Note: This page contains sample records for the topic economically disadvantaged women from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section...Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? (a)...

2010-01-01

2

13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section...Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT...requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? (a)...

2009-01-01

3

Enhancing Motivation to Reduce the Risk of HIV Infection for Economically Disadvantaged Urban Women  

PubMed Central

This research evaluated a motivation-based HIV-risk-reduction intervention for economically disadvantaged urban women. Participants completed a survey that assessed HIV-related knowledge, risk perceptions, behavioral intentions, sexual communication, substance use, and risk behavior. A total of 102 at-risk women (76% African-American) were randomly assigned to either the risk-reduction intervention or to a waiting list. Women were reassessed at three and twelve weeks. Results indicated that treated women increased their knowledge and risk awareness, strengthened their intentions to adopt safer sexual practices, communicated their intentions with partners, reduced substance use proximal to sexual activities, and engaged in fewer acts of unprotected vaginal intercourse. These effects were observed immediately and most were maintained at follow-up.

Carey, Michael P.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Forsyth, Andrew D.; Wright, Ednita M.; Johnson, Blair T.

2008-01-01

4

13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Spouse's financial situation. SBA may consider a spouse's financial situation in determining a woman's...an individual claiming economic disadvantage must submit...a spouse's financial situation in determining an...

2013-01-01

5

Food and macronutrient intake of economically disadvantaged pregnant women in Colombia.  

PubMed

The objective of this article is to assess changes in diet composition, defined in terms of macronutrient intake and types of foods consumed, in pregnancy in poor urban women in Colombia. The subjects were 20 pregnant and 20 matched nonpregnant, nonlactating (NPNL) women 19 to 35 years of age. The pregnant women were studied in three measurement rounds at 14.0 +/- 3.6, 27 +/- 2.2, and 35 +/- 1.7 weeks gestation, and the NPNL women in three measurement rounds approximately 3 months apart. Dietary intake was obtained from estimated food records and macronutrient composition from published sources. Types of foods consumed were aggregated into 16 groups: alcohol; breads; candy; coffee, chocolate; juices; fruit; legumes; meat, fish, offal; dairy; vegetable dishes; other; rice, pasta; tubers, plantains; salads; soft drinks; and soups. Macronutrient intakes showed nonsignificant increases in pregnancy. There were no significant differences between pregnant and NPNL women, except for carbohydrate intake in late pregnancy (P = 0.03). Carbohydrate, fat, and protein provided 74%, 17%, and 12% of dietary energy, respectively, in pregnant women at baseline, and did not change significantly. Except for a decrease in fruits, the types of foods consumed did not change significantly in pregnancy. There were no between-group differences in types of foods consumed except for the greater number of fruits consumed by pregnant women at baseline (P = 0.004). We conclude that in this population there were no changes in diet composition in pregnancy, except for an increase in fruit consumption in Round 1. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 11:753-762, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11533991

Dufour, Darna L.; Reina, Julio C.; Spurr, G.B.

1999-11-01

6

Mobile Technologies & Socio-Economic Opportunities for Disadvantaged Women: A Study of Information Behavior in a Developing Nation Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been championed by the United Nations and others as one of the key media to open up socio-economic opportunities for disadvantaged populations. Studies lead us to believe that after being introduced to ICTs, users' information behavior changes, enabling them to benefit from socio-economic

Potnis, Devendra Dilip

2010-01-01

7

Mobile Technologies & Socio-Economic Opportunities for Disadvantaged Women: A Study of Information Behavior in a Developing Nation Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been championed by the United Nations and others as one of the key media to open up socio-economic opportunities for disadvantaged populations. Studies lead us to believe that after being introduced to ICTs, users' information behavior changes, enabling them to benefit from socio-economic

Potnis, Devendra Dilip

2010-01-01

8

Cycles of Discrimination: Older Women, Cumulative Disadvantages, and Retirement Consequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article identifies typical life course situations that women experience, which contribute to a cycle of discrimination or a recurrence of disadvantages simply because of their sex, race, or age. Although men suffer social, health, psychological, and economic disadvantages as they age, this article focuses primarily on women as a more deprived…

Davis, Nanette J.

2005-01-01

9

Clinical research with economically disadvantaged populations  

PubMed Central

Concerns about exploiting the poor or economically disadvantaged in clinical research are widespread in the bioethics community. For some, any research that involves economically disadvantaged individuals is de facto ethically problematic. The economically disadvantaged are thought of as “venerable” to exploitation, impaired decision making, or both, thus requiring either special protections or complete exclusion from research. A closer examination of the worries about vulnerabilities among the economically disadvantaged reveals that some of these worries are empirically or logically untenable, while others can be better resolved by improved study designs than by blanket exclusion of poorer individuals from research participation. The scientific objective to generate generalisable results and the ethical objective to fairly distribute both the risks and benefits of research oblige researchers not to unnecessarily bar economically disadvantaged subjects from clinical research participation.

Denny, Colleen C; Grady, Christine

2007-01-01

10

Profit Related Loans for Economically Disadvantaged Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing recognition that economically disadvantaged areas do not have an inherent capacity to regenerate economic activity or to deliver automatically socially propitious outcomes. In such circumstances, there might be a strong case for public sector intervention of various types. In what follows we a case for the provision of financial resources for the establishment or consolidation of

Bruce Chapman; Ric Simes

2004-01-01

11

Raising awareness and providing free screening improves cervical cancer screening among economically disadvantaged Lebanese/Armenian women.  

PubMed

Women need to practice cervical screening regularly to reduce morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an intervention program on knowledge, attitude, and practice of cervical screening in the population of Lebanese/Armenian women. The design was a cross-sectional, quasi-experimental posttest survey following a year long intervention program. The sample included 176 women, who were members of the Armenian Relief Cross in Lebanon. Interventions consisted of educational classes, media messages, and free screening. The instrument was a self-administered questionnaire. Knowledge of women with intervention was higher (p > .05) and practice rate increased between intervention and comparison groups. No difference in attitude was noted. The study was successful in raising awareness and increasing screening in the sample. It is recommended to continue helping women to overcome barriers for cervical screening. PMID:16946118

Arevian, Mary; Noureddine, Samar; Kabakian-Khasholian, Tamar

2006-10-01

12

From Disadvantaged Girls to Successful Women: Education and Women's Resiliency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is the result of a 2-year study of women who were disadvantaged as girls but who achieved highly in academics. The participants, all of whom had advanced degrees or had completed two years of graduate school, had been raised in low-income homes, were first-generation college students, and had faced stress as children. Most of these women

LePage-Lees, Pamela

13

Independent predictors of breastfeeding intention in a disadvantaged population of pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding rates in Scotland are very low, particularly in the more disadvantaged areas. Despite a number of interventions to promote breastfeeding very few women actually intend to breastfeed their baby. The aim of this study was to identify personal and social factors independently associated with intention to breastfeed. METHODS: Nine hundred and ninety seven women from two socio-economically disadvantaged

Rhona J Mclnnes; Janet G Love; David H Stone

2001-01-01

14

Politics and patriarchy: barriers to health screening for socially disadvantaged women.  

PubMed

Health screening and early detection of cancer results in significantly better health outcomes and lower mortality. However barriers to such screening are multiple and complex. This paper specifically addresses barriers to women's health screening for socially disadvantaged women in an economically and service disadvantaged area. In this qualitative study, women's healthcare workers and consumers of women's health screening were interviewed and data related to issues for women who had special needs were analysed. Findings indicate there is a lack of access to appropriate services for socially disadvantaged women which affects their screening uptake rates. This study also highlights the difficulties socially disadvantaged women encountered when they were able to access these services which also influenced their decisions regarding subsequent health screening. Implications for nurses and other healthcare professionals are manifold and include advocating for greater access to services and more sensitive care in the delivery of health screening services for socially disadvantaged women. PMID:23181371

Peters, Kathleen

2012-10-01

15

Women in Economic Life: Rights and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's role in economic life is changing under the impact of many forces. While discrimination and built-in prejudice against women in employment have been lessening in most parts of the world, in law and in practice, many eco nomic, social, and cultural factors and attitudes still place women at a disadvantage in the world of work and restrict their contribution

Elizabeth Johnstone

1968-01-01

16

Depression prevalence in disadvantaged young black women  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Background Research with Mexican Americans suggests that immigrants have lower rates of mental disorders than U. S.-born Mexican Americans.We examine the prevalence of depression, somatization, alcohol use and drug use among black American women, comparing rates of disorders among U. S.-born, Caribbean-born, and African-born subsamples. Methods Wo men in Women, Infants and Children (WIC) programs, county-run Title X

Jeanne Miranda; Juned Siddique; Thomas R. Belin; Laura P. Kohn-Wood

2005-01-01

17

Book Selections of Economically Disadvantaged Black Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author identified books most often selected among a sample of economically disadvantaged Black 8- to 12-year-old participants (N = 293) and investigated reasons participants offered for choosing specific books. Participants self-selected books at a book fair providing 412 books. The most commonly selected books supplied descriptive data.…

Williams, Lunetta M.

2008-01-01

18

Physical activity, sedentary behavior and depression among disadvantaged women.  

PubMed

This study investigated associations between components of physical activity (PA; e.g. domain and social context) and sedentary behaviors (SBs) and risk of depression in women from disadvantaged neighborhoods. A total of 3645 women, aged 18-45 years, from disadvantaged neighborhoods, self-reported their PA, SB and depressive symptoms. Crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each component of PA, SB and risk of depression using logistic regression analyses, adjusting for clustering by women's neighborhood of residence. Being in a higher tertile of leisure-time PA and transport-related PA was associated with lower risk of depression. No associations were apparent for domestic or work-related PA. Women who undertook a small proportion of their leisure-time PA with someone were less likely to be at risk of depression than those who undertook all leisure-time PA on their own. Women reporting greater time sitting at the computer, screen time and overall sitting time had higher odds of risk of depression compared with those reporting low levels. The domain and social context of PA may be important components in reducing the risk of depression. Reducing time spent in SB may be a key strategy in the promotion of better mental health in women from disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:20145009

Teychenne, Megan; Ball, Kylie; Salmon, Jo

2010-02-09

19

Globalisation, Women's Economic Rights and Forced Labour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalisation critics are concerned that increased trade openness and foreign direct investment exacerbate existing economic disadvantages of women and foster conditions for forced labour. Defenders of globalisation argue instead that as countries become more open and competition intensifies, discrimination against any group, including women, becomes more difficult to sustain and is therefore likely to recede. The same is argued with

Eric Neumayer; Indra de Soysa

2007-01-01

20

Globalization, Women’s Economic Rights and Forced Labor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalization critics are concerned that increased trade openness and foreign direct investment exacerbate existing economic disadvantages of women and foster conditions for forced labor. Defenders of globalization argue instead that as countries become more open and competition intensifies, discrimination against any group, including women, becomes more difficult to sustain and is therefore likely to recede. The same is argued with

Eric Neumayer; Indra de Soysa

2005-01-01

21

Perceived influences on and strategies to reduce sedentary behavior in disadvantaged women experiencing depressive symptoms: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveRecent studies have found linked sedentary behavior (e.g. Television viewing) with risk of depression. Socio-economically disadvantaged women comprise one group at high risk of both sedentary behavior and depression; hence it is important to explore the influences on sedentary behavior amongst this target group. This study assessed perceived influences on sedentary behavior (particularly television viewing) amongst women living in disadvantaged

Megan Teychenne; Kylie Ball; Jo Salmon

2011-01-01

22

Universe Awareness . An inspirational programme for economically disadvantaged young children.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beauty of the sky and its connection with the human development have inspired generations with wonder. Astronomy conveys the excitement of science to the public. Considerable resources are devoted to outreach in developed countries, with spectacular images produced by modern astronomical facilities and astronomical discoveries that change our views of the Universe. Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is a programme for children between 4 and 10 years old. The formative ages of 4 to 10 years are crucial in child development. Children of that age can appreciate the beauty of astronomical objects and develop a ``feeling'' for the vastness of the Universe. Exposing young children to such material is likely to broaden their minds and stimulate their world-view. The programme concentrates on economically disadvantaged young children because most other children will be exposed to some knowledge about the Universe and disparities between advantaged and disadvantaged children increase with age. Venezuela hosted a successful pilot project in 2006. From spontaneous observation of the sky to a teacher-training workshop in the "Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía" in Mérida, this was a wonderful experience for participants and organisers alike. This shows how successful the UNAWE programme can be.

Ödman, C. J.; Scorza, C.; Miley, G. K.; Madsen, C.

23

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...opportunity or access to those things which would enable the individual to participate more successfully in the American economic system, available to individuals not considered to be members of social or economically disadvantaged...

2010-01-01

24

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...opportunity or access to those things which would enable the individual to participate more successfully in the American economic system, available to individuals not considered to be members of social or economically disadvantaged...

2009-01-01

25

The "Collateral Impact" of Pupil Behaviour and Geographically Concentrated Socio-Economic Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools in areas of concentrated disadvantage tend to have below-average attainment, but there is no consensus on why. Mental and behavioural disorders in children are correlated with socio-economic disadvantage. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the first phenomenon can at least partly be accounted for by the second phenomenon through…

David, Alex Hugh

2010-01-01

26

Women, Smoking, and Social Disadvantage over the Life Course: A Longitudinal Study of African American Women  

PubMed Central

We compare life course characteristics of a cohort of African American women (N=457) by their smoking status at age 42: never smoker (34.1%), former smoker (27.8%), or current smoker (38.1%). The Woodlawn population from which our sample is drawn has been followed from first grade (1966–67) to mid adulthood (2002–3) and is a cohort of children from a disadvantaged Chicago community. Examination of the effects of cumulative disadvantage on smoking behavior showed that nearly half of women who first lived in poverty as children, dropped out of school, became teen mothers, and were poor as young adults currently smoked; less than 22% of women with none of these difficulties were current smokers. Regression analyses focusing on smoking and evidence of social disadvantage in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood showed that women with more education were much less likely to be current smokers. Women reporting low parental supervision in adolescence and less frequent church attendance in young adulthood and those whose mothers’ reported regular smoking were significantly more likely to be current smokers. Poverty and marital status in young adulthood varied significantly among smoking categories in bivariate relationships, but not in final multivariate regression models. Few other studies have examined smoking careers with data from age 6 to 42, comparing social disadvantage characteristics over the life course. While marital status, church involvement and parental supervision are not usually included as measures of socioeconomic status, they represent advantages in terms of social capital and should be considered mechanisms for transmitting disparities.

Ensminger, Margaret E.; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Juon, Hee-Soon; Pearson, Jennifer L.; Robertson, Judith A.

2009-01-01

27

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individuals not considered to be members of socially or economically disadvantaged groups. (3) Evidence of educational discrimination in comparison to educational opportunities available to individuals not considered to be members of...

2005-01-01

28

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individuals not considered to be members of socially or economically disadvantaged groups. (3) Evidence of educational discrimination in comparison to educational opportunities available to individuals not considered to be members of...

2004-01-01

29

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individuals not considered to be members of socially or economically disadvantaged groups. (3) Evidence of educational discrimination in comparison to educational opportunities available to individuals not considered to be members of...

2000-01-01

30

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individuals not considered to be members of socially or economically disadvantaged groups. (3) Evidence of educational discrimination in comparison to educational opportunities available to individuals not considered to be members of...

2007-01-01

31

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individuals not considered to be members of socially or economically disadvantaged groups. (3) Evidence of educational discrimination in comparison to educational opportunities available to individuals not considered to be members of...

2012-01-01

32

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individuals not considered to be members of socially or economically disadvantaged groups. (3) Evidence of educational discrimination in comparison to educational opportunities available to individuals not considered to be members of...

2011-01-01

33

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individuals not considered to be members of socially or economically disadvantaged groups. (3) Evidence of educational discrimination in comparison to educational opportunities available to individuals not considered to be members of...

2008-01-01

34

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individuals not considered to be members of socially or economically disadvantaged groups. (3) Evidence of educational discrimination in comparison to educational opportunities available to individuals not considered to be members of...

2003-01-01

35

ENVIRONMENTAL RISK AND IMPACT IN COMMUNITIES OF COLOR AND ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Research has shown that communities of color and economically/educationally disadvantaged communities are at a greater risk of impact from environmental hazards. In many past studies in environmental justice (EJ) communities, scientists have used surrogate measures of exposure b...

36

Women in the Economics Profession  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses evidence from recent literature on gender literature on gender differences among Ph.D. economists. It finds many gender similarities in accomplishments, including undergraduate grades, publication rates (ceteris paribus), and labor market commitment. It finds no evidence of disadvantages for women in admissions to Ph.D. programs or in nonacademic salaries. Yet gender differences remain, ceteris paribus, in GRE scores,

Shulamit B Kahn

1995-01-01

37

An Exploratory Study of Radical Mindfulness Training with Severely Economically Disadvantaged People: Findings of a Canadian Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a two-phased research project that piloted a modified mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention developed specifically for a severely economically disadvantaged population. The terms severely economically disadvantaged (SED) and “severely marginalised” were used to describe the participants who experience socioeconomic disadvantage and social isolation as well as significant medical, psychological, physical, and learning challenges. Phase one of the

Steven F. Hick; Charles Furlotte

2010-01-01

38

Economically Disadvantaged Children's Transitions into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify "family-based" mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential "school-based" remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation…

Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.

2010-01-01

39

Addressing Summer Reading Setback among Economically Disadvantaged Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much research has established the contribution of summer reading setback to the reading achievement gap that is present between children from more and less economically advantaged families. Likewise, summer reading activity, or the lack of it, has been linked to summer setback. Finally, family socioeconomic status has been linked to the access…

Allington, Richard L.; McGill-Franzen, Anne; Camilli, Gregory; Williams, Lunetta; Graff, Jennifer; Zeig, Jacqueline; Zmach, Courtney; Nowak, Rhonda

2010-01-01

40

How Does Childhood Economic Disadvantage Lead to Crime?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: This study sought to examine the associations between indices of socio-economic deprivation in childhood and later involvement in crime. Method: Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study. In this project a cohort of 1,265 children born in Christchurch in 1977 have been studied from birth to age 21…

Fergusson, David; Swain-Campbell, Nicola; Horwood, John

2004-01-01

41

Economic Development and Women's Empowerment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the relationship between economic development, cultural background, and women's empowerment in eight countries of South Asia and South East Asia. The data are from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), the Penn World Tables, and the ILO's Key Indicators of Labour Market (KILM.) of the 1990s and 2000s. Women's empowerment indicators studied are economic participation rate, educational

Sanjukta Chaudhuri

42

Predictors of Parenting among Economically Disadvantaged Latina Mothers: Mediating and Moderating Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role of ecological risk factors, maternal psychological distress, and social network support on the parenting behaviors of 535 economically disadvantaged Latina mothers, who were surveyed for the Welfare Children, & Families: A Three City Study. We predicted that ecological risk would influence…

Prelow, Hazel M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Bowman, Marvella A.; Swenson, Rebecca R.

2010-01-01

43

A Role Model Approach to Job Transition for Disadvantaged Cooperative Home Economics Students. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A pilot project implemented a role-model approach to job transition for disadvantaged cooperative home economics students in Tulsa and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. From 1974 through 1976, 21 students in four urban high schools were matched with role models on the job. Sixteen of these students retained their jobs. The matches included many different…

Pestle, Ruth

44

Political Participation and Cumulative Disadvantage: The Impact of Economic and Social Hardship on Young Citizens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we seek to provide the most comprehensive exploration to date of the effects of economic and social disadvantage on young citizens' voter turnout. We look at four overlapping domains of hardship—those rooted in (a) the family context, (b) the community context, (c) the school context, and (d) major events and life transitions. Our conceptual model of cumulative

Julianna Sandell Pacheco; Eric Plutzer

2008-01-01

45

A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…

Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette

2011-01-01

46

An investigation of the college and career counseling needs of economically disadvantaged, minority gifted students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is an investigation of the college and career counseling needs of economically disadvantaged, academically gifted minority students. Two groups of students were studied and compared ? one group of 50 low?income students, predominantly minority, who were chosen for a special college counseling program, and a second group of 42 middle to high income students, predominantly Asian and Caucasian,

Joy M. Scott

1992-01-01

47

Linking Inputs and Outcomes: Achievement among Economically Disadvantaged Appalachian Middle Grades Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines school, family, and community factors related to the academic success of economically disadvantaged Appalachian students. In two middle schools in Appalachian Kentucky and Tennessee, 245 students who received free or reduced-price school lunches completed the Rural School Success Inventory (RSSI) and a writing sample about…

Henry, Kenneth J.; And Others

48

Inputs, Processes, Outcomes: The Context for Achievement among Economically Disadvantaged Students in Appalachia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the context of education at two Appalachian middle schools and examines family, community, and school factors related to the academic success of economically disadvantaged and middle-class students. The 429 students at two rural middle schools in Appalachian Kentucky and Tennessee were assigned to low socioeconomic status…

Henry, Kenneth J.; And Others

49

TV Characters at Work: Television's Role in the Occupational Aspirations of Economically Disadvantaged Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Television regularly depicts work-related activities of fictional characters and is one of several important sources of occupational information for young people. However, no research appears to have examined the influence of televised occupational portrayals on economically disadvantaged youths, although television may be an especially important…

Hoffner, Cynthia A.; Levine, Kenneth J.; Sullivan, Quintin E.; Crowell, Dennis; Pedrick, Laura; Berndt, Patricia

2006-01-01

50

Neighborhood economic disadvantage, violent crime, group density, and pregnancy outcomes in a diverse, urban population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research has established associations between pregnancy outcomes and specific neighborhood characteristics, including economic disadvantage, violent crime, and racial\\/ethnic segregation. Recently, associations have also been found between various health outcomes and group density, the degree to which an individual is a racial or ethnic majority in his or her local community. The objective of this study was to determine the

Christopher M. Masi; Louise C. Hawkley; Z. Harry Piotrowski; Kate E. Pickett

2007-01-01

51

Tech scholars learning community: a college-university partnership program for academically and economically disadvantaged students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a college-university partnership program, namely the tech scholar learning community, formed by the Division of Engineering Technology at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan and the Schoolcraft College in Livonia, Michigan. The objective is to increase the number of academically and economically disadvantaged students who transfer from community colleges to baccalaureate programs. The strategies adopted to improve

Chih-Ping Yeh; Silverenia Kanoyton; Deborah Daiek

2004-01-01

52

Is an Intervention Program Necessary in Order to Improve Economically Disadvantaged Children's IQ Scores?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hypothesis was investigated that alleviation of negative motivational factors underlies much of the 10-point IQ increase commonly found in economically disadvantaged children's performance following a preschool intervention program. Head Start and non-Head Start groups were tested on IQ and motivational measures three times before and during…

Zigler, Edward; And Others

1982-01-01

53

The Issue of Resource Equalization: Funding the Education of Economically Disadvantaged Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The State of Illinois appropriates funds according to a resource equalizer formula which allows a district having a large number and a high percentage of economically disadvantaged school children to gain a sizable bonus in State aid, contingent upon a plan to improve instruction. The Chicago Public Schools have received this bonus without…

Fox, Roger; Lacour, Bernard

54

Country Road Bureaucracy: The Challenges of Social Service Delivery in an Economically Disadvantaged Rural State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The devolution of state authority embedded in the 1996 federal welfare reform law (since reaffirmed in the 2006 reauthorization of this law) has enormous implications for economically disadvantaged adults and their families as well as those responsible for the local management and delivery of these welfare services. Although over a decade of welfare reform “impact” research currently exists, the majority

Melissa Latimer; Corey Colyer

2010-01-01

55

Predictors of Quality of Life in Economically Disadvantaged Populations in Montreal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most epidemiological studies agree that economically disadvantaged populations are the groups most vulnerable to mental health problems and report lower quality of life among these populations. However, it appears that access to social support plays a role in protecting against the chronic stress resulting from conditions such as poverty. This…

Caron, Jean

2012-01-01

56

A Longitudinal Study of Perceived Family Functioning and Adolescent Adjustment in Chinese Adolescents With Economic Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This longitudinal study examines the relationships between perceived family functioning and adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage (N = 199). Results showed that perceived family functioning was concurrently related to measures of adolescent psychological well-being (existential…

Shek, Daniel T. L.

2005-01-01

57

Economically Disadvantaged Children's Transitions Into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy  

PubMed Central

Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify family-based mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential school-based remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation of markers of economic disadvantage reduced math and reading testing gains across the primary grades. Such disparities were partially mediated by corresponding differences in children’s socioemotional problems, parenting stress, and parents’ human capital investments. These patterns appeared to be robust to observed and unobserved confounds. Various teacher qualifications and classroom practices were assessed as moderators of these family mediators, revealing teacher experience in grade level as a fairly consistent buffer against family-based risks for reading.

Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.

2010-01-01

58

Economic Stress, Psychological Well-Being and Problem Behavior in Chinese Adolescents with Economic Disadvantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between perceived economic stress (current economic hardship and future economic worry) and adolescent adjustment was examined in 229 Chinese adolescents using children and parental reports of perceived economic stress. Parents displayed higher levels of current economic hardship and future economic worry than their children did and mothers had more worry about their children's economic conditions in future than

Daniel T. L. Shek

2003-01-01

59

Stress Exposure and Depression in Disadvantaged Women: The Protective Effects of Optimism and Perceived Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, the authors predicted that the individual protective factors of optimism and perceived control over acute and chronic stressors would buffer the relations between acute and chronic stress exposure and severity of depression, controlling for household income, in a sample of financially disadvantaged women. Ninety-seven African…

Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Larkin, Jill; Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Brown, Charlotte

2007-01-01

60

Mass Media Sources for Breast Cancer Information: Their Advantages and Disadvantages for Women with the Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This 1997 study explored in depth the views and experiences of women with breast cancer concerning disease-related mass media information. Results of focus group discussions indicate advantages and disadvantages of mass media information, and its impact upon individuals may depend on their disease status. Suggests implications for mass media…

Rees, Charlotte E.; Bath, Peter A.

2000-01-01

61

Gestational Weight Gain as a Predictor of Longitudinal Body Mass Index Transitions Among Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Socioeconomically disadvantaged women are at greater risk for gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention compared to socioeconomically advantaged women. This study examines the effect of gestational weight gain on body mass index (BMI) transitions 5 years after pregnancy in socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Methods Gestational weight gain was assessed in 2136 postpartum women participating in the Fragile Families and Child Well-being study who experienced full-term, singleton gestations. Longitudinal BMI transitions were defined as a change or stability in BMI category between two time points: BMI before the index pregnancy and BMI 5 years after the index pregnancy. Logistic regression models estimated the association between gestational weight gain and longitudinal BMI transitions, controlling for health before the index pregnancy, pregnancy history, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results Excessive gestational weight gain was related to transitioning to a higher BMI category 5 years after the index pregnancy. Compared to white women, black and Hispanic women were more likely to transition or maintain a higher BMI category. Pregnancy history (i.e., parity at index pregnancy, interim pregnancy) and public assistance participation were associated with transitioning to a higher BMI category. Conclusions Among socioeconomically disadvantaged women, excessive gestational weight gain is related to transitioning to, but not maintaining, a higher weight category 5 years after the index pregnancy. Black and Hispanic women who are also socioeconomically disadvantaged and overweight or obese before conception may benefit from preconception or postpartum counseling about the long-term effect of gaining excessive weight during pregnancy and in the years immediately after childbirth.

2012-01-01

62

Family adversity and inhibitory control for economically disadvantaged children: preschool relations and associations with school readiness.  

PubMed

This study examined longitudinal relations linking aspects of family adversity to inhibitory control and school readiness for 120 economically disadvantaged children attending a Head Start preschool. The aspects of family adversity included income-to-needs ratios and an adversity index representing family instability and family chaos. The results showed that the adversity index but not the income ratios contributed to explaining diversity in the development of inhibitory control over the course of the preschool year. Additionally, the adversity index predicted school readiness at the end of the year, and the results suggested that inhibitory control mediated this effect. The implications concern understanding family sources of diversity in inhibitory control for economically disadvantaged preschool children. PMID:23750526

Brown, Eleanor D; Ackerman, Brian P; Moore, Charlee A

2013-06-01

63

A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social–emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered analysis of 207 Hispanic American preschoolers (ages 4 and 5 years) yielded 6 distinct profiles, 2

Geraldine V. Oades-Sese; Giselle B. Esquivel; Pamela K. Kaliski; Lisette Maniatis

2011-01-01

64

13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs? 125.13 Section 125.13...

2013-01-01

65

49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false What rules determine...DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISES...26.67 What rules determine...disadvantage? (a) Presumption...disadvantaged owner is, in fact...notarized statement of personal...1) If the statement of personal...paragraph (a)(2) of...disadvantage is...

2011-10-01

66

The impact of a college counseling program on economically disadvantaged gifted students and their subsequent college adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of a college and career counseling program on economically disadvantaged gifted students and their subsequent college adjustment was assessed. Fifty?five students from public high schools in a major urban school district in the midwest were compared to a group of economically advantaged students who participated in a special summer program for high school students at a private midwestern

Leswin Laubscher

1996-01-01

67

Processes of change for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents.  

PubMed

This study sought to identify Transtheoretical Model processes of change associated with consumption of ?5 daily servings of FVs in a sample of economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (N=549; mean (SD) age=12.44 (.99) years; 61% female; 15% African American Hispanic). Participants completed measures of stages and processes of change, and were ranked according to intake level based on their reported stage. Spearman correlations and independent samples t tests were used in cross-sectional analyses of the relationship between processes of change and FV consumption. Consciousness raising, environmental reevaluation, helping relationships and stimulus control processes were significantly associated with FV consumption (??.12; p<.01), and were practiced more often by youths who consumed ?5 daily servings of FVs relative to those who did not (p<.05). Findings highlight the potential of these processes for increasing FV consumption in this population. PMID:22177398

Di Noia, Jennifer; Thompson, Debbe

2011-10-25

68

Individual, social and environmental correlates of physical activity among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.  

PubMed

Women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods are at heightened risk for physical inactivity, but little is known about the correlates of physical activity among this group. Using a social-ecological framework, this study aimed to determine the individual, social and neighbourhood environmental correlates of physical activity amongst women living in such neighbourhoods. During 2007-2008 women (n = 4108) aged 18-45 years randomly selected from urban and rural neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status in Victoria, Australia completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long). They reported on individual (self-efficacy, enjoyment, intentions, outcome expectancies, skills), social (childcare, social support from family and friends/colleagues, dog ownership) and neighbourhood environmental (neighbourhood cohesion, aesthetics, personal safety, 'walking environment') factors. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the odds of increasing categories of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and transport-related physical activity (TRPA) for each individual, social and environmental factor. In partially adjusted analyses, all individual, social and environmental variables were positively associated with LTPA, while all individual factors, family and friend support and the walking environment were positively associated with TRPA. In fully adjusted multivariable models, all individual and social factors remained significantly associated with LTPA, while self-efficacy, enjoyment, intentions, social support, and neighbourhood 'walking environment' variables remained significantly associated with TRPA. In conclusion, individual and social factors were most important for LTPA, while individual, social and neighbourhood environmental factors were all associated with TRPA. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design, the findings highlight the importance of different levels of potential influence on physical activity in different domains, which should be considered when developing strategies to promote physical activity amongst women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. PMID:20362380

Cleland, Verity; Ball, Kylie; Hume, Clare; Timperio, Anna; King, Abby C; Crawford, David

2010-03-16

69

American Women: Dimensions in Economic Interdependence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The economic evolution of American women from the colonial era to 1984 is examined. The labor-scarce environment of the colonial era gave women access to any occupation they wished, e.g., field work, household manufacturing. With the Industrial Revolution, 1820-1865, the role of women changed. Industrialists hired women because they would work…

Casperson, Luvonia J.

70

Health, Behavioral, Cognitive, and Social Correlates of Breakfast Skipping among Women Living in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Neighborhoods.  

PubMed

Breakfast skipping is a potentially modifiable behavior that has negative effects on health and is socioeconomically patterned. This study aimed to examine the intrapersonal (health, behavioral, and cognitive) and social factors associated with breakfast skipping. Nonpregnant women (n = 4123) aged 18-45 y from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods throughout Victoria, Australia, completed a postal questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and cognitive and social factors were assessed by self-report. Breakfast skipping was defined in 2 ways: 1) "rarely/never" eating breakfast (n = 498) and 2) eating breakfast ?2 d/wk (includes those who rarely/never ate breakfast; n = 865). Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios and linear trends, adjusting for covariates. The P values for linear trends are reported below. Compared with breakfast consumers, women who reported rarely/never eating breakfast tended to have poorer self-rated health (P-trend < 0.001), be current smokers (P-trend < 0.001), pay less attention to health (P-trend < 0.001), not prioritize their own healthy eating when busy looking after their family (P-trend < 0.001), have less nutrition knowledge (P-trend < 0.001), and a lower proportion were trying to control their weight (P-trend < 0.020). When breakfast skipping was defined as eating breakfast ?2 d/wk, additional associations were found for having lower leisure-time physical activity (P-trend = 0.012) and less self-efficacy for eating a healthy diet (P-trend < 0.043). In conclusion, a range of intrapersonal and social factors were significantly associated with breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design and need for causal confirmation, programs that aim to promote breakfast consumption in this population group should consider targeting family-related barriers to healthy eating and nutrition knowledge. PMID:23986365

Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cleland, Verity J; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

2013-08-28

71

Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ?24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services.

Hu, Yu; Li, Qian; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Yaping; Qi, Xiaohua

2013-01-01

72

Black Women Who Head Families: Economic Needs and Economic Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Black women bear a heavy burden of family responsibilities, yet their economic position is marginal relative to other groups in American society. It is this imbalance between economic needs and economic resources which poses the greatest challenge to public policy. This paper examines some aspects of this imbalance. It describes the demographic…

Sawhill, Isabel V.

73

A mixed-methods investigation to explore how women living in disadvantaged areas might be supported to improve their diets.  

PubMed

Mixed-methods explored the potential for using Sure Start Children's Centres (SSCCs) to deliver an intervention to improve the diets of disadvantaged women and their children. In an 'expert' discussion, SSCC staff described gaining women's trust, meeting needs and bringing about change as key to engaging women successfully. Structured observations in SSCCs showed they host activities in an environment conducive to building relationships and meeting women's needs. However, staff often missed opportunities to support women to make dietary changes. These data suggest that an intervention to help staff make the most of these opportunities would have the best chance of success. PMID:22044913

Lawrence, Wendy; Keyte, Jeanette; Tinati, Tannaze; Haslam, Cheryl; Baird, Janis; Margetts, Barrie; Swift, Judy; Cooper, Cyrus; Barker, Mary

2011-11-01

74

Learning to (Dis)Engage? The Socialising Experiences of Young People Living in Areas of Socio-Economic Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Young people are increasingly required to demonstrate civic engagement in their communities and help deliver the aspirations of localism and Big Society. Using an ecological systems approach this paper explores the experiences of different groups of young people living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage. Using volunteering as an example of…

Mason, Carolynne; Cremin, Hilary; Warwick, Paul; Harrison, Tom

2011-01-01

75

Contextual Risk, Maternal Negative Emotionality, and the Negative Emotion Dysregulation of Preschool Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: This study examined relations between contextual risk, maternal negative emotionality, and preschool teacher reports of the negative emotion dysregulation of children from economically disadvantaged families. Contextual risk was represented by cumulative indexes of family and neighborhood adversity. The results showed a direct…

Brown, Eleanor D.; Ackerman, Brian P.

