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1

Neighborhood Disadvantage, Individual Economic Distress and Violence Against Women in Intimate Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuing debate in sociological criminology involves the association of crime with economic disadvantage at both aggregate and individual levels of analysis. At the aggregate level, data from law enforcement sources suggest that rates of intimate violence are higher in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience higher rates of intimate violence for compositional or contextual reasons, or rates may only

Michael L. Benson; Greer L. Fox; Alfred DeMaris; Judy Van Wyk

2003-01-01

2

Personal, social and environmental correlates of resilience to physical inactivity among women from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

While sex and socio-economic disparities in physical activity have been well documented, not all disadvantaged women are inactive. This study aimed to examine correlates of achieving recommended levels of physical activity among women of low socio-economic position. In 2005, a population-based sample of 291 women with low educational attainment provided survey data on leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Participants reported

Verity J. Cleland; Kylie Ball; Jo Salmon; Anna F. Timperio; David A. Crawford

2008-01-01

3

Engaging Women Who Are Depressed and Economically Disadvantaged in Mental Health Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women disadvantaged by poverty, as well as racial or ethnic minority status, are more likely to experience depression than the rest of the U.S. population. At the same time, they are less likely to seek or remain in treatment for depression in traditional mental health settings. This article explores a therapeutic, psychosocial engagement strategy…

Grote, Nancy K.; Zuckoff, Allan; Swartz, Holly; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Geibel, Sharon

2007-01-01

4

Engaging women who are depressed and economically disadvantaged in mental health treatment.  

PubMed

Women disadvantaged by poverty, as well as racial or ethnic minority status, are more likely to experience depression than the rest of the U.S. population. At the same time, they are less likely to seek or remain in treatment for depression in traditional mental health settings. This article explores a therapeutic, psychosocial engagement strategy developed to address the barriers to treatment engagement and the application of this strategy to a special population--women of color and white women who are depressed and living on low incomes. The conceptual foundations of this intervention-ethnographic and motivational interviewing--as well as its key techniques and structure are reviewed. Finally, a case example description and promising pilot data demonstrate the usefulness of this strategy. PMID:18232240

Grote, Nancy K; Zuckoff, Allan; Swartz, Holly; Bledsoe, Sarah E; Geibel, Sharon

2007-10-01

5

Perceived quality and availability of fruit and vegetables are associated with perceptions of fruit and vegetable affordability among socio-economically disadvantaged women. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Williams LK, Thornton L, Crawford D, Ball K. Perceived quality and availability of fruit and vegetables are associated with perceptions of fruit and vegetable affordability among socio-economically disadvantaged women.

6

Environmental perceptions as mediators of the relationship between the objective built environment and walking among socio-economically disadvantaged women  

PubMed Central

Background Women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods are at increased risk for physical inactivity and associated health outcomes and are difficult to reach through personally tailored interventions. Targeting the built environment may be an effective strategy in this population subgroup. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating role of environmental perceptions in the relationship between the objective environment and walking for transportation/recreation among women from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Baseline data of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality (READI) study were used. In total, 4139 women (18–46 years) completed a postal survey assessing physical environmental perceptions (aesthetics, neighbourhood physical activity environment, personal safety, neighbourhood social cohesion), physical activity, and socio-demographics. Objectively-assessed data on street connectivity and density of destinations were collected using a Geographic Information System database and based on the objective z-scores, an objective destinations/connectivity score was calculated. This index was positively scored, with higher scores representing a more favourable environment. Two-level mixed models regression analyses were conducted and the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients test was used to examine the mediating effects. Results The destinations/connectivity score was positively associated with transport-related walking. The perceived physical activity environment mediated 6.1% of this positive association. The destinations/connectivity score was negatively associated with leisure-time walking. Negative perceptions of aesthetics, personal safety and social cohesion of the neighbourhood jointly mediated 24.1% of this negative association. Conclusion For women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, environmental perceptions were important mediators of the relationship between the objective built environment and walking. To increase both transport-related and leisure-time walking, it is necessary to improve both objective walkability-related characteristics (street connectivity and proximity of destinations), and perceptions of personal safety, favourable aesthetics and neighbourhood social cohesion. PMID:24050686

2013-01-01

7

Cardiovascular risk factors in economically disadvantaged women: a study of prevalence and awareness.  

PubMed Central

This study examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among low-income women and assessed the level of awareness and attitudes about these risk factors in the community. A survey instrument was developed and administered by a single researcher to a convenience sample of women in health clinics and nonclinical community settings. These settings included: an academic clinic, community clinics, women's shelters, free meal sites, community centers, public housing units, and private homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Two hundred two women were selected without regard to age or race. The mean number of cardiovascular risk factors per subject was 2.6 (SD 1.4). Each of eight established cardiovascular risk factors was identified by 4% to 34% of subjects. Among those women with a specific risk factor, only 0% to 45% reported that they were at increased risk due to the presence of that factor. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among low-income women is substantial. Knowledge and understanding of these risk factors is suboptimal, particularly among women personally affected by risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:9770952

Poduri, A.; Grisso, J. A.

1998-01-01

8

Cardiovascular risk factors in economically disadvantaged women: a study of prevalence and awareness.  

PubMed

This study examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among low-income women and assessed the level of awareness and attitudes about these risk factors in the community. A survey instrument was developed and administered by a single researcher to a convenience sample of women in health clinics and nonclinical community settings. These settings included: an academic clinic, community clinics, women's shelters, free meal sites, community centers, public housing units, and private homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Two hundred two women were selected without regard to age or race. The mean number of cardiovascular risk factors per subject was 2.6 (SD 1.4). Each of eight established cardiovascular risk factors was identified by 4% to 34% of subjects. Among those women with a specific risk factor, only 0% to 45% reported that they were at increased risk due to the presence of that factor. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among low-income women is substantial. Knowledge and understanding of these risk factors is suboptimal, particularly among women personally affected by risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:9770952

Poduri, A; Grisso, J A

1998-09-01

9

Mobile Technologies & Socio-Economic Opportunities for Disadvantaged Women: A Study of Information Behavior in a Developing Nation Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been championed by the United Nations and others as one of the key media to open up socio-economic opportunities for disadvantaged populations. Studies lead us to believe that after being introduced to ICTs, users' information behavior changes, enabling them to benefit from socio-economic

Potnis, Devendra Dilip

2010-01-01

10

Breast Cancer Survival among Economically Disadvantaged Women: The Influences of Delayed Diagnosis and Treatment on Mortality  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer affects thousands each year in the United States, and disproportionately affects certain subgroups. For example, the incidence of breast cancer in South Carolina is lower in African American compared with European American women by ~12% to 15%, but their mortality rate is twice as high as in European American women. The purpose of the study was to assess factors associated with breast cancer mortality between African American and European American women. Participants (n = 314) in South Carolina's Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (SCBCCEDP), which provides breast cancer screening and treatment services, during the years 1996-2004 were included in the study. Data, including tumor characteristics, delay intervals, and race, were examined using the ?2 test and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Cox regression modeling was used to assess the relationship between delay intervals and other factors. No racial differences were found in age at diagnosis, tumor characteristics, or delay intervals. Time delay intervals did not explain differences and mortality rates by race. Survival, however, was affected by prognostic factors as well as by a significant interaction between hormone-receptor status and race. Despite the excellent record of the SCBCCEDP in screening and diagnostic or treatment referrals, the racial disparities in breast cancer mortality continue to exist in South Carolina. These findings highlight the need for future research into the etiology of racial differences, and their impact on breast cancer survival. PMID:18835941

Smith, Emily Rose; Adams, Swann Arp; Das, Irene Prabhu; Bottai, Matteo; Fulton, Jeanette; Hebert, James R.

2010-01-01

11

Developmental Levels of Economically Disadvantaged College Freshmen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The personal developmental levels of students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds were studied; and the hypothesis that students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds would be less mature than other students in the developmental levels of autonomy, purpose, and interpersonal relationships was assessed. The effects of participation in…

Yarbrough, Stephen L.

12

World's women: making gains but still disadvantaged.  

PubMed

This article briefly summarizes the progress made by women globally and points out that women are still disadvantaged. The article is based on statistics compiled in a wall chart on Women in 1998 by the Population Reference Bureau. Women have progressed in education, the labor force, and health. Women's life expectancy has increased from 49 to 68 years since the 1950s. Women's participation in the labor force has increased from 33% to 54%. Literacy has risen from 54% to 64% since the 1970s. The gender gap in secondary school enrollment has narrowed since the 1980s. The ratio of girl-to-boy secondary school enrollment is 80 or 90 girls/100 boys. However, women still experience major disadvantages. In 1997, women became HIV-infected at a rate of almost 6000 women/day. 41% of people living with HIV/AIDS are women. In sub-Saharan Africa, women with HIV account for 50% of the nearly 20 million adults infected with HIV. The proportion of HIV-infected women in other regions ranges 20-33%. 4 million of the 11.7 million people who have died of AIDS were women. Nearly 600,000 women die every year from maternal mortality and abortion. Maternal mortality rates range from under 8 deaths/100,000 live births in European countries to 1400 deaths/100,000 live births in some sub-Saharan countries. Family planning and access to and services for prenatal, delivery, and postpartum care can help reduce maternal deaths. Maternal care has improved, but not sufficiently to offset the increased number of pregnancies. The number of female-headed households has grown, and these households tend to be poor. PMID:12293548

1998-04-01

13

[Family structures: social disadvantage of women].  

PubMed

A perspective on the family, based on scientific knowledge and on its appreciation as a unit for health care, is suggested. The contemporary family because of its independent links with society has lived and resisted the consequences of a series of economic, political, technological, cultural and ideological transformations. These forces act as influential forces in the family and it responds adopting new forms to temper to these new times. For these reasons, society at present is characterized by a plurality of family structures. As part of that diversity in families, at present, there are families: nuclear biological, nuclear in series, father or mother alone, extended, and those that share the same sexual orientation. The term family should be redefined to enclose all those types of cohabitation. Is imperative that support is given to families with the greatest social disadvantages such as those families made up of women alone as they are expected to continue growing in all societies both developed and underdeveloped. PMID:10343988

Irizarry Castro, A

1999-03-01

14

48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business concern or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...close of business by the fifth business day after notification by...Contracting, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 Third...Attn: Women-owned Small Business Status Protest. (2...The solicitation number or electronic link to or a paper copy...

2014-10-01

15

A Randomized Trial of a Diet and Exercise Intervention for Overweight and Obese Women from Economically Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: Sisters Taking Action for Real Success (STARS)  

PubMed Central

Background Lower socioeconomic status at both the individual and neighborhood level is associated with increased health risks. Weight loss can reduce this risk, but few high quality weight loss studies target this population. Objectives STARS tests a culturally-appropriate, group-based behavioral and social support intervention on body weight and waist circumference in women from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods. Design A stratified (by BMI) randomized trial. Randomization to group was generated by a random numbers table with allocation concealment by opaque envelopes. Methods Participants 25–50 years who had a BMI ? 25 kg/m2 and a waist circumference ? 88 cm were recruited from 18 census tracts in Columbia, SC with high rates of poverty between November 2008 and November 2010. All participants received a dietary and exercise counseling session. Intervention participants then receive 16 theoretically-based and tailored weekly group sessions followed by 8 weeks of telephone maintenance counseling. Control participants receive 16 weekly health education mailings. Measurements correspond to baseline, post-group intervention, and post-telephone counseling, and for intervention participants, after a 12-week no-contact period. Measurement staff was blinded to group assignment. Results Participants (N=155; n=80 intervention, n=75 minimal intervention control) were primarily African American (86.5%) and averaged 38.9 years with a mean BMI of 40.1 kg/m2 and waist circumference of 115.4 cm. Food insecurity was reported by 43% of participants. Summary STARS targets an underserved population with an innovative, tailored, and theoretically-grounded, group-based intervention followed by telephone maintenance. If effective, the approach has the potential to be feasible and cost-effective for community delivery. PMID:21864718

Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Granner, Michelle; Hutto, Brent

2011-01-01

16

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. 1400.4...ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. (a) The...requesting formal designation should establish social or economic disadvantage by a...

2012-01-01

17

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. 1400.4...ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. (a) The...requesting formal designation should establish social or economic disadvantage by a...

2014-01-01

18

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. 1400.4...ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. (a) The...requesting formal designation should establish social or economic disadvantage by a...

2011-01-01

19

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. 1400.4...ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. (a) The...requesting formal designation should establish social or economic disadvantage by a...

2013-01-01

20

Globalisation, Women's Economic Rights and Forced Labour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalisation critics are concerned that increased trade openness and foreign direct investment exacerbate existing economic disadvantages of women and foster conditions for forced labour. Defenders of globalisation argue instead that as countries become more open and competition intensifies, discrimination against any group, including women, becomes more difficult to sustain and is therefore likely to recede. The same is argued with

Eric Neumayer; Indra de Soysa

2007-01-01

21

Book Selections of Economically Disadvantaged Black Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author identified books most often selected among a sample of economically disadvantaged Black 8- to 12-year-old participants (N = 293) and investigated reasons participants offered for choosing specific books. Participants self-selected books at a book fair providing 412 books. The most commonly selected books supplied descriptive data.…

Williams, Lunetta M.

2008-01-01

22

Troubled Times, Troubled Relationships: How Economic Resources, Gender Beliefs, and Neighborhood Disadvantage Influence Intimate Partner Violence  

PubMed Central

We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV), and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N=1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mother’s reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age three, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women’s risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the race/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women’s economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV. PMID:23300198

Golden, Shelley D.; Perreira, Krista M.; Durrance, Christine Piette

2013-01-01

23

49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? 26.67...Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption...When an individual's presumption of social and/or economic disadvantage has...

2012-10-01

24

Access to health care for economically disadvantaged Canadians: a model.  

PubMed

In Canada, cultural, physical and structural barriers to the poor's accessibility to health care persist. The economically disadvantaged are clearly identified as a national high-risk target group because of poorer health status and health behaviours than higher-income Canadians. A four-component model is proposed to describe the complex, multivariate nature of access to health care for the economically disadvantaged. The mutual effects of characteristics of access and poverty are outlined and strategies to facilitate improved access are delineated and exemplified. Education, comprehensive and personalized care, consumer participation, and environmental strategies, while not uniquely applicable to the needs of the poor, may collectively constitute a reasonable approach to removing barriers to access to care for this vulnerable group. Furthermore, these four strategies are consistent with premises of primary health care and health promotion. While the model encompasses many relevant variables, it is neither exclusive nor all-inclusive. Further research is required to assess the linkage between specific elements of these four components and to conduct monetary and human cost-benefit analyses of recommended approaches. PMID:2282608

Stewart, M J

1990-01-01

25

Women Empowerment and Economic Development  

E-print Network

Women empowerment and economic development are closely related: in one direction, development alone can play a major role in driving down inequality between men and women; in the other direction, empowering women may benefit ...

Duflo, Esther

26

Troubled times, troubled relationships: how economic resources, gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence intimate partner violence.  

PubMed

We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N = 1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mothers' reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age 3, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women's risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women's economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV. PMID:23300198

Golden, Shelley D; Perreira, Krista M; Durrance, Christine Piette

2013-07-01

27

Universe Awareness . An inspirational programme for economically disadvantaged young children.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beauty of the sky and its connection with the human development have inspired generations with wonder. Astronomy conveys the excitement of science to the public. Considerable resources are devoted to outreach in developed countries, with spectacular images produced by modern astronomical facilities and astronomical discoveries that change our views of the Universe. Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is a programme for children between 4 and 10 years old. The formative ages of 4 to 10 years are crucial in child development. Children of that age can appreciate the beauty of astronomical objects and develop a ``feeling'' for the vastness of the Universe. Exposing young children to such material is likely to broaden their minds and stimulate their world-view. The programme concentrates on economically disadvantaged young children because most other children will be exposed to some knowledge about the Universe and disparities between advantaged and disadvantaged children increase with age. Venezuela hosted a successful pilot project in 2006. From spontaneous observation of the sky to a teacher-training workshop in the "Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía" in Mérida, this was a wonderful experience for participants and organisers alike. This shows how successful the UNAWE programme can be.

Ödman, C. J.; Scorza, C.; Miley, G. K.; Madsen, C.

28

Unsettled Future: Older Women—Economics and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender and minority status are key in explaining differences among the aged in terms of economic and health issues that they confront. Significantly, the situation of older women is not a result of old age, but is a result of lifelong patterns of socioeconomic and gender stratification in the larger society. The social origins of older women's disadvantaged status are

Terry Arendell; Carroll Estes

1987-01-01

29

The "Collateral Impact" of Pupil Behaviour and Geographically Concentrated Socio-Economic Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools in areas of concentrated disadvantage tend to have below-average attainment, but there is no consensus on why. Mental and behavioural disorders in children are correlated with socio-economic disadvantage. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the first phenomenon can at least partly be accounted for by the second phenomenon through…

David, Alex Hugh

2010-01-01

30

Sexual Responsibility, Fatherhood and Discourses of Masculinity among Socially and Economically Disadvantaged Young Men in Ireland  

E-print Network

Disadvantaged Young Men in Ireland Elizabeth Nixon, Pádraic Whyte, Joe Buggy and Sheila Greene JUN2010RESEARCH in Ireland PAGE 1 Sexual responsibility, fatherhood and discourses of masculinity among socially and economically disadvantaged young men in Ireland Elizabeth Nixon, Pádraic Whyte, Joe Buggy and Sheila Greene

O'Mahony, Donal E.

31

"Mindstorms" and "Mindtools" Aren't Happening: Digital Streaming of Students via Socio-Economic Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers the possibility that school-based uses of new technologies might actually exacerbate the educational disadvantage of already disadvantaged social groups--particularly, learners from low socio-economic status populations. It draws on some recent international studies that indicate how minority, poor and urban students may be…

Anderson, Neil

2005-01-01

32

Training the Socio-Economically Disadvantaged; A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography presents a collection of readings which should be of interest to persons charged with the responsibility of planning programs dealing with the education, counseling, and socialization of the socioeconomically disadvantaged. Taken from various sources, this collection contains: (1) current readings, (2) a listing of…

Holcomb, Beverly J.

33

Non-Traditional Educational Trajectories: The Educational Aspirations and Expectations of Women Who Are Educationally Disadvantaged  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation focuses on the educational aspirations and expectations of a heterogeneous group of women who were enrolled in, or had graduated from, adult education and literacy programs in Boston, Massachusetts. The research questions guiding the inquiry are: (1) Why do educationally disadvantaged women value education--how are these values…

Coffield, Claudia Ditmar

2012-01-01

34

The Economic Role of Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistical information pertaining to one of the most important changes in the American economy in this century--the increase in the number of women who work outside the home--is presented as an introduction to the broader range of topics which will be considered by the Advisory Committee on the Economic Role of Women. Job-related aspects of…

Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

35

Women's Issues Are Economic Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faulty laws, unfair practices, and years of tradition in the workplace keep women from economic equality. The Economic Equity Act proposed by Congress will address inequalities in tax and retirement matters, the need for better dependent care, nondiscrimination in insurance, regulatory reform, and child support enforcement. (IS)

Schroeder, Patricia

1983-01-01

36

An Exploratory Study of Radical Mindfulness Training with Severely Economically Disadvantaged People: Findings of a Canadian Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a two-phased research project that piloted a modified mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention developed specifically for a severely economically disadvantaged population. The terms severely economically disadvantaged (SED) and “severely marginalised” were used to describe the participants who experience socioeconomic disadvantage and social isolation as well as significant medical, psychological, physical, and learning challenges. Phase one of the

Steven F. Hick; Charles Furlotte

2010-01-01

37

Accumulating Disadvantage: The Growth in the Black–White Wage Gap Among Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1980 and 2002, the black–white wage gap among women tripled, climbing steadily despite improving economic conditions\\u000a in the 1990s. Relative distribution analysis shows an increasingly dense accumulation of black women’s wages in the lowest\\u000a deciles of white women’s wage distribution over time. Although the transition to an “office economy” rewarded both black and\\u000a white women with wage gains, white

Raine Dozier

2010-01-01

38

Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED) population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: The primary prevention element

Christopher Harkins; Rebecca Shaw; Michelle Gillies; Heather Sloan; Kate MacIntyre; Anne Scoular; Caroline Morrison; Fiona MacKay; Heather Cunningham; Paul Docherty; Paul MacIntyre; Iain N Findlay

2010-01-01

39

How Does Childhood Economic Disadvantage Lead to Crime?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study sought to examine the associations between indices of socio-economic deprivation in childhood and later involvement in crime. Method: Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study. In this project a cohort of 1,265 children born in Christchurch in 1977 have been studied from birth to age 21…

Fergusson, David; Swain-Campbell, Nicola; Horwood, John

2004-01-01

40

Addressing Summer Reading Setback among Economically Disadvantaged Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much research has established the contribution of summer reading setback to the reading achievement gap that is present between children from more and less economically advantaged families. Likewise, summer reading activity, or the lack of it, has been linked to summer setback. Finally, family socioeconomic status has been linked to the access…

Allington, Richard L.; McGill-Franzen, Anne; Camilli, Gregory; Williams, Lunetta; Graff, Jennifer; Zeig, Jacqueline; Zmach, Courtney; Nowak, Rhonda

2010-01-01

41

Addressing Summer Reading Setback Among Economically Disadvantaged Elementary Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research has established the contribution of summer reading setback to the reading achievement gap that is present between children from more and less economically advantaged families. Likewise, summer reading activity, or the lack of it, has been linked to summer setback. Finally, family socioeconomic status has been linked to the access children have to books in their homes and

Richard L. Allington; Anne McGill-Franzen; Gregory Camilli; Lunetta Williams; Jennifer Graff; Jacqueline Zeig; Courtney Zmach; Rhonda Nowak

2010-01-01

42

Parental Depression and Economic Disadvantage: The Role of Parenting in Associations with Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effects of parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and parenting behaviors in 180 children and adolescents of depressed parents (ages 9–15 years-old). Analyses revealed that while parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and disrupted parenting behaviors were related to children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms, disrupted parenting (e.g., intrusive, neglectful parenting) accounted for the association of parental depressive symptoms and economic disadvantage with children’s symptoms. This study provides evidence that disrupted parenting may be a common or shared process through which both parental depression and economic disadvantage are associated with children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. PMID:24244085

Watson, Kelly H.; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E.

2013-01-01

43

Socio-economic differences in food group and nutrient intakes among young women in Ireland.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate socio-economic disparities in food and nutrient intakes among young Irish women. A total of 221 disadvantaged and seventy-four non-disadvantaged women aged 18-35 years were recruited. Diet was assessed using a diet history protocol. Of the total population, 153 disadvantaged and sixty-three non-disadvantaged women were classified as plausible dietary reporters. Food group intakes, nutrient intakes and dietary vitamin and mineral concentrations per MJ of energy consumed were compared between the disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged populations, as was compliance with dietary fibre, macronutrient and micronutrient intake guidelines. The disadvantaged women had lower intakes than the non-disadvantaged women of fruit, vegetables, fish, breakfast cereals, low-fat milk and wholemeal bread (all P< 0·001), yogurt (P= 0·001), low-fat spread (P= 0·002) and fresh meat (P= 0·003). They also had higher intakes of butter, processed red meats, white bread, sugar-sweetened beverages, fried potatoes and potato-based snacks (all P< 0·001) and full-fat milk (P= 0·014). Nutritionally, the disadvantaged women had higher fat, saturated fat and refined sugar intakes; lower dietary fibre, vitamin and mineral intakes; and lower dietary vitamin and mineral densities per MJ than their more advantaged peers. Non-achievement of carbohydrate (P= 0·017), fat (P< 0·001), saturated fat (P< 0·001), refined sugar (P< 0·001), folate (P= 0·050), vitamin C (P< 0·001), vitamin D (P= 0·047) and Ca (P= 0·019) recommendations was more prevalent among the disadvantaged women. Both groups showed poor compliance with Fe and Na guidelines. We conclude that the nutritional deficits present among these socially disadvantaged women are significant, but may be potentially ameliorated by targeted food-based interventions. PMID:23721781

McCartney, Daniel M A; Younger, Katherine M; Walsh, Joanne; O'Neill, Marie; Sheridan, Claire; Kearney, John M

2013-12-14

44

Families of Economically Disadvantaged Backgrounds and Children's School Performance: Challenges and Opportunities. Family Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that economic and social disadvantage experienced very early is more damaging than poverty experienced later in life. Asserts that poor children will perform better in school if the condition of their education and families is improved and questions whether the political will exists to change public policies to improve the circumstances of…

Lindjord, Denise

2001-01-01

45

WWC Quick Review of the Report "Addressing Summer Reading Setback among Economically Disadvantaged Elementary Students"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined whether providing summer reading books to economically disadvantaged first- and second-grade students for three consecutive summers improved reading achievement. The study analyzed data on about 1,300 students from 17 high-poverty elementary schools in two large districts in Florida. Student-level reading achievement was…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

2010-01-01

46

The Impact of an Economically Disadvantaged Student Population on School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between student poverty levels, defined by the number of students identified as economically disadvantaged by qualifying for free and reduced lunch and school climate. The literature review examined school climate and culture, effects of student socioeconomic (SES) status on education,…

Null, Curtis F.

2012-01-01

47

Predictors of Quality of Life in Economically Disadvantaged Populations in Montreal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most epidemiological studies agree that economically disadvantaged populations are the groups most vulnerable to mental health problems and report lower quality of life among these populations. However, it appears that access to social support plays a role in protecting against the chronic stress resulting from conditions such as poverty. This…

Caron, Jean

2012-01-01

48

Economic Disadvantage and Young Children's Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Mechanisms of Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home…

Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

2013-01-01

49

Predicting Parental Involvement in Children's Schooling within an Economically Disadvantaged African American Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Predictors of parental school involvement were examined within a sample of 159 economically disadvantaged, African American parents living in an urban setting. School involvement was defined in terms of parent activity within the school. Parent demographics, attitudes about education, and community engagement behaviors as well as parent…

Overstreet, Stacy; Devine, Joel; Bevans, Katherine; Efreom, Yael

2005-01-01

50

The Achievement of Economically Disadvantaged Fifth Graders in Summer Enrichment Camp  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The achievement gap between economically disadvantaged students and their traditional counterparts has continued to be a problem in education. Based on cognitive constructivist theory and enrichment theory, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between scores on a high-stakes achievement test and participation in a summer…

Boulden, Laurie

2013-01-01

51

Making Ends Meet: Midlife and Older Women's Search for Economic Self-Sufficiency through Job Training and Employment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Midlife and older women are at an economic disadvantage relative to their male counterparts and younger women. Older women should be served by the nation's employment, training, and vocational programs. Interviews with participants and operators of employment and training programs identified six program components needed to serve older women: (1)…

Gregory, Vikki

52

Case Studies of Success: Supporting Academic Success for Students with High Potential from Ethnic Minority and Economically Disadvantaged Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The underrepresentation of ethnic minority and economically disadvantaged students in gifted education must be understood in terms of broader school contexts and practices. This qualitative study investigated how teachers and schools contributed to the academic success of minority students of high potential from economically disadvantaged

Tomlinson, Carol Ann; Jarvis, Jane M.

2014-01-01

53

RISING ECONOMIC INSECURITY AMONG SENIOR SINGLE WOMEN  

E-print Network

prospects of seniors over the past 40 years. However, the economic status of senior single women has neverRISING ECONOMIC INSECURITY AMONG SENIOR SINGLE WOMEN Tatjana Meschede Martha Cronin Laura Sullivan Thomas Shapiro A lmost half of single women over the age of 65 face the real crisis of outliving

Snider, Barry B.

54

Morbidity and Irish Catholic descent in Britain. Relating health disadvantage to socio-economic position.  

PubMed

In common with some other ethnic and religious minorities whose forebears migrated from their country of origin, Irish Catholics in Britain are less well off than the host population in terms of socio-economic position and health. Results are presented from a Scottish study, where Catholic religion of origin mainly indicates Irish ancestry, and it is estimated that about one-third of the population is of significant Irish descent. In this study, excess of physical and mental health problems and disability have previously been reported for those of Catholic background, particularly in the eldest cohort (aged 56 in 1988), and have not been fully explained by health-related behaviour. In this paper, we examine a number of key health measures, namely self-assessed health, number of symptoms in the month prior to interview, sadness or depression, disability and lung function, and various indicators of socio-economic position (head of household social class, main source of income, car ownership, housing tenure and school-leaving age), which all show Catholic disadvantage. Using longitudinal results from the 723 respondents who completed interviews both at sweeps one (1988) and three (1995), it is estimated that about half of the morbidity excess amongst middle-aged Catholics in Glasgow can be explained by socio-economic disadvantage. The health and socio-economic position of white minorities and disadvantaged religious minorities like Catholics in Scotland should be monitored by a co-ordinated information strategy. PMID:11266057

Abbotts, J; Williams, R; Ford, G

2001-04-01

55

American Women: Dimensions in Economic Interdependence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economic evolution of American women from the colonial era to 1984 is examined. The labor-scarce environment of the colonial era gave women access to any occupation they wished, e.g., field work, household manufacturing. With the Industrial Revolution, 1820-1865, the role of women changed. Industrialists hired women because they would work for…

Casperson, Luvonia J.

56

Intelligence of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families: Role of Parental Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of parental education status on the intelligence of children from economically disadvantaged families was examined.\\u000a One-hundred school going children aged 4 to 8 years from low income families were divided into 3 groups based on the level\\u000a of their parental education. The main outcome measure was the intelligence of the child. Significant differences (p?

Manjit Sidhu; Prahbhjot Malhi; Jagat Jerath

2010-01-01

57

A Comparison of Affective Changes Between Economically Disadvantaged and Advantaged Sixth Graders at a Resident Outdoor Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining the differences in affective outcomes of economically advantaged and disadvantaged 6th grade students attending a 5-day residential outdoor education program in the Toledo Ohio Public Schools, pre- and post-tests were administered to randomly selected samples of 25 advantaged males and females and 25 disadvantaged males and females.…

Fletcher, Sarah Ann

58

What Might Work? Exploring the Perceived Feasibility of Strategies to Promote Physical Activity among Women Living in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to investigate preferences for, perceived feasibility of and barriers to uptake of hypothetical physical activity promotion strategies among women from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 purposively recruited women (18-45 years) living in socioeconomically…

Cleland, Verity; Ball, Kylie

2013-01-01

59

34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false ...economically disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program? 403.114 Section 403.114...

2010-07-01

60

Longitudinal predictors of frequent vegetable and fruit consumption among socio-economically disadvantaged Australian adolescents.  

PubMed

Adequate vegetable and fruit consumption is necessary for preventing nutrition-related diseases. Socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume relatively few vegetables and fruits. However, despite nutritional challenges associated with socio-economic disadvantage, a minority of adolescents manage to eat vegetables and fruit in quantities that are more in line with dietary recommendations. This investigation aimed to identify predictors of more frequent intakes of fruits and vegetables among adolescents over a 2-year follow-up period. Data were drawn from 521 socio-economically disadvantaged (maternal education ?Year 10 of secondary school) Australian adolescents aged 12-15 years. Participants were recruited from 37 secondary schools and were asked to complete online surveys in 2004/2005 (baseline) and 2006/2007 (follow-up). Surveys comprised a 38-item FFQ and questions based on Social Ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental influences on diet. At baseline and follow-up, respectively, 29% and 24% of adolescents frequently consumed vegetables (?2 times/day); 33% and 36% frequently consumed fruit (?1 time/day). In multivariable logistic regressions, baseline consumption strongly predicted consumption at follow-up. Frequently being served vegetables at dinner predicted frequent vegetable consumption. Female sex, rarely purchasing food or drink from school vending machines, and usually being expected to eat all foods served predicted frequent fruit consumption. Findings suggest nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving eating behaviours among this at-risk population and should focus on younger adolescents, particularly boys; improving adolescent eating behaviours at school; and encouraging families to increase home availability of healthy foods and to implement meal time rules. PMID:24685764

Stephens, Lena D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

2014-07-01

61

Health, behavioral, cognitive, and social correlates of breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods.  

PubMed

Breakfast skipping is a potentially modifiable behavior that has negative effects on health and is socioeconomically patterned. This study aimed to examine the intrapersonal (health, behavioral, and cognitive) and social factors associated with breakfast skipping. Nonpregnant women (n = 4123) aged 18-45 y from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods throughout Victoria, Australia, completed a postal questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and cognitive and social factors were assessed by self-report. Breakfast skipping was defined in 2 ways: 1) "rarely/never" eating breakfast (n = 498) and 2) eating breakfast ?2 d/wk (includes those who rarely/never ate breakfast; n = 865). Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios and linear trends, adjusting for covariates. The P values for linear trends are reported below. Compared with breakfast consumers, women who reported rarely/never eating breakfast tended to have poorer self-rated health (P-trend < 0.001), be current smokers (P-trend < 0.001), pay less attention to health (P-trend < 0.001), not prioritize their own healthy eating when busy looking after their family (P-trend < 0.001), have less nutrition knowledge (P-trend < 0.001), and a lower proportion were trying to control their weight (P-trend < 0.020). When breakfast skipping was defined as eating breakfast ?2 d/wk, additional associations were found for having lower leisure-time physical activity (P-trend = 0.012) and less self-efficacy for eating a healthy diet (P-trend < 0.043). In conclusion, a range of intrapersonal and social factors were significantly associated with breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design and need for causal confirmation, programs that aim to promote breakfast consumption in this population group should consider targeting family-related barriers to healthy eating and nutrition knowledge. PMID:23986365

Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cleland, Verity J; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

2013-11-01

62

ShopSmart 4 Health – Protocol of a skills-based randomised controlled trial promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women  

PubMed Central

Background There is a need for evidence on the most effective and cost-effective approaches for promoting healthy eating among groups that do not meet dietary recommendations for good health, such as those with low incomes or experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage. This paper describes the ShopSmart 4 Health study, a randomised controlled trial conducted by Deakin University, Coles Supermarkets and the Heart Foundation, to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a skill-building intervention for promoting increased purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables amongst women of low socioeconomic position (SEP). Methods/design ShopSmart 4 Health employed a randomised controlled trial design. Women aged 18–60 years, holding a Coles store loyalty card, who shopped at Coles stores within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods and met low-income eligibility criteria were invited to participate. Consenting women completed a baseline survey assessing food shopping and eating habits and food-related behaviours and attitudes. On receipt of their completed survey, women were randomised to either a skill-building intervention or a wait-list control condition. Intervention effects will be evaluated via self-completion surveys and using supermarket transaction sales data, collected at pre- and post-intervention and 6-month follow-up. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Process evaluation will be undertaken to identify perceived value and effects of intervention components. Discussion This study will provide data to address the currently limited evidence base regarding the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of skill-building intervention strategies aimed at increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women, a target group at high risk of poor diets. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN48771770 PMID:23668896

2013-01-01

63

A Help or a Hindrance? The Impact of Job Training on the Employment Status of Disadvantaged Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the likelihood of obtaining employment for job training participants and nonparticipants and the types of jobs women obtained. Results for 150 treatment (job training) and 530 control cases show a differential training effect for full- and part-time workers and little or no effect of job training on a disadvantaged woman's probability of…

Leahey, Erin

2001-01-01

64

Women and the Choice to Study Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Underrepresentation of women in economics is documented in many studies. Investigation of its sources at the undergraduate level is examined through students' decisions to persist in economics, either beyond an introductory course or in their major choices. The authors add to the literature by analyzing students' decisions to take their first…

Emerson, Tisha L. N.; McGoldrick, KimMarie; Mumford, Kevin J.

2012-01-01

65

Women and Economic Development in Cameroon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a survey of written sources and perspectives of knowledgeable individuals, the report provides information on women's economic roles in Cameroon, and on aspects of social life which effect their economic performance. A description of the importance of traditional social systems and their evolution over the last 30 years follows a brief…

Bryson, Judy C.

66

Is neighbourhood obesogenicity associated with body mass index in women? Application of an obesogenicity index in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.  

PubMed

An aggregate index is potentially useful to represent neighbourhood obesogenicity. We created a conceptually-based obesogenicity index and examined its association with body mass index (BMI) among 3786 women (age 18-45y) in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Victoria, Australia. The index included 3 items from each of 3 domains: food resources (supermarkets, green grocers, fast food restaurants), recreational activity resources (gyms, pools, park space), and walkability (4+ leg intersections, neighbourhood walking environment, neighbourhood safety), with a possible range from 0 to 18 reflecting 0-2 for each of the 9 items. Using generalised estimating equations, neighbourhood obesogenicity was not associated with BMI in the overall sample. However, stratified analyses revealed generally positive associations with BMI in urban areas and inverse associations in rural areas (interaction p=0.02). These analyses are a first step towards combining neighbourhood characteristics into an aggregate obesogenicity index that is transparent enough to be adopted elsewhere and to allow examination of the relevance of its specific components in different settings. PMID:25155451

Tseng, Marilyn; Thornton, Lukar E; Lamb, Karen E; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

2014-11-01

67

The NASA Plan: To award eight percent of prime and subcontracts to socially and economically disadvantaged businesses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is NASA's intent to provide small disadvantaged businesses, including women-owned, historically black colleges and universities and minority education institutions the maximum practicable opportunity to receive a fair proportion of NASA prime and subcontracted awards. Annually, NASA will establish socioeconomic procurement goals including small disadvantaged business goals, with a target of reaching the eight percent level by the end of FY 1994. The NASA Associate Administrators, who are responsible for the programs at the various NASA Centers, will be held accountable for full implementation of the socioeconomic procurement plans. Various aspects of this plan, including its history, are discussed.

