Sample records for economies of scale

  1. Economies of scale

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mark Maier

    Working in groups of three, students analyze economies of scale. Each student constructs an individual short-run ATC curve, then the three students collaborate to determine if there are economies or diseconomies of scale and to create the long run ATC.

  2. Economies of Scale in the Floriculture Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara K. Schumacher; Thomas L. Marsh

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the cost structure of the floriculture industry in the United States. Economies of scale and input elasticities were estimated with a normalized quadratic cost function. Results suggest that economies of scale exist in the floriculture industry. As producers become large and more automated, they have a cost advantage relative to smaller producers who are producing the same

  3. Location of slaughterhouses under economies of scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Broek van den JJJ; Peter Schütz; Leen Stougie; Asgeir Tomasgard

    2006-01-01

    The facility location problem described in this paper comes from an in- dustrial application in the slaughterhouse industry of Norway. Investigations show that the slaughterhouse industry experiences economies of scale in the production facilities. We examine a location-allocation problem focusing on the location of slaughterhouses, their size and the allocation of animals in the dierent farming districts to these slaughterhouses.

  4. Real Estate and Economies of Scale: The Case of REITs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brent W. Ambrose; Michael J. Highfield; Peter D. Linneman

    2005-01-01

    Building on past research in the economies-of-scale debate, we test for scale economies in real estate investment trusts (REITs) by examining growth prospects, revenue and expense measures, profitability ratios, systematic risk and capital costs. Overall, we find that large REITs are increasing growth prospects while succeeding at lowering costs, leading to a direct relationship between firm profitability and firm size.

  5. ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND SCOPE IN WATER SUPPLY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the multiproduct nature of water supply relative to economies of scale and scope. he water utility is viewed as a multiproduct firm providing residential and nonresidential services with spatial variation. here are no significant economies of scale in the util...

  6. Analysis of universities' scale economies based on DEA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zenglian zhang; Min cao

    2011-01-01

    Universities as an input-output system, its size is an important factor in education efficiency of investment. We use the 2006 financial report data of 76 institutions directly under the Ministry of Education, use CCR, BCC and NIRS models of DEA to empirical analysis, finds many universities exist scale diseconomies phenomenon, but the scale economies in kinds of universities are different.

  7. Economies of Scale in U.S. Electric Power Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurits R. Christensen; William H. Greene

    1976-01-01

    In the estimations, cross-section data for 1955 and 1970 are analyzed using the translog cost function. It was found that in 1955 there were significant scale economies available to nearly all firms. By 1970, however, the bulk of U.S. electricity generation was by firms operating in the essentially flat area of the average cost curve. It is concluded that a

  8. DISCUSSION: ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND SCOPE IN AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH

    E-print Network

    Foltz, Jeremy D.

    DISCUSSION: ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND SCOPE IN AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH JEREMY D. FOLTZ Evolution in science such as recent develop- ments in agricultural biotechnology creates new challenges and the private sectors. The present exponential growth in agricul- tural biotechnology research in both the pub

  9. Economies of Scale and Large Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Making classes larger saves money--and public universities across the country have found it a useful strategy to balance their budgets after decades of state funding cuts and increases to infrastructure costs. Where this author teaches, in the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences at California State University, Northridge (CSUN),…

  10. Scale Economies and Consolidation in Hog Slaughter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. MacDonald; Michael E. Ollinger

    2000-01-01

    We use establishment based panel data to estimate a cost function which identifies the role of scale economies in hog slaughter consolidation. We find modest by extensive technological scale economies in the 1990s, and they became more important over time. But wages rose sharply with plant size through the 1970s and those wage premiums generated a pecuniary scale diseconomy that

  11. Power plant economy of scale and cost trends: further analyses and review of empirical studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. F. Jr. Fisher; S. Paik; W. R. Schriver

    1986-01-01

    Multiple regression analyses were performed on capital cost data for nuclear and coal-fired power plants in an extension of an earlier study which indicated that nuclear units completed prior to the accident at Three-Mile Island (TMI) have no economy of scale, and that units completed after that event have a weak economy of scale (scaling exponent of about 0.81). The

  12. Competition and Outsourcing with Scale Economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gérard P. Cachon; Patrick T. Harker

    2002-01-01

    Scale economies are commonplace in operations, yet because of analytical challenges, relatively little is known about how firms should compete in their presence. This paper presents a model of competition between two firms that face scale economies; (i.e., each firm's cost per unit of demand is decreasing in demand). A general framework is used, which incorporates competition between two service

  13. LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. SCHULTZ; L. C. BROWN; G. E. BESENBRUCH; C. J. HAMILTON

    2003-01-01

    OAK B202 LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY. The ''Hydrogen Economy'' will reduce petroleum imports and greenhouse gas emissions. However, current commercial hydrogen production processes use fossil fuels and releases carbon dioxide. Hydrogen produced from nuclear energy could avoid these concerns. The authors have recently completed a three-year project for the US Department of Energy

  14. Multidimensional Scaling Analysis of the Dynamics of a Country Economy

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Maria Eugénia

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Portuguese short-run business cycles over the last 150 years and presents the multidimensional scaling (MDS) for visualizing the results. The analytical and numerical assessment of this long-run perspective reveals periods with close connections between the macroeconomic variables related to government accounts equilibrium, balance of payments equilibrium, and economic growth. The MDS method is adopted for a quantitative statistical analysis. In this way, similarity clusters of several historical periods emerge in the MDS maps, namely, in identifying similarities and dissimilarities that identify periods of prosperity and crises, growth, and stagnation. Such features are major aspects of collective national achievement, to which can be associated the impact of international problems such as the World Wars, the Great Depression, or the current global financial crisis, as well as national events in the context of broad political blueprints for the Portuguese society in the rising globalization process. PMID:24294132

  15. Balancing Learning and Economies of Scale: The Case of Adaptive Clinical Adam Fleischhacker, Yao Zhao

    E-print Network

    Lin, Xiaodong

    Balancing Learning and Economies of Scale: The Case of Adaptive Clinical Trials Adam Fleischhacker, Yao Zhao Abstract: Prior to the start of an adaptive clinical trial, demand for an investigational drug can be highly uncertain. Both recommended dosages and patient recruitment can fluctuate

  16. Technical efficiency and economies of scale: A non-parametric analysis of REIT operating efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy I. Anderson; Robert Fok; Thomas Springer; James Webb