2011-01-01

76

Contextual Risk, Maternal Negative Emotionality, and the Negative Emotion Dysregulation of Preschool Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research Findings: This study examined relations between contextual risk, maternal negative emotionality, and preschool teacher reports of the negative emotion dysregulation of children from economically disadvantaged families. Contextual risk was represented by cumulative indexes of family and neighborhood adversity. The results showed a direct…

Brown, Eleanor D.; Ackerman, Brian P.

2011-01-01

77

Contextual Risk, Caregiver Emotionality, and the Problem Behaviors of Six- and Seven-Year-Old Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored relations between additive and cumulative representations of contextual risk, caregiver emotionality, child adaptability, and teacher reports of problem behaviors of 6- and 7-year-olds from economically disadvantaged families. Found evidence that the relation for cumulative risk may be moderated by caregiver negative emotionality and…

Ackerman, Brian P.; Izard, Carroll E.; Schoff, Kristen; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Kogos, Jen

1999-01-01

78

The Relationship between Teachers' Collective Efficacy and Student Achievement at Economically Disadvantaged Middle School Campuses in Texas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the collective efficacy of teachers and student achievement at economically disadvantaged middle school campuses. Schools of today are expected to show continuous improvement in student achievement from year to year, regardless of the students' family background, ethnicity, or…

Sandoval, Juan Manuel

2010-01-01

79

Adherence to combined montelukast and fluticasone treatment in economically disadvantaged african american youth with asthma.  

PubMed

High rates of asthma treatment nonadherence have been reported, particularly in economically disadvantaged African American youth. The relationship between adherence to combined medication treatment and asthma outcomes has potential clinical significance but is not well understood. Using electronic monitoring, we describe the pattern of adherence to daily corticosteroid (fluticasone) and leukotriene receptor antagonist (montelukast) medication over the course of 1 year in a population of African American youth with moderate to severe asthma. On average, adherence to montelukast was higher than adherence to fluticasone (p < 0.01); however, for both medications, adherence rates significantly declined over the course of the study. After 1 year, participants took only 31% of prescribed doses of montelukast and 23% of prescribed doses of fluticasone. The decline in adherence to both fluticasone (p < 0.05) and montelukast (p < 0.001) was related to increased healthcare utilization. Furthermore, asthma symptom ratings were related montelukast (p < 0.001), but not fluticasone adherence. These results suggest that adherence promotion intervention strategies are warranted to improve health-related outcomes in families who are at-risk for treatment nonadherence. PMID:19905919

McNally, Kelly A; Rohan, Jennifer; Schluchter, Mark; Riekert, Kristin A; Vavrek, Pamela; Schmidt, Amy; Redline, Susan; Kercsmar, Carolyn; Drotar, Dennis

2009-11-01

80

The social-emotional impact of instrumental music performance on economically disadvantaged South African students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent these findings hold true for disadvantaged students. The purpose of this study

Karendra Devroop

2012-01-01

81

Perceived disadvantages and concerns about abuses of genetic testing for cancer risk: differences across African American, Latina and Caucasian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participation in genetic testing for cancer risk is low among women of medically underserved ethnic groups and this is due, in part, to genetic testing attitudes, specifically perceived disadvantages of genetic testing and concerns about possible abuses of genetic testing. The goals of the current study were to: (a) explore genetic testing attitudes, and (b) determine the extent to which

Hayley S Thompson; Heiddis B Valdimarsdottir; Lina Jandorf; William Redd

2003-01-01

82

At the Forefront: The Role of Women's Community Education in Combating Poverty and Disadvantage in the Republic of Ireland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this report, the role of women's community education in combating poverty and disadvantage in Ireland over the past 10 years was examined, and future directions for policy and practice were suggested. The following data collection approaches were used: literature and policy document reviews; case studies involving regional workshops with…

University Coll. Dublin (Ireland). Women's Education, Research and Resource Centre.

83

At the Forefront: The Role of Women's Community Education in Combating Poverty and Disadvantage in the Republic of Ireland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this report, the role of women's community education in combating poverty and disadvantage in Ireland over the past 10 years was examined, and future directions for policy and practice were suggested. The following data collection approaches were used: literature and policy document reviews; case studies involving regional workshops with…

University Coll. Dublin (Ireland). Women's Education, Research and Resource Centre.

84

Tobacco Use in Six Economically Disadvantaged Communities in the Dominican Republic  

PubMed Central

The Dominican Republic (DR) is a tobacco-growing country and tobacco control efforts have been virtually nonexistent. This study provides a first systematic surveillance of tobacco use in 6 economically disadvantaged DR communities (2 small urban, 2 peri-urban, 2 rural; half were tobacco-growing). Approximately 175 households were randomly selected in each (total N=1048) and an adult household member reported on household demographics and resources (e.g., electricity), tobacco use and health conditions of household members, and household policies on tobacco use. Poverty and unemployment were high in all communities, and significant gaps in access to basic resources such as electricity, running water, telephones/cell phones, and secondary education were present. Exposure to tobacco smoke was high, with 38.4% of households reporting ?1 tobacco user, and 75.5% allowing smoking in the home. Overall, 22.5% reported using tobacco, with commercial cigarettes (58.0%) or self-rolled cigarettes (20.1%) the most commonly used types. Considerable variability in prevalence and type of use was found across communities. Overall, tobacco use was higher in males, illiterate groups, ages 45+, rural dwellers, and tobacco-growing communities. Based on reported health conditions, tobacco attributable risks, and WHO mortality data, it is estimated that at least 2254 lives could potentially be saved each year in the DR with tobacco cessation. While it is expected that the reported prevalence of tobacco use and health conditions represent underestimates, these figures provide a starting point for understanding tobacco use and its prevalence in the Dominican Republic.

Ossip-Klein, Deborah J.; Fisher, Susan; Diaz, Sergio; Quinones, Zahira; Sierra, Essie; Dozier, Ann; McIntosh, Scott; Guido, Joseph; Winters, Paul; Diaz, Omar; Armstrong, LaToya

2008-01-01

85

Associations between education and personal income with body mass index among Australian women residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose. The aims of the current study were to (1) determine the association between personal income and body mass index (BMI) and between individual education and BMI, and (2) examine the association between education and BMI across strata of personal income among women. Design. The design of the study was a quantitative analysis of data from self-report questionnaires. Setting. The study setting was socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods in Victoria, Australia. Subjects. The study included 4065 nonpregnant women (ages 18-45 years) living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Measures. The study used a self-report questionnaire measuring sociodemographic characteristics known to be associated with BMI. Analysis. Multiple linear regressions with imputation were used to assess the association between education level, personal income, and BMI, while controlling for covariates. Results. Mean (SD) observed BMI was 26.0 (6.1) kg/m(2). Compared with women with low education, women with medium (b = -0.81; 95% confidence interval, -1.30 to -0.27; p = .004) and high (b = -1.71; 95% confidence interval, -2.34 to -1.09; p < .001) education had statistically significantly lower BMI values. No differences in BMI were observed between income categories. Stratified analyses suggested that the education-BMI association may be stronger in low-income than higher-income women. Conclusion. Our data show that among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas, high education level rather than personal income may be protective against overweight/obesity. High personal income, however, may buffer the effects of low education on BMI. Obesity prevention efforts should target women with amplified disadvantage. PMID:23458372

Williams, Lauren K; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Cleland, Verity; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

2013-03-04

86

Women's International Centre for Economic Development (WICED)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The gender gap in enterprise has been part of an ongoing debate on economic development for over 20 years. In an attempt to tackle this deficit Train 2000, the UK's largest dedicated women's enterprise support organisation supported by its partners Liverpool City Council, Liverpool Vision, and an international panel of leading experts are developing the Women's International Centre

Maggie OCarroll; Helen Millne

2010-01-01

87

On the Economics of Higher Education in India, With Special Reference to Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper investigates the role of economic factors in the enrolment decision at the higher education level in India. The study concludes that the rate of participation of women is in a disadvantaged position in the post-reform period. Women’s education has started to loose its importance as a determinant factor of economic development, rather, in the post-reform period, it has

Sugeeta Upadhyay

2008-01-01

88

Trends in opioid use and dosing among socio-economically disadvantaged patients  

PubMed Central

Background Opioid therapy for patients with chronic nonmalignant pain remains controversial, primarily because of safety concerns and the potential for abuse. The objective of this study was to examine trends in opioid utilization for nonmalignant pain among recipients of social assistance and to explore the relation between dose of analgesic and mortality. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, we characterized annual trends in prescriptions for and daily dose of opioid analgesics between 2003 and 2008 for beneficiaries (aged 15 to 64 years) of Ontario’s public drug plan. We defined moderate, high and very high dose thresholds as daily doses of up to 200, 201 to 400, and more than 400 mg oral morphine (or equivalent), respectively. In an exploratory cohort study, we followed, over a 2-year period, patients who received at least one prescription for an opioid in 2004 to investigate the relation between opioid dose and opioid-related mortality. Results Over the study period, opioid prescribing rates rose by 16.2%, and 180 974 individuals received nearly 1.5 million opioid prescriptions in 2008. Also by 2008, the daily dose dispensed exceeded 200 mg morphine equivalent for almost a third (32.6%) of recipients of long-acting oxycodone but only 20.3% of those treated with fentanyl or other long-acting opioids. Among patients for whom high or very high doses of opioids were dispensed in 2004, 19.3% of deaths during the subsequent 2 years were opioid-related, occurring at a median age of 46 years. Two-year opioid-related mortality rates were 1.63 per 1000 population (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42–1.85) among people with moderate-dose prescriptions, 7.92 per 1000 population (95% CI 5.25–11.49) among those with high-dose prescriptions, and 9.94 per 1000 population (95% CI 2.78–25.12) among those with very-high-dose prescriptions. Interpretation Among socio-economically disadvantaged patients in Ontario, the use and dose of opioids for nonmalignant pain has increased substantially, driven primarily by the use of long-acting oxycodone and, to a lesser extent, fentanyl. The findings of our exploratory study suggested a strong association between opioid-related mortality and the dose of opioid dispensed.

Gomes, Tara; Juurlink, David N; Dhalla, Irfan A; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Paterson, J Michael; Mamdani, Muhammad M

2011-01-01

89

The Social-Emotional Impact of Instrumental Music Performance on Economically Disadvantaged South African Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent…

Devroop, Karendra

2012-01-01

90

It Doesn't Happen Here: Eating Disorders in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Economically Disadvantaged, Urban College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulk of eating disorder studies have focused on white, middle-upper class women, excluding ethnically and economically diverse women and men. Accordingly, our knowledge of prevalence rates and risk factors is reliant on this narrow literature. To expand upon the current literature, we examined eating disorders in ethnically diverse low-income, urban college students. We surveyed 884 incoming freshmen during an

Katie Gentile; Chitra Raghavan; Valli Rajah; Katie Gates

2007-01-01

91

Adherence to Pediatric Asthma Treatment in Economically Disadvantaged African-American Children and Adolescents: An Application of Growth Curve Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives?The primary aims of the study were to: (a) describe the trajectories of adherence to daily inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) medication for a year in economically disadvantaged, African-American youth with asthma based on growth curve modeling; and (b) test the relationship of treatment adherence to symptom control, quick-relief medication, and healthcare utilization.?Methods?This prospective study measured adherence to daily ICS treatment using electronic monitoring in 92 children and adolescents with moderate to severe asthma for 9–12 months and assessed clinical outcomes, including asthma-related symptoms, quick-relief medication, and healthcare utilization.?Results?Youth showed a decrement in treatment adherence to less than half of prescribed corticosteroid treatment over the course of the study, which related to increased healthcare utilization (p < .04), but not to asthma symptoms or albuterol use.?Conclusion?Economically disadvantaged youth with asthma demonstrate high rates of chronic nonadherence that warrant identification and intervention to reduce asthma-related healthcare utilization.

Drotar, Dennis; McNally, Kelly; Schluchter, Mark; Riekert, Kristin; Vavrek, Pamela; Schmidt, Amy; Redline, Susan; Kercsmar, Carolyn

2010-01-01

92

Adverse Birth Outcomes in African American Women: The Social Context of Persistent Reproductive Disadvantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

African Americans have the highest rates of infant mortality and adverse birth outcomes of all major racial\\/ethnic groups in the United States. The long-standing nature of this disparity suggests the need to shift epidemiologic focus from individual-level risk factors to the larger social forces that shape disease risk in populations. In this article, the African American reproductive disadvantage is discussed

Tyan Parker Dominguez

2010-01-01

93

Same Landscape, Different Lens: Variations in Young People's Socio-Economic Experiences and Perceptions in Their Disadvantaged Working-Class Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper, I compare socio-economic experiences and community perceptions expressed by socially and economically disadvantaged young people with those of university students living in the same post-industrial community. I consider markers of distinction among these young people in relation to their family and educational experiences. I also…

Brann-Barrett, Mary Tanya

2011-01-01

94

Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Interactions of Disadvantages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based on a study of 7,372 students in grades 5-10 (aged 11-16) in a representative sample of Norwegian compulsory schools. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between students' reported socio-economic status (SES) and their perceived social inclusion (SI) in school in the whole sample. We also considered separately a…

Veland, Jarmund; Midthassel, Unni Vere; Idsoe, Thormod

2009-01-01

95

Participation in Higher Education in South Australia by People from Socio-economically Disadvantaged Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a study of the socio-economic background of students admitted to South Australian universities in 1996 We describe briefly the scope and methodology of the study and then present our findings in a series of tables which, we believe, clearly demonstrate the effect of socio-economi c background on university preferences and enrolments. This confirms and somewhat elaborates the

Gavin Moodie; Lynette Swift

96

Peer-mentoring for first-time mothers from areas of socio-economic disadvantage: A qualitative study within a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Non-professional involvement in delivering health and social care support in areas of socio-economic deprivation is considered important in attempting to reduce health inequalities. However, trials of peer mentoring programmes have yielded inconsistent evidence of benefit: difficulties in implementation have contributed to uncertainty regarding their efficacy. We aimed to explore difficulties encountered in conducting a randomised controlled trial of a peer-mentoring programme for first-time mothers in socially disadvantaged areas, in order to provide information relevant to future research and practice. This paper describes the experiences of lay-workers, women and health professionals involved in the trial. Methods Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with women (n = 11) who were offered peer mentor support, lay-workers (n = 11) who provided mentoring and midwives (n = 2) who supervised the programme, which provided support, from first hospital antenatal visit to one year postnatal. Planned frequency of contact was two-weekly (telephone or home visit) but was tailored to individuals' needs. Results Despite lay-workers living in the same locality, they experienced difficulty initiating contact with women and this affected their morale adversely. Despite researchers' attempts to ensure that the role of the mentor was understood clearly it appeared that this was not achieved for all participants. Mentors attempted to develop peer-mentor relationships by offering friendship and sharing personal experiences, which was appreciated by women. Mentors reported difficulties developing relationships with those who lacked interest in the programme. External influences, including family and friends, could prevent or facilitate mentoring. Time constraints in reconciling flexible mentoring arrangements with demands of other commitments posed major personal difficulties for lay-workers. Conclusion Difficulties in initiating contact, developing peer-mentor relationships and time constraints pose challenges to delivering lay-worker peer support. In developing such programmes, awareness of potential difficulties and of how professional support may help resolve these should improve uptake and optimise evaluation of their effectiveness. Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN55055030

Murphy, Christine A; Cupples, Margaret E; Percy, Andrew; Halliday, Henry L; Stewart, Moira C

2008-01-01

97

Perceived Socio?Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Interactions of Disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on a study of 7,372 students in grades 5–10 (aged 11–16) in a representative sample of Norwegian compulsory schools. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between students' reported socio?economic status (SES) and their perceived social inclusion (SI) in school in the whole sample. We also considered separately a sub?sample of students with

Jarmund Veland; Unni Vere Midthassel; Thormod Idsoe

2009-01-01

98

Mass media sources for breast cancer information: their advantages and disadvantages for women with the disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, conducted in 1997, aimed to explore in depth the views and experiences of women with breast cancer concerning diseaserelated mass media information. Three age-stratified, unstructured focus group discussions were convened with thirty women with breast cancer (n = 11, 12 and 7). The discussions were audiotaped and transcribed in full and the transcripts were analysed using theme analysis.

Charlotte E. Rees; Peter A. Bath

2000-01-01

99

Health Promotion Interventions for Disadvantaged Women: Overview of the WISEWOMAN Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Well-Integrated Screening and Evaluation for Women Across the Nation (WISEWOMAN) program aims to remove racial and ethnic disparities in health by address­ ing the screening and intervention needs of midlife uninsured women. This paper describes the WISEWOMAN program requirements, the design of the 12 projects funded in 2002, the use of a standardized data reporting and analysis system,

Julie C. Will; Rosanne P. Farris; Charlene G. Sanders; Chrisandra K. Stockmyer; Eric A. Finkelstein

2004-01-01

100

Experience seeking abortion among unmarried young women in Bihar and Jharkhand, India: delays and disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies suggest that the experiences of unmarried young women seeking abortion in India differ from those of their married counterparts, but the evidence is limited. Research was undertaken among nulliparous young women aged 15–24 who had abortions at the clinics of a leading NGO in Bihar and Jharkhand. Over a 14-month period in 2007–08, 246 married and 549 unmarried young

Shireen J Jejeebhoy; Shveta Kalyanwala; AJ Francis Zavier; Rajesh Kumar; Nita Jha

2010-01-01

101

Adverse birth outcomes in African American women: the social context of persistent reproductive disadvantage.  

PubMed

African Americans have the highest rates of infant mortality and adverse birth outcomes of all major racial/ethnic groups in the United States. The long-standing nature of this disparity suggests the need to shift epidemiologic focus from individual-level risk factors to the larger social forces that shape disease risk in populations. In this article, the African American reproductive disadvantage is discussed within the context of American race relations. The review of the literature focuses on racism as a social determinant of race-based disparities in adverse birth outcomes with specific attention to the viability of genetic explanations, the role of socioeconomic factors, the multidimensional nature of racism, and the stress-induced physiologic pathways by which racism may negatively affect pregnancy. Implications for social work research and practice also are discussed. PMID:21213184

Dominguez, Tyan Parker

2011-01-01

102

Beyond income: Material resources among drug users in economically-disadvantaged New York City neighborhoods  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about material resources among drug users beyond income. Income measures can be insensitive to variation among the poor, do not account for variation in cost-of-living, and are subject to non-response bias and underreporting. Further, most do not include illegal income sources that may be relevant to drug-using populations. Methods We explored the reliability and validity of an 18-item material resource scale and describe correlates of adequate resources among 1593 current, former and non-drug users recruited in New York City. Reliability was determined using coefficient ?, ?h, and factor analysis. Criterion validity was explored by comparing item and mean scores by income and income source using ANOVA; content validity analyses compared scores by drug use. Multiple linear regression was used to describe correlates of adequate resources. Results The coefficient ? and ?h for the overall scale were 0.91 and 0.68, respectively, suggesting reliability was at least adequate. Legal income >$5000 (vs. ? $5000) and formal (vs. informal) income sources were associated with more resources, supporting criterion validity. We observed decreasing resources with increasing drug use severity, supporting construct validity. Three factors were identified: basic needs, economic resources and services. Many did not have their basic needs met and few had adequate economic resources. Correlates of adequate material resources included race/ethnicity, income, income source, and homelessness. Conclusions The 18-item material resource scale demonstrated reliability and validity among drug users. These data provide a different view of poverty, one that details specific challenges faced by low-income communities.

Ompad, Danielle C.; Nandi, Vijay; Cerda, Magdalena; Crawford, Natalie; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

2011-01-01

103

Recruitment, retention, and compliance results from a probability study of children's environmental health in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods.  

PubMed Central

The School Health Initiative: Environment, Learning, and Disease (SHIELD) study used a probability sample of children (second through fifth grades) from two low-income and racially mixed neighborhoods of Minneapolis, Minnesota, to assess childhood environmental health. Children were eligible to participate in SHIELD regardless of whether they or their families spoke a foreign language, their household had a telephone, or they were enrolled in a special education program. The overall enrollment rate in year 1 was 57%, with a substantial disparity between children from English-speaking (42%) versus non-English-speaking (71%) families. At the end of year 1, 85% were retained in the study. A relatively high percentage of children provided the two requested blood (82%) and urine (86%) samples in year 1, and 90% provided a valid spirometry sample. Eighty-two percent provided both requested volatile organic chemical badge samples, and both time-activity logs were obtained from 66%. However, only 32% provided both peak flow measurements. All percentages increased for those participating in the second year of the study. Results indicate that a school-based research design makes it feasible and practical to conduct probability-based assessments of children's environmental health in economically disadvantaged and ethnically diverse neighborhoods. There is an ongoing need, however, to improve understanding of the cultural, economic, psychologic, and social determinants of study participation among this population.

Sexton, Ken; Adgate, John L; Church, Timothy R; Greaves, Ian A; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Fredrickson, Ann L; Geisser, Mindy S; Ryan, Andrew D

2003-01-01

104

A Sectoral Investigation of Women's Pay Disadvantage in 1990s Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a pooled cross-section from the Labour Force Survey this paper examines the relative wages paid to full-time employees in the public and private sectors across the whole of the earnings distribution. A special emphasis is placed upon gender issues and decomposition analysis is used to explain wage differences between men and women in the respective sectors. Wage discrimination by

N. C. O'Leary

2000-01-01

105

"Planned" Teenage Pregnancy: Perspectives of Young Women from Disadvantaged Backgrounds in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The reduction of teenage pregnancy has attracted much interest in research, practice and social policy. Little is known about teenagers who report their pregnancies as "planned." Forty-one in-depth interviews were undertaken, in six different parts of England, among young women who reported their pregnancy as "planned". The mean age at conception…

Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

2006-01-01

106

A Growing Crisis: Disadvantaged Women and Their Children. Clearinghouse Publication 78.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report is based on the 1982 Current Population Survey data from the Bureau of Census and examines the declining status of female-headed households in the United States. The study concentrates on White, Black, and Hispanic women and their children. Factors associated with poverty are examined, including marital status, employment, and…

Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

107

Women in Economics: Making Connections and Forging Ahead  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2009, the economics department at Kansas State University began one of the first department-level Women in Economics groups for female graduate students in the United States. This is particularly important because of the general under-representation of women in the economics profession and especially in the academy. The main goals of this…

Neymotin, Florence

2011-01-01

108

Predictors of Smoking Cessation Counseling Adherence in a Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Sample of Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implementing and evaluating smoking cessation interventions in underserved populations has been found difficult due to high rates of non-adherence to the prescribed protocol. To understand better the barriers to cessation participation, we studied low-income inner-city pregnant women who were enrolled in either a standard or highly intensive quit smoking counseling program. The results showed that 1) in the prenatal phase,

Kuang-Yi Wen; Suzanne M. Miller; Amy Lazev; Zhu Fang; Enrique Hernandez

2012-01-01

109

A Longitudinal Study of Chinese Cultural Beliefs about Adversity, Psychological Well-Being, Delinquency and Substance Abuse in Chinese Adolescents with Economic Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This longitudinal study examines the relationships between Chinese cultural beliefs about adversity and psychological well-being and problem behavior in 199 Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage. Results showed that endorsement of Chinese cultural beliefs about adversity was concurrently related to measures of adolescent psychological…

Shek, Daniel T. L.

2005-01-01

110

Automated depression screening in disadvantaged pregnant women in an urban obstetric clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Objective: A promising means of screening for depression among high-risk perinatal women involves interactive voice response (IVR) technology\\u000a in which patients self-enter data into a database using a touch tone telephone. Our aim was to test the feasibility of using\\u000a IVR to screen for depression among low-income, urban pregnant patients and to solicit their preferences for treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: The

H. Kim; Y. Bracha; A. Tipnis

2007-01-01

111

Validity and Reliability of a Dietary Stages of Change Measure Among Economically Disadvantaged African-American Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the construct validity and 2-month test-retest reliability of a staging measure for assessing readiness to consume five or more daily servings of fruits and vegetables among economically disadvantaged African-American adolescents. Design Longitudinal survey. Setting Youth services agencies serving low-income communities in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Subjects African-American adolescents (N = 390) aged 11 to 14 years. Measures Self-report measures of stage of change and fruit and vegetable consumption. Analysis Correlation analysis and analysis of covariance were used to examine, cross-sectionally, whether fruit and vegetable consumption differed by stage of change (validity assessment). Correlation analysis and Cohen's kappa (?) were used to assess the degree of association and level of agreement between stages longitudinally (test-retest reliability assessment). Results Fruit and vegetable consumption was moderately correlated with stage of change (r ? .54, p = .000). Consistent with the transtheoretical model, youths’ consumption increased from earlier to later stages (p = .000). Forty-six percent of youths were in the same stage at both measurements. The correlation between stages was .26, and Cohen's ? was .20 (p = .000). Conclusions Despite preliminary evidence of construct validity, the low test-retest reliability found suggests that further research and testing are needed to improve the stability of the measure.

Di Noia, Jennifer; Mauriello, Leanne; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Thompson, Debbe

2013-01-01

112

Individual, social and environmental factors influencing physical activity levels and behaviours of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged urban mothers in Canada: A mixed methods approach  

PubMed Central

Background Existing data provide little insight into the physical activity context of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged mothers in Canada. Our primary objectives were: (1) to use focus group methodology to develop tools to identify the individual, social, and environmental factors influencing utilitarian and leisure time physical activities (LTPA) of multiethnic SED mothers; and (2) to use a women specific physical activity survey tool to assess psychosocial barriers and supports and to quantify individual physical activity (PA) levels of multi-ethnic SED mothers in Canada. Methods Qualitative focus group sessions were conducted in West, Central and Eastern Canada with multiethnic SED mothers (n?=?6 focus groups; n?=?42 SED mothers) and with health and recreation professionals (HRPs) (n?=?5 focus groups; n?=?25 HRPs) involved in community PA programming for multiethnic SED mothers. Administration of the women specific Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) tool was completed by consenting SED mothers (n?=?59). Results More than half of SED mothers were employed and had higher total PA scores with occupation included than unemployed mothers. However, nearly 60% of both groups were overweight or obese. Barriers to LTPA included the lack of available, affordable and accessible LTPA programs that responded to cultural and social needs. Concerns for safety, nonsupportive cultural and social norms and the winter climate were identified as key barriers to both utilitarian and LTPA. Conclusions Findings show that multiethnic SED mothers experience many barriers to utilitarian and LTPA opportunities within their communities. The varying LTPA levels among these multi-ethnic SED mothers and the occurrence of overweight and obesity suggests that current LTPA programs are likely insufficient to maintain healthy body weights.

2012-01-01

113

[Evaluation of empowerment among socially disadvantaged women - examination in different living circumstances].  

PubMed

This paper follows on from a previous study which assessed the relationship between socioeconomic position, empowerment and the development of psychological health in women after treatment in mother-child rehabilitation centres in Germany. The study revealed that socioeconomic position was less important for mothers caring for young children. For this reason the present study is based on a broader definition of social inequity, taking household conditions and psychosocial stressors into account. The aim of the paper is to answer the following questions: 1) To what extent does the improvement of psychological health depend on the living circumstances of the mothers? 2) What is the impact of living conditions on the success of empowerment? 3) Does the health-related impact of empowerment differ between different living conditions of the mothers? By conducting a cluster analysis on clinical data of the women (n=6094), seven different living circumstances of the mothers could be detected. Two living circumstances could be identified to be related to extremely poor health. These are 'dissatisfied single mothers with high degrees of psychosocial distress and lack of social support', and 'married mothers with conflicts within the family and self-perceived lack of appreciation'. At the end of inpatient treatment these mothers showed the highest reduction of psychological symptoms, but after six and twelve months the symptoms increased again. The results of empowerment showed that empowerment is most health-effective for mothers living in poor living conditions, but the success of empowerment here is less pronounced. As a consequence the health effect of empowerment was smaller for those mothers. The study suggests that health promotion programmes could be more effective when they explicitly take the living circumstances of their participants into account. PMID:19551620

Sperlich, S

2009-06-23

114

Integrating SocioEconomic Determinants of Canadian Women's Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

HEALTH ISSUE: The association between a number of socio-economic determinants and health has been amply demonstrated in Canada and elsewhere. Over the past decades, women's increased labour force participation and changing family structure, among other changes in the socio-economic environment, have altered social roles considerably and lead one to expect that the pattern of disparities in health among women and

Bilkis Vissandjee; Marie Desmeules; Zheynuan Cao; Shelly Abdool

2004-01-01

115

Time trends in socio-economic inequalities for women and men with disabilities in Australia: evidence of persisting inequalities  

PubMed Central

Introduction The socio-economic circumstances and health of people with disabilities has been relatively ignored in public health research, policy and practice in Australia and internationally. This is despite emerging evidence that the socio-economic circumstances that people with disabilities live in contributes to their poorer health. Compared to other developed countries, Australians with disabilities are more likely to live in disadvantaged circumstances, despite being an economically prosperous country; it is therefore likely that the socio-economic disadvantage experienced by Australians with disabilities makes a significant contribution to their health. Despite the importance of this issue Australia does not routinely monitor the socio-economic inequalities for people with disabilities. This paper addresses this gap by describing time trends in socio-economic conditions for Australians with and without disabilities according to the severity of the disability and sex. Methods Cross-sectional analyses of the Australian Bureau of Statistics Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers were carried out at three time points (1998, 2003 and 2009) to estimate the proportions of women and men (aged between 25 and 64 years) who were living on low incomes, had not completed year 12, were not in paid work, living in private rental and experiencing multiple disadvantage (three or more of the indicators). Results People with disabilities are less likely to have completed year 12, be in paid work and are more likely to be living on low incomes and experiencing multiple disadvantage. These conditions worsened with increasing severity of disability and increased or persisted over time, with most of the increase between 1998 and 2003. While women with milder disabilities tended to fare worse than men, the proportions were similar for those with moderate and severe/profound disabilities. Conclusion People with disabilities experience high levels of socio-economic disadvantage which has increased or persisted over time and these are likely to translate into poorer health outcomes. A large proportion experience multiple forms of disadvantage, reinforcing the need to tackle disadvantage in a coordinated way across sectors. People with disabilities should be a priority population group for public health. Monitoring socio-economic conditions of people with disabilities is critical for informing policy and assessing the impact of disability reforms.

2013-01-01

116

Association of socio-economic, gender and health factors with common mental disorders in women: a population-based study of 5703 married rural women in India  

PubMed Central

Background There are few population-based studies from low- and middle-income countries that have described the association of socio-economic, gender and health factors with common mental disorders (CMDs) in rural women. Methods Population-based study of currently married rural women in the age group of 15–39 years. The baseline data are from the National Family Health Survey-II conducted in 1998. A follow-up study was conducted 4 years later in 2002–03. The outcome of CMD was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Due to the hierarchical nature and complex survey design, data were analysed using mixed-effect logistic regression with random intercept model. Results A total of 5703 women (representing 83.5% of eligible women) completed follow-up. The outcome of CMD was observed in 609 women (10.7%, 95% confidence interval 9.8–11.6). The following factors were independently associated with the outcome of CMD in the final multivariable model: higher age, low education, low standard of living, recent intimate partner violence (IPV), husband’s unsatisfactory reaction to dowry, husband’s alcohol use and women’s own tobacco use. Conclusions Socio-economic and gender disadvantage factors are independently associated with CMDs in this population of women. Strategies that address structural determinants, for example to promote women’s education and reduce their exposure to IPV, may reduce the burden of CMDs in women.

Shidhaye, Rahul; Patel, Vikram

2010-01-01

117

Examining Alternative Measures of Social Disadvantage Among Asian Americans: The Relevance of Economic Opportunity, Subjective Social Status, and Financial Strain for Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socioeconomic position is often operationalized as education, occupation, and income. However, these measures may not fully\\u000a capture the process of socioeconomic disadvantage that may be related to morbidity. Economic opportunity, subjective social\\u000a status, and financial strain may also place individuals at risk for poor health outcomes. Data come from the Asian subsample\\u000a of the 2003 National Latino and Asian American

A. B. de Castro; Gilbert C. Gee; David T. Takeuchi

2010-01-01

118

'If the Food Looks Dodgy I Dinnae Eat It': Teenagers' Accounts of Food and Eating Practices in Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how young teenagers living in socio-economically disadvantaged families perceive everyday food and eating practices within the home. From in-depth interviews with 36 Scottish teenagers aged 13-14 years, we analysed teenagers\\\\' accounts of contemporary \\\\'family meals\\\\'. We found that food and eating practices were negotiated amidst complex family arrangements with extended, resident and non-resident kin. Parents were often

Wendy J. Wills; Kathryn Backett-Milburn; Sue Gregory; Julia Lawton

2008-01-01

119

Older Women: The Economics of Aging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To meet a clear need for policy-oriented research on issues affecting women, an alliance was formed in 1979 between the Women's Studies Program and Policy Center (WSPPC) at George Washington University and the Women's Research and Education Institute (WRE...

1985-01-01

120

Does economic empowerment protect women from intimate partner violence?  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Background: The current study compared working and non-working groups of women in relation to intimate partner violence. The paper aims to explore the relationship between women's economic empowerment, their exposures to IPV and their help seeking behavior using a nationally representative sample in India. Methods: This was a cross sectional study of 124,385 ever married women of reproductive age from all 29 member states in India. Chi-square tests were used to examine differences in proportions of dependent variables (exposure to IPV) and independent variables. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess the independent contribution of the variables of economic empowerment in predicting exposure to IPV. Results: Out of 124,385 women, 69432 (56%) were eligible for this study. Among those that were eligible 35% were working. In general, prevalence of IPV (ever) among women in India were: emotional violence 14%, less severe physical violence 31%, severe physical violence 10% and sexual violence 8%. For working women, the IPV prevalence was: emotional violence 18%, less severe physical violence 37%, severe physical violence 14% and sexual violence 10%; whilst for non-working women the rate was 12, 27, 8 and 8 percents, respectively. Working women seek more help from different sources. Conclusions: Economic empowerment is not the sole protective factor. Economic empowerment, together with higher education and modified cultural norms against women, may protect women from IPV.

Dalal, Koustuv

2011-01-01

121

INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO PREPARING HOME ECONOMICS LEADERS FOR EMERGING PROGRAMS SERVING DISADVANTAGED YOUTH AND ADULTS. FINAL REPORT, APPENDIX C.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SIXTY-FIVE SELECTIONS, IN NOTE OR OUTLINE FORM, FROM PRESENTATIONS BY CONSULTANTS AIDING IN PREPARING LEADERS FOR EMERGING PROGRAMS SERVING THE DISADVANTAGED ARE INCLUDED IN THIS APPENDIX. THE SUBJECT MATTER RANGES FROM SPECIFIC TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING SUCH SKILLS AS READING TO GENERAL INFORMATION SUCH AS BASIC UNDERSTANDINGS NECESSARY FOR…

GARRETT, PAULINE GILLETTE

122

Work in a World of High Technology: Problems and Prospects for Economically Disadvantaged Workers. State-of-the-Art Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to analyze the changing nature of work in today's economy and to investigate employment problems and mobility opportunities for disadvantaged workers. Principal dimensions of employment opportunities in the "old economy" of the 1950s and 1960s are highlighted, and the impact of the emergence of the "new economy" on the…

Noyelle, Thierry J.