1990-01-01

68

Planning for empowerment in health promotion with socio-economically disadvantaged communities: Experiences with a small group approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socio-economically disadvantaged people seldom have influence on the decision making processes which affect their health. Health promo- tion interventions targeted towards these groups should therefore involve a process of empowerment, enabling these persons to increase control over the determinants of their health and to participate in actions that create a health-facilitating social environment. The present study examines the possibilities to

Van den Broucke; Hennion W; Vernaillen N

69

Core Attributes of Giftedness: A Foundation for Recognizing the Gifted Potential of Minority and Economically Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report explores the characteristics of giftedness in minority, language minority, and economically disadvantaged student populations and ways to assess giftedness in these populations. A qualitative content analysis is used to analyze gifted literature to determine characteristics of gifted children in general (n=262) and characteristics of…

Frasier, Mary M.; And Others

70

Growing up as "Man of the House": Adultification and Transition into Adulthood for Young Men in Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field…

Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

2014-01-01

71

Learning to (Dis)Engage? The Socialising Experiences of Young People Living in Areas of Socio-Economic Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young people are increasingly required to demonstrate civic engagement in their communities and help deliver the aspirations of localism and Big Society. Using an ecological systems approach this paper explores the experiences of different groups of young people living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage. Using volunteering as an example of…

Mason, Carolynne; Cremin, Hilary; Warwick, Paul; Harrison, Tom

2011-01-01

72

Learning to (Dis)Engage? The Socialising Experiences of Young People Living in Areas of SocioEconomic Disadvantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young people are increasingly required to demonstrate civic engagement in their communities and help deliver the aspirations of localism and Big Society. Using an ecological systems approach this paper explores the experiences of different groups of young people living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage. Using volunteering as an example of civic engagement it is shown that barriers and motivators for

Carolynne Mason; Hilary Cremin; Paul Warwick; Tom Harrison

2011-01-01

73

Health care workers' knowledge, attitudes and practices on tobacco use in economically disadvantaged dominican republic communities.  

PubMed

Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR) where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW) interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153) in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted with anonymous surveys. Approximately 70% (N = 107) completed the primary outcome item, asking about tobacco use at each encounter. Despite >85% strongly agreeing that they should ask about tobacco use at each encounter, only 48.6% reported doing so. While most (94.39%) strongly agreed that smoking is harmful, knowledge of specific health consequences varied from 98.13% for lung cancer to 41.12% for otitis media. Few received training in tobacco intervention (38.32%). Exploratory analyses revealed that always asking even if patients are healthy, strongly agreeing that tobacco causes cardiac disease, and always advising smoke-free homes were associated with always asking. Overall, results demonstrate a disconnect between HCW belief and practice. Though most agreed that always asking about tobacco was important, fewer than half did so. Gaps in HCW knowledge and practices suggest a need for education and policy/infrastructure support. To our knowledge, this is the first reported survey of DR HCWs regarding tobacco, and provides a foundation for future tobacco control in the DR. PMID:25872018

Prucha, Michael G; Fisher, Susan G; McIntosh, Scott; Grable, John C; Holderness, Heather; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; de Monegro, Zahíra Quiñones; Sánchez, José Javier; Bautista, Arisleyda; Díaz, Sergio; Ossip, Deborah J

2015-01-01

74

Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to provide greater access and support to academically talented students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Originally intended to provide financial support to lower income students, this NSF program also advocated that additional professional development and advising would be strategies to increase undergraduate persistence to graduation. This innovative program for economically disadvantaged students was extended in 2004 to include students from other disciplines including the physical and life sciences as well as the technology fields, and the new name of the program was Scholarships for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (S-STEM). The implementation of these two programs in Louisiana State University (LSU) has shown significant and measurable success since 2000, making LSU a Model University in providing support to economically disadvantaged students within the STEM disciplines. The achievement of these programs is evidenced by the graduation rates of its participants. This report provides details on the educational model employed through the CSEMS/S-STEM projects at LSU and provides a path to success for increasing student retention rates in STEM disciplines. While the LSU's experience is presented as a case study, the potential relevance of this innovative mentoring program in conjunction with the financial support system is discussed in detail.

Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

2012-10-01

75

What might work? Exploring the perceived feasibility of strategies to promote physical activity among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate preferences for, perceived feasibility of and barriers to uptake of hypothetical physical activity promotion strategies among women from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 purposively recruited women (18-45 years) living in socioeconomically disadvantaged urban and rural areas of Victoria, Australia. Participants indicated the most and least appealing of nine hypothetical strategies, strategies most likely to use and strategies most likely to increase physical activity. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic and interpretive content analyses were used to identify emergent common and contrasting themes. A community centre-based program with free childcare, the provision of a cleaner while physical activity is undertaken and a neighbourhood-based program were the three most popular strategies. Mobile-telephone-delivered text messages, an online interactive diary and subsidized gym memberships were considered least useful. Irrespective of the strategy, components of importance commonly identified were social support; being accountable to someone; having the option of a structured or flexible attendance design; integration of multiple strategies and financial considerations. Issues around trust and privacy and weight loss also emerged as important. The findings provide important insights for the development of physical activity programs targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged women. PMID:22987863

Cleland, Verity; Ball, Kylie

2013-04-01

76

Economically Disadvantaged Children’s Transitions Into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy  

PubMed Central

Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify family-based mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential school-based remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation of markers of economic disadvantage reduced math and reading testing gains across the primary grades. Such disparities were partially mediated by corresponding differences in children’s socioemotional problems, parenting stress, and parents’ human capital investments. These patterns appeared to be robust to observed and unobserved confounds. Various teacher qualifications and classroom practices were assessed as moderators of these family mediators, revealing teacher experience in grade level as a fairly consistent buffer against family-based risks for reading. PMID:20711417

Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.

2010-01-01

77

The social-emotional impact of instrumental music performance on economically disadvantaged South African students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent these findings hold true for disadvantaged students. The purpose of this study

Karendra Devroop

2012-01-01

78

Feasibility and validity of the structured attention module among economically disadvantaged preschool-age children.  

PubMed

Rooted in the theory of attention put forth by Mirsky, Anthony, Duncan, Ahearn, and Kellam (1991), the Structured Attention Module (SAM) is a developmentally sensitive, computer-based performance task designed specifically to assess sustained selective attention among 3- to 6-year-old children. The current study addressed the feasibility and validity of the SAM among 64 economically disadvantaged preschool-age children (mean age = 58 months; 55% female); a population known to be at risk for attention problems and adverse math performance outcomes. Feasibility was demonstrated by high completion rates and strong associations between SAM performance and age. Principal Factor Analysis with rotation produced robust support for a three-factor model (Accuracy, Speed, and Endurance) of SAM performance, which largely corresponded with existing theorized models of selective and sustained attention. Construct validity was evidenced by positive correlations between SAM Composite scores and all three SAM factors and IQ, and between SAM Accuracy and sequential memory. Value-added predictive validity was not confirmed through main effects of SAM on math performance above and beyond age and IQ; however, significant interactions by child sex were observed: Accuracy and Endurance both interacted with child sex to predict math performance. In both cases, the SAM factors predicted math performance more strongly for girls than for boys. There were no overall sex differences in SAM performance. In sum, the current findings suggest that interindividual variation in sustained selective attention, and potentially other aspects of attention and executive function, among young, high-risk children can be captured validly with developmentally sensitive measures. PMID:24564761

Bush, Hillary H; Eisenhower, Abbey; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Carter, Alice S

2015-01-01

79

Tobacco use in six economically disadvantaged communities in the Dominican Republic.  

PubMed

The Dominican Republic is a tobacco-growing country, and tobacco control efforts there have been virtually nonexistent. This study provides a first systematic surveillance of tobacco use in six economically disadvantaged Dominican Republic communities (two small urban, two peri-urban, two rural; half were tobacco growing). Approximately 175 households were randomly selected in each community (total N = 1,048), and an adult household member reported on household demographics and resources (e.g., electricity), tobacco use and health conditions of household members, and household policies on tobacco use. Poverty and unemployment were high in all communities, and significant gaps in access to basic resources such as electricity, running water, telephones/cell phones, and secondary education were present. Exposure to tobacco smoke was high, with 38.4% of households reporting at least one tobacco user, and 75.5% allowing smoking in the home. Overall, 22.5% reported using tobacco, with commercial cigarettes (58.0%) or self-rolled cigarettes (20.1%) the most commonly used types. Considerable variability in prevalence and type of use was found across communities. Overall, tobacco use was higher in males, illiterate groups, those aged 45 or older, rural dwellers, and tobacco-growing communities. Based on reported health conditions, tobacco attributable risks, and World Health Organization mortality data, it is estimated that at least 2,254 lives could potentially be saved each year in the Dominican Republic with tobacco cessation. Although it is expected that the reported prevalence of tobacco use and health conditions represent underestimates, these figures provide a starting point for understanding tobacco use and its prevalence in the Dominican Republic. PMID:18569759

Ossip-Klein, Deborah J; Fisher, Susan; Diaz, Sergio; Quiñones, Zahira; Sierra, Essie; Dozier, Ann; McIntosh, Scott; Guido, Joseph; Winters, Paul; Diaz, Omar; Armstrong, LaToya

2008-05-01

80

Perceived barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from disadvantaged neighborhoods: results from a focus groups assessment.  

PubMed

This study explored perceptions and experiences with barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from predominately African American, disadvantaged neighborhoods. Four focus groups (n = 28) were conducted between April and May 2008 with overweight or obese women (93% African American; 34.3 ± 8.9 years; body mass index [BMI] 40.4 ± 8.5). Individual, social, and environmental factors were frequently mentioned as barriers to exercise and healthy eating. Insults from strangers about their body size (e.g., from children or people at the gym), and feelings of intimidation and embarrassment about not being able to complete exercises due to their body size were described as barriers to exercise. Lack of support and pressure from family, friends, and co-workers were barriers to healthy eating; participants experienced pressure from family and friends to eat more and were told they did not need to lose weight. Participants discussed the importance of not losing their curves; this concern needs to be considered when developing weight control programs for African American women. The findings of this qualitative study guided the development of a weight loss intervention for women from disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:24617795

Baruth, Meghan; Sharpe, Patricia A; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Wilcox, Sara

2014-01-01

81

It Doesn't Happen Here: Eating Disorders in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Economically Disadvantaged, Urban College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulk of eating disorder studies have focused on white, middle-upper class women, excluding ethnically and economically diverse women and men. Accordingly, our knowledge of prevalence rates and risk factors is reliant on this narrow literature. To expand upon the current literature, we examined eating disorders in ethnically diverse low-income, urban college students. We surveyed 884 incoming freshmen during an

Katie Gentile; Chitra Raghavan; Valli Rajah; Katie Gates

2007-01-01

82

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN DEPARTMENT OF...ethnic origin, gender, disability, long-term residence in an environment...in the business world because of the...employment and business history, where applicable...shows disadvantage in entering into or...in the business world. (1)...

2011-10-01

83

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN DEPARTMENT OF...ethnic origin, gender, disability, long-term residence in an environment...in the business world because of the...employment and business history, where applicable...shows disadvantage in entering into or...in the business world. (1)...

2010-10-01

84

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN DEPARTMENT OF...ethnic origin, gender, disability, long-term residence in an environment...in the business world because of the...employment and business history, where applicable...shows disadvantage in entering into or...in the business world. (1)...

2014-10-01

85

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN DEPARTMENT OF...ethnic origin, gender, disability, long-term residence in an environment...in the business world because of the...employment and business history, where applicable...shows disadvantage in entering into or...in the business world. (1)...

2013-10-01

86

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN DEPARTMENT OF...ethnic origin, gender, disability, long-term residence in an environment...in the business world because of the...employment and business history, where applicable...shows disadvantage in entering into or...in the business world. (1)...

2012-10-01

87

Adverse Birth Outcomes in African American Women: The Social Context of Persistent Reproductive Disadvantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

African Americans have the highest rates of infant mortality and adverse birth outcomes of all major racial\\/ethnic groups in the United States. The long-standing nature of this disparity suggests the need to shift epidemiologic focus from individual-level risk factors to the larger social forces that shape disease risk in populations. In this article, the African American reproductive disadvantage is discussed

Tyan Parker Dominguez

2010-01-01

88

Women's Economic Empowerment: Realities and Challenges for the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite an international consensus on the importance of women's economic empowerment, expressed through such agreements as the Beijing Platform for Action, a recent study by the World Economic Forum noted that no country has yet managed to eliminate the gap between the economic participation of women and men. Even countries with high empowerment…

Taborga, Carolina

2008-01-01

89

Beyond reproductive health: listening to women about their health in disadvantaged Beirut neighborhoods.  

PubMed

In this article, we aim to contextualize gynecological problems within a broader health and social context, expanding the lens beyond reproductive health. Questionnaires were administered to 1,869 ever-married women aged 15 to 59 that included questions on living, general health, and gynecological problems. These questions were open-ended, allowing women to respond in their own words. Women reported a multitude of health problems, indicating competing priorities. Musculoskeletal complaints emerged as the most prevalent and most important health problem. One in four women reported a gynecological problem, mainly reproductive tract infections (RTIs), when asked directly. Selected quotes provide clues about the complex relationship between women's lives and health. PMID:17668356

Zurayk, Huda; Myntti, Cynthia; Salem, Mylene T; Kaddour, Afamia; El-Kak, Faysal; Jabbour, Samer

2007-08-01

90

Experience seeking abortion among unmarried young women in Bihar and Jharkhand, India: delays and disadvantages.  

PubMed

Studies suggest that the experiences of unmarried young women seeking abortion in India differ from those of their married counterparts, but the evidence is limited. Research was undertaken among nulliparous young women aged 15-24 who had abortions at the clinics of a leading NGO in Bihar and Jharkhand. Over a 14-month period in 2007-08, 246 married and 549 unmarried young abortion seekers were surveyed and 26 who were unmarried were interviewed in depth. Those who were unmarried were far more likely to report non-consensual sexual relations. As many as 25% of unmarried young women, compared to only 9% of married young women, had had a second trimester abortion. The unmarried were far more likely to report non-consensual sexual relations leading to pregnancy. They were also more likely to report such obstacles to timely abortion as failure to recognise the pregnancy promptly, exclusion from abortion-related decision-making, seeking confidentiality as paramount in selection of abortion facility, unsuccessful previous attempts to terminate the pregnancy, and lack of partner support. After controlling for background factors, findings suggest that unmarried young women who also experienced these obstacles were, compared to married young women, most likely to experience second trimester abortion. Programmes need to take steps to improve access to safe and timely abortion for unmarried young women. PMID:20541095

Jejeebhoy, Shireen J; Kalyanwala, Shveta; Zavier, A J Francis; Kumar, Rajesh; Jha, Nita

2010-05-01

91

Women with schizophrenia and broken marriages--doubly disadvantaged? Part II: family perspective.  

PubMed

Women with schizophrenia and broken marriages in India are disabled and stigmatised not only by the illness, but by the social attitudes to marital separation and divorce. We interviewed caregivers of 75 such women attending mental health facilities in Chennai in an attempt to understand their perceptions, attitudes and concerns about the future of their wards. Burden on the families was assessed using the Burden Assessment Schedule developed by us. Most families expressed intense distress and were especially concerned about the long-term future and security of these women. Care of the children of these women was an additional problem, in the face of total lack of any financial support from the husbands. The various sociocultural factors modulating the scene are also discussed. PMID:14626366

Thara, R; Kamath, Shanta; Kumar, Shuba

2003-09-01

92

Essays in development economics : incumbency disadvantage, political competition, and remedial education in India  

E-print Network

(cont.) The remedial education program hires young women from the community to provide remedial assistance to third and fourth grade children who have fallen behind their peers. The program is extremely cheap (five dollars ...

Linden, Leigh L., 1975-

2004-01-01

93

Behavior and weight correlates of weight-control efforts in Australian women living in disadvantage: The READI study  

PubMed Central

Background With increasing obesity rates worldwide, more and more people are actively attempting to lose weight or avoid weight gain, but relatively little is known about what specific behaviors comprise these efforts and which, if any, are associated with better weight control over time. Methods This paper reports relationships between body weight, weight-control efforts and related behaviors over a three-year period in 1,634 Australian women. The women were purposefully recruited from 80 disadvantaged neighborhoods in Victoria, Australia. Weight loss efforts were categorized as trying to lose weight, trying to prevent weight gain and no weight-control efforts. Behavioral correlates examined included different kinds of physical activity and consumption of a number of specific foods types. Results and discussion Self-reported body weight at baseline was higher in women trying to lose weight. Frequency of consumption of low energy density foods was positively associated with reported weight-control efforts, as was frequency of reported total and leisure-time physical activity. Longitudinal associations between changes in weight-control efforts and changes in behaviors were consistent with the cross-sectional findings. At three-year follow up, however, weight-control efforts were not associated with change in body weight. More detailed analyses of specific food choices suggested that part of the explanation of no effect of reported weight-control efforts and weight over time might be that people are not as well-informed as they should be about the energy density of some common foods. In particular, those reporting engagement in weight-control efforts reported reducing consumption of carbohydrate-containing foods such as bread and potatoes more than is justified by their energy content, while they reported increasing consumption of some high energy density foods (e.g., cheese and nuts). Conclusion It is tentatively concluded that women living in disadvantaged neighborhoods understand messages about weight-control (more activity and foods with lower fat and lower energy density) but that some foods eaten more by women engaged in weight control may reduce the effectiveness of these efforts. PMID:23621952

2013-01-01

94

"Planned" Teenage Pregnancy: Perspectives of Young Women from Disadvantaged Backgrounds in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reduction of teenage pregnancy has attracted much interest in research, practice and social policy. Little is known about teenagers who report their pregnancies as "planned." Forty-one in-depth interviews were undertaken, in six different parts of England, among young women who reported their pregnancy as "planned". The mean age at conception…

Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

2006-01-01

95

Same Landscape, Different Lens: Variations in Young People's Socio-Economic Experiences and Perceptions in Their Disadvantaged Working-Class Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I compare socio-economic experiences and community perceptions expressed by socially and economically disadvantaged young people with those of university students living in the same post-industrial community. I consider markers of distinction among these young people in relation to their family and educational experiences. I also…

Brann-Barrett, Mary Tanya

2011-01-01

96

Identifying solutions to increase participation in physical activity interventions within a socio-economically disadvantaged community: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background There is an urgent need to increase population levels of physical activity, particularly amongst those who are socio-economically disadvantaged. Multiple factors influence physical activity behaviour but the generalisability of current evidence to such ‘hard-to-reach’ population subgroups is limited by difficulties in recruiting them into studies. Also, rigorous qualitative studies of lay perceptions and perceptions of community leaders about public health efforts to increase physical activity are sparse. We sought to explore, within a socio-economically disadvantaged community, residents’ and community leaders’ perceptions of physical activity (PA) interventions and issues regarding their implementation, in order to improve understanding of needs, expectations, and social/environmental factors relevant to future interventions. Methods Within an ongoing regeneration project (Connswater Community Greenway), in a socio-economically disadvantaged community in Belfast, we collaborated with a Community Development Agency to purposively sample leaders from public- and voluntary-sector community groups and residents. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 leaders. Residents (n?=?113), of both genders and a range of ages (14 to 86 years) participated in focus groups (n?=?14) in local facilities. Interviews and focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic framework. Results Three main themes were identified: awareness of PA interventions; factors contributing to intervention effectiveness; and barriers to participation in PA interventions. Participants reported awareness only of interventions in which they were involved directly, highlighting a need for better communications, both inter- and intra-sectoral, and with residents. Meaningful engagement of residents in planning/organisation, tailoring to local context, supporting volunteers, providing relevant resources and an ‘exit strategy’ were perceived as important factors related to intervention effectiveness. Negative attitudes such as apathy, disappointing experiences, information with no perceived personal relevance and limited access to facilities were barriers to people participating in interventions. Conclusions These findings illustrate the complexity of influences on a community’s participation in PA interventions and support a social-ecological approach to promoting PA. They highlight the need for cross-sector working, effective information exchange, involving residents in bottom-up planning and providing adequate financial and social support. An in-depth understanding of a target population’s perspectives is of key importance in translating PA behaviour change theories into practice. PMID:24886604

2014-01-01

97

Perceived need for substance use treatment among young women from disadvantaged communities in Cape Town, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Initiation of treatment for substance use disorders is low among young women from disadvantaged communities in Cape Town, South Africa. Yet little is known about the factors that influence perceived need for treatment (a determinant of treatment entry) within this population. Methods Baseline data on 720 young, drug-using women, collected as part of a randomized field experiment were analyzed to identify predisposing, enabling and health need factors associated with perceived need for treatment. Results Overall, 46.0% of our sample perceived a need for treatment. Of these participants, 92.4% wanted treatment for their substance use problems but only 50.1% knew where to access services. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, we found significant main effects for ethnicity (AOR?=?1.54, 95% CI?=?1.05-1.65), income (AOR?=?0.96, 95% CI?=?0.93-0.99), anxiety (AOR?=?1.22, 95% CI?=?1.05-1.45), and not having family members with drug problems (AOR?=?1.45, 95% CI?=?1.05-2.04) on perceived need for treatment. When the sample was stratified by methamphetamine use, income (AOR?=?0.87, 95% CI?=?0.79-0.96), awareness of treatment services (AOR =1.84, 95% CI?=?1.03-3.27), anxiety (AOR =1.41, 95% CI?=?1.06-1.87) and physical health status (AOR?=?6.29, 95% CI?=?1.56-25.64) were significantly associated with perceived need for treatment among those who were methamphetamine-negative. No variables were significantly associated with perceived need for treatment among participants who were methamphetamine-positive. Conclusions A sizeable proportion of young women who could benefit from substance use treatment do not believe they need treatment, highlighting the need for interventions that enhance perceived need for treatment in this population. Findings also show that interventions that link women who perceive a need for treatment to service providers are needed. Such interventions should address barriers that limit young women’s use of services for substance use disorders. PMID:24708789

2014-01-01

98

Women at Work: Barriers to Economic Equality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the past 10 years have been marked by major gains for working women, the overall status of working women has improved very little. The profile of the working woman today is different from that of 25 years ago. Today over 44 million women work. Of these, 7 million belong to minority groups. Since 1930 families headed by women have tripled in…

Women Employed Inst., Chicago, IL.

99

Equitable Learning Outcomes: Supporting Economically and Culturally Disadvantaged Students in "Formative Learning Environments"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central and distinguishing thesis of social and cultural perspectives on outcome equity is that public school classrooms are culturally biased environments. Such environments disaffect children who arrive at school from the economic or cultural margin. The "formative learning environment" (FoLE) establishes and sustains legitimate…

Clark, Ian

2014-01-01

100

An Assessment of Cognitive Behavior of Economically Disadvantaged Young Adults in North Mississippi.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to determine the appropriateness of two conventional intelligence tests for assessing the ability of economically deprived young adults participating in job training programs by comparing their test results with those of the test standardization groups. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), and the Langmuir Oral Direction…

Wolfe, Lillian S.; And Others

101

Building Lectures and Building Bridges with Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is an empirical analysis of the first stage of an ongoing effort to introduce technology to enhance student learning in introductory corporate finance within a multi-campus and multi-mode regional Australian University. The engagement and performance of low socio-economic status (SES) students is of particular interest because…

Phillips, Peter; Loch, Birgit

2011-01-01

102

Economic disadvantage and transitional outcomes: a study of young people from low-income families in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

This study draws on data from focus groups involving 50 young people from low-income families in Hong Kong to investigate their school-to-work experiences. In line with the ecological–developmental perspective, our results show that contextual influences, including lower levels of parental involvement and lack of opportunities for further education or skill development, constrain both the formulation and pursuit of educational and career goals. In contrast, service use and supportive interactions with parents and non-family adults were found to help young people find a career direction and foster more adaptive transition. Furthermore, our results indicate a striking difference in intrapersonal agency and coping styles between youths who were attending further education or engaged in jobs with career advancement opportunities and those who were not. We discuss the implications of our findings, both for future research and for policy development to enhance the school-to-work transition of economically disadvantaged young people. PMID:25364087

Ngai, Steven Sek Yum; Cheung, Jacky Chau-Kiu; To, Siu-ming; Luan, Hui; Zhao, Ruiling

2014-01-01

103

The contemporary relevance of Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Women And Economics  

E-print Network

Charlotte Perkins Gilman's main theoretical work, Women and Economics, was largely forgotten after her death, and, despite its recovery as a feminist document, is usually ignored within mainstream sociological theory. Her work, however, contains...

Mastagni, Danee M

2000-01-01

104

Effects of service use, family social capital and school social capital on psychosocial development among economically disadvantaged secondary school students in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates factors conducive to the success of young people growing up with economic disadvantage. Previous studies often focused on the risks and difficulties experienced by this cohort of young people; however, little attempt has been made to examine factors that help them thrive or escape from adversity. It is with this consideration in mind that this study examines

Steven Sek-yum Ngai; Chau-kiu Cheung; Ngan-pun Ngai

2012-01-01

105

The medication Adherence and Blood Pressure Control (ABC) trial: A multi-site randomized controlled trial in a hypertensive, multi-cultural, economically disadvantaged population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Medication Adherence and BP Control Trial (ABC Trial) is a randomized, controlled, multi-site, medication adherence and blood pressure (BP) control trial in an economically disadvantaged and multi-cultural population of hypertensive patients followed in primary care practices. To date, no other such trial has been published in which objective measures of adherence (electronic pill bottles) were used to assess the

William Gerin; Jonathan N. Tobin; Joseph E. Schwartz; William Chaplin; Nina Rieckmann; Karina W. Davidson; Tanya M. Goyal; Juhee Jhalani; Andrea Cassells; Karina Feliz; Chamanara Khalida; Marleny Diaz-Gloster; Gbenga Ogedegbe

2007-01-01

106

The Healthy Toddlers Trial Protocol: An Intervention to Reduce Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity in Economically and Educationally Disadvantaged Populations  

PubMed Central

Background The number of overweight children in America has doubled to an estimated 10 million in the past 20 years. Establishing healthy dietary behaviors must begin early in childhood and include parents. The Healthy Toddlers intervention focuses on promoting healthy eating habits in 1- to 3-year-old children utilizing the Social Cognitive Theory and a learner-centered approach using Adult Learning principles. This Healthy Toddlers Trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial of an in-home intervention with economically and educationally disadvantaged mothers of toddlers. The intervention focuses on: (a) promoting healthy eating behaviors in toddlers while dietary habits are forming; and (b) providing initial evidence for the potential of Healthy Toddlers as a feasible intervention within existing community-based programs. Methods/Design This describes the study protocol for a randomized control trial, a multi-state project in Colorado, Michigan, and Wisconsin with economically and educationally disadvantaged mother-toddler dyads; toddlers are between 12 and 36 months. The Healthy Toddlers intervention consists of eight in-home lessons and four reinforcement telephone contacts, focusing on fruit, vegetable, and sweetened beverage consumption and parental behaviors, taught by paraprofessional instructors. Healthy Toddlers uses a randomized, experimental, short-term longitudinal design with intervention and control groups. In-home data collection (anthropometric measurements, feeding observations, questionnaires, 3-day dietary records) occurs at baseline, immediately following the intervention, and 6 months after the intervention. Main toddler outcomes include: a) increased fruit and vegetable consumption and decreased sweetened beverage consumption; and b) improved toddler-eating skills (self-feeding and self-serving). Main parent outcomes include: a) improved psychosocial attributes (knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, feeding style) related to child feeding; b) provision of a more positive mealtime physical environment (turning off the TV); and c) creation of a more positive mealtime social environment (sitting down together for meals). Discussion If this project is successful, the expected outcomes are that the intervention will be effective in helping toddlers develop healthy eating skills that contribute to improve overall health and development and to the prevention of obesity. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ACTRN12610000981022 PMID:21777452

2011-01-01

107

Attitudes Toward Changing Economic and Social Roles for Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudinal factors that hinder the economic and social advancement of women were investigated. Graduate students between the ages of 20 and 50 and enrolled in two southern institutions of higher learning were administered the Dolly-Bell Sex Discrimination Scale: Social and Economic Factors. Results indicate that sex discrimination is determined…

Bell, Margaret E.; And Others

108

Islamic Fundamentalism and Women's Economic Role: The Case of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly believed that Islamic fundamentalism is responsible for the low female employment rate in the Middle East and North Africa. I earlier presented evidence from Indonesia indicating that the deteriorating conditions of women's economic role in the 1990s was related to the economic circumstances of the Asian Crisis, not to the rise of political Islam (Bahranitash, 2002). In

Roksana Bahramitash

2003-01-01

109

The effectiveness of antenatal care programmes to reduce infant mortality and preterm birth in socially disadvantaged and vulnerable women in high-income countries: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Infant mortality has shown a steady decline in recent years but a marked socioeconomic gradient persists. Antenatal care is generally thought to be an effective method of improving pregnancy outcomes, but the effectiveness of specific antenatal care programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in socioeconomically disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women has not been rigorously evaluated. Methods We conducted a systematic review, focusing on evidence from high income countries, to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative models of organising or delivering antenatal care to disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women vs. standard antenatal care. We searched Medline, Embase, Cinahl, PsychINFO, HMIC, CENTRAL, DARE, MIDIRS and a number of online resources to identify relevant randomised and observational studies. We assessed effects on infant mortality and its major medical causes (preterm birth, congenital anomalies and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)) Results We identified 36 distinct eligible studies covering a wide range of interventions, including group antenatal care, clinic-based augmented care, teenage clinics, prenatal substance abuse programmes, home visiting programmes, maternal care coordination and nutritional programmes. Fifteen studies had adequate internal validity: of these, only one was considered to demonstrate a beneficial effect on an outcome of interest. Six interventions were considered 'promising'. Conclusions There was insufficient evidence of adequate quality to recommend routine implementation of any of the programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in disadvantaged/vulnerable women. Several interventions merit further more rigorous evaluation. PMID:21314944

2011-01-01

110

75 FR 10029 - Women-Owned Small Business Federal Contract Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...businesses by limiting women's ability to obtain...Minority Business Development Agency: Enhancing...economically disadvantaged women-owned small businesses...8(a) Business Development (BD) Program and...8(a) Business Development program, SBA's HUBZone program, the Women Owned Small...

2010-03-04

111

A school-based strategy to assess children's environmental exposures and related health effects in economically disadvantaged urban neighborhoods.  

PubMed

The School Health Initiative: Environment, Learning, Disease (SHIELD) study is a novel school-based investigation of children's environmental health in economically disadvantaged urban neighborhoods of Minneapolis. This article describes the study design and summarizes lessons learned about recruiting and monitoring this historically understudied population. The SHIELD study focused on measuring children's exposures to multiple environmental stressors [volatile organic chemicals (VOCs), environmental tobacco smoke, allergens, bioaerosols, metals, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), phthalates] and exploring related effects on respiratory health (e.g., lung function) and learning outcomes (e.g., standardized test scores, academic achievement). It involved intensive exposure monitoring, including environmental measurements inside and outside the children's schools and inside their homes, personal measurements with passive dosimeters worn by the children, and biological marker measurements in blood and urine. The SHIELD participants comprised a stratified random sample of 153 "index" children and 51 of their siblings enrolled in grades 2-5 at two adjacent elementary schools. The Minneapolis Public Schools (MPS) assisted with identifying, contacting, recruiting, and monitoring this population, which traditionally is difficult to study because families/children are highly mobile, speak a diversity of languages, frequently do not have a telephone, endure economic hardships, often do not trust researchers, and have a spectrum of unconventional lifestyles and living arrangements. Using a school-based approach, the overall SHIELD enrollment (response) rate was 56.7%, with a wide disparity between English-speaking (41.7%) and non-English-speaking (71.0%) families/children. Most children remained involved in the study through both monitoring sessions and exhibited an acceptable degree of compliance with study protocols, including providing blood and urine samples. Results indicate that it is both practical and affordable to conduct probability-based exposure studies in this population, but that it is also important to improve our understanding of factors (e.g., cultural, economic, psychological, social) affecting the willingness of families/children to participate in such studies, with special emphasis on developing cost-effective recruitment methods. PMID:11138660

Sexton, K; Greaves, I A; Church, T R; Adgate, J L; Ramachandran, G; Tweedie, R L; Fredrickson, A; Geisser, M; Sikorski, M; Fischer, G; Jones, D; Ellringer, P

2000-01-01

112

Count-Me-In For Women's Economic Independence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Count-Me-In For Women's Economic Independence is a national, nonprofit organization focused on raising money from women to be loaned to other women. Count-Me-In's goal is to collect donations of $5 from women around the country to be added to a national loan fund, which will be awarded to qualifying women for small business loans in amounts ranging between $5,000 and $10,000, as well as for scholarships for business training. Be sure to browse through the "what is count-me-in?" section; "follow your $5" details how these $5 contributions are turned into loans, and "the power of small loans" chronicles the ways in which business women have used their small loans from Count-Me-In.

113

Electronic Monitoring of Oral Therapies in Ethnically Diverse and Economically Disadvantaged Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Consequences of Low Adherence  

PubMed Central

Background To quantify adherence to oral therapies in ethnically diverse and economically disadvantaged patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using electronic medication monitoring, and to evaluate the clinical consequences of low adherence. Methods 107 patients with RA enrolled in a 2-year prospective cohort study agreed to have their oral RA drug therapy intake electronically monitored, with the Medication Events Monitoring System (MEMS®). Adherence to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and prednisone were determined as the percentage of days (or weeks for methotrexate) in which the patient took the correct dose as prescribed by the physician. Patient outcomes were assessed including the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ), the Disease Activity Index 28 (DAS28), quality of life and radiological damage using Sharp-van der Heijde scores. Results Adherence to the treatment regimen as determined by percent of correct doses was 64% for DMARDs and 70% for prednisone. Patients who had better mental health were statistically more likely to be adherent. Only 23 (21%) of the patients had an average adherence to DMARDs ? 80%. These patients showed significantly better disease activity scores across 2 years of follow-up than those who were less adherent (DAS28 3.3±1.3 vs. 4.1±1.2, p<0.02). Radiological scores were also worse in non-adherent patients at baseline and 12 months. Conclusions Only one fifth of the RA patients had an overall adherence of at least 80%. Less than two thirds of the prescribed DMARD doses were correctly taken. Adherent patients had lower disease activity and radiological damage scores across the 2 years of follow-up. PMID:23728826

Waimann, Christian A.; Marengo, Maria F.; de Achaval, Sofia; Cox, Vanessa L.; Garcia-Gonzalez, Araceli; Reveille, John D.; Richardson, Marsha N.; Almazor, Maria E. Suarez

2013-01-01

114

“Rulers ruled by women”: an economic analysis of the rise and fall of women’s rights in ancient Sparta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until modern times, most women possessed relatively few formal rights. The women of ancient Sparta were a striking exception.\\u000a Although they could not vote, Spartan women reportedly owned 40 percent of Sparta’s agricultural land, and enjoyed other rights\\u000a that were equally extraordinary. We offer a simple economic explanation for the Spartan anomaly. The defining moment for Sparta\\u000a was its conquest

Robert K. Fleck; F. Andrew Hanssen

2009-01-01

115

Economic Rationalism: Celebrity Placement in Women's Magazines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study re-examines Gandy's information subsidy in a contemporary magazine framework by exploring how subsidies are used to negotiate celebrity placement in women's magazines. The research utilizes in-depth interviews with six of the industry's most powerful magazine celebrity bookers. Findings suggest that editors exhibit self-monitoring qualities during subsidy discussions, particularly in relation to trust, flexibility, and mutual reliance. The additional

Elizabeth Hendrickson

116

Examining Alternative Measures of Social Disadvantage Among Asian Americans: The Relevance of Economic Opportunity, Subjective Social Status, and Financial Strain for Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socioeconomic position is often operationalized as education, occupation, and income. However, these measures may not fully\\u000a capture the process of socioeconomic disadvantage that may be related to morbidity. Economic opportunity, subjective social\\u000a status, and financial strain may also place individuals at risk for poor health outcomes. Data come from the Asian subsample\\u000a of the 2003 National Latino and Asian American

A. B. de Castro; Gilbert C. Gee; David T. Takeuchi

2010-01-01

117

Welfare Reform and Black Women's Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1996, the United States Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, placing emphasis on individuals to take responsibility for separating themselves from governmental dependence by becoming economically self-sufficient through employment. Using a qualitative approach, this study explored the experiences…

Alfred, Mary V.

2007-01-01

118

INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO PREPARING HOME ECONOMICS LEADERS FOR EMERGING PROGRAMS SERVING DISADVANTAGED YOUTH AND ADULTS. FINAL REPORT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PROJECT AIMED TO PREPARE PROFESSIONAL LEADERS TO DEVELOP FUNCTIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS FOR PERSONS HANDICAPPED BY SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS DIFFERENCES. PHASE I, THE PROFESSIONAL LEADER'S RESPONSIBILITIES WERE ANALYZED ACCORDING TO WHAT HE IS CURRENTLY DOING AND WHAT HE SHOULD DO. SUPERVISORS AND LEADERS OF PROGRAMS FOR THE DISADVANTAGED RATED…

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Coll. of Agriculture.

119

Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to…

Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

2012-01-01

120

Family migration and the economic status of women in Malaysia.  

PubMed

"The impact of family migration on women's economic position in a developing country setting is an area that has received relatively little research attention. Incorporating a lifetime perspective, this study makes use of the retrospective migration histories of husbands and wives from the second round of the Malaysian Family Life Survey to estimate how joint migration with the husband affects women's socioeconomic achievement. The findings show that family migration depresses the chances of working, but it does not significantly reduce socioeconomic attainment of those who do work. However, when a woman migrates with her husband she does forgo the substantial advantage she could have derived had she moved alone." PMID:12292875

Chattopadhyay, A

1997-01-01

121

Intimate partner violence and women's economic and non-economic activities in Minya, Egypt.  