    2002-01-01

    This study measures technical efficiency and economies of scale for real estate investment trusts (REITs) by employing data envelopment analysis (DEA), a linear-programming technique. Using data from the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts (NAREITs) for the years 1992–1996, we find that REITs are technically inefficient, and the inefficiencies are a result of both poor input utilization and failure

  17. Scale Economies, Product Differentiation, and the Pattern of Trade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Krugman

    1980-01-01

    For some time now there has been con- siderable skepticism about the ability of comparative cost theory to explain the ac- tual pattern of international trade. Neither the extensive trade among the industrial countries, nor the prevalence in this trade of two-way exchanges of differentiated prod- ucts, make much sense in terms of standard theory. As a result, many people

  18. Costs and economies of scale in Turkey's postsecondary vocational schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Halil Dundar; Darrell R. Lewis

    1995-01-01

    The study reported in this paper examines the institutional cost structures of the postsecondary vocational education system in Turkey. The study uses a single-output quadratic cost function to analyze 65 individual vocational schools located within the 28 existing universities. Appropriate controls for institutional quality, discretionary allocation of staffing resources, the degree of technical instruction in the cirriculum, and regional variation

  19. Power law distribution of the duration and magnitude of recessions in capitalist economies: breakdown of scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormerod, Paul; Mounfield, Craig

    2001-04-01

    Power law distributions of macroscopic observables are ubiquitous in both the natural and social sciences. They are indicative of correlated, cooperative phenomena between groups of interacting agents at the microscopic level. In this paper, we argue that when one is considering aggregate macroeconomic data (annual growth rates in real per capita GDP in the seventeen leading capitalist economies from 1870 through to 1994) the magnitude and duration of recessions over the business cycle do indeed follow power law like behaviour for a significant proportion of the data (demonstrating the existence of cooperative phenomena amongst economic agents). Crucially, however, there are systematic deviations from this behaviour when one considers the frequency of occurrence of large recessions. Under these circumstances the power law scaling breaks down. It is argued that it is the adaptive behaviour of the agents (their ability to recognise the changing economic environment) which modifies their cooperative behaviour.

  20. LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY

    SciTech Connect

    SCHULTZ,KR; BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; HAMILTON,CJ

    2003-02-01

    OAK B202 LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY. The ''Hydrogen Economy'' will reduce petroleum imports and greenhouse gas emissions. However, current commercial hydrogen production processes use fossil fuels and releases carbon dioxide. Hydrogen produced from nuclear energy could avoid these concerns. The authors have recently completed a three-year project for the US Department of Energy whose objective was to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source''. Thermochemical water-splitting, a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, met this objective. The goal of the first phase of this study was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen and to select one for further detailed consideration. The authors selected the Sulfur-Iodine cycle, In the second phase, they reviewed all the basic reactor types for suitability to provide the high temperature heat needed by the selected thermochemical water splitting cycle and chose the helium gas-cooled reactor. In the third phase they designed the chemical flowsheet for the thermochemical process and estimated the efficiency and cost of the process and the projected cost of producing hydrogen. These results are summarized in this paper.

  1. Theory and evidence of economies of scale in the development of waste management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Shoou-Yuh; Rivera, A.L. (North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Waste is a cost of doing business. This cost can be considered in terms of the potential adverse health and environmental impacts, or the waste management costs associated with avoiding, minimizing, and controlling those impacts. There is an anticipated increase in the cost of waste management as a result of the increasing requirements for regulatory compliance. To meet the total waste management capacity needs of the organization and the compliance requirements, low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste management will need demonstrated technologies strategically managed as a technology portfolio. The role of the decision maker is to select the optimum mix of technologies and facilities to provide the waste management capacity needed for the next twenty years. The waste management system resulting from this mix includes multiple small-scale fixed facilities, large-scale centralized facilities, and waste management subcontracts. This study was conducted to examine the theory and evidence of economies of scale in the development of waste management systems as as exploratory research on the economic considerations in the process of technology selection and implementation. 25 refs., 24 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Reforming the wastewater treatment sector in Italy: Implications of plant size, structure, and scale economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraquelli, Giovanni; Giandrone, Roberto

    2003-10-01

    In the context of the restructuring of the water industry, this work examines the treatment processes of urban wastewaters in Italy, with reference to costs, size, and technology. The operating cost function of 103 plants confirms scope economies from vertical integration and strong economies of scale for the smaller structure, confirming the benefits coming from the aggregation of the existing little firms. A minimum efficient size at about 100,000 inhabitants, however, inhibits the creation of large monopolies at a local level and enables the maintenance of indirect competition. Among the explanatory variables of running costs, the pollution load of the input wastewater takes on a high statistical significance and suggests environmental prevention, while the strong impact of sludge concentration means it should be considered in the new tariff systems. The recent introduction of advanced treatments is expensive, but the costs are balanced by a notable improvement in the pureness of the effluent waters. As for general environmental policies, it is necessary to find a good compromise between the need to improve the effectiveness of the existing plants and the investments in areas where the water treatment service is still inexistent.

  3. Size of manufacturing establishments, economies of scale, and the cost offuel consumed: An empirical analysis of 1972 and 1977

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffries

    1988-01-01

    There is a body of economic literature that gives specific attention to economies of scale and the optimum size of firms. According to Frank Knight, one of the most-serious problems of theory is ascertaining the relationship between size and efficiency. The empirical results of this comparative statics study were derived using ordinary least-square estimation. Results are given for each year

  4. The Relationship between Student Achievement, School District Economies of Scale, School District Size, and Student Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trani, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between student achievement, school district economies of scale, school district size and student socioeconomic status were measured for 131 school districts in the state of Oregon. Data for school districts ranging in size from districts with around 300 students to districts with more than 40,000 students were collected for…

  5. The economic-wide consequences of large-scale floods. How resilient is the European economy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koks, Elco; Thissen, Mark; De Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    For a successful adaptation strategy, it is necessary to have an in-depth understanding of the economic consequences of a flood. To assess the economic consequences of large-scale river floods in Europe, we introduce an integrated direct and indirect risk model for the European economy as a whole. The proposed methodology consists of multiple steps. First, a direct loss assessment is conducted for the 50 largest river basin districts in Europe, based on simulated floods for several return periods. Second, the direct losses in capital and labour are translated into the loss in production per sector. Third, the recovery of this production shock is modelled using a hybrid interregional input-output model, combining non-linear programming and input-output modelling. This combination makes it possible to find (1) the possible production losses in the affected regions and other European regions, (2) the required production in Europe to satisfy additional reconstruction demands from the affected regions and (3) the required production in other regions that is necessary to take over lost production in the affected region. Consequently, when knowing how much production is lost (or gained) in each region, the economic consequences can be assessed. Finally, the model outcome is loss estimation expressed in terms of expected annual damage. To assess these consequences, interregional supply and use tables are used, consisting of 256 different European NUTS2 regions. This data makes it possible to model the indirect losses for both the affected regions and the rest of Europe in detail. By combining the outcomes of all floods in all the river basin districts, it is possible to determine the flood risk of each region in Europe, even when a region is not directly hit by a flood. Consequently, the overall consequences for the European Union are found to be positive for small-scale floods and negative for large-scale floods.

