulz, Mark; Aronson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage accounts for variation in blood pressure. Methods: Demographic, biometric, and self-reported data from 19,261 health screenings were used. Addresses of participants were geocoded and located within census block groups (n = 14,510, 75.3%). Three hierarchical linear models were…

  19. EDUCATING THE CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED, A MATURING APPROACH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOWLER, WILLIAM L.

    THIS REPORT BRIEFLY REVIEWS TRENDS IN 20TH-CENTURY RESEARCH ON EDUCATING DISADVANTAGED AND MINORITY GROUP PUPILS. MANY STUDIES WRITTEN IN THE 1920'S AND 1930'S INDICATED THAT NEGROES WERE LESS INTELLIGENT THAN CAUCASIANS, AND THUS TEACHERS DEMANDED LITTLE OF THEIR MINORITY GROUP PUPILS. SINCE THAT TIME RESEARCH STUDIES HAVE EMPHASIZED THE…

  20. How Children from Disadvantaged Areas Keep Safe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Katrina M.; Hill, Malcolm; Stafford, Anne; Walker, Moira

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper sets out to describe how children from disadvantaged areas perceive their communities and actively negotiate threats in their lives. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 60 interviews and 16 discussions groups were held with 8 to 14-year-olds sampled from four deprived communities located in the West of Scotland. Participants…

  1. A Premedical Summer Program for Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemendor, Anthony A.; Moore, Olivia N.

    1978-01-01

    Five years of summer program experience with minority and disadvantaged students are examined and the impact of summer programming on medical school admission and academic performance in the first year of medical training is discussed. An academic curriculum of anatomy, biochemistry, and physiology--with intensive counseling--provides the basis of…

  2. Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from Add Health, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community and school controls. Neighborhood violence…

  3. SOME ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF RECOMBINATION

    E-print Network

    Otto, Sarah

    SOME ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF RECOMBINATION SARAH P. OTTO Department of Integrative Biology Abstract: Theory for the evolutionary properties of recombination is reviewed, both in terms of modi er mutant chromosome is advantageous, it will appear for the rst time faster with recombination than without

  4. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Reliance on the Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaible, Lonnie M.; Hughes, Lorine A.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary theories suggest that, due to limited access and generalized distrust, residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods are relatively unlikely to report matters to police. Although existing studies reveal few ecological differences in crime reporting, findings may be limited to victim/offense subsets represented in aggregated victimization…

  5. The intergenerational transmission of inequality: Maternal disadvantage and health at birth

    PubMed Central

    Aizer, Anna; Currie, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Health at birth is an important predictor of long-term outcomes, including education, income, and disability. Recent evidence suggests that maternal disadvantage leads to worse health at birth through poor health behaviors; exposure to harmful environmental factors; worse access to medical care, including family planning; and worse underlying maternal health. With increasing inequality, those at the bottom of the distribution now face relatively worse economic conditions, but newborn health among the most disadvantaged has actually improved. The most likely explanation is increasing knowledge about determinants of infant health and how to protect it along with public policies that put this knowledge into practice. PMID:24855261

  6. Women's Education and Earnings in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werschkul, Misha; Gault, Barbara; Caiazza, Amy; Hartmann, Heidi

    2005-01-01

    This publication is part of a joint project of the American Association of University Women Educational Foundation and the Institute for Women?s Policy Research to analyze women?s educational status in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. It reports detailed information on the educational status of women and the economic gains…

  7. Introduction: lesbians and work: the advantages and disadvantages of comfortable shoes.

    PubMed

    Brand, Pamela A

    2008-01-01

    This collection of research articles and personal essays on Lesbians and Work is introduced, highlighting some of the advantages and disadvantages that lesbians experience when they engage in paid work outside the home. Although lesbians in the U.S. and elsewhere experience similar workplace discrimination and stress, there are many different ways in which lesbian women respond to discrimination and manage stress. PMID:19042288

  8. Economic evaluation of hormonal therapies for postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor–positive early breast cancer in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Djalalov, S.; Beca, J.; Amir, E.; Krahn, M.; Trudeau, M.E.; Hoch, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aromatase inhibitor (ai) therapy has been subjected to numerous cost-effectiveness analyses. However, with most ais having reached the end of patent protection and with maturation of the clinical trials data, a re-analysis of ai cost-effectiveness and a consideration of ai use as part of sequential therapy is desirable. Our objective was to assess the cost-effectiveness of the 5-year upfront and sequential tamoxifen (tam) and ai hormonal strategies currently used for treating patients with estrogen receptor (er)–positive early breast cancer. Methods The cost-effectiveness analysis used a Markov model that took a Canadian health system perspective with a lifetime time horizon. The base case involved 65-year-old women with er-positive early breast cancer. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were used to incorporate parameter uncertainties. An expected-value-of-perfect-information test was performed to identify future research directions. Outcomes were quality-adjusted life-years (qalys) and costs. Results The sequential tam–ai strategy was less costly than the other strategies, but less effective than upfront ai and more effective than upfront tam. Upfront ai was more effective and less costly than upfront tam because of less breast cancer recurrence and differences in adverse events. In an exploratory analysis that included a sequential ai–tam strategy, ai–tam dominated based on small numerical differences unlikely to be clinically significant; that strategy was thus not used in the base-case analysis. Conclusions In postmenopausal women with er-positive early breast cancer, strategies using ais appear to provide more benefit than strategies using tam alone. Among the ai-containing strategies, sequential strategies using tam and an ai appear to provide benefits similar to those provided by upfront ai, but at a lower cost. PMID:25908907

  9. Summer jobs reduce violence among disadvantaged youth.

    PubMed

    Heller, Sara B

    2014-12-01

    Every day, acts of violence injure more than 6000 people in the United States. Despite decades of social science arguing that joblessness among disadvantaged youth is a key cause of violent offending, programs to remedy youth unemployment do not consistently reduce delinquency. This study tests whether summer jobs, which shift focus from remediation to prevention, can reduce crime. In a randomized controlled trial among 1634 disadvantaged high school youth in Chicago, assignment to a summer jobs program decreases violence by 43% over 16 months (3.95 fewer violent-crime arrests per 100 youth). The decline occurs largely after the 8-week intervention ends. The results suggest the promise of using low-cost, well-targeted programs to generate meaningful behavioral change, even with a problem as complex as youth violence. PMID:25477459

  10. Women, poverty and adverse maternal outcomes in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The link between poverty and adverse maternal outcomes has been studied largely by means of quantitative data. We explore poor urban Kenyan women's views and lived experiences of the relationship between economic disadvantage and unpleasant maternal outcomes. Method Secondary analysis of focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews data with women in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya. Results Urban poor women in Nairobi associate poverty with adverse maternal outcomes. However, their accounts and lived experiences of the impact of poverty on maternal outcomes underscore dynamics other than those typically stressed in the extant literature. To them, poverty primarily generates adverse maternal outcomes by exposing women to exceedingly hard and heavy workloads during pregnancy and the period surrounding it; to intimate partner violence; as well as to inhospitable and unpleasant treatment by service providers. Conclusions Poverty has wider and more intricate implications for maternal outcomes than are acknowledged in extant research. To deliver their expected impact, current efforts to promote better maternal outcomes must be guided by a more thorough perspective of the link between women's livelihoods and their health and wellbeing. PMID:21122118

  11. 48 CFR 719.272 - Small disadvantaged business policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small disadvantaged business policies. 719.272 Section...DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.272 Small disadvantaged business policies. In addition to...

  12. 48 CFR 719.272 - Small disadvantaged business policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Small disadvantaged business policies. 719.272 Section...DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.272 Small disadvantaged business policies. In addition to...

  13. 48 CFR 1519.204 - Small disadvantaged business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Small disadvantaged business participation. 1519.204 Section...AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.204 Small disadvantaged business participation. (a) The...

  14. 48 CFR 1519.204 - Small disadvantaged business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Small disadvantaged business participation. 1519.204 Section...AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.204 Small disadvantaged business participation. (a) The...

  15. 48 CFR 1519.204 - Small disadvantaged business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Small disadvantaged business participation. 1519.204 Section...AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.204 Small disadvantaged business participation. (a) The...

  16. 48 CFR 719.272 - Small disadvantaged business policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Small disadvantaged business policies. 719.272 Section...DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.272 Small disadvantaged business policies. In addition to...

  17. 48 CFR 1519.204 - Small disadvantaged business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Small disadvantaged business participation. 1519.204 Section...AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.204 Small disadvantaged business participation. (a) The...

  18. 48 CFR 1519.204 - Small disadvantaged business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Small disadvantaged business participation. 1519.204 Section...AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.204 Small disadvantaged business participation. (a) The...

  19. 48 CFR 719.272 - Small disadvantaged business policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Small disadvantaged business policies. 719.272 Section...DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.272 Small disadvantaged business policies. In addition to...

  20. Women as agents of change: Female income and mobility in India

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Nancy; Munshi, Kaivan

    2013-01-01

    Economic globalization will give many women in developing countries access to steady and relatively remunerative employment for the first time, potentially shifting bargaining power within their households and changing the choices that are made for their children. This paper exploits a unique setting — a group of tea plantations in South India where women are employed in permanent wage labor and where incomes do not vary by caste — to anticipate the impact of globalization on mobility across social groups in the future. The main result of the paper is that a relative increase in female income weakens the family's ties to the ancestral community and the traditional economy, but these mobility enhancing effects are obtained for certain historically disadvantaged castes alone. Although the paper provides a context-specific explanation for why the women from these castes emerge as agents of change, the first general implication of the analysis is that the incentive and the ability of women to use their earnings to influence household decisions depends importantly on their social background. The second implication is that historically disadvantaged groups may, in fact, be especially responsive to new opportunities precisely because they have fewer ties to the traditional economy to hold them back. PMID:24319310

  1. Gender Differences in Associations of Neighbourhood Disadvantage with Alcohol’s Harms to Others: A Cross-sectional Study from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction & Aims To examine whether alcohol’s harms to others are more prevalent in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods and whether men or women are at differential risk in these neighbourhoods. Design & Methods Cross-sectional survey data from 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys were linked to geo-referenced indicators of neighbourhood disadvantage from the United States 2000 Decennial Census. The pooled sample included 10,121 adults (54% female; average age 44.4 years; 69% White; 13% African American; 13% Hispanic). A dichotomous indicator denoted neighbourhoods based on the top quartile on a 5-item measure of disadvantage (alpha=.90). We examined past-year family problems due to someone else’s drinking (marriage difficulties and/or financial trouble) and victimisation by someone who had been drinking (having property vandalised and/or being pushed, hit or assaulted). Results During the prior 12 months, 6% of women and 3% of men experienced family problems from someone else’s drinking, and 4% of women and 7% of men reported being victimised by drinkers. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusting for individual-level socioeconomic status and other demographic characteristics showed the relationship between neighbourhood disadvantage and harms from someone else’s drinking was moderated by gender, with significantly higher odds of family problems in disadvantaged neighbourhoods for men but not for women, as well as significantly higher odds of crime victimisation in disadvantaged neighbourhoods for women but not men. Discussion & Conclusions Experiences of harms from someone else’s drinking in disadvantaged neighbourhoods vary for men and women. Targeted intervention strategies are needed to reduce alcohol’s harm to others. PMID:24612367

  2. The Disadvantaged Worker: Readings in Developing Minority Manpower.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimpel, Lloyd, Ed.