123

The effectiveness of antenatal care programmes to reduce infant mortality and preterm birth in socially disadvantaged and vulnerable women in high-income countries: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Infant mortality has shown a steady decline in recent years but a marked socioeconomic gradient persists. Antenatal care is generally thought to be an effective method of improving pregnancy outcomes, but the effectiveness of specific antenatal care programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in socioeconomically disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women has not been rigorously evaluated. Methods We conducted a systematic review, focusing on evidence from high income countries, to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative models of organising or delivering antenatal care to disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women vs. standard antenatal care. We searched Medline, Embase, Cinahl, PsychINFO, HMIC, CENTRAL, DARE, MIDIRS and a number of online resources to identify relevant randomised and observational studies. We assessed effects on infant mortality and its major medical causes (preterm birth, congenital anomalies and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)) Results We identified 36 distinct eligible studies covering a wide range of interventions, including group antenatal care, clinic-based augmented care, teenage clinics, prenatal substance abuse programmes, home visiting programmes, maternal care coordination and nutritional programmes. Fifteen studies had adequate internal validity: of these, only one was considered to demonstrate a beneficial effect on an outcome of interest. Six interventions were considered 'promising'. Conclusions There was insufficient evidence of adequate quality to recommend routine implementation of any of the programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in disadvantaged/vulnerable women. Several interventions merit further more rigorous evaluation.

2011-01-01

124

HUMAN CAPITAL ACCUMULATION AND THE EXPANSION OF WOMEN'S ECONOMIC RIGHTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1850 and 1920 most U.S. states passed laws that expanded the rights of married women to own and control their separate property and to own their market earnings. We examine the effects of these legal changes on investment by families in the human capital of girls and young women. Standard approaches to the economics of property rights imply that,

R. RICHARD GEDDES; DEAN LUECK; SHARON TENNYSON

2009-01-01

125

The Economic Consequences of Widowhood for Older Minority Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We compare the economic consequences of widowhood for preretirement age and early- retirement age Black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White women. Methods: We use the 1992 and 2000 waves of the Health and Retirement Study to assess the effects of widowhood on the household incomes and assets of non-Hispanic White, Black, and Hispanic women who were 51 years of age

Jacqueline L. Angel; Maren A. Jimenez; Ronald J. Angel

2007-01-01

126

Islamic Fundamentalism and Women's Economic Role: The Case of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly believed that Islamic fundamentalism is responsible for the low female employment rate in the Middle East and North Africa. I earlier presented evidence from Indonesia indicating that the deteriorating conditions of women's economic role in the 1990s was related to the economic circumstances of the Asian Crisis, not to the rise of political Islam (Bahranitash, 2002). In

Roksana Bahramitash

2003-01-01

127

The Committee on Economic Education: Its Effect on the Introductory Course and Women in Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The percentage of women economics majors has stagnated for decades. This is creating a bottleneck in the pipeline of female\\u000a economists. The Committee on Economic Education (CEE) of the American Economic Association (AEA) is charged with fostering\\u000a economic understanding and effective teaching. An examination of its structure, membership and activities over the past 35 years,\\u000a however, suggests that it has narrowed

Robin L. Bartlett; Marianne A. Ferber; Carole A. Green

2009-01-01

128

Enhancing Women's Participation in Economic Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: An Overview (Gender Gaps in Education, Gender Gaps in Health, Gender Gaps in Employment); The Payoffs to Investing in Women (Promoting Growth, Promoting Efficiency, Reducing Poverty, Helping Future Generations, Promoting Sustainable Development)...

K. Subbarao J. Jalan K. Newland C. Winter

1994-01-01

129

Abortion Policy and Vulnerable Women in the United States: A Call for Social Work Policy Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repressive abortion policy in the United States creates undue burdens for groups of vulnerable women, including adolescents, women of color, women living in rural areas, and women with economic disadvantages. Repressive abortion policy creates a two-tiered system of access to reproductive health care that is a particular disadvantage to vulnerable women. In this study, current policy is discussed with examples

Gretchen E. Ely; Catherine N. Dulmus

2010-01-01

130

Women's education and economic well-being  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence across regions in the world reveals patterns in school enrollment ratios and literacy that are divided along gender lines. In the developing world, apart from most countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, enrollment ratios of girls lag behind those for boys at all levels of education. Worldwide literacy rates for adult men far exceed those for women. While

M. Anne Hill; Elizabeth King

1995-01-01

131

Count-Me-In For Women's Economic Independence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Count-Me-In For Women's Economic Independence is a national, nonprofit organization focused on raising money from women to be loaned to other women. Count-Me-In's goal is to collect donations of $5 from women around the country to be added to a national loan fund, which will be awarded to qualifying women for small business loans in amounts ranging between $5,000 and $10,000, as well as for scholarships for business training. Be sure to browse through the "what is count-me-in?" section; "follow your $5" details how these $5 contributions are turned into loans, and "the power of small loans" chronicles the ways in which business women have used their small loans from Count-Me-In.

132

Marital instability and the economic status of women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine the relationship between changes in marital\\u000a status and economic status. Differences between men and women and between whites and blacks are also considered. A major finding\\u000a is that, after adjusting for changes in family size, the economic status of divorced or separated men improves, while that

Saul Hoffman

1977-01-01

133

Title: Women in the Workforce: Young Women Mill Workers and Economic Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

This lesson plan is designed to be a module in a larger investigation of the American Industrial Revolution. The four-day study focuses on the young women working in the mills. Students will use primary and secondary source documents to learn about the young women and the economic choices they made and the changes that resulted. The students will learn how

Erin O'Connell; Lori Risse; Mary Liz Towne

134

Economic Security in Retirement: How Changes in Employment and Marriage Have Altered Retirement?Related Economic Risks for Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine across birth cohorts the consequences for inter? and intra?gender equality of changing patterns of women's work, earnings, and marriage. While over time work participation rates, average earnings, and pension coverage for women have become increasingly similar to those for men, inequality among women has grown. As the economic opportunities for college?educated women have improved, women with only a

Karen C. Holden; Angela Fontes

2009-01-01

135

Economic and Social Psychological Independence: Dilemmas for Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews three volumes which provide considerable material on the cultural, economic, psychological, and social factors which affect Black and White women and their families: "Common Differences: Conflicts in Black and White Feminist Perspectives" (Joseph and Lewis); "The Black Woman Cross-Culturally" (Steady); and "Household Composition and…

Lindsay, Beverly

1985-01-01

136

Vitamin A inadequacy in socioeconomically disadvantaged pregnant Iowan women as assessed by the modified relative dose response (MRDR) test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vitamin A status of low-income women (n = 57) during the third trimester of pregnancy was assessed by use of the modified relative dose response (MRDR) test. Non-Hispanic White (45), Hispanic (6), Afro-American (5), and Asian (1) women were recruited from public health programs in central Iowa. Serum retinol, ?-carotene, ?-carotene, lycopene, ?-tocopherol, and cholesterol concentrations were also measured.

Pamela K. Duitsman; Laura R. Cook; Sherry A. Tanumihardjo; James A. Olson

1995-01-01

137

Correlates of socio-economic inequalities in women's television viewing: a study of intrapersonal, social and environmental mediators  

PubMed Central

Introduction Socio-economically disadvantaged women are at a greater risk of spending excess time engaged in television viewing, a behavior linked to several adverse health outcomes. However, the factors which explain socio-economic differences in television viewing are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of intrapersonal, social and environmental factors to mediating socio-economic (educational) inequalities in women's television viewing. Methods Cross-sectional data were provided by 1,554 women (aged 18-65) who participated in the 'Socio-economic Status and Activity in Women study' of 2004. Based on an ecological framework, women self-reported their socio-economic position (highest education level), television viewing, as well as a number of potential intrapersonal (enjoyment of television viewing, preference for leisure-time sedentary behavior, depression, stress, weight status), social (social participation, interpersonal trust, social cohesion, social support for physical activity from friends and from family) and physical activity environmental factors (safety, aesthetics, distance to places of interest, and distance to physical activity facilities). Results Multiple mediating analyses showed that two intrapersonal factors (enjoyment of television viewing and weight status) and two social factors (social cohesion and social support from friends for physical activity) partly explained the educational inequalities in women's television viewing. No physical activity environmental factors mediated educational variations in television viewing. Conclusions Acknowledging the cross-sectional nature of this study, these findings suggest that health promotion interventions aimed at reducing educational inequalities in television viewing should focus on intrapersonal and social strategies, particularly providing enjoyable alternatives to television viewing, weight-loss/management information, increasing social cohesion in the neighborhood and promoting friend support for activity.

2012-01-01

138

Latinas and African American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…

Browne, Irene, Ed.

139

Latinas and African American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and…

Browne, Irene, Ed.

140

Process evaluation for the FEeding Support Team (FEST) randomised controlled feasibility trial of proactive and reactive telephone support for breastfeeding women living in disadvantaged areas  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the feasibility, acceptability and fidelity of a feeding team intervention with an embedded randomised controlled trial of team-initiated (proactive) and woman-initiated (reactive) telephone support after hospital discharge. Design Participatory approach to the design and implementation of a pilot trial embedded within a before-and-after study, with mixed-method process evaluation. Setting A postnatal ward in Scotland. Sample Women initiating breast feeding and living in disadvantaged areas. Methods Quantitative data: telephone call log and workload diaries. Qualitative data: interviews with women (n=40) with follow-up (n=11) and staff (n=17); ward observations 2?weeks before and after the intervention; recorded telephone calls (n=16) and steering group meetings (n=9); trial case notes (n=69); open question in a telephone interview (n=372). The Framework approach to analysis was applied to mixed-method data. Main outcome measures Quantitative: telephone call characteristics (number, frequency, duration); workload activity. Qualitative: experiences and perspectives of women and staff. Results A median of eight proactive calls per woman (n=35) with a median duration of 5?min occurred in the 14?days following hospital discharge. Only one of 34 control women initiated a call to the feeding team, with women undervaluing their own needs compared to others, and breast feeding as a reason to call. Proactive calls providing continuity of care increased women's confidence and were highly valued. Data demonstrated intervention fidelity for woman-centred care; however, observing an entire breast feed was not well implemented due to short hospital stays, ward routines and staff–team–woman communication issues. Staff pragmatically recognised that dedicated feeding teams help meet women's breastfeeding support needs in the context of overstretched and variable postnatal services. Conclusions Implementing and integrating the FEeding Support Team (FEST) trial within routine postnatal care was feasible and acceptable to women and staff from a research and practice perspective and shows promise for addressing health inequalities. Trial registration ISRCTN27207603. The study protocol and final report is available on request.

Craig, Leone; MacLennan, Graeme; Boyers, Dwayne; Vale, Luke

2012-01-01

141

An Examination of the First/Second-Grade Form of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance: Factor Structure and Stability by Grade and Gender across Groups of Economically Disadvantaged Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We tested the structure of the Pictorial Scale of Competence and Social Acceptance (PSPCSA) across groups of first and second grade children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. We used confirmatory factor analysis, including latent mean structures analysis, to test the fit of competing PSPCSA factor models and examined invariance across…

French, Brian F.; Mantzicopoulos, Panayota

2007-01-01

142

An Examination of the First/Second-Grade Form of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance: Factor Structure and Stability by Grade and Gender across Groups of Economically Disadvantaged Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested the structure of the Pictorial Scale of Competence and Social Acceptance (PSPCSA) across groups of first and second grade children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. We used confirmatory factor analysis, including latent mean structures analysis, to test the fit of competing PSPCSA factor models and examined invariance across…

French, Brian F.; Mantzicopoulos, Panayota

2007-01-01

143

Can we disentangle life course processes of accumulation, critical period and social mobility? An analysis of disadvantaged socio-economic positions and myocardial infarction in the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation hypothesis would propose that the longer the duration of exposure to disadvantaged socio-economic position, the greater the risk of myocardial infarction. However there may be a danger of confounding between accumulation and possibly more complex combinations of critical periods of exposure and social mobility. The objective of this paper is to investigate the possibility of distinguishing between these

Johan Hallqvist; John Lynch; Mel Bartley; Thierry Lang; David Blane

2004-01-01

144

To what extent are the indigenous women of Jharkhand, India living in disadvantageous conditions: findings from India's National Family Health Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous populations are the most marginalized and vulnerable communities in India, constituting 8.2% of India's total population, four times larger than the total population of Australia. The state of Jharkhand accounts for 27.7% of the total indigenous population of India. This paper compares the health and socio-economic and demographic indicators among indigenous and non-indigenous women in Jharkhand in terms of

Praween K. Agrawal; Sutapa Agrawal

2010-01-01

145

Women's work. Maintaining a healthy body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes women's perceptions of the supports and barriers to maintaining a healthy weight among currently healthy weight women from urban and rural socio-economically disadvantaged areas. Using focus groups and interviews, we asked women about their experiences of maintaining a healthy weight. Overwhelmingly, women described their healthy weight practices in terms of concepts related to work and management. The

Nicky Welch; Wendy Hunter; Karina Butera; Karen Willis; Verity Cleland; David Crawford; Kylie Ball

2009-01-01

146

How do women weather economic shocks ? a review of the evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do women weather economic shocks differently than men? The evidence shows this to be the case, especially in low-income countries. The first-round impacts of economic crises on women's employment should be particularly salient in the current downturn, since women have increased their participation in the globalized workforce and therefore are more directly affected by the contraction of employment than in

Shwetlena Sabarwal; Nistha Sinha; Mayra Buvinic

2010-01-01

147

13. ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN WOMEN AND MEN: NEW REALITIES AND THE REINTERPRETATION OF DEPENDENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women’s lives and opportunities in the advanced industrialized countries have changed dramatically during the last decades of the 20th century. One of the important changes is that women’s economic power has increased considerably, with women’s labor force experience and earnings capacity much closer to that of men’s than has ever been the case. In this paper I focus on how

Annemette Sørensen

2003-01-01

148

Strategies for Educating Gifted, Disadvantaged Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Disadvantaged youth should not be penalized for their economic status or stereotyped as unintelligent. Despite schools' best intentions, poor youngsters are underrepresented in gifted and talented education programs. This article shows what administrators and communities can do to ensure that highly able disadvantaged youth are included in…

Cavazos, Lauro F.

1990-01-01

149

13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...business concern or the distribution was solely for the purposes...taxes arising in the normal course of operations...in the EDWOSB or the distribution was solely for the purposes...taxes arising in the normal course of...

2012-01-01

150

Women's Socio-Economic Development in India: The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Jacobs (2000) and McLean (2000) affirm the need to expand boundaries of HRD to include multiple topics in a variety of contexts. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) provide possibilities and limitations for the socio-economic development of women in India. The roles of NGOs in serving the socio-economic needs of women provide a broader,…

Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

2004-01-01

151

Practitioner perspectives of the economic coping experiences of women of domestic violence abuse.  

PubMed

Through this case study the author investigates women's coping experiences with economic challenges in the spectrum of domestic violence abuse. Women of abuse cope with financial difficulties compounded by other ecologically contributing factors. Eight non-abused, social service practitioners from four different agencies, two providers per agency, described the economic coping experiences of women of abuse they serve. Comprehensive and interdisciplinary care is necessary to meet women's multifaceted, complex economic needs. Study results corroborate with research. Service delivery of care for women of abuse coping with family, schooling, and economic hardships are enhanced through schools and service agencies working together, collaborating networking, and sharing of resources in order to better advocate for women and children. PMID:23368989

Haeseler, Lisa Ann

2013-01-01

152

The Relations between Cluster Indexes of Risk and Promotion and the Problem Behaviors of 6- and 7-Year-Old Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relations between alternative representations of poverty cofactors and promotion processes, and problem behaviors of 6- and 7-year-olds from disadvantaged families. Found that single-index risk representations and promotion variables predicted aggression but not anxiety/depression. An additive model of individual risk indicators performed…

Ackerman, Brian P.; Schoff, Kristen; Levinson, Karen; Youngstrom, Eric; Izard, Carroll E.

1999-01-01

153

Gendered Economic, Social, and Cultural Challenges to HIV\\/AIDS Prevention and Intervention for Chinese Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is experiencing the most rapidly expanding HIV prevalence in the world, with the percentage of Chinese women living with HIV\\/AIDS also increasing significantly. Chinese women's risk of HIV infection is heavily influenced by patriarchal cultural beliefs, Confucian doctrines, and rapid social and economic changes in China. Chinese women generally have a low level of awareness of HIV\\/AIDS. With inherent

Catherine So-kum Tang

2008-01-01

154

The economic progress of black women, 1940û1980: Occupational distribution and relative wages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses Census data on women's wages and occupations from the years 1940-80 to examine long-term trends in black women's relative economic status. The paper links black women's increased relative wages after 1940 to their entry, especially after 1960, into occupations and industries in which they were previously unrepresented, most notably factory jobs and clerical work. The authors find

James S. Cunningham; Nadja Zalokar

1992-01-01

155

Economic violence to women and girls: is it receiving the necessary attention?  

PubMed

Most studies on gender-based violence (GBV) have focused on its physical, sexual, and psychological manifestations. This paper seeks to draw attention to the types of economic violence experienced by women, and describes its consequences on health and development. Economic violence experienced included limited access to funds and credit; controlling access to health care, employment, education, including agricultural resources; excluding from financial decision making; and discriminatory traditional laws on inheritance, property rights, and use of communal land. At work women experienced receiving unequal remuneration for work done equal in value to the men's, were overworked and underpaid, and used for unpaid work outside the contractual agreement. Some experienced fraud and theft from some men, illegal confiscation of goods for sale, and unlawful closing down of worksites. At home, some were barred from working by partners; while other men totally abandoned family maintenance to the women. Unfortunately, economic violence results in deepening poverty and compromises educational attainment and developmental opportunities for women. It leads to physical violence, promotes sexual exploitation and the risk of contracting HIV infection, maternal morbidity and mortality, and trafficking of women and girls. Economic abuse may continue even after the woman has left the abusive relationship. There is need for further large-scale studies on economic violence to women. Multi-strategy interventions that promote equity between women and men, provide economic opportunities for women, inform them of their rights, reach out to men and change societal beliefs and attitudes that permit exploitative behavior are urgently required. PMID:18495936

Fawole, Olufunmilayo I

2008-05-21

156

Age Differences in the Personality Profiles of Disadvantaged Females.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study systematically investigated age differences in personality characteristics of advantaged and disadvantaged high school and college females. Two hundred and thirty three subjects (Ss) were randomly selected from an urban environment: 83 disadvantaged and 112 advantaged high school girls, and 38 disadvantaged college women. The test…

Soares, Louise M.; Soares, Anthony T.

157

The impact of socio-economic disadvantage on rates of hospital separations for diabetes-related foot disease in Victoria, Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Information describing variation in health outcomes for individuals with diabetes related foot disease, across socioeconomic strata is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate variation in rates of hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease and the relationship with levels of social advantage and disadvantage. Methods Using the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD) each local government area (LGA) across Victoria was ranked from most to least disadvantaged. Those LGAs ranked at the lowest end of the scale and therefore at greater disadvantage (Group D) were compared with those at the highest end of the scale (Group A), in terms of total and per capita hospital separations for peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, foot ulceration, cellulitis and osteomyelitis and amputation. Hospital separations data were compiled from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Database. Results Total and per capita separations were 2,268 (75.3/1,000 with diabetes) and 2,734 (62.3/1,000 with diabetes) for Group D and Group A respectively. Most notable variation was for foot ulceration (Group D, 18.1/1,000 versus Group A, 12.7/1,000, rate ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.3, 1.6) and below knee amputation (Group D 7.4/1,000 versus Group A 4.1/1,000, rate ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.5, 2.2). Males recorded a greater overall number of hospital separations across both socioeconomic strata with 66.2% of all separations for Group D and 81.0% of all separations for Group A recorded by males. However, when comparing mean age, males from Group D tended to be younger compared with males from Group A (mean age; 53.0 years versus 68.7 years). Conclusion Variation appears to exist for hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease across socioeconomic strata. Specific strategies should be incorporated into health policy and planning to combat disparities between health outcomes and social status.

2011-01-01

158

Women City Leaders and Postmaterialist Values: Gender Differences in Economic Development Priorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate gender-associated differences in the attitudes of city leaders regarding local economic development priorities. In so doing, we test the thesis that the economic development priorities of women city leaders will reflect postmaterialist values; in other words, women city leaders will place more of an emphasis on quality-of-life issues than do men. We employ results of a survey of

James M. Vanderleeuw; Maria E. Sandovici; Christopher A. Jarmon

2011-01-01

159

Does Female Disadvantage Mean Lower Access to Food?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on gender differentials in nutrition demonstrates that the calorie intake of females is generally as adequate as that of males at all ages. Female disadvantage in micronutrient intake is, however, frequent. Pregnant and lactating women are disadvantaged relative to both men and other women. In South Asia there is evidence that boys are advantaged over girls in food

Laurie F. DeRose; Maitreyi Das; Sara R. Millman

2000-01-01

160

Urban planning, housing and the socio-economic development of women in a developing country  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper identifies aspects of housing and urban development legislation that inhibit the socio-economic progress of women in Cameroon. Three components of the legislation, namely the urban master plan, the land use decree and the building control ordinance are shown to imbibe elements that are overtly biased against women. Measures deemed capable of making housing and urban development policy outcomes

Ambe J. Njoh

1998-01-01

161

Why Don't Women Feature in the History of Economics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Stating that contributions of women to the history of economics have been far from negligible, Shackleton briefly describes the achievements of some noteworthy female economists of the past and suggests reasons why their work is not more widely known. Discusses women such as Jane Marcet, Harriet Taylor, and Anna Schwartz. (GEA)|

Shackleton, J. R.

1988-01-01

162

One NGOs Contribution to Women's Economic Empowerment and Social Development in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poverty, due in part to the lack of economic self-sufficiency, has been recognised as one of the key impediments in the empowerment of women in Africa. Although Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) have been frequently criticised, they have more often played a facilitating and leadership role as catalysts in empower- ment and development in relation to the socioeconomic needs of women in

MARIA JULIA

1999-01-01

163

Economic costs of residential substance abuse treatment for pregnant and parenting women and their children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides basic information about the economic cost of substance abuse treatment provided in 39 demonstration projects funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, in the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, under its Residential Women and Children and Pregnant and Postpartum Women (RWC\\/PPW) programs. It integrates data assembled in two studies, a study of annual project

Kenneth Burgdorf; Mary Layne; Tracy Roberts; Dan Miles; James M. Herrell

2004-01-01

164

Household Headship Among Married Women: The Roles of Economic Power, Education, and Convention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Household headship historically has been equated with being the main economic provider of the household, a position usually occupied by men. This paper uses a change in the United States Census definition of household headship to examine whether headship for married women is associated with being the primary breadwinner in a marriage versus other non-economic explanations. According to microdata from

Ann E. Biddlecom; Ellen A. Kramarow

1998-01-01

165

Women, Fertility and Economics: Fifty Years of Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a systematic review of the scientific literature on fertility and its relationship with economics. We explore theoretical and empirical frameworks developed in the last fifty years, emphasizing on the classical (Becker, Easterling) and unorthodox approaches (Bongaarts, Iannaccone, Lehrer). This literature review focused on journals of economics, sociology and demography indexed in the Journal Storage database (JSTOR), Elsevier’s

Felipe Del Río; Nelson Alvis; Martha Yánez; Raúl Quejada; Karina Acevedo

2010-01-01

166

Disadvantaged populations in maternal health in China who and why?  

PubMed Central

Background China has made impressive progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for maternal and reproductive health, but ensuring that progress reaches all segments of the population remains a challenge for policy makers. The aim of this review is to map disadvantaged populations in terms of maternal health in China, and to explain the causes of these inequities to promote policy action. Methods We searched PUBMED, Popline, Proquest and WanFang and included primary studies conducted in mainland China. Experts were also contacted to identify additional studies. Disadvantaged populations in terms of MDG 5 and the reasons for this disadvantage explored by authors were identified and coded based on the conceptual framework developed by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Results In China, differences in maternal health service utilization and the maternal mortality ratio among different income groups, and among regions with different socio-economic development still exist, although these differences are narrowing. Groups with low levels of education and ethnic minorities utilize maternal health care less frequently and experience higher maternal mortality, although we could not determine whether these differences have changed in the last decade. Rural-to-urban migrants use maternal health care and contraception to a lower extent than permanent residents of cities, and differential maternal mortality shows a widening trend among these groups. Gender inequity also contributes to the disadvantaged position of women. Intermediary factors that explain these inequities include material circumstances such as long distances to health facilities for women living in remote areas, behavioral factors such as traditional beliefs that result in reduced care seeking among ethnic minorities, and health system determinants such as out-of-pocket payments posing financial barriers for the poor. Conclusions Inequity in maternal health continues to be an issue worthy of greater programmatic and monitoring efforts in China.

Yuan, Beibei; Qian, Xu; Thomsen, Sarah

2013-01-01

167

Somalia: An Assessment of SWDO (Somalia Women's Democratic Organization), and of the Social and Economic Status of Women in the Lower Shebelle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Somali Women's Democratic Organization (SWDO) asked USAID/Somalia to provide a team to initiate a project directed at improving its management capabilities and improving social and economic conditions of rural women in the Lower Shabelle Region of Som...

V. H. Delancey D. E. Lindsay A. Spring

1987-01-01

168

The Southampton Initiative for Health: a complex intervention to improve the diets and increase the physical activity levels of women and children from disadvantaged communities  

PubMed Central

The ‘Southampton Initiative for Health’ (SIH) is a training intervention with Sure Start Children’s Centre staff designed to improve the diets and physical activity levels of women of child-bearing age. Training aims to help staff to support women in making changes to their lifestyles by improving three skills: reflection on current practice; asking ‘open discovery’ questions; and goal setting. The impact of the training on staff practice is being assessed. A before and after non-randomised controlled trial is being used to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the intervention in improving women’s diets and increasing their physical activity levels.

Barker, Mary; Lawrence, Wendy; Baird, Janis; Jarman, Megan; Black, Christina; Barnard, Katharine; Cradock, Sue; Davies, Jenny; Margetts, Barrie; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus

2013-01-01

169

Intimate Partner Violence and Symptoms of Sexually Transmitted Infections: Are the Women from Low Socio-economic Strata in Bangladesh at Increased Risk.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: There is little research on whether women who are either poor or illiterate and have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) have a unique risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Most such research concerns families displaced by wars and conflicts. PURPOSE: Therefore, we aimed to further this important area of inquiry by (1) addressing whether an association exists between experiences of physical and/or sexual IPV within the past year and symptoms of STI and (2) exploring the relationship between low socio-economic status and IPV and the relative roles they play as obstacles to reducing women's risk of STI in a nationally representative sample of Bangladesh. METHOD: This paper used data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analyses were based on the responses of 4,195 currently married women. Exposure was determined from women's experiences of physical and sexual IPV within the past year. Genital sores and genital discharge were used as proxy outcome variables of the symptoms of STI. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used in the study. RESULTS: Experience of any physical and/or sexual IPV were associated with genital sores (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]?=?1.79; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.28-2.51) and genital discharge (AOR 1.90, 95 % CI 1.42-2.53). Severity of physical IPV appeared to have more profound consequences on the outcome measured. Findings also demonstrated that for the risk of STI, women at the nexus of poverty or illiteracy and IPV were not more uniquely disadvantaged. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that for the risk of STI, the negative effect of having experienced IPV extends across all socio-economic backgrounds and is not limited to women at either at the nexus of poverty or illiteracy and IPV. Findings underscore the calls for protecting women from all forms of physical and sexual violence from their husbands as a part of interventions to reduce the risk of STI. PMID:23515966

Rahman, Mosiur; Nakamura, Keiko; Seino, Kaoruko; Kizuki, Masashi

2013-03-21

170

Rheumatoid arthritis and older women: economics tell only part of the story.  

PubMed

The triad of age, gender, and disabling chronic illness sets the stage for increased dependence and deprivation in later life. Women are three times more likely than men to be diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As a prototype of a chronic illness, RA affects all dimensions of a woman's life, usually beginning with physical function, which results in loss of work, social, and recreational activities. Because women incur 40% more chronic illness and live longer than men do, they require more health care and supportive services as they age. Women typically earn less money during their working lives than do men and are more likely to be economically impoverished in old age. Research is needed to identify the multidimensional impact of RA on older women and to explore treatment, life-style, and work options that will help younger cohorts of women prepare for their economic needs in old age. PMID:8002422

Shaul, M P

171

Peer-mentoring for first-time mothers from areas of socio-economic disadvantage: A qualitative study within a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Non-professional involvement in delivering health and social care support in areas of socio-economic deprivation is considered important in attempting to reduce health inequalities. However, trials of peer mentoring programmes have yielded inconsistent evidence of benefit: difficulties in implementation have contributed to uncertainty regarding their efficacy. We aimed to explore difficulties encountered in conducting a randomised controlled trial of a

Christine A Murphy; Margaret E Cupples; Andrew Percy; Henry L Halliday; Moira C Stewart

2008-01-01

172

Understanding the Gender Gap: An Economic History of American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a unique set of data drawn from the US census, statistics, city directories, and other sources, the author looks at the differences between men and women in the US labour force. She shows that the `gender gap' in income and job level that has existed throughout history cannot be explained simply as a matter of sex discrimination, nor as

Claudia Goldin

1990-01-01

173

Sex Preferences, Marital Dissolution and the Economic Status of Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|American society is confronting the consequences of increase in divorce rates. There is substantial increase in households that are headed by a single female. The possible reasons for the rise in divorces and the labor market outcomes for women are analyzed. It is also noted that if the first-born is a girl, the marriage is less likely to…

Bedard, Kelly; Deschenes, Olivier

2005-01-01

174

Contextualizing Women Domestic Violence Survivors' Economic and Emotional Dependencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Comments on the article by Robert Bornstein, "The Complex Relationship Between Dependency and Domestic Violence,". Bornstein's attention to both types of dependency and women's experiences of domestic violence. I believe that his discussion of these complex relationships and social policy recommendations may be enhanced with a more integrated and…

Chronister, Krista M.

2007-01-01

175

The effect of the equal rights amendment on the economic status of women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  The empirical analysis of the effect of stateERA's on the economic status of women yielded mixed results. The amendment has provided more job opportunities and promotions into\\u000a male-stereotyped occupations. TheERA, however, has not commensurately provided equal pay for equal work or higher relative pay. Yet, on balance, theERA has provided gains for women. The employment gains progressed slowly but steadily

Marshall H. Medoff

1985-01-01

176

Rural women and local economic development in south-west Victoria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1990s, the appearance of women in leadership roles in local economic development organisations in small south-west Victorian towns heralded a change in gender relations in rural Australia. This paper contributes to an understanding of this process by investigating the actions and motives of women in leadership roles in small rural towns in south-west Victoria. The paper begins by

Kevin O’Toole; Anna Macgarvey

2003-01-01

177

Reconnecting Disadvantaged Young Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By several recent counts, the United States is home to 2 to 3 million youth age 16 through 24 who are out of school and out of work. Much has been written on disadvantaged youth, and government policy has gone through many incarnations, yet questions remain unanswered. Why are so many young people "disconnected," and what can public policy do…

Holzer, Harry; Edelman, Peter; Offner, Paul

2006-01-01

178

Reconnecting Disadvantaged Young Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|By several recent counts, the United States is home to 2 to 3 million youth age 16 through 24 who are out of school and out of work. Much has been written on disadvantaged youth, and government policy has gone through many incarnations, yet questions remain unanswered. Why are so many young people "disconnected," and what can public policy do…

Holzer, Harry; Edelman, Peter; Offner, Paul

2006-01-01

179

Recruiting and retaining postpartum women from areas of social disadvantage in a weight-loss trial--an assessment of strategies employed in the WeighWell feasibility study.  

PubMed

Little is known about the response of post-partum women from deprived backgrounds to weight management interventions, however behavioural intervention trials in disadvantaged communities are often characterised by recruitment difficulties. Recruitment and retention is key to the robust conduct of an effective trial, and exploratory work is essential prior to a definitive randomised controlled trial. This paper describes strategies used to recruit to the WeighWell feasibility study, which aimed to recruit 60 overweight or obese post-partum women living in areas of deprivation to a trial of a weight-loss intervention. Recruitment strategies included the following: (1) distribution of posters and 'business cards'; (2) newspaper advertisements; (3) visits to community groups; and (4) personalised letters of invitation sent via the National Health Service (NHS). Potential participants were screened for eligibility following response to a Freephone number. Body mass index was calculated using self-reported body weight and height. Over 6 months, 142 women responded of whom 65 (46%) met the eligibility criteria. The most effective methods for recruiting eligible women and those who went on to complete the study (n = 36) were visits to community groups (37% and 42%, respectively), personalised letters (26% and 17%, respectively) and posters and 'business cards' (22% and 31%, respectively). These results emphasise the need to utilise a range of strategies beyond traditional NHS settings. Current approaches might be enhanced by sending personal contact letters via their General Practitioner to women identified as eligible at post-natal discharge. Under-reporting of body weight by self-report suggests that a threshold lower than 25 kg/m(2) should be utilised for screening purposes. PMID:22284216

Macleod, Maureen; Craigie, Angela M; Barton, Karen L; Treweek, Shaun; Anderson, Annie S

2012-01-29

180

Microcredit and the socio-economic wellbeing of women and their families in Cairo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcredit has become one of the most important tools used to combat poverty and to enhance families’ wellbeing. This research aims at testing the following hypothesis: microcredit is positively linked to women's socio-economic wellbeing in Cairo. It is of special interest because it is a leader in evaluating this kind of intervention in Cairo; it uses primary source data and

Yasmine F. Nader

2008-01-01

181

Unequal Opportunities The Economic Possibilities Open to Jewish Women in 18th Century Poland-Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following texts present an image of economic opportunities, and gender roles in Jewish society in eastern Europe. The first text is an 18th-century supplication by a Jew, Bunim Szlomowicz, against his wife; the second is a 1751 decree by the Council of Lithuania regulating women's roles in trade.