  6. Economies of scale in compliance with environmental regulation: The case of the 1972 Water Pollution Control Act amendments. The stock-price-behavior approach

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, S.O.

    1989-01-01

    Economies of scale in regulatory compliance cost of the 1972 amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are explored by examining the effects of regulation on the market returns of the affected firms in the pulp and paper, and the textile industries. Although the estimated market reaction may not reflect total effect of the new law on the individual firm or industry, the estimates capture indirect effects as well as the direct impact on the firm's costs. The empirical tests procedure focuses on the test of two related hypotheses as well as on the industry-wide effects: the existence of economies of scale in compliance with environmental regulation; and the hypothesis that the large firms benefit due to the economies of scale in regulatory compliance cost. The regression results of the heterogeneous responses model support for the existence of scale economies in compliance with the Water Pollution Control Act. However, the large firms are not necessarily among the beneficiaries of economies of scale in compliance costs. There is no evidence that the economies of scale in compliance cost did help the large firms benefit at the expense of small firms.

  7. Political Economy of Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Mosco

    1996-01-01

    In this paper five major trends in the political economy of communication are addressed: the globalization of the field, the expansion of an enduring emphasis on historical research, the growth of research from alternative standpoints, especially feminism and labour, the shift from an emphasis on old to new media, and the growth of activism connected to the political economy tradition.

  8. Are there Economies of Scale in the Demand for Money by Firms? Some Panel Data Estimates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olympia Bover; Nadine Watson

    2001-01-01

    We estimate scale elasticities in firms' money demand using panel data. Our main data set is a sample of Spanish companies observed over 1983-96. We also analyse comparable UK and US data sets. We find that the errors in money demand equations contain two terms correlated with sales: first, a permanent firm effect capturing differences in managerial efficiency, efficiency wages,

  9. Economies of scale in compliance with environmental regulation: The case of the 1972 Water Pollution Control Act amendments. The stock-price-behavior approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moon

    1989-01-01

    Economies of scale in regulatory compliance cost of the 1972 amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are explored by examining the effects of regulation on the market returns of the affected firms in the pulp and paper, and the textile industries. Although the estimated market reaction may not reflect total effect of the new law on the individual

  10. Scaling and Hierarchy in Urban Economies

    E-print Network

    Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla

    2011-01-01

    In several recent publications, Bettencourt, West and collaborators claim that properties of cities such as gross economic production, personal income, numbers of patents filed, number of crimes committed, etc., show super-linear power-scaling with total population, while measures of resource use show sub-linear power-law scaling. Re-analysis of the gross economic production and personal income for cities in the United States, however, shows that the data cannot distinguish between power laws and other functional forms, including logarithmic growth, and that size predicts relatively little of the variation between cities. The striking appearance of scaling in previous work is largely artifact of using extensive quantities (city-wide totals) rather than intensive ones (per-capita rates). The remaining dependence of productivity on city size is explained by concentration of specialist service industries, with high value-added per worker, in larger cities, in accordance with the long-standing economic notion of ...

  11. The economies of synthesis†

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    In this tutorial review the economies of synthesis are analysed from both detailed and macroscopic perspectives, using case-studies from complex molecule synthesis. Atom, step, and redox economy are more than philosophical constructs, but rather guidelines, which enable the synthetic chemist to design and execute an efficient synthesis. Students entering the field of synthesis might find this tutorial helpful for understanding the subtle differences between these economic principles and also see real-world situations where such principles are put into practice. PMID:19847337

  12. Are There Economies of Scale in Underwriting Fees? Evidence of Rising External Financing Costs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oya Altinkilic; Robert S Hansen

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the behavior of spreads paid in firm underwritten seasoned common stock offerings and straight bond offerings. Estimates indicate that up to 85% of the spread is variable cost and that the marginal spread is rising. Further, offerings that are likely to require greater underwriting services encounter higher marginal spreads. These findings are consistent with there being a

  13. Are there economies of scale in underwriting fees? Evidence of rising external financing costs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Altinkili

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the behavior of spreads paid in firm underwritten seasoned common stock offerings and straight bond offerings. Estimates indicate that up to 85% of the spread is variable cost and that the marginal spread is rising. Further, offerings that are likely to require greater underwriting services encounter higher marginal spreads. These findings are consistent with there being a

  14. Economy of Command

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medeiros, David Peter

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a principle of "economy of command", arguing that it provides a simple and natural explanation for some well-known properties of human language syntax. The focus is on the abstract combinatorial system that constructs the hierarchical structure of linguistic expressions, with long-distance dependencies…

  15. Economies of scale in British intensive care units and combined intensive care\\/high dependency units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Jacobs; John Rapoport; David Edbrooke

    2004-01-01

    ObjectiveTo estimate the relationship between size of intensive care unit and combined intensive care\\/high dependency units and average costs per patient day.DesignRetrospective data analysis. Multiple regression of average costs on critical care unit size, controlling for teaching status, type of unit, occupancy rate and average length of stay.SettingSeventy-two United Kingdom adult intensive care and combined intensive care\\/high dependency units submitting

  16. Adaptation of Economy Attitude Scale to Turkish Culture: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alagoz, Bullent

    2015-01-01

    Economics affects us no matter what role we play in social life. Its foundation as a science was laid by the studies of Adam Smith, and since history it has become one of the disciplines accepted in university curriculums. Scarcity, opportunity costs and abandoning something in order to obtain another one are the core concepts of this discipline.…

  17. Minimum-Cost Network Design with (Dis)economies of Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Andrews; Spyridon Antonakopoulos; Lisa Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Given a network, a set of demands and a cost function f(.), the min-cost network design problem is to route all demands with the objective of minimizing ?e f(?e), where ?e is the total traffic load under the routing. We focus on cost functions of the form f(x) = ? + x? for x > 0, with f(0) = 0.