    This document examines the efforts made by American business to make employment opportunities available to the disadvantaged minority worker. Ten major areas are discussed, including the following: changing social attitudes, Negro work attitudes, patterns for disadvantaged programs, management views of hard-core hiring, testing the disadvantaged,…

  3. 48 CFR 719.272 - Small disadvantaged business policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... business policies. 719.272 Section 719.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.272 Small disadvantaged business... subcontracting with small disadvantaged businesses and other disadvantaged enterprises based on provisions of...

  4. Rural Indian women's care-seeking behavior and choice of provider for gynecological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rani, Manju; Bonu, Sekhar

    2003-09-01

    This study uses data from the India National Family and Health Survey-2 conducted in 1998-99 to investigate the level and correlates of care-seeking and choice of provider for gynecological symptoms among currently married women in rural India. Of the symptomatic women surveyed, 31 percent sought care, overwhelmingly from private providers (70 percent). Only 8 percent of women consulted frontline paramedical health workers. Care-seeking behavior and type of providers consulted varied significantly across different Indian states. Significant differentials in care-seeking by age, caste, religion, education, household wealth, and women's autonomy suggest the existence of multiple cultural, economic, and demand-side barriers to care-seeking. Although socially disadvantaged women were less likely than better-off women to consult private providers, the majority of even the poorest, uneducated, and lower-caste women consulted private providers. Geographical access to public health facilities had no significant association with choice of provider, whereas access to private providers had only a moderately significant association with that choice. The predominance of use of private services for self-perceived gynecological morbidity warrants the inclusion of private providers in the national reproductive health strategy to enhance its effectiveness. PMID:14558320

  5. 48 CFR 726.7007 - Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. 726.7007 Section 726...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Disadvantaged Enterprises Program 726.7007 Requirement...subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. (a) In addition to...

  6. Social Disadvantage and Asthma Control in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kopel, Lianne S.; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Gaffin, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary This review discusses various aspects of social disadvantage and their association with poor asthma control, including socioeconomic status, exposure to psychosocial stress and violence, minority affiliation, environmental concerns such as allergens and pollution, and poverty in rural settings. Each of these elements has been linked with worsened asthma outcomes in children. Known and hypothesized mechanisms behind these associations are described in an effort to further understand the complex entity of poorly controlled asthma among socially deprived children. Intervention studies to improve asthma outcomes in these vulnerable populations are also described. PMID:24928775

  7. Thoracoscopic versus robotic approaches: advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Wei, Benjamin; D'Amico, Thomas A

    2014-05-01

    The overall advantages of thoracoscopy over thoracotomy in terms of patient recovery have been fairly well established. The use of robotics, however, is a newer and less proven modality in the realm of thoracic surgery. Robotics offers distinct advantages and disadvantages in comparison with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Robotic technology is now used for a variety of complex cardiac, urologic, and gynecologic procedures including mitral valve repair and microsurgical treatment of male infertility. This article addresses the potential benefits and limitations of using the robotic platform for the performance of a variety of thoracic operations. PMID:24780422

  8. Factors associated with health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agriculture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women facing social and economic disadvantage in stressed communities of developing countries are at greater risk due to health problems. This paper investigates the relationships between structural, health and psychosocial predictors among women in mining and agricultural communities. This paper is a report of a study of the predictors of the health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agricultural communities. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional research design was used. The instruments used are SF-36 Health Survey and Coping Strategy Checklist. ANOVA, MANOVA and GLM were used in the analysis. The study was conducted between January-September 2008 with randomly selected women in a mining (145) and an agricultural community (133) in India. Results Women in the agricultural community had significantly increased Physical Health, Mental Health and SF36 scores compared with those in the mining community. Years of stay, education and employment were significant predictors among women in the agricultural community. 39% (33%) and 40% (26%) of the variance in Physical and Mental health respectively among women in agricultural and mining communities are predicted by the structural, health and psychosocial variables. Conclusion Perceived health status should be recognised as an important assessment of Physical and Mental Health among women in rural stressed communities. Cognitive, emotional and behavioural coping strategies are significant predictors of health related quality of life. Implications. Nurses should use the SF-36 as a diagnostic tool for assessing health related quality of life among women and discuss coping strategies, so that these can target women’s adaptive behaviour. This should be an essential part of the nursing process for facilitating adaptive process for improved health related quality of life. PMID:23336256

  9. Latin American women’s experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used. Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades. This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women’s experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal. Women’s personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1) a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2) complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support. Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it might not be effective, and the fact that some women eventually need to seek medical care at a hospital where they might be sanctioned for having an abortion and even reported to the police. PMID:23259660

  10. Assessing socioeconomic inequalities of hypertension among women in Indonesia's major cities.

    PubMed

    Christiani, Y; Byles, J E; Tavener, M; Dugdale, P

    2015-11-01

    Although hypertension has been recognized as one of the major public health problems, few studies address economic inequality of hypertension among urban women in developing countries. To assess this issue, we analysed data for 1400 women from four of Indonesia's major cities: Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan and Bandung. Women were aged ?15 years (mean age 35.4 years), and were participants in the 2007/2008 Indonesia Family Life Survey. The prevalence of hypertension measured by digital sphygmomanometer among this population was 31%. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, socioeconomic disadvantage (based on household assets and characteristics) as well as age, body mass index and economic conditions were significantly associated with hypertension (P<0.05). Applying the Fairlie decomposition model, results showed that 14% of the inequality between less and more economically advantaged groups could be accounted for by the distribution of socioeconomic characteristics. Education was the strongest contributor to inequality, with lower education levels increasing the predicted probability of hypertension among less economically advantaged groups. This work highlights the importance of socioeconomic inequality in the development of hypertension, and particularly the effects of education level. PMID:25652531

  11. Violence Against Women

    PubMed Central

    Fulu, Emma; Miedema, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Globalization theories have proliferated over the past two decades. However, global developments have yet to be systematically incorporated into theories around violence against women. This article proposes to add a global level to the existing ecological model framework, popularized by Lori Heise in 1998, to explore the relationships between global processes and experiences of violence against women. Data from the Maldives and Cambodia are used to assess how globalized ideologies, economic development and integration, religious fundamentalisms, and global cultural exchange, as components of a larger globalization process, have affected men and women’s experiences and perceptions of violence against women. PMID:26215287

  12. Effects of Welfare Reform on Education Acquisition of Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes. PMID:23504449

  13. Fathers' Accounts of Struggle and Growth in Early Adulthood: An Exploratory Study of Disadvantaged Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settersten, Richard A., Jr.; Day, Jack K.; Cancel-Tirado, Doris; Driscoll, Debra Minar

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores how fatherhood prompts struggle and growth in the psychological, social, and economic changes associated with the transition to adulthood. Little is known about these connections, especially for disadvantaged Latino and White fathers who live in small and mid-sized American communities. We draw on eight in-depth focus groups…

  14. Making the Most of the Mosaic: Facilitating Post-School Transitions to Higher Education of Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott-Chapman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Research studies of post-school education and training conducted in Australia and internationally have revealed a mosaic of students' education and employment experiences, with a multiplicity of nonlinear pathways. These tend to be more fragmentary for disadvantaged students, especially those of low socio-economic background, rural students, and…

  15. Behavioral risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in working and nonworking women of urban slums

    PubMed Central

    Manjrekar, Shivani S.; Sherkhane, Mayur S.; Chowti, Jayaprakash V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are an emerging public health problem, accounting for 80% of deaths in low and middle-income countries leading to a global epidemic. The increasing burden of NCDs is affecting poor and disadvantaged women population disproportionately, contributing to widening health gaps between and within countries. Globalization and urbanization have led to lifestyle changes among urban poor, which need to be understood, as the urban areas are undergoing rapid transitions. Objectives: To know prevalence and pattern of behavioral risk factors for NCDs in working and nonworking women of urban slums to initiate steps for preventive interventions. Materials and Methods: This was community based cross-sectional study conducted among women of urban slums in the age-group of 30-45 years on a voluntary basis. Data were collected by the house-to-house survey using predesigned and pretested proforma World Health Organization-Stepwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance (WHO-STEPS 1 and 2 questionnaires). Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used for analysis. Results: Majority, 49% women were in the age-group of 30-35 years, with 60.5% belonging to Class IV socio-economic status. Stress was present in 38% working women as compared to 17% nonworking women (?2 = 22.12, df = 1, P < 0.0001, HS). Nonworking women (25%) were less aware about common NCDs compared to (48%) working women (?2 = 22.82, df = 1, P < 0.0001, HS). It was also found that 11% women were newly diagnosed with hypertension. Conclusion: Most of the women were not aware of the risk factors leading to NCDs. Screening and IEC activities need to be strengthened and hence that diagnosis and preventive measures can be implemented at an early stage of life. PMID:25317001

  16. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Jha, Vivekanand

    2015-01-01

    Twelve March 2015 will mark the 10th anniversary of World Kidney Day (WKD), an initiative of the International Society of Nephrology and the International Federation of Kidney Foundations. Since its inception in 2006, WKD has become the most successful effort ever mounted to raise awareness among decision-makers and the general public about the importance of kidney disease. Each year WKD reminds us that kidney disease is common, harmful and treatable. The focus of WKD 2015 is on chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations. This article reviews the key links between poverty and CKD and the consequent implications for the prevention of kidney disease and the care of kidney patients in these populations. PMID:25713703

  17. 16 Extraordinary American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Emma

    This student book presents short biographies of notable women from diverse economic, ethnic, racial, social, and geographic backgrounds. Women highlighted include: (1) Helen Keller; (2) Eleanor Roosevelt; (3) Georgia O'Keeffe; (4) Julia Morgan; (5) Wilma P. Mankiller; (6) Rachel Carson; (7) Dorothea Lange; (8) Rosalyn Sussman Yalow; (9) Ella…

  18. 75 FR 71137 - Vendor Outreach Workshop for Women Owned Small Businesses in the National Capitol Region of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ...Secretary Vendor Outreach Workshop for Women Owned Small Businesses in the National...hosting a Vendor Outreach Workshop for women owned small businesses in the National...small, small disadvantaged, 8(a), woman-owned, HUBZone, and...

  19. Marriageable Women: A Focus on Participants in a Community Healthy Marriage Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Wendy D.; Trella, Deanna; Lyons, Heidi; Du Toit, Nola Cora

    2010-01-01

    Although disadvantaged women are the targets of marriage programs, little attention has been paid to women's marriage constraints and their views of marriage. Drawing on an exchange framework and using qualitative data collected from single women participating in a marriage initiative, we introduce the concept of marriageable women--the notion…

  20. Jobs for Disadvantaged Workers: The Economics of Employment Subsidies. Studies in Social Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Robert H., Ed.; Palmer, John L., Ed.