Adam Teller

2006-01-01

182

The Current Attack on Women's Rights: A Political-Economic Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The right-wing attack on women's rights in the United States manifests itself in the regulation of reproductive rights, the family, and the workplace and corresponds to the changing needs of capital in an era of social and economic crises. Against this background, anti-abortion legislation, the Family Protection Act, and discrimination in the…

Kress, June

183

The impact of economic resources on premarital childbearing and subsequent marriage among young American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends previous work on premarital childbearing by modeling both the entry rates and the exit rates of unwed motherhood among young American women. In particular, I investigate the impact of economic resources on the likelihood of experiencing a premarital birth and then of subsequent marriage. Using a multiple-destination, multiple-spell hazard regression model and a microsimulation analysis, I analyze

Arnstein Aassve

2003-01-01

184

The Economic Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse for Adult Lesbian Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study extends investigation of the long-term consequences of child sexual abuse into the workplace and considers the economic effects on Lesbian women as determined by the National Lesbian Health Care Survey. It considers the effects of child sexual abuse on four spheres of a woman's life: her physical health, mental health, educational…

Hyman, Batya

2000-01-01

185

The Effects of Fiscal Policies on the Economic Development of Women in the Middle East and North Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistics indicate that the economic and social development of women in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) compares unfavorably with most regions in the world. This paper assesses the influence of government expenditure and taxation policies on the economic and social welfare of women in the region. On the expenditure side, we test the explanatory power of public social

Tea Trumbic; Nicole Laframboise

2004-01-01

186

The Effects of Fiscal Policies on the Economic Development of Women in the Middle East and North Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistics indicate that the economic and social development of women in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) compares unfavorably with most regions in the world. This paper assesses the influence of government expenditure and taxation policies on the economic and social welfare of women in the region. On the expenditure side, we test the explanatory power of public social

Nicole Laframboise; Tea Trumbic

2003-01-01

187

SocioEconomic Status of Women in Rural Poultry Production in Selected Areas of Kwara State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the socio-economic status of women in rural poultry production in selected areas of Kwara State, Nigeria. This is based on the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between women's participation and their socio-economic status such as age, marital status, level of education and occupation. The study was conducted in selected villages in Kwara State. A total

I. Ogunlade; S. A. Adebayo

2009-01-01

188

Access to Higher Education and Disadvantaged Young People  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will highlight the difficulties faced by qualified but disadvantaged young people in accessing higher education. This is an issue which has strong implications for education policy, economic efficiency and social justice. Over the past two decades, despite large increases in overall access to higher education, the gap in level of participation between the most affluent and most disadvantaged

ALASDAIR FORSYTH; ANDY FURLONG

2003-01-01

189

The Economic Well-Being of Older Women Who Become Divorced or Separated in Mid and Later Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the economic well-being of women who become divorced or separated in mid and later life using 1994 data from the Statistics Canada Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics. Three measures of economic well-being are considered: adjusted economic family total money income; before-tax low income cutoff; and ownership of dwelling. Women and men aged 65 and older in

Sharon Davies; Margaret Denton

2001-01-01

190

Worsened oncologic outcomes for women of lower socio-economic status (SES) treated for locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Two hundred and thirty-seven women, undergoing multimodality treatment for locally advanced breast cancer (LABC), were retrospectively analyzed for age, menopausal status, socio-economic status (SES), tumor size, nodal involvement, tumor grade, estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR) status and tumor stage. Primary purpose was to assess outcomes of these patients treated in a low-income country as defined by the World Bank and using limited-level treatment resources as defined by Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) guidelines. Secondary objectives included correlation of predictive and prognostic features with event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) at 5 years. Predictors of decreased EFS or OS included lower SES [P=0.05 (95%CI 0.34-1.0) and P=0.1 (CI 0.29-1.14)], larger tumor size [P=0.01 (95%CI 1.06-1.59) and P=0.3 (CI 0.86-1.50)] and positive lymph node status [P=0.04 (95% CI 1.0-1.55) and P<0.0001 (CI 1.37-2.64). In women diagnosed with LABC in Pakistan, patients with lower SES had larger, more aggressive tumors with worsened survival outcomes. Optimal breast cancer care warrants consideration for health care policies that address access to diagnostic and treatment services for financially disadvantaged women. PMID:19892552

Aziz, Zeba; Iqbal, Javaid; Akram, Muhammad; Anderson, Benjamin O

2009-11-05

191

Increased Stress Among Women Following an Economic Collapse--A Prospective Cohort Study.  

PubMed

There is a scarcity of data on mental health effects of the global economic recession. In this study, we investigated potential change in self-reported levels of psychological stress in the Icelandic population as a result of the major national economic collapse that occurred in 2008. We used a national cohort of 3,755 persons who responded to a survey administered in 2007 and 2009, including demographic questions and a stress measure (the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale). We used repeated-measures analysis of variance and logistic regression models to assess change in mean stress levels and risk of high stress levels (>90th percentile) in 2009 as compared with 2007. Age-adjusted mean stress levels increased between 2007 and 2009 (P = 0.004), though the increase was observed only for women (P = 0.003), not for men (P = 0.34). Similarly, the odds ratios for experiencing high stress levels were increased only among women (odds ratio (OR) = 1.37), especially among women who were unemployed (OR = 3.38), students (OR = 2.01), had middle levels of education (OR = 1.65), or were in the middle income bracket (OR = 1.59). The findings indicate that psychological stress may have increased following the economic collapse in Iceland, particularly among females in economically vulnerable groups. PMID:23408547

Hauksdóttir, Arna; McClure, Christopher; Jonsson, Stefan Hrafn; Olafsson, Orn; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur A

2013-02-13

192

Women Helping Women? Role Model and Mentoring Effects on Female Ph.D. Students in Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

One potential method to increase the success of female graduate students in economics is to encourage mentoring relationships between these students and female faculty members, via increased hiring of female faculty, or having female faculty serve as dissertation chairs for female students. This paper examines whether either of these strategies results in more successful outcomes for female graduate students, using

David Neumark; Rosella Gardecki

1998-01-01

193

Women of higher socio-economic status are more likely to be overweight in Karnataka, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores differences in body mass index (BMI), diet, and lifestyle between women of varying socio-economic status in Karnataka, India, using data from the National Family Health Survey 2 (n=4374), in-depth interviews (n=20) and six focus group discussions (n=40) completed in Bangalore. Predictors of overweight (BMI ?25kg\\/m2) were modelled using logistic regression. A content analysis of the qualitative data

P Griffiths; M Bentley

2005-01-01

194

Linguistic capital: Language as a socio-economic resource among Kurdish and Arabic women in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the 1998 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey are used to gain insight into the characteristics of the non-Turkish speaking individuals in Turkey and in the socio-economic consequences of not speaking Turkish for them. The very large majority of non-Turkish speaking individuals turn out to be Kurdish and Arabic women, living in East Turkey and in the countryside. The

Jeroen Smits; Ay?e Gündüz-Ho?gör

2003-01-01

195

A Longitudinal Study of the Effect of Integrated Literacy and Basic Education Programs on Women's Participation in Social and Economic Development in Nepal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Nepal, Girls' and Women's Education Initiative and the Girls' and Women's Education Policy Research Activity (GWE-PRA) investigated the impact of women's integrated literacy programs in the country's development by examining measures of socio-economic status, as well as indicators of women's social and economic development, including" (1)…

Burchfield, Shirley; Hua, Haiyan; Baral, Dyuti; Rocha, Valeria

196

[Economic activity of Third World women and perspectives on the decline of their fertility].  

PubMed

Despite recent efforts to achieve a better understanding of the economic roles of women throughout the world, progress has been impeded by the lack of available statistical material concerning their employment. The importance of women's productive activity remains unrecognized in most of the Third World because it is largely accomplished outside the cash sector and is not included in any statistics. 72% of women in developing countries live in rural zones, where they are occupied in production, processing, storage, and preparation of foodstuffs. Many also assist the family budget by selling foodstuffs and craft products. The role of women in agriculture and commerce varies in different regions; it is estimated that 60-80% of agricultural labor in Africa and about 40% in Latin America is female. Third World women have also found employment in labor intensive industries such as electronics and textiles. The active female population grew from 1950-75 at 2.5%/1year in Asia, 1.9% in Africa, and 3.2% in Latin America. Major variations are seen in the female participation rates of countries within the same regions. The number of women working in the nonorganized sector is not known. Particularly in cities, most new jobs have been in the service sector. Prior to the spread of the capitalist mode of production, the productive and reproductive roles of women were equally significant and compatible, and women had a greater weight in family and community. With the separation of the cash and subsistence sectors, women were increasingly relegated to the least prestigious and least remunerative sectors. When forced to seek work in the modern sector, their lack of education and the persistence of traditional sexist practices allowed them to find only the least qualified, most poorly paid, and least secure jobs in the primary, secondary, or tertiary sectors. The introduction of technical development into Third World countries benefitted women very little, since it was usually addressed only to men. Although migration for many women had a fertility dampening effect, for many others it reinforced their attachment to reproductive traditions. The maintenance of high levels of fertility among Third World women, despite their participation in paid labor, can be explained in part by tradition and religious values and productive roles of children, but also by dissatisfaction with the low level employment conditions available to them. PMID:12312445

Samman, M L

197

Domestic Violence in the Lives of Women Receiving Welfare: Mental Health, Substance Dependence, and Economic Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from a random sample of women from the welfare caseload in an urban Michi- gan county, the authors investigate the prevalence of domestic violence and its associa- tion with mental health, health, and economic well-being. Nearly a quarter of the women experienced physical partner violence in the past 12 months, and almost two thirds in their lifetimes. Recent

RICHARD M. TOLMAN; DANIEL ROSEN

2001-01-01

198

The Economic Well-Being of Women Who Become Divorced or Separated in Mid and Later Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aging of the baby boom and rising divorce rates mean that many women will spend their later life without income from a husband. Using 1994 data from the Statistics Canada Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, this thesis examines the economic well-being of women who become divorced or separated in mid and later life. Means and chi-square tests are

Sharon C. Webb

1999-01-01

199

Multiple Generation Disadvantage: How Communities Affect the Outcomes of Different Generations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intergenerational disadvantage has been defined as “disadvantage induced by the attitudes, social circumstances or economic limitations of a person’s parents’ (Vinson, 2009,P. 1). This disadvantage could be in terms of poverty, labour force, or lack of access to opportunities that other children may have. One of the limitations of this concept is that it only takes into account direct family,

Robert Tanton; Honge Gong; Ann Harding

2011-01-01

200

Which aspects of socio-economic status are related to health in mid-aged and older women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population-based study was conducted to validate gender- and age-specific indexes of socio-economic status (SES) and to\\u000a investigate the associations between these indexes and a range of health outcomes in 2 age cohorts of women. Data from 11,637\\u000a women aged 45 to 50 and 9,510 women aged 70 to 75 were analyzed. Confirmatory factor analysis produced four domains of SES

Gita D. Mishra; Kylie Ball; Annette J. Dobson; Julie E. Byles; Penny Warner-Smith

2002-01-01

201

Women Are "The Key to Progress." The Situation of Women in Developing Countries and German Efforts To Improve Their Situation. IN Visitors' Information Special Report, SO 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Women in developing countries carry out three-quarters of all work in rural areas, are often exposed to great health risks through frequent childbirth, and are disadvantaged compared with men in education and training. Modernization has burdened women with new responsibilities and more work but has improved health care. The economic and social…

Krugmann-Randolf, Inga

202

Money Doesn't Talk, It Swears: How Economic Stress and Resistance Resources Impact Inner-City Women's Depressive Mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the differential impact of chronic versus acute economic stress on depressive mood among a sample of 1241 low-income, single, European and African American women. Based on Hobfoll's (1988, 1989) conservation of resources (COR) theory, we predicted that acute resource loss would be more distressing than chronic economic lack. That is, although chronically impoverished conditions are stressful, the attendant

Nicole E. Ennis; Stevan E. Hobfoll; Kerstin E. E. Schröder

2000-01-01

203

Empowering rural women's groups for strengthening economic linkages: some Indian experiments.  

PubMed

Through organizing informal self-help groups (SHGs), rural women in India are provided credit and extension support for various production-oriented income-generating activities. These activities usually include garment-making, embroidery, food processing, bee-keeping, basketry, gem cutting, weaving, and knitting. SHGs are self-governed, with decisions about production and marketing taken collectively, although the group leader is responsible for identifying potential marketing centers and consumers. These groups represent a new culture in rural development, breaking with traditional bureaucracy and top-down management. Informal groups empower rural women to manage rural industries and make decisions collectively for their common economic interests. Experience with SHGs in Orissa, lessons from nongovernmental organization intervention, and a model for empowering poor people in a small town in Kerala are discussed. PMID:12295206

Rajagopal

1999-05-01

204

Relationship between dietary habits, age, lifestyle, and socio-economic status among adult Norwegian women. The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine how dietary intake varies with age in a nation-wide sample of adult Norwegian women, and to evaluate the impact of lifestyle and socio-economic status on important dietary aspects.Design: Cross-section study.Setting and subjects: A food frequency questionnaire was mailed to a random, nation-wide sample of 20 000 women aged 45–69 y, and 9885 questionnaires were accepted for nutritional

A Hjartåker; E Lund

1998-01-01

205

THE READING OF THE CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|ASPECTS OF READING RELATED TO CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED ADULTS AND CHILDREN ARE SURVEYED. THE MAIN TOPICS OF DISCUSSION BASED ON RESEARCH AND LITERATURE ARE READING ABILITY OF DISADVANTAGED ADULTS, READING ABILITY OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN, CAUSES OF READING PROBLEMS AMONT THE DISADVANTAGED, READING INTERESTS, LIBRARY USE BY DISADVANTAGED ADULTS,…

MCCROSSAN, JOHN

206

Matrix Organizations: Overcoming the Disadvantages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper a background on the matrix management organizational structure. The author identifies typical disadvantages of the matrix organization with the focus on project and functional managers, functional experts, and project teams. Various techniques ...

H. E. Berg

1984-01-01

207

Effects of Employment-Based Programs on Families by Prior Levels of Disadvantage  

PubMed Central

This study examines how welfare and employment policies affect subpopulations of low-income families that have different levels of initial disadvantage. Education, prior earnings, and welfare receipt are used to measure disadvantage. The analysis of data from experiments suggests that employment-based programs have no effects on economic well-being among the least-disadvantaged low-income, single-parent families, but they have positive effects on employment and income for the most-disadvantaged and moderately disadvantaged families. These programs increase school achievement and enrollment in center-based child care of children only in moderately disadvantaged families. The most-disadvantaged families are found to increase use of child care that is not center based. Parents in these families experience depressive symptoms and aggravation. The findings raise questions about how to support families at the lowest end of the economic spectrum.

Alderson, Desiree Principe; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Imes, Amy; Huston, Aletha C.

2011-01-01

208

Concerns and Misconceptions about Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Focus Group Evaluation with Low-Income Hispanic Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fivefocus groups were conducted with Hispanic women (primarily of Mexican American heritage) from low-income neighborhoods in San Jose, California, to learn about their knowledge of cardiovascular disease (CVD) riskfactors, the relative importance of risk factors, and ideas about effective CVD risk-reduction programs. Despite language barriers and economic disadvantages, women were highly aware of heart disease and described it as a

Sinda Mein; Marilyn A. Winkleby

1998-01-01

209

The "amazing" fertility decline: Islam, economics, and reproductive decision making among working-class Moroccan women.  

PubMed

Often it is understood that Islam prohibits family planning because the Qur'an does not explicitly address contraception. Public health and development officials have recently congratulated the Muslim world for decreases in fertility given the supposed constraints placed on reproductive healthcare by Islam, while popular culture writers have warned the West of threats by young Muslims if the population goes uncontrolled. This article draws on data collected through interviews with working-class women seeking reproductive healthcare at clinics in Rabat, Morocco, and with medical providers to challenge the link between Islamic ideology and reproductive practices and the correlation among Islam, poverty, and fertility. Morocco, a predominantly Muslim country, has experienced a dramatic decrease in fertility between the 1970s and today. I argue that patients and providers give new meanings to modern reproductive practices and produce new discourses of reproduction and motherhood that converge popular understandings of Islam with economic conditions of the Moroccan working class. PMID:22338288

Hughes, Cortney L

2011-12-01

210

Dietary calcium intake in premenopausal Bangladeshi women: do socio-economic or physiological factors play a role?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Evaluation of data on dietary calcium intake in premenopausal women of two socio-economic groups in Bangladesh.Design: A cross sectional study. Three days dietary records were used to estimate habitual calcium intake.Setting: Two regions of Bangladesh. The Dhaka city area and the Betagair Union in the sub-district Nandail, Mymensingh.Subjects: A total of 191 subjects of two groups (low socio-economic group=group

M Z Islam; C Lamberg-Allardt; M Kärkkäinen; S M K Ali

2003-01-01

211

Psychosocial and socio-economic factors in women and their relationship to obesity and regional body fat distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Abdominal obesity, as well as psychosocial and socio-economic handicaps are risk factors for serious, prevalent diseases. Connections between these variables have been found in men.OBJECTIVE: The principal aim of the present study was to analyse the associations between psychosocial and socio-economic factors with body mass index (BMI) and the waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHR) in women.DESIGN: A cohort study of

R Rosmond; P Björntorp

1999-01-01

212

No time to worship the serpent deities: women, economic change, and religion in north-western Nepal.  

PubMed

This paper explores the changing relationships between lay women, and the spiritual realm, in two ethnic Tibetan communities, Kag and Dzong, in northwestern Nepal. The study tackles how economic and social change has affected women's spiritual roles within the household and the community, and how these roles, in turn, have influenced the course of such change. In Kag, the introduction of tourism changed women's way of life. They became income-generating members of the community as lodge-owners. With new responsibilities to manage, Kag women eventually neglected their traditional social and spiritual obligations, much to the dismay of the older generation. On the other hand, women in Dzong still consider full social and physical participation in village life important despite the added obligations. They maintain spiritual harmony within the village. Dzongba women do not seem to feel the same conflicts as Kagpa women. The negative impact of Kag women's neglect of traditional social and spiritual responsibilities should be weighed against the possible benefits to women, household, and economy. PMID:12295339

Saul, R

1999-03-01

213

Guidelines for the Employment of the Culturally Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "culturally disadvantaged" are men and women over 16, regardless of race, who live outside the mainstream of American life in urban ghettos and isolated rural areas. They are functionally illiterate people. The time for crash programs to employ these people has passed; the total involvement approach is necessary. These employment guidelines…

Fine, Sidney A.

214

The Effect of Integrated Basic Education Programs on Women's Social and Economic Well-Being in Bolivia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A large-scale longitudinal study in Bolivia examined the relationship between adult women's basic education and their social and economic well-being and development. A random sample of 1,600 participants and 600 nonparticipants, aged 15-45, was tracked for 3 years (the final sample included 717 participants and 224 controls). The four adult…

Hua, Haiyan; Burchfield, Shirley

215

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATION Dietary calcium intake in premenopausal Bangladeshi women: do socio-economic or physiological factors play a role?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Evaluation of data on dietary calcium intake in premenopausal women of two socio-economic groups in Bangladesh. Design: A cross sectional study. Three days dietary records were used to estimate habitual calcium intake. Setting: Two regions of Bangladesh. The Dhaka city area and the Betagair Union in the sub-district Nandail, Mymensingh. Subjects: A total of 191 subjects of two groups

MZ Islam; C Lamberg-Allardt; M Karkkainen; SMK Ali

2003-01-01

216

Women Empowerment and Participation in Economic Activities: Indispensable Tools for Self-Reliance and Development of Nigerian Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objective of the study was to examine women empowerment and participation in economic activities as tools for self-reliance and development of the Nigerian society. Research questions and hypothesis were used to guide the study. Structured questionnaire was used as the major instrument for data collection. Copies of questionnaires were…

E. N., Ekesionye; A. N., Okolo

2012-01-01

217

Women and Work in the Third World: The Impact of Industrialization and Global Economic Interdependence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research presented at two conferences on women and work in the Third World indicates that the number of women workers in national and international industries has increased dramatically, thus increasing not only women's wage-earning capacity but also thei...

N. M. El-Sanabary M. Nagat

1983-01-01

218

The Impact of Social Institutions on the Economic Role of Women in Developing Countries. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 234  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Donor agencies and policy makers tend to agree that increased access of women to education, health, credit, formal legal rights and employment opportunities, in conjunction with economic growth, will substantially improve the socio-economic role of women in developing countries. This paper challenges that view. It argues that these measures might…

Morrisson, Christian; Jutting, Johannes

2004-01-01

219

Marital Quality for Men and Women in Stepfamilies: Examining the Role of Economic Pressure, Common Stressors, and Stepfamily-Specific Stressors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although economic pressure and family stress models have been examined with samples of men and women in first marriages, previous models have neglected to focus on men and women in stepfamilies and to examine stress sources unique to stepfamilies. This study examines the effect of economic pressure on both common stressors and stepfamily-specific…

Schramm, David G.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca

2012-01-01

220

The impact of a small steady stream of income for women on family health and economic well-being.  

PubMed

Our primary aim to evaluate the impact of a small steady stream of income on family health and well-being among rural women employed part-time in a health project in Sarlahi district, Nepal. All 870 women applying for the job of distributing nutritional supplements in their villages completed a questionnaire prior to selection for employment, 350 of whom were hired and 520 who were not. A total of 736 women completed a second questionnaire 2 years later, 341 (97.4%) of whom had been continuously employed during this period, and 395 (76.0%) who had never been employed by the project. Changes in health and well-being over 2 years were compared between women who were and were not hired. Women who were hired were younger and better educated, but were similar in other regards. After adjusting for selection differences, employed women were more likely to save cash, buy jewellery, and buy certain discretionary household goods over 2 years than those who were not hired. Expenditures on children's clothing increased more for employed women, and their children were more likely to be in private schools at follow-up, but there was no impact on health and survival of children. Women with a small steady stream of income did improve their personal economic situation by savings and increased expenditures for children and the household. Longer follow-up may reveal impacts on health access and expenditures, although these were not evident in 2 years of employment. PMID:19280386

Katz, J; West, K P; Pradhan, E K; LeClerq, S C; Khatry, S K; Shrestha, S Ram

2007-01-01

221

BOARDING SCHOOLS FOR THE DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|SUGGESTED IS THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PUBLIC ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY BOARDING SCHOOLS FOR URBAN DISADVANTAGED AND DISTURBED OR DELINQUENT CHILDREN. THE INSTITUTIONAL FAMILY LIFE OF RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS CAN OFFER THESE CHILDREN AN ESCAPE FROM THE DESTRUCTIVE ENVIRONMENT OF THE URBAN GHETTO. MOREOVER, URBAN SCHOOLS SHOULD INSTITUTE SUMMER PROGRAMS OUT…

CLATWORTHY, F. JAMES

222

Tactics for Teaching the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New tactics for teaching the disadvantaged must be developed which are significantly different from traditional approaches which have been used with advantaged children. Creative strategies in teaching must be developed which utilize sound teaching and learning theories and which, at the same time, are able to be continuously evaluated in a…

White, William F.

223

Against the Odds: Disadvantaged Students Who Succeed in School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report explores the factors and conditions that could help more students succeed at school despite challenging socio-economic backgrounds. It does this by studying resilient students and what sets them apart from their less successful peers. Understanding how educational systems can support disadvantaged students and help them "beat the…

OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

2011-01-01

224

COMMUNITY RESOURCES IN THE GUIDANCE OF SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

BECAUSE THE PROBLEMS OF EDUCATING SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN EXTEND FAR BEYOND CLASSROOM WALLS, GUIDANCE COUNSELORS MUST CONSIDER THE ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL FACTORS WHICH AFFECT THE LIVES OF THESE CHILDREN. IN GUIDING THE NEGRO CHILD, FOR EXAMPLE, THE COUNSELOR SHOULD BE AWARE OF THE HOUSING AND EMPLOYMENT PROBLEMS WHICH THIS CHILD'S…

FINLEY, OTIS

225

Do Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Affect Children's Verbal Skills? Evaluation Science Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Evaluation Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study evaluating the effects of an early childhood program or environment. This Brief evaluates the study "Durable Effects of Concentrated Disadvantage on Verbal Ability Among African-American Children" (R. Sampson; R. Sharkey; and S. Raudenbush.) Racial and economic

National Forum on Early Childhood Program Evaluation, 2008

2008-01-01

226

Entrepreneurship and Earnings among Young Adults from Disadvantaged Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Academicians and policymakers have argued that entrepreneurship provides a route out of poverty and an alternative to unemployment or discrimination in the labor market. Existing research, however, provides little evidence from longitudinal data on the relationship between business ownership and economic advancement for disadvantaged groups. I use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to examine the earnings

Robert W. Fairlie

2005-01-01

227

Partnering with IT to Help Disadvantaged Students Achieve Academic Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study will describe how the Stony Brook University Libraries instruction program partnered with another student support service (student computing office) to nurture a relationship with the Educational Opportunities Program (EOP) over several years to provide their students with the library research and computer skills needed to succeed in college. EOP is a state-funded program aimed at economically disadvantaged

Janet H. Clarke

2012-01-01

228

The First National Conference on the Disadvantaged Gifted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarized are 19 presentations given at the first annual National Conference on the Disadvantaged Gifted held March 24-25, 1973. Emphasized is the effect of identification procedures, program provisions, and research and evaluation on (1) economically deprived gifted students, (2) culturally different gifted students, (3) female gifted students,…

Fitzgerald, Ellen J., Ed.; And Others

229

The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response.…

Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

2013-01-01

230

Rural African women and development.  

PubMed

70-90% of Africans still live in rural areas, and 25-30% of rural households are headed by women. Standards of living in rural areas are lower than in urban areas. Rural African women's involvement in development is in its initial stages, and social development for women is likely to be slow. Increasing women's opportunities for education is a means of promoting social justice and fairness. Schools should offer courses of practical value for those not planning on higher education and special programs and career counseling for gifted girls. Women's organizations, African leaders, and other influential parties should aggressively create awareness about the oppressive aspects of traditional attitudes, beliefs, and views about women. Laws on ownership of property, inheritance, access to credit, and employment must be equitable and enforced. Consciousness-raising among rural women is an effective means of encouraging rural women to seek and assume new roles and for questioning unreasonable expectations and norms. Women's professional associations serve important functions and fulfill the need for role models. The quality of rural women's life is effectively improved through formulation of policies relevant to women's needs and problems and improve rural conditions. Women should have fair representation at local and national levels of government. Women's role in agriculture is likely to be enhanced through improved transportation systems, electricity supply, and introduction of intermediate technology. This assessment of rural African women's contributions to economic growth emphasizes women's involvement in farming and the informal sector and their lack of equal remuneration or low wages. Illiteracy places women in a disadvantaged position when competing for employment in the formal sector. Lack of access to credit and limits on credit are other obstacles in the informal sector. The reduced participation of rural women in the formal and informal sector is due to lack of economic power, limited educational opportunities, and policies that place industry in urban areas. Social development that reduces illiteracy and poverty should be encouraged. PMID:12346826

Kabadaki, K

1994-01-01

231

Sweeping out Home Economics: Curriculum Reform at Connecticut College for Women, 1952-1962  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At the moment of its founding in 1911, Connecticut College for Women exhibited a curricular tension between an emphasis on the liberal arts, which mirrored the elite men's and women's colleges of the day, and vocational aspects, which made it a different type of women's college, one designed to prepare women for the kind of lives they would lead…

Marthers, Paul Philip

2011-01-01

232

A SocioEconomic Perspective on Women Entrepreneurs: Evidence from Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the context of globalization where women’s labour force participation and employment rates have grown all over the world where as Turkey differs from most countries with no increase in the growth women’s labor force participation. This situation is associated with a low demand for female labour as well as with socio-cultural factors limiting the supply of female labour. Women

Meltem Ince

2009-01-01

233

Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twelfth edition of this classic text has built upon the success of previous editions and has been thoroughly updated and revised to give students a deeper understanding and appreciation of the core principles of Economics. Suitable for beginners, Economics is accessible but has a rigour that will stretch readers to achieve their full potential. In-depth explanations of key theoretical

Richard G. Lipsey; Gordon R. Sparks; Peter O. Steiner

1979-01-01

234

The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…

Maroto, Michelle

2012-01-01

235

Application of a Conceptual Model of College Withdrawal to Disadvantaged Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a study of retention and attrition after the freshman year among disadvantaged students at an urban, primarily non-residential, university. Economically and academically disadvantaged college students are widely known to be at risk for attrition, which highlights the need to investigate the process among members of this group. Substantial progress has been made developing and testing explanatory models

Richard N. Fox

1986-01-01

236

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)|

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

237

The Timing and Spacing of Births and Women's Labor Force Participation: An Economic Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Empirical tests of hypotheses developed in a discussion of income and substitution effects support the hypothesis and show that women with more education have their first birth (B1) sooner after leaving school than less educated women; also, an additional...

S. G. Ross

1974-01-01

238

Rural-Urban Women's Experience of Symptoms of Depression Related to Economic Hardship  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares rural and urban women's experiences of depressive symptoms. Cross-sectional data were used from 623 women 55 years of age and older who were part of a randomly selected community based sample. Theoretical perspectives included individual stress and community context as explanatory factors contributing to differences in the proportion of women who identify having had the experience of

Betty J. Craft; David R. Johnson; Suzanne T. Ortega

1998-01-01

239

The Effect of Human Capital on the Economic Status of Women Following Marital Disruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women who fail to invest in human capital such as education and work experi ence risk future poverty in the event of marital disruption. This study used data from the National Longitudinal Surveys' Young Women Cohort to determine the effect of human capital on the per capita household income of women immedi ately following divorce or separation. Results indicated that

Teresa Mauldin; Nancy M. Rudd; Kathryn Stafford

1990-01-01

240

Neighborhood Context, Personality, and Stressful Life Events as Predictors of Depression Among African American Women  

PubMed Central

The authors tested neighborhood context, negative life events, and negative affectivity as predictors of the onset of major depression among 720 African American women. Neighborhood-level economic disadvantage (e.g., percentage of residents below the poverty line) and social disorder (e.g., delinquency, drug use) predicted the onset of major depression when controlling for individual-level demographic characteristics. Neighborhood-level disadvantage/disorder interacted with negative life events, such that women who experienced recent negative life events and lived in high disadvantage/disorder neighborhoods were more likely to become depressed than were those who lived in more benign settings, both concurrently and over a 2-year period. Neighborhood disadvantage/disorder can be viewed as a vulnerability factor that increases susceptibility to depression following the experience of negative life events.

Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Russell, Daniel W.; Brown, P. Adama; Clark, Lee Anna; Hessling, Robert M.; Gardner, Kelli A.

2007-01-01

241

[Parvovirus B-19 infections in pregnant women in day care facilities: health economic analysis of prohibition to employ seronegative women].  

PubMed

German protective legislation during pregnancy and maternity prohibit employing pregnant women if occupational activities endanger the health of either the mother-to-be or the fetus. This applies for parvovirus B19 seronegative women caring for children <6 years. Here we present a cost-effectiveness analysis from the view of the society for the prohibition to employ B19-seronegative women in day care. Prohibition of employment starting at the first day of pregnancy may prevent 1.4 cases of fetal death (mortality) and 1.7 cases of hydrops fetalis (morbidity) per year resulting in costs of 30 million (22 million /live birth). The incidence of B19 infection, the elevated occupational risk and the fetal death rate were varied in sensitivity analyses. This resulted in 0.2-3.1 fetal deaths prevented per year and costs between 10 million and 150 million per live birth. Indeed, the protective effect is assumed to be even lower since 30% of fetal deaths occur after infection during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy. During that time prohibition of employment is often unrealistic since the majority of women are not aware of pregnancy. In conclusion a small number of fetal lives can be saved by prohibiting employment in contrast to the extremely high costs. The regulations for maternal protection should be revised. PMID:17999130

Gärtner, B; Enders, M; Luft-Duchow, C; Bocharov, G; Modorow, S

2007-11-01

242

The impact of mining on women: lessons from the coal mining Bowen Basin of Queensland, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The select indicators of gender equity from the Australian Bureau of Statistics Census 2006 reveal that women of the mining towns of the Bowen Basin region of central Queensland are at a substantial social and economic disadvantage to men. Through a review of select social science literature on mining communities the paper examines work, family and community structures and processes

Sanjay Sharma

2010-01-01

243

Freestanding midwifery units versus obstetric units: does the effect of place of birth differ with level of social disadvantage?  

PubMed Central

Background Social inequity in perinatal and maternal health is a well-documented health problem even in countries with a high level of social equality. We aimed to study whether the effect of birthplace on perinatal and maternal morbidity, birth interventions and use of pain relief among low risk women intending to give birth in two freestanding midwifery units (FMU) versus two obstetric units in Denmark differed by level of social disadvantage. Methods The study was designed as a cohort study with a matched control group. It included 839 low-risk women intending to give birth in an FMU, who were prospectively and individually matched on nine selected obstetric/socio-economic factors to 839 low-risk women intending OU birth. Educational level was chosen as a proxy for social position. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results Women intending to give birth in an FMU had a significantly higher likelihood of uncomplicated, spontaneous birth with good outcomes for mother and infant compared to women intending to give birth in an OU. The likelihood of intact perineum, use of upright position for birth and water birth was also higher. No difference was found in perinatal morbidity or third/fourth degree tears, while birth interventions including caesarean section and epidural analgesia were significantly less frequent among women intending to give birth in an FMU. In our sample of healthy low-risk women with spontaneous onset of labour at term after an uncomplicated pregnancy, the positive results of intending to give birth in an FMU as compared to an OU were found to hold for both women with post-secondary education and the potentially vulnerable group of FMU women without post-secondary education. In all cases, women without post-secondary education intending to give birth in an FMU had comparable and, in some respects, more favourable outcomes when compared to women with the same level of education intending to give birth in an OU. In this sample of low-risk women, we found that the effect of intended place on birth outcomes did not differ with women’s level of education. Conclusion FMU care appears to offer important benefits for birthing women with no additional risk to the infant. Both for women with and without post-secondary education, intending to give birth in an FMU significantly increased the likelihood of a spontaneous, uncomplicated birth with good outcomes for mother and infant compared to women intending to give birth in an OU. All women should be provided with adequate information about different care models and supported in making an informed decision about the place of birth.

2012-01-01

244

Women in Economic Development: A Strategy for Support to the Sector in the West Bank and Gaza. Phase One Consultancy Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report assesses the activities of 22 Palestinian women's groups, including cooperatives, charitable societies, and grassroots organizations. The economic projects are operating in nearly total isolation from the commercial and industrial sectors of th...

L. Oldham

1990-01-01

245

The Economic Legacy of Divorce and Separation for Women in Old Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although progress has been made over the last 20 years, the burden of a low income in old age is still carried by unattached women. Few researchers, however, have examined exactly where the burden of poverty falls within the category of unattached older women or what the nature of this poverty is. Like any other group of older Canadians, unattached

Lynn McDonald; A. Leslie Robb

2004-01-01

246

Attractive Women Want it All: Good Genes, Economic Investment, Parenting Proclivities, and Emotional Commitment1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current research tests the hypothesis that women have an evolved mate value calibration adaptation that functions to raise or lower their standards in a long-term mate according to their own mate value. A woman's physical attractiveness is a cardinal component of women's mate value. We correlated observer-assessed physical attractiveness (face, body, and overall) with expressed preferences for four clusters

David M. Buss; Todd K. Shackelford

247

Beyond the Simple Economics of Cesarean Section Birthing: Women's Resistance to Social Inequality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explored the reasonsfor women's preferences for cesarean sectionbirths in Pelotas, Brazil. It is argued thatwomen strategize and appropriate both medicalknowledge and the technology of cesareansections as a creative form of responding tolarger public debates (and the practices thatproduced them) on the need for and causes of(de)medicalization. Questioning the reasons whysome women engage more actively in this processthan others

Dominique P. Béhague

2002-01-01

248

THE EFFECT OF ECONOMIC RESTRUCTURING ON PUERTO RICAN WOMEN'S LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION IN THE FORMAL SECTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The joint effort by the U.S. government and the political elite of Puerto Rico to industrialize the island created increased demand for female labor and a decline in the number of jobs traditionally held by men. The authors examine whether women's labor force participation in the formal sector responds to improving opportunities for women, declining opportunities for men, or the

BARBARA A. ZSEMBIK; CHUCK W. PEEK

1994-01-01

249

'Flower by flower, we make a garden': Palestinian women organising for economic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article illustrates a unique experience of social-movement building, initiated by Sawt el-Amel, a grassroots organisation of Arab workers in Israel. The process started in 2005, with the establishment of an activist forum for women on social welfare in Nazareth. Gradually, this is transforming into a union for Arab women all across Israel. The initiative can teach valuable lessons about

Marie-Olivia Badarne

250

HOW DOES ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT AFFECT WOMEN'S RISK OF INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN LOW AND MIDDLE INCOME COUNTRIES? A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF PUBLISHED EVIDENCEy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To identify whether individual and household economic empowerment is associated with lower intimate partner violence in low and middle income country settings. Methods: Systematic PubMed and internet searches. Results: Published data from 41 sites were reviewed. Household assets and women's higher education were generally protective. Evidence about women's involvement in income generation and experience of past year violence was

SEEMA VYAS; CHARLOTTE WATTS

251

Original Communication Iron status of premenopausal women in two regions of Bangladesh: prevalence of deficiency in high and low socio-economic groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of the study was to assess iron status in women of different physiological staus of two socio-economic groups in Bangladesh. Design: Cross sectional study, using 3-day food record and blood haemoglobin, serum iron, serum ferritin concentrations. Setting: Two regions of Bangladesh. The Dhaka city area and west region of Nandail, Mymensingh. Subjects: Women aged 16 - 40

MZ Islam; C Lamberg-Allardt; MAH Bhuyan; Q Salamatullah

2001-01-01

252

Participation and Decision Making Role of Rural Women in Economic Activities: A Comparative Study for Members and Non-Members of the MicroCredit Organizations in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was aimed to know the present status of rural women's participation and decision making role in economic activities (called EAs from here) in Bangladesh. The sample of the study consisted of 92 farm women from Rampur village of Palashbari upazila under Gaibandha district. Necessary data for the study were collected with questionnaire by personal interviewing of the respondent

Mahmuda Hoque; Yoshihito Itohara

2008-01-01

253

Women's Status and Fertility in Developing Countries: Son Preference and Economic Security. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 682 and Population and Development Series No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between women's status--defined in terms of the degree to which they are economically dependent on men--and fertility in developing nations is examined. After a brief introduction, part 2 discusses a particular theoretical perspective regarding fertility determinants in developing countries and explores the implications of women's…

Cain, Mead

254

Women's Economic Independence and the Probability of DivorceA Review and Reexamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we ask the question: Does a wife's economic independence destabilize marriage and heighten the risk of divorce? Using longitudinal data from the National Survey of Families and Households, we find only weak support for the economic independence thesis. There is an initial positive association between a wife's percentage contribution to family income and divorce, but the relation

LIANA C. SAYER; SUZANNE M. BIANCHI

2000-01-01

255

Early secondary prevention with disadvantaged preschool children.  