  18. Investing in Methane Digesters on Pennsylvania Dairy Farms: Implication of Scale Economies and Environmental Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth R. Leuer; Jeffrey Hyde; Tom L. Richard

    2008-01-01

    A stochastic capital budget was used to analyze the effect of net metering policies and carbon credits on profitability of anaerobic digesters on dairy farms in Pennsylvania. We analyzed three different farm sizes—500, 1,000, and 2,000 cows—and considered the addition of a solids separator to the project. Results indicate that net metering policies and carbon credits increase the expected net

  19. The Political Economy of Inter-

    E-print Network

    Landweber, Laura

    The Political Economy of Inter- national Relations Robert Gilpin After the end of World War II by the creative use of power in the support of an institutional framework that created a world economy. Gilpin's exposition of the influence of politics on the interna- tional economy was a model of clarity, making

  20. In Cloud, Do MTC or HTC Service Providers Benefit from the Economies of Scale?

    E-print Network

    Shi, Weisong

    cluster systems (DCS) to provide computing services for MTC or HTC applications. We call this usage model the DCS model and the corresponding system the DCS system. The DCS model prevails in MTC and HTC environment for MTC or HTC workloads. With the full control, the administrators of the DCS system manage

  1. The Green Paper's Proposals to Achieve and Utilize Economies of Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Harold

    1988-01-01

    A discussion of Australia's proposed changes in higher education's administrative structure, resulting in institutional mergers for cost effectiveness, examines the extent to which savings can be expected from these policies and investigates the organizational conditions under which policymakers can use these savings to achieve the higher…

  2. The Mimetic Turn of Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jussi Vähämäki

    Instead of speaking about a linguistic turn in the economy and production in the so called Post-Fordist society, information society or knowledge economy, we should frontally talk about the mimetic turn of economy and organizing in general. Mimesis is a Greek word for imitation. It is well known that Plato chased out art from the ideal republic because of its

  3. Political Economy of Peace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray L. Franklin

    The globalization of the world's economies has accelerated the breaking up of traditional habitats without providing new ones.\\u000a Even advanced industrial nations are experiencing de-industrialization without a clear sense of how to adapt to it. The uneven\\u000a levels of development among the world's nations and regions and the changing roles that define the interplay between the private\\u000a and public sector,

  4. Measuring Armenia's progress on the Tobacco Control Scale: an evaluation of tobacco control in an economy in transition, 2005–2009

    PubMed Central

    Movsisyan, Narine K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to measure the 5-year progress in the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Armenia by applying the Tobacco Control Scale, a rapid assessment tool developed to assess the strength of tobacco control policies in Europe. Setting Armenia, an economy in transition, has extreme smoking rates among men (62.5%) despite acceding to FCTC in 2004. However, little research has been carried out to evaluate Armenia's progress in tobacco control. Methods The Tobacco Control Scale total score was estimated for Armenia using the original methodology; however, a different source of data was used in estimating the subscores on tobacco price and tobacco control spending. Results Armenia's total score on Tobacco Control Scale has considerably improved from 2005 to 2009, mostly due to larger health warnings and advertising ban, and increased public spending on tobacco control. The scores for smoke-free public places, advertising ban, health warnings and treatment categories were below the European average in 2005 and 2007, while the price score was higher. Neither total tobacco control score nor any of its components showed a significant predictive value in a simple regression analysis using the total score and subscores as predictors for log-transformed per capita tobacco consumption. Conclusions Higher than the European average price score for Armenia cannot be explained by the concept of affordability alone and may reflect a measurement error due to peculiarities of transition economies. The applicability of the Tobacco Control Scale could be limited to countries with mature economies, but not to transition countries such as Armenia with different social, political and economic environment. The scale modification, such as an adjustment for the policy enforcement and the effectiveness of public tobacco control spending along with alternative measures of affordability would be warranted to enhance its applicability in low-income and middle-income countries. PMID:24578541

  5. Research on Green Packaging of Circular Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Guirong; Li Dehua; Wang Zhiping; Ma Chenglin

    2010-01-01

    The circular economy is the resource recycling economy, is the economy of harmonious development between economy and environment, also a kind of ecological economy. Circular economy demands that enterprises' logistics activities be green logistics packaging. The green packaging aims at improving the packing materials reuse, reducing resource consumption and lowering packaging waste pollution to the environment. Implementing green logistics packaging,

  6. The Economics of Rural and Urban Small-Scale Industries in Sierra Leone. African Rural Economy Paper No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liedholm, Carl; Chuta, Enyinna

    Small-scale industry in Sierra Leone, Africa was examined in terms of: labor intensity; output generated per unit of capital; generation of positive economic profits by small-scale industry groups/processes; and seasonal and locational variations. Key analytical issues were the nature of small-scale industry supply and demand processes. Data were…

  7. The Political Economy of Terrorism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Enders; Todd Sandler

    The Political Economy of Terrorism presents a widely accessible political economy approach to the study of terrorism. It applies economic methodology – theoretical and empirical – combined with political analysis and realities to the study of domestic and transnational terrorism. In so doing, the book provides both a qualitative and quantitative investigation of terrorism in a balanced up-to-date presentation that

  8. AGGLOMERATION ECONOMIES AND GEOGRAPHIC CONCENTRATION OF MANUFACTURING IN UKRAINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volodymyr Vakhitov

    2008-01-01

    As a post-Soviet economy, Ukraine has inherited substantial production assets and qualified personnel. However, the economy was dominated by large-scale enterprises designed for much bigger markets. After the collapse of the Soviet Union Ukrainian firms faced lack of planning, breaks in contacts with their former suppliers and customers, and distortion of prices. There was a clear need in restructuring of

  9. Local-scale systems input-output analysis of embodied water for the Beijing economy in 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Mengyao; Guo, Shan; Chen, Hui; Ji, Xi; Li, Jiashuo

    2014-09-01

    Using the most detailed and recent statistics available for Beijing, a local-scale embodiment analysis on water use was conducted, employing a systems input-output analysis that integrates economic systems with natural resources data. Systems analysis for water research at the local scale is a crucial part of a systems oriented water accounting framework. To our knowledge, however, related works have not been thoroughly conducted. In this paper, a set of embodied water intensity inventory data is presented, which is applicable to both intermediate input and final demand. Also, detailed analyses of Beijing's embodied water use accounting are presented. The embodied water intensity of the Water Production and Supply Industry Sector turns out to be the highest among the 42 sectors. For water embodied in final demand, the total amount is 3.48 km3, of which the water embodied in urban household consumption makes up nearly a half proportion. As a net virtual water importer, Beijing's water embodied in commodity trade totals 5.84×108 m3. As a result, in addition to improvements in technology and water use efficiency, adjustments in industrial structure and trade policies are also of significant importance to water conservation efforts.