    These nine papers are from a conference held at Brookings Institution on April 3-4, 1980, focusing on subsidizing private sector job creation for workers with structural employment problems. Chapter 1 summarizes the papers and conference proceedings. The remaining nine chapters are divided into three parts consisting of three papers each. Part 1…

  1. Women in public life.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    The UN Division for the Advancement of Women publication has devoted an issue to the role of women in public lie based on an analysis of women's status in industrialized countries presented in Vienna, Austria, in May 1991. Women already contribute to political life and make a difference in politics, but societal institutions and government processes have not yet adapted to this fact. Women's nongovernmental organizations promote women's interests at the governmental level, but often do not have the economic or political power as do other interests groups such as trade unions. Women often participation public life via their membership in women's organizations, community action groups, voluntary organizations, and other close to home groups. They prefer to participate in activities which are problem solving rather than institution building. These activities and groups operate outside established political institutions and are not considered as part of public and political life. Society's exclusion of women from leadership positions in public life keeps it from benefiting from the special contributions that women bring to decision making. Women show a tendency to have different leadership styles than men (e.g., ability to relate to people affected by their decisions), which are most needed for the modern world. They often do not campaign just for women's issues, but, once in office, they do tend to become more involved in women's issues. Women have affected positive changes in career and child care, often on a non-Socialist agenda, in various countries (e.g. Norway). This effect is referred to as the politics of motherhood. More access to politics and public life calls for removal of structural and situational barriers including the glass ceiling, discrimination, insufficient funds, and bearing most of the responsibility for child care. The UN women's groups has drafted a platform for interregional consultation on women's role in public life and scheduled the 4th world conference on women for 1995. PMID:12317888

  2. The Road to Poverty: A Report on the Economic Status of Midlife and Older Women in America. Mother's Day Report 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Older Women's League, Washington, DC.

    Women of all ages continue to enter the work force in greater numbers while the work force participation rate for males is declining. Women are disproportionately concentrated in low-paying, dead-end jobs. Employment discrimination continues to be a significant problem. Job interruptions necessitated by family responsibilities are a major factor…

  3. Women and Literacy in Rural Mali: A Study of the Socio-economic Impact of Participating in Literacy Programs in Four Villages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puchner, L.

    2003-01-01

    Women's literacy programs in rural Mali were studied through observation and surveys of 42 participants and 29 nonparticipants. Few participants acquired literacy skills, those that did rarely used them, and literacy acquisition had little socioeconomic impact on women's lives. General constraints on literacy usage in rural villages are discussed,…

  4. The World of Work and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosken, Fran P.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Posits that work done by women in providing services for their families and society is not economically rewarded, is a distortion of reality, and one of the main causes of discrimination against women. Discusses the role of women in the economic growth of United States, United Kingdom, Hungary, Mauritius, USSR, and Egypt. (JOW)

  5. INNOVATION AND THE NEW CONCERN FOR THE DISADVANTAGED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JOHNTZ, WILLIAM F.

    REVIEWED ARE SOME OF THE APPROACHES WHICH HAVE BEEN USED TO IMPROVE THE EDUCATIONAL STATUS OF DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS. IT IS FELT THAT THE COMPENSATORY EDUCATION EFFORTS HAVE NOT SUCCEEDED BECAUSE MOST PROJECTS HAVE EITHER UTILIZED TRADITIONAL CONTENT AND TEACHING METHODS OR HAVE BEEN REMEDIAL. ALSO, THEY DO NOT START BY RAISING THE DISADVANTAGED

  6. Disadvantaged Learners and VET to Higher Education Transitions. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Tabatha

    2014-01-01

    The vocational education and training (VET) system can provide an entry point to the education sector for people who have experienced disadvantage in their lives. Participation in VET can provide personal benefits as well as lead to further study and/or employment. How disadvantaged learners participate in vocational education and training is an…

  7. Educational Reform for Disadvantaged Students: An Emerging Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, M.

    Addressing the problems of the educationally disadvantaged requires specifically focused educational reforms. This paper: (1) describes the population of disadvantaged students in terms of its composition, growth, and educational performance; (2) reviews the dire consequences of ignoring the educational needs of these students; (3) discusses the…

  8. Measures of Disadvantage: Is Car Ownership a Good Indicator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Victoria; Currie, Graham; Stanley, Janet

    2010-01-01

    A need to better understand the multidimensional nature of disadvantage is leading to the adoption of a wider range of measurement variables. One variable now commonly adopted is zero car ownership. This paper challenges the logic of including "not having a car" as an indicator of disadvantage. It argues that this can distort the real picture of…

  9. Educational Program Development for the Rural Disadvantaged. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Hollie B.; And Others

    As part of a far-reaching research project on educational needs of the rural disadvantaged, this phase of the Rural Education Disadvantaged Youth Project (Project REDY) dealt with the development and evaluation of a vocationally-oriented family-centered educational program. The model program, which was field-tested at a single site, focused upon:…

  10. The relation between disadvantaged groups: a social psychological approach 

    E-print Network

    Rothgerber, Hank

    1995-01-01

    that the disadvantaged outgroup would be the target of greatest aggression when their position was the same as or higher than the subject's ingroup. Conversely, the advantaged outgroup was aggressed against the most when the disadvantaged outgroup was in a low position...

  11. The New Challenge: A Relevant Program for the Disadvantaged Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goertz, Mary Jean; Phemister, Linda

    Programs for disadvantaged gifted students require teachers with a number of positive characteristics and a relevant curriculum. The New Challenge Program created by the University of Texas Pan-American College of Education is a Saturday morning enrichment program for disadvantaged gifted children. Students select from classes such as Basic and…

  12. Special Education and Programs for Disadvantaged Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Abraham J. Ed.

    Nine conference papers consider the application of knowledge and methods known to special education to the instruction of disadvantaged children. Edmund W. Gordon views the disadvantaged population; Frank B. Wilderson discusses behavior disorders in children from deprived backgrounds; Harriet Green Kopp describes problems of perception and…

  13. Characterizing the Bilingual Disadvantage in Noun Phrase Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadat, Jasmin; Martin, Clara D.; Alario, F. Xavier; Costa, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, evidence on bilingual disadvantages in language production comes from tasks requiring single word retrieval. The present study aimed to assess whether there is a bilingual disadvantage in multiword utterances, and to determine the extent to which such effect is present in onset latencies, articulatory durations, or both. To do so, we…

  14. 23 CFR 635.107 - Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Highway Acts, and 49 CFR part 26, the STD shall ensure equal opportunity for disadvantaged business... funded with title 23 funds, the requirements of 49 CFR part 26 and the State's approved DBE plan apply... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises....

  15. 48 CFR 752.226-2 - Subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Education, pursuant to 34 CFR 608.2, as historically black colleges and universities: (3) Colleges and... disadvantaged enterprises. 752.226-2 Section 752.226-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR... Clauses 752.226-2 Subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. As prescribed in 726.7007, insert...

  16. 23 CFR 635.107 - Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Highway Acts, and 49 CFR part 26, the STD shall ensure equal opportunity for disadvantaged business... funded with title 23 funds, the requirements of 49 CFR part 26 and the State's approved DBE plan apply... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises....

  17. 48 CFR 752.226-2 - Subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Education, pursuant to 34 CFR 608.2, as historically black colleges and universities: (3) Colleges and... disadvantaged enterprises. 752.226-2 Section 752.226-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR... Clauses 752.226-2 Subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. As prescribed in 726.7007, insert...

  18. 48 CFR 752.226-2 - Subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Education, pursuant to 34 CFR 608.2, as historically black colleges and universities: (3) Colleges and... disadvantaged enterprises. 752.226-2 Section 752.226-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR... Clauses 752.226-2 Subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. As prescribed in 726.7007, insert...

  19. 23 CFR 635.107 - Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Highway Acts, and 49 CFR part 26, the STD shall ensure equal opportunity for disadvantaged business... funded with title 23 funds, the requirements of 49 CFR part 26 and the State's approved DBE plan apply... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises....

  20. 23 CFR 635.107 - Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Highway Acts, and 49 CFR part 26, the STD shall ensure equal opportunity for disadvantaged business... funded with title 23 funds, the requirements of 49 CFR part 26 and the State's approved DBE plan apply... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises....

  1. 48 CFR 752.226-2 - Subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Education, pursuant to 34 CFR 608.2, as historically black colleges and universities: (3) Colleges and... disadvantaged enterprises. 752.226-2 Section 752.226-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR... Clauses 752.226-2 Subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. As prescribed in 726.7007, insert...

  2. 78 FR 57336 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ...) entitled, ``Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications,'' at 77 FR 54952, that... FR 651164, that corrected minor errors in the NPRM related to the Paperwork Reduction Act and... Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 26 RIN 2105-AE08 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise:...

  3. 48 CFR 752.226-2 - Subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Education, pursuant to 34 CFR 608.2, as historically black colleges and universities: (3) Colleges and... disadvantaged enterprises. 752.226-2 Section 752.226-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR... Clauses 752.226-2 Subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. As prescribed in 726.7007, insert...

  4. 23 CFR 635.107 - Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Highway Acts, and 49 CFR part 26, the STD shall ensure equal opportunity for disadvantaged business... funded with title 23 funds, the requirements of 49 CFR part 26 and the State's approved DBE plan apply... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises....

  5. California Higher Education and the Disadvantaged: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martyn, Kenneth

    The report discusses the status of higher education for disadvantaged students in California. The programs in operation at public and private colleges and universities are geared toward increasing the accessibility of higher education to students from disadvantaged circumstances. Noted are special actions in recruitment, financial assistance and…

  6. Women Physicists in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, N.; Shrestha, S.; Bhattarai, P. K.

    2009-04-01

    Women constitute more than half the total population of Nepal. They are, however, far behind men in all aspects of life. There are wide gender gaps in the social, economic, administrative, political, and legal fields. Data from 1960 to 2001 show that the proportion of female students varied inconsistently at the postgraduate level, and no women held PhD degrees. From 2002 to mid-2008, the number of female students at the MSc and PhD levels has gradually increased. It is expected that this will bring significant improvement in the education of women as a whole, and will help to promote the study of physics by women in the country.

  7. Women’s Empowerment across Generations in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Rottach, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study uses qualitative data to examine young women’s relationships with their mothers and mothers-in-law to understand how these relationships foster empowerment in the younger generation or fail to do so. The data consist of ethnographic interviews with 20 triads of women—young married women, their mothers and their mothers-in-law. Findings show that the influence of empowerment across generations was greater in the sphere of economic empowerment and education than in relation to marriage and childbearing. The study illustrates how patriarchal institutions resistant to change can limit the effects of women’s empowerment on the next generation. PMID:20847904

  8. The impact of gendered organizational systems on women’s career advancement

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, Deborah A.; Hopkins, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    In this Perspective article we propose that in order to pave the way for women’s career advancement into the senior ranks of organizations, attention must be directed at the systemic norms and structures that drive the gendered nature of the workplace. A focus on individual level issues, i.e., women lacking confidence and women opting out, detracts from the work that must be done at the organizational level in order to dismantle the system of pervasive, structural disadvantage facing women seeking to advance to senior leadership positions. PMID:26175708

  9. Women's housing conditions in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shefali, M K

    1996-01-01

    This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women. PMID:12347277

  10. Women in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, M

    1981-01-01

    Prior to 1974, women in Portugal were restricted by the Penal Code and had little organizational power. Women's groups were formed within the Catholic Church to teach women about cooking, child care, and home economics. There was no contact with international women's groups. The press only reported events such as bra burning. 80% of all illiterates in Portugal are women. The conditions of Portuguese women are described after the revolution of April 25, 1974. Present roles are discussed for work, health, education, religion, trade unions and political parties, and women's organizations. The Women's Liberation Movement (WLM) appeared in May 1974 among a heterogenous group of women in Lisbon who were concerned about the oppression of women. WLM made feminist issues public amid ridicule and promoted the declaration of equal rights for women in the 1976 Republic Constitution and in the Family Code. Wage discrimination became illegal in 1979. Women represent 32.8% of the labor force. Unemployment is particularly high among women and is increasing. Women's wages and levels of skill are the lowest. The Christian Democratic government is actively engaged in a campaign to keep women at home and has formed the special Ministry of Family Affairs, which encourages large families and women's home activity in order to save jobs for men. There is a crisis in education: large class sizes and limited number of schools. Child care for the working mother is expensive when available and rarely available. An obstacle to women's rights has been the role of the Catholic Church, which fought equal rights legislation, condemned the Family Code and divorce laws, forbade the practice of contraception, and supported the movement against abortion. Only 1 member of government is a women, and she is considered a token. Trade unions have a women's section, but little attention is given to the problems of women. Women's groups within larger organizations have little autonomy. Those with autonomy are restricted and organized around specific causes, such as abortion. The liberation of women is evolving slowly. PMID:12285938