PubMed

Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is widespread, but its implications for their economic and non-economic activities are understudied. Leveraging new data from 564 ever-married women aged 22–65 in rural Minya, Egypt, we estimated logistic regressions and zero-inflated negative binomial regressions to test spillover, compensation, and patriarchal bargaining theories about the influences of women's exposure to IPV on their engagement in and time spent on market, subsistence, domestic, and care work. Supporting compensation theory, exposures to lifetime, recent, and chronic physical or sexual IPV were associated with higher adjusted odds of performing market work in the prior month, and exposures to recent and chronic IPV were associated with higher adjusted odds of performing subsistence work in this period. Supporting compensation and patriarchal bargaining theories, exposures to recent and chronic IPV were associated with more time spent on domestic work in the prior day. Supporting spillover and patriarchal bargaining theories, exposures to lifetime IPV of all forms were associated with lower adjusted odds of performing mostly nonspousal care work in the prior day, and this association was partially mediated by women's generalized anxiety. Women in rural Minya who are exposed to IPV may escalate their housework to fulfill local norms of feminine domesticity while substituting economic activities for nonspousal care work to enhance their economic independence from violent partners. PMID:24659089

Yount, Kathryn M; Zureick-Brown, Sarah; salem, Rania

2014-06-01

122

Process evaluation for the FEeding Support Team (FEST) randomised controlled feasibility trial of proactive and reactive telephone support for breastfeeding women living in disadvantaged areas  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the feasibility, acceptability and fidelity of a feeding team intervention with an embedded randomised controlled trial of team-initiated (proactive) and woman-initiated (reactive) telephone support after hospital discharge. Design Participatory approach to the design and implementation of a pilot trial embedded within a before-and-after study, with mixed-method process evaluation. Setting A postnatal ward in Scotland. Sample Women initiating breast feeding and living in disadvantaged areas. Methods Quantitative data: telephone call log and workload diaries. Qualitative data: interviews with women (n=40) with follow-up (n=11) and staff (n=17); ward observations 2?weeks before and after the intervention; recorded telephone calls (n=16) and steering group meetings (n=9); trial case notes (n=69); open question in a telephone interview (n=372). The Framework approach to analysis was applied to mixed-method data. Main outcome measures Quantitative: telephone call characteristics (number, frequency, duration); workload activity. Qualitative: experiences and perspectives of women and staff. Results A median of eight proactive calls per woman (n=35) with a median duration of 5?min occurred in the 14?days following hospital discharge. Only one of 34 control women initiated a call to the feeding team, with women undervaluing their own needs compared to others, and breast feeding as a reason to call. Proactive calls providing continuity of care increased women's confidence and were highly valued. Data demonstrated intervention fidelity for woman-centred care; however, observing an entire breast feed was not well implemented due to short hospital stays, ward routines and staff–team–woman communication issues. Staff pragmatically recognised that dedicated feeding teams help meet women's breastfeeding support needs in the context of overstretched and variable postnatal services. Conclusions Implementing and integrating the FEeding Support Team (FEST) trial within routine postnatal care was feasible and acceptable to women and staff from a research and practice perspective and shows promise for addressing health inequalities. Trial registration ISRCTN27207603. The study protocol and final report is available on request. PMID:22535794

Craig, Leone; MacLennan, Graeme; Boyers, Dwayne; Vale, Luke

2012-01-01

123

Engaging women volunteers of high socioeconomic status in supporting socioeconomically disadvantaged tuberculosis patients in Chiang Rai, Thailand  

PubMed Central

Problem The 2008 tuberculosis (TB) surveillance of Chiang Rai Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand reported that 8.4% of Thai, 22.7% of hill tribe minority and 25% of migrant patients (n = 736) defaulted from treatment. Context TB patient management in Chiang Rai is complicated due to poverty and HIV stigma. A previous study shows unaffordable travel expense was one of the reasons of patient default. Action We engaged Chiang Rai women’s organizations whose members are of high socioeconomic status to support poor TB patients financially and socially. A group of women formed a team to support these TB patients (n = 192) by raising and sustaining funds and providing home visits (n = 37). TB surveillance and patient-fund register data were used to evaluate TB treatment outcomes. Outcome The success of TB treatment was significantly higher for patients receiving financial support (relative risk [RR]: 1.351; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–1.53; P < 0.000). Lower death rates in all groups were observed among patients receiving financial support. However, financial assistance alone did not improve treatment outcomes for migrant patients. Thirty-seven patients (25 Thai, eight hill tribe, four migrants) who were visited by women volunteers at home achieved 95% TB treatment success. Discussion It is possible to involve volunteers to support poor TB patients. Willingness to support TB patients was driven by presenting provincial TB epidemiology information, research data on the experience of poor patients and the inspiring experiences of other women volunteers. Future research should investigate the reasons for the high treatment success among patients who received home visits. PMID:23908953

Luangjina, Sarmwai; Nedsuwan, Supalert; Kantipong, Pacharee; Wongyai, Jirapohn; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu

2013-01-01

124

Improving overall grade performance and increasing student re-tention rates for economically disadvantaged students in Austin  

E-print Network

.neighborhoodlonghorns.org #12;Asian American/Pacific Islander 3% Black/African American 15% Caucasian 6% Hispanic/Latino/a 75% Other 1% 3% Asian American/Pacific Islander 15% Black/African American 6% Caucasian 75% Hispanic necessary to make the dream of a college education a reality." Christine Plonsky, Director of Women

Texas at Austin, University of

125

Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods.  

PubMed

Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower-income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (n = 196, 25-51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans-fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in model 2, but most were not significant in model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods. PMID:23890353

Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

2013-08-01

126

Gaps in the Digital Divide in Higher Education: Economically Disadvantaged Students and a Lack of Access and Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The digital divide between students who have access to and skills with information technology resources and those who do not is growing wider. This dissertation documents a quantitative study on the effect and relationship between age, gender, ethnicity and low economic status on students' access to computers and the Internet, as well as…

Chappell, Timothy P.

2012-01-01

127

The Relationship between Residential Land Use Patterns and the Educational Outcomes of Economically Disadvantaged Students in Texas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disparate outcomes resulting from economic segregation in public primary schools have been the subject of much debate and litigation. Little research, however, examines whether negative outcomes may be exacerbated by inequities in the distribution of housing across metropolitan areas. This article explores connections between residential land use…

Van Zandt, Shannon; Wunneburger, Douglas F.

2011-01-01

128

Economic Return From the Women’s Health Initiative Estrogen Plus Progestin Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background The findings of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) estrogen plus progestin (E+P) trial led to a substantial reduction in use of combined hormone therapy (cHT) among postmenopausal women in the United States. The economic effect of this shift has not been evaluated relative to the trial’s $260 million cost (2012 U.S. dollars). Objective To estimate the economic return from the WHI E+P trial. Design Decision model to simulate health outcomes for a “WHI scenario” with observed cHT use and a “no-WHI scenario” with cHT use extrapolated from the pretrial period. Data Sources Primary analyses of WHI outcomes, peer-reviewed literature, and government sources. Target Population Postmenopausal women in the United States, aged 50 to 79 years, who did not have a hysterectomy. Time Horizon 2003 to 2012. Perspective Payer. Intervention Combined hormone therapy. Outcome Measures Disease incidence, expenditure, quality-adjusted life-years, and net economic return. Results of Base-Case Analysis The WHI scenario resulted in 4.3 million fewer cHT users, 126 000 fewer breast cancer cases, 76 000 fewer cardiovascular disease cases, 263 000 more fractures, 145 000 more quality-adjusted life-years, and expenditure savings of $35.2 billion. The corresponding net economic return of the trial was $37.1 billion ($140 per dollar invested in the trial) at a willingness-to-pay level of $100 000 per quality-adjusted life-year. Results of Sensitivity Analysis The 95% CI for the net economic return of the trial was $23.1 to $51.2 billion. Limitation No evaluation of indirect costs or outcomes beyond 2012. Conclusion The WHI E+P trial made high-value use of public funds with a substantial return on investment. These results can contribute to discussions about the role of public funding for large, prospective trials with high potential for public health effects. Primary Funding Source National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. PMID:24798522

Roth, Joshua A.; Etzioni, Ruth; Waters, Teresa M.; Pettinger, Mary; Rossouw, Jacques E.; Anderson, Garnet L.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Hlatky, Mark; Johnson, Karen C.; Ramsey, Scott D.

2014-01-01

129

CKD in disadvantaged populations.  

PubMed

The increased burden of CKD in disadvantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health-care disparities and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biologic predisposition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expansion of the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expansion of deceased-donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of WKD 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to ESRD, by increased community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities. PMID:25635713

Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Jha, Vivekanand

2015-02-01

130

Women's economic outcomes, gender inequality and public policy: findings from the Luxembourg Income Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past two decades, many researchers have used the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) data to analyse women's economic status, or economic gender inequality, across the industrialized countries. Researchers concerned with labour market out- comes have concluded that: (i) women's labour market status lags men's in nearly every LIS country and time period; (ii) motherhood is a consequential factor nearly

Janet C. Gornick

2004-01-01

131

Self-reported depression is increasing among socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents – repeated cross-sectional surveys from Finland from 2000 to 2011  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescent depression is more common in lower socio-economic groups. Whether this pattern has changed over time, is not known. We examined the prevalence of self-reported depression and its changes in socio-economic groups from 2000 to 2011 among Finnish adolescents. Methods Data were based on classroom surveys every second year from 2000–2001 to 2010–2011 using nationwide samples of 14–16-year old Finns (n?=?618,084). Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires including questions on health, health behaviours, and school experiences. Depression was measured with a Finnish modification of the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory, and divided into no, mild, moderate and severe depression. The association between depression and the social background (parents’ education and employment) over time was studied using a multinomial regression analysis. Results The prevalence of self-reported severe depression slightly increased from 2000–2001 to 2010–2011 in girls. In boys a slight increase was observed when adjusting for background variables. The differences in the prevalence of depression between the social background groups persisted over the entire study period. In both sexes, severe depression nearly doubled among those adolescents whose parents were unemployed and had a low education level; among boys, the prevalence was 6.5% in 2000–2001 and 12.8% in 2010–2011, and among girls 6.4% and 11.4% respectively. Conclusion The largest increases in prevalence of severe depression are seen among socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents. This suggests that inequalities in mental health may become an increasing concern. PMID:24775269

2014-01-01

132

Voices of Afghan women: Human rights and economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary Afghanistan provides a good case study for looking at the growing demand for women's rights within a tribal, Islamic and modernizing framework. As was explicated by three Afghan women interviewed at a conference in Italy in 2001, and additional women in Kabul in 2003, human rights for all people in Afghanistan, and specifically for women, can only be ensured

Huma Ahmed-ghosh

2006-01-01

133

Nonmetropolitan Elderly Women: A Portrait of Economic Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women are a majority of elders in America, and they face a greater risk of being poor. This article examines the poverty status of elders, paying special attention to the circumstances of elderly women in nonmetropolitan areas. The oldest women, minorities, divorced or separated women, and widows are particularly likely to be or become poor in old age in both

Diane K. McLaughlin; Karen C. Holden

1993-01-01

134

Economic solvency in the context of violence against women: a concept analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this concept analysis is to define economic solvency in the context of violence against women. Poverty, or lack of resources, is often discussed as a risk factor for intimate partner violence. The concept of economic solvency, which may be a protective factor for women, is less often discussed and not well defined. Databases searched for the analysis included EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PubMed and Gender Watch. The Rodgers evolutionary method was used to perform the concept analysis. A total of 134 articles were retrieved, using the specified search terms 'economic solvency and women', 'economic self-reliance and women' and 'economic self-sufficiency and women'. Articles were included if they were peer reviewed, contained the keywords with sufficient context to determine the author's intended meaning, and focused on women only or contrasted men to women. Thirty-five articles were used in the concept analysis. The definition of economic solvency drawn from the concept analysis is: a long-term state that occurs when there is societal structure that supports gender equity and external resources are available and can be used by a woman who has necessary human capital, sustainable employment and independence. Just as poverty and violence are cyclical, so are economic solvency and empowerment of women. To decrease women's risk of intimate partner violence around the world and further improve the status of women, we recommend continued research on economic solvency, including the individual, family, community and societal resources required to obtain economic solvency and the human capital characteristics needed for sustainability. PMID:24628877

Gilroy, Heidi; Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith

2015-03-01

135

The Conversation and Company of Educated Women. A Colloquy on Home Economics Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers in this publication are the result of a symposium assessing the role of home economics in women's education. In her paper entitled "The Human Sciences and Home Economics: An Emerging Conversation," Francine H. Hultgren questions the possibilities for home economics within the human sciences. "Hestian Hermeneutics: A Lens of Analysis for…

Peterat, Linda, Ed.

136

Gender and sexual economics: do women view sex as a female commodity?  

PubMed

In the study reported here, data from implicit and behavioral choice measures did not support sexual economics theory's (SET's) central tenet that women view female sexuality as a commodity. Instead, men endorsed sexual exchange more than women did, which supports the idea that SET is a vestige of patriarchy. Further, men's sexual advice, more than women's, enforced the sexual double standard (i.e., men encouraged men more than women to have casual sex)-a gender difference that was mediated by hostile sexism, but also by men's greater implicit investment in sexual economics. That is, men were more likely to suppress female sexuality because they resisted female empowerment and automatically associated sex with money more than women did. It appears that women are not invested in sexual economics, but rather, men are invested in patriarchy, even when it means raising the price of sexual relations. PMID:24855018

Rudman, Laurie A; Fetterolf, Janell C

2014-07-01

137

Exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and associated health risks of socio-economically disadvantaged population in a "hot spot" in Camden, New Jersey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To address disparities in health risks associated with ambient air pollution for racial/ethnic minority groups, this study characterized personal and ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a suspected hot spot of air pollution - the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), and an urban reference community - the Copewood/Davis Streets (CDS) neighborhood in Camden, New Jersey. Both are minority-dominant, impoverished communities. We collected 24-h integrated personal air samples from 54 WFS residents and 53 CDS residents, with one sample on a weekday and one on a weekend day during the summer and winter seasons of 2004-2006. Ambient air samples from the center of each community were also collected simultaneously during personal air sampling. Toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (TEX) presented higher (p < 0.05) ambient levels in WFS than in CDS, particularly during weekdays. A stronger association between personal and ambient concentrations of MTBE and TEX was found in WFS than in CDS. Fourteen to forty-two percent of the variation in personal MTBE, hexane, benzene, and TEX was explained by local outdoor air pollution. These observations indicated that local sources impacted the community air pollution and personal exposure in WFS. The estimated cancer risks resulting from two locally emitted VOCs, benzene and ethylbenzene, and non-cancer neurological and respiratory effects resulting from hexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes exceeded the US EPA risk benchmarks in both communities. These findings emphasized the need to address disparity in health risks associated with ambient air pollution for the socio-economically disadvantaged groups. This study also demonstrated that air pollution hot spots similar to WFS can provide robust setting to investigate health effects of ambient air pollution.

Wu, Xiangmei (May); Fan, Zhihua (Tina); Zhu, Xianlei; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Weisel, Clifford P.; Lioy, Paul J.

2012-09-01

138

Exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and associated health risks of socio-economically disadvantaged population in a “hot spot” in Camden, New Jersey  

PubMed Central

To address disparities in health risks associated with ambient air pollution for racial/ethnic minority groups, this study characterized personal and ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a suspected hot spot of air pollution – the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), and an urban reference community – the Copewood/Davis Streets (CDS) neighborhood in Camden, New Jersey. Both are minority-dominant, impoverished communities. We collected 24-h integrated personal air samples from 54 WFS residents and 53 CDS residents, with one sample on a weekday and one on a weekend day during the summer and winter seasons of 2004–2006. Ambient air samples from the center of each community were also collected simultaneously during personal air sampling. Toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (TEX) presented higher (p < 0.05) ambient levels in WFS than in CDS, particularly during weekdays. A stronger association between personal and ambient concentrations of MTBE and TEX was found in WFS than in CDS. Fourteen to forty-two percent of the variation in personal MTBE, hexane, benzene, and TEX was explained by local outdoor air pollution. These observations indicated that local sources impacted the community air pollution and personal exposure in WFS. The estimated cancer risks resulting from two locally emitted VOCs, benzene and ethylbenzene, and non-cancer neurological and respiratory effects resulting from hexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes exceeded the US EPA risk benchmarks in both communities. These findings emphasized the need to address disparity in health risks associated with ambient air pollution for the socio-economically disadvantaged groups. This study also demonstrated that air pollution hot spots similar to WFS can provide robust setting to investigate health effects of ambient air pollution. PMID:25674036

Wu, Xiangmei (May); Fan, Zhihua (Tina); Zhu, Xianlei; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Weisel, Clifford P.; Lioy, Paul J.

2015-01-01

139

Marginalia: Women in the Academic Workforce.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looks at the function and status of women faculty at colleges and universities in the United States. Focuses on how the adjunct faculty position when used as an economizing strategy by administrators places women in permanent disadvantaged and dead-end positions. Reviews adjunct faculty organizational efforts to make demands for pay equity and…

Cadet, Nancy

1989-01-01

140

Economic costs of residential substance abuse treatment for pregnant and parenting women and their children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides basic information about the economic cost of substance abuse treatment provided in 39 demonstration projects funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, in the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, under its Residential Women and Children and Pregnant and Postpartum Women (RWC\\/PPW) programs. It integrates data assembled in two studies, a study of annual project

Kenneth Burgdorf; Mary Layne; Tracy Roberts; Dan Miles; James M. Herrell

2004-01-01

141

Energy and women's economic empowerment: Rethinking the benefits of improved cookstove use in rural India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International development organizations have recently ramped up efforts to promote the use of improved cookstoves (ICS) in developing countries, aiming to reduce the harmful environmental and public health impacts of the burning of biomass for cooking and heating. I hypothesize that ICS use also has additional benefits---economic and social benefits---that can contribute to women's economic empowerment in the developing world. To explore the relationship between ICS use and women's economic empowerment, I use Ordinary Least Squares and Logit models based on data from the India Human Development Survey (IHDS) to analyze differences between women living in households that use ICS and those living in homes that use traditional cookstoves. My regression results reveal that ICS use has a statistically significant and negative effect on the amount of time women and girls spend on fuel collection and a statistically significant and positive effect on the likelihood of women's participation in side businesses, but does not have a statistically significant effect on the likelihood of lost productivity. My analysis shows promise that in addition to health and environmental benefits, fuel-efficient cooking technologies can also have social and economic impacts that are especially beneficial to women. It is my hope that the analysis provided in this paper will be used to further the dialogue about the importance of women's access to modern energy services in the fight to improve women's living standards in the developing world.

Seaward, James Nicholas

142

Economic and demographic effects on working women in Latin America.  

PubMed

This analysis of women's work conditions in Latin America includes a description of general trends in female labor force participation in 15 Latin American countries based on census data between 1950 and 1990. Also examined are pay differentials by gender and whether gender alone or individual characteristics of women workers accounted for the sex-wage gap. More extensive treatment is available in the author's other 1992 publications. Trends indicate that marriage and children were important factors determining whether women were in the labor force or not. The probability of being in the labor force was reduced by 50% for married women, and each child reduced the probability by 5%. When marriage and children were controlled for, age had a positive effect on probability of participation. Urban female heads of household had a positive effect on women's labor force participation. The higher a woman's educational qualification, the greater the probability of being in the work force. Earnings increased with increased educational level. An increase of 1 year of schooling for women contributed to an increase in female earnings of 13.1. Investment in education for women has a higher yield for women than for men. Policies that directly or indirectly improve women's employment opportunities, particularly when families are being formed, can have wide distributional effects. Also unresolved was an explanation for why female participation increased during periods of recession and why women are rewarded more for educational effort than men. The suggestion was that public sector employment, which included many women in the labor force, is distorting results. PMID:12286863

Psaharopoulos, G; Tzannatos, Z

1993-01-01

143

The Stigma of Women's Weight: Social and Economic Realities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the literature on weight and social stigma. It argues that obese women are both held accountable for their weight and rejected on account of their weight. Secondly, it presents evidence that obese women become downwardly socially mobile because of their weight. Finally, it points to some directions that are necessary for western society to cease its obsession

Esther D. Rothblum

1992-01-01

144

Women's economic roles and child survival: the case of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides evidence that women's employment, in spite of its other benefits, probably has one crucial adverse consequence: a higher level of child mortality than is found among women who do not work. We examine various intermediate mechanisms for this relationship and conclude that a shortage of time is one of the major reasons for this negative relation between

Alaka Malwade Basu; Kaushik Basu

1991-01-01

145

Kenyan women in physics: Overcoming cultural, economic, and professional challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efforts to attract, retain, and improve the status of girls and women in Kenya to the sciences, in particular physics, are outlined. Areas in which positive change has been observed are noted. Issues that still need to be addressed to realize the full potential of women undertaking physics are discussed.

Baki, Paul; Kasina, Angeline; Nyamwandha, Cecilia; Kawira, Millien; Mburu, Jane; King'ori, Gladys; Kahonge, Teresia; Gichana, Zubeda

2013-03-01

146

Understanding the social and economic contexts surrounding women engaged in street-level prostitution.  

PubMed

Prostitution involves the exchange of sexual services for economic compensation. Due to the sexual promiscuity surrounding prostitution, women involved in prostitution constitute a high-risk group for contracting and transmitting STDs, including HIV. Prostitution is not only a public health concern, but also an economic one. Cities throughout the United States spent an average of $7.5 to $16 million per year enforcing prostitution laws and addressing negative outcomes associated with prostitution. Thus, women involved in prostitution are a cause for concern from both public health and economic perspectives. However, little is known about why women remain in this type of behavior given the risks prostitution presents, and even less is known about how to intervene and interrupt the complex cycle of prostitution. Thus, the purpose of this study was to understand what factors contribute to a woman's decision to remain in prostitution. A series of interviews were conducted with 12 women engaged in street-level prostitution. Results of the study revealed that drug use not only spurs entry into prostitution, but also contributes to the tenure of prostitution. Further, social support and economic stability are plausible reasons for women remaining in prostitution. These findings lead us to recommendations for policy and program development. Women involved in prostitution are a highly marginalized population, rarely recognized as individuals with life histories. Understanding why women remain in prostitution is important, because until these determinants are known, intervention programs designed to interrupt the cycle, and ultimately prevent prostitution, cannot be formulated. PMID:21142598

Murphy, Lyn Stankiewicz

2010-12-01

147

Ethics, equity, and economics: a primer on women in medicine.  

PubMed

Women account for more than 70% of physician assistant (PA) students, 62% of practicing PAs, and 57% of faculty in PA programs. About half of all US medical students, 30% of actively practicing physicians, and 37% of faculty at academic medical centers are female. However, women in medicine are paid less than men for equal work effort and achieve fewer leadership positions within academia and medicine. Neglecting the skills and talents of women may lead to a workforce that fails to represent our patient and student populations. PMID:24758976

Essary, Alison C; Coplan, Bettie

2014-05-01

148

Women, Fertility and Economics: Fifty Years of Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a systematic review of the scientific literature on fertility and its relationship with economics. We explore theoretical and empirical frameworks developed in the last fifty years, emphasizing on the classical (Becker, Easterling) and unorthodox approaches (Bongaarts, Iannaccone, Lehrer). This literature review focused on journals of economics, sociology and demography indexed in the Journal Storage database (JSTOR), Elsevier’s

Felipe Del Río; Nelson Alvis; Martha Yánez; Raúl Quejada; Karina Acevedo

2010-01-01

149

The relationship between socio-economic inequalities, intimate partner violence and economic abuse: a national study of women in the Philippines.  

PubMed

Economic abuse against women has for too long remained a relatively 'unseen' part of interpersonal violence, in spite of intimate partner violence (IPV) being a public health problem. Most studies on economic abuse derive especially from the USA and amongst women in shelters, and their findings are not easily generalisable to low-middle-income countries. Socio-economic inequalities render women vulnerable to control and risk of abuse. We investigated the role of socio-economic inequalities in the association between IPV and economic abuse. Logistic regression analyses were performed on cross-sectional data from a nationally representative sample of 8478 women aged 15-49 years in the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys. Results indicated strong positive associations between both physical IPV and emotional IPV and all four forms of economic abuse. Measures of socio-economic inequalities and other covariates such as no education, primary education, unemployment and justifying wife beating were also statistically significant. Findings suggest the increased need for health care practitioners to include economic abuse during the assessment of and response to IPV, the implementation of a multidimensional approach to providing tangible support and women-centred responses in reported cases of economic abuse, as well as measures that enhance socio-economic equality and increase economic opportunities for women. PMID:24881467

Antai, Diddy; Antai, Justina; Anthony, David Steven

2014-01-01

150

Key Findings on the Economic Status of Women in North Carolina  

E-print Network

(IWPR), The Status of Women in North Carolina, shows that many of North Carolina’s women are vulnerable to challenges such as unemployment, a persistent wage gap, poverty, and the high cost of child care. In addition, women in the state experience stubborn disparities in opportunities and outcomes— disparities that exist among women of different race and ethnic groups as well as among women from various geographic areas within the state. Addressing these challenges and disparities is essential to promoting the well-being and vibrancy of North Carolina’s many communities. When women thrive, whole communities and regions thrive as well. The forthcoming report provides critical data to identify both areas of progress for women in North Carolina and places where additional improvements are still needed. i The report analyzes key issues—such as employment and earnings, economic security and poverty, health and well-being, and political participation— that profoundly affect the lives of women in North Carolina. It presents data that can serve as a resource for advocates, researchers, community leaders, policymakers, and others who seek to analyze and discuss community investments, program initiatives, and public policies that will lead to positive change for women in the state of North Carolina and nationwide. The study is funded by the North Carolina Council for Women, the

But The

2012-01-01

151

Divorced women at retirement: projections of economic well-being in the near future.  

PubMed

The Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) data system projects retirement income for persons retiring in the 1990s through 2020. Using those data, we examine the economic well-being of divorced women at retirement. The MINT data system improves upon previous estimates of Social Security benefits by: Measuring and projecting years of marriage to determine if the 10-year requirement has been met, Projecting lifetime earnings until retirement and eligibility for Social Security retirement benefits, and Estimating lifetime earnings of former spouses. MINT also makes independent projections of each retiree's income from pensions, assets, and earnings (for working beneficiaries). As a result of changes in marital patterns, MINT projects that the proportion of women who are divorced will increase. At the same time, the proportion of those women who are eligible for auxiliary benefits is projected to decrease, for two main reasons. First, changes in women's earnings and work patterns result in more women receiving retired-worker benefits based on their own earnings. Second, an increased number of divorced women will not meet the 10-year marriage requirement for auxiliary benefits. Despite the projected decrease over time in eligibility rates for auxiliary benefits, the level of Social Security benefits is projected to change little between the older and younger birth cohorts of divorced women entering retirement. According to the MINT data, the most vulnerable of divorced women will be those who have not met the 10-year marriage requirement. Poverty rates will be higher for them than for all other divorced women. This group of divorced women is projected to grow as more and more women divorce from shorter marriages. With more women divorcing and with fewer divorced women meeting the 10-year marriage requirement, the proportion of economically vulnerable aged women will increase when the baby boom retires. Further research is warranted on this long neglected subject. Analyses of divorced women's economic well-being by major socioeconomic characteristics such as race and ethnicity and education are of particular interest. Such analyses can be supported by the MINT data system. PMID:11439704

Butrica, B A; Iams, H M

2000-01-01

152

Sex Preferences, Marital Dissolution and the Economic Status of Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American society is confronting the consequences of increase in divorce rates. There is substantial increase in households that are headed by a single female. The possible reasons for the rise in divorces and the labor market outcomes for women are analyzed. It is also noted that if the first-born is a girl, the marriage is less likely to…

Bedard, Kelly; Deschenes, Olivier

2005-01-01

153

Understanding the Gender Gap: An Economic History of American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a unique set of data drawn from the US census, statistics, city directories, and other sources, the author looks at the differences between men and women in the US labour force. She shows that the `gender gap' in income and job level that has existed throughout history cannot be explained simply as a matter of sex discrimination, nor as

Claudia Goldin

1990-01-01

154

Why do some socioeconomically disadvantaged women eat better than others? An investigation of the personal, social and environmental correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper was to examine the contribution of individual, social and environmental factors to predicting fruit and vegetable consumption among women of low socioeconomic position (SEP). An Australian community sample of 355 women of low SEP provided survey data on sociodemographic information, diet (fruit and vegetable consumption), and various cognitive, behavioural, social and perceived environmental influences on

Lauren Williams; Kylie Ball; David Crawford

2010-01-01

155

Disadvantaged populations in maternal health in China who and why?  

PubMed Central

Background China has made impressive progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for maternal and reproductive health, but ensuring that progress reaches all segments of the population remains a challenge for policy makers. The aim of this review is to map disadvantaged populations in terms of maternal health in China, and to explain the causes of these inequities to promote policy action. Methods We searched PUBMED, Popline, Proquest and WanFang and included primary studies conducted in mainland China. Experts were also contacted to identify additional studies. Disadvantaged populations in terms of MDG 5 and the reasons for this disadvantage explored by authors were identified and coded based on the conceptual framework developed by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Results In China, differences in maternal health service utilization and the maternal mortality ratio among different income groups, and among regions with different socio-economic development still exist, although these differences are narrowing. Groups with low levels of education and ethnic minorities utilize maternal health care less frequently and experience higher maternal mortality, although we could not determine whether these differences have changed in the last decade. Rural-to-urban migrants use maternal health care and contraception to a lower extent than permanent residents of cities, and differential maternal mortality shows a widening trend among these groups. Gender inequity also contributes to the disadvantaged position of women. Intermediary factors that explain these inequities include material circumstances such as long distances to health facilities for women living in remote areas, behavioral factors such as traditional beliefs that result in reduced care seeking among ethnic minorities, and health system determinants such as out-of-pocket payments posing financial barriers for the poor. Conclusions Inequity in maternal health continues to be an issue worthy of greater programmatic and monitoring efforts in China. PMID:23561030

Yuan, Beibei; Qian, Xu; Thomsen, Sarah

2013-01-01

156

Women’s employment and union dissolution in a changing socio-economic context in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effect of women’s employment on the risk of union disruption within the centrally planned economy and transition period in Russia. The empirical part is based on two retrospective surveys conducted in Russia in 2004\\/2005, covering the years 1967-2004. These are analyzed using hazard regression. The results show that within two periods (1967-1991 and 1992-2004) the risk

Magdalena M. Muszynska

2008-01-01

157

The Economic Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse for Adult Lesbian Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study extends investigation of the long-term consequences of child sexual abuse into the workplace and considers the economic effects on Lesbian women as determined by the National Lesbian Health Care Survey. It considers the effects of child sexual abuse on four spheres of a woman's life: her physical health, mental health, educational…

Hyman, Batya

2000-01-01

158

The Status of Women in the States. Politics, Economics, Health, Demographics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents information from a variety of sources (primarily government agencies) regarding the status of women in the United States. The report presents data for each state on 20 component indicators as well as on 4 composite indices: political participation; employment and earnings; economic autonomy; and reproductive rights. Discussed…

Institute for Women's Policy Research, Washington, DC.

159

The Current Attack on Women's Rights: A Political-Economic Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The right-wing attack on women's rights in the United States manifests itself in the regulation of reproductive rights, the family, and the workplace and corresponds to the changing needs of capital in an era of social and economic crises. Against this background, anti-abortion legislation, the Family Protection Act, and discrimination in the…

Kress, June

160

The Economic Contributions of Women in a Rural Western Navajo Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines and enumerates economic changes that have occurred in the traditional rural Navajo community of Shonto. While women's net income contributions to Shonto's economy has declined, their position has seen only a slight erosion; their activities (sheep and goat husbandry, agriculture, arts and crafts) are still considered necessary and…

Russell, Scott C.; McDonald, Mark B.

1982-01-01

161

The Changing Importance of White Women's Economic Prospects for Assortative Mating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given recent changes in the labor force participation and economic standing of women, we ask whether a woman's position in the labor market has become a more important determinant of her position in the marriage market. Unlike much prior research on trends over time in assortative mating, we take an individual-level approach to the analysis and…

Sweeney, Megan M.; Cancian, Maria

2004-01-01

162

The impact of socio-economic disadvantage on rates of hospital separations for diabetes-related foot disease in Victoria, Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Information describing variation in health outcomes for individuals with diabetes related foot disease, across socioeconomic strata is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate variation in rates of hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease and the relationship with levels of social advantage and disadvantage. Methods Using the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD) each local government area (LGA) across Victoria was ranked from most to least disadvantaged. Those LGAs ranked at the lowest end of the scale and therefore at greater disadvantage (Group D) were compared with those at the highest end of the scale (Group A), in terms of total and per capita hospital separations for peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, foot ulceration, cellulitis and osteomyelitis and amputation. Hospital separations data were compiled from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Database. Results Total and per capita separations were 2,268 (75.3/1,000 with diabetes) and 2,734 (62.3/1,000 with diabetes) for Group D and Group A respectively. Most notable variation was for foot ulceration (Group D, 18.1/1,000 versus Group A, 12.7/1,000, rate ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.3, 1.6) and below knee amputation (Group D 7.4/1,000 versus Group A 4.1/1,000, rate ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.5, 2.2). Males recorded a greater overall number of hospital separations across both socioeconomic strata with 66.2% of all separations for Group D and 81.0% of all separations for Group A recorded by males. However, when comparing mean age, males from Group D tended to be younger compared with males from Group A (mean age; 53.0 years versus 68.7 years). Conclusion Variation appears to exist for hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease across socioeconomic strata. Specific strategies should be incorporated into health policy and planning to combat disparities between health outcomes and social status. PMID:21682928

2011-01-01

163

The Economic Well-Being of Older Women Who Become Divorced or Separated in Mid and Later Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the economic well-being of women who become divorced or separated in mid and later life using 1994 data from the Statistics Canada Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics. Three measures of economic well-being are considered: adjusted economic family total money income; before-tax low income cutoff; and ownership of dwelling. Women and men aged 65 and older in

Sharon Davies; Margaret Denton

2001-01-01

164

The changing economic role of women in the urbanization process: a preliminary report from Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

This article reports the findings of a survey, conducted to collect information on the present economic situation of women and the constraints they face in the choice of work in Zimbabwe, which has recently witnessed a steady growth in its urbanization. Questionnaires were administered to women in 3 district areas of the city of Harare--a middle class suburb within easy commuting distance to the main white collar employment in the city, a low income area of site-and-service housing in the semiperiphery of the city, and a densely populated, lower income, inner city district. There are clear contrasts among the economic activities of women in the 3 areas studied, but the factors which influence the activities seem to vary between and within the social groups, relating somewhat uneasily to the generalized concepts on the female labor market. The occupational analysis of Harare reveals not only the inadequacy of conventional dualistic theories on the labor market, but the somewhat limited utility of westernized concepts on the domestic role of women. The survey also showed strong spatial and geographic influence on women's work and the different opportunities that arise from particular residential locations in Harare. However, this was clearly tempered by social contacts and migrational histories, especially in the inner city areas, where proximity to potential employment was not exploited by many recent migrants. Political factors too were found to play an important role, in the particular circumstance of Zimbabwe, in affecting the residential and economic opportunities for households. In the middle class suburb and low income area studied, the allocation of site and service plots or mortgages was strongly influenced by one's previous combatant status during the struggle for independence. For instance, families with such a status which could be earned by men as well as women), and who are also members of the ruling ZANU-PF party have been favored since 1980. PMID:12340239

Drakakis-smith, D W

1984-01-01

165

A Longitudinal Study of the Effect of Integrated Literacy and Basic Education Programs on Women's Participation in Social and Economic Development in Nepal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Nepal, Girls' and Women's Education Initiative and the Girls' and Women's Education Policy Research Activity (GWE-PRA) investigated the impact of women's integrated literacy programs in the country's development by examining measures of socio-economic status, as well as indicators of women's social and economic development, including" (1)…

Burchfield, Shirley; Hua, Haiyan; Baral, Dyuti; Rocha, Valeria

166

Women Helping Women? Role Model and Mentoring Effects on Female Ph.D. Students in Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

One potential method to increase the success of female graduate students in economics is to encourage mentoring relationships between these students and female faculty members, via increased hiring of female faculty, or having female faculty serve as dissertation chairs for female students. This paper examines whether either of these strategies results in more successful outcomes for female graduate students, using

David Neumark; Rosella Gardecki

1998-01-01

167

Economic Evaluation of Weight Loss Interventions in Overweight and Obese Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To conduct a clinical and economic evaluation of outpatient weight loss strategies in overweight and obese adult U.S. women.Research Methods and Procedures: This study was a lifetime cost-use analysis from a societal perspective, using a first-order Monte Carlo simulation. Strategies included routine primary care and varying combinations of diet, exercise, behavior modification, and\\/or pharmacotherapy. Primary data were collected to

Larissa Roux; Karen M. Kuntz; Cam Donaldson; Sue J. Goldie

2006-01-01

168

The Effects of a School-Family-Community Partnership on the Academic Achievement, High School Graduation, and College Enrollment Rate of Economically Disadvantaged Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A school-family-community partnership to improve student achievement was examined at a comprehensive high school located in a low income urban community in Long Island City, New York. In this causal comparative analyses study, the researcher examines the effect of a school-family-community partnership on the educational outcomes of economically

Morgan, Yvette

2012-01-01

169

The Economic Well-Being of Women Who Become Divorced or Separated in Mid and Later Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aging of the baby boom and rising divorce rates mean that many women will spend their later life without income from a husband. Using 1994 data from the Statistics Canada Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, this thesis examines the economic well-being of women who become divorced or separated in mid and later life. Means and chi-square tests are

Sharon C. Webb

1999-01-01

170

Women's health: marketing challenges for the 21st century. The future of women's health care reflects demographic, social, and economic trends. MHS staff.  