  10. The Political Economy of Terrorism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Enders; Todd Sandler

    The Political Economy of Terrorism, first published in 2006, presents a widely accessible approach to the study of terrorism that combines economic methods with political analysis and realities. It applies economic methodology - theoretical and empirical - with political analysis to the study of domestic and transnational terrorism. Included in the treatment are historical aspects of the phenomenon, a discussion

  11. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a) Vehicle...

  12. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a) Vehicle...

  13. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a) Vehicle...

  14. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a) Vehicle...

  15. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a) Vehicle...

  16. The political economy of electricity market liberalization

    E-print Network

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2012-05-17

    of governments and educational/professional background of leaders have played and will play a crucial role throughout the reform process. Adapting a political economy perspective, this paper attempts to discover the impact of political economy variables...

  17. Urban economy as a scale-free network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claes Andersson; Alexander Hellervik; Kristian Lindgren; Anders Hagson; Jonas Tornberg

    2003-01-01

    We present empirical evidence that land values are scale free and introduce a network model that reproduces the observations. The network approach to urban modeling is based on the assumption that the market dynamics that generates land values can be represented as a growing scale-free network. Our results suggest that the network properties of trade between specialized activities cause land

  18. The Political Economy of Transition Grard Roland

    E-print Network

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    1 The Political Economy of Transition Gérard Roland Gérard Roland is Professor of Economics on an earlier draft. He also thanks symposium participants in Prague, March 23 2001. #12;2 Political economy of reforms. The political economy argument in favor of gradualism was that an appropriate sequencing

  19. Economies of Scale and Smallness Policy in School Organization: Comparisons of New York State's Smallest K-12 Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, David K.

    The effects of state educational consolidation policies and decentralizing curriculum reform initiatives on small school districts in New York are examined in this paper, with a focus on identifying patterns of environmental "embeddedness" that may include or exclude small districts from state equalization aid. Methodology involved multiple…

  20. Scotland's Creative Economy: the Role of Universities

    E-print Network

    Hall, Christopher

    Scotland's Creative Economy: the Role of Universities #12;www.universities-scotland.ac.uk #12 sector can continue to grow to the benefit of Scotland's economy and society. Andrew Dixon, Chief. Universities play a major role in the creative economy in identifying and growing talent and skills as well

  1. How Issue Size, Risk, and Complexity are Influencing External Financing Costs: German IPOs Analyzed from an Economies of Scale Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Kaserer; Marcus Kraft

    2003-01-01

    This paper is focused on the cost of raising capital in Germany. A cross-sectional analysis of flotation cost data for 117 IPOs over the years 1993-1998 is presented. We find average flotation costs to be 7.77 percent of gross proceeds, while underwriting fees average 5.01 percent. Our results extend the literature in two important directions. First, contrary to the conventional

  2. Domestic Economy of Blackbirds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. R

    1875-01-01

    Two Blackbirds having built their nest in full view of my bedroom window, I have been much interested in watching the process of feeding their young, &c. The cock bird is the principal forager, and the food generally brought are worms. My object in writing is to draw attention to one feature which may be unknown to most of your

  3. Economy of Yak Herders

    E-print Network

    Gyamtsho, Pema

    2000-01-01

    in 24 sample herds in Laya Production status Average number per herd Average percentage per herd Milking females 194 51 Dry females 191 49 Type and Breed of Yaks Yaks in Bhutan are not yet categorized into breeds. There has not been... (1995) reported live weight ranges between 235 kg to 594 kg for males and 190 kg to 314 for females among different breeds of Chinese and Tibetan yaks. b) Milk Production The milk yield of cows shows an average of 1.2 kg a day per cow...

  4. The Internal Efficiency in Higher Education: An Analysis Based on Economies of Scope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gang, Cheng; Keming, Wu

    2008-01-01

    Among the studies of the internal efficiency in higher education, most have focused on the scale of university (the economies of scale), but little on internal operating efficiency in higher education, especially on the combined efficiency of outputs (the economies of scope). There are few theoretical discussions or experimental research on…

  5. Fragmentation versus Unity of the World Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavel Neumann

    2008-01-01

    The article deals with fragmentation and unity prospects of the world economy with respect to the role of its main centres (Europe\\/EU, East Asia, America). From the view point of the process of the running multilateral liberalisation the world economy was formed as relatively unified at first after World War II. However, regionalisation intensified in 1990s and since then stronger

  6. The Political Economies of Immigration Law

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    in the United States is affected by political cycles capable of eroding the legitimacy of public agencies1 The Political Economies of Immigration Law Mariano-Florentino Cuéllar* A largely dysfunctional American immigration system is only poorly explained by simple depictions of the political economy

  7. Productivity Growth and the Political Economy of Social Security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Berthold U. Wigger

    2001-01-01

    The present paper provides an analysis of unfunded social securityas the outcome of a public decision making process in an endogenousgrowth economy. It employs a model in which there is a non-monotonic relationship beween productivity growth and the scale ofpublic intergenerational redistribution. The paper shows thatalthough unfunded social security need not harm growth in general,it is likely to harm growth

  8. A Caricature (Model) of the World Economy

    E-print Network

    Caballero, Ricardo

    2010-11-23

    This paper provides a stylized model of the workings of a global economy where one of its key driving factors is economic agents’ continuous struggle to find assets in which to park financial resources. This struggle ...