  11. Do Jobs Work? Risk and Protective Behaviors Associated with Employment Among Disadvantaged Female Teens in Urban Atlanta

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Janet; Zenilman, Jonathan; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina; DiClemente, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent employment predicts lower educational engagement and achievement and greater engagement with risk behaviors. Most research has studied middle class rather than disadvantaged adolescents. We identified risk and protective behaviors associated with employment using data from a 3-wave, 12-month study of 715 low-socio-economic status female African American adolescents who were ages 15–21 at baseline. Adolescents who were employed at wave 2 (n=214) were matched with adolescents who were not employed at wave 2 (n=422) using nearest-neighbor matching on baseline factors within propensity score calipers on factors including marijuana use, sex while high, pregnancy risk, and socioeconomic status. We compared employed and non-employed teens on risk behaviors including marijuana use, sex while high or drunk, and a biomarker for semen exposure in the past 14 days. Employed teens were 44% as likely to say that their boyfriend is their primary spending money source and 43% as likely to be emotionally abused, but these benefits did not persist after employment ended. Six months after employment, employed respondents reported using marijuana 57% more often and had sex while drunk or high 2.7 times as frequently. Women who were employed at both waves 2 and 3 were 17% as likely to have their boyfriend as a primary source of spending money and 13% more likely to graduate high school, but they used marijuana twice as often, alcohol 1.6 times as often, had 1.6 times as many sexual partners, and had sex while high or drunk 2.3 times as often. Female teens who work may avoid potentially coercive romantic relationships, but they may buy drugs or alcohol with their earnings. PMID:25221451

  12. Do Jobs Work? Risk and Protective Behaviors Associated with Employment Among Disadvantaged Female Teens in Urban Atlanta.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Janet; Zenilman, Jonathan; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina; DiClemente, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent employment predicts lower educational engagement and achievement and greater engagement with risk behaviors. Most research has studied middle class rather than disadvantaged adolescents. We identified risk and protective behaviors associated with employment using data from a 3-wave, 12-month study of 715 low-socio-economic status female African American adolescents who were ages 15-21 at baseline. Adolescents who were employed at wave 2 (n=214) were matched with adolescents who were not employed at wave 2 (n=422) using nearest-neighbor matching on baseline factors within propensity score calipers on factors including marijuana use, sex while high, pregnancy risk, and socioeconomic status. We compared employed and non-employed teens on risk behaviors including marijuana use, sex while high or drunk, and a biomarker for semen exposure in the past 14 days. Employed teens were 44% as likely to say that their boyfriend is their primary spending money source and 43% as likely to be emotionally abused, but these benefits did not persist after employment ended. Six months after employment, employed respondents reported using marijuana 57% more often and had sex while drunk or high 2.7 times as frequently. Women who were employed at both waves 2 and 3 were 17% as likely to have their boyfriend as a primary source of spending money and 13% more likely to graduate high school, but they used marijuana twice as often, alcohol 1.6 times as often, had 1.6 times as many sexual partners, and had sex while high or drunk 2.3 times as often. Female teens who work may avoid potentially coercive romantic relationships, but they may buy drugs or alcohol with their earnings. PMID:25221451

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Australian Adults: Prevalence, Persistence, Conduct Problems and Disadvantage

    PubMed Central

    Ebejer, Jane L.; Medland, Sarah E.; van der Werf, Julius; Gondro, Cedric; Henders, Anjali K.; Lynskey, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G.; Duffy, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Prevalence and persistence of ADHD have not been described in young Australian adults and few studies have examined how conduct problems (CP) are associated with ADHD for this age group. We estimate lifetime and adult prevalence and persistence rates for three categories of ADHD for 3795 Australian adults, and indicate how career, health and childhood risk factors differ for people with ADHD symptoms and ADHD symptoms plus CP. Methodology Trained interviewers collected participant experience of ADHD, CP, education, employment, childhood experience, relationship and health variables. Three diagnostic definitions of ADHD used were (i) full DSM-IV criteria; (ii) excluding the age 7 onset criterion (no age criterion); (iii) participant experienced difficulties due to ADHD symptoms (problem symptoms). Results Prevalence rates in adulthood were 1.1%, 2.3% and 2.7% for each categorization respectively. Persistence of ADHD from childhood averaged across gender was 55.3% for full criteria, 50.3% with no age criterion and 40.2% for problem symptoms. ADHD symptoms were associated with parental conflict, poor health, being sexually assaulted during childhood, lower education, income loss and higher unemployment. The lifetime prevalence of conduct problems for adults with ADHD was 57.8% and 6.9% for adults without ADHD. The greatest disadvantage was experienced by participants with ADHD plus CP. Conclusion The persistence of ADHD into adulthood was greatest for participants meeting full diagnostic criteria and inattention was associated with the greatest loss of income and disadvantage. The disadvantage associated with conduct problems differed in severity and was relevant for a high proportion of adults with ADHD. Women but not men with ADHD reported more childhood adversity, possibly indicating varied etiology and treatment needs. The impact and treatment needs of adults with ADHD and CP and the report of sexual assault during childhood by women and men with ADHD also deserve further study. PMID:23071800

  14. Advances in the prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV/AIDS among women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Nadine E.; Meyer, Jaimie P.; Springer, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent advances in testing and treatment, the incidence of HIV/AIDS in the United States has remained stagnant with an estimated 56,300 new infections every year. Women account for an increasing proportion of the epidemic. The vulnerability of women to HIV stems from both increased biologic susceptibility to heterosexual transmission and also the social, economic, and structural disadvantages they often confront. This review describes the main reasons for the increased vulnerability of U.S. women to HIV transmission with particular emphasis on specific highrisk groups including: non-Hispanic blacks, women who use drugs, women with a history of incarceration, and victims of intimate partner violence. Although behavioral approaches to HIV prevention may be effective, pragmatic implementation is often difficult, especially for women who lack sociocultural capital to negotiate condoms with their male partners. Recent advances in HIV prevention show promise in terms of female-initiated interventions. These notably include female condoms, non-specific vaginal microbicides, and antiretroviral oral and vaginal pre-exposure prophylaxis. In this review, we will present evidence in support of these new female-initiated interventions while also emphasizing the importance of advocacy and the political support for these scientific advances to be successful. PMID:23745166

  15. Cumulative (Dis)Advantage and the Matthew Effect in Life-Course Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bask, Miia; Bask, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    To foster a deeper understanding of the mechanisms behind inequality in society, it is crucial to work with well-defined concepts associated with such mechanisms. The aim of this paper is to define cumulative (dis)advantage and the Matthew effect. We argue that cumulative (dis)advantage is an intra-individual micro-level phenomenon, that the Matthew effect is an inter-individual macro-level phenomenon and that an appropriate measure of the Matthew effect focuses on the mechanism or dynamic process that generates inequality. The Matthew mechanism is, therefore, a better name for the phenomenon, where we provide a novel measure of the mechanism, including a proof-of-principle analysis using disposable personal income data. Finally, because socio-economic theory should be able to explain cumulative (dis)advantage and the Matthew mechanism when they are detected in data, we discuss the types of models that may explain the phenomena. We argue that interactions-based models in the literature traditions of analytical sociology and statistical mechanics serve this purpose. PMID:26606386

  16. Women's Health

    MedlinePLUS

    Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

  17. Sustainable development: women as partners.

    PubMed

    Dem, M

    1993-02-01

    The economic recession and the structural adjustment programs imposed y the International Monetary Fund have caused sluggish or no economic growth and a decline in living conditions in sub-Saharan Africa. Senegal's New Agricultural Policy has eliminated subsidies for agricultural inputs, worsening the already declining living conditions. Population growth in Senegal exceeds food production; it is very rapid in cities (urban growth rate, 2.7%). Women, especially, suffer from the economic crisis; it increases the burden on women for income generation, but the increased workload does not equate more income. This workload restricts women's opportunities to improve their physical environment and does not improve their status within society. Women still face discrimination daily; power lies with men. Oxfam supports urban women financially and technically as they organize and pursue income generation activities to institute change leading to sustainable development. It has helped a Serere women's group in Dakar to organize and provided credit funds to support their trading activities and family planning sensitization training. Oxfam also finances rural women coming to Dakar during the dry season to pound millet to sell. Problems which have to be overcome to achieve sustainable development acceptable to women are numerous. Women need access to the ways and means of food production. Resources are insufficient and inaccessible to women because women are excluded from the decision-making process. Women generally do not have access to information and training which would help them make their own choices and manage their own lives. Political and sociocultural environments, especially those of the poor, do not easily allow women opportunities for independent reflection and expression. Grassroots women's groups provide the best base to develop female solidarity and women's representation, leading to sustainable development. Development organizations must take up a new dynamic where each person assumes his/her own responsibilities to search for more justice, dignity, and prosperity for the poor, particularly women. PMID:12287129

  18. Women in development.

    PubMed

    White, E H

    1980-01-01

    The author reports on travel in the Philippines, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan, and conditions she found affecting development. Development for women in the Philippines has been hampered by a dichotomy between home economics and agricultural work. Although the majority of students in agriculture are women, many village cooperatives have been formed with less than 10% women members. Malaysia has a high level of education; development projects can easily be implemented. The National Association of Women's Institutes of Peninsular Malaysia (NAWIPM) emphasizes training for rural women. Its activiti include nursuries, poultry raising, home improvement, cooperatives, and income generating projects such as catering and tailoring. As in the Philippines ther is an important Muslim minority; Muslim women lag behind other Sri Lankans in education. The Mahila Samiti is the organization which trains rural women i some 1500 chapters. The women of Pakistan have the greatest need for assistance. Less than 15% Pakistan women are literate; their enrollment in school lags far behind the boys. The All Pakistan Women's Association works on problems of development through its Nutrition Education Training Courses. The centers have begun poultry raising and gardening as parts of its program. PMID:12261905

  19. 48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disadvantaged business status. 19.304 Section 19.304 ...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs...

  20. 48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disadvantaged business status. 19.304 Section 19.304 ...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs...

  1. 48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disadvantaged business status. 19.304 Section 19.304 ...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs...

  2. 48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disadvantaged business status. 19.304 Section 19.304 ...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs...

  3. 48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...individuals (small disadvantaged businesses as defined in 726.7002), historically black colleges and universities, colleges and universities having a student body of which more than 40 percent of the students are Hispanic Americans, and...

  4. Facilitating Vocational Development Among Disadvantaged Inner-City Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdani, Asma

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the vocational development process of tenth-grade disadvantaged students can be facilitated through deliberate intervention in the form of supplementary learning experiences. (Author)

  5. 48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...DEVELOPMENT ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 706.302-71 Small disadvantaged...statutes to use other than full and open competition to award contracts to small...