PubMed

A body of research data is reviewed pointing to considerable intellectual lag and nonstandard linguistic abilities among the disadvantaged. While "difference" and "deficit" theorists interpret these findings differently, many observers agree that early educational intervention may be a useful approach to such problems. A series of early intervention programs is reviewed for three young disadvantaged groups: infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Findings from these programs suggest that early intervention helps materially to reduce the intellectual and linguistic problems of the young disadvantaged. PMID:1093388

Jason, L

1975-03-01

256

Social and cultural factors in the etiology of low birthweight among disadvantaged blacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report gives results from eight intensive, exploratory interviews with Black women who suffered infant deaths within one year after delivery. Interviews were conducted as a final step in a research project to discover the correlates of very low birthweight among disadvantaged women in a city which maintains among the highest low birthweight and infant mortality rates in the United

Margaret S. Boone

1985-01-01

257

Gendering Peace and Liberation: A Participatory-Action Approach to Critical Consciousness Acquisition Among Women in a Marginalized Neighborhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many women from marginalized neighborhoods suffer injustices and structural violence due to patriarchal and macho-dominated culture as well as injustices stemming from precarious economic and social conditions (Christie, 2006) . Their disadvantageous living conditions coupled with multiple levels of exclusion have a negative impact upon their well-being at the personal, relational, and community levels. In the field of community psychology,

Violeta Luque-Ribelles; Nelson Portillo

258

Hopelessness as Mediator of the Link Between Reports of a History of Child Maltreatment and Suicidality in African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Findings from a study comparing reports of a history of child maltreatment and hopelessness in a sample of economically, socially, and educationally disadvantaged young urban African American women suicide attempters (n = 176) and demographically similar nonattempters (n = 185) revealed higher rates of child maltreatment and hopelessness among attempters than those among their nonsuicidal counterparts. Using a mediational model

Lindi A. Meadows; Nadine J. Kaslow

2002-01-01

259

Hopelessness as Mediator of the Link Between Reports of a History of Child Maltreatment and Suicidality in African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Findings from a study comparing reports of a history of child maltreatment and hope- lessness in a sample of economically, socially, and educationally disadvantaged young urban African American women suicide attempters (nD 176) and demographically similar nonattempters (nD 185) revealed higher rates of child maltreatment and hope- lessness among attempters than those among their nonsuicidal counterparts. Using a mediational model

Lindi A. Meadows; Nadine J. Kaslow

2002-01-01

260

Women in search of identity.  

PubMed

The All India Women's Conference, in collaboration with the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, organized a seminar on "Women in Search of Identity" on March 11, 1996. Concerns were limited to the refugee women and to migrant or displaced women. Refugee women are disadvantaged and vulnerable; they require protection against forced return to a country of origin where violence and prolonged detention await them. They require legal status that accords adequate social and economic rights and protection against manipulation, sexual or physical abuse, exploitation, and sexual discrimination. These women often flee with their children and without the male head of household; illiterate and unskilled, they are unaccustomed and unprepared to run the household. They have trouble standing up to threats and establishing themselves in a new environment. Displaced women migrate, alone or with men, from a rural area to a city as a part of industrialization. They live in slums and fall victim to exploitation. Also in this group is the illegal immigrant who migrates from neighboring countries for economic reasons. They are the most harassed by the administration and by the neighborhood. They do not belong; have no rights; and are unaware of legalities relating to their stay. They are used as cheap labor and may fall prey to trafficking. Millions are displaced within their own countries, searching for identity, despite being nationals, and live as no man's concern. Many hope to return home soon; many cannot. PMID:12179425

261

Infrastructure for Reaching Disadvantaged Consumers  

PubMed Central

Both consumers and health service providers need access to up-to-date information, including patient and practice guidelines, that allows them to make decisions in partnership about individual and public health in line with the primary health care model of health service delivery. Only then is it possible for patient preferences to be considered while the health of the general population is improved. The Commonwealth Government of Australia has allocated $250 million over five years, starting July 1, 1997, to support activities and projects designed to meet a range of telecommunication needs in regional, rural, and remote Australia. This paper defines rural and remote communities, then reviews rural and remote health services, information, and telecommunication technology infrastructures and their use in Australia to establish the current state of access to information tools by rural and remote communities and rural health workers in Australia today. It is argued that a suitable telecommunication infrastructure is needed to reach disadvantaged persons in extremely remote areas and that intersectoral support is essential to build this infrastructure. In addition, education will make its utilization possible.

Hovenga, Evelyn J. S.; Hovel, Joe; Klotz, Jeanette; Robins, Patricia

1998-01-01

262

[The characteristics of the spontaneous realization of sexual intercourse in economically employed women].  

PubMed

The basic parameters, connected with spontaneous realization of sexual intercourse in 411 women workers and employees, chosen at random, are studied. Various regularities are established: the lubrication is connected with difficulties in women with inflammatory changes in the internal sexual organs. The feeling of sexual excitation during sexual intercourse is stronger in women with larger number of sexual partners since the beginning of their sexual life. Disturbances in the occurrence of orgasm are more frequent in employees. Dyspareunia is connected mainly with organic changes in genitals, but it is determining factor for the success of sexual life. The frequency of the experienced pleasure is influenced by various social and biological factors comparatively slightly. PMID:2091476

Tsekov, V; Duchev, S

1990-01-01

263

Promising Practices: Teaching the Disadvantaged Gifted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended for teachers, the document offers 10 articles on educating the disadvantaged gifted student. Included are the following titles: "Four Promising Practices for Teaching Gifted Disadvantaged Students" (which describes a workshop with problem solving and creative expressive activities) by E. Paul Torrance; "Cultural Diversity and the…

Miley, James F., Comp.; And Others

264

Testing of the Disadvantaged: New Opportunities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This essay discusses testing of the disadvantaged and the possibilities for new approaches to the problem. The black community's resistance to testing and the legal implications of employment and educational discrimination which results from testing are discussed. The objections to testing the disadvantaged are reviewed. At the end, it is hoped…

Williams, E. Belvin

265

Self Concepts of Disadvantaged and Advantaged Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a study of 707 students show that all disadvantaged children do not necessarily have negative self concepts. In fact, they show just the opposite at the elementary school level; however, self concept diminishes for both disadvantaged and advantaged students at the secondary school level. (NH)

Soares, Louise M.; Soares, Anthony T.

1970-01-01

266

Special Counseling for the Disadvantaged Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to aid teachers and administrators who have not had special training in counseling and who are working in educational programs for the disadvantaged adult. Subject areas discussed are: The Counselor and the Client (Duties of the Counselor; Areas of Assistance for the Client); Who Are the Disadvantaged (Characteristics of the…

Kaple, Donald J.; Kaple, Marion Keeler

267

A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC ROLES WITHIN THE FAMILY: AMISH AND CONTEMPORARY AMERICAN WOMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the increased influence of Marxian theory in contemporary sociology, no conflict theorist has developed a scientific historical methodology based on a materialist interpretation of historicalevents. In this paper I use a materialistic methodology to assess the origin of modern feminism. I first compare the role of women in traditional agrarian families, as exemplified by the Amish, with the position

RICHARD A. WRIGHT

1977-01-01

268

The Future of Young Women's Economic Role in a Globalized Economy: New Opportunities, Persisting Constraints  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Young women in advanced industrial countries have been outperforming young men in educational attainment at the same time that their labor market outcomes are still lagging. Sex segregation in education and the labor market is identified as an important source of this imbalance. In this article, the authors advance some thoughts about this…

Buchmann, Marlis; Malti, Tina

2012-01-01

269

Coresidence with Parents, Women's Economic Resources, and the Transition to Marriage in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Integrating three theoretical explanations for declining rates of marriage in Japan, the authors develop hypotheses in which linkages between benefits of coresidence with parents and marriage timing are moderated by women's own socioeconomic characteristics. To evaluate these hypothesized interactive relationships, data from a panel survey of…

Raymo, James M.; Ono, Hiromi

2007-01-01

270

Visual Prostitution of Women in Sitcoms of the Philippines: A Political Economic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexualized portrayals of women are staples of two situational comedies because they reflect the patriarchal society's gender hierarchy and dichotomy as expe- rienced by the target audience in reality. The author found that the vulgarity in sitcoms is unwelcome in reality but the audiences still find it pleasurable within what the author calls their 'virtual structure'. Television peddles this vulgarity

JOEVEN R. CASTRO

2009-01-01

271

Rheumatoid arthritis and older women: Economics tell only part of the story  

Microsoft Academic Search

The triad of age, gender, and disabling chronic illness sets the stage for increased dependence and deprivation in later life. Women are three times more likely than men to be diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As a prototype of a chronic illness, RA affects all imensions of a woman's life, usually beginning with physical function, which results in loss of

Muriel P. Shaul

1994-01-01

272

[Advantages and disadvantages of breast cancer screening: time for evidence-based information].  

PubMed

Complaints about the partisan and poor information about mammographic screening go back as far as the introduction of the national screening programme. Research has shown that the great majority of women largely overestimate its advantages and ignore its disadvantages. This article outlines a structured draft of the advantages and disadvantages of breast cancer screening, framed as figures per 10,000 mammographies or 1000 women participating for 25 years with an average of 10 mammographies: 125 women are referred with a false positive diagnosis, 55 cancers are diagnosed during screening, and 21 cancers appear in the intervals between screening. Four women avoid death from breast cancer, 15 women die of breast cancer despite screening, and 51 women receive a diagnosis while screening which does not improve their prognosis, 16-20 of them are treated redundantly. These figures are based on the best evidence available, but are subject to further improvement. PMID:19900321

Bonneux, Luc

2009-01-01

273

Women and Minorities in Economics Textbooks: Are They Being Adequately Represented?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines 12 recent editions of principles of economics textbooks to determine the quantity of race- and gender-related material. Finds, in general, that there has been an increase in the quantitative coverage of race- and gender-related material as measured by the number of pages, names, and tables in the textbooks. (RLH)|

Robson, Denise

2001-01-01

274

Women and Minorities in Economics Textbooks: Are They Being Adequately Represented?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines 12 recent editions of principles of economics textbooks to determine the quantity of race- and gender-related material. Finds, in general, that there has been an increase in the quantitative coverage of race- and gender-related material as measured by the number of pages, names, and tables in the textbooks. (RLH)

Robson, Denise

2001-01-01

275

Women's worth.  

PubMed

Jill Conway is a feminist historian, writer, teacher, and now-emerita 1st woman president of Smith College. She claims that women today still suffer from a great deal of oppression. Women around the world are currently in a disadvantage position. In 7 countries women do not have the right to vote. In the US less that .5% of top executives are women. The wage gap in the US between 1939 and 1989 has only shrunk $.10, from $.58-$.68. Conway points out that we are all constrained by our social mores, generational attitudes, political events, and economic circumstances. Few people are able to overcome these things in the way that they live their lives. Conway questions the validity of history written from a male dominated point of view. Around the world the value of women's work is almost always lower than that of men. India is just 1 example, there 75% of women are illiterate and 1/2 the population lives in poverty based on a caste system. Female literacy tripled in the 1st 30 years of independence and by 1981 it had reached 25%. The literacy gap is actually growing in India Today with 44% of girls aged 6 to 11, who are eligible to attend school, not doing so. Rural poverty keeps them at home because their domestic work is more valuable than their education. Other cultural tradition compound the problem: arranged marriages often result in motherhood for 14 year old girls. This is done for many reasons, 1 of which is crop failure insurance. When 2 families are combined through marriage, their total land share grows and they are thus more likely to have enough to eat. Education is just 1 necessary step. Developed nations must realize the realities that exist in the countries they provide aid for. In Africa for example, 70% of continent's food is produced by women. Yet the aid programs of the past have only been designed to offer assistant to men and create jobs for men. PMID:12317441

Bloch, N

276

Economic Evaluation of Norethisterone Acetate\\/Ethinylestradiol (FemHRT(R)) for Women with Menopausal Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The objective of this study was to assess the cost effectiveness of a continuous combined oral preparation of norethisterone (norethindrone) acetate and ethinylestradiol (NA\\/EE) [FemHRT(R)] as both a first-line and second-line therapy for menopausal women. Perspective: Third-party payer. Methods: The cost effectiveness of NA\\/EE was assessed as both a first- and second-line therapy in comparison with conjugated equine oestrogen

Douglas Coyle; Ann Cranney; Peter Tugwell

2003-01-01

277

Physical activity for adolescents living in a disadvantaged neighbourhood: Views of parents and adolescents on needs, barriers, facilitators, and programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical activity promotes physical, psychological, and social well?being for young people. However, socio?economically disadvantaged adolescents participate significantly less in physical activity. Three focus groups were held with disadvantaged adolescents and parents to better understand factors related to participation in physical activity and to successfully implement and sustain a new program for such young people in one target community in Ottawa.

Julie Beaulac; Danielle Bouchard; Elizabeth Kristjansson

2009-01-01

278

Multimodal exercise improves quality of life of women being treated for breast cancer, but at what cost? Randomized trial with economic evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the efficacy and economic efficiency of a multimedia, multimodal physical activity program for women undergoing\\u000a adjuvant therapy following surgery for breast cancer. We conducted a randomized trial with concurrent incremental cost-effectiveness\\u000a analysis and blinded baseline, 3, 6 and 12-month follow-up assessments amongst women undergoing adjuvant therapy following\\u000a surgery for breast cancer (n = 89). The intervention was a multimedia, multimodal

Terry P. Haines; Patricia Sinnamon; Neil G. Wetzig; Margot Lehman; Euan Walpole; Tony Pratt; Amanda Smith

2010-01-01

279

The barriers that low-income women face in achieving economic self-sufficiency and homeownership: Reports from a qualitative study in the midwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines the complex, multilevel barriers that low-income women in a medium-sized Midwestern city face when trying to achieve economic self-sufficiency and homeownership. Data on which this dissertation are based include interviews with 25 low-income women enrolled in a local family self-sufficiency program and four of the program's administrators. All interviews were conducted by the author during Fall 2008.

Sharon Lindhorst Everhardt

2009-01-01

280

HEIGHTS OF WOMEN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA 1950- 1980: AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Did the Sub-Sahara African economies catch up to the developed countries in the 1950s to 1980s? Based on heights as an indicator for human well being this article presents evidence that there is still a long way for achieving convergence. Additionally, we explore the impact of various socio-economic, nutritional and health variables like GDP per capita, infant mortality rates, national

Alexander Moradi

281

African American Women's Lifetime Upward Economic Mobility and Preterm Birth: The Effect of Fetal Programming  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated whether African American mothers’ upward economic mobility across the life course and having been of low birth weight are associated with the preterm birth of their children. Methods. We performed stratified and multilevel logistic regression analyses on an Illinois transgenerational data set of African American infants (born 1989–1991) and their mothers (n = 11 265; born 1956–1976) with appended US Census income information. Results. African American mothers with a lifelong residence in impoverished neighborhoods had a preterm birthrate of 18.7%. African American mothers with early life impoverishment who experienced low, modest, or high upward economic mobility by adulthood had lower preterm birthrates of 16.0% (rate ratio [RR] = 0.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.8, 0.9), 15.2% (RR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.7, 0.9), and 12.4% (RR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.8), respectively. In multilevel logistic regression models of former low birth weight and non–low birth weight mothers aged 20 to 35 years, the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of preterm birth for those who experienced high upward economic mobility (vs those with lifelong impoverishment) was 0.9 (0.5-1.6) and 0.7 (0.5-0.9), respectively. Conclusions. African American mother's upward economic mobility from early life impoverishment is associated with a decreased risk of preterm birth. However, consistent with fetal programming, this phenomenon fails to occur among mothers born at low birth weight.

Rankin, Kristin M.; David, Richard J.

2011-01-01

282

Is cumulative exposure to economic hardships more hazardous to women's health than men's? A 16-year follow-up study of the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research has shown an association between cumulative economic hardships and various health outcomes. However, the cumulative effects of economic hardships in regard to gender differences have not been given enough attention. Methods 1981 women and 1799 men were followed up over a period of 16?years (1981–1997), using data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions panel study. The temporal association between economic hardships and self?rated health, psychological distress and musculoskeletal disorders was analysed. Results A dose–response effect on women's health was observed with increasing scores of cumulative exposure to financial stress but not with low income. Women exposed to financial stress at both T1 and T2 had an increased risk of 1.4–1.6 for all health measures compared with those who were not exposed. A similar consistent dose–response effect was not observed among men. Conclusions There is a temporal relationship between cumulative economic hardships and health outcomes, and health effects differ by gender. Financial stress seems to be a stronger predictor of poor health outcomes than low income, particularly among women. Policies geared towards reducing health inequalities should recognise that long?term exposure to economic hardships damages health, and actions need to be taken with a gender perspective.

Ahnquist, Johanna; Fredlund, Peeter; Wamala, Sarah P

2007-01-01

283

Economic Change and Change in Well-being in the Czech Republic, with Comparisons to Married Women in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effects of economic change on change in indi- vidual well-being for a panel of Czech respondents during a time of rapid social and economic transformation (1990-91), and compares married Czech w omen with a sample of married women in the United States. In examining five specific hypothe- ses from the stress-distress tradition in the United States,

FREDERICK O. LORENZ; JOSEPH HRABA; RAND D. CONGER

284

[Labor of women workers engaged in different fields of national economics (a sociological study)].  

PubMed

Under the conditions of complex socio-hygienic studies of labour and living conditions and health status of the working women it is also reasonable to find the degree of their satisfaction with work. It gives a most complete idea of how important the mood of a person is in the sphere of the working activity. It has been shown, that psychological factors (satisfaction with work, interrelations in a collective of people etc.) constitute an important reserve in the elevation of labour productivity, health preservation. PMID:2055506

Karakashian, A N

1991-02-01

285

Jobs: women's double burden.  

PubMed

Whereas international conventions and national laws provide equal opportunities for women in employment, the reality of women's lives keeps a disproportionate number of women unemployed, underemployed, and living in poverty. The UN itself, which officially is working toward equity among its employees, has a staff composed of just 32.6% women, and women comprise only 10.5% of the top end of the hierarchy. In areas where women's labor force participation has increased dramatically, women typically earn 30-40% less than men doing the same job or else their employment is limited to "traditional female" service positions. The fact that women and girls have received an inadequate education makes it extremely difficult to break the barriers of discrimination in developing countries. The empowerment of women will break the education barrier, and, when that falls, many other barriers will follow suit. Efforts are already underway to break structural barriers caused by economic and social policies. For example, a more flexible pattern of work has been proposed which will include the voluntary assumption of flexible hours, job-sharing, and part-time work. The concept of work is also being broadened to include the important human services that women traditionally provide on a volunteer basis. This will lead to a valuation of women's contribution to society which can be added to calculations of gross domestic product. Women also need protection as they attempt to eke out a living in the informal sector which has been the traditional avenue for women to earn money. This sector is not protected by law and is subject to extortion by officials and by male competitors. A variety of measures is under consideration to increase the protection of informal sector workers. Women also need protection in the conventional work place, especially as they enter fields traditionally reserved for men. These questions are important even in the context of global unemployment because these issues must be addressed or their resolution to women's disadvantage will gain the mantle of tradition. PMID:12157784

1995-01-01

286

Socio-economic and demographic factors influencing breast-feeding among Kuwaiti women.  

PubMed

Data about breastfeeding practices were collected from a sample of 1553 Kuwaiti married women during June 1985 to November 1985. The survey results show that Kuwaiti population is similar to other populations in the Middle East in having moderate incidence and duration of breastfeeding. The findings of a strong positive association between duration of breastfeeding and parity of the infant, and age of the mother at the time of birth of the child were observed which was expected. Further negative association between breastfeeding and family income, education of the mother and age of mother at marriage was confirmed by the data. Survey findings also support the general expectation that housewives have higher incidence and duration of breastfeeding relative to working mothers. Contrary to the practice among developing societies, Kuwaiti women did not show any preferential treatment for male infants. The survey findings call for concerted efforts through mass media, and education to promote breastfeeding practices for the benefits of infants as well as mothers. PMID:12281668

Al Bustan, M; Kohli, B R

287

Public Library Service for the Urban Disadvantaged.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental program of the master's level to prepare twenty students for public library service to the urban disadvantaged is reported. The institute had two general purposes: (1) to recruit and prepare twenty students to be effective librarians worki...

G. M. Casey

1972-01-01

288

Summer Internship Program For Socioeconimically Disadvantaged Undergraduates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the internship program was to give socioeconimically disadvantaged undergraduate students an introduction to what graduate study in Computer Science is like and to encourage them to consider graduate education. A further goal was to build stro...

W. Appelbe

1998-01-01

289

Relational and behavioral interventions with economically disadvantaged toddlers.  

PubMed

Matched groups of children, ages 12-24 months, referred for early social or verbal developmental lags or home-environment problems, participated either in a center-based "relational" or a home-based "behavior modification" intervention. Although both programs accelerated youngsters' intellectual development, there were few differences between groups on the criterion change measures. PMID:1266950

Jason, L A; Gesten, E; Yock, T

1976-04-01

290

34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...whoâ (i) Are employed, in an occupation for which you provided training, on...employed for at least 13 weeks, in an occupation for which you provided training...American Institute of Certified Public Accountants' (AICPA) Statement on...

2013-07-01

291

34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...whoâ (i) Are employed, in an occupation for which you provided training, on...employed for at least 13 weeks, in an occupation for which you provided training, between...American Institute of Certified Public Accountant's (AICPA) Statement on...

2013-07-01

292

13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...used to pay taxes arising in the normal course of operations of the firm...distributed by an ANC as a dividend or distribution on stock); a partnership interest...used to pay taxes arising in the normal course of operations of the...

2012-01-01

293

Highline Public Schools Computer-Assisted Instruction Project: A Program to Meet Disadvantaged Students' Individual Needs for Basic Skill Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This description of a computer-assisted instruction project, which provides an alternative approach to individual instruction in basic skills for economically and educationally disadvantaged students at the secondary level, includes the results of evaluat...

A. L. Maser

1977-01-01

294

Interpreting the Economic Growth and Development Policies of Post-Apartheid South Africa: Its Influence on Higher Education and Prospects for Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation is structured as a critical policy analysis employing historical methods. It examines how the post apartheid government's economic growth and development polices have informed the higher education system and how this has changed women's financial, occupational, political, social, and educational prospects in South Africa.…

Eynon, Diane E.

2010-01-01

295

Promotion of Physical Activity Among Mexican-Origin Women in Texas and South Carolina: An Examination of Social, Cultural, Economic, and Environmental Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interventions to improve physical activity levels among Latinos must take into consideration the social, cultural, economic, and environmental contexts of Latino communities. We report findings of formative assessments related to Mexicanorigin women's levels of readiness, willingness, and ability to participate in regular leisure time physical activity in two diverse locations, the Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley and the South Carolina

Deborah Parra-Medina; DeAnne K. Hilfinger Messias

2011-01-01

296

Women's Status and Fertility in Developing Countries: Son Preference and Economic Security. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 682 and Population and Development Series No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The relationship between women's status--defined in terms of the degree to which they are economically dependent on men--and fertility in developing nations is examined. After a brief introduction, part 2 discusses a particular theoretical perspective regarding fertility determinants in developing countries and explores the implications of…

Cain, Mead

297

Breast cancer risk assessment in socioeconomically disadvantaged urban communities.  

PubMed

During 2005, a risk assessment tool based on the Gail model was used to calculate the five-year risk of developing breast cancer for 445 women who live in socioeconomically disadvantaged urban communities in western Pennsylvania and who attended health fairs and other community-sponsored activities. This tool allowed us to evaluate each woman and advise her of her risks in a process lasting 15-20 minutes. Of the 445 women, 71.7% were black and 21.6% had a higher than average risk. The proportion of white women at high risk was significantly greater than the proportion of black women at high risk (33.3% vs. 16.9%; P < 0.01). The Gail model assessment tool for use in low-income and minority populations holds promise because it is noninvasive, is easy to use and provides immediate data about risk. This risk communication may help encourage minority and low-income women to receive screening mammography. It has the potential to improve breast cancer screening rates. PMID:17668640

Lin, Chyongchiou Jeng; Block, Bruce; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Woods, Mattie; Ricci, Edmund M; Morgenlander, Keith H; Heron, Dwight E

2007-07-01

298

Children's Perspectives on Economic Adversity: A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews some of the recent qualitative literature on children's perspectives on economic disadvantage. The idea of asking people who experience disadvantage about their own situations is still a relatively new one in the social sciences, and the idea of asking children about their own perceptions of economic and social disadvantage is even more recent. Nine analyses, all published

Gerry Redmond

2008-01-01

299

Women, Work, and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outlines causes of women's disadvantage in the workplace and the inadequacies of career development models for women. Addresses themes related to women's learning at work: hidden curriculum in the work context, identity development, relationships and connection, and mentoring. (Contains 38 references.) (SK)|

Bierema, Laura L.

2001-01-01

300

Rural Women and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Because some rural women underutilize their increased schooling while others are disadvantaged by low educational attainment and underdeveloped skills, and in order to help determine policy alternatives to meet rural women's educational needs, the educational attainments and labor force participation of rural white and minority women were…

Fratoe, Frank A.

301

Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent stress reactivity  

PubMed Central

Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African–American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). We found that concentrated disadvantage was associated with cortisol reactivity and this relationship was moderated by gender, such that higher concentrated disadvantage predicted higher cortisol reactivity and steeper recovery in boys but not in girls. Parental education, alone or as moderated by gender, did not predict reactivity or recovery, while neither education nor concentrated disadvantage predicted estimates of baseline cortisol. This finding is consistent with animal literature showing differential vulnerability, by gender, to the effects of adverse early experience on stress regulation and the differential effects of neighborhood disadvantage in adolescent males and females. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying SES differences in brain development and particularly reactivity to environmental stressors may vary across genders.

Hackman, Daniel A.; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Hurt, Hallam; Farah, Martha J.

2012-01-01

302

Using Open-Ended Data to Enrich Survey Results on the Meanings of Self-Rated Health: A Study Among Women in Underprivileged Communities in Beirut, Lebanon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study extends the debate on self-rated health by using different sources of data in the same study to explore the meanings of self-rated health among women who live in socio-economically disadvantaged communities in Beirut, Lebanon. Using data from the Urban Health Study, a cross-sectional household survey of 1,869 women between 15 and 59 years of age, multiple logistic regression

Mylene Tewtel Salem; Sawsan Abdulrahim; Huda Zurayk

2010-01-01

303

Advantage: Disadvantaged Gifted. Presentations from the Third National Conference on Disadvantaged Gifted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The presentations in this volume deal with various aspects of education for the gifted disadvantaged. Maija Blaubergs describes disadvantages experienced by gifted and talented girls in obtaining access to opportunities for achievement congruent with their potentialities. Some of the topics examined are sexist barriers, marriage, institutional and…

Rivlin, Harry N.; And Others

304

Teaching the Disadvantaged: A Curriculum Guide for Classes of Disadvantaged Students in Agricultural Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The guide begins with some observations on teaching disadvantaged students, a list of successful types of learning activities, and recommendations for planning and conducting an effective classroom situation. Also included are 13 general objectives of a program for the disadvantaged. The guide, intended as a source of ideas and directions in…

Crunkilton, John R.

305

Women’s Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The “feminine” question, that is to say the place and role of women in society is increasingly becoming a part of debates.\\u000a Every political leader, company manager, journalist, etc. is gradually becoming aware of the fact that the current situation\\u000a cannot go on because women represent over half of the world’s population. The economic media have recently headlined on women,

Pascale Joannin

306

Educational stratification among Arabs and Jews in Israel: Historical disadvantage, discrimination, and opportunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arabs in Israel are a heterogeneous but largely underprivileged minority with a history of disadvantage in several domains, including education and employment. In this paper, we document changes in their attainment of various educational levels across cohorts born from the mid-1920s to the 1970s. We make comparisons among different Arab religious groups, between men and women, and between Arabs and

Barbara S. Okun; Dov Friedlander

2005-01-01

307

The Impact of Maternal Cocaine Use on Neonates in Socioeconomic Disadvantaged Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews literature on prevalence, mechanisms of fetal toxicity, effects of exposure, socioeconomic factors, and social-support programs to increase awareness of the effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine. Emphasizes the need for drug education and social-support programs for disadvantaged pregnant women to prevent and control cocaine use. (EMK)

Sun, Wei Yue; Chen, William

1997-01-01

308

The Impact of Maternal Cocaine Use on Neonates in Socioeconomic Disadvantaged Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews literature on prevalence, mechanisms of fetal toxicity, effects of exposure, socioeconomic factors, and social-support programs to increase awareness of the effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine. Emphasizes the need for drug education and social-support programs for disadvantaged pregnant women to prevent and control cocaine use. (EMK)|

Sun, Wei Yue; Chen, William

1997-01-01

309

Marriageable Women: A Focus on Participants in a Community Healthy Marriage Program  

PubMed Central

Although disadvantaged women are the targets of marriage programs, little attention has been paid to women's marriage constraints and their views of marriage. Drawing on an exchange framework and using qualitative data collected from single women participating in a marriage initiative, we introduce the concept of marriageable women—the notion that certain limitations may make women poor marriage partners. Like their male counterparts, we find women also possess qualities that are not considered assets in the marriage market, such as economic constraints, mental and physical health issues, substance use, multiple partner fertility, and gender distrust. We also consider how women participating in a marriage program frame their marriage options, whereas a few opt out of the marriage market altogether.

Manning, Wendy D.; Trella, Deanna; Lyons, Heidi; Toit, Nola Cora Du

2012-01-01

310

[Mammography screening--advantages and disadvantages].  

PubMed

Mammography screening involves advantages as well as disadvantages. Intensive research in this area is being carried out both internationally and in Denmark. As mammography screening becomes nationwide in Denmark in 2007, it is crucial to closely monitor the advantages as well as the disadvantages, their extent and the possibility of optimizing the balance between them. The effect of a screening programme on breast cancer mortality is not likely to be evident until several years after starting the programme, and it is necessary to define process indicators for close monitoring of the programme. PMID:17953873

Olsen, Anne Helene; Schwartz, Walter; Vejborg, Ilse M M

2007-09-01

311

Norms, social networks, and HIV-related risk behaviors among urban disadvantaged drug users.  

PubMed

Altering norms may be an important approach to introducing and sustaining health protective behavior change. This study sought to examine the relationship between condom use, condom norms, and social network characteristics among a sample of economically impoverished individuals at risk for acquiring and transmitting HIV. Participants were 1051 individuals from a drug-using community in the USA. Eighty percent were current drug users; 17% were HIV seropositive. Reported condom use was strongly associated with peer norms about condom use (friends talking about condoms, encouraging condom use, and using condoms). Women were less likely than men to report that their friends used condoms. Injection drug use was negatively associated with peer norms about condom use, while church attendance and network characteristics were positively associated with condom-promoting norms. The size of the health advice and the financial support networks was most positively related to condom norms. Network methodology may aid in the identification of specific ties that promote condom use norms in a population. The findings of this study may have implications for norm change interventions among disadvantaged communities at high risk for HIV/AIDS. PMID:12570967

Latkin, Carl A; Forman, Valerie; Knowlton, Amy; Sherman, Susan

2003-02-01

312

Technology and the Education of the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To use devices aimed at combating our major educational problems with the disadvantaged, we need criteria based upon learning theory which will reveal for each of the types of media their competetively established efficiency. In the meantime, in the areas of greatest educational need, we need technology that involves many senses; permits the…

Martin, John Henry

313

Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from Add Health, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community and school controls. Neighborhood violence…

Harding, David J.

2009-01-01

314

THE DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AND YOUTH OF AMERICA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|PROGRESS IS BEING MADE TOWARD ERASING THE DISADVANTAGES OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED. MUCH PROGRESS HAS BEEN MADE IN RECOGNIZING THE HEALTH NEEDS OF THE RETARDED CHILD THROUGH SUBSTANTIAL LEGISLATION SPONSORED BY MANY BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT, ACTION PROGRAMS STEMMING FROM BOTH PUBLIC AND VOLUNTARY SOURCES, AND A MOUNTING RESEARCH EFFORT. IN AN EFFORT…

OETTINGER, KATHERINE B.

315

Mathematics Education and the Educationally Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains the major presentations of two conferences on the theme: "Low Achievers in Mathematics and Title 1, ESEA" attended by mathematics educators in New York State. Melvin Mendelsohn summarizes "Activities of the Bureau of Mathematics Education Related to Title I, ESEA". "Cognition and Learning Style of the Disadvantaged" is…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Mathematics Education.

316

Educational Issues of the Socially Disadvantaged Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though enrollment in elementary schools and national literacy rates have increased greatly in India since its independence in 1949, the number of dropouts and illiterate individuals will also continue to increase unless the needs of the socially disadvantaged are identified and met. The majority of the dropouts and the illiterates belong to…

Sreedhar, M. V.

317

How Children from Disadvantaged Areas Keep Safe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The paper sets out to describe how children from disadvantaged areas perceive their communities and actively negotiate threats in their lives. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 60 interviews and 16 discussions groups were held with 8 to 14-year-olds sampled from four deprived communities located in the West of Scotland.…

Turner, Katrina M.; Hill, Malcolm; Stafford, Anne; Walker, Moira

2006-01-01

318

Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using data from Add Health, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community and school controls. Neighborhood violence…

Harding, David J.

2009-01-01

319

PROGRAMS FOR THE DISADVANTAGED AT HUNTER COLLEGE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DESCRIBED ARE THE PROGRAMS OFFERED BY HUNTER COLLEGE IN NEW YORK CITY FOR TRAINING TEACHERS OF THE DISADVANTAGED. HUNTER OFFERS (1) SPECIALIZED TRAINING COURSES, (2) PROGRAMS FOR TEACHERS OF PUERTO RICAN CHILDREN, AND (3) VARIOUS NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT INSTITUTES ON READING IMPROVEMENT, URBAN EDUCATION, SCIENCE TEACHING, ENGLISH TEACHING,…

GOLD, MILTON J.