PubMed

The notion of a separate "women's health" component within the U.S. health care system emerged in the 1980s as many health care organizations recognized the opportunities offered by this market. While originally addressed traditional women's needs such as OB services, the 1990s witnessed as expansion of the scope of women's services as baby-boom women became a driving force for consumerism. For health care marketers, the female market is in many THE market for health care for the future and health care organizations have responded to this opportunity in a variety of ways. Demographic, social, and economic trends will only serve to increase the importance of women as health care consumers. For both providers of care and marketers, the women's market is clearly a force to be reckoned with as health care enters the 21st century. PMID:11185874

2000-01-01

171

Reconnecting Disadvantaged Young Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By several recent counts, the United States is home to 2 to 3 million youth age 16 through 24 who are out of school and out of work. Much has been written on disadvantaged youth, and government policy has gone through many incarnations, yet questions remain unanswered. Why are so many young people "disconnected," and what can public policy do…

Holzer, Harry; Edelman, Peter; Offner, Paul

2006-01-01

172

ENGLISH AND THE DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PART 1 OF THIS COLLECTION OF ARTICLES BY THE STAFF AND PARTICIPANTS OF AN NDEA SUMMER INSTITUTE IN ENGLISH FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH DESCRIBES ATTITUDES AND VIEWPOINTS ON THE PLACE OF ENGLISH IN THE DAILY LIVES OF STUDENTS AND CONTAINS ARTICLES ON "ENGLISH FOR WHAT" BY CHARLES WEINGARTNER, "ENGLISH TEACHING AND DROP-OUTS" AND "ENGLISH AND THE…

FAGAN, EDWARD R., ED.

173

Empowering rural women's groups for strengthening economic linkages: some Indian experiments.  

PubMed

Through organizing informal self-help groups (SHGs), rural women in India are provided credit and extension support for various production-oriented income-generating activities. These activities usually include garment-making, embroidery, food processing, bee-keeping, basketry, gem cutting, weaving, and knitting. SHGs are self-governed, with decisions about production and marketing taken collectively, although the group leader is responsible for identifying potential marketing centers and consumers. These groups represent a new culture in rural development, breaking with traditional bureaucracy and top-down management. Informal groups empower rural women to manage rural industries and make decisions collectively for their common economic interests. Experience with SHGs in Orissa, lessons from nongovernmental organization intervention, and a model for empowering poor people in a small town in Kerala are discussed. PMID:12295206

Rajagopal

1999-05-01

174

Rationale, Design, and Baseline Characteristics of a Community-based Comparative Effectiveness Trial to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes in Economically Disadvantaged Adults: The RAPID Study  

PubMed Central

Reaching out And Preventing Increases in Diabetes (RAPID) is a community-based randomized trial evaluating the comparative costs and effectiveness of a group-based adaption of the DPP lifestyle intervention developed and implemented in partnership with the YMCA. RAPID enrolled adult primary care patients, with BMI 24 kg/m2 or higher and abnormal glucose metabolism (HbA1c 5.7-6.9% or fasting plasma glucose 100-125 mg/dL). 509 participants were enrolled and randomized to one of two groups: standard clinical advice plus free-of-charge access to a group-based adaption of the DPP offered by the Y, versus standard clinical advice alone. Key outcomes for future analysis will include differences in body weight and other cardiovascular risk factors over a 24-month intervention period. At baseline, RAPID participants had a mean (SD) age of 51 ± 12.1 years, weight of 225.1 ± 56.2 Ibs, and BMI of 36.9 ± 8.6 kg/m2. 70.7% were women, 57.2% were African American, 35.4% were non-Hispanic White, and 3.2% were Hispanic. Mean HbA1c was 6.05 ± 0.34%. Additionally, 55.4% of participants had a baseline systolic blood pressure of ?130 mmHg, 33.1% had a total blood cholesterol exceeding 200 mg/dl, and 74% reported a household income of <$25,000. The RAPID Study successfully randomized a large cohort of participants with a wide distribution of age, body weight, and race who are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes. PMID:24177413

Ackermann, Ronald T.; Finch, Emily A.; Schmidt, Karen K.; Hoen, Helena M.; Hays, Laura M.; Marrero, David G.; Saha, Chandan

2014-01-01

175

Beaten and Poor? A Study of the Long-Term Economic Situation of Women Victims of Severe Violence  

PubMed Central

This 10-year follow-up study based on Swedish national registers compares the economic situation of women victims of violence leading to hospitalization (n = 6,085) to nonexposed women (n = 55,016) in 1992 to 2005. Women exposed to severe violence had a poorer financial situation prior to the assault. Violence seems to heavily reinforce this pattern, indicating a continued need of support from the social work profession. Assaulted women had a worse income development, lower odds for being in employment, and higher odds for having low incomes and means tested social assistance during the 10-year follow-up, independent of having children or not. PMID:24405195

Trygged, Sven; Hedlund, Ebba; Kåreholt, Ingemar

2014-01-01

176

The Advantages and Disadvantages of  

E-print Network

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Electronic Health Records Electronic health records. Research has shown that the potential benefits of EHRs are tremendous. With electronic health records picked 6 articles that included recommendations, advantages, and disadvantages of electronic health

von der Heydt, Rüdiger

177

HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among African American Women Who Trade Sex for Drugs Versus Economic Resources.  

PubMed

Trading sex for money, drugs, goods, services, or a place to stay is prevalent among women who use drugs and has been associated with women's risk of HIV acquisition. There is evidence that trading sex for drugs only may be associated with elevated risk of HIV compared with trading sex for money. The purpose of this study was to assess whether HIV risk behaviors and HIV prevalence differ among African American drug using women (N = 92) who traded sex for drugs only, traded sex for economic resources (defined as money, shelter, or other resources) only, or traded sex for both economic resources and drugs. In this study, lower rates of condom use and higher rates of HIV were found among women who traded sex for drugs only compared to women who traded sex for economic resources or for economic resources and drugs. These findings suggest that African American women who trade sex for drugs only represent an understudied yet highly vulnerable group. PMID:24496649

Dunne, Eugene M; Dyer, Typhanye Penniman; Khan, Maria R; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Melnikov, Alex; Latimer, William W

2014-07-01

178

Making a livelihood at the fish-landing site: exploring the pursuit of economic independence amongst Ugandan women.  

PubMed

Qualitative life history data were used to explore the experiences of women who live at five fish-landing sites on Lake Victoria, Uganda. We explored what economic and social opportunities women have in order to try to understand why some women are more vulnerable to violence and other risks than others and why some women are able to create successful enterprises while others struggle to make a living. The ability of women to create a viable livelihood at the landing sites was influenced by a wide variety of factors. Women who had or were able to access capital when they arrived at the landing site to set up their own enterprise had a significant advantage over those who did not, particularly in avoiding establishing sexual relationships in order to get support. Being able to establish their own business enabled women to avoid lower paid and more risky work such as fish processing and selling or working in bars. The development of landing sites and the leisure industry may be having an impact on how women earn money at the landing sites, with the most desirable economic opportunities not necessarily being connected directly to fishing. PMID:25400694

Pearson, Georgina; Barratt, Caroline; Seeley, Janet; Ssetaala, Ali; Nabbagala, Georgina; Asiki, Gershim

2013-11-01

179

Making a livelihood at the fish-landing site: exploring the pursuit of economic independence amongst Ugandan women  

PubMed Central

Qualitative life history data were used to explore the experiences of women who live at five fish-landing sites on Lake Victoria, Uganda. We explored what economic and social opportunities women have in order to try to understand why some women are more vulnerable to violence and other risks than others and why some women are able to create successful enterprises while others struggle to make a living. The ability of women to create a viable livelihood at the landing sites was influenced by a wide variety of factors. Women who had or were able to access capital when they arrived at the landing site to set up their own enterprise had a significant advantage over those who did not, particularly in avoiding establishing sexual relationships in order to get support. Being able to establish their own business enabled women to avoid lower paid and more risky work such as fish processing and selling or working in bars. The development of landing sites and the leisure industry may be having an impact on how women earn money at the landing sites, with the most desirable economic opportunities not necessarily being connected directly to fishing. PMID:25400694

Pearson, Georgina; Barratt, Caroline; Seeley, Janet; Ssetaala, Ali; Nabbagala, Georgina; Asiki, Gershim

2013-01-01

180

48 CFR 970.1907 - Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and...and Women-Owned Small Business Concerns 970.1907 Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and...

2010-10-01

181

Community College Accessibility to the Economically Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was made to determine the socioeconomic status of junior college students, to analyze certain characteristics of those in the poverty class, and to see which factors prevent so many of them from attending college. Representing both vocational and academic programs, a random sample of 315 Vancouver City College students answered a…

Jones, Gordon

182

[Offered income, salary expectations, and the economic activity of married women: an analytic model].  

PubMed

This study uses data from tax declarations for 40,000 French households for 1975 to propose a model that permits quantification of the effects of certain significant factors on the economic activity of married women. The PROBIT model of analysis of variance was used to determine the specific effect of several variables, including age of the woman, number of children under 25 years of age in the household, the age of the youngest child, husband's income and socioprofessional status, wife's level and type of education, size of community of residence and region of residence. The principal factors influencing activity rates were found to be educational level, age, and to those of childless women, but activity rates dropped by about 30% for mothers of 2 and even more for mothers of 3 or more children. Influence of the place of residence and the husband's income were associated with lesser disparities. The reasons for variations in female labor force participation can be viewed as analogous to a balance. Underlying factors can increase or decrease the income the woman hopes to earn (offered income) as well as the minimum income for which she will work (required salary). A TOBIT model was constructed in which income was a function of age, education, geographic location, and number of children, and salary required was a function of the variables related to the husband including income and socioprofessional status. For most of the effects considered, the observed variation in activity rates resulted from variations in offered income. The husband's income influences only the desired salary. The offered income decreases and the required salary increases when the number of children is 2 or more, reducing the rate of activity. More educated women have slightly greater salary expectations, but command much higher salaries, resulting in an increased rate of professional activity. PMID:12339692

Lollivier, S

1984-06-01

183

Women in Transition, 1983. Hearing before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on Examination of Problems Faced by Women in Transition from Work without Pay to Economic Self-Sufficiency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a Congressional hearing on an examination of problems faced by women in transition from work without pay to economic self-sufficiency. Testimony includes statements from individuals representing the Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor; the Career Training Program, Women's Center, Enterprise State Junior College, Alabama; the National…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

184

The Impact of Social Institutions on the Economic Role of Women in Developing Countries. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 234  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Donor agencies and policy makers tend to agree that increased access of women to education, health, credit, formal legal rights and employment opportunities, in conjunction with economic growth, will substantially improve the socio-economic role of women in developing countries. This paper challenges that view. It argues that these measures might…

Morrisson, Christian; Jutting, Johannes

2004-01-01

185

Marital Quality for Men and Women in Stepfamilies: Examining the Role of Economic Pressure, Common Stressors, and Stepfamily-Specific Stressors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although economic pressure and family stress models have been examined with samples of men and women in first marriages, previous models have neglected to focus on men and women in stepfamilies and to examine stress sources unique to stepfamilies. This study examines the effect of economic pressure on both common stressors and stepfamily-specific…

Schramm, David G.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca

2012-01-01

186

Perceived quality and availability of fruit and vegetables are associated with perceptions of fruit and vegetable affordability among socio-economically disadvantaged women. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

187

Women Empowerment and Participation in Economic Activities: Indispensable Tools for Self-Reliance and Development of Nigerian Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of the study was to examine women empowerment and participation in economic activities as tools for self-reliance and development of the Nigerian society. Research questions and hypothesis were used to guide the study. Structured questionnaire was used as the major instrument for data collection. Copies of questionnaires were…

E. N., Ekesionye; A. N., Okolo

2012-01-01

188

Socio-economic factors associated with maternal health-seeking behaviours among women from poor households in rural Egypt.  

PubMed

IntroductionSocio-economic inequalities in basic maternal health interventions exist in Egypt, yet little is known about health-seeking of poor households. This paper assesses levels of maternal health-seeking behaviours in women living in poor households in rural Upper Egypt, and compares these to national averages. Secondly, we construct innovative measures of socio-economic resourcefulness among the rural poor in order to examine the association between the resulting variables and the four dimensions of maternal health-seeking behaviour.MethodsWe analysed a cross-sectional survey conducted in Assiut and Sohag governorates in 2010¿2011 of 2,242 women in households below the poverty line in 65 poorest villages in Egypt. The associations between four latent socio-economic constructs (socio-cultural resourcefulness, economic resourcefulness, dwelling quality and woman¿s status) and receipt of any antenatal care (ANC), regular ANC (four or more visits), facility delivery and private sector delivery for women¿s most recent pregnancy in five years preceding survey were assessed using multivariate logistic regression.ResultsIn the sample, 58.5% of women reported using any ANC and 51.1% facility delivery, lower than national coverage (74.2% and 72.4%, respectively). The proportion of ANC users receiving regular ANC was lower (67%) than nationally (91%). Among women delivering in facilities, 18% of women in the poor Upper Egypt sample used private providers (63% nationally). In multivariate analysis, higher economic resourcefulness was associated with higher odds of receiving ANC but with lower odds of facility delivery. Socio-cultural resourcefulness was positively associated with receiving any ANC, regular ANC and facility delivery, whereas it was not associated with private delivery care. Dwelling quality was positively associated with private delivery facility use. Woman¿s status was not independently associated with any of the four behaviours.ConclusionsCoverage of basic maternal health interventions and utilisation of private providers are lower among rural poor women in Upper Egypt than nationally. Variables capturing socio-cultural resourcefulness and economic resourcefulness were useful predictors of ANC and facility delivery. Further understanding of issues surrounding availability, affordability and quality of maternal health services among the poor is crucial to eliminating inequalities in maternal health coverage in Egypt. PMID:25424200

Benova, Lenka; Campbell, Oona; Sholkamy, Hania; Ploubidis, George B

2014-11-25

189

Advancing social and economic development by investing in women's and children's health: a new Global Investment Framework.  

PubMed

A new Global Investment Framework for Women's and Children's Health demonstrates how investment in women's and children's health will secure high health, social, and economic returns. We costed health systems strengthening and six investment packages for: maternal and newborn health, child health, immunisation, family planning, HIV/AIDS, and malaria. Nutrition is a cross-cutting theme. We then used simulation modelling to estimate the health and socioeconomic returns of these investments. Increasing health expenditure by just $5 per person per year up to 2035 in 74 high-burden countries could yield up to nine times that value in economic and social benefits. These returns include greater gross domestic product (GDP) growth through improved productivity, and prevention of the needless deaths of 147 million children, 32 million stillbirths, and 5 million women by 2035. These gains could be achieved by an additional investment of $30 billion per year, equivalent to a 2% increase above current spending. PMID:24263249

Stenberg, Karin; Axelson, Henrik; Sheehan, Peter; Anderson, Ian; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Temmerman, Marleen; Mason, Elizabeth; Friedman, Howard S; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Lawn, Joy E; Sweeny, Kim; Tulloch, Jim; Hansen, Peter; Chopra, Mickey; Gupta, Anuradha; Vogel, Joshua P; Ostergren, Mikael; Rasmussen, Bruce; Levin, Carol; Boyle, Colin; Kuruvilla, Shyama; Koblinsky, Marjorie; Walker, Neff; de Francisco, Andres; Novcic, Nebojsa; Presern, Carole; Jamison, Dean; Bustreo, Flavia

2014-04-12

190

The role of economic factors on women's risk for intimate partner violence: a cross-national comparison of Canada and the United States.  

PubMed

National data from Canada and the United States are used to examine the connection between women's economic contributions to the family and their risk for physical and emotional abuse. Analyses show that American women are at a twofold greater risk; however, the relationship between economic variables and the risk of both physical violence and coercive control are more complex. Income serves to reduce the risk of both violence and coercive control for both Canadian and American women, whereas education serves as a clear protective factor for American women, but does not provide the same benefit for Canadian women. PMID:25540258

Kaukinen, Catherine Elizabeth; Powers, Ráchael A

2015-02-01

191

Chronic kidney disease in disadvantaged populations.  

PubMed

The increased burden of CKD in disadvantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to healthcare disparities and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biologic predisposition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expanding the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expanding both deceased donor transplant programs and the use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of WKD 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to ESRD, by increasing community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities. PMID:25395360

Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Jha, Vivekanand

2015-02-01

192

Research Overview: Economics At the Women's Foundation of Minnesota, we know that  

E-print Network

plight of women. The wage gap shortchanges women, regardless of education, age, race/ethnicity or region increasing among younger workers.2 Occupational clustering contributes to the wage gap, threatens women or low wages to work-family balance, addressing these barriers will improve the lives of women and of all

Blanchette, Robert A.

193

Sweeping out Home Economics: Curriculum Reform at Connecticut College for Women, 1952-1962  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the moment of its founding in 1911, Connecticut College for Women exhibited a curricular tension between an emphasis on the liberal arts, which mirrored the elite men's and women's colleges of the day, and vocational aspects, which made it a different type of women's college, one designed to prepare women for the kind of lives they would lead…

Marthers, Paul Philip

2011-01-01

194

48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...a small disadvantaged business, unless the Contractor...Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Report...accomplished through using the Electronic Subcontracting Reporting...System's Small Disadvantaged Business Participation...

2012-10-01

195

48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a small disadvantaged business, unless the Contractor...Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Report...accomplished through using the Electronic Subcontracting Reporting...System's Small Disadvantaged Business Participation...

2013-10-01

196

48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...a small disadvantaged business, unless the Contractor...Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Report...accomplished through using the Electronic Subcontracting Reporting...System's Small Disadvantaged Business Participation...

2014-10-01

197

48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Small Disadvantaged Business Certification and Eligibility...Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Report...accomplished through using the Electronic Subcontracting Reporting...System's Small Disadvantaged Business Participation...

2010-10-01

198

48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...a small disadvantaged business, unless the Contractor...Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Report...accomplished through using the Electronic Subcontracting Reporting...System's Small Disadvantaged Business Participation...

2011-10-01

199

THE READING OF THE CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ASPECTS OF READING RELATED TO CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED ADULTS AND CHILDREN ARE SURVEYED. THE MAIN TOPICS OF DISCUSSION BASED ON RESEARCH AND LITERATURE ARE READING ABILITY OF DISADVANTAGED ADULTS, READING ABILITY OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN, CAUSES OF READING PROBLEMS AMONT THE DISADVANTAGED, READING INTERESTS, LIBRARY USE BY DISADVANTAGED ADULTS,…

MCCROSSAN, JOHN

200

Women in Management in the New Economic Environment: The Case of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liberalization of the Indian economy has created considerable employment opportunities for those, including women, who possess marketable??skills and talent. Historically, women in India have not enjoyed a good status in workplace settings whether in managerial or operative roles. This traditional positioning of women has restricted the intensity of their efforts towards realizing the benefits of the globalisation process. An attempt

PAWAN S. BUDHWAR; DEBI S. SAINI; JYOTSNA BHATNAGAR

2005-01-01

201

The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth  

PubMed Central

Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response. This research examines the relationship between exposure to neighborhood stressors and salivary cortisol reactivity in a sample of 163 at-risk African American adolescents (average age 21; 50% female) living in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. More specifically, the relationship between neighborhood stressors and physiological stress, measured by baseline cortisol and cortisol reactivity is assessed. This research also examines several moderating pathways between exposure to neighborhood disadvantage and cortisol reactivity including substance use, high effort coping, psychological stress and social support. Results indicate that both individual and neighborhood-level factors influence adolescent cortisol. High effort coping and psychological stress were associated with cortisol in the sample, and exposure to neighborhood socio-economic disadvantage resulted in an atypical cortisol response. In addition, neighborhood disadvantage interacted with intra- and interpersonal factors to affect cortisol indirectly. Thus, living in disadvantaged neighborhoods may take a psychological and physiological toll on adolescents, and it also may exert synergistic effects through individual coping and vulnerabilities. PMID:23086016

Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

2012-01-01

202

Why don't they just get married? Barriers to marriage among the disadvantaged.  

PubMed

Kathryn Edin and Joanna Reed review recent research on social and economic barriers to marriage among the poor and discuss the efficacy of efforts by federal and state policymakers to promote marriage among poor unmarried couples, especially those with children, in light of these findings. Social barriers include marital aspirations and expectations, norms about childbearing, financial standards for marriage, the quality of relationships, an aversion to divorce, and children by other partners. Edin and Reed note that disadvantaged men and women highly value marriage but believe they are currently unable to meet the high standards of relationship quality and financial stability they believe are necessary to sustain a marriage and avoid divorce. Despite their regard for marriage, however, poor Americans do not view it as a prerequisite for childbearing, and it is typical for either or both parents in an unmarried-couple family to have a child by another partner. Economic barriers include men's low earnings, women's earnings, and the marriage tax. In view of these findings, Edin and Reed argue that public campaigns to convince poor Americans of the value of marriage are preaching to the choir. Instead, campaigns should emphasize the benefits for children of living with both biological parents and stress the harmful effects for children of high-conflict parental relationships. Programs to improve relationship quality must address head-on the significant problems many couple face. Because disadvantaged men and women view some degree of financial stability as a prerequisite for marriage, policymakers must address the instability and low pay of the jobs they typically hold as well as devise ways to promote homeownership and other asset development to encourage marriage. Moreover, programs need to help couples meet the challenges of parenting families where children are some combination of his, hers, and theirs. Encouraging more low-income couples to marry without giving them tools to help their marriages thrive may simply increase the divorce rate. PMID:16158733

Edin, Kathryn; Reed, Joanna M

2005-01-01

203

Neighbourhood disadvantage, network capital and restless sleep: is the association moderated by gender in urban-dwelling adults?  

PubMed

Despite evidence suggesting that social and neighbourhood contexts may relate to sleep in adults, the underlying social and demographic mechanisms involved remain relatively unexplored. This study proposes a conceptual framework for examining the link between social environments and restless sleep, and assesses whether associations among restless sleep, social capital, and neighbourhood environments differ by gender. Data come from the 2008 Montreal Neighborhood Networks and Healthy Aging Study (n = 2707). Participants self-reported restless sleep. Network and cognitive dimensions of social capital were examined. Neighbourhood disadvantage and population density were measured using 2006 Canada Census data. Multilevel logistic analyses adjusting for socio-economic and -demographic variables were used to estimate associations among study variables. The final sample size for this study was 2643 adults (nmen = 930; nwomen = 1713). Women were more likely to experience restless sleep than men (OR: 1.29; 95% CIs: 1.07, 1.55). Network capital increased the likelihood of restless sleep in men (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04-1.50) but not women. High generalized trust decreased the odds of restless sleep in women (OR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.59-0.94); neighbourhood disadvantage increased the odds of restless sleep in women but not men (OR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01-1.38). The association among restless sleep, social capital, and neighbourhood environmental factors differed in male and female Montreal adults. This study contributes to a greater understanding of possible differential associations between social environments and health in men and women. Greater knowledge of the social and environmental factors that contribute to poor sleep in men and women can aid in the design of interventions to improve sleep patterns in the general population. Social and health promotion interventions might aim to improve general neighbourhood environmental conditions to improve the sleep health of women. PMID:24650740

Bassett, Emma; Moore, Spencer

2014-05-01

204

Economic Development, Structural Change and Women’s Labor Force Participation A Reexamination of the Feminization U Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large literature claims that female labor force participation (FLFP) follows a U-shaped trend over the course of economic development. This feminization U hypothesis is motivated by secular patterns of structural change in combination with education and fertility dynamics. We show that empirical support for the hypothesis is rather feeble and hinges on the data used for the assessment. The

Isis Gaddis; Stephan Klasen

2011-01-01

205

An Exploration of How Marital Expectations and Socio-Economic Status Impact Post-Secondary Educational and Professional Goals of Northern California Asian Indian Immigrant Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This phenomenological study explored the impact of marital expectations and socio-economic status on post-secondary educational and professional goals of Northern California Asian Indian immigrant women both before and after marriage. For the purposes of this study, 15 Southeast Asian Indian immigrant women from the Sacramento metropolitan region…

Bhatia, Aparna

2013-01-01

206

The evaluation of the JEWEL project: An innovative economic enhancement and HIV prevention intervention study targeting drug using women involved in prostitution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The JEWEL (Jewellery Education for Women Empowering Their Lives) pilot study examined the efficacy of an economic empowerment and HIV prevention intervention targeting illicit drug-using women (n=50) who were involved in prostitution in Baltimore, Maryland. The intervention was comprised of six 2-hour sessions that taught HIV prevention risk reduction and the making, marketing and selling of jewellery. Bivariate comparisons examined

S. G. Sherman; D. German; Y. Cheng; M. Marks; M. Bailey-Kloche

2006-01-01

207

Women's Status and Fertility in Developing Countries: Son Preference and Economic Security. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 682 and Population and Development Series No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between women's status--defined in terms of the degree to which they are economically dependent on men--and fertility in developing nations is examined. After a brief introduction, part 2 discusses a particular theoretical perspective regarding fertility determinants in developing countries and explores the implications of women's…

Cain, Mead

208

NASA Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) within NASA promotes the utilization of small, disadvantaged, and women-owned small businesses in compliance with Federal laws, regulations, and policies. We assist such firms in obtaining contracts and subcontracts with NASA and its prime contractors. The OSDBU also facilitates the participation of small businesses in NASA's technology transfer and commercialization activities. Our driving philosophy is to consider small businesses as our products. Our customers are the NASA Enterprises, Field Centers, Functional Staff Offices, major prime contractors, and other large institutions. We hone the skills of our products to make them marketable to our customers in the performance of NASA missions.

2001-01-01

209

ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF WOMEN AND DIVISION OF SOCIAL AND FAMILY ROLES BETWEEN THE SEXES IN HUNGARY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our century revolutionary changes took place in the social situation of women in developed and semideveloped countries, especially in the European socialist societies. From the sociological point of view female emancipation means ensuring equal possibilities for women in attaining equal status in the social structure with that of males. The realization of factual social equality requires political and legal

Laszlo Molnar

1975-01-01

210

The disadvantaged student at a liberal arts college  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fall of 1969, a program to expand educational opportunities (EEO) for economically disadvantaged students was initiated at Macalester College. During the first three years of the program, the percentage of non-white students at the College rose from 3% to approximately 15%.

Charles B. Johansson; Jack E. Rossmann

1974-01-01

211

Combating Educational Disadvantage through Early Years and Primary School Investment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1965, following a review of second-level education in Ireland, the report "Investment in Education" was published. While a concern with educational inequality and disadvantage pre-dates this report, it clearly identified the significant socio-economic disparities in educational participation at the time and emphasised an urgent need…

Frawley, Denise

2014-01-01

212

Against the Odds: Disadvantaged Students Who Succeed in School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report explores the factors and conditions that could help more students succeed at school despite challenging socio-economic backgrounds. It does this by studying resilient students and what sets them apart from their less successful peers. Understanding how educational systems can support disadvantaged students and help them "beat the odds"…

OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

2011-01-01

213

Transport and accessibility; the perspectives of disadvantaged groups and communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an ongoing piece of research, which aims to locate the role of transport in the lives of socially and\\/or economically disadvantaged individuals, groups and communities. From this position, the research explores the impacts of transport policy and of decisions relating to the provision of transport in the UK, in the broader context of people's quality of life..It

Karen Lucas; Roona Simpson

2000-01-01

214

The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response.…

Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

2013-01-01

215

The Early Childhood Education of Disadvantaged Children in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2010, the Chinese government has adopted a series of services and policies to provide early childhood education for disadvantaged children. The rapid economic development and urbanisation process since the mid-1980s have led to great changes in social structure and demographics in China. This creates new challenges for the education of…

Song, Zhanmei; Zhu, Jiaxiong; Xia, Zhuyun; Wu, Xin

2014-01-01

216

Virtues of SIN: Can Intensified Public Efforts Help Disadvantaged Immigrants?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The labor market integration of immigrants is a top political priority throughout the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Social and fiscal gains, as well as sustained future labor supply make governments search for effective policies to increase employment among the mostly disadvantaged. The author studies SIN,…

Aslund, Olof; Johansson, Per

2011-01-01

217

Trends in Educational Disadvantage in Dutch Primary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central question in this study is whether the language and math delays of the different socio-economic and ethnic minority groups targeted by Dutch educational disadvantage policy have diminished or not. Data are from the years 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2008. Information from a total of 90,000 pupils in Grades 2 and 8 was selected to represent the…

Driessen, Geert; Merry, Michael S.

2014-01-01

218

Capitalizing on Bourdieu: How Useful Are Concepts of "Social Capital" and "Social Field" for Researching "Marginalized" Young Women?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers Bourdieu's concepts of "social capital" and "social fields", comparing and contrasting his use of these concepts with that of James Coleman and Robert Putnam. It examines how Bourdieu's ideas offer a different way of understanding the lives of economically disadvantaged young women designated as "at risk" of leaving school…

Allard, Andrea C.

2005-01-01

219

Instructional Resources for Disadvantaged Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Criteria and suggestions for the development and selection of instructional materials for culturally disadvantaged youth are discussed from the point of view of the textbook publisher. Materials should be educationally valid (any subject can be taught intellectually and honestly to a child), should teach fundamental concepts, and should suggest…

Smith, Richard W.

220

Demography of Disadvantage in Tennessee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this report, demography conceptualizes significant characteristics to serve as a basis for more intensive study, planning, and procedures focusing on the target group. A compilation of the latest reports available and primarily tabular in form, identifies and locates Tennessee's disadvantaged people, ranking the 95 counties on each of 8…

Jones, Lewis W., Comp.; And Others

221

Estimated economic impact of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system on unintended pregnancy in active duty women.  

PubMed

Unintended pregnancy is reportedly higher in active duty women; therefore, we sought to estimate the potential impact of the levonorgestrel-containing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) could have on unintended pregnancy in active duty women. A decision tree model with sensitivity analysis was used to estimate the number of unintentional pregnancies in active duty women which could be prevented. A secondary cost analysis was performed to analyze the direct cost savings to the U.S. Government. The total number of Armed Services members is estimated to be over 1.3 million, with an estimated 208,146 being women. Assuming an age-standardized unintended pregnancy rate of 78 per 1,000 women, 16,235 unintended pregnancies occur each year. Using a combined LNG-IUS failure and expulsion rate of 2.2%, a decrease of 794, 1588, and 3970 unintended pregnancies was estimated to occur with 5%, 10% and 25% usage, respectively. Annual cost savings from LNG-IUS use range from $3,387,107 to $47,352,295 with 5% to 25% intrauterine device usage. One-way sensitivity analysis demonstrated LNG-IUS to be cost-effective when the cost associated with pregnancy and delivery exceeded $11,000. Use of LNG-IUS could result in significant reductions in unintended pregnancy among active duty women, resulting in substantial cost savings to the government health care system. PMID:25269131

Heitmann, Ryan J; Mumford, Sunni L; Hill, Micah J; Armstrong, Alicia Y

2014-10-01

222

Evaluation of the Special Services for Disadvantaged Students (SSDS) Program: Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of a 1983 followup survey to assess the long-term impact of the federally-funded Special Services for Disadvantaged Students (SSDS) program are presented. Educationally or economically disadvantaged students who enrolled in the program during their freshman year, 1979-1980, were studied. Questionnaires investigated respondents'…

Coulson, John E.; Bradford, Clarence

223

Work time. Leisure time. On women's temporal and economic well-being in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study of work time, a wealth of influential ideas has emerged about the potentially damaging impact of too many hours in the labour market on the rest of peoples' lives, as well as about the negative economic ramifications of short hours working. The paper focuses on the temporal and economic well-being of female employees in Europe, stimulated by

Tracey Warren

2010-01-01

224

Chronic kidney disease in disadvantaged populations.  

PubMed

The increased burden of CKD in disadavantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health care disparities, and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biologic predisposition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expanding the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expanding deceased donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of WKD 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to ESRD, by increasing community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities. PMID:25525919

Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Jha, Vivekanand

2015-01-01

225

The Effect of Economic, Physical, and Psychological Abuse on Mental Health: A Population-Based Study of Women in the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Background. The comparative effect of economic abuse and other forms of abuse in predicting depression and other mental health disorders has not been previously investigated despite its relevance for mental illness prevention. Objective. To determine the differential association of economic abuse on psychological distress and suicide attempts. Study Design. We used cross-sectional data from women aged 15–49 years in the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) (N = 9,316). Results. Adjusting for sociodemographic confounders revealed positive associations between economic, physical, or psychological abuse and suicide attempts and psychological distress. Psychological and economic abuse were the strongest predictors of suicide attempts and psychological distress, respectively. Economic abuse was also negatively associated with psychological distress. Comorbidity with one mental health disorder greatly increased the odds of reporting the other mental health disorder. Conclusion. Overall, the results elucidate the differential effects of these forms of abuse on women's mental health. PMID:25525517

Antai, Diddy; Oke, Ayo; Braithwaite, Patrick; Lopez, Gerald Bryan

2014-01-01

226

Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twelfth edition of this classic text has built upon the success of previous editions and has been thoroughly updated and revised to give students a deeper understanding and appreciation of the core principles of Economics. Suitable for beginners, Economics is accessible but has a rigour that will stretch readers to achieve their full potential. In-depth explanations of key theoretical

Richard G. Lipsey; Gordon R. Sparks; Peter O. Steiner

1979-01-01

227

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

Online-Offline, 1998

1998-01-01

228

Women and the Economics of Divorce in the Contemporary United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Households headed by women are more likely to be poor than those headed by men. The number of impoverished female-headed families is increasing due in part to the rising divorce rate. Other factors are the following: (1) lack of child care; (2) wage discrimination; (3) unfair divorce settlements; and (4) inadequate public assistance. (VM)

Arendell, Terry J.

1987-01-01

229

Coresidence with Parents, Women's Economic Resources, and the Transition to Marriage in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrating three theoretical explanations for declining rates of marriage in Japan, the authors develop hypotheses in which linkages between benefits of coresidence with parents and marriage timing are moderated by women's own socioeconomic characteristics. To evaluate these hypothesized interactive relationships, data from a panel survey of…

Raymo, James M.; Ono, Hiromi

2007-01-01

230

The Future of Young Women's Economic Role in a Globalized Economy: New Opportunities, Persisting Constraints  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young women in advanced industrial countries have been outperforming young men in educational attainment at the same time that their labor market outcomes are still lagging. Sex segregation in education and the labor market is identified as an important source of this imbalance. In this article, the authors advance some thoughts about this…

Buchmann, Marlis; Malti, Tina

2012-01-01

231

The barriers that low-income women face in achieving economic self-sufficiency and homeownership: Reports from a qualitative study in the midwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines the complex, multilevel barriers that low-income women in a medium-sized Midwestern city face when trying to achieve economic self-sufficiency and homeownership. Data on which this dissertation are based include interviews with 25 low-income women enrolled in a local family self-sufficiency program and four of the program's administrators. All interviews were conducted by the author during Fall 2008.

Sharon Lindhorst Everhardt

2009-01-01

232

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

233

Socio-economic and cultural differentials in contraceptive usage among Ghanaian women.  

PubMed

Data from the Ghana Fertility Survey of 2001 married women in 1979-1980 were subjected to logistic regression to determine the factors influencing contraceptive use. In this Ghanaian sample only 22 women and no men were sterilized, 11% used an efficient contraceptive method and 8% were using an inefficient method. The most prevalent methods were abstinence by 6% and pill by 5%. The variables analyzed were birth cohort, age at 1st marriage, education, occupation, religion, ethnicity, rural/urban residence, northern/southern residence and number of children desired number of living children. All these factors were dichotomized, e.g., cohort: born before or after 1950. Factors positively significant for contraceptive use were younger women (20% more likely), married at age 20 or older (82% more), education (150% for any method, 67% for an efficient method), professional occupations, protestants, urban residence, southern residence, desire fewer children. Factors negatively associated with contraception were agricultural work (50% as likely), non-Christian religion, both traditional and Moslems (75%), desiring more children and living in the north. Unexpectedly, living in the northern undeveloped region was strongly linked with use of an efficient contraceptive. A factor without significant effect was ethnicity, Akan or non-Akan. These results were discussed with a general review of the literature on determinants of contraceptive use. PMID:12284022

Oheneba-sakyi, Y

1990-01-01

234

Progressive realization for all: State responsibility toward the fulfillment of women's economic and social rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was three-fold. First, it examined the extent of gender discrimination in the enjoyment of the human rights defined in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Before action can be taken against gender discrimination, knowledge of the range and depth of the discrimination is required. Second, this research analyzed the relationship between

Clair Therese Apodaca

1996-01-01

235

HIV risk behaviors among young drug using women who have sex with women (WSWs) in New York City.  

PubMed

Previous research has suggested that multiple stressors may work in tandem to affect the health of women who have sex with women (WSWs). WSWs have been a part of the HIV epidemic in New York City since the beginning, making it an ideal setting to further explore these women's risk. Among a sample of 375 heroin, crack and/or cocaine using women recruited from economically disadvantaged communities in New York City, we examined HIV seroprevalence and risk behaviors among WSWs as compared to women who have sex with men only (WSMOs). We also explore differences between WSWs and WSMOs with respect to potential stressors (i.e., decreased access to resources and health care utilization and violence victimization) that might contribute overall HIV risk. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:21303247

Ompad, Danielle C; Friedman, Samuel R; Hwahng, Sel J; Nandi, Vijay; Fuller, Crystal M; Vlahov, David

2011-01-01

236

Economic evaluation of Chagas disease screening of pregnant Latin American women and of their infants in a non endemic area.  