  6. Social disadvantage, genetic sensitivity, and children's telomere length.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Colter; Hobcraft, John; McLanahan, Sara S; Siegel, Susan Rutherford; Berg, Arthur; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Garfinkel, Irwin; Notterman, Daniel

    2014-04-22

    Disadvantaged social environments are associated with adverse health outcomes. This has been attributed, in part, to chronic stress. Telomere length (TL) has been used as a biomarker of chronic stress: TL is shorter in adults in a variety of contexts, including disadvantaged social standing and depression. We use data from 40, 9-y-old boys participating in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to extend this observation to African American children. We report that exposure to disadvantaged environments is associated with reduced TL by age 9 y. We document significant associations between low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure, and harsh parenting and TL. These effects were moderated by genetic variants in serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways. Consistent with the differential susceptibility hypothesis, subjects with the highest genetic sensitivity scores had the shortest TL when exposed to disadvantaged social environments and the longest TL when exposed to advantaged environments. PMID:24711381

  7. Review of ADHD Pharmacotherapies: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Clinical Pearls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daughton, Joan M.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages, disadvantages, as well as helpful hints on when to use several drug therapies against attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are discussed. The drugs discussed are methylphenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, and bupropion.

  8. Making Computer Science More Accessible to Educationally Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Ian; Mueller, Conrad

    1994-01-01

    Addresses how the Department of Computer Science at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa has attempted to make computer science accessible to students who have been disadvantaged by the apartheid system. (Author/MKR)

  9. [Physiological aspects of women in combat].

    PubMed

    Libster, D; Heled, Y; Shapiro, Y; Epstein, Y

    1999-12-01

    Since military service is physically demanding, soldiers must maintain high levels of physical fitness for optimal performance of their duties. Women are at a physiological disadvantage when competing against men: they have a smaller muscle mass, more body fat, lower red blood cell counts, lower hemoglobin levels and smaller cardiac outputs. Women are slower and weaker than men and more prone to exercise-induced skeletal injuries. Fewer women than men meet the standards of physically demanding jobs. Therefore integrating women into physically demanding military-oriented jobs requires redesigning or modifying the tasks (different pace, mechanical aids, teamwork). While physical training can increase the physical capacity of women, training cannot completely eliminate gender differences. Thus the data presented do not imply that women cannot be integrated into combat units, but highlight gender-related differences which might have an effect on the ability of women to compete equally with men at the same task. PMID:10959362

  10. 13 CFR 124.1007 - Who may protest the disadvantaged status of a concern?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... false Who may protest the disadvantaged status of a concern? 124.1007...124.1007 Who may protest the disadvantaged status of a concern? (a) In...following entities may protest the disadvantaged status of the apparent...

  11. 13 CFR 124.1007 - Who may protest the disadvantaged status of a concern?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... false Who may protest the disadvantaged status of a concern? 124.1007...124.1007 Who may protest the disadvantaged status of a concern? (a) In...following entities may protest the disadvantaged status of the apparent...

  12. 75 FR 5535 - Participation by Disadvantaged Business Enterprises in Department of Transportation Financial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ...Participation by Disadvantaged Business Enterprises in Department of Transportation Financial...their overall disadvantaged business enterprise (DBE) goal for federally funded contracting...PARTICIPATION BY DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  13. 48 CFR 726.7006 - Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise. 726.7006 Section 726.7006...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Disadvantaged Enterprises Program 726.7006 Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise. (a) To be...

  14. 76 FR 30898 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements for Airport Concessions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ...RIN 2105-AE10 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements for Airport Concessions...Airport Concessions Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (ACDBE) regulation, consistent with...regulation for the disadvantaged business enterprise (DBE) program in highway,...

  15. Re-examining the home disadvantage in professional ice hockey.

    PubMed

    Gayton, William F; Perry, Scott M; Loignon, Andrew C; Ricker, Angela

    2011-04-01

    Occurrence of the home disadvantage in professional ice hockey was examined by analyzing shootout data from 2005 through 2008. Results indicated that teams involved in shootouts playing at their home arenas did not lose significantly more games at home than on the road. Results did not support the hypotheses that emphasize the roles of physical contact and diffusion of responsibility in accounting for past failures to find the home disadvantage in professional ice hockey. PMID:21667767

  16. 48 CFR 19.1506 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program...Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-owned Small Business (EDWOSB) Concerns...set aside for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business concerns under...

  17. Family and neighborhood disadvantage, home environment, and children's school readiness.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K; Hur, Eunhye

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations between family socioeconomic risk, neighborhood disadvantage, and children's school readiness. A sample of 420 children from 48 early childcare programs yielded multi-informant data. The average age was 55.3 months (SD = 6.4), with 38% of children being Black, non-Hispanic, Hispanic, or other minority race (American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander). One third (32.4%) of the parents had annual incomes less than $30,000. We used multilevel structural equation modeling to test direct and indirect associations among family socioeconomic risk and neighborhood disadvantage and children's cognitive and social-emotional development through home learning environment and parental depression. Children with a greater number of family socioeconomic risks and a higher level of neighborhood disadvantage demonstrated lower scores on cognitive skills. The degree of family socioeconomic risk was indirectly associated with children's cognitive ability through parents' cognitive stimulation at home. Parents who had more family socioeconomic risks and neighborhood disadvantage reported more depressive symptoms, which, in turn, suggested children's greater probability of having social-emotional problems. In other words, home learning environments explained associations between family socioeconomic disadvantage and children's cognitive skills, while parental depression explained associations between family/neighborhood disadvantages and children's social-emotional problems. Results suggest the importance of intervention or prevention strategies for parents to improve cognitive stimulation at home and to reduce depressive symptoms. PMID:25150370

  18. The Impact of Learning on Women's Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haasler, Simone R.

    2014-01-01

    Women play an increasingly important role in the labour market and as wage earners. Moreover, in many countries, young women have outperformed men in terms of educational attainment and qualification. Still, women's human capital investment does not pay off as it does for men as they are still significantly disadvantaged on the labour market.…

  19. The Black Woman Worker: A Minority Group Perspective on Women at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    1986-01-01

    Being black and female is a double disadvantage in the labor market. Black women work in higher proportions than other women, but their wages are less and many have undesirable jobs. Some black women are experiencing more employment success, but as racial discrimination lessens, they face sexism. (VM)

  20. An economical single to three phase converter for induction motors 

    E-print Network

    Di Zerega, Philp Van Uytandaele

    1994-01-01

    There are several different types of single to three phase converters for induction motors available today. However, many of the presently available phase converters suffer from disadvantages such as high cost or low performance. An economical...

  1. Women’s empowerment revisited: a case study from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Farzana; Rottach, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the changing dimensions of women's empowerment over time in three Bangladesh villages where one of the authors has been conducting research since 1991. The article discusses theoretical issues related to the measurement of women's empowerment, and describes findings from a recent study in the villages exploring the current salience of indicators developed for a 1992 survey. In the article we discuss the types of social, economic, and political change that affect the measurement of women’s empowerment; propose and explain a new set of indicators for the rural Bangladesh setting; and discuss implications for measuring women's empowerment in other settings. PMID:20856695

  2. 48 CFR 19.1203 - Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns. 19.1203 Section 19...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program 19.1203...

  3. 48 CFR 19.1203 - Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns. 19.1203 Section 19...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program 19.1203...

  4. 48 CFR 19.1203 - Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns. 19.1203 Section 19...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program 19.1203...

  5. 48 CFR 219.1203 - Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns. 219.1203 Section 219...OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program 219.1203...

  6. 48 CFR 19.1203 - Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns. 19.1203 Section 19...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program 19.1203...

  7. 48 CFR 219.1203 - Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns. 219.1203 Section 219...OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program 219.1203...

  8. 48 CFR 19.1203 - Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns. 19.1203 Section 19...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program 19.1203...

  9. 48 CFR 219.1203 - Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns. 219.1203 Section 219...OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program 219.1203...

  10. 48 CFR 219.1203 - Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns. 219.1203 Section 219...OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program 219.1203...

  11. 48 CFR 219.1203 - Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns. 219.1203 Section 219...OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program 219.1203...

  12. American Women Workers in a Full Employment Economy. A Compendium of Papers Submitted to the Subcommittee on Economic Growth and Stabilization of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, 95th Congress, 1st Session, September 15, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    This compendium of seventeen papers discusses women's overall role in a full employment economy and their problems in fulfilling that role. It begins with a comprehensive summary of the authors' views and then presents the papers in six sections: (1) overview; (2) overcoming barriers; (3) support services and adjusted conditions; (4) education and…

  13. Barriers and Facilitators to Health Behaviour Change and Economic Activity among Slum-Dwelling Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Nairobi, Kenya: The Role of Social, Health and Economic Assets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austrian, Karen; Anderson, Althea D.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent girls and young women in urban slum areas in developing countries face a myriad of challenges regarding education, sexual health, livelihoods and gender-based violence. One way of understanding how these challenges interact with each other is through the Asset Building Framework, which posits that girls need a combination of social,…

  14. Gender Norms, Poverty and Armed Conflict in Côte D'Ivoire: Engaging Men in Women's Social and Economic Empowerment Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falb, K. L.; Annan, J.; King, E.; Hopkins, J.; Kpebo, D.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    Engaging men is a critical component in efforts to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV). Little is known regarding men's perspectives of approaches that challenge inequitable gender norms, particularly in settings impacted by armed conflict. This article describes men's experiences with a women's empowerment program and highlights…

  15. Women in Physics in Perú

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loayza, María Luisa Cerón; Vásquez, Yezeña Huaypar; Cabrejos, Jorge Aurelio Bravo

    2009-04-01

    The numbers of women receiving undergraduate and master's degrees in physics from San Marcos National University and undergraduate physics degrees from San Luis Gonzaga National University in Perú are reported. The number of undergraduate degrees in physics has increased for women in San Marcos University, but not for women earning master's degrees. Why don't women complete their post-degree studies? Economics and gender stereotypes are factors that women in Perú have to fight each day. Perú does not have a good scholar program in science, so few students are interested in beginning their university careers in science. Improvements in science education are needed for our country to reach its potential.

  16. Development of Kondh women.

    PubMed

    Baral, J K; Bakshi, S P

    1994-10-01

    This article presents a profile of the living conditions of the Kondh ethnic group, with particular attention to women's conditions. The Kondhs are the largest tribal community in Orissa state, India. Kondh tribes are concentrated in Phulbani, Koraput, and Kalahandi districts. The Kondh consist of three subgroups. In Phulbani district the Kondh are one of several tribal populations and together with scheduled castes and tribes are the dominant populations. Phulbani district has limited educational resources and low levels of literacy, particularly among women. Female literacy in 1991 was only 16.59%. Girl's educational institutions are few in number and poor in quality. Female literacy is low due to parental ignorance of the importance of female education, the need to use girl children as domestic helpers, the cultural practice of facial tattooing that causes injury and shame among parents and children, the inadequacy of district schools, and the reputation of better private boarding as "cages." Economic life is based on a sexual division of labor, and women and men work according to their capacity. Agricultural tasks are shared, but men perform ploughing and clearing of jungle. Women perform all domestic tasks in addition collection of daily firewood and additional forest products that are sold jointed with husbands in local markets. During the slack agricultural periods, men relax and women work. Both men and women work if construction work is available nearby. Although tubewells were installed in villages, women prefer distant pond or stream water for drinking. The loss of tribal land for women places them in more vulnerable sexual and economic positions. Many voluntary groups promote land ownership for women as a means of security and social status. Phulbani district has little urbanization and no major industries. Bride-price was replaced by dowry, which downgrades Kondh women's status. The Kondh suffer from malnutrition, malaria, and anemia. Health services are insufficient, and Kondh cultural practices interfere with acceptance of modern medicine and healthy lifestyles. PMID:12291436

  17. Smokefree Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 4 Benefits of Quitting Smoking » share 11 Harmful Effects of Smoking on Women’s Health Maybe you’ve heard that smoking causes cancer… Read full story: 11 Harmful Effects of Smoking on Women’s Health » share home about smokefree women ...