320

Teaching English to Disadvantaged High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Removing a disadvantaged student from his environment and giving him the advantages of a middle-class education may be a mixed blessing for him educationally. Yet many compensatory summer programs, including Project ABC (A Better Chance) at Carleton College (Minnesota), appear to have caused no deleterious effects. The summer programs are intended…

Zilliax, John

1968-01-01

321

Physics for educationally disadvantaged students. II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The second year of operation of a one-year introductory college physics course for educationally disadvantaged students is described. Evaluation of student performance, including comparison with other introductory physics students is reported. Information on course enrollment, staffing, and format is included.

Franklin, Allen D.; Mohling, Franz

2006-05-16

322

Inner City Disadvantaged and the Metropolitan Bind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay on education for the poor who live in urban areas is discussed how the problems of large cities relate to the educational experience of disadvantaged children. The inter-related development of middle-class suburbs, blue-collar neighborhoods, and the central city are analyzed. The basic argument is that segregation and fragmentation…

Levine, Daniel U.

323

Localized income inequality, concentrated disadvantage and homicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several theories (e.g., routine activities, strain and social disorganization theories) suggest that there are effects of income inequality and concentrated disadvantage on crime. This study follows primarily the long line of social disorganization theorizing to explain the intraurban variation of homicide rates in Chicago. In addition to poverty, income inequality adds stress to individuals when they compare their situation to

Fahui Wang; Martin T. Arnold

2008-01-01

324

THE EDUCATION OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN, A BIBLIOGRAPHY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DIRECTED AT TEACHERS AND LIBRARIANS CONCERNED WITH EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS, THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY ARRANGES RESOURCE READINGS FOR TEACHERS AND TEXTBOOKS AND LITERATURE FOR STUDENTS UNDER THE FOLLOWING HEADINGS--(1) PROFESSIONAL RESOURCES (GENERAL THEORETICAL MATERIAL AND SPECIFIC TREATMENT OF HANDICAPPED CHILDREN, INTERGROUP RELATIONS, THE…

WATT, LOIS B.; AND OTHERS

325

A GENERAL TECHNICIAN PROGRAM FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A 2-YEAR GENERAL TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM HAS BEEN PLANNED BY RUTGERS UNIVERSITY AND THE NEWARK SCHOOL SYSTEM AS A MEANS OF PREPARING DISADVANTAGED YOUTH TO ENTER GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT AND ENHANCE THEIR OPPORTUNITY TO IMPROVE THEIR STATION IN LIFE. THE STUDENTS WILL BE DEPRIVED AREA YOUTH WHO ARE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES OR THE EQUIVALENT, GENERALLY FROM THE…

GILLIE, ANGELO C.

326

How children from disadvantaged areas keep safe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper sets out to describe how children from disadvantaged areas perceive their communities and actively negotiate threats in their lives. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 60 interviews and 16 discussions groups were held with 8 to 14-year-olds sampled from four deprived communities located in the West of Scotland. Participants were asked about their local area and how

Katrina M. Turner; Malcolm Hill; Anne Stafford; Moira Walker

2006-01-01

327

Special Environmental Education Project for Disadvantaged Gifted Primary Grade Students: 1980-81.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Outdoor Activity Center (Atlanta, Georgia) provides enriched experiences in a natural environment for economically disadvantaged gifted primary grade students and has developed materials incorporating creative activities used at the Center to expand the elementary science curriculum of the Atlanta Public Schools. Fifty-eight gifted students…

Ballagas, Linda D.

328

Project Spring II: Science Curriculum Modifications for Rural Disadvantaged Gifted Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is an overview of the science curriculum intervention that occurred in a federally funded project to identify and serve the needs of gifted and talented economically disadvantaged students (grades 3-8) from minority populations. An introduction discusses the training in curriculum development and methodology, based on Bloom's Taxonomy…

Spicker, Howard H.; Aamidor, Shirley E.

329

Discriminant Analysis of Scholastic Aptitude and Critical Thinking Tests and Levels of "Disadvantagement."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Differences among school children are typically measured by achievement, aptitude and/or intelligence tests. This study investigates the use of critical thinking tests to differentiate between schools of varying racial, economic, and "disadvantagement" factors; the latter being determined by Title I ESEA qualifications and U. S. Office of…

Follman, John; and Others

330

Ethnicity, migration and employment disadvantage under New Labour: reviewing the evidence from the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite economic growth and extensive labour market interventions, the employment disadvantage faced by ethnic minorities and migrants in the UK changed little under the previous Labour Government. Ethnic minorities and migrants in the UK are still significantly less likely to be in employment and are more likely to be unemployed than the majority white population. The key explanatory factors are

Viet-Hai Phung

2011-01-01

331

Maternal Relationship Instability and the School Behavior of Children from Disadvantaged Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examined the relation between the instability of maternal intimate relationships and school behavior of economically disadvantaged third-graders. After ecological correlates were controlled, chronic relationship instability was found to predict externalizing behavior for boys and girls and internalizing behavior for girls,…

Ackerman, Brian P.; Brown, Eleanor D.; D'Eramo, Kristen Schoff; Izard, Carroll E.

2002-01-01

332

Rehabilitation, Sheltered Workshops, and the Disadvantaged: An Exploration in Manpower Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains presentations and summary of a conference designed to explore the potential of the rehabilitation model in providing rehabilitation and manpower services to the disadvantaged through sheltered workshops. Presented by scholars and practitioners in the fields of manpower economics, psychology, social psychology, sociology,…

State Univ. of New York, Ithaca. School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell Univ.

333

Parental Feedback in the Evaluation of a Camp for Disadvantaged Children: The Camp Limberlost Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the impact of Camp Limberlost, a two-week residential camp for socially and economically disadvantaged children, various methods were used to obtain evaluation data in the form of parental feedback on the 1982 and 1983 camps. The four research objectives were (1) to identify changes in children resulting from the camp experience, (2) to…

Belknap, Larry K.; Rickards, William

334

Undermining the Principle of Concentration? European Union Regional Policy and the Socioeconomic Disadvantage of European Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

regstdcenzi R. Undermining the principle of concentration? European Union regional policy and the socio-economic disadvantage of European regions, Regional Studies. This paper sets out to analyse the regional policy of the European Union by assessing whether the actual distribution of funds to the regions undermines the principle of territorial concentration. The empirical analysis shows that, due to either political equilibriums

Riccardo regstdcenzi

2009-01-01

335

Undermining the Principle of Concentration? European Union Regional Policy and the Socioeconomic Disadvantage of European Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crescenzi R. Undermining the principle of concentration? European Union regional policy and the socio-economic disadvantage of European regions, Regional Studies. This paper sets out to analyse the regional policy of the European Union by assessing whether the actual distribution of funds to the regions undermines the principle of territorial concentration. The empirical analysis shows that, due to either political equilibriums

Riccardo Crescenzi

2009-01-01

336

Protective Factors Against Suicide Attempt Risk Among African American Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protective factors (hope, spirituality, self-efficacy, coping, social support–family, social support–friends, and effectiveness of obtaining resources) against suicide attempts were examined in economically, educationally, and socially disadvantaged African American women (100 suicide attempters, 100 nonattempters) who had experienced recent intimate partner violence. Significant positive associations were found between all possible pairs of protective factors. Bivariate logistic regressions revealed that higher scores

Lindi A. Meadows; Nadine J. Kaslow; Martie P. Thompson; Gregory J. Jurkovic

2005-01-01

337

Promotion of Physical Activity Among Mexican-Origin Women in Texas and South Carolina: An Examination of Social, Cultural, Economic, and Environmental Factors  

PubMed Central

Interventions to improve physical activity levels among Latinos must take into consideration the social, cultural, economic, and environmental contexts of Latino communities. We report findings of formative assessments related to Mexican-origin women’s levels of readiness, willingness, and ability to participate in regular leisure time physical activity in two diverse locations, the Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley and the South Carolina Midlands. The ENLACE project employed a Community-Based Participatory Research approach. Formative assessment activities focused on identification of community assets and resources and exploration of community members’ experiences, opinions, values, preferences, and perceived needs related to physical activity. Data sources included windshield tours, walkability assessments of local neighborhoods; community inventory exercises, focus groups, and individual interviews. Barriers to regular physical activity included the dominance of work and family responsibilities, social norms, lack of social support, social isolation, environmental constraints, economics, and low levels of personal knowledge and motivation.

Parra-Medina, Deborah; Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K.

2011-01-01

338

Choices Made by Low-Income Women Provided with an Economic Supplement for Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Purchase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vouchers for fresh fruit and vegetable purchase were provided to low-income women participating in the Spe- cial Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, In- fants, and Children (WIC) in Los Angeles, CA. As the program is currently constituted, the supplemental foods provided contain no fresh produce except for carrots for exclusively breastfeeding women. This study investigated whether providing supplemental financial support

DENA R. HERMAN; GAIL G. HARRISON; ELOISE JENKS

339

Women in Mauritania: The Effects of Drought and Migration on Their Economic Status and Implications for Development Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to indicate potential income-generating programs for women, 67 women in the river region and selected sites in the Assaba and the Guidimakha were interviewed in 1980 to illuminate effects of the 1970s-80s drought and male migration on Mauritanian women. Hypotheses were based on the drought causing unprecedented disruption to Mauritanian…

Smale, Melinda

340

Changes in body mass index by age, gender, and socio-economic status among a cohort of Norwegian men and women (1990–2001)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Consistent with global trends, the prevalence of obesity is increasing among Norwegian adults. This study aimed to investigate individual trends in BMI (kg\\/m2) by age, gender, and socio-economic status over an 11-year period. METHODS: A cohort of 1169 adults (n = 581 men; n = 588 women) self-reported BMI during a general health interview twice administered in two regions

Deborah L Reas; Jan F Nygård; Elisabeth Svensson; Tom Sørensen; Inger Sandanger

2007-01-01

341

Physical activity and perceptions of neighborhood walkability among Turkish women in low and high socio-economic environments: an exploratory study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of physical activity, exercise stages of change, and perceptions of neighborhood walkability among Turkish women who were living in low and high socio-economic (SES) environments. The participants included 188 women in low SES and 206 in high SES environments, between the ages of 18 and 65 years. The Low SES group had a higher rate of inactivity, and relative to the High SES group, was less likely to rate the neighborhood environment as promoting and supportive of physical activity. Intervention programs for women living in low SES areas should be developed and administered while taking the level of physical activity, exercise stages of change, and perceptions of neighborhood walkability into consideration. PMID:23265026

Yildirim, G; Ince, M L; Muftuler, M

2012-10-01

342

TELEVISED TRIALS: WEIGHING ADVANTAGES AGAINST DISADVANTAGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent arguments over televised trials juxtapose purported advantages—education about judicial process, restoration of public confidence in the courts, and crime deterrent value—against potential disadvantages—increased prejudicial publicity and public embarrassment of defendants. Although no empirical research has been conducted to test either hypothesis, anecdotal evidence—concerned with news viewing motivation and attention, news recall and retention, and television's function in shaping public

SUSANNA R. BARBER; Suzanna R. Barber

1985-01-01

343

Gender differences in the social pathways linking neighborhood disadvantage to depressive symptoms in adults.  

PubMed

Depression debilitates the lives of millions and is projected to be the second leading disease burden worldwide by 2020. At the population level, the causes of depression are found in the everyday social and physical environments in which people live. Research has shown that men and women often experience neighbourhood environments differently and that these variations are often reflected in health outcomes. The current study examines whether social and environmental correlates of depression are similar in men and women. This study examines whether (i) there are gender differences in the association between neighbourhood disadvantage and depressive symptoms, and (ii) dimensions of social capital and cohesion mediate these associations. Data come from the Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging Study, which consists of a cluster stratified sample of Montreal census tracts (nct?=?300) and individuals within those tracts (ni?=?2707). Depressive symptoms and social capital were measured with a questionnaire. Neighbourhood disadvantage was measured at the census tract level using data from the 2006 Canada Census. Multilevel logistic regression stratified by gender and a three-step mediation analysis procedure were used. Final sample size for these analyses was 2574 adults. Depressive symptoms had a prevalence of 17.3% in the overall sample. Disadvantage was associated with depressive symptoms in women only (OR?=?1.25, 95% CI?=?1.01-1.55). Perceived neighbourhood cohesion was shown to mediate the association of disadvantage and depressive symptoms in women (ab?=?0.02; 95% CI?=?0.003-0.04, p<0.05). Other socio-relational variables, specifically generalized trust and trust in neighbours were associated with depression in women but did not act as mediating variables. Health promotion initiatives meant to combat depression may wish to consider gender differences in the design and implementation of neighbourhood or peer-based programs. PMID:24146888

Bassett, Emma; Moore, Spencer

2013-10-17

344

Gender Differences in the Social Pathways Linking Neighborhood Disadvantage to Depressive Symptoms in Adults  

PubMed Central

Depression debilitates the lives of millions and is projected to be the second leading disease burden worldwide by 2020. At the population level, the causes of depression are found in the everyday social and physical environments in which people live. Research has shown that men and women often experience neighbourhood environments differently and that these variations are often reflected in health outcomes. The current study examines whether social and environmental correlates of depression are similar in men and women. This study examines whether (i) there are gender differences in the association between neighbourhood disadvantage and depressive symptoms, and (ii) dimensions of social capital and cohesion mediate these associations. Data come from the Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging Study, which consists of a cluster stratified sample of Montreal census tracts (nct?=?300) and individuals within those tracts (ni?=?2707). Depressive symptoms and social capital were measured with a questionnaire. Neighbourhood disadvantage was measured at the census tract level using data from the 2006 Canada Census. Multilevel logistic regression stratified by gender and a three-step mediation analysis procedure were used. Final sample size for these analyses was 2574 adults. Depressive symptoms had a prevalence of 17.3% in the overall sample. Disadvantage was associated with depressive symptoms in women only (OR?=?1.25, 95% CI?=?1.01–1.55). Perceived neighbourhood cohesion was shown to mediate the association of disadvantage and depressive symptoms in women (ab?=?0.02; 95% CI?=?0.003–0.04, p<0.05). Other socio-relational variables, specifically generalized trust and trust in neighbours were associated with depression in women but did not act as mediating variables. Health promotion initiatives meant to combat depression may wish to consider gender differences in the design and implementation of neighbourhood or peer-based programs.

Bassett, Emma; Moore, Spencer

2013-01-01

345

Research With Senior Level Students: Advantages--Disadvantages--Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes advantages and disadvantages of undergraduate research in chemical engineering at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. Also describes a five-year program designed to eliminate disadvantages and complement the graduate program. (SK)

Tassios, Dimitrios

1981-01-01

346

An economic evaluation of laparoscopic ovarian diathermy versus gonadotrophin therapy for women with clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic ovarian diathermy and gonadotrophin ovulation induction for women with clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovary syndrome have been shown to result in similar pregnancy rates, but their relative cost-effectiveness has not been evaluated. METHODS: A cost-minimization study was undertaken alongside a randomized controlled trial in women with anovulatory infertility secondary to clomiphene resistant polycystic ovary syndrome. Inclusion criteria were

Cynthia M. Farquhar; Karen Williamson; Paul M. Brown; Jules Garland

2004-01-01

347

Disadvantaged Students in the Traditional University Reading Improvement Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differential effectiveness of a traditionally-oriented college reading improvement program was assessed for culturally disadvantaged and typical students by means of the Nelson Denny Reading Test. Although the, disadvantaged group improved significantly in vocabulary and rate, no measurable gain was demonstrated in comprehension. The failure of the disadvantaged students to make as much progress as the regular enrollees appears to

Lucy Zaccaria; James Creaser; Mitchell Jacobs; Carmen Carsello

1971-01-01

348

Education and Social Crisis; Perspectives on Teaching Disadvantaged Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A collection of readings presents 49 papers published between 1959 and 1965. The volume is organized into three parts: (1) cultural values and family life of disadvantaged youth; (2) problems facing disadvantaged youth in the schools; and (3) programs and progress in meeting the educational needs of disadvantaged youth. Introductions by the…

Keach, Everett T., Jr., Ed.; And Others

349

The costs of women's unequal pay and opportunity: transforming the unbalanced structure of our economy to meet the challenges of today: climate change, poverty and the twin crises of the economy and economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the clamour to be green, it is often forgotten that women are more likely to be poor and earn less than men in all countries of the world. They have much less political, economic and institutional representation and are less present on the boards of the world's companies. If green economics means social and environmental justice, then gender must

Miriam Kennet

2009-01-01

350

Introduction, The Sesquicentennial of the 1848 Seneca Falls Women's Rights Convention: American Women's Unfinished Quest for Legal, Economic, Political, and Social Equality  

Microsoft Academic Search

On July 19, 1998, America celebrated the 150th anniversary of the Seneca Falls Convention. Almost three hundred women and men including Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Frederick Douglass met on that July date in 1848 at Seneca Falls, New York, for a two-day discussion of the \\

Carolyn S. Bratt

1996-01-01

351

"I do what I have to do to survive": An investigation into the perceptions, experiences and economic considerations of women engaged in sex work in Northern Namibia  

PubMed Central

Background There is little published research investigating sex work in Namibia, particularly in rural areas. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to determine the views of women engaged in sex work in the Oshakati area of Namibia concerning the main factors influencing their use, or non-use, of male condoms during transactional sexual exchanges. Methods Qualitative interviews were used to better understand the perceptions, experiences and economic considerations of female sex workers in Namibia who were involved in a Behavior Change Communication Program encouraging safer sex practices among high-risk populations in 2006 and 2007. Results While the Behavior Change Communication Program has made significant strides in educating and empowering young women to negotiate more consistent condom use with sexual partners, the gendered economic inequalities and power imbalances within rural and semi-urban Namibian society that favor men hinder further advancement towards positive behavioral change for HIV prevention and also hinder the development of the loving relationships sought by some sex workers. Conclusion This study found that sex workers and transactional sex encounters are heterogeneous entities dependent upon the characteristics of the man (known, stranger, wealthy, attractive to the woman) and the woman (in financial need, desiring love). These features all influence condom use. The 3 E's 'education, empowerment and economic independence' are critical factors needed to encourage and facilitate consistent condom use to prevent HIV transmission. Without financial independence and occupational alternatives building on their health education and empowerment, women who engage in sex work-and transactional sex more generally-will remain largely marginalized from Namibian society, and will continue engaging in risky sexual practices that facilitate HIV acquisition and transmission throughout the community.

2011-01-01

352

Bio-Social Roles in Peasant Small Ruminant Production: The Importance of Children and Women in Secondary Economic Activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previous research has concluded that women have primary responsibility for small ruminant production in Indonesia. This research, however, has suffered from the lack of an appropriate methodology and theoretical base. We address both of these issues in th...

S. W. Handayani R. B. Brown C. Valdivia

1993-01-01

353

49 CFR 1.62 - Delegations to the Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Delegations to the Director...Disadvantaged Business Utilization... Delegations to the Director...Disadvantaged Business Utilization...Disadvantaged Business Utilization is delegated authority to: (a)...

2011-10-01

354

Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity  

PubMed Central

In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous inequity (AI) and disadvantageous inequity (DI). AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed (1) hypoactivation of the ventral striatum (VS) under DI but not under AI; (2) inequity induced activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) that was stronger under DI than under AI; (3) correlations between subjective evaluations of AI evaluation and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal and left insular activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. One possible interpretation is that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns.

Fliessbach, Klaus; Phillipps, Courtney B.; Trautner, Peter; Schnabel, Marieke; Elger, Christian E.; Falk, Armin; Weber, Bernd

2012-01-01

355

Economic evaluation of chemoprevention of breast cancer with tamoxifen and raloxifene among high-risk women in Japan  

PubMed Central

Raloxifene was approved for chemoprevention against breast cancer among high-risk women in addition to tamoxifen by the US Food and Drug Administration. This study aims to evaluate cost-effectiveness of these agents under Japan's health system. A cost-effectiveness analysis with Markov model consisting of eight health states such as healthy, invasive breast cancer, and endometrial cancer is carried out. The model incorporated the findings of National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 and P-2 trial, and key costs obtained from health insurance claim reviews. Favourable results, that is cost saving or cost-effective, are found by both tamoxifen and raloxifene for the introduction of chemoprevention among extremely high-risk women such as having a history of atypical hyperplasia, a history of lobular carcinoma in situ or a 5-year predicted breast cancer risk of ?5.01% starting at younger age, whereas unfavourable results, that is ‘cost more and gain less' or cost-ineffective, are found for women with a 5-year predicted breast cancer risk of ?5.00%. Therapeutic policy switch from tamoxifen to raloxifene among postmenopausal women are implied cost-effective. Findings suggest that introduction of chemoprevention targeting extremely high-risk women in Japan can be justifiable as an efficient use of finite health-care resources, possibly contributing to cost containment.

Kondo, M; Hoshi, S-L; Toi, M

2009-01-01

356

Adjustment to university and academic performance among disadvantaged students in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adjustment to the university environment is regarded as an important factor in predicting university outcomes. This study explores the pathways taken by adjustment and other psychosocial variables (help?seeking, academic motivation, self?esteem, perceived stress, and perceived academic overload), in relation to the success of economically and educationally disadvantaged students at university. Participants were 194 first?year students on need?based financial aid at

Johann Louw; Kitty Dumont

2009-01-01

357

Minority Women and Advocacy for Women's Health  

PubMed Central

US minority health issues involve racial/ethnic disparities that affect both women and men. However, women's health advocacy in the United States does not consistently address problems specific to minority women. The underlying evolution and political strength of the women's health and minority health movements differ profoundly. Women of color comprise only one quarter of women's health movement constituents and are, on average, socioeconomically disadvantaged. Potential alliances may be inhibited by vestiges of historical racial and social divisions that detract from feelings of commonality and mutual support. Nevertheless, insufficient attention to minority women's issues undermines the legitimacy of the women's health movement and may prevent important advances that can be achieved only when diversity is fully considered.

Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Morssink, Christiaan B.; Nestle, Marion

2001-01-01

358

Cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected women: an economic evaluation in a middle-income country.  

PubMed

Due to the recent widespread availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in middle-income countries, there has been an increase in life expectancy for women on HAART, but no corresponding decrease in cervical cancer incidence. This study evaluates the optimal cervical cancer screening strategy for HIV-infected women in a middle-income country. We developed a mathematical model, which simulates the natural history of the HPV infection, as well as the HIV-mediated immunosupression among women in Brazil. Our model was calibrated using data from the IPEC/FIOCRUZ Women's HIV-infected cohort. The model compares the lifetime effects, costs and cost-effectiveness of strategies combining cytology, HPV DNA test and colposcopy at different screening intervals for different CD4 count strata (27 strategies in total). We found that the strategy with the best cost-effectiveness profile (cost-effectiveness ratio-U$4,911/year of life saved [YLS] and probability of being cost-effective-86%) was HPV testing followed by cytology triage every year for all HIV infected women, considering a very cost-effective threshold given by Brazil's GDP per capita (US$8,625/YLS). The results were robust to changes in the input parameters as demonstrated in one-way, scenario, threshold and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Our study indicates that annual HPV testing followed by cytology triage for all HIV-infected women is likely to be very cost-effective in a middle-income country like Brazil. The results reflect the synergic effect of using a highly sensitive screening test (HPV DNA test) in sequence with a highly specific test (cytology). PMID:21964797

Vanni, Tazio; Luz, Paula Mendes; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdilea G; Foss, Anna; Mesa-Frias, Marco; Legood, Rosa

2011-11-09

359

Is Economic Crime a Man’s Game?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In researching women’s involvement in economic crime, the concept of the ‘economic’ is problematic. Women’s crime for economic gain and women’s crime in economic terms are inadequately catered for. In reviewing criminologists’ uses of the notion of ‘economic crime’ I suggest that criminological understandingin relation to crime for economic gain is poor and that gender freedom\\/blindness\\/specificity variously operate. This article

Pamela A. Davies

2003-01-01

360

Children and Women in Traditional and Cash Crop Agriculture: A Preliminary Cross-Section Study of Economic Development in Guatemala.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To determine the roles played by women and children in traditional and cash crop agriculture, data were gathered on 2,000 Guatemalan families, 1,000 in four rural villages and 1,000 in a larger, more modern community near Guatemala City. Results of the su...

J. P. Stein

1982-01-01

361

The Economic Burden Shouldered by Public and Private Entities as a Consequence of Health Disparities Between Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

On average, American men live shorter, less healthy lives than women. They are more likely to be the victim of a violent crime, die in a car crash, commit suicide, and be injured at work. In addition, men have higher death rates in 9 of the top 10 causes of death, and are less likely to receive routine preventative care,

Armin Brott; Adam Dougherty; Scott T. Williams; Janet H. Matope; Ana Fadich; Muguleta Taddelle

2011-01-01

362

Women Farmers' Perceptions of the Economic Problems Influencing Their Productivity in Agricultural Systems: Meme Division of the Southwest Province, Cameroon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Women farmers produce about 60% of the food in Cameroon, but face more problems and constraints than men in performing their agricultural activities. Cash crop farmers (mostly men) are the targeted beneficiaries of government and international aids, and have better access to extension services, loans, subsidized production input (herbicides,…

Endeley, Joyce B.

363

Older women in Latin America: the health and socioeconomic situation of this important subgroup.  

PubMed

The social and health consequences of aging, for women in Latin America, have been largely unexplored. This research reports the results of a review and secondary analysis of existing published and unpublished data. The analytical framework cross-classifies the data into three categories of age: midlife (40-59), young old (60-74), and old old (75+), and three categories of country type: highly rural, mixed, and highly urban. Findings revealed a group at severe disadvantage educationally, economically and, by virtue of their longevity, likely to end up widowed and suffering the physical effects of premature aging. Older women also bear the major burden for economic survival and emotional vitality of the family. The strategies they develop to respond to these necessities are innovative and often involve creation of new family forms based on cooperation among women. These deserve greater study as potential models for interventions to take advantage of the long-neglected ingenuity represented by this group. PMID:8576013

Sennott-Miller, L

364

Correlates of dietary resilience among socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Despite increased risk for unhealthy diets, some socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents manage to consume a healthy diet, thereby showing ‘dietary resilience’. This investigation aimed to describe the vegetable and fruit intakes of socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents, and explore the intrapersonal, social and environmental factors associated with more favourable dietary intakes among socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents.Subjects\\/Methods:The present investigation draws on data from 1014 socioeconomically

L D A Stephens; S A McNaughton; D Crawford; A MacFarlane; K Ball; LDA Stephens

2011-01-01

365

Against the Odds: Parenting in Disadvantaged Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses the results of a qualitative evaluation of the Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker (MIHOW) project which served over 500 low-income women from 1982 through 1990. The MIHOW project provides outreach services to low-income families in rural communities in Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, and West Virginia. Working in…

Clinton, Barbara; And Others

366

Against the Odds: Parenting in Disadvantaged Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report discusses the results of a qualitative evaluation of the Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker (MIHOW) project which served over 500 low-income women from 1982 through 1990. The MIHOW project provides outreach services to low-income families in rural communities in Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, and West Virginia. Working in…

Clinton, Barbara; And Others

367

Advantages and Disadvantages of Mammography Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryMammography screening is the only method presently considered appropriate for mass screening of asymptomatic women. Its frequent use, however, warrants diligent analysis of potential side effects. Radiation risk is far below the natural yearly risk of breast cancer and should not be used as an argument against screening. False-positive calls lead to additional imaging or histopathological assessment, mainly percutaneous breast

Sylvia H. Heywang-Köbrunner; Astrid Hacker; Stefan Sedlacek

2011-01-01

368

Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.  

PubMed

The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

Porter, M E

369

Nuclear reactor operator training for disadvantaged Americans  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics Department of the University of Virginia was awarded a grant by the US Department of Energy in 1984 to establish and administer a reactor operator training program for disadvantaged Americans. Stipends were provided by the US DOE for five trainees with the anticipation that four other educational facilities would participate in the program. Sub-contracts were awarded to four other Universities: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The University of Missouri at Columbia, Oregon State University, and The State University of New York at Buffalo. The initial two year program was very successful and the grant was renewed in late 1986 for another two years. MIT declined to participate in the second program and was replaced by Ohio State University. U.VA. was notified in September, 1987 that new funding would no longer be provided for this program after December, 1987. U.VA. requested and was granted a no cost extention for the program through December, 1990, since sufficient funds remained in the initial grant to pursue the program further. DOE subsequently approved a no cost extension through November, 1992.

Farrar, J.P.; Mulder, R.U.

1992-12-01

370

Airtraq optical laryngoscope: advantages and disadvantages.  

PubMed

Difficult or unsuccesful tracheal intubation is one of the important causes for morbidity and mortality in susceptible patients. Almost 30% of the anesthesia-related deaths are induced by the complications of difficult airway management and more than 85% of all respiratory related complications cause brain injury or death. Nowadays, due to the advances in technology, new videolaryngoscopic devices became available. Airtraq is a novel single-use laryngoscope which provides glottis display without any deviation in the normal position of the oral, pharyngeal or the tracheal axes. With the help of the display lens glottis and the surrounding structures are visualised and under direct view of its tip the tracheal tube is introduced between the vocal cords. In patients having restricted neck motion or limited mouth opening (provided that it is greater than 3 cm) Airtraq offers the advantage of a better display. Moreover the video image can be transfered to an external monitor thus an experienced specialist can provide assistance and an educational course can be conducted simultaneously. On the other hand the Airtraq videolaryngoscopic devices possess certain disadvantages including the need of experience and the time demand for the operator to learn how to use them properly, the rapid deterioration of their display in the presence of a swelling or a secretion and the fact that they are rather complicated and expensive devices. The Airtraq device has already documented benefits in the management of difficult airways, however serial utilization obviously necessitates experience. PMID:24180160

Saracoglu, Kemal Tolga; Eti, Zeynep; Gogus, Fevzi Yilmaz

2013-06-01

371

Exploring situational factors shaping access in a laptop program for socially disadvantaged children in India: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-cost laptop programs attempt to address gaps in access to computers in developing countries. However, the translation of computing access from intention to actuality is mediated by many situational factors. This research presents a case study of how access to a set of laptops donated to a school for socially disadvantaged children in India was shaped by social, logistical, economic

Poornima Padmanabhan; Alyssa Friend Wise

2012-01-01

372

Matching the Disadvantaged to Job Opportunities: Structural Explanations for the Past Successes of the Center for Employment Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Center for Employment Training is generally acknowledged as an effective program for skills training and placing economically disadvantaged populations into entry-level jobs. Program success is explained by the ability to develop skills demanded by industry while becoming part of employers' own, trusted recruiting networks. These findings suggest the importance of social networks (connecting job seekers to employers) to the

Edwin Melendez; Bennett Harrison

1998-01-01

373

How Community Development Programmes Can Foster Re-Engagement with Learning in Disadvantaged Communities: Leadership as Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family and community capacity building projects in Tasmania are attempting to address the disadvantage of communities marginalised by socio-economic and other influences. Collaborations between the projects, community members and groups, and education and training organisations, have resulted in a leadership process which has fostered reengagement…

Millar, Pat; Kilpatrick, Sue

2005-01-01

374

Subpopulational Profiling of the Psychoeducational Dimensions of Disadvantaged Preschool Children: A Conceptual Prospectus for an Interdisciplinary Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Program planning for economically deprived children might be improved if behavioral information pertinent to specific subcultural groups were systematically obtained. This prospectus focuses on developing a three-part behavioral model which, when integrated, would identify and profile the nature of disadvantagement in terms idiosyncratic and…

Boger, Robert P.; Ambron, Sueann R.

375

Employment Concerns of Older Women.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five basic areas related to the employment concerns of older women are described: (1) economic status, (2) labor force participation, (3) women as workers, (4) employment needs and opportunities, and (5) employment policy options. Economic status focuses ...

J. L. Davidson

1983-01-01

376

Affiliation to youth gangs during adolescence: the interaction between childhood psychopathic tendencies and neighborhood disadvantage.  

PubMed

Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join. In this study, we tested whether a combination of individual propensity and facilitating neighborhood conditions amplifies the probabilities of youth gang affiliation. A subset of 3,522 adolescents was selected from a nationally representative, prospective sample of Canadian youth. Psychopathic tendencies (i.e., a combination of high hyperactivity, low anxiety, and low prosociality as compared to national norms) were assessed through parent reports, while neighborhood characteristics (i.e., concentrated economic disadvantage and residential instability) were derived from the 2001 Census of Canada. Our results indicated that neighborhood residential instability, but not neighborhood concentrated economic disadvantage, interacted with individual propensity to predict youth gang membership. Adolescents with preexisting psychopathic tendencies appeared especially vulnerable mainly if they were raised in residentially unstable neighborhoods. PMID:17610153

Dupéré, Véronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

2007-07-04

377

The novella approach to inform women living on low income about early breast cancer detection.  

PubMed

Economically disadvantaged women have a greater likelihood of later-stage breast cancer diagnosis when compared to women with higher levels of income. Later-stage diagnosis decreases the chances of survival. The purpose of this article is to describe a project whereby breast cancer survivors, living on lower incomes, created novellas (stories) using artistic media to reach their peers with a message about the importance of early breast cancer detection. The recruitment and engagement of breast cancer survivors in a 2-year community development project that used participatory, women-driven approaches are discussed, and the reciprocal learning between health care providers, community partners, and women living on low income is shared. Recommendations for health promotion practice are presented. PMID:16923845

Herbison, Sandra; Lokanc-Diluzio, Wendi

2006-08-21

378

How does gender influence immigrant and refugee women's postpartum depression help-seeking experiences?  

PubMed

The number of migrants arriving in Canada from non-European countries has grown significantly over the past three decades. How best to assist these escalating numbers of immigrant and refugee women to adapt to their new environment and to cope with postpartum depression (PPD) is a pressing issue for healthcare providers. Evidence has shown that immigrant and refugee women experience difficulties in accessing care and treatment for PPD. This qualitative study was conducted with 30 immigrant and refugee women using in-depth interviews to obtain information about the women's PPD experiences. The primary aim was to explore how cultural, social, political, historical and economic factors intersect with race, gender and class to influence the ways in which immigrant and refugee women seek help to manage PPD. Results reveal that immigrant and refugee women experience many complex gender-related challenges and facilitators in seeking equitable help for PPD treatment and prevention. We will demonstrate that (a) structural barriers and gender roles hinder women's ability to access necessary mental healthcare services and (b) insecure immigration status coupled with emotional and economic dependence may leave women vulnerable and disadvantaged in protecting themselves against PPD. PMID:22962942

O'Mahony, J M; Donnelly, T T

2012-09-11

379

Measures of Disadvantage: Is Car Ownership a Good Indicator?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A need to better understand the multidimensional nature of disadvantage is leading to the adoption of a wider range of measurement variables. One variable now commonly adopted is zero car ownership. This paper challenges the logic of including "not having a car" as an indicator of disadvantage. It argues that this can distort the real picture of…

Johnson, Victoria; Currie, Graham; Stanley, Janet

2010-01-01

380

A Guide to Federal Assistance Programs for the Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this guide to work experience and related Federal programs for the disadvantaged, emphasis is on programs in which the most effective participation by installations of the Air Force Systems Command (AFSC) seems feasible. Beginning with an overview of the needs of the disadvantaged and of AFSC involvement, this paper gives information needed as…

Department of the Air Force, Washington, DC.