PubMed

Migration is a channel through which Chagas disease is imported, and vertical transmission is a channel through which the disease is spread in non-endemic countries. This study presents the economic evaluation of Chagas disease screening in pregnant women from Latin America and in their newborns in a non endemic area such as Spain. The economic impact of Chagas disease screening is tested through two decision models, one for the newborn and one for the mother, against the alternative hypothesis of no screening for either the newborn or the mother. Results show that the option "no test" is dominated by the option "test". The cost effectiveness ratio in the "newborn model" was 22€/QALYs gained in the case of screening and 125€/QALYs gained in the case of no screening. The cost effectiveness ratio in the "mother model" was 96€/QALYs gained in the case of screening and 1675€/QALYs gained in the case of no screening. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis highlighted the reduction of uncertainty in the screening option. Threshold analysis assessed that even with a drop in Chagas prevalence from 3.4% to 0.9%, a drop in the probability of vertical transmission from 7.3% to 2.24% and with an increase of screening costs up to €37.5, "test" option would still be preferred to "no test". The current study proved Chagas screening of all Latin American women giving birth in Spain and of their infants to be the best strategy compared to the non-screening option and provides useful information for health policy makers in their decision making process. PMID:21396345

Sicuri, Elisa; Muñoz, José; Pinazo, Maria Jesús; Posada, Elizabeth; Sanchez, Joan; Alonso, Pedro L; Gascon, Joaquim

2011-05-01

237

The economic burden shouldered by public and private entities as a consequence of health disparities between men and women.  

PubMed

On average, American men live shorter, less healthy lives than women. They are more likely to be the victim of a violent crime, die in a car crash, commit suicide, and be injured at work. In addition, men have higher death rates in 9 of the top 10 causes of death, and are less likely to receive routine preventative care, leaving men with a life span that is significantly shorter than women's. Recently, policy makers and researchers have been paying more attention to health disparities including race, sex, and ethnicity. However, men are still noticeably absent from these discussions despite being significantly harmed by disparities in preventive care, quality of life, and overall health outcomes. Ignoring these disparities is costly in terms of lost productivity, lives lost, and financial costs incurred by the government and employers each year. Premature death and morbidity in men costs federal, state, and local governments in excess of $142 billion annually. It also costs U.S.employers and society as a whole in excess of $156 billion annually in direct medical payments and lost productivity and an additional $181 billion annually in decreased quality of life. As federal and state governments and the private sector struggle with increasing health entitlement burdens-including escalating health care costs-eliminating male health inequities emerges as an important source of savings. This analysis will examine the economic and intangible costs associated with the health disparities that exist between genders and the benefits reaped if these disparities are reduced or eliminated. PMID:22064880

Brott, Armin; Dougherty, Adam; Williams, Scott T; Matope, Janet H; Fadich, Ana; Taddelle, Muguleta

2011-11-01

238

Personal, social and environmental correlates of healthy weight status amongst mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: findings from the READI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers are at high risk of obesity, yet the aetiology of obesity in this group remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the perceived personal, social and physical environmental factors associated with resilience to obesity among mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. METHODS: Survey data were provided by a cohort of 1840 women aged

Abbie MacFarlane; Gavin Abbott; David Crawford; Kylie Ball

2010-01-01

239

Interpreting the Economic Growth and Development Policies of Post-Apartheid South Africa: Its Influence on Higher Education and Prospects for Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation is structured as a critical policy analysis employing historical methods. It examines how the post apartheid government's economic growth and development polices have informed the higher education system and how this has changed women's financial, occupational, political, social, and educational prospects in South Africa. Through…

Eynon, Diane E.

2010-01-01

240

Food subsidy programs and the health and nutritional status of disadvantaged families in high income countries: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Less healthy diets are common in high income countries, although proportionally higher in those of low socio-economic status. Food subsidy programs are one strategy to promote healthy nutrition and to reduce socio-economic inequalities in health. This review summarises the evidence for the health and nutritional impacts of food subsidy programs among disadvantaged families from high income countries. Methods Relevant studies reporting dietary intake or health outcomes were identified through systematic searching of electronic databases. Cochrane Public Health Group guidelines informed study selection and interpretation. A narrative synthesis was undertaken due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity of study design and outcomes. Results Fourteen studies were included, with most reporting on the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in the USA. Food subsidy program participants, mostly pregnant or postnatal women, were shown to have 10–20% increased intake of targeted foods or nutrients. Evidence for the effectiveness of these programs for men or children was lacking. The main health outcome observed was a small but clinically relevant increase in mean birthweight (23–29g) in the two higher quality WIC studies. Conclusions Limited high quality evidence of the impacts of food subsidy programs on the health and nutrition of adults and children in high income countries was identified. The improved intake of targeted nutrients and foods, such as fruit and vegetables, could potentially reduce the rate of non-communicable diseases in adults, if the changes in diet are sustained. Associated improvements in perinatal outcomes were limited and most evident in women who smoked during pregnancy. Thus, food subsidy programs for pregnant women and children should aim to focus on improving nutritional status in the longer term. Further prospective studies and economic analyses are needed to confirm the health benefits and justify the investment in food subsidy programs. PMID:23256601

2012-01-01

241

Women's work. Maintaining a healthy body weight.  

PubMed

This study describes women's perceptions of the supports and barriers to maintaining a healthy weight among currently healthy weight women from urban and rural socio-economically disadvantaged areas. Using focus groups and interviews, we asked women about their experiences of maintaining a healthy weight. Overwhelmingly, women described their healthy weight practices in terms of concepts related to work and management. The theme of 'managing health' comprised issues of managing multiple responsibilities, time, and emotions associated with healthy practices. Rural women faced particular difficulties in accessing supports at a practical level (for example, lack of childcare) and due to the gendered roles they enacted in caring for others. Family background (in particular, mothers' attitudes to food and weight) also appeared to influence perceptions about healthy weight maintenance. In the context of global increases in the prevalence of obesity, the value of initiatives aimed at supporting healthy weight women to maintain their weight should not be under-estimated. Such initiatives need to work within the social and personal constraints that women face in maintaining good health. PMID:19446587

Welch, Nicky; Hunter, Wendy; Butera, Karina; Willis, Karen; Cleland, Verity; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

2009-08-01

242

HANDBOOK, TEACHING SCIENCE TO EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DESCRIBED ARE PROCEDURES AND LABORATORY MATERIALS WHICH ARE OUTGROWTHS OF A RESEARCH PROJECT OF THE SOUTHEASTERN EDUCATION LABORATORY FOR THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE TO DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS IN GRADES 7, 8, AND 9. PART 1 DEALS WITH THE CRITERIA USED IN DEVELOPING PROCEDURES AND MATERIALS FOR USE WITH EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED. INCLUDED ARE (1) THE…

BINGHAM, N.E.; AND OTHERS

243

The Irish health disadvantage in England: contribution of structure and identity components of Irish ethnicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Irish people living in Britain face a significant health disadvantage when compared to the white British host population.Objectives. Using recent survey data, determine whether there is an ‘Irish health disadvantage’ independent of socio-economic factors and explore whether there is an Irish ethnic identity effect which operates on health.Design. Data from the Census 2001 Individual Licensed SARs was analysed using

Marie Clucas

2009-01-01

244

Working Women, Marriage, and Retirement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women are at a disadvantage under both Social Security and private employee pension plans because the retirement systems were set up at a time when most women were non-working spouses of employed men, a condition that no longer exists. Today women workers, divorcees, and widows of retirees often find themselves with inadequate retirement benefits…

Lapkoff, Shelley; Fierst, Edith

245

Promotion of Physical Activity Among Mexican-Origin Women in Texas and South Carolina: An Examination of Social, Cultural, Economic, and Environmental Factors  

PubMed Central

Interventions to improve physical activity levels among Latinos must take into consideration the social, cultural, economic, and environmental contexts of Latino communities. We report findings of formative assessments related to Mexican-origin women’s levels of readiness, willingness, and ability to participate in regular leisure time physical activity in two diverse locations, the Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley and the South Carolina Midlands. The ENLACE project employed a Community-Based Participatory Research approach. Formative assessment activities focused on identification of community assets and resources and exploration of community members’ experiences, opinions, values, preferences, and perceived needs related to physical activity. Data sources included windshield tours, walkability assessments of local neighborhoods; community inventory exercises, focus groups, and individual interviews. Barriers to regular physical activity included the dominance of work and family responsibilities, social norms, lack of social support, social isolation, environmental constraints, economics, and low levels of personal knowledge and motivation. PMID:21731409

Parra-Medina, Deborah; Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K.

2011-01-01

246

Women in Mauritania: The Effects of Drought and Migration on Their Economic Status and Implications for Development Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to indicate potential income-generating programs for women, 67 women in the river region and selected sites in the Assaba and the Guidimakha were interviewed in 1980 to illuminate effects of the 1970s-80s drought and male migration on Mauritanian women. Hypotheses were based on the drought causing unprecedented disruption to Mauritanian…

Smale, Melinda

247

Strategies and constraints in movements for women's economic independence: The 1920s campaign for motherhood endowment in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent debates have included the claim that 'second wave' feminism has failed women by overemphasising paid work at the expense of women's family roles. By contrast, the maternalist reformers of the early 20th century are often viewed by feminist historians as having unintentionally locked women into a restrictive normative model by relying on the social value of motherhood in their

Merrindahl Andrew

248

The Impact of Maternal Cocaine Use on Neonates in Socioeconomic Disadvantaged Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews literature on prevalence, mechanisms of fetal toxicity, effects of exposure, socioeconomic factors, and social-support programs to increase awareness of the effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine. Emphasizes the need for drug education and social-support programs for disadvantaged pregnant women to prevent and control cocaine use. (EMK)

Sun, Wei Yue; Chen, William

1997-01-01

249

A Functional Assessment of the Impact of Advantages and Disadvantages on Breastfeeding Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although health and other benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child have been repeatedly shown, there is still a large proportion of women who do not initiate or continue breastfeeding. The aim of the current study is to analyze the contribution of the presentation of advantages and disadvantages of breastfeeding in developing an attitude…

Van Acker, Frederik; Bakker, Esther

2012-01-01

250

Optimizing secure communication standards for disadvantaged networks  

E-print Network

We present methods for optimizing standardized cryptographic message protocols for use on disadvantaged network links. We first provide an assessment of current secure communication message packing standards and their ...

Okano, Stephen Hiroshi

2009-01-01

251

Children's Perspectives on Economic Adversity: A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews some of the recent qualitative literature on children's perspectives on economic disadvantage. The idea of asking people who experience disadvantage about their own situations is still a relatively new one in the social sciences, and the idea of asking children about their own perceptions of economic and social disadvantage is even more recent. Nine analyses, all published

Gerry Redmond

2008-01-01

252

Measurement Equivalence of the Trauma Symptom Checklist40 for Chemically Dependent African American and Caucasian Women: A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40) is a brief self-report measure of trauma-related symptoms. Using a confirmatory factor analysis framework, this preliminary study examined whether the TSC-40 provided a good fit for 50 African American and 52 Caucasian economically and educationally disadvantaged women enrolled in a residential treatment program. A 5-factor structure of the TSC-40 appeared to be more applicable for

Anna Cash Ghee; Candace S. Johnson; Ann K. Burlew

2010-01-01

253

13 CFR 124.1009 - Who decides disadvantaged status protests?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...disadvantaged status protests? In response to a protest challenging the disadvantaged status of a concern, the SBA's AA/BD, or designee, will determine whether the concern is disadvantaged. [76 FR 8264, Feb. 11,...

2014-01-01

254

13 CFR 124.1009 - Who decides disadvantaged status protests?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Who decides disadvantaged status protests? 124.1009 Section 124...DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification...124.1009 Who decides disadvantaged status protests? In response to a...

2010-01-01

255

13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...application for participation in the 8(a) BD program or within two years of a Participant's... (2) Net worth. For initial 8(a) BD eligibility, the net worth of an individual...than $250,000. For continued 8(a) BD eligibility after admission to the...

2013-01-01

256

13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...application for participation in the 8(a) BD program or within two years of a Participant's... (2) Net worth. For initial 8(a) BD eligibility, the net worth of an individual...than $250,000. For continued 8(a) BD eligibility after admission to the...

2012-01-01

257

13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...application for participation in the 8(a) BD program or within two years of a Participant's... (2) Net worth. For initial 8(a) BD eligibility, the net worth of an individual...than $250,000. For continued 8(a) BD eligibility after admission to the...

2011-01-01

258

13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...application for participation in the 8(a) BD program or within two years of a Participant's... (2) Net worth. For initial 8(a) BD eligibility, the net worth of an individual...than $250,000. For continued 8(a) BD eligibility after admission to the...

2010-01-01

259

13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...application for participation in the 8(a) BD program or within two years of a Participant's... (2) Net worth. For initial 8(a) BD eligibility, the net worth of an individual...than $250,000. For continued 8(a) BD eligibility after admission to the...

2014-01-01

260

Relational and behavioral interventions with economically disadvantaged toddlers.  

PubMed

Matched groups of children, ages 12-24 months, referred for early social or verbal developmental lags or home-environment problems, participated either in a center-based "relational" or a home-based "behavior modification" intervention. Although both programs accelerated youngsters' intellectual development, there were few differences between groups on the criterion change measures. PMID:1266950

Jason, L A; Gesten, E; Yock, T

1976-04-01

261

34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...expected family contribution, as defined in 34 CFR 690.2, that...enrollment status or cost of attendance; or (ii) For a...year after their last date of attendance at your institution. (2...year after their last date of attendance at your institution;...

2010-07-01

262

34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...expected family contribution, as defined in 34 CFR 690.2, that...enrollment status or cost of attendance; or (ii) For a...year after their last date of attendance at your institution. (2...year after their last date of attendance at your institution;...

2010-07-01

263

The Possible Effects on Socio-Economic Inequalities of Introducing HPV Testing as Primary Test in Cervical Cancer Screening Programs  

PubMed Central

Background: Screening with HPV is more effective than Pap test in preventing cervical cancer. HPV as primary test will imply longer intervals and a triage test for HPV positive women. It will also permit the development of self-sampling devices. These innovations may affect population coverage, participation, and compliance to protocols, and likely in a different way for less educated, poorer, and disadvantaged women. Aim: To describe the impact on inequalities, actual or presumed, of the introduction of HPV-based screening. Methods: The putative HPV-based screening algorithm has been analyzed to identify critical points for inequalities. A systematic review of the literature has been conducted searching PubMed on HPV screening coverage, participation, and compliance. Results were summarized in a narrative synthesis. Results: Knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer was lower in women with low socio-economic status and in disadvantaged groups. A correct communication can reduce differences. Longer intervals will make it easier to achieve high-population coverage, but higher cost of the test in private providers could reduce the use of opportunistic screening by disadvantaged women. There are some evidences that inviting for HPV test instead of Pap increases participation, but there are no data on social differences. Self-sampling devices are effective in increasing participation and coverage. Some studies showed that the acceptability of self-sampling is higher in more educated women, but there is also an effect on hard-to-reach women. Communication of HPV positivity may increase anxiety and impact on sexual behaviors, the effect is stronger in low educated and disadvantaged women. Finally, many studies found indirect evidence that unvaccinated women are or will be more probably under-screened. Conclusion: The introduction of HPV test may increase population coverage, but non-compliance to protocols and interaction with opportunistic screening can increase the existing inequalities. PMID:24575388

Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Baldacchini, Flavia; Ronco, Guglielmo

2014-01-01

264

Norms, social networks, and HIV-related risk behaviors among urban disadvantaged drug users.  

PubMed

Altering norms may be an important approach to introducing and sustaining health protective behavior change. This study sought to examine the relationship between condom use, condom norms, and social network characteristics among a sample of economically impoverished individuals at risk for acquiring and transmitting HIV. Participants were 1051 individuals from a drug-using community in the USA. Eighty percent were current drug users; 17% were HIV seropositive. Reported condom use was strongly associated with peer norms about condom use (friends talking about condoms, encouraging condom use, and using condoms). Women were less likely than men to report that their friends used condoms. Injection drug use was negatively associated with peer norms about condom use, while church attendance and network characteristics were positively associated with condom-promoting norms. The size of the health advice and the financial support networks was most positively related to condom norms. Network methodology may aid in the identification of specific ties that promote condom use norms in a population. The findings of this study may have implications for norm change interventions among disadvantaged communities at high risk for HIV/AIDS. PMID:12570967

Latkin, Carl A; Forman, Valerie; Knowlton, Amy; Sherman, Susan

2003-02-01

265

Gender norms and economic empowerment intervention to reduce intimate partner violence against women in rural Côte d’Ivoire: a randomized controlled pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Gender-based violence against women, including intimate partner violence (IPV), is a pervasive health and human rights concern. However, relatively little intervention research has been conducted on how to reduce IPV in settings impacted by conflict. The current study reports on the evaluation of the incremental impact of adding “gender dialogue groups” to an economic empowerment group savings program on levels of IPV. This study took place in north and northwestern rural Côte d’Ivoire. Methods Between 2010 and 2012, we conducted a two-armed, non-blinded randomized-controlled trial (RCT) comparing group savings only (control) to “gender dialogue groups” added to group savings (treatment). The gender dialogue group consisted of eight sessions that targeted women and their male partner. Eligible Ivorian women (18+ years, no prior experience with group savings) were invited to participate. 934 out of 981 (95.2%) partnered women completed baseline and endline data collection. The primary trial outcome measure was an overall measure of past-year physical and/or sexual IPV. Past year physical IPV, sexual IPV, and economic abuse were also separately assessed, as were attitudes towards justification of wife beating and a woman’s ability to refuse sex with her husband. Results Intent to treat analyses revealed that compared to groups savings alone, the addition of gender dialogue groups resulted in a slightly lower odds of reporting past year physical and/or sexual IPV (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.47; not statistically significant). Reductions in reporting of physical IPV and sexual IPV were also observed (not statistically significant). Women in the treatment group were significantly less likely to report economic abuse than control group counterparts (OR?=?0.39; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.60, p?women, treatment women attending more than 75% of intervention sessions with their male partner were less likely to report physical IPV (a OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.94; p?=?.04) and report fewer justifications for wife beating (adjusted ??=?-1.14; 95% CI: -2.01, -0.28, p?=?0.01) ; and both low and high adherent women reported significantly decreased economic abuse (a OR: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.52, p?economic programming, because this type of combined intervention has potential to reduce levels of IPV. Additional large-scale intervention research is needed to replicate these findings. Trial registration Registration Number: NCT01629472. PMID:24176132

2013-01-01

266

Private Economic Benefit/Cost Ratios of a College Investment for Men and Women, 1967 to 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue analyzed the income/cost ratios of a college investment decision for individuals. The analysis for men and women was done separately, because men and women have very different incomes at similar levels of educational attainment. Calculations were performed for each year from 1967 through 1999. Benefit (income) data were derived from the…

Postsecondary Education Opportunity, 2000

2000-01-01

267

Introduction, The Sesquicentennial of the 1848 Seneca Falls Women's Rights Convention: American Women's Unfinished Quest for Legal, Economic, Political, and Social Equality  

Microsoft Academic Search

On July 19, 1998, America celebrated the 150th anniversary of the Seneca Falls Convention. Almost three hundred women and men including Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Frederick Douglass met on that July date in 1848 at Seneca Falls, New York, for a two-day discussion of the \\

Carolyn S. Bratt

1996-01-01

268

The evaluation of the JEWEL project: an innovative economic enhancement and HIV prevention intervention study targeting drug using women involved in prostitution.  

PubMed

The JEWEL (Jewellery Education for Women Empowering Their Lives) pilot study examined the efficacy of an economic empowerment and HIV prevention intervention targeting illicit drug-using women (n=50) who were involved in prostitution in Baltimore, Maryland. The intervention was comprised of six 2-hour sessions that taught HIV prevention risk reduction and the making, marketing and selling of jewellery. Bivariate comparisons examined behaviour change pre- and 3-months post-intervention. The intervention's effect on the change in the number of sex trade partners from baseline to follow-up was explored with multiple linear regression. Participants were 62.0% African American, 5.0% were currently employed, and the median age was 39 years old (Inter Quartile Range [IQR]: 34-45). Women attended an average of six (IQR: 4.5-6.0) sessions. The women sold over $7,000 worth of jewellery in eleven sales. In comparing self-reported risk behaviours pre and 3-month post intervention participation, we found significant reductions in: receiving drugs or money for sex (100% versus 71.0%, p<0.0005); the median number of sex trade partners per month (9 versus 3, p=0.02); daily drug use (76.0% vs. 55.0%, p=0.003); the amount of money spent on drugs daily (US$52.57 versus US$46.71, p = 0.01); and daily crack use (27.3% versus 13.1.0%, p = 0.014). In the presence of other variables in a multivariate linear model, income from the jewelry sale was associated with a reduction in the number of sex trade partners at follow-up. The pilot indicated effectiveness of a novel, HIV prevention, economic enhancement intervention upon HIV sexual risk behaviours and drug utilization patterns. PMID:16282070

Sherman, S G; German, D; Cheng, Y; Marks, M; Bailey-Kloche, M

2006-01-01

269

Multimodal exercise improves quality of life of women being treated for breast cancer, but at what cost? Randomized trial with economic evaluation.  

PubMed

To evaluate the efficacy and economic efficiency of a multimedia, multimodal physical activity program for women undergoing adjuvant therapy following surgery for breast cancer. We conducted a randomized trial with concurrent incremental cost-effectiveness analysis and blinded baseline, 3, 6 and 12-month follow-up assessments amongst women undergoing adjuvant therapy following surgery for breast cancer (n = 89). The intervention was a multimedia, multimodal exercise program comprising strength, balance and endurance training elements. The control was sham flexibility and relaxation program delivered using similar materials. The primary outcome was health-related quality of life (EQ-5D & VAS, EORTC C30, BR23). Economic outcomes included direct health care costs and productivity gains and losses. Participants in the intervention group demonstrated greater improvement in health-related quality of life between baseline and the 3-month assessment [mean (sd) EQ-5D VAS (0-100) baseline: 72.6 (15.6), 3 month: 80.6 (11.6)] when compared to control group participants [baseline: 77.5 (13.5), 3 month: 74.1 (20.6), P = 0.006] and also improved more in terms of physical function [mean (sd) EORTC C30 physical function scale intervention (0-100) baseline: 84.9 (14.8), 3 month: 86.9 (10.7), control baseline: 91.3 (9.6), 3 month: 86.7 (14.9), P = 0.02]. These improvements were not sustained beyond this point. Upper limb volumes were also lower amongst intervention group participants. However, there was low probability that the intervention would be both less costly and more effective than the control condition (range probability = 0.05-50.02% depending on approach). Provision of multimodal exercise programs will improve the short-term health of women undergoing adjuvant therapy for breast cancer but are of questionable economic efficiency. PMID:20734132

Haines, Terry P; Sinnamon, Patricia; Wetzig, Neil G; Lehman, Margot; Walpole, Euan; Pratt, Tony; Smith, Amanda

2010-11-01

270

"I do what I have to do to survive": An investigation into the perceptions, experiences and economic considerations of women engaged in sex work in Northern Namibia  

PubMed Central

Background There is little published research investigating sex work in Namibia, particularly in rural areas. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to determine the views of women engaged in sex work in the Oshakati area of Namibia concerning the main factors influencing their use, or non-use, of male condoms during transactional sexual exchanges. Methods Qualitative interviews were used to better understand the perceptions, experiences and economic considerations of female sex workers in Namibia who were involved in a Behavior Change Communication Program encouraging safer sex practices among high-risk populations in 2006 and 2007. Results While the Behavior Change Communication Program has made significant strides in educating and empowering young women to negotiate more consistent condom use with sexual partners, the gendered economic inequalities and power imbalances within rural and semi-urban Namibian society that favor men hinder further advancement towards positive behavioral change for HIV prevention and also hinder the development of the loving relationships sought by some sex workers. Conclusion This study found that sex workers and transactional sex encounters are heterogeneous entities dependent upon the characteristics of the man (known, stranger, wealthy, attractive to the woman) and the woman (in financial need, desiring love). These features all influence condom use. The 3 E's 'education, empowerment and economic independence' are critical factors needed to encourage and facilitate consistent condom use to prevent HIV transmission. Without financial independence and occupational alternatives building on their health education and empowerment, women who engage in sex work-and transactional sex more generally-will remain largely marginalized from Namibian society, and will continue engaging in risky sexual practices that facilitate HIV acquisition and transmission throughout the community. PMID:21813006

2011-01-01

271

Academically Disadvantaged Minority Group Students in Public Two-Year Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of disadvantaged students in 2-year colleges concludes that they usually come from minority groups, are underrepresented in institutions of higher education, have little economic support and are characterized by marginal traditional academic qualifications. A number of classification schemes used by social scientists are discussed…

Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Planning and Evaluation.

272

Quantifying Access Disadvantage and Gathering Information in Rural and Remote Localities: The Griffith Service Access Frame.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A purely geographic classification is not the best way to measure rural disadvantage in Australia. A service access model is described that incorporates the following elements: population center size; distance, time, and cost of travel to the service center; and a measure of the economic capacity of residents to overcome the cost of travel.…

Griffith, Dennis A.

2003-01-01

273

A Parent-Based Book-Reading Intervention for Disadvantaged Children with Language Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with delayed language skills, who were from a socio-economic area defined as disadvantaged, made significant improvements in language skills after their parents were trained in easily learned strategies, enabling them to make simple changes in the way they interacted with their children. The 36 children, mean age five years, were…

Colmar, Susan Hilary

2014-01-01

274

Modification of the Classroom Behavior of a "Disadvantaged" Kindergarten Boy by Social Reinforcement and Isolation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the investigation was to eliminate the disruptive, resistant and assaultive behaviors and increase the appropriate peer interaction of an economically disadvantaged kindergarten white boy. The treatment program involved presentation of adult (teacher) attention contingent upon desirable classroom behavior, withholding of attention…

Sibley, Sally A.; And Others

275

Gaining Access or Losing Ground? Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students in Undergraduate Engineering, 1994-2003  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expanding access to engineering for underrepresented groups has by and large focused on ethnicity/race and gender, with little understanding of socioeconomic disadvantages. In this study, we use economic, human, and cultural capital theories to frame and then describe access to undergraduate engineering degree programs and bachelor's degrees.…

Lundy-Wagner, Valerie C.; Veenstra, Cindy P.; Orr, Marisa K.; Ramirez, Nichole M.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Long, Russell A.

2014-01-01

276

Everybody's Problem: Novice Teachers in Disadvantaged Mexican Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the difficulties that novice teachers confront at two economically, socially, and academically disadvantaged schools in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The researchers employed the action research tradition. Problems were identified using participant observation during reflexive workshops conducted with novice teachers and…

Martínez, Nora H.

2014-01-01

277

DiTV and e-commerce among disadvantaged community groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing concern about the role of technological exclusion on deepening economic, political and social inequalities. Many people do not have PC-based Internet access either through geography, lack of money or other disadvantages. At the same time there is continued growth in the use of digital interactive television (DiTV) in the home, suggesting the potential for an alternative channel

Kathy Keeling; Linda A. Macaulay; Peter Mcgoldrick

2007-01-01

278

Geography and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Location and climate have large effects on income levels and income growth through their effects on transport costs, disease burdens, and agricultural productivity, among other channels. Geography also seems to affect economic policy choices. Many geographic regions that have not been conducive to modern economic growth have high population densities and are experiencing rapid increases in population. At particular disadvantage

John Luke Gallup; Jeffrey D. Sachs; Andrew D. Mellinger

1999-01-01

279

SOME ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF RECOMBINATION  

E-print Network

SOME ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF RECOMBINATION SARAH P. OTTO Department of Integrative Biology Abstract: Theory for the evolutionary properties of recombination is reviewed, both in terms of modi er mutant chromosome is advantageous, it will appear for the rst time faster with recombination than without

Otto, Sarah

280

LANGUAGE LEARNING ACTIVITIES FOR THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS BOOKLET DESCRIBES SEVERAL GAMELIKE ACTIVITIES WHICH ARE DESIGNED TO FACILITATE LANGUAGE LEARNING AMONG DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN. THE INTRODUCTORY DISCUSSION EMPHASIZES (1) THE IMPORTANT ROLE OF LANGUAGE IN COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AND (2) THE NEED FOR A STRUCTURED PROGRAM OF LANGUAGE LEARNING ACTIVITIES FOR YOUNG CHILDREN. FOURTEEN ACTIVITIES (FOR…

BEREITER, CARL; ENGELMANN, SIEGFRIED

281

Lightning protection systems: advantages and disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanics and interaction of lightning producing thunder clouds and earth, are discussed. Compared to the Franklin Air Terminal (rod) and Faraday Cage, the debatable advantages and disadvantages of the Early Streamer Emission Enhanced Ionizing Air Terminal, and Multipoint Discharge Systems, are examined along with conceptual future methods of lightning protection

D. W. Zipse

1993-01-01

282

Mentoring Disadvantaged Gifted Children and Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spite of increasing amounts of attention given to mentoring in recent years, it appears that the disadvantaged child is not being mentored, and that his or her educational needs are not being addressed. Some possible reasons why so little mentoring of minority students occurs, or reasons why so little is heard about what does occur, are…

Shaughnessy, Michael F.

283

How Children from Disadvantaged Areas Keep Safe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The paper sets out to describe how children from disadvantaged areas perceive their communities and actively negotiate threats in their lives. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 60 interviews and 16 discussions groups were held with 8 to 14-year-olds sampled from four deprived communities located in the West of Scotland. Participants…

Turner, Katrina M.; Hill, Malcolm; Stafford, Anne; Walker, Moira

2006-01-01

284

LIMITATIONS OF ADMISSIONS TESTING FOR THE DISADVANTAGED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE USE OF STANDARD ADMISSIONS TESTS HAS OFTEN BEEN CALLED DISCRIMINATORY TOWARDS DISADVANTAGED YOUTHS. TO EXAMINE THE VALIDITY OF THESE COLLEGE ENTRANCE EXAMINATIONS, THE AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION (ACE) TEST SCORES OF 66 HONOR GRADUATES AT NORTH CAROLINA COLLEGE BETWEEN 1954 AND 1959 WERE EXAMINED. IT WAS FOUND THAT 58 OF THEM WOULD NOT HAVE…

BROWN, WALTER M.; RUSSELL, ROGER D.

285

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED STATUS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE RECENT CONCERN FOR THE PROBLEMS OF THE POOR IS BEING REFLECTED IN CHANGES IN EDUCATIONAL THEORY AND PRACTICES. EDUCATORS NOW FEEL THAT THE DISADVANTAGED YOUTH IS EDUCABLE AND THAT IT IS THE SCHOOL'S RESPONSIBILITY TO EDUCATE HIM. THERE IS, HOWEVER, THE DANGER THAT THIS PRESENT CONCERN IS ONLY A "FAD" AND THUS WILL PASS. IN THEIR INCREASED…

RIESSMAN, FRANK

286

Neighborhood Disadvantage and Reliance on the Police  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary theories suggest that, due to limited access and generalized distrust, residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods are relatively unlikely to report matters to police. Although existing studies reveal few ecological differences in crime reporting, findings may be limited to victim/offense subsets represented in aggregated victimization…

Schaible, Lonnie M.; Hughes, Lorine A.

2012-01-01

287

Collective Bargaining, Transfer Rights, and Disadvantaged Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collective bargaining is common in American public education, but its consequences are poorly understood. We focus here on key contractual provisions--seniority-based transfer rights--that affect teacher assignments, and we show that these transfer rights operate to burden disadvantaged schools with higher percentages of inexperienced teachers. We…

Anzia, Sarah F.; Moe, Terry M.

2014-01-01

288

Working Class Women as Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While numerous surveys have shown that women academics are being hired in increasing numbers, white women from working class backgrounds are disadvantaged in obtaining tenure track university positions, because they have degrees from less prestigious universities, and their backgrounds have not prepared them for the publish or perish atmosphere of…

Tokarczyk, Michelle M.

289

Participatory action research (PAR): an approach for improving black women's health in rural and remote communities.  

PubMed

Women are among the most disadvantaged members of any community, and they tend to be at greatest risk of illness. Black women are particularly vulnerable and more prone than White women to illnesses associated with social and economic deprivation, including heart disease and diabetes. They utilize preventive health services less often, and when they fall ill, the health of their families and communities typically suffers as well. This article discusses the process of doing innovative participatory action research (PAR) in southwest Nova Scotia Black communities. The effort resulted in the generation of a database, community action, and interdisciplinary analysis of the intersecting inequities that compromise the health and health care of African Canadian women, their families, and their communities. This particular research effort serves as a case study for explicating the key tenets of PAR and the barriers to and contradictions in implementing PAR in a community-academic collaborative research project. PMID:17911575

Etowa, Josephine B; Bernard, Wanda Thomas; Oyinsan, Bunmi; Clow, Barbara

2007-10-01

290

The effect of neighborhood disadvantage on the racial disparity in ovarian cancer-specific survival in a large hospital-based study in cook county, illinois.  

PubMed

This paper examines the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on racial disparities in ovarian cancer-specific survival. Despite treatment advances for ovarian cancer, survival remains shorter for African-American compared to White women. Neighborhood disadvantage is implicated in racial disparities across a variety of health outcomes and may contribute to racial disparities in ovarian cancer-specific survival. Data were obtained from 581 women (100 African-American and 481 White) diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between June 1, 1994, and December 31, 1998 in Cook County, IL, USA, which includes the city of Chicago. Neighborhood disadvantage score at the time of diagnosis was calculated for each woman based on Browning and Cagney's index of concentrated disadvantage. Cox proportional hazard models measured the association of self-identified African-American race with ovarian cancer-specific survival after adjusting for age, tumor characteristics, surgical debulking, and neighborhood disadvantage. There was a statistically significant negative association (-0.645) between ovarian cancer-specific survival and neighborhood disadvantage (p?=?0.008). After adjusting for age and tumor characteristics, African-American women were more likely than Whites to die of ovarian cancer (HR?=?1.59, p?=?0.003). After accounting for neighborhood disadvantage, this risk was attenuated (HR?=?1.32, p?=?0.10). These findings demonstrate that neighborhood disadvantage is associated with ovarian cancer-specific survival and may contribute to the racial disparity in survival. PMID:25657992

Peterson, Caryn E; Rauscher, Garth H; Johnson, Timothy P; Kirschner, Carolyn V; Freels, Sally; Barrett, Richard E; Kim, Seijeoung; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Joslin, Charlotte E; Davis, Faith G

2015-01-01

291

The Effect of Neighborhood Disadvantage on the Racial Disparity in Ovarian Cancer-Specific Survival in a Large Hospital-Based Study in Cook County, Illinois  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on racial disparities in ovarian cancer-specific survival. Despite treatment advances for ovarian cancer, survival remains shorter for African-American compared to White women. Neighborhood disadvantage is implicated in racial disparities across a variety of health outcomes and may contribute to racial disparities in ovarian cancer-specific survival. Data were obtained from 581 women (100 African-American and 481 White) diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between June 1, 1994, and December 31, 1998 in Cook County, IL, USA, which includes the city of Chicago. Neighborhood disadvantage score at the time of diagnosis was calculated for each woman based on Browning and Cagney’s index of concentrated disadvantage. Cox proportional hazard models measured the association of self-identified African-American race with ovarian cancer-specific survival after adjusting for age, tumor characteristics, surgical debulking, and neighborhood disadvantage. There was a statistically significant negative association (?0.645) between ovarian cancer-specific survival and neighborhood disadvantage (p?=?0.008). After adjusting for age and tumor characteristics, African-American women were more likely than Whites to die of ovarian cancer (HR?=?1.59, p?=?0.003). After accounting for neighborhood disadvantage, this risk was attenuated (HR?=?1.32, p?=?0.10). These findings demonstrate that neighborhood disadvantage is associated with ovarian cancer-specific survival and may contribute to the racial disparity in survival. PMID:25657992

Peterson, Caryn E.; Rauscher, Garth H.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Kirschner, Carolyn V.; Freels, Sally; Barrett, Richard E.; Kim, Seijeoung; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Joslin, Charlotte E.; Davis, Faith G.

2015-01-01

292

The intergenerational transmission of inequality: maternal disadvantage and health at birth.  

PubMed

Health at birth is an important predictor of long-term outcomes, including education, income, and disability. Recent evidence suggests that maternal disadvantage leads to worse health at birth through poor health behaviors; exposure to harmful environmental factors; worse access to medical care, including family planning; and worse underlying maternal health. With increasing inequality, those at the bottom of the distribution now face relatively worse economic conditions, but newborn health among the most disadvantaged has actually improved. The most likely explanation is increasing knowledge about determinants of infant health and how to protect it along with public policies that put this knowledge into practice. PMID:24855261

Aizer, Anna; Currie, Janet

2014-05-23

293

Beliefs about rape and women's social roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis tested was that beliefs about rape that place women at a disadvantage are positively related to beliefs that restrict the rights and roles of women in our society. Two scales, the R scale and the W scale, based on a survey of beliefs about rape (Feild, 1978) and the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (Spence and Helmreich, 1972), were

Frank Costin

1985-01-01

294

Women Farmers' Perceptions of the Economic Problems Influencing Their Productivity in Agricultural Systems: Meme Division of the Southwest Province, Cameroon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women farmers produce about 60% of the food in Cameroon, but face more problems and constraints than men in performing their agricultural activities. Cash crop farmers (mostly men) are the targeted beneficiaries of government and international aids, and have better access to extension services, loans, subsidized production input (herbicides,…

Endeley, Joyce B.