  9. Fuel economy of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh K Ahluwalia; X Wang; A Rousseau; R Kumar

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of on-road energy consumption, fuel economy (FE) of hydrogen fuel cell light-duty vehicles is projected to be 2.5–2.7 times the fuel economy of the conventional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) on the same platforms. Even with a less efficient but higher power density 0.6V per cell than the base case 0.7V per cell at the rated

  10. Economies of Scope and Density in the Market for Real Estate Brokerage Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard V. Zumpano; Harold W. Elder

    1994-01-01

    Using a multiproduct translog cost function, this paper examines the case for economies of scope and density in the market for residential real estate brokerage services. Earlier research that treated output as a homogeneous commodity reported modest economies of scale for this industry. The results of this study suggest that the composition of output is an important source of these

  11. Demand-side issues of the service economy Paru dans : Review of Political Economy, Vol. 16, No. 4, Oct. 2004.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    arise out of the structural transformations of our economy, and that the focus of attention shouldDemand-side issues of the service economy Paru dans : Review of Political Economy, Vol. 16, No. 4 the relevance of the demand-side approach to the development of a service economy. Its starts by addressing some

  12. Fuel Economy With the price of gasoline at over $3.50 a gallon the fuel economy of

    E-print Network

    Carriquiry, Alicia

    Fuel Economy With the price of gasoline at over $3.50 a gallon the fuel economy of vehicles proposed raising the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFÉ) standard for cars and trucks. In 2004, American cars needed to achieve an average fuel economy of 27.5 miles per gallon (MPG) while light trucks needed

  13. Shaky emerging economies in view of the global financial crisis: The Turkish economy after three decades of liberal reforms

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Shaky emerging economies in view of the global financial crisis: The Turkish economy after three2012 #12;1 Shaky emerging economies in view of the global financial crisis: The Turkish economy after three decades of liberal reforms* Faruk ÜLGEN 1. Introduction The 2007/08 global financial crisis raises

  14. Indigenous Economies, Theories of Subsistence, and Women: Exploring the Social Economy Model for Indigenous Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuokkanen, Rauna

    2011-01-01

    The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…

  15. The Politics of Aid: Moving towards an attention economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hazel Henderson

    1999-01-01

    Hazel Henderson argues that the politics of aid cannot be divorced from global geopolitics and must be seen in the context of today's accelerating globalization. She argues that citizens' groups need to harness today's communication technologies to expand and empower an attention economy that can create change in economic behaviour on a global scale. Development (1999) 42, 65–70. doi:10.1057\\/palgrave.development.1110062

  16. The internal efficiency in higher education: An analysis based on economies of scope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Cheng; Keming Wu

    2008-01-01

    Among the studies of the internal efficiency in higher education, most have focused on the scale of university (the economies\\u000a of scale), but little on internal operating efficiency in higher education, especially on the combined efficiency of outputs\\u000a (the economies of scope). There are few theoretical discussions or experimental research on whether teaching resources are\\u000a complementary with research resources, or

  17. The Future Models of Arab Political Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masudul Alam Choudhury

    2011-01-01

    Three distinct models of political economy are articulated in this article to chart out the possible politico-economic futures of the Arab World. Of these, the present predicaments of the revolutionizing Arab populace are argued to have been caused by the continuance of the wrong social choices. It depended for a long time now on the alienating model of differentiation and

  18. Micro-Foundations of Urban Agglomeration Economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilles Duranton; Diego Puga

    2003-01-01

    This handbook chapter studies the theoretical micro-foundations of urban agglomeration economies. We distinguish three types of micro-foundations, based on sharing, matching, and learning mechanisms. For each of these three categories, we develop one or more core models in detail and discuss the literature in relation to those models. This allows us to give a precise characterisation of some of the

  19. T. R. Malthus: Principles of Political Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Malthus

    Published in two volumes or as a set this provides a definitive scholarly variorum edition of Malthus's Principles of Political Economy. It contains the full text of the first 1820 edition, including Malthus's own invaluable 70-page summary, and contains details of all the additions, omissions and emendations that occurred between the first and the second, posthumous, edition of 1836. The

  20. The Economy of a Lucky Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Tony

    1984-01-01

    Australia has one of the highest standards of living in the world. Agriculture, grazing, and mining are the mainstays of the country's economy. Since the end of World War II, Australia has developed an advanced industrial base that manufactures a wide range of goods, from automobiles to clothespins. (RM)

  1. Micro-foundations of urban agglomeration economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilles Duranton; Diego Puga

    This handbook chapter studies the theoretical micro- foundations of urban agglomeration economies. We distinguish three types of micro-foundations, based on sharing, matching, and learning mechanisms. For each of these three categories, we develop one or more core models in detail and discuss the liter- ature in relation to those models. This allows us to give a precise characterisation of some

  2. THE IMPACT OF KNAPWEED ON MONTANA'S ECONOMY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven A. Hirsch; Jay A. Leitch

    1996-01-01

    The economic impact of three invasive, exotic weeds--diffuse, spotted, and Russian knapweed (Centaurea diffusa, C. maculosa, and Acroptilon repens)--on Montana's economy was estimated using a procedure developed for another invasive weed species. Published data and that from a survey of county weed boards were used to estimate direct negative impacts of over $14 million annually due to infestation of over

  3. A political economy of community policing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Barlow; Melissa Hickman Barlow

    1999-01-01

    Places recent trends in policing in the USA into historical context, emphasizing the critical importance of political, economic, and social forces on the formation and development of police institutions and practices. Specifically, this paper describes four major developments in policing in relation to the US political economy: pre-industrial police, industrial police, modern police, and postmodern police. Each of these developments

  4. The essence of global political economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick McNutt

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates the interplay between market forces and political realities as the economies of Europe become part of a new global order. Capital is becoming more mobile and business increasingly international and borderless. Modern management seek opportunities to reduce costs of production. The transnational firm (TNC), a globally integrated organizational network, has emerged in this global search for low-cost production bases.

  5. Fuel economy of multigrade gear lubricants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Bala; G. Brandt; D. K. Walters

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses the setup of a light duty axle efficiency test in evaluating gear lubricants for their fuel economy performance. Data collected with an internal reference oil highlight the repeatability of the test in different axles. Comparisons between single grade SAE 90 to multigrade gear lubricants were made under a variety of pinion torques and speeds to simulate highway

  6. The Knowledge Based Bio-Economy at work: from large scale experiences to instruments for rural and local development G. Henry and E.J. Trigo

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Knowledge Based Bio-Economy at work: from large scale experiences to instruments for rural BIO-ECONOMY AT WORK: FROM LARGE SCALE EXPERIENCES TO INSTRUMENTS FOR RURAL AND LOCAL DEVELOPMENT Guy Email: ejtrigo@gmail.com Abstract - The new bio-economy is increasingly seen as a workable alternative

  7. The Political Economy of Global Outsourcing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chanchal Kumar Sharma

    2004-01-01

    What is outsourcing and why India is being considered as BPO destination of the world? Why jobs are coming to India and why there is a downturn in the US economy and loss of jobs in that country. Even though these are two different things that happened simultaneously, they sadly managed to be mixed up. Academicians are groping to understand

  8. The Political Economy of North American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John H., Ed.

    This book presents 12 papers that proceed from the idea that Native American history in the United States and Canada is best understood not as an Indian-European cultural conflict but as an economic conflict between communal and capitalist modes of production. Three chapters are of particular educational interest. "Political Economy in…

  9. States economy consumes 25% of the

    E-print Network

    Baltisberger, Jay H.