  18. Effects of a food-based intervention on markers of micronutrient status among Indian women of low socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, Sarah H; Chopra, Harsha; Sahariah, Sirazul A; Bhat, Dattatray; Munshi, Renuka P; Panchal, Falguni; Young, Stephen; Brown, Nick; Tarwande, Dnyaneshwar; Gandhi, Meera; Margetts, Barrie M; Potdar, Ramesh D; Fall, Caroline H D

    2015-03-14

    Intakes of micronutrient-rich foods are low among Indian women of reproductive age. We investigated whether consumption of a food-based micronutrient-rich snack increased markers of blood micronutrient concentrations when compared with a control snack. Non-pregnant women (n 222) aged 14-35 years living in a Mumbai slum were randomised to receive a treatment snack (containing green leafy vegetables, dried fruit and whole milk powder), or a control snack containing foods of low micronutrient content such as wheat flour, potato and tapioca. The snacks were consumed under observation 6 d per week for 12 weeks, compliance was recorded, and blood was collected at 0 and 12 weeks. Food-frequency data were collected at both time points. Compliance (defined as the proportion of women who consumed ? 3 snacks/week) was >85 % in both groups. We assessed the effects of group allocation on 12-week nutrient concentrations using ANCOVA models with respective 0-week concentrations, BMI, compliance, standard of living, fruit and green leafy vegetable consumption and use of synthetic nutrients as covariates. The treatment snack significantly increased ?-carotene concentrations (treatment effect: 47·1 nmol/l, 95 % CI 6·5, 87·7). There was no effect of group allocation on concentrations of ferritin, retinol, ascorbate, folate or vitamin B12. The present study shows that locally sourced foods can be made into acceptable snacks that may increase serum ?-carotene concentrations among women of reproductive age. However, no increase in circulating concentrations of the other nutrients measured was observed. PMID:25677713

  19. "Bigger than Hip-Hop?" Impact of a Community-Based Physical Activity Program on Youth Living in a Disadvantaged Neighborhood in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulac, Julie; Kristjansson, Elizabeth; Calhoun, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This study explored whether a hip-hop dance program was associated with improved well-being for adolescents living in a multicultural, socio-economically disadvantaged urban community in Ottawa. Sixty-seven youths between 11 and 16 years of age participated in a 13-week program. A primarily qualitative approach was used to assess perceived impact…

  20. Does Head Start Work? A 1-Year Follow-Up Comparison of Disadvantaged Children Attending Head Start, No Preschool, and Other Preschool Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Valerie E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Comparing 969 economically disadvantaged children attending Head Start, other preschools, or no preschool, this study assessed the Project's effectiveness. Findings indicated that Head Start provided an especially enriching preschool experience, and was an impressive instrument of short-term change in children. Gains in behaviors other than…

  1. Essays in public finance and labor economics

    E-print Network

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines three questions of causality relevant to public finance and labor economics: the effect of racial segregation on city characteristics, the effect of divorce on women's economic outcomes, and the effect ...

  2. Women Trustees: An Untapped Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer-Raymo, Judith

    2008-01-01

    In these uncertain economic times, leadership is among the most frequently used (and misused) terms in public discourse. And the vast literature on this topic certainly encompasses considerable discussion of the policies and practices that can equalize leadership opportunities for women and people of color. In reviewing the status of women in…

  3. Mechanisms Linking Socioeconomic Disadvantage and BMI in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Businelle, Michael S.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Castro, Yessenia; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate a conceptual model of the psychosocial pathways linking socioeconomic status and body mass index (BMI) among smokers. Methods A latent variable modeling approach was used to evaluate the interrelationships among socioeconomic status, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, negative affect, and BMI among smokers recruited from the Houston metropolitan area (N = 424). Results A total of 42.4% of participants were obese, with the highest prevalence of obesity among Latinos followed by African Americans. Across all racial/ethnic groups, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, and negative affect functioned as pathways linking socioeconomic status and BMI. Conclusions Findings indicate the need for interventions that target obesity among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers and provide potential intervention targets for the prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:23985281

  4. Race, Gender, and Chains of Disadvantage: Childhood Adversity, Social Relationships, and Health

    PubMed Central

    Umberson, Debra; Williams, Kristi; Thomas, Patricia A.; Liu, Hui; Thomeer, Mieke Beth

    2014-01-01

    We use a life course approach to guide an investigation of relationships and health at the nexus of race and gender. We consider childhood as a sensitive period in the life course, during which significant adversity may launch chains of disadvantage in relationships throughout the life course that then have cumulative effects on health over time. Data from a nationally representative panel study (Americans’ Changing Lives, N=3,477) reveal substantial disparities between black and white adults, especially pronounced among men, in the quality of close relationships and in the consequences of these relationships for health. Greater childhood adversity helps to explain why black men have worse health than white men, and some of this effect appears to operate through childhood adversity’s enduring influence on relationship strain in adulthood. Stress that occurs in adulthood plays a greater role than childhood adversity in explaining racial disparities in health among women. PMID:24578394

  5. Women Appointed to State Boards and Commissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, The State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ. Center for the American Woman and Politics.

    The report analyzed the average proportions of women on 2,134 state boards and commissions in ten areas of state government. Data were collected in 1975 at the request of the Women in Power Committee of the National Commission on the Observance of International Women's Year. The ten functional areas of government were business regulation, economic

  6. Women in Community Colleges: Access to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Rose, Andresse; Hill, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Community colleges open the door to opportunity for millions of Americans who want to pursue higher education and secure their economic futures. As an organization founded on the basic principle of making college accessible to women, the American Association of University Women (AAUW) has been a leading voice for women in education and the…

  7. Appalachian Women: A Learning/Teaching Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Sharon B.; Patton-Crowder, Carolyn

    While Appalachian women share many experiences and circumstances in common with American women in general and with rural American women in particular, the economics, social and political history, and circumstances peculiar to the region have forged life experiences for females in Appalachia which merit independent attention. This learning/teaching…

  8. Female Leadership Advantage and Disadvantage: Resolving the Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, women are increasingly praised for having excellent skills for leadership and, in fact, women, more than men, manifest leadership styles associated with effective performance as leaders. Nevertheless, more people prefer male than female bosses, and it is more difficult for women than men to become leaders and to succeed in…

  9. The Role of Support Services in Promoting Social Inclusion for the Disadvantaged Urban-dwelling Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Vicky P.K.H.; Sarkari, Feroz; MacNeil, Kate; Cowan, Laura; Rankin, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Background Disadvantaged older adults living in non-family situations in Toronto are more likely than older adults living in family situations to have less economic security, less social support, and less choice in housing. Older adults who live in poverty and are precariously housed are more likely to be chronically ill, to live with multiple illnesses, to have poor nutrition, high stress and loneliness, all of which are strongly associated with the determinant of health social exclusion. The aim of this study is to: 1) evaluate the level of social disadvantage and exclusion experienced by low-income older adults 65 years of age and older living alone or in non-family situations; 2) assess the level of dependency on government and community services (support services) to maintain a reasonable standard of living (minimize effects of social exclusion); and 3) identify consequences of social exclusion not addressed by current available services. Methods Fifteen male older adult members of the Good Neighbours’ Club in downtown Toronto were interviewed. Semi-structured questionnaires assessed barriers to, utility of, and perceived impact of support services available to disadvantaged older adults living in the central core of southeast Toronto. Results Support services for income, housing, food security, social support, and health care do mitigate the effects of social exclusion in the study participants. Data gathered from interviews identified factors that counter the efforts by support services to increase social inclusion in this population. Conclusions Support services reduce social isolation experienced by these older adults. Evidence of the detrimental impact of low financial literacy suggests a need to design and implement training programs to build the older adults’ capacity to manage their own finances effectively, and resist falling victim to financial fraud. PMID:24278093

  10. Effect of neighborhood stigma on economic transactions

    PubMed Central

    Besbris, Max; Faber, Jacob William; Rich, Peter; Sharkey, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis of neighborhood stigma predicts that individuals who reside in areas known for high crime, poverty, disorder, and/or racial isolation embody the negative characteristics attributed to their communities and experience suspicion and mistrust in their interactions with strangers. This article provides an experimental test of whether neighborhood stigma affects individuals in one domain of social life: economic transactions. To evaluate the neighborhood stigma hypothesis, this study adopts an audit design in a locally organized, online classified market, using advertisements for used iPhones and randomly manipulating the neighborhood of the seller. The primary outcome under study is the number of responses generated by sellers from disadvantaged relative to advantaged neighborhoods. Advertisements from disadvantaged neighborhoods received significantly fewer responses than advertisements from advantaged neighborhoods. Results provide robust evidence that individuals from disadvantaged neighborhoods bear a stigma that influences their prospects in economic exchanges. The stigma is greater for advertisements originating from disadvantaged neighborhoods where the majority of residents are black. This evidence reveals that residence in a disadvantaged neighborhood not only affects individuals through mechanisms involving economic resources, institutional quality, and social networks but also affects residents through the perceptions of others. PMID:25848041

  11. Effect of neighborhood stigma on economic transactions.

    PubMed

    Besbris, Max; Faber, Jacob William; Rich, Peter; Sharkey, Patrick

    2015-04-21

    The hypothesis of neighborhood stigma predicts that individuals who reside in areas known for high crime, poverty, disorder, and/or racial isolation embody the negative characteristics attributed to their communities and experience suspicion and mistrust in their interactions with strangers. This article provides an experimental test of whether neighborhood stigma affects individuals in one domain of social life: economic transactions. To evaluate the neighborhood stigma hypothesis, this study adopts an audit design in a locally organized, online classified market, using advertisements for used iPhones and randomly manipulating the neighborhood of the seller. The primary outcome under study is the number of responses generated by sellers from disadvantaged relative to advantaged neighborhoods. Advertisements from disadvantaged neighborhoods received significantly fewer responses than advertisements from advantaged neighborhoods. Results provide robust evidence that individuals from disadvantaged neighborhoods bear a stigma that influences their prospects in economic exchanges. The stigma is greater for advertisements originating from disadvantaged neighborhoods where the majority of residents are black. This evidence reveals that residence in a disadvantaged neighborhood not only affects individuals through mechanisms involving economic resources, institutional quality, and social networks but also affects residents through the perceptions of others. PMID:25848041

  12. Programming Mathematics: A New Approach in Teaching the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-On, Ehud; Or-Bach, Rachel

    The development of an instructional model for teaching formal mathematical concepts (probability concepts) to disadvantaged high school students through computer programming and some results from a field test are described in this document. The instructional model takes into account both learner characteristics (cognitive, affective, and…

  13. Educational and Vocational Rehabilitation of Disadvantaged Handicapped Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leshner, Saul S.; Snyderman, George S.