295

Lightning protection systems: advantages and disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful 200-year-old method of using a (Franklin) rod to collect, control, and convey to earth the awesome and destructive power of lightning has produced other controversial, potential alternate methods. The mechanics and interaction of lightning-producing thunderclouds and earth are discussed. Compared to the Franklin air terminal (rod) and Faraday cage method, the debatable advantages and disadvantages of the early

Donald W. Zipse

1994-01-01

296

The advantages and disadvantages of being introduced  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced species, those dispersed outside their natural ranges by humans, now cause almost all biological invasions, i.e.,\\u000a entry of organisms into habitats with negative effects on organisms already there. Knowing whether introduction tends to give\\u000a organisms specific ecological advantages or disadvantages in their new habitats could help understand and control invasions.\\u000a Even if no specific species traits are associated with

Peter Alpert

2006-01-01

297

Economic hardship and sexually transmitted diseases in Haiti's rural Artibonite Valley.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate and risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Haiti's rural Artibonite Valley. Women attending antenatal services at Hospital Albert Schweitzer from October to December 1996 were tested for gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomonas, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Of the 476 women tested, 121 (25.4%) had trichomonas, 11/475 (2.3%) had gonorrhea, 51/475 (10.7%) had chlamydia, 32/474 (6.8%) were seropositive for syphilis, 20/469 (4.3%) were seropositive for HIV, and 191 (40.1%) had at least one STD. Nearly 30% of the women reported having entered a sexual relationship out of economic necessity and had increased odds of HIV infection, Odds Ratio (OR) 6.3 (P < 0.001). We postulate that due to recent economic hardship in rural Haiti, women are entering into sexual relationships out of economic necessity and that this trend is contributing to the growing HIV epidemic. We recommend STD prevention and development programs that target young people and economically disadvantaged women. PMID:11220766

Fitzgerald, D W; Behets, F; Caliendo, A; Roberfroid, D; Lucet, C; Fitzgerald, J W; Kuykens, L

2000-04-01

298

48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Disadvantaged business status. 19.304 Section 19.304 Federal...PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs 19.304 Disadvantaged business status. (a) To be eligible to...

2010-10-01

299

Education and Social Crisis; Perspectives on Teaching Disadvantaged Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of readings presents 49 papers published between 1959 and 1965. The volume is organized into three parts: (1) cultural values and family life of disadvantaged youth; (2) problems facing disadvantaged youth in the schools; and (3) programs and progress in meeting the educational needs of disadvantaged youth. Introductions by the…

Keach, Everett T., Jr., Ed.; And Others

300

Social Disadvantage and Asthma Control in Children  

PubMed Central

Summary This review discusses various aspects of social disadvantage and their association with poor asthma control, including socioeconomic status, exposure to psychosocial stress and violence, minority affiliation, environmental concerns such as allergens and pollution, and poverty in rural settings. Each of these elements has been linked with worsened asthma outcomes in children. Known and hypothesized mechanisms behind these associations are described in an effort to further understand the complex entity of poorly controlled asthma among socially deprived children. Intervention studies to improve asthma outcomes in these vulnerable populations are also described. PMID:24928775

Kopel, Lianne S.; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Gaffin, Jonathan M.

2014-01-01

301

Helping Women into Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With women bearing a disproportionate share of economic hardship, their poor representation on training designed to tackle barriers to work is a critical concern. The author asks what can be done to improve women's access to this sort of learning. As the underrecruitment of women to ESF pre-employment programmes demonstrates, the author suggests…

Ward, Jane

2011-01-01

302

Women's Studies (undergraduate)  

E-print Network

348 Women's Studies (undergraduate) The Women's Studies Program offers an interdisciplinary course of study in the historical, economic, political, social and cultural experi- ence of women. The program, its intersections with race, class, sexuality and generation, and the allocation of rights

Suzuki, Masatsugu

303

Alaska Women: A Databook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This data book uses survey and census information to record social and economic changes of the past three decades and their effects upon the role of Alaska women in society. Results show Alaska women comprise 47% of the state population, an increase of 9% since 1950. Marriage continues as the predominant living arrangement for Alaska women,…

White, Karen; Baker, Barbara

304

Reconceptualizing the Association between Food Insufficiency and Body Weight: Distinguishing Hunger from Economic Hardship.  

PubMed

What is the association between food insufficiency and body weight? Although common sense would suggest a negative association, research often finds the opposite. We contrast commodity theories of material privation with stress theories, proposing that the seemingly counterintuitive association results from the confounding influence of economic hardship. Because it is a chronic stressor, economic hardship may contribute to overweight. Data from the WCF project of 2,402 disadvantaged women in Chicago, Boston, and San Antonio show that people who experience economic hardship weigh more; and that the true negative association between body weight and food insufficiency-especially going hungry because one cannot afford food-is revealed only after adjustment for economic hardship. PMID:24244066

Ross, Catherine E; Hill, Terrence D

2013-01-01

305

Reconceptualizing the Association between Food Insufficiency and Body Weight: Distinguishing Hunger from Economic Hardship  

PubMed Central

What is the association between food insufficiency and body weight? Although common sense would suggest a negative association, research often finds the opposite. We contrast commodity theories of material privation with stress theories, proposing that the seemingly counterintuitive association results from the confounding influence of economic hardship. Because it is a chronic stressor, economic hardship may contribute to overweight. Data from the WCF project of 2,402 disadvantaged women in Chicago, Boston, and San Antonio show that people who experience economic hardship weigh more; and that the true negative association between body weight and food insufficiency—especially going hungry because one cannot afford food—is revealed only after adjustment for economic hardship. PMID:24244066

Ross, Catherine E.; Hill, Terrence D.

2013-01-01

306

Economic evaluation of hormonal therapies for postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor–positive early breast cancer in Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Aromatase inhibitor (ai) therapy has been subjected to numerous cost-effectiveness analyses. However, with most ais having reached the end of patent protection and with maturation of the clinical trials data, a re-analysis of ai cost-effectiveness and a consideration of ai use as part of sequential therapy is desirable. Our objective was to assess the cost-effectiveness of the 5-year upfront and sequential tamoxifen (tam) and ai hormonal strategies currently used for treating patients with estrogen receptor (er)–positive early breast cancer. Methods The cost-effectiveness analysis used a Markov model that took a Canadian health system perspective with a lifetime time horizon. The base case involved 65-year-old women with er-positive early breast cancer. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were used to incorporate parameter uncertainties. An expected-value-of-perfect-information test was performed to identify future research directions. Outcomes were quality-adjusted life-years (qalys) and costs. Results The sequential tam–ai strategy was less costly than the other strategies, but less effective than upfront ai and more effective than upfront tam. Upfront ai was more effective and less costly than upfront tam because of less breast cancer recurrence and differences in adverse events. In an exploratory analysis that included a sequential ai–tam strategy, ai–tam dominated based on small numerical differences unlikely to be clinically significant; that strategy was thus not used in the base-case analysis. Conclusions In postmenopausal women with er-positive early breast cancer, strategies using ais appear to provide more benefit than strategies using tam alone. Among the ai-containing strategies, sequential strategies using tam and an ai appear to provide benefits similar to those provided by upfront ai, but at a lower cost.

Djalalov, S.; Beca, J.; Amir, E.; Krahn, M.; Trudeau, M.E.; Hoch, J.S.

2015-01-01

307

Overcoming Disadvantage through the Innovative Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australia is a high performing but low equity country with regards to educational attainment. Low socio-economic background students and schools with large numbers of these students perform less well than higher socio-economic background students and schools. Yet some schools are turning around student learning outcomes despite the impact of…

Black, Rosalyn

2006-01-01

308

Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and adult disorders Why do children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families suffer  

E-print Network

was associated with an increased risk of substance dependence and poor physical health in adulthood (sex), or cardiovascular health (18-20). These studies relied on different methods and it is difficult to combine disadvantaged families suffer from poor health when they reach adulthood? A lifecourse study. Maria Melchior, Sc

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

309

Women, poverty and adverse maternal outcomes in Nairobi, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background The link between poverty and adverse maternal outcomes has been studied largely by means of quantitative data. We explore poor urban Kenyan women's views and lived experiences of the relationship between economic disadvantage and unpleasant maternal outcomes. Method Secondary analysis of focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews data with women in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya. Results Urban poor women in Nairobi associate poverty with adverse maternal outcomes. However, their accounts and lived experiences of the impact of poverty on maternal outcomes underscore dynamics other than those typically stressed in the extant literature. To them, poverty primarily generates adverse maternal outcomes by exposing women to exceedingly hard and heavy workloads during pregnancy and the period surrounding it; to intimate partner violence; as well as to inhospitable and unpleasant treatment by service providers. Conclusions Poverty has wider and more intricate implications for maternal outcomes than are acknowledged in extant research. To deliver their expected impact, current efforts to promote better maternal outcomes must be guided by a more thorough perspective of the link between women's livelihoods and their health and wellbeing. PMID:21122118

2010-01-01

310

Women and tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is the leading infectious cause of death in women worldwide. The disease poses a major threat to women's health security. Population growth, the HIV epidemic, increasing poverty and rising levels of drug resistance will inevitably increase the burden of this disease in women. Women are at increased risk of progression to disease during their reproductive years. However, in most low-income countries, twice as many men are notified with tuberculosis as women. Biological mechanisms may account for most of this difference but socioeconomic and cultural factors leading to barriers in accessing health care may cause under-notification in women. Tuberculosis control programmes should be sensitive to the constraints faced by women in accessing health care, in order to empower women to commence and complete treatment. The fear and stigma associated with tuberculosis have a greater impact on women than on men, often leaving them in a more precarious social and economic position. Tuberculosis in women creates orphans, impoverished families and reduces the economic development of society. Tuberculosis is a major cause of preventable suffering and death in women. WHO's recommended tuberculosis control strategy, DOTS, represents a cost-effective response to the problem of tuberculosis in women. Tuberculosis is a major women's health issue. It is a global health priority that tuberculosis treatment be made available to women, particularly to those in low-income countries who are bearing the brunt of this epidemic. PMID:9050189

Connolly, M; Nunn, P

1996-01-01

311

Hopes and Fears: The Life Choices, Aspirations and Well-Being of Young Rural Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An Australian study of 40,000 women found that the age at which young women have children is related to broader patterns of social inequality and to the disadvantagement of young rural women. Of particular concern is the increasing polarization between better-educated young women who defer motherhood and less-educated women who have children at a…

Warner-Smith, Penny; Lee, Christina

2001-01-01

312

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations  

PubMed Central

Twelve March 2015 will mark the 10th anniversary of World Kidney Day (WKD), an initiative of the International Society of Nephrology and the International Federation of Kidney Foundations. Since its inception in 2006, WKD has become the most successful effort ever mounted to raise awareness among decision-makers and the general public about the importance of kidney disease. Each year WKD reminds us that kidney disease is common, harmful and treatable. The focus of WKD 2015 is on chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations. This article reviews the key links between poverty and CKD and the consequent implications for the prevention of kidney disease and the care of kidney patients in these populations. PMID:25713703

Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Jha, Vivekanand; Tao Li, Philip Kam; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Couser, William G.; Erk, Timur; Zakharova, Elena; Segantini, Luca; Shay, Paul; Riella, Miguel C.; Osafo, Charlotte; Dupuis, Sophie; Kernahan, Charles

2015-01-01

313

Disadvantages of Preferential Dispersals in Fluctuating Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of a bet-hedging system is an important problem in fluctuating environments. However, the adaptability of preferential dispersal is not yet known. We have investigated preferential and random dispersals in bet-hedging systems using a discrete-time stochastic matrix model, in which each site fluctuates between good and bad environments with a temporal correlation. To explore the optimal migration pattern, an analytical estimation of the total growth was derived by mean-field approximation. We clarified the effect of the time correlation of environments and found that the preference for fertile sites is disadvantageous when transportation among sites has a cost or when the sensitivity of preference is superlinear.

Morita, Satoru; Yoshimura, Jin

2015-03-01

314

The Commoditization of Chinese Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Documents women's historically low place in Chinese culture as an integral part of a complex economic pattern. Covers the following topics: (1) women, family, and economy; (2) the Chinese modes of production; (3) views of commodity production in China; (4) class relations; (5) women's labor; and (6) textiles, women, and class. (JS)

Gates, Hill

1989-01-01

315

Debt, social disadvantage and maternal depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression is common among women with young children, and is strongly associated with financial adversity. Debt is a common feature of such adversity, yet its relationship with depression has not been examined before. We have used longitudinal data, collected over six months, on 271 families with young children, to examine this relationship. Multiple regression was used to identify independent predictors

Richard Reading; Shirley Reynolds

2001-01-01

316

Black Women, Crime and Crime Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several factors indicate that there is a relationship between economic conditions and crime among black women. Crime statistics show that outside of the misdemeanors of drunkenness and disorderly conduct, black women tend to be arrested for larceny and prostitution, both economic crimes. The fact that black women are at the bottom of the economic

Scott, Elsie L.

317

Exploring situational factors shaping access in a laptop program for socially disadvantaged children in India: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-cost laptop programs attempt to address gaps in access to computers in developing countries. However, the translation of computing access from intention to actuality is mediated by many situational factors. This research presents a case study of how access to a set of laptops donated to a school for socially disadvantaged children in India was shaped by social, logistical, economic

Poornima Padmanabhan; Alyssa Friend Wise

2012-01-01

318

How Community Development Programmes Can Foster Re-Engagement with Learning in Disadvantaged Communities: Leadership as Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family and community capacity building projects in Tasmania are attempting to address the disadvantage of communities marginalised by socio-economic and other influences. Collaborations between the projects, community members and groups, and education and training organisations, have resulted in a leadership process which has fostered reengagement…

Millar, Pat; Kilpatrick, Sue

2005-01-01

319

Fathers' Accounts of Struggle and Growth in Early Adulthood: An Exploratory Study of Disadvantaged Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter explores how fatherhood prompts struggle and growth in the psychological, social, and economic changes associated with the transition to adulthood. Little is known about these connections, especially for disadvantaged Latino and White fathers who live in small and mid-sized American communities. We draw on eight in-depth focus groups…

Settersten, Richard A., Jr.; Day, Jack K.; Cancel-Tirado, Doris; Driscoll, Debra Minar

2014-01-01

320

Making the Most of the Mosaic: Facilitating Post-School Transitions to Higher Education of Disadvantaged Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research studies of post-school education and training conducted in Australia and internationally have revealed a mosaic of students' education and employment experiences, with a multiplicity of nonlinear pathways. These tend to be more fragmentary for disadvantaged students, especially those of low socio-economic background, rural students, and…

Abbott-Chapman, Joan

2011-01-01

321

The association of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with socioeconomic disadvantage: alternative explanations and evidence  

PubMed Central

Background Studies throughout Northern Europe, the United States and Australia have found an association between childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and family socioeconomic disadvantage. We report further evidence for the association and review potential causal pathways that might explain the link. Method Secondary analysis of a UK birth cohort (the Millennium Cohort Study, N = 19,519) was used to model the association of ADHD with socioeconomic disadvantage and assess evidence for several potential explanatory pathways. The case definition of ADHD was a parent-report of whether ADHD had been identified by a medical doctor or health professional when children were 7 years old. Results ADHD was associated with a range of indicators of social and economic disadvantage including poverty, housing tenure, maternal education, income, lone parenthood and younger motherhood. There was no evidence to suggest childhood ADHD was a causal factor of socioeconomic disadvantage: income did not decrease for parents of children with ADHD compared to controls over the 7-year study period. No clinical bias towards labelling ADHD in low SES groups was detected. There was evidence to suggest that parent attachment/family conflict mediated the relationship between ADHD and SES. Conclusion Although genetic and neurological determinants may be the primary predictors of difficulties with activity level and attention, aetiology appears to be influenced by socioeconomic situation. PMID:24274762

Russell, Ginny; Ford, Tamsin; Rosenberg, Rachel; Kelly, Susan

2014-01-01

322

Public perceptions of risk in criminality: the effects of mental illness and social disadvantage.  

PubMed

We examined how different types of mental illness elicited varying levels of predicted criminality and compared this with factors which might also elicit a negative response, specifically, a criminal history and social disadvantage. A sample of 243 participants undertook an anonymous, online experiment. Each participant was exposed to one of six vignettes: three involved mental illness (schizophrenia, depression/anxiety, or alcohol dependency); two in which socio-economic background was manipulated; and a control. The impact of mental illness, history of criminality and social disadvantage on the likelihood that the character in the vignette would commit future crime, and levels of sympathy, trust and potential for rehabilitation in the character were measured. Age and personal experience of mental illness and/or criminal behaviour in the participants was also examined. The sample were significantly more likely to think that a character would 'possibly' commit future crime if he had mental illness in comparison to the control, but crimes were expected to be minor. Significantly more discriminatory behaviour was reported towards the character with no mental illness but a disadvantaged background. Familiarity ameliorated this effect. Prejudice towards those with a criminal past and a disadvantaged background may be stronger than prejudice against those with mental illnesses. PMID:23473655

Nee, Claire; Witt, Clare

2013-10-30

323

Affiliation to youth gangs during adolescence: the interaction between childhood psychopathic tendencies and neighborhood disadvantage.  

PubMed

Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join. In this study, we tested whether a combination of individual propensity and facilitating neighborhood conditions amplifies the probabilities of youth gang affiliation. A subset of 3,522 adolescents was selected from a nationally representative, prospective sample of Canadian youth. Psychopathic tendencies (i.e., a combination of high hyperactivity, low anxiety, and low prosociality as compared to national norms) were assessed through parent reports, while neighborhood characteristics (i.e., concentrated economic disadvantage and residential instability) were derived from the 2001 Census of Canada. Our results indicated that neighborhood residential instability, but not neighborhood concentrated economic disadvantage, interacted with individual propensity to predict youth gang membership. Adolescents with preexisting psychopathic tendencies appeared especially vulnerable mainly if they were raised in residentially unstable neighborhoods. PMID:17610153

Dupéré, Véronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

2007-12-01

324

Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.  

PubMed

The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

Porter, M E

1992-01-01

325

Nuclear reactor operator training for disadvantaged Americans  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics Department of the University of Virginia was awarded a grant by the US Department of Energy in 1984 to establish and administer a reactor operator training program for disadvantaged Americans. Stipends were provided by the US DOE for five trainees with the anticipation that four other educational facilities would participate in the program. Sub-contracts were awarded to four other Universities: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The University of Missouri at Columbia, Oregon State University, and The State University of New York at Buffalo. The initial two year program was very successful and the grant was renewed in late 1986 for another two years. MIT declined to participate in the second program and was replaced by Ohio State University. U.VA. was notified in September, 1987 that new funding would no longer be provided for this program after December, 1987. U.VA. requested and was granted a no cost extention for the program through December, 1990, since sufficient funds remained in the initial grant to pursue the program further. DOE subsequently approved a no cost extension through November, 1992.

Farrar, J.P.; Mulder, R.U.

1992-12-01

326

Factors associated with health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agriculture  

PubMed Central

Background Women facing social and economic disadvantage in stressed communities of developing countries are at greater risk due to health problems. This paper investigates the relationships between structural, health and psychosocial predictors among women in mining and agricultural communities. This paper is a report of a study of the predictors of the health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agricultural communities. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional research design was used. The instruments used are SF-36 Health Survey and Coping Strategy Checklist. ANOVA, MANOVA and GLM were used in the analysis. The study was conducted between January-September 2008 with randomly selected women in a mining (145) and an agricultural community (133) in India. Results Women in the agricultural community had significantly increased Physical Health, Mental Health and SF36 scores compared with those in the mining community. Years of stay, education and employment were significant predictors among women in the agricultural community. 39% (33%) and 40% (26%) of the variance in Physical and Mental health respectively among women in agricultural and mining communities are predicted by the structural, health and psychosocial variables. Conclusion Perceived health status should be recognised as an important assessment of Physical and Mental Health among women in rural stressed communities. Cognitive, emotional and behavioural coping strategies are significant predictors of health related quality of life. Implications. Nurses should use the SF-36 as a diagnostic tool for assessing health related quality of life among women and discuss coping strategies, so that these can target women’s adaptive behaviour. This should be an essential part of the nursing process for facilitating adaptive process for improved health related quality of life. PMID:23336256

2013-01-01

327

Latin American women’s experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted  

PubMed Central

Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used. Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades. This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women’s experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal. Women’s personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1) a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2) complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support. Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it might not be effective, and the fact that some women eventually need to seek medical care at a hospital where they might be sanctioned for having an abortion and even reported to the police. PMID:23259660

2012-01-01

328

Low prospects and high risk: structural determinants of health associated with sexual risk among young African American women residing in resource-poor communities in the south.  

PubMed

African American women at increased risk of HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) may engage in risky sex as a coping mechanism for depressed economic conditions. This study examines the association between high-risk sexual behavior and structural determinants of sexual health among a sample of young African American women. 237 young African American women (16-19 years old) from economically disadvantaged neighborhoods in North Carolina were enrolled into a randomized trial testing the efficacy of an adapted HIV/STI prevention intervention. Logistic regression analyses predicted the likelihood that young women reporting lack of food at home, homelessness and low future prospects would also report sexual risk behaviors. Young women reporting a lack of food at home (22 %), homelessness (27 %), and low perceived education/employment prospects (19 %) had between 2.2 and 4.7 times the odds as those not reporting these risk factors of reporting multiple sex partners, risky sex partners including older men and partners involved in gangs, substance use prior to sex, and exchange sex. Self-reported structural determinants of sexual health were associated with myriad sexual risk behaviors. Diminished economic conditions among these young women may lead to sexual risk due to hopelessness, the need for survival or other factors. PMID:25134798

Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Carry, Monique; Browne, Felicia A; Doherty, Irene; Wechsberg, Wendee M

2014-12-01

329

13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...submit the information in writing to the Associate...socially disadvantaged in paragraph (b...ethnic origin, gender, physical handicap, long-term residence in an environment isolated...advancement in the business world because of the disadvantage...employment and business history, where...

2011-01-01

330

13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...submit the information in writing to the Associate...socially disadvantaged in paragraph (b...ethnic origin, gender, physical handicap, long-term residence in an environment isolated...advancement in the business world because of the disadvantage...employment and business history, where...

2014-01-01

331

13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...submit the information in writing to the Associate...socially disadvantaged in paragraph (b...ethnic origin, gender, physical handicap, long-term residence in an environment isolated...advancement in the business world because of the disadvantage...employment and business history, where...

2013-01-01

332

13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...submit the information in writing to the Associate...socially disadvantaged in paragraph (b...ethnic origin, gender, physical handicap, long-term residence in an environment isolated...advancement in the business world because of the disadvantage...employment and business history, where...

2010-01-01

333

13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...submit the information in writing to the Associate...socially disadvantaged in paragraph (b...ethnic origin, gender, physical handicap, long-term residence in an environment isolated...advancement in the business world because of the disadvantage...employment and business history, where...

2012-01-01

334

A Career Development Workshop for Emotionally Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The investigation described in this study was a two part procedure which attempted to answer the general question: "Do the constructs of indecision and indecisiveness adequately describe disadvantaged individuals who experience difficulties in making a career decision?" The sampling was from a population of disadvantaged high school and college…

Carney, Clarke G.

335

Social Disadvantage: Cause or Consequence of Impending Psychosis?  

PubMed Central

Background: An association between social disadvantage and established psychosis is well documented in the literature, but there remains a lack of data on the social circumstances of patients before they became ill. We investigated whether social disadvantage at, and prior to, first contact with psychiatric services, is associated with psychosis. Method: We collected information on social disadvantage in childhood and adulthood from 278 cases presenting with their first episode of psychosis to the South London and Maudsley National Health Service Foundation Trust and from 226 controls recruited from the local population. Three markers of childhood social disadvantage and 3 markers of disadvantage in adulthood were analyzed. Results: Long term separation from, and death of, a parent before the age of 17 years were both strongly associated with a 2- to 3-fold-increased odds of psychosis. Cases were also significantly more likely to report 2 or more markers of adult social disadvantage than healthy controls (OR = 9.03) at the time of the first presentation with psychosis, independent of a number of confounders. When we repeated these analyses for long-standing adult social disadvantage, we found that the strength of the association decreased but still remained significant for 1 year (OR = 5.67) and 5 years (OR = 2.57) prior to the first contact. Conclusions: Social disadvantage indexes exposure to factors operating prior to onset that increase the risk of psychosis, both during childhood and adulthood. PMID:23091267

Stilo, Simona A.

2013-01-01

336

Measures of Disadvantage: Is Car Ownership a Good Indicator?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A need to better understand the multidimensional nature of disadvantage is leading to the adoption of a wider range of measurement variables. One variable now commonly adopted is zero car ownership. This paper challenges the logic of including "not having a car" as an indicator of disadvantage. It argues that this can distort the real picture of…

Johnson, Victoria; Currie, Graham; Stanley, Janet

2010-01-01

337

Urban women's socioeconomic status, health service needs and utilization in the four weeks after postpartum hospital discharge: findings of a Canadian cross-sectional survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Postpartum women who experience socioeconomic disadvantage are at higher risk for poor health outcomes than more advantaged postpartum women, and may benefit from access to community based postpartum health services. This study examined socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED) postpartum women's health, and health service needs and utilization patterns in the first four weeks post hospital discharge, and compared them to more

Christine Kurtz Landy; Wendy Sword; Donna Ciliska

2008-01-01

338

Maternal health and pregnancy outcomes among women of refugee background from African countries: a retrospective, observational study in Australia.  

PubMed

BackgroundWomen of refugee background from Africa are reported to have a greater risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to women born in resettlement countries. However, there is currently little insight into whether adverse pregnancy outcomes are more common among migrant women of refugee background, compared to women who have migrated for non-humanitarian reasons. To inform whether women of refugee background require additional services in pregnancy compared to non-refugee migrant women from similar world regions we aimed to describe and compare maternal health, pregnancy care attendance and pregnancy outcomes among migrant women from Africa with or without a refugee background.MethodsRetrospective, observational study of singleton births at a single, metropolitan, maternity service in Australia 2002¿2011, to women born in humanitarian source countries (HSC) and non-HSC from North Africa (n¿=¿1361), Middle and East Africa (n¿=¿706) and West Africa (n¿=¿106).ResultsCompared to non-HSC groups, age¿<¿20 years (0¿1.4% vs 2.3-13.3%), living in relatively socio-economically disadvantaged geographic areas (26.2-37.3% vs 52.9-77.8%) and interpreter need (0¿23.9% vs 9.7-51.5%) were generally more common in the HSC groups. Compared to non-HSC groups, female genital mutilation (0.3-3.3% vs 5.1-13.8%), vitamin D insufficiency (8.7-21.5% vs 23.3-32.0%), syphilis (0¿0.3% vs 1.2-7.5%) and hepatitis B (0¿1.1% vs 1.2-18%) were also generally more common among the HSC groups. Unplanned birth before arrival at the hospital (3.6%) was particularly high in the North African HSC group. HSC-birth was associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (odds ratio¿=¿3.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.8-7.1) among women from Middle and East Africa, after adjusting for maternal age, parity, body mass index and relative socio-economic disadvantage of area of residence. The West African HSC group had the highest stillbirth incidence (4.4%).ConclusionsMigrant women of refugee background from different African regions appear to be at greater risk of specific adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to migrant women without a refugee background. Awareness of differing risks and health needs would assist provision of appropriate pregnancy care to improve the health of African women and their babies. PMID:25427757

Gibson-Helm, Melanie; Teede, Helena; Block, Andrew; Knight, Michelle; East, Christine; Wallace, Euan M; Boyle, Jacqueline

2014-11-27

339

Caribbean immigrants in Britain and Canada: socio-economic adjustment.  

PubMed

This paper compares the socioeconomic experiences of Caribbean immigration in Britain and Canada and shows how differing immigration trends together with changing economic circumstances influenced the process of integration. Caribbean immigrants in Canada are more recent arrivals than those in Britain and, in 1981, were still experiencing initial adjustment problems aggravated by an economy in which unemployment is still high. Unlike Britain, which has a large population born in that country of West Indian parentage, the "2nd generation" in Canada is small and mostly still in school. Despite higher levels of education and qualifications than their counterparts in Britain, Caribbean immigrants in Canada faced similar problems. Males were relatively more concentrated in manufacturing industries in Canada and in transportation in Britain, sectors which were undergoing significant structural change and experiencing high levels of unemployment. Earned income was below average in both countries but there were interesting gender differences. Caribbean women experienced the same "earnings gap", relative to men, that characterized most women in the labor force. However, Caribbean women were relatively more successful than men, as measured by unemployment rates and earned incomes. This appears to be due to their qualifications in nursing and other service occupations that continued to expand, and to be in demand in the 1970s and 1980s, when other occupations were declining in response to technological change and "post-industrial" developments. In both countries there were residual disadvantages, faced by Caribbean men and women, which cannot be statistically explained by factors such as age, education, period of immigration, or structural changes in the economy. These can be attributed, at least in part, to the institutionalized prejudice and discrimination against racial minorities which is prevalent in both societies. In absolute terms Caribbean immigrants in Canada are clearly better off than their counterparts in Britain. However, relative to other immigrants, and the native-born population with similar demographic characteristics and educational qualifications, those in Canada experience similar disadvantages. PMID:12281943

Richmond, A H

1988-12-01

340

Migraine and women's health.  

PubMed

Migraine is a significant women's health concern. Epidemiological research has demonstrated that migraine is one of the most common pain conditions and that women are disproportionately affected. Recent advances in pathophysiology highlight the hormonal antecedents of these sex differences in migraine and the potential influence of hormones on migraine pain pathways. Migraine spawns substantial suffering and disability and gives rise to great economic and personal burden. Despite the availability of effective pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments, only a fraction of migraine sufferers receive state-of-the-art treatment. Access to effective treatment is limited by economic and social barriers to care, including the long-standing social stigma that trivializes headache. Although doubtless a women's health issue, migraine has been largely overlooked in the women's health initiatives. This paper argues that migraine is an important women's health concern and that greater attention to migraine promises to make a demonstrable improvement in the quality of life of many women. PMID:11991424

Rains, Jeanetta C; Penzien, Donald B; Martin, Vincent T

2002-01-01

341

Financial Incentives for Smoking Cessation Among Pregnant and Newly Postpartum Women  

PubMed Central

Objective Smoking during pregnancy is the leading preventable cause of poor pregnancy outcomes in the U.S., causing serious immediate and longer-term adverse effects for mothers and offspring. In this report we provide a narrative review of research on the use of financial incentives to promote abstinence from cigarette smoking during pregnancy, an intervention wherein women earn vouchers exchangeable for retail items contingent on biochemically-verified abstinence from recent smoking. Methods Published reports based on controlled trials are reviewed. All of the reviewed research was conducted by one of two research groups who have investigated this treatment approach. Results Results from six controlled trials with economically disadvantaged pregnant smokers support the efficacy of financial incentives for increasing smoking abstinence rates antepartum and early postpartum. Results from three trials provide evidence that the intervention improves sonographically estimated fetal growth, mean birth weight, percent of low-birth-weight deliveries, and breastfeeding duration. Conclusions The systematic use of financial incentives has promise as an efficacious intervention for promoting smoking cessation among economically disadvantaged pregnant and recently postpartum women and improving birth outcomes. Additional trials in larger and more diverse samples are warranted to further evaluate the merits of this treatment approach. PMID:22227223

Higgins, Stephen T.; Washio, Yukiko; Heil, Sarah H.; Solomon, Laura J.; Gaalema, Diann E.; Higgins, Tara M.; Bernstein, Ira M.

2012-01-01

342

The Business Case for Women?s Equality : Is the Carrot Better than the Stick?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outlines women?s continuing pay and employment disadvantage in Britain. Discusses limitations of the legal compliance approach to equal opportunity. Examines critically the business case for EO (that it serves organizational competitiveness). Argues there is not a business case but a series of business rationales which are contingent. Organizational and managerial receptiveness to them is uneven, and they lead to only

Linda Dickens

1994-01-01

343

Older Women and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elderly women may suffer from economic problems, isolation, loneliness, poor housing, poor health care, and few viable alternatives to institutionalization. Although the total number of aged poor has declined by over 40% in the past 20 years, the number of aged women living alone and poor stayed almost unchanged. The separation and divorce rates…

Wood, Vivian

344

Denying Diversity: Perceptions of Beauty and Social Comparison Processes Among Latina, Black, and White Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate Latina, Black, and White women's conceptions of beauty and perceptions of cultural standards of beauty, as well as whether or not the participants were engaging in similar social comparison processes, specifically, the denial of personal disadvantage. One hundred and fifty-seven college women participated: 48 Latinas, 52 Black women, 51 White women, and

Maya A. Poran

2002-01-01

345

Marriageable Women: A Focus on Participants in a Community Healthy Marriage Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although disadvantaged women are the targets of marriage programs, little attention has been paid to women's marriage constraints and their views of marriage. Drawing on an exchange framework and using qualitative data collected from single women participating in a marriage initiative, we introduce the concept of marriageable women--the notion…

Manning, Wendy D.; Trella, Deanna; Lyons, Heidi; Du Toit, Nola Cora

2010-01-01

346

Disadvantages of VKA and requirements for novel anticoagulants.  

PubMed

Vitamin K antagonists have been in wide use for over 70 years. Warfarin, the most commonly used vitamin K antagonist, has been shown to be highly effective in treating and preventing thrombosis. Despite this, warfarin has many disadvantages, which has led to the development of a new class of oral anticoagulants targeted to specific coagulation factors designated as target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOAs). TSOAs include the thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran) and factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban). This chapter reviews the disadvantages of warfarin and evaluates both the advantages and disadvantages of the new oral anticoagulants. PMID:23953899

Shameem, Raji; Ansell, Jack

2013-06-01

347

Does social disadvantage affect the validity of self-report for cervical cancer screening?  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim was to review the international literature on the validity of self-report of cervical cancer screening, specifically of studies that made direct comparisons among women with and without social disadvantage, based on race/ethnicity, foreign-born status, language ability, income, or education. Method The databases of Medline, EBM Reviews, and CINAHL from 1990 to 2011 were searched using relevant search terms. Articles eligible for data extraction documented the prevalence of cervical cancer screening based on both self-report and an objective measure for women both with and without at least one measure of social disadvantage. The report-to-record ratio, the ratio of the proportion of study subjects who report at least one screening test within a particular time frame to the proportion of study subjects who have a record of the same test within that time frame, was calculated for each subgroup. Results Five studies met the extraction criteria. Subgroups were based on race/ethnicity, education, and income. In all studies, and across all subgroups, report-to-record ratios were greater than one, indicative of pervasive over-reporting. Conclusion The findings suggest that objective measures should be used by policymakers, researchers, and public-health practitioners in place of self-report to accurately determine cervical cancer screening rates. PMID:23378784

Lofters, Aisha K; Moineddin, Rahim; Hwang, Stephen W; Glazier, Richard H

2013-01-01

348

Review of ADHD Pharmacotherapies: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Clinical Pearls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advantages, disadvantages, as well as helpful hints on when to use several drug therapies against attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are discussed. The drugs discussed are methylphenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, and bupropion.

Daughton, Joan M.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

2009-01-01

349

48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disadvantaged business status. 19.304 Section 19.304 ...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs...

2014-10-01

350

The relation between disadvantaged groups: a social psychological approach  

E-print Network

in position and to an advantaged outgroup always high in position, and then subjects were given a chance to aggress against either the disadvantaged outgroup or the advantaged outgroup. Results supported hypotheses derived from social identity theory...

Rothgerber, Hank

1995-01-01

351

Social disadvantage, genetic sensitivity, and children’s telomere length  

PubMed Central

Disadvantaged social environments are associated with adverse health outcomes. This has been attributed, in part, to chronic stress. Telomere length (TL) has been used as a biomarker of chronic stress: TL is shorter in adults in a variety of contexts, including disadvantaged social standing and depression. We use data from 40, 9-y-old boys participating in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to extend this observation to African American children. We report that exposure to disadvantaged environments is associated with reduced TL by age 9 y. We document significant associations between low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure, and harsh parenting and TL. These effects were moderated by genetic variants in serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways. Consistent with the differential susceptibility hypothesis, subjects with the highest genetic sensitivity scores had the shortest TL when exposed to disadvantaged social environments and the longest TL when exposed to advantaged environments. PMID:24711381

Mitchell, Colter; Hobcraft, John; McLanahan, Sara S.; Siegel, Susan Rutherford; Berg, Arthur; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Garfinkel, Irwin; Notterman, Daniel

2014-01-01

352

48 CFR 1552.219-73 - Small Disadvantaged Business Targets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the following small disadvantaged business (SDB) participation targets proposed by the contractor... (b) The following specifically identified SDB(s) was (were) considered under the Section—SDB participation evaluation factor or...

2010-10-01

353

48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...in paragraph (a)(1) of this section for development assistance and for assistance for famine recovery and development in Africa shall be used only for activities of disadvantaged enterprises (as defined in 726.7002). In order to achieve...

2011-10-01

354

48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disadvantaged business status. 19.304 Section 19.304 ...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs...

2013-10-01

355

48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disadvantaged business status. 19.304 Section 19.304 ...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs...

2012-10-01

356

48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disadvantaged business status. 19.304 Section 19.304 ...REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs...

2011-10-01

357

Advantages and Disadvantages of Mammography Screening  

PubMed Central

Summary Mammography screening is the only method presently considered appropriate for mass screening of asymptomatic women. Its frequent use, however, warrants diligent analysis of potential side effects. Radiation risk is far below the natural yearly risk of breast cancer and should not be used as an argument against screening. False-positive calls lead to additional imaging or histopathological assessment, mainly percutaneous breast biopsy. These measures are tolerated and accepted fairly well. Their number is limited by strict quality assurance and constant training. Interval cancers represent a limitation of breast screening that should prompt further research for optimization. Evaluation of overdiagnosis is a highly debated topic in the literature. According to the probably most realistic available calculations, overdiagnosis is acceptable as it is compensated by the potential mortality reduction. Nonetheless, this potential side effect warrants optimal adjustment of therapy to the patient's individual risk. The mortality reduction seen in randomized studies was confirmed by results from national screening programs. A recent case referent study indicated that improvements in mortality reduction run parallel to improved mammographic techniques. Use of less aggressive therapies is another valuable effect of screening. Awareness of potential problems, strict quality assurance, and further research should help to further develop screening programs. PMID:21779225

Heywang-Köbrunner, Sylvia H.; Hacker, Astrid; Sedlacek, Stefan

2011-01-01

358

The Road to Poverty: A Report on the Economic Status of Midlife and Older Women in America. Mother's Day Report 1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women of all ages continue to enter the work force in greater numbers while the work force participation rate for males is declining. Women are disproportionately concentrated in low-paying, dead-end jobs. Employment discrimination continues to be a significant problem. Job interruptions necessitated by family responsibilities are a major factor…

Older Women's League, Washington, DC.