    The United States economy consumes 25% of the energy used worldwide each year to support the U continues to increase. Oil consumption by the United States is increasing 4% per year, India by 8% per year, and China ­ funded by a $200 billion annual trade sur- plus with the United States ­ by 31% per year

  10. Responding to Diverse Needs of Changing Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, Richard K.

    Among the most important needs of changing economies is the need to respond to technological changes, economic restructuring, and labor market changes. Although formal vocational training schools do not usually respond well to changing economic circumstances, nonformal and proprietary or private institutions usually are highly responsive to the…

  11. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel cell vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2004-01-01

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  12. Estimating the Size and Impact of the Ecological Restoration Economy.

    PubMed

    BenDor, Todd; Lester, T William; Livengood, Avery; Davis, Adam; Yonavjak, Logan

    2015-01-01

    Domestic public debate continues over the economic impacts of environmental regulations that require environmental restoration. This debate has occurred in the absence of broad-scale empirical research on economic output and employment resulting from environmental restoration, restoration-related conservation, and mitigation actions - the activities that are part of what we term the "restoration economy." In this article, we provide a high-level accounting of the size and scope of the restoration economy in terms of employment, value added, and overall economic output on a national scale. We conducted a national survey of businesses that participate in restoration work in order to estimate the total sales and number of jobs directly associated with the restoration economy, and to provide a profile of this nascent sector in terms of type of restoration work, industrial classification, workforce needs, and growth potential. We use survey results as inputs into a national input-output model (IMPLAN 3.1) in order to estimate the indirect and induced economic impacts of restoration activities. Based on this analysis we conclude that the domestic ecological restoration sector directly employs ~ 126,000 workers and generates ~ $9.5 billion in economic output (sales) annually. This activity supports an additional 95,000 jobs and $15 billion in economic output through indirect (business-to-business) linkages and increased household spending. PMID:26083034

  13. Estimating the Size and Impact of the Ecological Restoration Economy

    PubMed Central

    BenDor, Todd; Lester, T. William; Livengood, Avery; Davis, Adam; Yonavjak, Logan

    2015-01-01

    Domestic public debate continues over the economic impacts of environmental regulations that require environmental restoration. This debate has occurred in the absence of broad-scale empirical research on economic output and employment resulting from environmental restoration, restoration-related conservation, and mitigation actions — the activities that are part of what we term the “restoration economy.” In this article, we provide a high-level accounting of the size and scope of the restoration economy in terms of employment, value added, and overall economic output on a national scale. We conducted a national survey of businesses that participate in restoration work in order to estimate the total sales and number of jobs directly associated with the restoration economy, and to provide a profile of this nascent sector in terms of type of restoration work, industrial classification, workforce needs, and growth potential. We use survey results as inputs into a national input-output model (IMPLAN 3.1) in order to estimate the indirect and induced economic impacts of restoration activities. Based on this analysis we conclude that the domestic ecological restoration sector directly employs ~ 126,000 workers and generates ~ $9.5 billion in economic output (sales) annually. This activity supports an additional 95,000 jobs and $15 billion in economic output through indirect (business-to-business) linkages and increased household spending. PMID:26083034

  14. The Role of Research in the New Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Tsichritzis

    2001-01-01

    It is increasingly becoming clear that there is no separate new Economy. The new Economy is an integral part of the old Economy.\\u000a It does not operate with completely new rules. On the other hand, it is also widely accepted that there is another type of\\u000a Economy which is taking shape. The same happened in Art at the beginning of

  15. Varieties of Capitalism and Employment Relations: Informally Dominated Market Economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAULINE DIBBEN; COLIN C. WILLIAMS

    2012-01-01

    The varieties of capitalism and employment relations literature have largely focused on formally regulated market economies, with a general neglect of the informal economy and of emerging markets where this work arrangement is dominant. In this article, however, the intention is to propose the Informally Dominated Market Economy as a form of capitalism that could be usefully incorporated into the

  16. Exact Measures of Income in a Hyperbolic Economy

    E-print Network

    Pezzey, Jack

    Exact Measures of Income in a Hyperbolic Economy JOHN PEZZEY EEN0203 #12;Exact Measures of Income in a Hyperbolic Economy John C. V. Pezzey Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies Australian National.K. Draft of 23 January 2002 Abstract. Exact optimal paths are calculated for a closed economy with human

  17. THE ECONOMY OF MANATEE AND SARASOTA COUNTIES Effie Philippakos

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    i THE ECONOMY OF MANATEE AND SARASOTA COUNTIES By Effie Philippakos Alan W. Hodges David Mulkey Charles M. Adams Abstract This report is intended to characterize the economies of Manatee and Sarasota-county region. The overall size and seasonal variations in the economies of Manatee and Sarasota Counties were

  18. Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

  19. The Initiation of Homeless Youth into the Street Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C.; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S.

    2009-01-01

    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…

  20. The Upside of a Down Economy: Buying Locally

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    The Upside of a Down Economy: Buying Locally Wednesday, April 3, 2013 12:00 ­ 1:30 p.m. Wrigley and Executive Director, Local First Arizona Small Business Owner The economy isn't something far away purchasing habits can improve the local economy, create jobs, and contribute recirculating dollars

  1. City of Ideas: Reinventing Boston's Innovation Economy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-03-14

    The Boston Foundation has worked for over a century to improve the lives of Boston-area residents through its investigations into the housing market, economic development, and the future of public schools. This 56-page report on Boston's innovation economy was released in March 2012, and it looks into how Boston will remain competitive in a range of 21st century industries over the coming years. In the introduction to the work, Paul S. Grogan, CEO of The Boston Foundation, notes that "Macro-economic trends have not been kind to households on the low end of the economic ladder" and "Our second challenge is the degree to which rising health care costs have outpaced our investment in education." Moving on, curious readers will find chapters in the paper titled "A New Paradigm for Boston's Innovation Economy" and "Possible Scenarios for Boston in 2030." Public policy types and others will find this work to be quite interesting and thought-provoking.