    Some 276 handicapped and socially disadvantaged youth aged 16 to 18, who were likely to drop out of high school, received rehabilitation services from the Philadelphia Jewish Employment and Vocational Service (JEVS) and the Board of Education. The services included intense vocational and personal evaluation, work adjustment training, individual…

  14. Nutritional Supplementation of Disadvantaged Elementary-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, David M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Examined with 177 disadvantaged elementary school students (5-9 years old, 99 percent Blacks) were the effects of the provision of a nutritionally fortified low-lactose food supplement on hematocrit values (volume percentage of erythrocytes in whole blood), growth, absenteeism, and lunch consumption. (IM)

  15. 48 CFR 52.219-22 - Small Disadvantaged Business Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...this solicitation. Status as a small business and status as a small disadvantaged...provision at FAR 52.219-1, Small Business Program Representation. (b...part of its offer, that it is a small business under the size standard...

  16. The Use of Individually Prescribed Instruction for the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.; Seay, Donna M.

    The adaptation and use of individually prescribed instruction (IPI) in adult basic education for the disadvantaged are discussed. The discussion describes a model IPI system (The Draper Model); recommends certain considerations if it is to be used successfully; and shows that programmed instructional (PI) materials work best in a learning system…

  17. Introducing Computer Science to Educationally Disadvantaged High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paz, Tamar; Levy, Dalit

    2005-01-01

    An approach to the teaching and learning of high school computer science (CS) to and by educationally disadvantaged students (EDS) is described, as well as the implementation of six pedagogical principles in two learning environments developed for Israeli schools. Following a brief description of the main characteristics of EDS classes and a…

  18. Theorising Multiply Disadvantaged Young People's Challenges in Accessing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie; Mkwananzi, Faith

    2015-01-01

    This paper sketches an innovative conceptualisation of disadvantaged youth, shaped dialogically by the interactions of theorising and data from a case study at Orange Farm informal settlement in South Africa in 2013. The study focused on the challenges for the young people in this area in accessing higher education. Drawing on Sen's and Nussbaum's…

  19. 13 CFR 124.1014 - Appeals of disadvantaged status determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AA/GC&BD by the protested concern, the protestor, or the contracting officer. (b) Timeliness of appeal. An appeal must be in writing and must be received by the AA/GC&BD no later than 5 working days... disadvantaged. (g) The appeal will be decided by the AA/GC&BD, within 5 working days of its receipt,...

  20. Cognitive Advantages and Disadvantages in Early and Late Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelham, Sabra D.; Abrams, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented advantages and disadvantages of early bilinguals, defined as learning a 2nd language by school age and using both languages since that time. Relative to monolinguals, early bilinguals manifest deficits in lexical access but benefits in executive function. We investigated whether becoming bilingual "after"…

  1. Language Instruction, Background, and Development of Disadvantaged Kindergarten Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassenrath, Julius M.; Maddux, Robert E.

    1974-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of three language development programs, 98 disadvantaged kindergarten children were grouped by sex, language background (English or English and Spanish), and language instruction (Distar, Peabody, or Standard) and were pretested and posttested on the School Readiness Survey (SRS), the Wepman Auditory…

  2. The Language Experience Approach for the Culturally Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, MaryAnne

    This review on the language experience approach to reading instruction for the culturally disadvantaged is one of the reading information series, designed to review the past, assess the present, and predict the future of reading education. The target audience are those with specific professional interests and needs: researchers, professors, and…

  3. How Much More Does a Disadvantaged Student Cost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncombe, W.; Yinger, J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a guide to statistically based methods for estimating the extra costs of educating disadvantaged students, shows how these methods are related, and compares state aid programs that account for these costs in different ways. We show how pupil weights, which are included in many state aid programs, can be estimated from an…

  4. 13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... without regard to their individual qualities. The social disadvantage must stem from circumstances beyond... assessing this element. In every case, however, SBA will consider education, employment and business history... advancing in the business world. (A) Education. SBA considers such factors as denial of equal access...

  5. 13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... without regard to their individual qualities. The social disadvantage must stem from circumstances beyond... any relevant evidence in assessing this element. In every case, however, SBA will consider education... in entering into or advancing in the business world. (A) Education. SBA considers such factors...

  6. 13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... without regard to their individual qualities. The social disadvantage must stem from circumstances beyond... assessing this element. In every case, however, SBA will consider education, employment and business history... advancing in the business world. (A) Education. SBA considers such factors as denial of equal access...

  7. 13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... without regard to their individual qualities. The social disadvantage must stem from circumstances beyond... assessing this element. In every case, however, SBA will consider education, employment and business history... advancing in the business world. (A) Education. SBA considers such factors as denial of equal access...

  8. The Early College Challenge: Navigating Disadvantaged Students' Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, James E.; Becker, Kelly Iwanaga

    2011-01-01

    Successful early college high schools (ECHSs) are formed through partnerships between high schools and colleges (usually community colleges). Think of it as preparation through acceleration. ECHSs enroll disadvantaged students who have not excelled with ordinary grade-level academic content and have them take college courses while still in high…

  9. Disentangling Disadvantage: Can We Distinguish Good Teaching from Classroom Composition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamarro, Gema; Engberg, John; Saavedra, Juan Esteban; Steele, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the use of teacher value-added estimates to assess the distribution of effective teaching across students of varying socioeconomic disadvantage in the presence of classroom composition effects. We examine, via simulations, how accurately commonly used teacher value-added estimators recover the rank correlation between…

  10. Education for All: Compensating for Disadvantage in Mexico. Education Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Shapiro, Joseph; Trevino, Jorge Moreno

    2004-01-01

    This note series is intended to summarize lessons learned and key policy findings on the World Bank's work in education.Education for all means learning for all. It means closing the "advantage" gap--making sure that the children of the poor and disadvantaged achieve the same levels of learning as all other children. This is one of the great…

  11. A Study of Four Library Programs for Disadvantaged Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsor, Charlotte B.; Burrows, Lodema

    This is a study of four projects in New York City which were established with federal grants to offer library service to the disadvantaged in the area. The four programs studied are the Preschool Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the Community Coordinator Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the North Manhattan Project of the New York…

  12. Research Visibility. Disadvantaged Youth: Rural Poverty and the Urban Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Gordon F., Ed.

    1968-01-01

    Fifteen reviews in this issue pertaining to rural and urban disadvantaged youth are organized under six topics: (1) Manpower Reports reviews the 1967 and 1968 Presidential Manpower Reports and a report on national goals and manpower requirements, (2) Training youthful offenders treats correctional programs at the Lorton Youth Center and the New…

  13. Coexpression of Linked Genes in Mammalian Genomes Is Generally Disadvantageous

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jianzhi

    Coexpression of Linked Genes in Mammalian Genomes Is Generally Disadvantageous Ben-Yang Liao and Jianzhi Zhang Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan Similarity in gene expression pattern between closely linked genes is known in several eukaryotes. Two models have been proposed

  14. URBAN DISADVANTAGED PUPILS, A SYNTHESIS OF 99 RESEARCH REPORTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCLOSKEY, ELINOR F.

    THIS DESCRIPTION OF THE CHARACTERISTICS AND EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF URBAN DISADVANTAGED PUPILS IS A SYNTHESIS OF 99 RESEARCH REPORTS. THE RESEARCH SUGGESTS THAT SUCH CHILDREN LIVE IN A WORLD OF ISOLATION, LIMITED EXPERIENCE, AND REJECTION. HOUSING CONDITIONS, A DEMORALIZING NEIGHBORHOOD, AND A DISORGANIZED FAMILY LIFE ALL CONTRIBUTE TO THE…

  15. 48 CFR 52.219-22 - Small Disadvantaged Business Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Small Business Administration as a small disadvantaged business concern consistent with 13 CFR 124... Business Administration or a Private Certifier in accordance with 13 CFR part 124, subpart B. For joint... applicable exclusions set forth at 13 CFR 124.104(c)(2); and (C) It is identified, on the date of...

  16. A Summer Academic Research Experience for Disadvantaged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience…

  17. Concrete vs. Abstract Problem Formats: A Disadvantage of Prior Knowledge

    E-print Network

    Heckler, Andrew F.

    Concrete vs. Abstract Problem Formats: A Disadvantage of Prior Knowledge Andrew F. Heckler experiments examine the effects of varying the relative concreteness of physics word problems on student performance.Previous studies have found that concrete representations benefit performance for relatively

  18. Social Services: A New Program for Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, John O.

    If the disadvantaged student is to have extended educational opportunities, programs of special relevance must be set up for him. His lack of skill is a cultural problem, not necessarily an intellectual one. Two programs leading to careers in social service, along with their attraction for students and the allocation of resources for their…

  19. 13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Japan, China (including Hong Kong), Taiwan... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who is socially disadvantaged? 124.103 Section 124.103 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a)...

  20. Problem Solving Ability of Disadvantaged Children Under Four Test Modes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtz, John C.; And Others

    A study was conducted to test the hypothesis that Ss from disadvantaged homes have poorly developed "abstract" thinking skills and that their thought can be characterized as more "concrete" or relational. Four forms of a problem-solving inventory were developed which differed in mode of presentation. The original form consisted of real-life…

  1. The Social Maturity of Disadvantaged Children. Special Studies Project #2:

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, James J.; And Others

    To determine development patterns of the disadvantaged child at the age when he comes into contact with a school program, a comparison was made of the test performances of 25 primary school children on the Stanford-Binet and the Vineland Social Maturity Scale. Test batteries were given in fall and in spring. The Binet test was administered at…

  2. 77 FR 65164 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 54952). In that.... Correction The Department is making the following correction in FR document number OST-2012-0147, appearing... Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 26 RIN 2105-AE08 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise:...

  3. 78 FR 68016 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ...) entitled, ``Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications,'' at 77 FR 54952, that... FR 65164, which corrected minor errors in the NPRM related to the Paperwork Reduction Act and..., 2013, as announced in a September 18, 2013 notice. 78 FR 57336. At that time, the Department...

  4. Developing Social Giftedness in Disadvantaged Girls at an Indian School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Yukti

    2012-01-01

    This article describes developmental interactions with a group of female students at an Indian public school situated in a disadvantaged section of the community. Through a series of activities, the author makes an intensive effort to develop social giftedness in these students. The article describes various activities together with the author's…

  5. Appalachian Women. An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Mary Margo

    This bibliography compiles annotations of 178 books, journal articles, ERIC documents, and dissertations on Appalachian women and their social, cultural, and economic environment. Entries were published 1966-93 and are listed in the following categories: (1) authors and literary criticism; (2) bibliographies and resource guides; (3) economics,…

  6. Socioeconomic status over 12 years and subclinical cardiovascular disease: The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Rebecca C.; El Khoudary, Samar R.; Derby, Carol A.; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Lewis, Tené T.; McClure, Candace K.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose The inverse relation between socioeconomic status (SES) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well-established. However, few studies have investigated SES assessed repeatedly over adulthood in relation to subclinical atherosclerosis. We aimed to test whether consistently low SES, as indexed by education, income, and financial strain over 12 years of midlife was related to later carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and plaque among women. Methods The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation is a multi-site longitudinal study of midlife women. Education was assessed at the study baseline, income and financial strain were obtained yearly over 12 years, and a carotid ultrasound was obtained at study year 12 among 1402 women. Associations were tested in linear and multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for demographic, biological, and behavioral risk factors. Results A high school education or less (OR (95%CI): 1.72(1.15,2.59), p<0.01), some college education (OR (95%CI): 1.65(1.17,2.32), p<0.01), consistently low income (OR (95%CI): 1.83(1.15,2.89), p<0.05) and consistent financial strain (OR (95%CI): 1.78(1.21,2.61), p<0.01) over 12 years were associated with higher carotid plaque, and consistent financial strain was associated with elevated maximal IMT (b(SE)=0.02(0.01), p<0.05) controlling for standard CVD risk factors. When SES indices were considered together, financial strain (b(SE); 0.02(0.01), p<0.05) and low education (high school education or less: OR (95%CI): 1.55(1.01,2.37), p<0.05; some college: OR (95%CI): 1.56(1.09,2.21), p<0.05) were most consistently associated with IMT and plaque, respectively, controlling for risk factors. Conclusions Findings indicate the importance of targeting economically disadvantaged women in efforts to prevent CVD among women. PMID:24578209

  7. Exploring Gender and Economic Development in Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, Melissa; Oberhauser, Ann M.