359

Sexist humor: Local and systemic manifestations of privilege and disadvantage  

E-print Network

SEXIST HUMOR: LOCAL AND SYSTEMIC MANIFESTATIONS OF PRIVILEGE AND DISADVANTAGE BY Kate M. Pickett Submitted to the graduate degree program in Psychology and the Faculty of the Graduate School at the University of Kansas in partial fulfillment... committee for Kate Pickett certifies that this is the approved version of the following thesis: SEXIST HUMOR: LOCAL AND SYSTEMIC MANIFESTATIONS OF PRIVILEGE AND DISADVANTAGE Committee: ______________________________ Glenn Adams, Ph.D., Chair...

Pickett, Kate M.

2008-07-29

360

Family and neighborhood disadvantage, home environment, and children's school readiness.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine associations between family socioeconomic risk, neighborhood disadvantage, and children's school readiness. A sample of 420 children from 48 early childcare programs yielded multi-informant data. The average age was 55.3 months (SD = 6.4), with 38% of children being Black, non-Hispanic, Hispanic, or other minority race (American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander). One third (32.4%) of the parents had annual incomes less than $30,000. We used multilevel structural equation modeling to test direct and indirect associations among family socioeconomic risk and neighborhood disadvantage and children's cognitive and social-emotional development through home learning environment and parental depression. Children with a greater number of family socioeconomic risks and a higher level of neighborhood disadvantage demonstrated lower scores on cognitive skills. The degree of family socioeconomic risk was indirectly associated with children's cognitive ability through parents' cognitive stimulation at home. Parents who had more family socioeconomic risks and neighborhood disadvantage reported more depressive symptoms, which, in turn, suggested children's greater probability of having social-emotional problems. In other words, home learning environments explained associations between family socioeconomic disadvantage and children's cognitive skills, while parental depression explained associations between family/neighborhood disadvantages and children's social-emotional problems. Results suggest the importance of intervention or prevention strategies for parents to improve cognitive stimulation at home and to reduce depressive symptoms. PMID:25150370

Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K; Hur, Eunhye

2014-10-01

361

Competitive disadvantage makes attitudes towards rape less negative.  

PubMed

Evolutionary theorists have argued that perceived competitive disadvantage may lead to more positive evaluation of, and greater likelihood of engaging in, risky and antisocial behavior. However, experimental studies have not yet examined the effects of competitive disadvantage on perceptions of rape. In the current study, we created a manipulation of perceived competitive status to test its effects on beliefs about rape. In one condition, participants were made to feel disadvantaged relative to male peers in terms of financial, physical, and intellectual power, whereas in the other condition they were made to feel advantaged. Participants were 120 heterosexual male undergraduate students. The manipulation was effective; compared to participants in the advantage condition, those in the disadvantage condition rated themselves as significantly worse off financially, shorter, in worse physical shape, and as having lower course marks than the average male student at the university. Compared to perceived competitive advantage, perceived disadvantage led to less negative attitudes towards rape. However, perceived competitive status did not significantly affect justifications and excuses for rape. Future studies using similar experimental manipulations can complement correlational studies and may contribute to greater clarity, precision, and sophistication of research and theory on the role of competitive disadvantage in rape. PMID:22947990

Nunes, Kevin L; Pettersen, Cathrine

2011-01-01

362

48 CFR 19.305 - Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...Programs 19.305 Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...apparently successful offeror's representation of disadvantaged status if the...

2014-10-01

363

48 CFR 19.305 - Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...Programs 19.305 Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...apparently successful offeror's representation of disadvantaged status if the...

2013-10-01

364

48 CFR 19.305 - Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...Programs 19.305 Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...apparently successful offeror's representation of disadvantaged status if the...

2011-10-01

365

48 CFR 19.305 - Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...Programs 19.305 Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status...apparently successful offeror's representation of disadvantaged status if the...

2012-10-01

366

13 CFR 124.1010 - What procedures apply to disadvantaged status protests?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What procedures apply to disadvantaged status protests? 124.1010 Section 124...DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification...What procedures apply to disadvantaged status protests? (a) General....

2010-01-01

367

13 CFR 124.1007 - Who may protest the disadvantaged status of a concern?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Who may protest the disadvantaged status of a concern? 124.1007 Section...DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification...1007 Who may protest the disadvantaged status of a concern? (a) In...

2010-01-01

368

Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction  

E-print Network

and disadvantages associated with the decreased steam pressure 3. The economics of steam pressure reduction. Appropriate visual aids will be utilized as part of the discussion. ',: 566 I ESL-IE-85-05-112 Proceedings from the Seventh National Industrial...

Sylva, D. M.

369

Making the most of the mosaic: facilitating post-school transitions to higher education of disadvantaged students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research studies of post-school education and training conducted in Australia and internationally have revealed a mosaic of students’ education and employment experiences, with a multiplicity of nonlinear pathways. These tend to be more fragmentary\\u000a for disadvantaged students, especially those of low socio-economic background, rural students, and mature aged students seeking\\u000a a ‘second chance’ education. Challenges faced by students in their

Joan Abbott-Chapman

2011-01-01

370

Teaching Feminist Economics through Student-Written Diaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a heterodox, economics paradigm, feminist economics seeks to improve women’s economic status and reduce the androcentric bias in economics. Thus, teaching feminist economics involves teaching students different ways of analyzing social inequalities and how to access more emotionally connected aspects of human behavior. This article argues that using student-written ‘gender diaries’ serves as an important pedagogical device for teaching

Genna R. Miller

2012-01-01

371

ECONOMIC BASES AND POTENTIALS OF RURAL COMMUNITIES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AN ECONOMIC APPROACH TO RURALITY IS PRESENTED. THERE HAS BEEN A STEADY REDUCTION IN THE IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT. MANY RURAL AREAS ARE DISADVANTAGED. ECONOMIC DIFFICULTIES CONTRIBUTE TO OUTMIGRATION AND POPULATION LOSSES IN RURAL AREAS AND ARE REFLECTED IN HIGHER PERCAPITA COSTS FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENTAL EXPENDITURE. OUTMIGRATION HAS…

BACHMURA, F.T.; SOUTHERN, J.H.

372

The second shift: working women in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The study aims to establish the effect of personal resourcefulness and marital adjustment on job satisfaction and life satisfaction of working women in India. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 300 women are studied – 100 each in the working women, home-based working women, and homemakers categories – using the following scales: socio economic status scale, general health questionnaire,

Malavika Desai; Bishakha Majumdar; Tanusree Chakraborty; Kamalika Ghosh

2011-01-01

373

Mechanisms Linking Socioeconomic Disadvantage and BMI in Smokers  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate a conceptual model of the psychosocial pathways linking socioeconomic status and body mass index (BMI) among smokers. Methods A latent variable modeling approach was used to evaluate the interrelationships among socioeconomic status, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, negative affect, and BMI among smokers recruited from the Houston metropolitan area (N = 424). Results A total of 42.4% of participants were obese, with the highest prevalence of obesity among Latinos followed by African Americans. Across all racial/ethnic groups, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, and negative affect functioned as pathways linking socioeconomic status and BMI. Conclusions Findings indicate the need for interventions that target obesity among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers and provide potential intervention targets for the prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:23985281

Kendzor, Darla E.; Businelle, Michael S.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Castro, Yessenia; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

2014-01-01

374

An economical single to three phase converter for induction motors  

E-print Network

There are several different types of single to three phase converters for induction motors available today. However, many of the presently available phase converters suffer from disadvantages such as high cost or low performance. An economical...

Di Zerega, Philp Van Uytandaele

1994-01-01

375

WOMEN'S RIGHTS BEFORE THE FEDERAL DISTRICT COURTS, 1971-1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes opinions published by federal district judges in women's rights and racial minority discrimination cases in the period 1971-1977. Our analysis revealed that the petitioner in women's rights cases was only slightly more likely to be victorious than litigants from other disadvantaged groups. Using a regional variable, we found no significant differences between northern and southern judges deciding

RONALD STIDHAM; ROBERT A. CARP; C. K. ROWLAND

1983-01-01

376

Positively Women: Professionalism and Practice in Teaching and Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper seeks to understand recent changes in the professional status of teachers and teacher educators in Europe, discussing the contribution of women to teaching and teacher education and noting that the proportion of women in education professions is not regarded as disadvantageous or problematic. The paper discusses gendered concepts of…

Weiner, Gaby; Kallos, Daniel

377

Women, Democracy and Participation in the Information Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the disadvantaged state of women in South Africa, including statistics that illustrate effects of their lack of status on their health and well being. It then focuses on the role in South Africa of the community library and information services in empowering especially women. Barriers experienced in information delivery to…

Mayer, Louisa

378

Women's Health  

MedlinePLUS

Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

379

Sustainable development: women as partners.  

PubMed

The economic recession and the structural adjustment programs imposed y the International Monetary Fund have caused sluggish or no economic growth and a decline in living conditions in sub-Saharan Africa. Senegal's New Agricultural Policy has eliminated subsidies for agricultural inputs, worsening the already declining living conditions. Population growth in Senegal exceeds food production; it is very rapid in cities (urban growth rate, 2.7%). Women, especially, suffer from the economic crisis; it increases the burden on women for income generation, but the increased workload does not equate more income. This workload restricts women's opportunities to improve their physical environment and does not improve their status within society. Women still face discrimination daily; power lies with men. Oxfam supports urban women financially and technically as they organize and pursue income generation activities to institute change leading to sustainable development. It has helped a Serere women's group in Dakar to organize and provided credit funds to support their trading activities and family planning sensitization training. Oxfam also finances rural women coming to Dakar during the dry season to pound millet to sell. Problems which have to be overcome to achieve sustainable development acceptable to women are numerous. Women need access to the ways and means of food production. Resources are insufficient and inaccessible to women because women are excluded from the decision-making process. Women generally do not have access to information and training which would help them make their own choices and manage their own lives. Political and sociocultural environments, especially those of the poor, do not easily allow women opportunities for independent reflection and expression. Grassroots women's groups provide the best base to develop female solidarity and women's representation, leading to sustainable development. Development organizations must take up a new dynamic where each person assumes his/her own responsibilities to search for more justice, dignity, and prosperity for the poor, particularly women. PMID:12287129

Dem, M

1993-02-01

380

Highline Public Schools Computer-Assisted Instruction Project: A Program to Meet Disadvantaged Students' Individual Needs for Basic Skill Development: Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This description of a computer-assisted instruction project, which provides an alternative approach to individual instruction in basic skills for economically and educationally disadvantaged students at the secondary level, includes the results of evaluations conducted at the end of each of three school years. Instruction in priority…

Maser, Arthur L.; And Others

381

Women in development.  

PubMed

The author reports on travel in the Philippines, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan, and conditions she found affecting development. Development for women in the Philippines has been hampered by a dichotomy between home economics and agricultural work. Although the majority of students in agriculture are women, many village cooperatives have been formed with less than 10% women members. Malaysia has a high level of education; development projects can easily be implemented. The National Association of Women's Institutes of Peninsular Malaysia (NAWIPM) emphasizes training for rural women. Its activiti include nursuries, poultry raising, home improvement, cooperatives, and income generating projects such as catering and tailoring. As in the Philippines ther is an important Muslim minority; Muslim women lag behind other Sri Lankans in education. The Mahila Samiti is the organization which trains rural women i some 1500 chapters. The women of Pakistan have the greatest need for assistance. Less than 15% Pakistan women are literate; their enrollment in school lags far behind the boys. The All Pakistan Women's Association works on problems of development through its Nutrition Education Training Courses. The centers have begun poultry raising and gardening as parts of its program. PMID:12261905

White, E H

1980-01-01

382

Race, Gender, and Chains of Disadvantage: Childhood Adversity, Social Relationships, and Health  

PubMed Central

We use a life course approach to guide an investigation of relationships and health at the nexus of race and gender. We consider childhood as a sensitive period in the life course, during which significant adversity may launch chains of disadvantage in relationships throughout the life course that then have cumulative effects on health over time. Data from a nationally representative panel study (Americans’ Changing Lives, N=3,477) reveal substantial disparities between black and white adults, especially pronounced among men, in the quality of close relationships and in the consequences of these relationships for health. Greater childhood adversity helps to explain why black men have worse health than white men, and some of this effect appears to operate through childhood adversity’s enduring influence on relationship strain in adulthood. Stress that occurs in adulthood plays a greater role than childhood adversity in explaining racial disparities in health among women. PMID:24578394

Umberson, Debra; Williams, Kristi; Thomas, Patricia A.; Liu, Hui; Thomeer, Mieke Beth

2014-01-01

383

American Women Workers in a Full Employment Economy. A Compendium of Papers Submitted to the Subcommittee on Economic Growth and Stabilization of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, 95th Congress, 1st Session, September 15, 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compendium of seventeen papers discusses women's overall role in a full employment economy and their problems in fulfilling that role. It begins with a comprehensive summary of the authors' views and then presents the papers in six sections: (1) overview; (2) overcoming barriers; (3) support services and adjusted conditions; (4) education and…

Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

384

Barriers and Facilitators to Health Behaviour Change and Economic Activity among Slum-Dwelling Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Nairobi, Kenya: The Role of Social, Health and Economic Assets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent girls and young women in urban slum areas in developing countries face a myriad of challenges regarding education, sexual health, livelihoods and gender-based violence. One way of understanding how these challenges interact with each other is through the Asset Building Framework, which posits that girls need a combination of social,…

Austrian, Karen; Anderson, Althea D.

2015-01-01

385

Mortality from Breast Carcinoma Among US Women: The Role and Implications of SocioEconomics, Heterogeneous Insurance, Screening Mammography, and Geography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite rapid advances in medicine and beneficial lifestyle changes, the incidence and mortality rate of gynecologic carcinoma remains high worldwide. This paper presents the econometric model findings of the major drivers of breast cancer mortality among US women. The results have implications for public health policy formulation on disease incidence and the drivers of mortality risks. The research methodology is

Albert A. Okunade; Mustafa C. Karakus

2003-01-01

386

Gender Norms, Poverty and Armed Conflict in Côte D'Ivoire: Engaging Men in Women's Social and Economic Empowerment Programming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engaging men is a critical component in efforts to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV). Little is known regarding men's perspectives of approaches that challenge inequitable gender norms, particularly in settings impacted by armed conflict. This article describes men's experiences with a women's empowerment program and highlights…

Falb, K. L.; Annan, J.; King, E.; Hopkins, J.; Kpebo, D.; Gupta, J.

2014-01-01

387

Activating the Disadvantaged. Variations in Addressing Youth Transitions across Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term activation refers to a shift in social policies, through which individuals are given more responsibility for their own social inclusion. This article provides a comparative analysis of the different ways in which EU member states interpret and implement the concept of activation by addressing the transitions of disadvantaged young people…

Pohl, Axel; Walther, Andreas

2007-01-01

388

Why the Disadvantaged Drop Out: The Administrators' View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A report focusing on the academically disadvantaged minority group students is presented. Perceptions of administrators in public two-year colleges as to the major reasons for attrition of this group are examined. A pre-coded questionnaire was developed to gather information concerning programs of compensatory education in two-year colleges. It…

Morrison, James L.; Ferrante, Reynolds

389

Instructional Resources for Teachers of the Culturally Disadvantaged and Exceptional.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as a reference for general educators, a resource book for teachers of the disadvantaged and exceptional, a textbook, a tool for administrators, and a resource for librarians, the book contains a list of instructional resources which the authors or experienced others had used with positive impression, plus recent materials. An introduction…

Anderson, Robert M., Ed.; And Others

390

An afterschool intervention program for educationally disadvantaged young children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research investigated the premise that if educationally disadvantaged children experience increased instructional time combined with an educational setting that is sensitive to their culture and that provides perceptions of control, enhanced achievement and interest in learning will result. The research setting was the Hilltop Emergent Literacy Project (HELP), an afterschool educational program serving poor, mostly African American five- to

David A. Bergin; Lynne M. Hudson; Carolyn F. Chryst; Mark Resetar

1992-01-01

391

Music Education and the Educationally Disadvantaged Gifted Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a literature review comparing the characteristics and needs of the average gifted child with the disadvantaged gifted child in four areas: (1) cognitive; (2) affective; (3) psycho-motor; and (4) special aptitudes. Numbered items indicate those comparisons that may be contrasted directly between the two groups. All other items are…

Buchanan, Janice Chapin

392

Missed Opportunities: A New Look at Disadvantaged College Aspirants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides a comprehensive portrait of educationally disadvantaged college aspirants, focusing on three important factors that hinder access to and success in postsecondary education. These factors--welfare participation, first-generation college student status, and parental divorce--exacerbate the obstacles that continue to confront…

Education Resources Inst., Boston, MA.

393

Coexpression of Linked Genes in Mammalian Genomes Is Generally Disadvantageous  

E-print Network

Coexpression of Linked Genes in Mammalian Genomes Is Generally Disadvantageous Ben-Yang Liao expression pattern between closely linked genes is known in several eukaryotes. Two models have been proposed of linked genes, but is neither advantageous nor detrimental. However, these models are incompatible

Zhang, Jianzhi

394

48 CFR 1519.204 - Small disadvantaged business participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...participation of Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB) concerns in the performance of a resulting...evaluate the extent of participation of SDB concerns in the performance of the contract...evaluate the extent of participation of SDB concerns in the performance of the...

2010-10-01

395

Students with Low-Incidence Disabilities in Disadvantaged, Rural Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive study examined the impact of special education policy on three disadvantaged, rural students with severe disabilities. Findings revealed a school day with little or no instruction and limited opportunities for peer interaction due to such factors as personnel shortages and lack of positive service examples. (Author/DB)

Capper, Colleen A.

1990-01-01

396

Access to Postsecondary Education: Can Schools Compensate for Socioeconomic Disadvantage?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While access to postsecondary education in Canada has increased over the past decade, a number of recent studies demonstrate that youth from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds are vulnerable to some degree of exclusion from postsecondary education. These studies tend to emphasize the lack of financial resources and social capital as the main…

Frempong, George; Ma, Xin; Mensah, Joseph

2012-01-01

397

Disentangling Disadvantage: Can We Distinguish Good Teaching from Classroom Composition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the use of teacher value-added estimates to assess the distribution of effective teaching across students of varying socioeconomic disadvantage in the presence of classroom composition effects. We examine, via simulations, how accurately commonly used teacher value-added estimators recover the rank correlation between…

Zamarro, Gema; Engberg, John; Saavedra, Juan Esteban; Steele, Jennifer

2015-01-01

398

Predicting Success among Prospective Disadvantaged Students in Natural Scientific Fields  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred and fifty-nine Grade 11 prospective disadvantaged students in the natural sciences at the University of Pretoria completed the Study Orientation Questionnaire in Mathematics and the Senior Aptitude Test (Advanced). Fifty-nine male students (M age = 16.05; SD = 0.57) and 100 females (M age = 16.02; SD = 0.512) scored significantly…

Maree, J. G.; Fletcher, L.; Sommerville, J.

2011-01-01

399

A Study of Four Library Programs for Disadvantaged Persons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a study of four projects in New York City which were established with federal grants to offer library service to the disadvantaged in the area. The four programs studied are the Preschool Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the Community Coordinator Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the North Manhattan Project of the New York…

Winsor, Charlotte B.; Burrows, Lodema

400

An empirical re-evaluation of consumer disadvantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer disadvantage, concerned with inequality in the market place, is a topic that has attracted waves of interest for over 30 years. Despite recent, renewed interest among academics in marketing and related disciplines, it remains to be clearly conceptualized, debated or extensively empirically tested. This paper aims to address these issues, using findings from a qualitative study (focus groups) on

Lucy Woodliffe

2007-01-01

401

Infusing Language Enhancement into the Reading Curriculum for Disadvantaged Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the collaborative instruction provided by a special education reading teacher and a speech-language pathologist to disadvantaged high school special education students, most with learning disabilities or mild-to-moderate mental retardation. It discusses teaching issues such as motivation, phonology, language use patterns, and…

Fleming, Jaci; Forester, Betsy

1997-01-01

402

Concrete vs. Abstract Problem Formats: A Disadvantage of Prior Knowledge  

E-print Network

Concrete vs. Abstract Problem Formats: A Disadvantage of Prior Knowledge Andrew F. Heckler experiments examine the effects of varying the relative concreteness of physics word problems on student performance.Previous studies have found that concrete representations benefit performance for relatively

Heckler, Andrew F.

403

Perspectives in the Education of Disadvantaged Children; A Multidisciplinary Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of original papers presents an interdisciplinary approach to the education of disadvantaged children. The volume, prepared especially for preservice and inservice teachers, is divided into three sections--poverty and its effects, the children of poverty, and educational implications. The first two parts deal with such areas as…

Cowles, Milly, Ed.

404

Nutritional Supplementation of Disadvantaged Elementary-School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined with 177 disadvantaged elementary school students (5-9 years old, 99 percent Blacks) were the effects of the provision of a nutritionally fortified low-lactose food supplement on hematocrit values (volume percentage of erythrocytes in whole blood), growth, absenteeism, and lunch consumption. (IM)

Paige, David M.; And Others

1976-01-01

405

To Admit or Not to Admit the Academically Disadvantaged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If institutions of higher learning have admissions standards that admit the academically-disadvantaged student, then those same institutions should provide programs to assist the enrollee to be academically successful. The author cites an investigation made at Oklahoma State University, showing a significant relationship between provisional…

Lacy, Robin H.

1979-01-01

406

Education and Training and the Avoidance of Financial Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Making use of the longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, this study examines the relationship between post-school qualifications and financial disadvantage among Australians during the period 2001 to 2008. Specifically, it is concerned with the extent that education and training, vis-a-vis…

Marks, Gary N.

2011-01-01

407

The Competitive Disadvantage: Teacher Compensation in Rural America. Policy Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three components of the teacher shortage are the recruitment challenge, the retention problem, and the demand for teacher quality. Although the teacher shortage problem involves many factors, any solution must address salaries. Rural districts face a threefold disadvantage: teachers are not compensated as well as other rural professionals; rural…

Jimerson, Lorna

408

Barriers to Healthier Eating in a Disadvantaged Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The research objective was to identify how healthy eating was understood in a disadvantaged community and how barriers to healthy eating might be overcome. Design: Participatory action research. Setting: Communities in Gurnos, Merthyr Tydfil, one of the most deprived areas in the UK. Method: Trainees on a participative methods course…

O'Neill, Martin; Rebane, Deanne; Lester, Carolyn

2004-01-01

409

A Summer Academic Research Experience for Disadvantaged Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience…

Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N.

2013-01-01

410

THE LIGHTHOUSE DAY CAMP READING EXPERIMENT WITH DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A READING PROGRAM DESIGNED FOR DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AND CONDUCTED BY THE LIGHTHOUSE, A SETTLEMENT HOUSE IN NORTH PHILADELPHIA, AS PART OF ITS DAY CAMP PROGRAM WAS DESCRIBED AND ASSESSED. THE READING PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED (1) TO BOOST THE OPPORTUNITIES IN READING READINESS FOR CHILDREN ABOUT TO ENTER FIRST GRADE, (2) TO ENRICH LANGUAGE…

GOMBERG, ADELINE W.

411

Assessment in Programs for Disadvantaged Students: Lessons from Accelerated Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment was studied in two accelerated schools, the Daniel Webster Elementary School in San Francisco (California) and the Fairbanks Elementary School in Springfield (Missouri) from October 1990 to March 1991. The accelerated schools movement for disadvantaged children began in the mid-1980s when researchers at Stanford University (California)…

Meister, Gail R.

412

The Uses of Media to Improve the Status of Women on an International Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mass media are valuable tools for influencing atttiudes toward women and for helping women to evaluate their roles in society. This paper discusses advantages and disadvantages of radio, printed materials, television, and film as socialization tools; the need for special attention to improving the status of women; new media products designed…

Busby, Linda J.

413

The Impact of Learning on Women's Labour Market Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women play an increasingly important role in the labour market and as wage earners. Moreover, in many countries, young women have outperformed men in terms of educational attainment and qualification. Still, women's human capital investment does not pay off as it does for men as they are still significantly disadvantaged on the labour market.…

Haasler, Simone R.

2014-01-01

414

Women With Disabilities in the Developing WorldArenas for Policy Revision and Programmatic Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has become standard practice to call attention to the double discrimination against both gender and disability under which women with disability labor. If women with disabilities universally find themselves at greater disadvantage because of these prejudices, their lives are often even more severely curtailed in much of the developing world, where poverty and traditionally negative attitudes toward women and

Nora E. Groce

1997-01-01

415

Gender and WarThe Effects of Armed Conflict on Women's Health and Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender inequality is magnified in situations ofwar, andwomen are disproportionately disadvantaged in terms of personal safety, access to resources, and human rights. This article summarizes the effects of armed conflict on women and women's greater vulnerability to health and mental health concerns because in war, women's bodies become a battleground. UN Security Council Resolution 1325 is introduced as an international

Golie G. Jansen

2006-01-01

416

Rural banks' financial capital and livelihoods development of women farmers in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to find out how financial capital from rural banks is contributing to the livelihoods development of women farmers who constitute the most vulnerable and disadvantaged group in Ghana and other developing countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Women farmers were randomly sampled, resulting in 100 beneficiary and 100 non-beneficiary women farmers who were used for

M. A. Akudugu

2011-01-01

417

The Role of Support Services in Promoting Social Inclusion for the Disadvantaged Urban-dwelling Elderly  

PubMed Central

Background Disadvantaged older adults living in non-family situations in Toronto are more likely than older adults living in family situations to have less economic security, less social support, and less choice in housing. Older adults who live in poverty and are precariously housed are more likely to be chronically ill, to live with multiple illnesses, to have poor nutrition, high stress and loneliness, all of which are strongly associated with the determinant of health social exclusion. The aim of this study is to: 1) evaluate the level of social disadvantage and exclusion experienced by low-income older adults 65 years of age and older living alone or in non-family situations; 2) assess the level of dependency on government and community services (support services) to maintain a reasonable standard of living (minimize effects of social exclusion); and 3) identify consequences of social exclusion not addressed by current available services. Methods Fifteen male older adult members of the Good Neighbours’ Club in downtown Toronto were interviewed. Semi-structured questionnaires assessed barriers to, utility of, and perceived impact of support services available to disadvantaged older adults living in the central core of southeast Toronto. Results Support services for income, housing, food security, social support, and health care do mitigate the effects of social exclusion in the study participants. Data gathered from interviews identified factors that counter the efforts by support services to increase social inclusion in this population. Conclusions Support services reduce social isolation experienced by these older adults. Evidence of the detrimental impact of low financial literacy suggests a need to design and implement training programs to build the older adults’ capacity to manage their own finances effectively, and resist falling victim to financial fraud. PMID:24278093

Nguyen, Vicky P.K.H.; Sarkari, Feroz; MacNeil, Kate; Cowan, Laura; Rankin, Joyce

2013-01-01

418

Forum on Economic Freedom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Forum on Economic Freedom web site was developed by the Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE) to build and strengthen democracy around the world through promoting private enterprise. The highlight of the site is Economic Reform Today, a journal published by CIPE to help educate policymakers on successful economic strategies. Recent issues have focused on challenges for policymakers in new democracies, globalization, reshaping government and market solutions to social issues. Other resources available include materials from CIPE "Central and Eastern Europe: Economic Policy Roundtables" and "Women in Business" programs.

419

Essays in public finance and labor economics  

E-print Network

This thesis examines three questions of causality relevant to public finance and labor economics: the effect of racial segregation on city characteristics, the effect of divorce on women's economic outcomes, and the effect ...

Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans

2006-01-01

420

Variations in food and drink advertising in UK monthly women's magazines according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers: a descriptive study of publications over 12 months  

PubMed Central

Background Overweight and obesity are recognised nationally and internationally as key public health challenges. Food and drink advertising is one of the array of factors that influence both diet and physical activity choices and, hence, body weight and obesity. Little previous work has focused on food and drink advertising in magazines. We studied food and drink advertising in a wide range of popular UK monthly women's magazines published over a full year. We explored differences in the prevalence of food and drink advertising and the type of food and drinks advertised according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. Methods All advertisements in all issues of 18 popular UK monthly women's magazines published over 12 months were identified. For each food or drink advertisement, branded food and drinks were noted and categorised into one of seven food groups. All analyses were at the level of the individual advertisement. Results A total of 35 053 advertisements were identified; 1380 (3.9%) of these were for food or drink. The most common food group represented was 'food and drinks high in fat and/or sugar' (28.0% of food advertisements), the least common group was 'fruits & vegetables' (2.0% of food advertisements). Advertisements for alcohol accounted for 10.1% of all food advertisements. Food and drink advertisements were most common in summer, general interest magazines, and those with the most affluent readerships. There were some differences in the type of food and drink advertised across season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. Conclusions Food and drink advertisements represented only a small proportion of advertisements in UK women's monthly magazines. Food and drink advertisements in these magazines feature a high proportion of 'less healthy' foods. There were a number of differences across season, magazine type and according to the socio-economic profile of readers in the prevalence of food and drink advertisements. Fewer differences were seen in the type of food and drinks advertised. PMID:21605388

2011-01-01

421

Socio-Economic Outcomes of Teen Pregnancy and Parenthood: A Review of the Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews literature examining the socioeconomic consequences of teen pregnancy and childbearing and the birth intentions of teenage mothers. Teen mothers, as opposed to women who delay childbearing, are more likely to become socioeconomically disadvantaged. Socioeconomic disadvantage is correlated with, but not necessarily a consequence of, early…

Bissell, Mary

2000-01-01

422

Women of the World: Women's Health in India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Census Bureau offers this report that profiles the current state of women's health and education in India. The report was released as part of the bureau's Women of the World series, which focuses on socio-economic gender issues in various countries. The reports present data from a variety of sources and summarize germane findings to provide a snapshot of Indian literacy, education level, fertility, infant mortality, and maternal mortality, among other statistical factors related to women's health and education.

Adlakha, Arjun, 1941-.

423

THE WOMEN'S TALENT CORPS, PROPOSAL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

WOMEN'S TALENT CORPS, FUNDED BY THE OFFICE OF ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY, WILL MEET TWO SOCIAL PROBLEMS IN NEW YORK CITY--JOB SHORTAGES IN COMMUNITY SERVICES AND UNEMPLOYMENT AND LACK OF TRAINING AMONG THE POOR. WOMEN WILL BE RECRUITED FROM LOW-INCOME NEIGHBORHOODS AND TRAINED AS PRE-PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANTS IN SCHOOLS, HOSPITALS, AND SOCIAL AGENCIES…

COHEN, AUDREY C.

424

Stepchildren, community disadvantage, and physical injury in a child abuse incident: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

It is proffered that stepchildren are more likely than genetic children to be physically abused because they are unable to ensure the genetic survival of their adoptive parents. This abuse is theorized to be more pronounced in communities where social and economic resources are scarce. The salience of this cross-level interaction hinges on the assumption that the limited resources of a family are first allocated to genetic offspring because these children, unlike their nongenetic siblings, carry the genes of their parents. A multilevel analysis of child abuse incidents reported to police in 133 U.S. cities during 2005 shows that in cities with a high level of community disadvantage, stepchildren are much more apt than are genetic children to suffer a physical injury in a child abuse incident. Such a finding buttresses the position articulated by proponents of sociobiology. PMID:23393950

D'Alessio, Stewart J; Stolzenberg, Lisa

2012-01-01

425

Women's Institute for Financial Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Women's Institute for Financial Education (WIFE) offers a monthly newsletter focused on women's financial issues. Like a strange blend of Oprah and Fortune magazines, WIFE contains articles on relationships and money, children and money, careers and money, and even stress-management and money. We at the Scout Project find the acronym WIFE to be somewhat dubious for an organization promoting women's financial independence. However, this Website does offer some sound advice on a variety of topics relating, literally, to home economics.

426

National Organization for Women (NOW)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Organization of Women (NOW) Web page offers extensive information about issues NOW is involved in, such as economic equity, electoral politics, global feminism, racial and ethnic diversity, and violence against women. Also available is contact information for chapter and state organizations and the NOW Action Center. Links to other feminist resources on the Internet include the University of Maryland's Women's Studies Database and feminist activists resources on the Net.

1998-01-01

427

State-level women’s status and psychiatric disorders among US women  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although greater gender equality at the state-level is associated with fewer depressive symptoms in women after controlling for individual-level confounders, the extent to which state-level women’s status is related to psychiatric disorders in women and gender differences in psychopathology has never been examined. We examined these associations in the current report. Methods We used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 34,653), a national probability sample of US adults. Respondents completed structured diagnostic assessments of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders. We used generalized estimating equations to examine associations between four state-level indicators of women’s status (political participation, employment/earnings, social/economic autonomy, and reproductive rights) and odds of 12-month mood and anxiety disorders among women. We also tested whether women’s status predicted the magnitude of gender differences in psychiatric disorders. Results State-level political participation, employment/earnings, and social/economic autonomy were unrelated to odds of 12-month mood and anxiety disorders among women. However, the prevalence of major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder was lower in states where women have greater reproductive rights (OR 0.93–0.95), controlling for individual-level risk factors. None of the women’s status indicators predicted gender differences in mood and anxiety disorder prevalence. Conclusions State-level women’s status was largely unrelated to mood and anxiety disorders in women or to gender differences in these disorders. Investigation of social factors that play a role in shaping the distribution of individual-level risk factors that are associated with gender disparities in psychiatric disorders represents an important avenue for future research. PMID:20853099

Xuan, Ziming; Subramanian, S. V.; Koenen, Karestan C.

2012-01-01

428

Incentives as connectors: insights into a breastfeeding incentive intervention in a disadvantaged area of North-West England  

PubMed Central

Background Incentive or reward schemes are becoming increasingly popular to motivate healthy lifestyle behaviours. In this paper, insights from a qualitative and descriptive study to investigate the uptake, impact and meanings of a breastfeeding incentive intervention integrated into an existing peer support programme (Star Buddies) are reported. The Star Buddies service employs breastfeeding peer supporters to support women across the ante-natal, intra-partum and post-partum period. Methods In a disadvantaged area of North West England, women initiating breastfeeding were recruited by peer supporters on the postnatal ward or soon after hospital discharge to participate in an 8 week incentive (gifts and vouchers) and breastfeeding peer supporter intervention. In-depth interviews were conducted with 26 women participants who engaged with the incentive intervention, and a focus group was held with the 4 community peer supporters who delivered the intervention. Descriptive analysis of routinely collected data for peer supporter contacts and breastfeeding outcomes before and after the incentive intervention triangulated and retrospectively provided the context for the qualitative thematic analysis. Results A global theme emerged of 'incentives as connectors', with two sub-themes of 'facilitating connections' and 'facilitating relationships and wellbeing'. The incentives were linked to discussion themes and gift giving facilitated peer supporter access for proactive weekly home visits to support women. Regular face to face contacts enabled meaningful relationships and new connections within and between the women, families, peer supporters and care providers to be formed and sustained. Participants in the incentive scheme received more home visits and total contact time with peer supporters compared to women before the incentive intervention. Full participation levels and breastfeeding rates at 6-8 weeks were similar for women before and after the incentive intervention. Conclusion The findings suggest that whilst the provision of incentives might not influence women's intentions or motivations to breastfeed, the connections forged provided psycho-social benefits for both programme users and peer supporters. PMID:22458841

2012-01-01

429

Investment finance: off limits for women.  

PubMed

In Zambia, women's access to finance is limited because 1) women lack collateral, 2) administrative practices discriminate against women, 3) women lack knowledge and information, and 4) women fail to maintain required financial records because their incomes are so low. Women have invested in areas which would be categorized as "feminine," however, including garment-making and flower-growing. The UNIP Women's League, which was the government's official body charged with ensuring gender awareness in policy-making and planning failed to survive the transition to a multiparty democracy. Some churches and nongovernmental organizations have attempted to promote gender-aware projects to help women survive the current economic crisis, but these programs are few and far between and suffer from a lack of capital. Organizations must adopt a business-like approach to help women move from welfare to economic empowerment. PMID:12320731

Chilangwa-n'gambi, C Y

1993-10-01

430

Potential roles of high salt intake and maternal malnutrition in the development of hypertension in disadvantaged populations.  

PubMed

1. It has been argued that all major risk factors for cardiovascular disease have been identified. Yet, epidemiological studies undertaken to identify risk factors have largely focused on populations in developed nations or on the urban or relatively affluent rural populations of developing countries. Poor rural populations are seldom studied. 2. Somewhat different risk factors may operate in poor rural populations. Evidence for this is provided by the finding that, in disadvantaged rural India, the prevalence of hypertension is greater than would be expected based on established risk factors in these populations. One risk factor to be considered is a poor intrauterine environment. 3. In animals, maternal macro- and micronutrient malnutrition can lead to reduced nephron endowment. Nephron deficiency, in turn, can render blood pressure salt sensitive. The combination of nephron deficiency and excessive salt intake will predispose to hypertension. 4. Human malnutrition may have similar effects, particularly in regions of the world where malnutrition is endemic and where women are disadvantaged by existing social practices. 5. Moreover, high salt intake is endemic in many parts of Asia, including India. Therefore, we propose that maternal malnutrition (leading to reduced nephron endowment), when combined with excessive salt intake postnatally, will account, at least in part, for the unexpectedly high prevalence of hypertension in disadvantaged rural communities in India and elsewhere. PMID:19650789

Thrift, Amanda G; Srikanth, Velandai; Fitzgerald, Sharyn M; Kalyanram, Kartik; Kartik, Kamakshi; Hoppe, Chantal C; Walker, Karen Z; Evans, Roger G

2010-02-01

431

Access to postsecondary education: can schools compensate for socioeconomic disadvantage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

While access to postsecondary education in Canada has increased over the past decade, a number of recent studies demonstrate\\u000a that youth from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds are vulnerable to some degree of exclusion from postsecondary education.\\u000a These studies tend to emphasize the lack of financial resources and social capital as the main sources of this vulnerability.\\u000a Our paper employs multilevel framework

George Frempong; Xin Ma; Joseph Mensah

432

Effect of neighborhood stigma on economic transactions.  