381

Education and training and the avoidance of financial disadvantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poverty and other forms of financial disadvantage are the most obvious categories of social disadvantage. Being in poverty or suffering financial stress has serious detrimental implications for housing, debt reduction and the ability to obtain credit, future career prospects, marriage and partnering, health, crime and children’s education. Generally, they reduce the ability to fully and actively participate in society. Not

Marks Gary N

2011-01-01

382

Measures of Disadvantage: Is Car Ownership a Good Indicator?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A need to better understand the multidimensional nature of disadvantage is leading to the adoption of a wider range of measurement variables. One variable now commonly adopted is zero car ownership. This paper challenges the logic of including "not having a car" as an indicator of disadvantage. It argues that this can distort the real picture of…

Johnson, Victoria; Currie, Graham; Stanley, Janet

2010-01-01

383

Social Disadvantage: Cause or Consequence of Impending Psychosis?  

PubMed Central

Background: An association between social disadvantage and established psychosis is well documented in the literature, but there remains a lack of data on the social circumstances of patients before they became ill. We investigated whether social disadvantage at, and prior to, first contact with psychiatric services, is associated with psychosis. Method: We collected information on social disadvantage in childhood and adulthood from 278 cases presenting with their first episode of psychosis to the South London and Maudsley National Health Service Foundation Trust and from 226 controls recruited from the local population. Three markers of childhood social disadvantage and 3 markers of disadvantage in adulthood were analyzed. Results: Long term separation from, and death of, a parent before the age of 17 years were both strongly associated with a 2- to 3-fold-increased odds of psychosis. Cases were also significantly more likely to report 2 or more markers of adult social disadvantage than healthy controls (OR = 9.03) at the time of the first presentation with psychosis, independent of a number of confounders. When we repeated these analyses for long-standing adult social disadvantage, we found that the strength of the association decreased but still remained significant for 1 year (OR = 5.67) and 5 years (OR = 2.57) prior to the first contact. Conclusions: Social disadvantage indexes exposure to factors operating prior to onset that increase the risk of psychosis, both during childhood and adulthood.

Stilo, Simona A.

2013-01-01

384

Social disadvantage: cause or consequence of impending psychosis?  

PubMed

Background: An association between social disadvantage and established psychosis is well documented in the literature, but there remains a lack of data on the social circumstances of patients before they became ill. We investigated whether social disadvantage at, and prior to, first contact with psychiatric services, is associated with psychosis. Method: We collected information on social disadvantage in childhood and adulthood from 278 cases presenting with their first episode of psychosis to the South London and Maudsley National Health Service Foundation Trust and from 226 controls recruited from the local population. Three markers of childhood social disadvantage and 3 markers of disadvantage in adulthood were analyzed. Results: Long term separation from, and death of, a parent before the age of 17 years were both strongly associated with a 2- to 3-fold-increased odds of psychosis. Cases were also significantly more likely to report 2 or more markers of adult social disadvantage than healthy controls (OR = 9.03) at the time of the first presentation with psychosis, independent of a number of confounders. When we repeated these analyses for long-standing adult social disadvantage, we found that the strength of the association decreased but still remained significant for 1 year (OR = 5.67) and 5 years (OR = 2.57) prior to the first contact. Conclusions: Social disadvantage indexes exposure to factors operating prior to onset that increase the risk of psychosis, both during childhood and adulthood. PMID:23091267

Stilo, Simona A; Di Forti, Marta; Mondelli, Valeria; Falcone, Aurora M; Russo, Manuela; O'Connor, Jennifer; Palmer, Emma; Paparelli, Alessandra; Kolliakou, Anna; Sirianni, Miriam; Taylor, Heather; Handley, Rowena; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine; Marques, Tiago R; Zoccali, Rocco; David, Anthony; Murray, Robin M; Morgan, Craig

2012-10-22

385

Duration or Disadvantage? Exploring Nativity, Ethnicity, and Health in Midlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives . This study examined nativity as a risk factor for poor physical and emotional health for an ethnically di- verse population making the transition into retirement. The authors addressed whether the health disadvantage observed for immigrants lessens with increased time spent in the country (supporting theories of assimilation) or increases with duration of residence (supporting theories of cumulative disadvantage).

Jacqueline L. Angel; Cynthia J. Buckley; Art Sakamoto

2001-01-01

386

Reducing Consumer Disadvantage: Reassessing Access in the Retail Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive interviews about the food shopping experiences of one disadvantaged group—wheelchair users in South Wales—enables a reassessment of the access dimension of consumer disadvantage following a period of pronounced retail changes and improvements associated with the Disability Discrimination Act. Although a slim majority of wheelchair users felt that they had proper choice over their shopping locations, many expressed continuing experiences

Rosemary D. F. Bromley; David L. Matthews

2007-01-01

387

Women in academic medicine.  

PubMed

Women now constitute 43% of US medical students, 37% of residents, and 27% of full-time medical school faculty. Less than 11% of women faculty are full professors, however, compared to 31% of men, and these proportions haven't changed in more than 15 years. Since the proportion of women reaching the top ranks remains relatively low, the pool of women available for leadership positions in academic medicine is still small. This review article first summarizes recent data on women's representation in academic medicine and then discusses why they are not succeeding at the same pace as men. Reasons include a complex combination of women's choices, sexism, cultural stereotypes, constraints in combining family responsibilities with professional opportunities, and lack of effective mentoring. Multiple approaches are required to overcome these "cumulative disadvantages," among them improving the gender climate at academic medical centers; the mentoring of women faculty, residents, and students; and skill-building opportunities for women. PMID:10680399

Bickel, J

2000-01-01

388

Advantages and disadvantages of reusuable launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cost reduction per launch and payload return capability of reusable launch vehicles are contrasted with higher development costs, more complex engines, need for heat shielding, and retrieval problems. The development of a semireusable vehicle, with expendable first stage is found economically most feasible. It is concluded that for the ESA Solaris project (permanent space platform) 1500 to 2000 MAU would be saved on the 15 year project.

Koelle, D. E.

389

Working Class Women as Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While numerous surveys have shown that women academics are being hired in increasing numbers, white women from working class backgrounds are disadvantaged in obtaining tenure track university positions, because they have degrees from less prestigious universities, and their backgrounds have not prepared them for the publish or perish atmosphere…

Tokarczyk, Michelle M.

390

Consumption of potentially fortifiable foods by women and young children varies by ecological zone and socio-economic status in Cameroon.  

PubMed

In preparation for a proposed large-scale food fortification program in Cameroon, we completed a nationally representative, cross-sectional, cluster survey to assess the consumption patterns of four potentially fortifiable foods (refined vegetable oil, wheat flour, sugar, and bouillon cube) by women and children. Thirty clusters were randomly chosen in each of three ecologic zones (south, north, and large cities) and 10 households (HH) per cluster were selected, each with a child 12-59 mo old and a primary female caregiver 15-49 y old (total 1002 HH). Blood samples were collected and food consumption was assessed by FFQ and 24-h dietary recall. Anemia (39% of women, 58% of children) and deficiencies of iron (15-32%, 21-70%), zinc (77%, 70%), vitamin A (22%, 35%), and vitamin B-12 (28%, 27%) were common, especially in the north and among HH with lower socio-economic status (SES). Oil was consumed by 54% of HH, whereas >75% of HH consumed wheat flour, sugar, and bouillon cube. For most foods, coverage was lower among HH with lower SES. On average, oil, wheat flour, and sugar were consumed once per day and bouillon cube was consumed twice per day. Median intakes of oil, wheat flour, sugar, and bouillon cube (among consumers) were 19.8, 79.4, 30.0, and 1.9 g/d for women and 12.0, 49.4, 19.4, and 0.9 g/d for children, respectively. Food consumption patterns of high risk population subgroups must be considered, along with technical feasibility and cost, for the selection of appropriate vehicles for food fortification. PMID:22323765

Engle-Stone, Reina; Ndjebayi, Alex Ongla; Nankap, Martin; Brown, Kenneth H

2012-02-08

391

Women who sell sex in a Ugandan trading town: life histories, survival strategies and risk.  

PubMed

Little is known about the background of commercial sex workers in Africa. This study investigated how women in a trading town on the trans-Africa highway in southwest Uganda become involved in commercial sex work, which factors contribute to their economic success or lack of success, and what effect life trajectories and economic success have on negotiating power and risk behaviour. Over the course of two years detailed life histories of 34 women were collected through recording open, in-depth interviews, the collection of sexual and income and expenditure diaries, visits to the women's native villages, and participant observation. The women share similar disadvantaged backgrounds and this has played a role in their move into commercial sex. They have divergent experiences, however, in their utilisation of opportunities and in the level of success they achieve. They have developed different life styles and a variety of ways of dealing with sexual relationships. Three groups of women were identified: (1) women who work in the back-street bars, have no capital of their own and are almost entirely dependent on selling sex for their livelihood; (2) waitresses in the bars along the main road who engage in a more institutionalised kind of commercial sex, often mediated by middlemen and (3) the more successful entrepreneurs who earn money from their own bars as well as from commercial sex. The three groups had different risk profiles. Due partly to their financial independence from men, women in the latter group have taken control of sexual relationships and can negotiate good sexual deals for themselves, both financially and in terms of safe sex. The poorer women were more vulnerable and less able to negotiate safer sex. A disadvantaged background and restricted access to economic resources are the major reasons for women gravitating to commercial sex work. Various aspects of personality play a role in utilising income from commercial sex to set up an economic basis that then makes the selling of sex unnecessary. This has implications for interventions, and part of the longer-term solution should lie in improving the economic position of women vis-à-vis men. PMID:11824924

Gysels, Marjolein; Pool, Robert; Nnalusiba, Betty

2002-01-01

392

Women Entrepreneurs in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although women entrepreneurs around the world suffer from numerous disadvantages such as discrimination, lack of business experience and limited access to financing, the challenges for women entrepreneurs may be more severe in Islamic countries where religion, cultural factors and lack of an entrepreneurial environment are additional deterrents. Despite this, a small but growing segment of women entrepreneurs exists, however the

Dorothy Minkus-McKenna

2009-01-01

393

Beliefs About Rape and Women's Social Roles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hypothesis that views of rape which place women at a disadvantage are positively related to beliefs which restrict the rights and roles of women in our society is tested. Two scales, the R scale and the W scale, based on a survey of beliefs about rape (Hubert Feild) and the attitudes toward women's scale (Janet Spence and Robert Helmreich),…

Costin, Frank; And Others

394

Disadvantages of VKA and requirements for novel anticoagulants.  

PubMed

Vitamin K antagonists have been in wide use for over 70 years. Warfarin, the most commonly used vitamin K antagonist, has been shown to be highly effective in treating and preventing thrombosis. Despite this, warfarin has many disadvantages, which has led to the development of a new class of oral anticoagulants targeted to specific coagulation factors designated as target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOAs). TSOAs include the thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran) and factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban). This chapter reviews the disadvantages of warfarin and evaluates both the advantages and disadvantages of the new oral anticoagulants. PMID:23953899

Shameem, Raji; Ansell, Jack

2013-07-23

395

13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS...DETERMINATIONS 8(a) Business Development Eligibility Requirements...Participation in the 8(a) Business Development Program § 124.103 ...racial or ethnic prejudice or cultural bias within...

2013-01-01

396

Utilization of Disadvantaged Workers in Public Park and Recreation Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this exploratory study was to collect and analyze existing information and to formulate researchable questions relative to the utilization of disadvantaged persons in entry-level and paraprofessional park and recreation job opportunities pr...

D. E. Hawkins

1973-01-01

397

Review of ADHD Pharmacotherapies: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Clinical Pearls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The advantages, disadvantages, as well as helpful hints on when to use several drug therapies against attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are discussed. The drugs discussed are methylphenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, and bupropion.|

Daughton, Joan M.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

2009-01-01

398

Advantages and Disadvantages of Mammography Screening.  

PubMed

Mammography screening is the only method presently considered appropriate for mass screening of asymptomatic women. Its frequent use, however, warrants diligent analysis of potential side effects. Radiation risk is far below the natural yearly risk of breast cancer and should not be used as an argument against screening. False-positive calls lead to additional imaging or histopathological assessment, mainly percutaneous breast biopsy. These measures are tolerated and accepted fairly well. Their number is limited by strict quality assurance and constant training. Interval cancers represent a limitation of breast screening that should prompt further research for optimization. Evaluation of overdiagnosis is a highly debated topic in the literature. According to the probably most realistic available calculations, overdiagnosis is acceptable as it is compensated by the potential mortality reduction. Nonetheless, this potential side effect warrants optimal adjustment of therapy to the patient's individual risk. The mortality reduction seen in randomized studies was confirmed by results from national screening programs. A recent case referent study indicated that improvements in mortality reduction run parallel to improved mammographic techniques. Use of less aggressive therapies is another valuable effect of screening. Awareness of potential problems, strict quality assurance, and further research should help to further develop screening programs. PMID:21779225

Heywang-Köbrunner, Sylvia H; Hacker, Astrid; Sedlacek, Stefan

2011-05-27

399

Advantages and Disadvantages of Mammography Screening  

PubMed Central

Summary Mammography screening is the only method presently considered appropriate for mass screening of asymptomatic women. Its frequent use, however, warrants diligent analysis of potential side effects. Radiation risk is far below the natural yearly risk of breast cancer and should not be used as an argument against screening. False-positive calls lead to additional imaging or histopathological assessment, mainly percutaneous breast biopsy. These measures are tolerated and accepted fairly well. Their number is limited by strict quality assurance and constant training. Interval cancers represent a limitation of breast screening that should prompt further research for optimization. Evaluation of overdiagnosis is a highly debated topic in the literature. According to the probably most realistic available calculations, overdiagnosis is acceptable as it is compensated by the potential mortality reduction. Nonetheless, this potential side effect warrants optimal adjustment of therapy to the patient's individual risk. The mortality reduction seen in randomized studies was confirmed by results from national screening programs. A recent case referent study indicated that improvements in mortality reduction run parallel to improved mammographic techniques. Use of less aggressive therapies is another valuable effect of screening. Awareness of potential problems, strict quality assurance, and further research should help to further develop screening programs.

Heywang-Kobrunner, Sylvia H.; Hacker, Astrid; Sedlacek, Stefan

2011-01-01

400

The Political Economy of Violence against Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violence against women is a major problem in all countries, affecting women in every socio-economic group and at every life stage. Nowhere in the world do women share equal social and economic rights with men or the same access as men to productive resources. Economic globalization and development are creating new challenges for women's rights as well as some new

Jacqui True

401

Improving the life-course development of socially disadvantaged mothers: a randomized trial of nurse home visitation.  

PubMed Central

We evaluated a comprehensive program of prenatal and postpartum nurse home visitation for socially disadvantaged women bearing first children. Eighty-five per cent of the participating women were either teenagers (less than 19 years at registration), unmarried, or of low socioeconomic status. Women were randomly assigned to either nurse home visitation or comparison services (free transportation for prenatal and well-child care and/or sensory and developmental screening for the child). During the first four years after delivery of their first child, in contrast to their counterparts in the comparison group, nurse-visited White women who had not graduated from high school when they registered in the study returned to school more rapidly; nurse-visited, poor, unmarried White women showed an 82 per cent increase in the number of months they were employed, had 43 per cent fewer subsequent pregnancies, and postponed the birth of second children an average of 12 months longer.

Olds, D L; Henderson, C R; Tatelbaum, R; Chamberlin, R

1988-01-01

402

Nonmarital childbearing in Russia: second demographic transition or pattern of disadvantage?  

PubMed

Using retrospective union, birth, and education histories that span 1980-2003, this study investigates nonmarital childbearing in contemporary Russia. We employ a combination of methods to decompose fertility rates by union status and analyze the processes that lead to a nonmarital birth. We find that the increase in the percentage of nonmarital births was driven mainly by the growing proportion of women who cohabit before conception, not changing fertility behavior of cohabitors or changes in union behavior after conception. The relationship between education and nonmarital childbearing has remained stable: the least-educated women have the highest birth rates within cohabitation and as single mothers, primarily because of their lower probability of legitimating a nonmarital conception. These findings suggest that nonmarital childbearing Russia has more in common with the pattern of disadvantage in the United States than with the second demographic transition. We also find several aspects of nonmarital childbearing that neither of these perspectives anticipates. PMID:21264652

Perelli-Harris, Brienna; Gerber, Theodore P

2011-02-01

403

Sexual dimorphism of abdominal aortic aneurysms: a striking example of "male disadvantage" in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

The abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent, localised, dilation of the abdominal aorta that causes death in 80% of patients if left untreated. An apparent male predominance in AAA has been observed in most studies, with a male: female gender ratio of ?6:1 between the ages 60 years-64 years. The majority of risk factors for AAA exhibit sexual dimorphism but no single risk factor shows a higher magnitude of "male disadvantage" than AAA itself. This in turn suggests that the additive effects of risk factors may better explain the higher prevalence of AAA in men than women compared to each individual factor. Amongst others, sex steroids and sex chromosomes have been hypothesised to act as the drivers of this sexual dimorphism. Future research should focus on the major biological differences between the sexes identifying why men are at more risk of AAA than women. PMID:22840688

Bloomer, Lisa D S; Bown, Matthew J; Tomaszewski, Maciej

2012-07-09

404

Determinants of high rates of smoking among people with psychosis living in a socially disadvantaged region in South Australia.  

PubMed

Objective:This study aimed to identify factors associated with the high rates of smoking amongst people with psychosis living in a disadvantaged region in Adelaide, South Australia.Methods:Data were collected from 402 people with psychosis, aged 18-64 years, who lived in the northern suburbs of Adelaide. This area is disadvantaged on many measures of socioeconomic well-being and people living in this region have higher rates of smoking compared to the general Australian population. We hypothesised that whilst tobacco use by people with psychosis living in this region was primarily associated with mental illness, factors related to social disadvantage also contributed to the high rates of smoking.Results:Approximately 74% of men and 71% of women with psychotic disorders living in the northern suburbs of Adelaide were current smokers. Factors such as unemployment, lower levels of education and receiving government welfare, factors known to be associated with smoking in the general population, were more prevalent in the northern region. Smokers with psychosis were less likely to participate in recreational programs and physical activity, and more likely to use illicit substances and be a victim of crime. They had poorer health and financial outcomes than non-smokers. There were some gender differences: for men with psychosis, employment and having a post-school qualification decreased the risk of smoking while cannabis use increased the risk; for women with psychosis, a diagnosis of alcohol abuse/dependence, using cannabis and being sedentary were risk factors for smoking, while attending recreational programs reduced this risk.Conclusion:Smoking rates were strikingly high in both men and women, and particularly high in women when compared with previous research. Our study shows that the risk of smoking is increased by factors related to the social disadvantage of living in the northern Adelaide region. Smoking cessation interventions for people with mental illness should take into account the social context, and also address relevant comorbidities such as drug and alcohol disorders. PMID:23739313

Hahn, Lisa; Rigby, Ashlee; Galletly, Cherrie

2013-06-01

405

Practicing gender or practicing science? Gender practices of women scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subtle biases women face in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields have been the subject of many studies and initiatives in recent years. Many programs hoping to increase the numbers of women in these fields and to contribute to women's advancement have focused on identifying and remedying gendered institutional barriers and practices that ultimately disadvantage women. This dissertation

Laura Anne Rhoton

2009-01-01

406

13 CFR 124.106 - When do disadvantaged individuals control an applicant or Participant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...this paragraph: (i) Provisions for the establishment of a quorum cannot permit non-disadvantaged Directors to control the Board...allow non-disadvantaged individuals effectively to prevent a quorum or block actions proposed by the disadvantaged...

2013-01-01

407

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Australian Adults: Prevalence, Persistence, Conduct Problems and Disadvantage  

PubMed Central

Background The Prevalence and persistence of ADHD have not been described in young Australian adults and few studies have examined how conduct problems (CP) are associated with ADHD for this age group. We estimate lifetime and adult prevalence and persistence rates for three categories of ADHD for 3795 Australian adults, and indicate how career, health and childhood risk factors differ for people with ADHD symptoms and ADHD symptoms plus CP. Methodology Trained interviewers collected participant experience of ADHD, CP, education, employment, childhood experience, relationship and health variables. Three diagnostic definitions of ADHD used were (i) full DSM-IV criteria; (ii) excluding the age 7 onset criterion (no age criterion); (iii) participant experienced difficulties due to ADHD symptoms (problem symptoms). Results Prevalence rates in adulthood were 1.1%, 2.3% and 2.7% for each categorization respectively. Persistence of ADHD from childhood averaged across gender was 55.3% for full criteria, 50.3% with no age criterion and 40.2% for problem symptoms. ADHD symptoms were associated with parental conflict, poor health, being sexually assaulted during childhood, lower education, income loss and higher unemployment. The lifetime prevalence of conduct problems for adults with ADHD was 57.8% and 6.9% for adults without ADHD. The greatest disadvantage was experienced by participants with ADHD plus CP. Conclusion The persistence of ADHD into adulthood was greatest for participants meeting full diagnostic criteria and inattention was associated with the greatest loss of income and disadvantage. The disadvantage associated with conduct problems differed in severity and was relevant for a high proportion of adults with ADHD. Women but not men with ADHD reported more childhood adversity, possibly indicating varied etiology and treatment needs. The impact and treatment needs of adults with ADHD and CP and the report of sexual assault during childhood by women and men with ADHD also deserve further study.

Ebejer, Jane L.; Medland, Sarah E.; van der Werf, Julius; Gondro, Cedric; Henders, Anjali K.; Lynskey, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G.; Duffy, David L.

2012-01-01

408

Does social disadvantage affect the validity of self-report for cervical cancer screening?  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim was to review the international literature on the validity of self-report of cervical cancer screening, specifically of studies that made direct comparisons among women with and without social disadvantage, based on race/ethnicity, foreign-born status, language ability, income, or education. Method The databases of Medline, EBM Reviews, and CINAHL from 1990 to 2011 were searched using relevant search terms. Articles eligible for data extraction documented the prevalence of cervical cancer screening based on both self-report and an objective measure for women both with and without at least one measure of social disadvantage. The report-to-record ratio, the ratio of the proportion of study subjects who report at least one screening test within a particular time frame to the proportion of study subjects who have a record of the same test within that time frame, was calculated for each subgroup. Results Five studies met the extraction criteria. Subgroups were based on race/ethnicity, education, and income. In all studies, and across all subgroups, report-to-record ratios were greater than one, indicative of pervasive over-reporting. Conclusion The findings suggest that objective measures should be used by policymakers, researchers, and public-health practitioners in place of self-report to accurately determine cervical cancer screening rates.

Lofters, Aisha K; Moineddin, Rahim; Hwang, Stephen W; Glazier, Richard H

2013-01-01

409

Are self reported morbidities deceptive in measuring socio-economic inequalities  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: The ambiguity and variability in existing literature on the magnitude of socio-economic inequality in self-reported morbidities makes it difficult to set priorities in health policy. This study examined three critical research questions: first, how far self-reporting affects measuring socio-economic inequalities in case of obstetric morbidities. Second, does using simple bivariate variations mislead in estimating socio-economic differentials in prevalence of obstetric morbidities? Finally, whether use of sophisticated regression based decomposition results can overcome such problems. Methods: The data from National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3; 2005-06) were used, and analyzed by statistical tools such as bivariate estimates and regression based decomposition analysis. Results: Bivariate results revealed that self-reported obstetric morbidity data were misleading in measurement of socio-economic differentials, as these failed to show existing socio-economic variations in obstetric morbidities by socio-economic standing of women. However, decomposition analysis showed that the prevalence of obstetric complications was greater among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Interpretation & conclusions: Based on our findings on measurement of socio-economic inequality in self-reported obstetric morbidity, we conclude that the use of regression based inequality decomposition estimates not only overcomes the problems of measuring socio-economic inequality based on self-reported morbidities, but also increases the validity of such measures.

Jain, Kshipra; Goli, Srinivas; Arokiasamy, P.

2012-01-01

410

Women in Rural America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In rural America 34 million culturally and economically diverse women share the common problem of unfair treatment based on sex. Although in recent years women have begun to question the social attitudes limiting their aspirations, a formidable gap exists between their expectations and the archaic legal, social, and economic policies that…

Rural America, Inc., Washington, DC.

411

Making the most of the mosaic: facilitating post-school transitions to higher education of disadvantaged students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research studies of post-school education and training conducted in Australia and internationally have revealed a mosaic of students’ education and employment experiences, with a multiplicity of nonlinear pathways. These tend to be more fragmentary\\u000a for disadvantaged students, especially those of low socio-economic background, rural students, and mature aged students seeking\\u000a a ‘second chance’ education. Challenges faced by students in their

Joan Abbott-Chapman

2011-01-01

412

Women's rights are human rights : The practice of the United Nations Human Rights Committee and the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women’s rights are human rights!’ This notion may seem self evident, as the international system for the promotion and the protection of human rights that was installed under the auspice of the United Nations (UN) builds on the idea of equality in dignity and rights of men and women. Yet, as was convincingly showed by critics of this system, it

F. C. van Leeuwen

2009-01-01

413

Can the relation between tooth loss and chronic disease be explained by socio-economic status? A 24-year follow-up from the Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between number of missing teeth and all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality as well as morbidity and to explore whether socio-economic factors mediate this association. An ongoing prospective cohort study of 1462 Swedish women included a dental survey in 1968\\/69 with follow-up until 1992\\/93. The dental examination included a panoramic

Claudia Cabrera; Magnus Hakeberg; Margareta Ahlqwist; Hans Wedel; Cecilia Björkelund; Calle Bengtsson; Lauren Lissner

2005-01-01

414

Helping Women into Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With women bearing a disproportionate share of economic hardship, their poor representation on training designed to tackle barriers to work is a critical concern. The author asks what can be done to improve women's access to this sort of learning. As the underrecruitment of women to ESF pre-employment programmes demonstrates, the author suggests…

Ward, Jane

2011-01-01

415

WHY WOMEN WORK.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|WOMEN WORK BECAUSE THEY OR THEIR FAMILIES NEED THE MONEY THEY CAN EARN. EVEN WHEN NECESSITIES ARE PROVIDED BY OTHER FAMILY MEMBERS, WOMEN WORK TO RAISE FAMILY LIVING STANDARDS. AT LEAST HALF OF ALL WOMEN WORK OUT OF ECONOMIC NECESSITY. ABOUT 2.9 MILLION MOTHERS HAD TO HELP SUPPORT THEIR CHILDREN IN 1966 BECAUSE THEIR HUSBANDS' INCOMES WERE LESS…

Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

416

Women in the American Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Trends in the economic status of women in the United States and their implications for society and women themselves are traced in this publication. The report focuses on women in the work force, including occupation and wage gains relative to men; poverty status; economic consequence of changes in trends related to living arrangements, education,…

Taeuber, Cynthia M.; Valdisera, Victor

1986-01-01

417

Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, individual wealth status and patterns of delivery care utilization in Nigeria: a multilevel discrete choice analysis  

PubMed Central

Background High maternal mortality continues to be a major public health problem in most part of the developing world, including Nigeria. Understanding the utilization pattern of maternal healthcare services has been accepted as an important factor for reducing maternal deaths. This study investigates the effect of neighborhood and individual socioeconomic position on the utilization of different forms of place of delivery among women of reproductive age in Nigeria. Methods A population-based multilevel discrete choice analysis was performed using the most recent population-based 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys data of women aged between 15 and 49 years. The analysis was restricted to 15,162 ever-married women from 888 communities across the 36 states of the federation including the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja. Results The choice of place to deliver varies across the socioeconomic strata. The results of the multilevel discrete choice models indicate that with every other factor controlled for, the household wealth status, women’s occupation, women’s and partner’s high level of education attainment, and possession of health insurance were associated with use of private and government health facilities for child birth relative to home delivery. The results also show that higher birth order and young maternal age were associated with use of home delivery. Living in a highly socioeconomic disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with home birth compared with the patronage of government health facilities. More specifically, the result revealed that choice of facility-based delivery is clustered around the neighborhoods. Conclusion Home delivery, which cuts across all socioeconomic strata, is a common practice among women in Nigeria. Initiatives that would encourage the appropriate use of healthcare facilities at little or no cost to the most disadvantaged should be accorded the utmost priority.

Aremu, Olatunde; Lawoko, Stephen; Dalal, Koustuv

2011-01-01

418

Behavioural therapy for smoking cessation: The effectiveness of different intervention types for disadvantaged and affluent smokers?  

PubMed Central

Background Disadvantaged smokers are less likely to be successful when trying to stop smoking than more affluent smokers. In the UK, NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSS) provide a range of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support, delivered by advisors with a range of backgrounds. Whether the types of support provided and who provides it influence differences in quit rates amongst low SES smokers compared with high SES smokers has not previously been examined. Methods 202,084 records of smokers in England who attended a NHS Stop Smoking Service between July 2010 and June 2011 were acquired. Smokers were followed-up by services at four weeks post quit date. Multilevel logistic regression models of CO validated quits were employed. Disadvantage was explored through the National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification (NS-SEC) and by eligibility for free prescriptions, an indicator of low income amongst adults aged between 19 and 59 in England. Results Affluent smokers were more likely to quit than disadvantaged smokers (OR 1.38 (1.35 to 1.42) for clients who paid for prescriptions compared to those eligible for free prescriptions). 80% of service clients received one-to-one counselling but open group forms of behavioural therapy were more successful (main effect OR 1.26 (1.12 to 1.41)) except amongst some of the most disadvantaged clients (long-term unemployed and prisoners). Closed groups were little deployed and they were not significantly more successful than one-to-one behavioural therapy after controls. Who delivered treatment did make a difference for some clients, with all but the most affluent less likely to be successful if they had been treated by a nurse compared with other types of advisers, including smoking cessation specialists (main effect OR 0.73 (0.65 to 0.83)). Conclusion This study provides further evidence that disadvantaged smokers find quitting more difficult even when they have attended a smoking cessation programme. The findings suggest that open groups should be promoted, although they may not be as effective as other forms of behavioural therapy for the long-term unemployed or prisoners. Further research is required to explore why most groups of smokers who attended services staffed by nurses were less likely to quit than those who received treatment from other types of advisors.

Hiscock, Rosemary; Murray, Susan; Brose, Leonie S.; McEwen, Andy; Bee, Jo Leonardi; Dobbie, Fiona; Bauld, Linda

2013-01-01

419

Another Objective to Achieve: A Study of Educationally Disadvantaged Veterans Enrolled in a College Preparatory Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Veterans Special Educational Program (VSEP) at the University of California, Los Angeles is a program for recently discharged servicemen and women whose educational achievement would not normally be acceptable for admission into an institution of higher education and economic background has not encouraged them to seek higher education. The…

Berry, Gordon L.; Vivell, Susan

420

Toward an Effective Educational Program for Disadvantaged Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study attempted to determine if significant and lasting cognitive gains could be achieved by focusing preschool efforts upon children younger than those now being serviced by traditional programs--children under three years of age. Thirty-six disadvantaged children, 19-28 months of age, were randomly assigned to two groups: a Home Group…

Dusewicz, Russell A.; Higgins, Martin J.

421

Rural Disadvantaged Parents: Views on Work and Vocational Guidance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Twenty parents considered educationally, socioeconomically, and geographically disadvantaged believe their work is hard and hope their children will do better. They are concerned for their children's work safety, believe their children need to learn about computers, and recognize their role in their children's education. (SK)|

Rehm, Marsha L.; Reagor, Jane D.

1993-01-01

422

Preparing Disadvantaged Pupils for Homemaker and Wage-Earner Roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected teachers were provided learning experiences preparing them to work effectively with disadvantaged pupils; to cooperate with social and educational agencies; to work with employers providing job experience; and to produce curriculum materials for two courses orienting pupils to a dual role, one emphasizing job preparation, the other homemaking. Experimental and control groups were compared post-course. Instruments to measure comprehension,

Helen Y. Nelson; Phyllis K. Lowe; Julia I. Dalrymple

1975-01-01

423

Peer Tutoring and Mentoring Services for Disadvantaged Secondary School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1988, the Congress enacted a one year demonstration program, the Secondary Schools Basic Skills Demonstration Assistance Program, aimed at improving the academic achievement of disadvantaged children with mentoring and peer tutoring services (Pringle, et. al., 1990). The evaluation report prepared upon the completion of this demonstration offers one of the most significant studies of school-based peer tutoring and mentoring

M. Anne Powell

424

Self-Employment Programs and Outcomes for Disadvantaged Jobseekers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An evaluation of Australia's New Enterprise Initiative Scheme, which provides job search information to disadvantaged job seekers, found the following: of 81 long-term unemployed, 76.5% were self-employed after participation; of 51 non-English speaking individuals, 65% were self-employed; and 84% of 400 participants overall were in some form of…

Kelly, Ross; Mulvey, Charles; Lewis, P. E. T.

2002-01-01

425

Promotion of Primary Education for Girls and Disadvantaged Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents the results of a meeting of education officials from Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, and Thailand to discuss the promotion of primary education for girls and other disadvantaged groups in developing Asian countries. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, discussing the goals and results of the meeting. Chapter…

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

426

HEALTH AND THE EDUCATION OF SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THE POOR HEALTH OF THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD IS A PRIMARY VARIABLE IN HIS EDUCATIONAL FAILURE. AN EXTENSIVE REVIEW OF HEALTH STUDIES SHOWS THAT NEGROES, PUERTO RICANS, AND INDIANS SUFFER FROM THE GREATEST HEALTH PROBLEMS. THE HEALTH FACTORS WHICH THESE STUDIES FOUND TO RELATE SPECIFICALLY TO INTELLECTUAL AND EDUCATIONAL DEFICITS ARE PREMATURITY,…

BIRCH, HERBERT G.

427

Predicting Success among Prospective Disadvantaged Students in Natural Scientific Fields  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One hundred and fifty-nine Grade 11 prospective disadvantaged students in the natural sciences at the University of Pretoria completed the Study Orientation Questionnaire in Mathematics and the Senior Aptitude Test (Advanced). Fifty-nine male students (M age = 16.05; SD = 0.57) and 100 females (M age = 16.02; SD = 0.512) scored significantly…

Maree, J. G.; Fletcher, L.; Sommerville, J.

2011-01-01

428

Perspectives in the Education of Disadvantaged Children; A Multidisciplinary Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A collection of original papers presents an interdisciplinary approach to the education of disadvantaged children. The volume, prepared especially for preservice and inservice teachers, is divided into three sections--poverty and its effects, the children of poverty, and educational implications. The first two parts deal with such areas as…

Cowles, Milly, Ed.

429

THE LIGHTHOUSE DAY CAMP READING EXPERIMENT WITH DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A READING PROGRAM DESIGNED FOR DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AND CONDUCTED BY THE LIGHTHOUSE, A SETTLEMENT HOUSE IN NORTH PHILADELPHIA, AS PART OF ITS DAY CAMP PROGRAM WAS DESCRIBED AND ASSESSED. THE READING PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED (1) TO BOOST THE OPPORTUNITIES IN READING READINESS FOR CHILDREN ABOUT TO ENTER FIRST GRADE, (2) TO ENRICH LANGUAGE…

GOMBERG, ADELINE W.

430

From Here to Where?--"Disadvantaged Schools," Literacy and Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Argues that the abolishment of the Disadvantaged Schools Program (DSP) in South Australia represented a shift away from a focus on the social to the individual, from curriculum to instruction, from school-based inquiry and teacher research to expert solutions, and from various contexted and contested outcomes to a singular and simplistic version…

Thomson, Pat

2001-01-01

431

Utilization of Disadvantaged Workers in Public Park and Recreation Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study analyzes data to formulate researchable questions regarding the utilization of disadvantaged persons in entry-level and paraprofessional park and recreation job opportunities provided through U.S. Department of Labor programs. Data are comprised of the following components: (a) assessment of the state-of-the-art, (b) field…

Hawkins, Donald E.; Berhoven, Peter J.