    2004-01-01

    This article highlights how dynamic gender relations affect the diverse experiences of men and women in Appalachia's economic development. The analysis draws from the 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census data to examine and compare the demographic, social, and economic conditions of women and men in Appalachia. The discussion focuses on geographical…

  8. Incentives as connectors: insights into a breastfeeding incentive intervention in a disadvantaged area of North-West England

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Incentive or reward schemes are becoming increasingly popular to motivate healthy lifestyle behaviours. In this paper, insights from a qualitative and descriptive study to investigate the uptake, impact and meanings of a breastfeeding incentive intervention integrated into an existing peer support programme (Star Buddies) are reported. The Star Buddies service employs breastfeeding peer supporters to support women across the ante-natal, intra-partum and post-partum period. Methods In a disadvantaged area of North West England, women initiating breastfeeding were recruited by peer supporters on the postnatal ward or soon after hospital discharge to participate in an 8 week incentive (gifts and vouchers) and breastfeeding peer supporter intervention. In-depth interviews were conducted with 26 women participants who engaged with the incentive intervention, and a focus group was held with the 4 community peer supporters who delivered the intervention. Descriptive analysis of routinely collected data for peer supporter contacts and breastfeeding outcomes before and after the incentive intervention triangulated and retrospectively provided the context for the qualitative thematic analysis. Results A global theme emerged of 'incentives as connectors', with two sub-themes of 'facilitating connections' and 'facilitating relationships and wellbeing'. The incentives were linked to discussion themes and gift giving facilitated peer supporter access for proactive weekly home visits to support women. Regular face to face contacts enabled meaningful relationships and new connections within and between the women, families, peer supporters and care providers to be formed and sustained. Participants in the incentive scheme received more home visits and total contact time with peer supporters compared to women before the incentive intervention. Full participation levels and breastfeeding rates at 6-8 weeks were similar for women before and after the incentive intervention. Conclusion The findings suggest that whilst the provision of incentives might not influence women's intentions or motivations to breastfeed, the connections forged provided psycho-social benefits for both programme users and peer supporters. PMID:22458841

  9. Socially Disadvantaged Students in Socially Disadvantaged Schools: Double Jeopardy in Mathematics Achievement in the G8 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dundas, Traci Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Using the G8 countries' (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States) samples from the 2003 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), this study aimed to explore the phenomenon of double jeopardy in mathematics achievement for socially disadvantaged students. Double…

  10. 75 FR 67804 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ...Secretary of State for Economic, Energy, and...in international economic policy. The meeting...focus on India's infrastructure--opportunities...focus on women and economic security. Subcommittee...Subcommittee and the Investment Subcommittee...Economic Policy Analysis and Public...

  11. Women’s Health and the Affordable Care Act: High Hopes Versus Harsh Realities?

    PubMed Central

    Fendrick, A. Mark; Zochowski, Melissa; Dalton, Vanessa K.

    2014-01-01

    Our population-based survey of 1078 randomly sampled US women, aged 18 to 55 years, sought to characterize their understanding of and attitudes toward the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Most women, especially socially disadvantaged groups, had negative or uncertain attitudes toward the ACA and limited understanding of its health benefits, including its relevance for their own health service coverage and utilization. Our findings are important for continued research, policy, and practice, with implications for whether, when, and how improved coverage will translate to improved access and outcomes for US women. PMID:24922171

  12. Divorce and Women's Risk of Health Insurance Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health…

  13. Perfect in Her Place. Women at Work in Industrial America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Deborah J.

    The economic role of American women is traced from colonial times through the 19th century. In colonial America women shared the economic responsibilities of family livelihood with their husbands and were engaged primarily in the production of food and clothing. Early 19th century America saw a redefinition of the social and economic spheres of…

  14. Residential Selection across the Life Course: Adolescent Contextual and Individual Determinants of Neighborhood Disadvantage in Mid-Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Per E.; San Sebastian, Miguel; Janlert, Urban; Theorell, Töres; Westerlund, Hugo; Hammarström, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous cross-sectional studies have examined neighborhood effects on health. Residential selection in adulthood has been stressed as an important cause of selection bias but has received little empirical attention, particularly its determinants from the earlier life course. The present study aims to examine whether neighborhood, family, school, health behaviors and health in adolescence are related to socioeconomic disadvantage of one's neighborhood of residence in adulthood. Methods Based on the prospective Northern Swedish Cohort (analytical N?=?971, 90.6% retention rate), information was collected at age 16 years concerning family circumstances, school adjustment, health behaviors and mental and physical health. Neighborhood register data was linked to the cohort and used to operationalize aggregated measures of neighborhood disadvantage (ND) at age 16 and 42. Data was analyzed with linear mixed models, with ND in adulthood regressed on adolescent predictors and neighborhood of residence in adolescence as the level-2 unit. Results Neighborhood disadvantage in adulthood was clustered by neighborhood of residence in adolescence (ICC?=?8.6%). The clustering was completely explained by ND in adolescence. Of the adolescent predictors, ND (b?=?.14 (95% credible interval?=?.07–.22)), final school marks (b?=??.18 (?.26–?.10)), socioeconomic disadvantage (b?=?.07 (.01–.14)), and, with borderline significance, school peer problems (b?=?.07 (?.00–.13)), were independently related to adulthood ND in the final adjusted model. In sex-stratified analyses, the most important predictors were school marks (b?=??.21 (?.32–?.09)) in women, and neighborhood of residence (ICC?=?15.5%) and ND (b?=?.20 (.09–.31)) in men. Conclusions These findings show that factors from adolescence – which also may impact on adult health – could influence the neighborhood context in which one will live in adulthood. This indicates that residential selection bias in neighborhood effects on health research may have its sources in early life. PMID:24278263

  15. Increasing Women's Influence in Government and Politics: The Inclusion of Women of Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Mary Frances

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the history, current status, and accomplishments of women in United States politics. Identifies opposing perspectives on such political issues as child care, abortion, and the Equal Rights Amendment, stressing the role of minority women. Concludes with strategies women of color may use to overcome the triple bind of race, sex, and economic

  16. Cognitive advantages and disadvantages in early and late bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Pelham, Sabra D; Abrams, Lise

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has documented advantages and disadvantages of early bilinguals, defined as learning a 2nd language by school age and using both languages since that time. Relative to monolinguals, early bilinguals manifest deficits in lexical access but benefits in executive function. We investigated whether becoming bilingual after childhood (late bilinguals) can produce the cognitive advantages and disadvantages typical of early bilinguals. Participants were 30 monolingual English speakers, 30 late English-Spanish bilinguals, and 30 early Spanish-English bilinguals who completed a picture naming task (lexical access) and an attentional network task (executive function). Late and early bilinguals manifested equivalent cognitive effects in both tasks, demonstrating lexical access deficits and executive function benefits. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that cognitive effects associated with bilingualism arise as the result of proficient, habitual use of 2 languages and not of developmental changes associated with becoming bilingual during childhood. PMID:24294916

  17. Women for women's health: Uganda.

    PubMed

    Andrews, C M

    1996-01-01

    The primary health care model targets social, political, and economic environments as key determinants of health for populations, as well as for individuals. If nursing in Uganda is to make a difference in health care outcomes and in the health of all Ugandans, nurses must look broadly at situations and be educated to practice primary health care nursing. After 14 years of civil war, Uganda is finally experiencing a period of reconstruction and rehabilitation: the whole infrastructure is undergoing a face-lift. Ugandan nurses recognize that their educational preparation has stagnated for many years and that it was not only the political unrest in their country that put them behind professionally. They realize that, given the new directions set by the government, they must become prepared to implement primary health care. They are demanding a university education so they may take their place alongside other health care providers prepared at the university level. Some of the most convincing arguments for a university program for nurses came from doctors at the university who spoke about the need to raise the standards of nursing practice, the quality of teachers, and the morale of practitioners. One nurse said: "If we lose hope for a BScN program, I think all the nurses will quit and we won't have any new students going into the profession." This program is designed to improve the health and well-being of all Ugandans, especially the most vulnerable groups of women and children in rural areas, through strengthening and expanding health services by targeting the educational preparation of nurses. Health planners in Uganda envision the professional nurse as key to the implementation of the national health policy of primary health care. University-educated nurses should be able to assess problems, make clinically sound decisions, and act appropriately within the scope of nursing practice. They should be able to interact and consult collegially with other health care professionals. Placed in rural community sites, nurses should function independently as community leaders, health education facilitators, primary health care practitioners, and educators for nursing students. Such intervention in community health care by BScN nurses should improve health care utilization and decrease mortality and morbidity from preventable causes. BScN nurses should make an impact on health care policy, nursing education, and primary health care. The evaluation of this project needs to be as comprehensive as its development and implementation. It will focus on health outcomes, particularly for women and children in rural areas of Uganda. Measurement of the effects of the process of nursing education (the BScN curriculum) in terms of output (nurses educated and placed in rural practice, nursing education, or government policy posts), outcomes (change in health status of rural communities), and broader impacts (changes in the status of women and in government policy toward women, nurses, or health at the local, regional, and national levels) is planned. An element of sustainability is present, as an operations research structure will be left in place at the community level. Timing, as the saying goes, is everything, and this project has had good timing. Our belief in the efforts and the goals of the project also gave us the strength to get support from various funding agencies for "small" things. For example, we got support from churches in the United States for building schools in Uganda; we persisted with the women's income-generating project when other support was pulled; we got books for the library in Uganda and got clothes, books, and furnishings for the students who came to this country. The motivation for project personnel has been altruism. The services that the two consultants provided to their Ugandan colleagues have extended far beyond the scope of the project. PMID:8794456

  18. The impact of gendered organizational systems on women's career advancement.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Deborah A; Hopkins, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    In this Perspective article we propose that in order to pave the way for women's career advancement into the senior ranks of organizations, attention must be directed at the systemic norms and structures that drive the gendered nature of the workplace. A focus on individual level issues, i.e., women lacking confidence and women opting out, detracts from the work that must be done at the organizational level in order to dismantle the system of pervasive, structural disadvantage facing women seeking to advance to senior leadership positions. PMID:26175708

  19. Introducing Women's Self-Help in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reagan, Patricia

    1981-01-01

    A good introductory course in women's health would consist of all or a variety of issues which would include: the economics of women's health, terminology, hysterectomies, breast cancer, hormone therapy, childbirth, and patient-practitioner relationships. (JN)

  20. The Many Faces of the Economic Bulletin Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettcher, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    The Economic Bulletin Board (EBB), a one-stop site for economic statistics and government-sponsored business information, can be accessed on the World Wide Web, gopher, telnet, file transfer protocol, dial-up, and fax. Each access method has advantages and disadvantages related to connections, pricing, depth of access, retrieval, and system…