PubMed

The hypothesis of neighborhood stigma predicts that individuals who reside in areas known for high crime, poverty, disorder, and/or racial isolation embody the negative characteristics attributed to their communities and experience suspicion and mistrust in their interactions with strangers. This article provides an experimental test of whether neighborhood stigma affects individuals in one domain of social life: economic transactions. To evaluate the neighborhood stigma hypothesis, this study adopts an audit design in a locally organized, online classified market, using advertisements for used iPhones and randomly manipulating the neighborhood of the seller. The primary outcome under study is the number of responses generated by sellers from disadvantaged relative to advantaged neighborhoods. Advertisements from disadvantaged neighborhoods received significantly fewer responses than advertisements from advantaged neighborhoods. Results provide robust evidence that individuals from disadvantaged neighborhoods bear a stigma that influences their prospects in economic exchanges. The stigma is greater for advertisements originating from disadvantaged neighborhoods where the majority of residents are black. This evidence reveals that residence in a disadvantaged neighborhood not only affects individuals through mechanisms involving economic resources, institutional quality, and social networks but also affects residents through the perceptions of others. PMID:25848041

Besbris, Max; Faber, Jacob William; Rich, Peter; Sharkey, Patrick

2015-04-21

433

Women and Retirement Pensions: A Research Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The links between women's caring work and access to economic resources are particularly critical in the context of widespread public policy debates about retirement and pensions, many of which neglect care as a key issue for analysis. However, among feminist economists it is widely recognized that women's patterns of care provision have adverse implications for their access to economic resources

Therese Jefferson

2009-01-01

434

The role of dietary protein and vitamin D in maintaining musculoskeletal health in postmenopausal women: a consensus statement from the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO).  

PubMed

From 50 years of age, postmenopausal women are at an increased risk of developing sarcopenia and osteoporosis as a result of deterioration of musculoskeletal health. Both disorders increase the risk of falls and fractures. The risk of developing sarcopenia and osteoporosis may be attenuated through healthy lifestyle changes, which include adequate dietary protein, calcium and vitamin D intakes, and regular physical activity/exercise, besides hormone replacement therapy when appropriate. Protein intake and physical activity are the main anabolic stimuli for muscle protein synthesis. Exercise training leads to increased muscle mass and strength, and the combination of optimal protein intake and exercise produces a greater degree of muscle protein accretion than either intervention alone. Similarly, adequate dietary protein intake and resistance exercise are important contributors to the maintenance of bone strength. Vitamin D helps to maintain muscle mass and strength as well as bone health. These findings suggest that healthy lifestyle measures in women aged >50 years are essential to allow healthy ageing. The European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) recommends optimal dietary protein intake of 1.0-1.2g/kgbodyweight/d with at least 20-25g of high-quality protein at each main meal, with adequate vitamin D intake at 800IU/d to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels >50nmol/L as well as calcium intake of 1000mg/d, alongside regular physical activity/exercise 3-5 times/week combined with protein intake in close proximity to exercise, in postmenopausal women for prevention of age-related deterioration of musculoskeletal health. PMID:25082206

Rizzoli, René; Stevenson, John C; Bauer, Jürgen M; van Loon, Luc J C; Walrand, Stéphane; Kanis, John A; Cooper, Cyrus; Brandi, Maria-Luisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Reginster, Jean-Yves

2014-09-01

435

Marital history, health and mortality among older men and women in England and Wales  

PubMed Central

Background Health benefits of marriage have long been recognised and extensively studied but previous research has yielded inconsistent results for older people, particularly older women. At older ages accumulated benefits or disadvantages of past marital experience, as well as current marital status, may be relevant, but fewer studies have considered effects of marital history. Possible effects of parity, and the extent to which these may contribute to marital status differentials in health, have also been rarely considered. Methods We use data from the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study, a large record linkage study of 1% of the population of England & Wales, to analyse associations between marital history 1971-1991 and subsequent self-reported limiting long-term illness and mortality in a cohort of some 75,000 men and women aged 60-79 in 1991. We investigate whether prior marital status and time in current marital status influenced risks of mortality or long term illness using Poisson regression to analyse mortality differentials 1991-2001 and logistic regression to analyse differences in proportions reporting limiting long-term illness in 1991 and 2001. Co-variates included indicators of socio-economic status at two or three points of the adult life course and, for women, number of children borne (parity). Results Relative to men in long-term first marriages, never-married men, widowers with varying durations of widowerhood, men divorced for between 10 and twenty years, and men in long-term remarriages had raised mortality 1991-2001. Men in long-term remarriages and those divorced or widowed since 1971 had higher odds of long-term illness in 1991; in 2001 the long-term remarried were the only group with significantly raised odds of long-term illness. Among women, the long-term remarried also had higher odds of reporting long-term illness in 1991 and in 2001 and those remarried and previously divorced had raised odds of long-term illness and raised mortality 1991-2001; this latter effect was not significant in models including parity. All widows had raised mortality 1991-2001 but associations between widowhood of varying durations and long-term illness in 1991 or 2001 were not significant once socio-economic status was controlled. Some groups of divorced women had higher mortality risks 1991-2001 and raised odds of long-term illness in 1991. Results for never-married women showed a divergence between associations with mortality and with long-term illness. In models controlling for socio-economic status, mortality risk was raised but the association with 1991 long-term illness was not significant and in 2001 never-married women had lower odds of reporting long-term illness than women in long-term first marriages. Formally taking account of selective survival in the 20 years prior to entry to the study population had minor effects on results. Conclusions Results were consistent with previous studies in showing that the relationship between marital experience and later life health and mortality is considerably modified by socio-economic factors, and additionally showed that taking women's parity into account further moderated associations. Considering marital history rather than simply current marital status provided some insights into differentials between, for example, remarried people according to prior marital status and time remarried, but these groups were relatively small and there were some disadvantages of the approach in terms of loss of statistical power. Consideration of past histories is likely to be more important for later born cohorts whose partnership experiences have been less stable and more heterogeneous. PMID:20843303

2010-01-01

436

Women in Political Power in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides an overview of women's participation in parliament in Latin America. It analyses the reasons for and obstacles to women's gains in power, including socio-economic factors, public attitudes to women in leadership and the role of political parties and electoral systems. Taking these into account, it examines the affirmative action strategies adopted by Latin American countries to expand

Mala N. Htun

437

Women Migrant Workers: Embracing Empowerment Over Victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on women migrant workers - women who leave their countries, whether taking their families or leaving them behind, in search of employment and economic opportunity abroad. After a discussion of the recent globalization of migration, this paper continues with an examination of the feminization of migration. Part II then discusses how men and women workers experience migration

Jill Borak

438

Gendered Citizenship: Women, Equality, and Abortion Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1970s significant progress has been made in the area of women's rights, yet women lag behind men economically, politically, and socially. One reason for this persistent inequality between the sexes is that traditional gender attitudes regarding women's roles as wives and mothers compete with a definition of equality based on rights. Nowhere is this more evident than in

Rosemary Nossiff

2007-01-01

439

Women in Community Colleges: Access to Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community colleges open the door to opportunity for millions of Americans who want to pursue higher education and secure their economic futures. As an organization founded on the basic principle of making college accessible to women, the American Association of University Women (AAUW) has been a leading voice for women in education and the…

St. Rose, Andresse; Hill, Catherine

2013-01-01

440

RELS 3023: Women, Religion, and Secularism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This course will consider the current struggle over the role of women in societies around the world by looking at religious debates and experiences. We will examine the historical and contemporary experiences and roles of women, paying particular attention to the ways in which religious beliefs and ideologies have affected women's lives in relation to religious, social, economic and political

Jill Irvine

441

Residential Selection across the Life Course: Adolescent Contextual and Individual Determinants of Neighborhood Disadvantage in Mid-Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous cross-sectional studies have examined neighborhood effects on health. Residential selection in adulthood has been stressed as an important cause of selection bias but has received little empirical attention, particularly its determinants from the earlier life course. The present study aims to examine whether neighborhood, family, school, health behaviors and health in adolescence are related to socioeconomic disadvantage of one's neighborhood of residence in adulthood. Methods Based on the prospective Northern Swedish Cohort (analytical N?=?971, 90.6% retention rate), information was collected at age 16 years concerning family circumstances, school adjustment, health behaviors and mental and physical health. Neighborhood register data was linked to the cohort and used to operationalize aggregated measures of neighborhood disadvantage (ND) at age 16 and 42. Data was analyzed with linear mixed models, with ND in adulthood regressed on adolescent predictors and neighborhood of residence in adolescence as the level-2 unit. Results Neighborhood disadvantage in adulthood was clustered by neighborhood of residence in adolescence (ICC?=?8.6%). The clustering was completely explained by ND in adolescence. Of the adolescent predictors, ND (b?=?.14 (95% credible interval?=?.07–.22)), final school marks (b?=??.18 (?.26–?.10)), socioeconomic disadvantage (b?=?.07 (.01–.14)), and, with borderline significance, school peer problems (b?=?.07 (?.00–.13)), were independently related to adulthood ND in the final adjusted model. In sex-stratified analyses, the most important predictors were school marks (b?=??.21 (?.32–?.09)) in women, and neighborhood of residence (ICC?=?15.5%) and ND (b?=?.20 (.09–.31)) in men. Conclusions These findings show that factors from adolescence – which also may impact on adult health – could influence the neighborhood context in which one will live in adulthood. This indicates that residential selection bias in neighborhood effects on health research may have its sources in early life. PMID:24278263

Gustafsson, Per E.; San Sebastian, Miguel; Janlert, Urban; Theorell, Töres; Westerlund, Hugo; Hammarström, Anne

2013-01-01

442

‘Inconvenient biology:’ advantages and disadvantages of first-time parenting after age 40 using in vitro fertilization  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND As ages at first birth have steadily risen in the industrial west over the last several decades, the phenomenon of ‘delayed childbearing’ has come under research scrutiny by demographers, medical specialists and social scientists. In this study, we specifically explore the perceived advantages and disadvantages of postponed conception as well as participants’ retrospective opinions on the ‘optimal age’ for parenting. METHODS To this end, we examined a cohort purposely chosen to epitomize delayed childbearing, i.e. men and women who used IVF to conceive at the very end of their reproductive capability. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted between 2009 and 2011 with 46 couples and 15 individual self-selected US women and men who had used IVF to conceive their first child when the woman was aged 40 or older at the time of delivery. Although the demographics of this cohort were consistent with others who use IVF in the USA, their median income was 3–4 times higher than that of the average US family, which may bias their largely positive parenting experiences. RESULTS Most women and men believed that childbearing later in life resulted in advantages for themselves and their families. These included having established careers with financial security and career-time flexibility, enhanced emotional preparedness, committed co-parenting relationships and a positive overall family experience. The main disadvantage was the unexpected difficulty in conceiving that culminated in the use of IVF and resulted in a smaller family than desired, although many expressed feeling ‘lucky’ to have children at all. Other disadvantages were lack of energy for parenting, less available lifetime to spend with children and anticipated stigma as older parents. CONCLUSIONS These disadvantages appear to have influenced conception and parenting experiences so that in hindsight the majority of participants identified the optimal age for first-time parenting as 5–10 years earlier than they had conceived. This age range was imagined to maximize the financial and emotional advantages of later parenting while minimizing the impact of age-related infertility, diminished energy, anticipated health issues and the social stigma of appearing too old to parent. PMID:22333985

Mac Dougall, K.; Beyene, Y.; Nachtigall, R.D.

2012-01-01

443

Female Principals Leading at Disadvantaged Schools in Johannesburg, South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

South African democracy precipitated many changes and excavated many dormant issues, one of which was equity in the workplace. This extended into the sphere of education - a sector in which women were rarely seen in leadership positions. Following the implementation of several redress policies, women have managed to penetrate the gender equity…

Naidoo, Bhaigiavathie; Perumal, Juliet

2014-01-01

444

Changes in women’s postmarital employment in Japan and Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on female labor-force participation has not fully explained why economic development has different effects on married\\u000a women’s employment continuity across societies. I use life-history data from nationally representative samples of women in\\u000a Japan and Taiwan to examine the divergence in women’s patterns of labor-force exit in these two countries during the postwar\\u000a period. The findings reveal that the effects

Wei-Hsin Yu

2005-01-01

445

41 CFR 105-53.130-4 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 105-53...Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. (a) Creation...and authority. Public Law 95-507, October 14...amendment to the Small Business Act and the Small...

2010-07-01

446

48 CFR 726.7007 - Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises...Program 726.7007 Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises...no realistic expectation of U.S. subcontracting opportunities and so documents...

2010-10-01

447

75 FR 77737 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Small Disadvantaged Business Self-Certification  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...participating as SDB concerns for subcontracting. This interim rule implements changes...disadvantaged business (SDB) for any Federal subcontracting program if it believes in good faith...disadvantaged business (SDB) for any Federal subcontracting program, and believes in good...

2010-12-13

448

48 CFR 19.1203 - Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business...Participation Program 19.1203 Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business...contracting officer may encourage increased subcontracting opportunities in the NAICS...

2010-10-01

449

48 CFR 219.1203 - Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business...Participation Program 219.1203 Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business...contracting officer shall encourage increased subcontracting opportunities for SDB...

2010-10-01

450

77 FR 16244 - Request for Comments on the Update of the Scholarships for Disadvantaged Students Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Request for Comments on the Update of the Scholarships for Disadvantaged Students Program...clarifies the implementation of the Scholarships for Disadvantaged Students (SDS...In addition, grantees provide scholarships to individuals who meet the...

2012-03-20

451

7 CFR 761.208 - Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged groups.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...participation rates for providing FO, CL, and OL loans to members of socially disadvantaged groups...of such socially disadvantaged groups. (c) OL loans based on ethnicity or race. The OL loan target participation rate based on...

2013-01-01

452

7 CFR 761.208 - Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged groups.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...participation rates for providing FO, CL, and OL loans to members of socially disadvantaged groups...of such socially disadvantaged groups. (c) OL loans based on ethnicity or race. The OL loan target participation rate based on...

2012-01-01

453

7 CFR 761.208 - Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged groups.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...participation rates for providing FO, CL, and OL loans to members of socially disadvantaged groups...of such socially disadvantaged groups. (c) OL loans based on ethnicity or race. The OL loan target participation rate based on...

2014-01-01

454

7 CFR 761.208 - Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged groups.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...target participation rates for providing FO and OL loans to members of socially disadvantaged groups...of such socially disadvantaged groups. (c) OL loans based on ethnicity or race. The OL loan target participation rate based on...

2010-01-01

455

7 CFR 761.208 - Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged groups.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...participation rates for providing FO, CL, and OL loans to members of socially disadvantaged groups...of such socially disadvantaged groups. (c) OL loans based on ethnicity or race. The OL loan target participation rate based on...

2011-01-01

456

48 CFR 19.305 - Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...representation of disadvantaged business status. 19.305 Section 19.305 Federal...PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs 19.305...representation of disadvantaged business status. (a) This section applies to...

2010-10-01

457

48 CFR 1519.201-72 - Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists. 1519...AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.201-72 Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists. (a)...

2013-10-01

458

48 CFR 719.271-2 - The USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB). 719.271-2...DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.271-2 The USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB). (a) SDB...

2012-10-01

459

48 CFR 719.271-2 - The USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB). 719.271-2...DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.271-2 The USAID Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SDB). (a) SDB...

2014-10-01

460

48 CFR 1519.201-72 - Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists. 1519...AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.201-72 Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists. (a)...

2012-10-01

461

48 CFR 1519.201-72 - Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists. 1519...AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.201-72 Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists. (a)...

2011-10-01

462

48 CFR 1519.201-72 - Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists. 1519...AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.201-72 Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists. (a)...

2014-10-01

463

48 CFR 726.7006 - Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC...than full and open competition, the contractor...small disadvantaged business (as defined in...small disadvantaged business unless he or she determines...status by the Small Business Administration or...

2010-10-01

464

Appalachian Women. An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography compiles annotations of 178 books, journal articles, ERIC documents, and dissertations on Appalachian women and their social, cultural, and economic environment. Entries were published 1966-93 and are listed in the following categories: (1) authors and literary criticism; (2) bibliographies and resource guides; (3) economics,…

Hamm, Mary Margo

465

Socioeconomic disadvantage and changes in health risk behaviours in Australia: 1989-90 to 2001.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated in industrialized countries with unhealthy lifestyle characteristics, such as smoking, physical inactivity and being overweight or obese. This paper examines changes over time in the association between SES and smoking status, physical activity and being overweight or obese in Australia. METHODS: Data were taken from three successive national health surveys in Australia carried out in 1989-90 (n = 54,576), 1995 (n = 53,828) and 2001 (n = 26,863). Participants in these surveys were selected using a national probability sampling strategy, and aggregated data for geographical areas are used to determine the changing association between SES and lifestyle over time. FINDINGS: Overall, men had less healthy lifestyles. In 2001 inverse SES trends for both men and women showed that those living in lower SES areas were more likely to smoke and to be sedentary and obese. There were some important socioeconomic changes over the period 1989-90 to 2001. The least socioeconomically disadvantaged areas had the largest decrease in the percentage of people smoking tobacco (24% decrease for men and 12% for women) and the largest decrease in the percentage of people reporting sedentary activity levels (25% decrease for men and 22% for women). While there has been a general increase in the percentage over time of those who are overweight or obese, there is a modest trend for being overweight to have increased (by about 16% only among females) among those living in areas of higher SES. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic inequalities have been increasing for several key risk behaviours related to health; this suggests that specific population-based prevention strategies intended to reduce health inequalities are needed. PMID:17242834

Najman, Jake M.; Toloo, Ghasem; Siskind, Victor

2006-01-01

466

Socioeconomic status over 12 years and subclinical cardiovascular disease: The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The inverse relation between socioeconomic status (SES) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well-established. However, few studies have investigated SES assessed repeatedly over adulthood in relation to subclinical atherosclerosis. We aimed to test whether consistently low SES, as indexed by education, income, and financial strain over 12 years of midlife was related to later carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and plaque among women. Methods The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation is a multi-site longitudinal study of midlife women. Education was assessed at the study baseline, income and financial strain were obtained yearly over 12 years, and a carotid ultrasound was obtained at study year 12 among 1402 women. Associations were tested in linear and multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for demographic, biological, and behavioral risk factors. Results A high school education or less (OR (95%CI): 1.72(1.15,2.59), p<0.01), some college education (OR (95%CI): 1.65(1.17,2.32), p<0.01), consistently low income (OR (95%CI): 1.83(1.15,2.89), p<0.05) and consistent financial strain (OR (95%CI): 1.78(1.21,2.61), p<0.01) over 12 years were associated with higher carotid plaque, and consistent financial strain was associated with elevated maximal IMT (b(SE)=0.02(0.01), p<0.05) controlling for standard CVD risk factors. When SES indices were considered together, financial strain (b(SE); 0.02(0.01), p<0.05) and low education (high school education or less: OR (95%CI): 1.55(1.01,2.37), p<0.05; some college: OR (95%CI): 1.56(1.09,2.21), p<0.05) were most consistently associated with IMT and plaque, respectively, controlling for risk factors. Conclusions Findings indicate the importance of targeting economically disadvantaged women in efforts to prevent CVD among women. PMID:24578209

Thurston, Rebecca C.; El Khoudary, Samar R.; Derby, Carol A.; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Lewis, Tené T.; McClure, Candace K.; Matthews, Karen A.

2014-01-01

467

49 CFR 1.62 - Delegations to the Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Delegations to the Director of Small and Disadvantaged...DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Delegations § 1.62 Delegations to the Director of Small and Disadvantaged...Business Utilization. The Director of Small and Disadvantaged...execution of functions and duties under sections 8...

2010-10-01

468

Creative productivity in women analysts.  

PubMed

A pilot study of female analyst creative productivity finds that women authors are well represented in numbers in two leading analytic journals, The Journal of The American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, for 1980-81. However, women analyst members of the journals' parent organizations are very poorly represented compared with male analyst members. This has led to an exploration of factors affecting female analyst productivity, encompassing a broad sweep from the sociological to the personal, dynamic level. Differential opportunities for women analysts may be inherent in the educational processes. There is evidence for an "accumulation of disadvantage" for women in the field of psychiatry, as well as the impression of gender bias and feelings of stigmatization in psychoanalysis. The question of whether academic research career paths for women are adequately encouraged is raised. Mentorship patterns are also discussed. Whether gender bias affects journal publications and the nature of psychoanalytic thinking is questioned. Women's lessened productivity is sometimes ascribed to practical aspects of feminine role. This myth is debunked for women in science, where married women with children are equally productive. The author suggests that women analysts, however, may be a select group and may be more subject to role conformity pressures. Feminine role conflicts and their effects are discussed. Dynamic issues related to creative productivity are explored in two major areas. The author suggests that female preoedipal object relations may play a part in females devaluing of their own creative efforts in a competitive arena. The oedipal situation is also discussed, especially with regard to very high-achieving women. It is suggested that though competition with the maternal-nurturant rival may be worked through, often there is incomplete resolution of the surpassing and separation from the protective, loving, but dominant oedipal father, thus limiting true professional autonomy. PMID:3988573

Schuker, E

1985-01-01

469

Women's Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 16 articles in this journal issue deal with women's studies within the English curriculum. Topics discussed in the articles include (1) the feminist challenge to the male-centered curriculum in higher education; (2) the women's movement and women's studies; (3) connotations of the word "girl"; (4) women in English education; (5) the new…

Davis, James E., Ed.; Davis, Hazel K., Ed.

1981-01-01

470

Smokefree Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Smoking » share 11 Harmful Effects of Smoking on Women’s Health Maybe you’ve heard that smoking causes cancer… ... full story: 11 Harmful Effects of Smoking on Women’s Health » share Tips Give Yourself a Smokefree Makeover! Making ...

471

Advantages and Disadvantages of Health Care Accreditation Mod­els  

PubMed Central

Background: This systematic review seeks to define the general advantages and disadvan­tages of accreditation programs to assist in choosing the most appropriate approach. Method: Systematic search of SID, Ovid Medline & PubMed databases was conducted by the keywords of accreditation, hospital, medical practice, clinic, accreditation models, health care and Persian meanings. From 2379 initial articles, 83 articles met the full inclusion criteria. From initial analysis, 23 attributes were identified which appeared to define advantages and disadvantages of different accreditation approaches and the available systems were compared on these. Results: Six systems were identified in the international literature including the JCAHO from USA, the Canadian program of CCHSA, and the accreditation programs of UK, Australia, New Zealand and France. The main distinguishing attributes among them were: quality improve­ment, patient and staff safety, improving health services integration, public’s confi­dence, effectiveness and efficiency of health services, innovation, influence global standards, information management, breadth of activity, history, effective relationship with stakeholders, agreement with AGIL attributes and independence from government. Conclusion: Based on 23 attributes of comprehensive accreditation systems we have defined from a systematic review, the JCAHO accreditation program of USA and then CCHSA of Can­ada offered the most comprehensive systems with the least disadvantages. Other programs such as the ACHS of Australia, ANAES of France, QHNZ of New Zealand and UK accredita­tion programs were fairly comparable according to these criteria. However the decision for any country or health system should be based on an assessment weighing up their specific objec­tives and needs. PMID:24688896

Tabrizi, Jafar S.; Gharibi, Farid; Wilson, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

472

Interfirm information linkages in an economically disadvantaged region: an empirical perspective from metropolitan Buffalo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The external information linkages of industrial firms in two sectors of Buffalo's manufacturing base -- medical instruments, and chemicals -- are examined. Survey data are presented which indicate a positive role for imported technical services in local product innovation, export activity, and technology diffusion. The data reveal that firms which import a substantial proportion of their external technical inputs hold

A MacPherson

1991-01-01

473

Early Intervention for Childhood Anxiety in a School Setting: Outcomes for an Economically Disadvantaged Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate a school-based early intervention program for the reduction of anxious symptoms in at-risk children from low socioeconomic status neighborhoods. Method: A total of 425 children (8-11 years old) from nine schools in low socioeconomic status areas were screened to identify children with high-level anxious symptoms. Ninety-one…

Mifsud, Cynthia; Rapee, Ronald M.

2005-01-01

474

An Analysis of Water Safety Behaviors among Migrant and Economically/Educationally Disadvantaged Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This water safety study was both descriptive and exploratory in nature. The purpose was for middle school students to assess their own water safety experiences and to help school decision-makers determine the extent of drowning/water accidents. In July 2009, a water safety survey was administered to 122 students participating in the local Summer…

Sbarbaro, Victor S.; Enyeart Smith, Theresa M.

2011-01-01

475

The relationship of parenting stress and child temperament to language development among economically disadvantaged preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral language skills in the preschool years are predictive of children's later reading success and literacy acquisition, and among these language skills, vocabulary and narrative ability play important roles. Children from low socioeconomic families face risks to their language develop- ment and because of threats to these skills it is important to identify factors that promote their development among high-risk

MELANIE NOEL; CAROLE PETERSON; BEULAH JESSO

2008-01-01

476

Early maternal employment and childhood obesity among economically disadvantaged families in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in low-income urban communities in the USA (n?=?322). Logistic regression and propensity

Rebekah Levine Coley; Caitlin McPherran Lombardi

2012-01-01

477

Early Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity among Economically Disadvantaged Families in the USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in…

Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

2012-01-01

478

English and socio-economic disadvantage: learner voices from rural Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

L2 education research has shown immense interest in learners and their views of L2 learning. Nevertheless, the different directions of learner-focused research have been inadequate in highlighting learners' learning experiences in relation to their social backgrounds, particularly in the developing world. Drawing on the first author's PhD research, this paper analyses school learners' perceptions and experiences of learning English in

M. Obaidul Hamid; Richard B. Baldauf Jr

2011-01-01

479

Extending the Purposes of Science Education: Addressing Violence within Socio-Economic Disadvantaged Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current discourses about science education show a wide concern towards humanisation and a more socio-cultural perspective of school science. They suggest that science education can serve diverse purposes and be responsive to social and environmental situations we currently face. However, these discourses and social approaches to science education…

Castano, Carolina

2012-01-01

480

Immigration, Economic Disadvantage, and HomicideA Community-level Analysis of Austin, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the effect of recent immigration on homicide rates across city of Austin, Texas census tracts is examined. Since 1980, Austin's recent immigrant population increased by more than 580% across the metropolitan area and it is now considered a “pre-emerging” immigrant gateway city to the United States. Therefore the changing population dynamics in Austin provide an excellent opportunity

Scott Akins; Rubén G. Rumbaut; Richard Stansfield

2009-01-01

481

Extending the purposes of science education: addressing violence within socio-economic disadvantaged communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current discourses about science education show a wide concern towards humanisation and a more socio-cultural perspective of school science. They suggest that science education can serve diverse purposes and be responsive to social and environmental situations we currently face. However, these discourses and social approaches to science education tend to focus on global issues. They do not respond to the immediate needs and local context of some communities. I discuss in this paper why the purposes of science education need to be extended to respond to the local issue of violence. For this, I present a case study with a group of 38 students from a poor population in Bogotá, Colombia, located in one of the suburbs with highest levels of crime in the city. I examine the ways that science education contributes to and embodies its own forms of violence and explore how a new approach to science education could contribute to break the cycle of violence.

Castano, Carolina

2012-09-01

482

Molecular identification of human hookworm infections in economically disadvantaged communities in Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

Species identification of human hookworm infections among eight communities in rural areas of Peninsular Malaysia was determined during 2009-2011. Fecal samples were examined by microscopy and subsequently, the internal transcribed spacer 2 and 28S ribosomal RNA region of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp. were sequenced. Overall, 9.1% (58 of 634) were identified positive by microscopy for hookworm infection, and 47 (81.0%) of 58 were successfully amplified and sequenced. Sequence comparison found that N. americanus (87.2%) was the most predominant hookworm identified, followed by Ancylostoma ceylanicum (23.4%). No A. duodenale infection was detected in this study. Detection of A. ceylanicum in humans highlighted the zoonotic transmission among humans living near dogs. Thus, implementation of effective control measures for hookworm infections in future should seriously consider this zoonotic implication. PMID:22556084

Ngui, Romano; Ching, Lee Soo; Kai, Tan Tiong; Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Lim, Yvonne A L

2012-05-01

483

Household type, economic disadvantage, and residential segregation: empirical patterns and findings from simulation analysis  

E-print Network

an important research topic for many decades. The consistent finding has been that segregation along racial and ethnic lines continues to exist to a significant degree within the United States (Alba and Logan 1993; Charles 2003). While there is some... of segregation across different racial/ethnic groups. This research consistently finds that there are significant variations in the level of segregation 5 experienced by different groups (Fischer 2003; Frey and Farley 1996; Alba and Logan 1993...

Howden, Lindsay Michelle

2005-08-29

484

English and Socio-Economic Disadvantage: Learner Voices from Rural Bangladesh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

L2 education research has shown immense interest in learners and their views of L2 learning. Nevertheless, the different directions of learner-focused research have been inadequate in highlighting learners' learning experiences in relation to their social backgrounds, particularly in the developing world. Drawing on the first author's PhD…

Hamid, M. Obaidul; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

2011-01-01

485

Toward an Understanding of Unusually Successful Programs for Economically Disadvantaged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conceptual framework derived from previous research was used to evaluate successful compensatory programs for high-risk students. Program effectiveness standards, school culture, curriculum, and teaching were examined through site visits to three elementary and one middle school. (MMU)

Anderson, Lorin W.; Pellicer, Leonard O.

1998-01-01

486

Social and Economic Context. Trends and Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools are very sensitive to the rapid social, economic, and demographic changes that the United States is presently undergoing. They are at a disadvantage compared to most other social institutions because, in serving a younger population, they have less lead time to prepare for changes in the complexion of society. Young people in today's world…

Lumsden, Linda, Comp.; Coffey, Elizabeth, Comp.

487

48 CFR 752.226-2 - Subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT...meaning as in FAR 19.001, except that the term also includes women. (d) Contractors should require representations...

2010-10-01

488

Pathways of disadvantage? Walking as a mode of transport among low-income mothers.  

PubMed

Research shows that lack of car ownership is associated with poorer health. It is often assumed that the reason for this observed relationship is that access to a car--or not--reflects access to household assets. Consequently, lack of car ownership is used as a standard marker of low socio-economic status. However, little attention has been paid to the experience of carlessness in the context of disadvantaged lives. This paper argues that "no access to a car" is not only an indicator of low socio-economic status but of walking as a mode of transport. These arguments are illustrated by data from a study of 30 low-income mothers with young children. Although walking is promoted as both an excellent and inexpensive form of exercise, these data suggest that reliance on walking can have negative effects on the welfare of families. The paper draws on qualitative data to describe the ways in which carlessness restricts access to health and social care resources such as food shops, health-care services and social networks. It also explores the impact of walking on the well being of mothers and their day-to-day relationships with children. This is compounded by walking through areas that are neglected and depressed. The paper concludes that strategies to reduce social exclusion must recognise the contradictory health effects of walking and aim to regenerate the physical fabric of social housing estates as well as improve public transport options. PMID:11560717

Bostock, L

2001-01-01

489

Perfect in Her Place. Women at Work in Industrial America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economic role of American women is traced from colonial times through the 19th century. In colonial America women shared the economic responsibilities of family livelihood with their husbands and were engaged primarily in the production of food and clothing. Early 19th century America saw a redefinition of the social and economic spheres of…

Warner, Deborah J.

490

The Many Faces of the Economic Bulletin Board.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Economic Bulletin Board (EBB), a one-stop site for economic statistics and government-sponsored business information, can be accessed on the World Wide Web, gopher, telnet, file transfer protocol, dial-up, and fax. Each access method has advantages and disadvantages related to connections, pricing, depth of access, retrieval, and system…

Boettcher, Jennifer

1996-01-01

491

A Summer Academic Research Experience for Disadvantaged Youth  

PubMed Central

Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience (SARE) program that provides an enriching academic internship to underrepresented youth. Our program has shown that to have a successful internship for these disadvantaged youth, several issues need to be addressed in addition to scientific mentoring. We have found that it is necessary to remediate and/or fortify basic academic skills for students to be successful. In addition, students need to be actively coached in the development of professional skills, habits, and attitudes necessary for success in the workplace. With all these factors in place, these youths can become better students, compete on a more level playing field in their internships, and increase their potential of participating actively in the sciences in the future. PMID:24006390

Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N.

2013-01-01

492

Neural Correlates of Advantageous and Disadvantageous Inequity in Sharing Decisions  

PubMed Central

Humans have a strong preference for fair distributions of resources. Neuroimaging studies have shown that being treated unfairly coincides with activation in brain regions involved in signaling conflict and negative affect. Less is known about neural responses involved in violating a fairness norm ourselves. Here, we investigated the neural patterns associated with inequity, where participants were asked to choose between an equal split of money and an unequal split that could either maximize their own (advantageous inequity) or another person’s (disadvantageous inequity) earnings. Choosing to divide money unequally, irrespective who benefited from the unequal distribution, was associated with activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Inequity choices that maximized another person’s profits were further associated with activity in the ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Taken together, our findings show evidence of a common neural pattern associated with both advantageous and disadvantageous inequity in sharing decisions and additional recruitment of neural circuitry previously linked to the computation of subjective value and reward when violating a fairness norm at the benefit of someone else. PMID:25238541

Crone, Eveline A.

2014-01-01

493

Social Learning for Women's Emancipation in Rural Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's exclusion from participating fully in their economic, social and political arena has received considerable attention by researchers and women activists. Despite various efforts to fight against the existing inequities, the situation of women in various parts of the world reflects their subordination. This article presents results of a study which aimed at assisting local women in rural Tanzania, who

Christine Mhina

494

Forwards and backwards: Women's soccer in twentieth-century India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's soccer has hardly been given due attention in existing studies on Indian sport. This essay traces the evolution of the women's game in India, locating it in the politico-economic context of the 1930s. With the establishment of the All India Women's Congress in 1918, attempts were made to give women a voice absent through the nineteenth century. As part

Boria Majumdar

2003-01-01

495

Women and tobacco: moving from policy to action  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gender perspective contributes to a better understanding of the epidemiological trends, social marketing strategies, economic policies, and international actions relating to women and the tobacco epidemic. Evidence is provided in this article for the negative impact of tobacco use by women and of passive smoking on the health of women and children. Use of tobacco by women is increasing

Virginia Ernster; Nancy Kaufman; Mimi Nichter; Jonathan Samet; Soon-Young Yoon

2000-01-01

496

Divorce and Women's Risk of Health Insurance Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health…

Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J.

2012-01-01

497

76 FR 80205 - Instituting a National Action Plan On Women, Peace, And Security  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...recognizes that promoting women's participation...economic and social development, and international...National Action Plan on Women, Peace, and Security...coordination, policy development, enhanced professional...its diplomatic, development, and defense-related...and strengthening women's rights and...

2011-12-23

498

International Resource Book for Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons: 2001-2008. An Update to the International Resource Book for Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons: 1931-2001  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2001, the Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons (LSDP) Section of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA), published the "International Resource Book for Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons." This publication is a seventy year retrospective which chronicles the history of the Section from 1931 to 2001.…

Locke, Joanne; Panella, Nancy M.

2010-01-01

499

Effectiveness and Empowerment in Women's Shelter: A Study of Working Women's Hostels in Bangalore, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy debates on shelter for women have focused on family structure, gender roles and the importance of shelter in women's economic development. They emphasize the need for shelter that is generally effective and empowering for women. Although valuable, these general policy proposals are often unable to account for the particular situations in specific cultural contexts in which family structure, roles

Kameshwari Pothukuchi

2001-01-01

500

Women holding hands.  

PubMed

It is estimated that 80% of the people involved in grassroots environmental protection advocacy in the US are women. One such self-described "average" woman became an activist upon learning that her drinking water was contaminated with uranium leaking from a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility. When DOE officials tried to brush off her concerns and those of her neighbors at a hearing, she presented them with a jar of water from her kitchen tap and challenged them to drink it. They refused. Thus began a long, but ultimately successful, struggle to shut down the offending facility. The efforts of these US women are mirrored all over the world as women have embraced environmental justice as one of their causes. At recent UN conferences, activists have challenged conventional strategies of economic development as being incompatible with equity and environmental sustainability. They have also established that "women's rights are human rights" and added domestic violence and rape to the human rights agenda. The recent International Conference on Population and Development revolved around women's health and rights issues. Throughout the world, women activists have challenged and changed the social dynamics of families, households, communities, and societies in general. One reason for the increased success of women's groups is that they have adopted the tactics of mass communication, including the use of computers, radio, and film. Although the various efforts are arising from diverse circumstances, they have some things in common such as finding personal experience to be a major impetus for action, realizing the self-reinforcing empowering nature of advocacy work, breaking the silence surrounding culturally taboo topics, and challenging the status quo. Such challenges often lead to political backlash or to counter measures taken by fundamentalist religious groups who link improvements in women's status with societal ills. Despite these challenges, the global women's movement continues to grow and to seek democracy and social justice. PMID:12290007

Jacobson, J

1995-01-01