432

Compensatory Education: Programs for Diversified Intervention Experinces for Disadvantaged Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As is enunciated by its policy guidelines, funds for compensatory education are being used to provide a diversity of intervention experiences for disadvantaged children. Difficulty in recognizing these implementation practices and outcomes has arisen because of a more popular, but narrow, view of compensatory education. Instead of attempting to…

Brown, Edward K.

433

HEALTH AND THE EDUCATION OF SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE POOR HEALTH OF THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD IS A PRIMARY VARIABLE IN HIS EDUCATIONAL FAILURE. AN EXTENSIVE REVIEW OF HEALTH STUDIES SHOWS THAT NEGROES, PUERTO RICANS, AND INDIANS SUFFER FROM THE GREATEST HEALTH PROBLEMS. THE HEALTH FACTORS WHICH THESE STUDIES FOUND TO RELATE SPECIFICALLY TO INTELLECTUAL AND EDUCATIONAL DEFICITS ARE PREMATURITY,…

BIRCH, HERBERT G.

434

Reaching and Helping Unorganized and Disadvantaged People. Courier No. 33.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The articles in this issue are mainly concerned with how to reach the poorest and most disadvantaged sections of the population and how best to help once contact has been made. "Nijera Kori in Retrospect: In Search of an Organization of the Rural Poor" (Mohiuddin Ahmad) provides extracts from an evaluation of this grassroots, village-based,…

ASPBAE Courier, 1985

1985-01-01

435

Citizenship experiences of young migrants: optimism and disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyses the citizenship experiences of young non-western migrants in the Netherlands. Young migrants are in a disadvantaged position in education and in the labour market and this leads to concerns about their integration in Dutch society. The focus of this study is on the participation of migrant youngsters in education, in which an analysis of the experiences and

D. Gerritsen

2012-01-01

436

An afterschool intervention program for educationally disadvantaged young children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research investigated the premise that if educationally disadvantaged children experience increased instructional time combined with an educational setting that is sensitive to their culture and that provides perceptions of control, enhanced achievement and interest in learning will result. The research setting was the Hilltop Emergent Literacy Project (HELP), an afterschool educational program serving poor, mostly African American five- to

David A. Bergin; Lynne M. Hudson; Carolyn F. Chryst; Mark Resetar

1992-01-01

437

Homeownership and Local Voting in Disadvantaged Urban Neighborhoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homeownership has long been considered the cornerstone of the American dream, and considerable research has pointed to the social benefits of homeownership for both families and communities. Yet research concerning this link between homeownership and social participation has recently undergone critique for failing to consider neighbor- hood context. Do homeowners in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods become active participants in neighborhood improvement,

Kim Manturuk; Mark Lindblad; Roberto G. Quercia

2009-01-01

438

Developing Social Giftedness in Disadvantaged Girls at an Indian School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes developmental interactions with a group of female students at an Indian public school situated in a disadvantaged section of the community. Through a series of activities, the author makes an intensive effort to develop social giftedness in these students. The article describes various activities together with the author's…

Sharma, Yukti

2012-01-01

439

Methods for Developing Resiliency in Children from Disadvantaged Populations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Protective factors that contribute to the development of resiliency in children, defined as "unusually good adaptation in the face of severe stress, and an ability of the stressed person to rebound to the prestress level of adaptation," are discussed. The biological, psychological, familial, and social factors related to disadvantages that…

Steinhauer, Paul D.

440

The Culturally Disadvantaged: A Field Experience Guide. Materials/One.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide resulted from the work of 14 colleges and universities participating in the Red River Valley Inter-Institutional Project, which related to the education of the culturally disadvantaged child. The project included two field experiences, one urban and the other rural; orientation meetings; and discussions. The aims of the Red River…

Eland, Calvin

441

Identifying High-Ability Disadvantaged Students. Discussion Paper No. 13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a study that explored procedures for identifying high ability children from disadvantaged socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. The study constituted the initial phase of the 1980 Priority Exceptional Students' Study, conducted by the Education Department of Western Australia. Focusing on primary school children in the Perth…

Deschamp, P.; And Others

442

Advanced Placement Courses: Do Prohibitive Costs Exclude Financially Disadvantaged Students?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case addresses the guarantee of a free public education for all students, and focuses specifically on how the requirement that students purchase their own books and supplies for advanced placement courses affects the promise of equal educational opportunity. Although there is no correlation between wealth and intellectual ability, financially disadvantaged students may feel compelled not to enroll in advanced

Patrick Brimstein; Daniel Milgate; Laurel OíDonaghue; Todd Yunker

2000-01-01

443

Are new entrants to the residential property market informationally disadvantaged?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sets out to test whether, as a consequence of being informationally disadvantaged, new entrants to residential property markets pay significantly higher prices for a hypothetical standardized property. The paper analyses data on house sales in Glasgow between April 1991 and March 1992. The transactions data are subdivided into mutually exclusive groups of households and the prices paid are

Craig Watkins

1998-01-01

444

Educating the Disadvantaged, 1970-1971. An AMS Anthology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This anthology includes newly published essays by Daniel U. Levine, Robert J. Havighurst, and J. McVicker Hunt, two previously unpublished reports from the National Study of American Indian Education, and a new guide to resource centers. In addition, 35 papers by 55 contributors concerned with educating disadvantaged and culturally different…

Doll, Russell C., Ed.; Hawkins, Maxine, Ed.

445

Disadvantaged Pupil Program Fund (DPPF) Evaluation Reports, 1980-81.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These descriptive and evaluative reports examine fifteen program components implemented under the Disadvantaged Pupil Program Fund by the Cleveland, Ohio public school system beginning in 1966. The following programs are discussed: (1) classroom support program; (2) communication skills improvement project; (3) computer assisted instruction in…

Cleveland Public Schools, OH. Dept. of Research, Development and Evaluation.

446

Social characteristics of psychological distress in disadvantaged areas of Berlin.  

PubMed

Purpose: Living in disadvantaged urban areas is associated with poor mental health. The purpose of this study was to assess which social characteristics were associated with psychological distress within a disadvantaged, multi-ethnic neighbourhood of Berlin. METHODS: The study was conducted in an area of Berlin with the highest rates of unemployment and highest density of migrants. A total of 143 participants aged 18-57 years were included from a random sample. The social characteristics educational level, employment status, marital status, living alone, per-capita income and background of migration were collected. Psychological distress was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-28; scores ? 5 indicated psychological distress corresponding to psychiatric caseness. RESULTS: Psychological distress was found in 40.6% (n = 58) of the sample. Psychological distress was associated with younger age (OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.92-0.98, p = .004), female gender (OR = 3.51, 95% CI = 1.55-7.92, p = .003) and living alone (OR = 3.88, 95% CI = 1.58-9.52, p = .003), but not with background of migration, low educational level or with unemployment. CONCLUSIONS: Young age and female gender may predispose for psychological distress in disadvantaged areas. Living alone could be a social indicator of poor mental health within disadvantaged urban areas. The directionality of the association is unclear. BACKGROUND: of migration, low income and educational level do not seem to be associated with poor mental health within those areas. PMID:23117825

Mundt, Adrian; Kliewe, T; Yayla, S; Ignatyev, Y; Busch, M A; Heimann, H; Heinz, A; Rapp, M A; Schouler-Ocak, M; Ströhle, A; Aichberger, M C

2012-10-30

447

Education for All: Compensating for Disadvantage in Mexico. Education Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This note series is intended to summarize lessons learned and key policy findings on the World Bank's work in education.Education for all means learning for all. It means closing the "advantage" gap--making sure that the children of the poor and disadvantaged achieve the same levels of learning as all other children. This is one of the great…

Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Shapiro, Joseph; Trevino, Jorge Moreno

2004-01-01

448

Barriers to Healthier Eating in a Disadvantaged Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The research objective was to identify how healthy eating was understood in a disadvantaged community and how barriers to healthy eating might be overcome. Design: Participatory action research. Setting: Communities in Gurnos, Merthyr Tydfil, one of the most deprived areas in the UK. Method: Trainees on a participative methods course…

O'Neill, Martin; Rebane, Deanne; Lester, Carolyn

2004-01-01

449

Nutritional Supplementation of Disadvantaged Elementary-School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined with 177 disadvantaged elementary school students (5-9 years old, 99 percent Blacks) were the effects of the provision of a nutritionally fortified low-lactose food supplement on hematocrit values (volume percentage of erythrocytes in whole blood), growth, absenteeism, and lunch consumption. (IM)

Paige, David M.; And Others

1976-01-01

450

Extending Support to Disadvantaged Urban Youth in Young Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most young people in postindustrial societies will not full adult status until their late twenties or early thirties and rely on families and institutions for some financial and social support during this period. Disadvantaged urban youth who are not college bound have access to few resources to help them gain the skills, knowledge, and experience necessary to compete successfully in

Jean N. Scandlyna

451

MATERIALS THE DISADVANTAGED NEED--AND DON'T NEED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE ASSUMPTION THAT SOME CHILDREN ARE LOW ACHIEVERS BECAUSE OF CULTURAL, SENSORY, OR DEVELOPMENTAL DEPRIVATION IS CRITICIZED BECAUSE IT LEADS MAINLY TO A GRASPING FOR NEW AND DIFFERENT TEACHING TECHNOLOGIES. WHAT SHOULD BE INCLUDED IN A COHESIVE VIEW OF THE DISADVANTAGED ARE THEORETICAL UNDERPINNINGS FROM WHICH ACTION PROGRAMS CAN BE DERIVED. THE…

HABERMAN, MARTIN

452

Variables Affecting Self-Concept in Black Disadvantaged Boys.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of levels of self-esteem in a sample of black disadvantaged children was conducted to investigate factors known from other studies to facilitate the development and maintenance of a favorable self-concept despite adverse environmental conditions and skin color. The child subjects were selected from six classes of fifth grade black…

Morse, Roberta N.; Piers, Ellen V.

453

Barriers to Healthier Eating in a Disadvantaged Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The research objective was to identify how healthy eating was understood in a disadvantaged community and how barriers to healthy eating might be overcome. Design: Participatory action research. Setting: Communities in Gurnos, Merthyr Tydfil, one of the most deprived areas in the UK. Method: Trainees on a participative methods course…

O'Neill, Martin; Rebane, Deanne; Lester, Carolyn

2004-01-01

454

Home and neighbourhood correlates of BMI among children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.  

PubMed

A detailed understanding of the underlying drivers of obesity-risk behaviours is needed to inform prevention initiatives, particularly for individuals of low socioeconomic position who are at increased risk of unhealthy weight gain. However, few studies have concurrently considered factors in the home and local neighbourhood environments, and little research has examined determinants among children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The present study examined home, social and neighbourhood correlates of BMI (kg/m2) in children living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional data were collected from 491 women with children aged 5-12 years living in forty urban and forty rural socioeconomically disadvantaged areas (suburbs) of Victoria, Australia in 2007 and 2008. Mothers completed questionnaires about the home environment (maternal efficacy, perceived importance/beliefs, rewards, rules and access to equipment), social norms and perceived neighbourhood environment in relation to physical activity, healthy eating and sedentary behaviour. Children's height and weight were measured at school or home. Linear regression analyses controlled for child sex and age. In multivariable analyses, children whose mothers had higher efficacy for them doing physical activity tended to have lower BMI z scores (B = - 0·04, 95 % CI - 0·06, - 0·02), and children who had a television (TV) in their bedroom (B = 0·24, 95 % CI 0·04, 0·44) and whose mothers made greater use of food as a reward for good behaviour (B = 0·05, 95 % CI 0·01, 0·09) tended to have higher BMI z scores. Increasing efficacy among mothers to promote physical activity, limiting use of food as a reward and not placing TV in children's bedrooms may be important targets for future obesity prevention initiatives in disadvantaged communities. PMID:21824445

Crawford, David A; Ball, Kylie; Cleland, Verity J; Campbell, Karen J; Timperio, Anna F; Abbott, Gavin; Brug, Johannes; Baur, Louise A; Salmon, Jo A

2011-08-09

455

"Bigger than Hip-Hop?" Impact of a Community-Based Physical Activity Program on Youth Living in a Disadvantaged Neighborhood in Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored whether a hip-hop dance program was associated with improved well-being for adolescents living in a multicultural, socio-economically disadvantaged urban community in Ottawa. Sixty-seven youths between 11 and 16 years of age participated in a 13-week program. A primarily qualitative approach was used to assess perceived impact…

Beaulac, Julie; Kristjansson, Elizabeth; Calhoun, Melissa

2011-01-01

456

Getting Our Best Teachers into Disadvantaged Schools: Differences in the Professional and Personal Factors Attracting More Effective and Less Effective Teachers to a School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Of the school-level factors that have an impact on student learning, one of the most powerful appears to be the effectiveness of the individual teacher. The most effective teachers are, therefore, one of the most important tools schools and systems have at their disposal to lift the achievement of socio-economically disadvantaged students and…

Rice, Suzanne M.

2010-01-01

457

Meeting the Needs of Rural Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the gender order that operates in rural areas of Australia, ensuring that women are accorded secondary status, that their contributions are discounted, and that their concerns are trivialized. Women are disadvantaged by patriarchal gender relations that dominate rural society and that are reinforced by ideologies of family and…

Alston, Margaret

458

Low socio-economic status, smoking, mental stress and obesity predict obstructive symptoms in women, but only smoking also predicts subsequent experience of poor health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted among female subjects to assess the possible association between selected risk factors and lung function as well as airway symptoms in a 32-year perspective. The Prospective Population Study of Women was initiated in 1968-1969 in Göteborg, Sweden (population about 450 000) with follow-ups in 1974-1975, 1980-1981, 1992-1993 and 2000-2001. Women born in 1930, representative of women

Jörgen Thorn; Cecilia Björkelund; Calle Bengtsson; Xinxin Guo; Lauren Lissner; Valter Sundh

2007-01-01

459

Correlates of HIV testing among women in Ghana: some evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys.  

PubMed

Ghana's strategic framework for controlling HIV/AIDS endorses voluntary HIV testing as an important strategy toward risk reduction and HIV/AIDS prevention. Yet, like other sub-Saharan African countries, utilization of testing services in Ghana is very low. Using the 2003 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys and applying both complementary and negative log-log models, this study investigates the correlates of HIV testing among women aged 15-49. Two major dependent variables are considered, "ever tested for AIDS" and "wanting to test for AIDS." Results show that majority of Ghanaian women have not tested for HIV but say they want to do so. Having tested for HIV is strongly related to respondents' knowledge about someone dead of AIDS and other socio-economic and demographic variables such as education, region of residence, rural-urban residence, religion, and marital status. Majority of Ghanaian women do not know where to get an HIV test, although knowing where to get a test was significantly related to wanting to get the test done. To increase voluntary testing for HIV among women in Ghana it is recommended that testing services be made more accessible and visible especially to those residing in rural areas who may be economically disadvantaged. Interventions, including routine checking of HIV serostatus among patients seeking healthcare in clinics and home/work-based testing programs, must be encouraged as ways of expanding access among women in Ghana. PMID:20390509

Tenkorang, Eric Y; Owusu, Gertrude A

2010-03-01

460

Educational stratification among Arabs and Jews in Israel: historical disadvantage, discrimination, and opportunity.  

PubMed

Arabs in Israel are a heterogeneous but largely underprivileged minority with a history of disadvantage in several domains, including education and employment. In this paper, we document changes in their attainment of various educational levels across cohorts born from the mid-1920s to the 1970s. We make comparisons among different Arab religious groups, between men and women, and between Arabs and the majority Jewish populations in Israel. We find that over consecutive birth cohorts, substantial ethnic differences in educational attainment have narrowed at the lower levels of schooling, but have increased at higher levels. Moreover, the results indicate that the disadvantage of Muslim Arabs in terms of entry into and completion of high school can be accounted for only partially by differences in the social status of their parents and characteristics of their neighbourhoods. The findings suggest that long-term historical differences among groups and discriminatory practices towards Arabs are important factors in explanations of disparities in educational attainment. PMID:16096196

Okun, Barbara S; Friedlander, Dov

2005-07-01

461

The Exemplary Teacher of the Disadvantaged: Two Views. ERIC-IRCD Urban Disadvantaged Series, Number 30, July 1972.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report attempts to show that there are effective programs, schools, and administrators, and many teachers who serve disadvantaged students well year in year out. The first part of the report focuses on such exemplary teachers through a survey of 59 teachers as reported by their principals. Characteristics of that model discussed relate to…

Jablonsky, Adelaide

462

The Commoditization of Chinese Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Documents women's historically low place in Chinese culture as an integral part of a complex economic pattern. Covers the following topics: (1) women, family, and economy; (2) the Chinese modes of production; (3) views of commodity production in China; (4) class relations; (5) women's labor; and (6) textiles, women, and class. (JS)|

Gates, Hill

1989-01-01

463

Women in Physics in Perú  

Microsoft Academic Search

The numbers of women receiving undergraduate and master's degrees in physics from San Marcos National University and undergraduate physics degrees from San Luis Gonzaga National University in Perú are reported. The number of undergraduate degrees in physics has increased for women in San Marcos University, but not for women earning master's degrees. Why don't women complete their post-degree studies? Economics

María Luisa Cerón Loayza; Yezeña Huaypar Vásquez; Jorge Aurelio Bravo Cabrejos

2009-01-01

464

Urban women's socioeconomic status, health service needs and utilization in the four weeks after postpartum hospital discharge: findings of a Canadian cross-sectional survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Postpartum women who experience socioeconomic disadvantage are at higher risk for poor health outcomes than more advantaged postpartum women, and may benefit from access to community based postpartum health services. This study examined socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED) postpartum women's health, and health service needs and utilization patterns in the first four weeks post hospital discharge, and compared them to more

Christine Kurtz Landy; Wendy Sword; Donna Ciliska

2008-01-01

465

Aboriginal child health and the social determinants: why are these children so disadvantaged?  

PubMed

Canada's original people consist of First Nations, Inuit and Metis peoples. Their estimated population is 1.17 million. The total fertility rate for the period 1996-2001 was 2.6 for Aboriginal women versus 1.5 for Canada (Statistics Canada 2006). Thus, a high proportion of this rapidly growing segment of the population are children. Numerous articles have reviewed the health status of Canada's Aboriginal children and shown comparatively high prevalence and incidence of most of the common diseases that affect children. This article highlights some of the more specific disparities, but also attempts to provide some historical context and a few composite case studies that illustrate how the social determinants, colonialism, jurisdictional issues, geography and healthcare can interact to amplify disproportionately the disadvantage these children have in so many ways. Much of the historical detail recounts the contact with First Nations people, the most numerous and the first group to have contact with European settlement. PMID:20959746

Postl, Brian D; Cook, Catherine L; Moffatt, Michael

2010-10-01

466

The Role of Older Women in the Work Force. Hearing before the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents witness testimony and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine the role of older women in the work force. The opening statement from Representative Olympia J. Stowe stresses the need for Congress to recognize the social realities facing older women when it considers changes in education, job…

Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

467

Wider Opportunities for Women Nontraditional Work Programs: A Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since 1970, Wider Opportunities for Women (WOW), in Washington, D.C., has conducted programs to train and place disadvantaged women in nontraditional jobs. The results have been record-breaking: high placement rates, high job retention rates, good starting salaries, and upward mobility for women who seemed doomed to a life of poverty and…

Wider Opportunities for Women, Inc., Washington, DC.

468

Management Progression and Ambition: Women and Men in Social Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explanations for the disproportionate under-representation of women managers in social services focus either on discrimination in appointment practices and\\/or career development, or emphasise the disadvantages faced by women because of family and caring responsibilities. It has also been suggested that women are less committed to career progression than men. Using data from the 1994 National Institute for Social Work (NISW)

Barbara Davey

2002-01-01

469

WHY WAIT?: EXAMINING DELAYED WIC PARTICIPATION AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the benefits of prenatal participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), many eligible women either do not participate or begin participation late in their pregnancies. Using recent nationally representative data, we find that more disadvantaged women are more likely to access WIC and, with some notable exceptions, to participate earlier in their pregnancies.

LAURA TIEHEN; ALISON JACKNOWITZ

2008-01-01

470

Female Leadership Advantage and Disadvantage: Resolving the Contradictions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the United States, women are increasingly praised for having excellent skills for leadership and, in fact, women, more than men, manifest leadership styles associated with effective performance as leaders. Nevertheless, more people prefer male than female bosses, and it is more difficult for women than men to become leaders and to succeed in…

Eagly, Alice H.

2007-01-01

471

A Summer Academic Research Experience for Disadvantaged Youth  

PubMed Central

Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience (SARE) program that provides an enriching academic internship to underrepresented youth. Our program has shown that to have a successful internship for these disadvantaged youth, several issues need to be addressed in addition to scientific mentoring. We have found that it is necessary to remediate and/or fortify basic academic skills for students to be successful. In addition, students need to be actively coached in the development of professional skills, habits, and attitudes necessary for success in the workplace. With all these factors in place, these youths can become better students, compete on a more level playing field in their internships, and increase their potential of participating actively in the sciences in the future.

Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N.

2013-01-01

472

Joint hypermobility and sport: a review of advantages and disadvantages.  

PubMed

Joint hypermobility (JH) is a feature observed in several inherited conditions in which joints have a range of motion beyond normal limits. Such inherent flexibility makes it relatively easy for hypermobile people to perform certain physical activities, so this characteristic is particularly convenient for certain athletes. However JH also can carry some disadvantages: it has been associated to a higher risk of injury and to states of anxiety. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the current evidence concerning the advantages and disadvantages of JH in the field of sport. We emphasize the importance of detecting JH in athletes in order to intervene appropriately through injury prevention programs, and emphasize how inherent anxiety may have a negative impact on sporting performance. PMID:24030301

Baeza-Velasco, Carolina; Gély-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Pailhez, Guillem; Vilarrasa, Antonio Bulbena

473

Barriers to healthier eating in a disadvantaged community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective The research objective was to identify how healthy eating was understood in a disadvantaged community and how barriers to healthy eating might be overcome.Design Participatory action research.Setting Communities in Gurnos, Merthyr Tydfil, one of the most deprived areas in the UK.Method Trainees on a participative methods course undertook hands- on research, directed by the course leader and local researchers.

Martin ONeill; Deanne Rebane; Carolyn Lester

2004-01-01

474

Social disadvantage, family composition, and diabetes mellitus: prevalence and outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo investigate the relation between social disadvantage and family composition on diabetes prevalence and diabetes care outcome.DESIGNRetrospective audit in the south west of England of 801 children with diabetes mellitus.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURESPrevalence of diabetes in relation to the Townsend index. Admissions to hospital with diabetes related problems, glycated haemoglobin, time spent in hospital, outpatient attendance rates.RESULTSThere was no association between

J H Baumer; L P Hunt; J P H Shield

1998-01-01

475

Social disadvantage, family composition, and diabetes mellitus: prevalence and outcome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To investigate the relation between social disadvantage and family composition on diabetes prevalence and diabetes care outcome.?DESIGN—Retrospective audit in the south west of England of 801 children with diabetes mellitus.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Prevalence of diabetes in relation to the Townsend index. Admissions to hospital with diabetes related problems, glycated haemoglobin, time spent in hospital, outpatient attendance rates.?RESULTS—There was no association between social status and diabetes prevalence. Social deprivation increased the likelihood of admission for hypoglycaemia. Children living with a single parent were more likely to be admitted to hospital with a diabetes related problem and stay in hospital longer. Having either a parent with diabetes or a single parent increased the rates of clinic non-attendance. No association was identified between medium term diabetes control and either social disadvantage or single parent status.?CONCLUSIONS—Social disadvantage has no effect on diabetes prevalence and little on diabetes outcome in childhood. Family structure and parental diabetes have adverse effects on some aspects of diabetes outcome.??

Baumer, J; Hunt, L; Shield, J

1998-01-01

476

Stepchildren, community disadvantage, and physical injury in a child abuse incident: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

It is proffered that stepchildren are more likely than genetic children to be physically abused because they are unable to ensure the genetic survival of their adoptive parents. This abuse is theorized to be more pronounced in communities where social and economic resources are scarce. The salience of this cross-level interaction hinges on the assumption that the limited resources of a family are first allocated to genetic offspring because these children, unlike their nongenetic siblings, carry the genes of their parents. A multilevel analysis of child abuse incidents reported to police in 133 U.S. cities during 2005 shows that in cities with a high level of community disadvantage, stepchildren are much more apt than are genetic children to suffer a physical injury in a child abuse incident. Such a finding buttresses the position articulated by proponents of sociobiology. PMID:23393950

D'Alessio, Stewart J; Stolzenberg, Lisa

2012-01-01

477

Inequities Persist for Women and Non-Tenure-Track Faculty. The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2004-05  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many faculty members were optimistic about their economic prospects for 2004-05. They saw signs of--or at least hope for--economic recovery all around and were ending a year in which overall average faculty salaries had grown by the smallest percentage in decades. Following the pattern of recent years, this annual report first examines the…

Curtis, John W.

2005-01-01

478

The Business Case for Women?s Equality : Is the Carrot Better than the Stick?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outlines women?s continuing pay and employment disadvantage in Britain. Discusses limitations of the legal compliance approach to equal opportunity. Examines critically the business case for EO (that it serves organizational competitiveness). Argues there is not a business case but a series of business rationales which are contingent. Organizational and managerial receptiveness to them is uneven, and they lead to only

Linda Dickens

1994-01-01

479

Variations in food and drink advertising in UK monthly women's magazines according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers: a descriptive study of publications over 12 months  

PubMed Central

Background Overweight and obesity are recognised nationally and internationally as key public health challenges. Food and drink advertising is one of the array of factors that influence both diet and physical activity choices and, hence, body weight and obesity. Little previous work has focused on food and drink advertising in magazines. We studied food and drink advertising in a wide range of popular UK monthly women's magazines published over a full year. We explored differences in the prevalence of food and drink advertising and the type of food and drinks advertised according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. Methods All advertisements in all issues of 18 popular UK monthly women's magazines published over 12 months were identified. For each food or drink advertisement, branded food and drinks were noted and categorised into one of seven food groups. All analyses were at the level of the individual advertisement. Results A total of 35 053 advertisements were identified; 1380 (3.9%) of these were for food or drink. The most common food group represented was 'food and drinks high in fat and/or sugar' (28.0% of food advertisements), the least common group was 'fruits & vegetables' (2.0% of food advertisements). Advertisements for alcohol accounted for 10.1% of all food advertisements. Food and drink advertisements were most common in summer, general interest magazines, and those with the most affluent readerships. There were some differences in the type of food and drink advertised across season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. Conclusions Food and drink advertisements represented only a small proportion of advertisements in UK women's monthly magazines. Food and drink advertisements in these magazines feature a high proportion of 'less healthy' foods. There were a number of differences across season, magazine type and according to the socio-economic profile of readers in the prevalence of food and drink advertisements. Fewer differences were seen in the type of food and drinks advertised.

2011-01-01

480

Women’s Empowering Carework In Post-Soviet Azerbaijan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Republic of Azerbaijan has undergone major social, political, and economic transition since declaring independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. In this article, the author examines how this transition and the Nagorno-Karabakh War with Armenia have affected women’s caregiving roles and how women’s advocacy associations have emerged and function both as caregivers to Azeri women and as a mechanism

Mehrangiz Najafizadeh

2003-01-01

481

Association of life course socioeconomic disadvantage with future problem drinking and heavy drinking: gender differentials in the west of Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To examine gender differentials in the association between life course socioeconomic disadvantage and the risk of exceeding\\u000a internationally recognised weekly and daily guidelines for ‘sensible’ alcohol consumption and problem drinking.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A population-representative cohort study of 1,218 men and women from the west of Scotland, UK was conducted. Data on life\\u000a course socioeconomic position were collected in 1987\\/1988 (at around 35 years

G. David Batty; Abita Bhaskar; Carol Emslie; Michaela Benzeval; Geoff Der; Heather Lewars; Kate Hunt

482

Extending the Purposes of Science Education: Addressing Violence within Socio-Economic Disadvantaged Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Current discourses about science education show a wide concern towards humanisation and a more socio-cultural perspective of school science. They suggest that science education can serve diverse purposes and be responsive to social and environmental situations we currently face. However, these discourses and social approaches to science education…

Castano, Carolina

2012-01-01

483

Macroeconomic Conditions, Voter Turnout, and the Working-class\\/Economically Disadvantaged Party Vote in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working and lower status citizens are more sensitive to macroeconomic fluctuations than their better-off counterparts in the developing world, due to the higher personal stakes involved. This heightened sensitivity affects fluctuations in voter turnout and voter choice across developing democracies. Macroeconomic downturns result in increased voter participation as more lower status voters express their grievances at the polls. This benefits

EDWIN ELOY AGUILAR; ALEXANDER C. PACEK

2000-01-01

484

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) MINORITY BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT AGENCY DETERMINATION OF GROUP ELIGIBILITY FOR MBDA ASSISTANCE...that it has suffered chronic racial or ethnic prejudice or cultural bias for the purposes of this regulation, a...

2013-01-01

485

Economic and Racial Disadvantage as Reflected in Traditional Medical School Selection Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The extent to which income and race, viewed independently, affect selection factors is examined, based on data collected by the Association of American Medical Colleges on applicants to the 1976-77 entering class. Factors associated with race had a far more significant influence on applicants' credentials. (Author/LBH)|

Waldman, Bart

1977-01-01

486

Toward an Understanding of Unusually Successful Programs for Economically Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conceptual framework derived from previous research was used to evaluate successful compensatory programs for high-risk students. Program effectiveness standards, school culture, curriculum, and teaching were examined through site visits to three elementary and one middle school. (MMU)

Anderson, Lorin W.; Pellicer, Leonard O.

1998-01-01

487

Predicting Kindergarten Success for Economically Disadvantaged Head Start Children: A Latent Curve Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to use data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 database for public use (version 2.9.2.1; Westat, 2000) to examine a sample of Head Start children and families to predict kindergarten and first grade success, The study controlled family variables of income level, family…

Jiang, Ying Hong; Mok, Doris; Weaver, Robert R.

488

Improving Reading Performance for Economically Disadvantaged Students: Combining Strategy Instruction and Motivational Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Seventy-six fifth-year students from low-socioeconomic status backgrounds participated in three different instructional conditions in an intervention study. The first combined strategy training in top-level structuring and interrelated motivational support; the second implemented the strategy training only; and the third was a control condition…

Ng, Chi-Hung Clarence; Bartlett, Brendan; Chester, Ivan; Kersland, Susan

2013-01-01

489

Violent backgrounds of economically disadvantaged youth: Risk factors for perpetrating violence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent Job Corps residents (n=474) reported the violence they had experienced, witnessed, and perpetrated with regards to parents, siblings, friends, and strangers. Results indicated that there was a high prevalence of all types of violence in this atrisk adolescent sample. Moreover, the majority of adolescents who reported violent experiences indicated threat or use of a weapon was involved. Gender differences

Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling; Peter Neidig

1995-01-01

490

Early Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity among Economically Disadvantaged Families in the USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in…

Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

2012-01-01

491

Family Instability and the Problem Behaviors of Children From Economically Disadvantaged Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed relationship between family instability and problem behaviors at ages 5 and 7 years. Found direct, concurrent relations between family instability and preschool children's externalizing behavior in the context of other family process variables, relations between subsequent family instability and first-grade children's internalizing…

Ackerman, Brian P.; Kogos, Jen; Youngstrom, Eric; Schoff, Kristen; Izard, Carroll

1999-01-01

492

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...recipient will consider such factors as unequal access to credit or capital, acquisition...commercially unfavorable circumstances, unequal treatment in opportunities for government contracts or other work, unequal treatment by potential customers...

2010-10-01

493

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...recipient will consider such factors as unequal access to credit or capital, acquisition...commercially unfavorable circumstances, unequal treatment in opportunities for government contracts or other work, unequal treatment by potential customers...

2009-10-01

494

Perceptions of lung cancer and smoking in an economically disadvantaged population.  

PubMed

This study assessed low socioeconomic adults' perceptions of lung cancer and smoking utilizing the Health Belief Model. A random sample of 500 Ohio residents, with an annual household income of less than $18,000, responded to a 45-item telephone survey. Thirty-six percent of respondents were aware of the prevalence of lung cancer. The majority were aware that sidestream smoke and air pollution are lung cancer risk factors (72% and 79% respectively). Forty-one percent believed there was nothing people could do to decrease their risk of developing lung cancer. Thirteen percent perceived themselves as more susceptible to lung cancer than others of their same age and sex though one in five believed that low SES people were more likely to develop lung cancer than higher SES people. Twenty-five percent believed that almost everyone who develops lung cancer dies of it within five years of diagnosis. Benefits of quitting were identified as saving money (95%), feeling healthier (90%), living longer (80%), and eliminating hassles with smoking in public (79%). The most common barriers of quitting smoking were addiction (86%), habit (82%), and having friends who smoke (66%). PMID:7836557

Price, J H; Everett, S A

1994-10-01

495

Mothers' Parenting and Young Economically Disadvantaged Children's Relational and Overt Bullying  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined links between mothers' parenting and children's relational bullying and overt bullying in a sample of children attending a Head Start program. Mothers completed surveys and face-to-face interviews. Head Start teachers completed assessments on children. Results indicated that a small percentage of children in the sample was rated by teachers as engaging in relational bullying “frequently to almost always,”

Mary E. Curtner-Smith; Anne M. Culp; Rex Culp; Carrie Scheib; Kelly Owen; Angela Tilley; Molly Murphy; Lauren Parkman; Peter W. Coleman

2006-01-01

496

Screening for sexually transmitted infections among economically disadvantaged youth in a national job training program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate results of screening for syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia among youth in a federally funded job training program.Methods: Data were evaluated from medical records of 12,881 randomly selected students in 54 U.S. job training centers during 1996. The intake medical evaluation includes serologic testing for syphilis. The policy was for females to receive a pelvic examination with gonorrhea

Alan R Lifson; Linda L HalcÓn; Peter Hannan; Michael E St. Louis; Charles R Hayman

2001-01-01

497

Child Care and the Development of Behavior Problems among Economically Disadvantaged Children in Middle Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research examining the longer term influences of child care on children's development has expanded in recent years, but few studies have considered low-income children's experiences in community care arrangements. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 349), the present investigation examines the influences of child care quality, extent and…

Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Maldonado-Carreno, Carolina; Li-Grining, Christine P.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

2010-01-01

498

The relationship of parenting stress and child temperament to language development among economically disadvantaged preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral language skills in the preschool years are predictive of children's later reading success and literacy acquisition, and among these language skills, vocabulary and narrative ability play important roles. Children from low socioeconomic families face risks to their language develop- ment and because of threats to these skills it is important to identify factors that promote their development among high-risk

MELANIE NOEL; CAROLE PETERSON; BEULAH JESSO

2008-01-01

499

School Improvement Based on Effective Schools Research: A Promising Approach for Economically Disadvantaged and Minority Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This essay addresses the school improvement process based on Effective Schools Research (ESR) and its commitment to equitable and quality education for minority and poor children. After briefly discussing general attributes of ESR-based programs, the essay explains major premises of the effective school. The first premise sets teaching and…

Lezotte, Lawrence W.; Bancroft, Beverly A.

500

Preschool Quality and the Development of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: The influence of preschool quality on the development of 67 4-year-old children from poor and rural families in South India was examined. Children's developmental status was assessed using a modified version of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and through physician ratings. Preschool quality was assessed through…

Rao, Nirmala

2010-01-01