  2. Factors Affecting Informal Economy of Rural Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonenc, Sertac; Tanrivermis, Harun

    In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It has been found that milk has the largest share of animal produce values consumed by the household, while particularly processed milk products are sold informally and that the consumption and sales values of animal produce processed in the households are required to be added to the unrecorded value calculation. Consumption of crops varies depending on the type of product. The own consumption ratio of crops is affected by the size of the enterprise, the number of individuals in the households and particularly the access to the markets of the enterprises in each region. An average informal value of 6,400.04 USD has been calculated per household, which is higher than the farm income, accounting for 4/5 of total household income. This can be attributed to the fact that the farms are generally small family enterprises with limited market-access opportunities.

  3. A Glossary of Political Economy Terms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Johnson, Paul M.

    Authored by Paul M. Johnson, political scientist at Auburn University, this Website serves as an excellent online reference for students of political economy. There are over 200 definitions here of relevant terms, including capitalism, communism, market economy, tariff, supply side economics, law of supply and demand, macroeconomics, and many more. The entries feature hypertext links to related terms in the glossary. Definitions range from a concise sentence to a brief essay depending on the topic. Communism, for instance, receives well over a full frame; capitalism is defined in a few sentences. Nonetheless, the definitions seem to be without any definite political bias and more-than-adequate for students in high school and undergraduate courses as well as, of course, for the merely curious.

  4. The hydrogen economy of 2050: OTEC driven?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Van Ryzin; Patrick Grandelli; David Lipp; Richard Argall

    2005-01-01

    A technical and economic model of numerous future Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plants serviced by shuttle tankers was compared with other future energy sources described by U.S. Dept of Energy's Hydrogen Economy documents. OTEC is more expensive than coal or nuclear power sources, but is comparable to land-based renewable energy sources. The system's high capacity factor, land-use avoidance and reasonable

  5. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel cell vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ahluwalia; X. Wang; A. Rousseau

    2004-01-01

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy

  6. Recursive Models of Dynamic Linear Economies

    E-print Network

    Hansen, Lars Peter

    .7.6. Growth with homoskedastic noise. 2.7.7. Growth with heteroskedastic noise. 2.7.8. Second order vector Costs. 4.9. Altered `growth condition'. 4.10. A Jones-Manuelli economy. 4.11. Durable consumption goods.5.3. Technology. 7.6. Models of Occupational Choice and Pay. 7.6.1. A one-occupation model. 7.6.2. Skilled

  7. Analyses of Information and Energy Segments of the Iranian and Indian Economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Banouei; M. J. Mamaghani; A. M. Swaminathan; J. Banouei; M. Mohagheghi

    This paper analyses the interdependence between information and energy segments of the Iranian and Indian economies. The Iranian economy is an energy-based resource exporting economy and the Indian economy is a non-resource energy importing economy. Despite the diversified structure, informatization of the two economies appears to be a common goal for structural changes in the two countries. The main objective

  8. The Cultural Economy of Cities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allen J. Scott

    1997-01-01

    An increasingly important fraction of contemporary economic activity is devoted to the production of cultural outputs, i.e. goods and services with high levels of aesthetic or semiotic content. This kind of economic activity is especially, and increasingly, associated with a number of large cities scattered over the globe. A conceptual account of this phenomenon is provided on the basis of

  9. Identification of Top Performing Economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kumar Akhilesh S; Ravindra H. Dholakia

    Using seven indicators of the economic performance of 187 countries, the paper identifies the top 50 performers during the decades of 1981-90 and 1991-2000. Five of these indicators are the trend rates of growth over a decade in imports, FDI, capital formation, per capita income and forex reserves. Average inflation rate and HDI are the remaining indicators. Comparison of top

  10. The Political Economy of Hatred

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward L. Glaeser

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops a model of the interaction between the supply of hatecreating stories from politicians and the willingness of voters to listen to hatred. Hatred is fostered with stories of an out-group's crimes, but the impact of these stories comes from repetition not truth. Hate-creating stories are supplied by politicians when such actions help to discredit opponents whose policies

  11. The Political Economy of Hatred

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward L. Glaeser

    2003-01-01

    What determines the intensity and objects of hatred? Hatred forms when people believe that out-groups are responsible for past and future crimes, but the reality of past crimes has little to do with the level of hatred. Instead, hatred is the result of an equilibrium where politicians supply stories of past atrocities in order to discredit the opposition and consumers

  12. Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gosta Esping-Andersen

    1998-01-01

    The Golden Age of postwar capitalism has been eclipsed, and with it seemingly also the possibility of harmonizing equality and welfare with efficiency and jobs. Most analyses believe the the emerging postindustrial society is overdetermined by massive, convergent forces, such as tertiarization, new technologies, or globalization, all conspiring to make welfare states unsustainable in the future. Social Foundations of Postindustrial

  13. Unparallel View of Parallel Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Partha Batabyal

    2009-01-01

    Despite the considerable media attention being given to the financial meltdown there has been little attention on why this happened. This paper investigates into this matter and takes a very unique point of view. Whenever we talk about this matter we thought of liquidity crunch, sub prime crisis, high fiscal and trade deficit etc but we never think about parallel

  14. Political economy of Ramsey taxation

    E-print Network

    Acemoglu, Daron

    We study the dynamic taxation of capital and labor in the Ramsey model under the assumption that taxes and public good provision are decided by a self-interested politician who cannot commit to policies. We show that, as ...

  15. Reterritorialisation of economies and institutions: The rise of the Sydney basin economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip Oneill; Pauline McGuirk

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an account of institutional and spatial shifts in the Sydney basin economy that coalesce around Australia's current, long period of prosperity. The paper briefly sources this prosperity, noting the key shifts towards the financial and professional services sectors that accompany it. This material is then used to make the argument that two reterritorialisation processes underpin Australia's—and Sydney's—contemporary

  16. Efficiency and economy of wood-fired biomass energy systems in relation to scale regarding heat and power generation using combustion and gasification technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veronika Dornburg

    2001-01-01

    Policy objectives to increase biomass’ contribution to the energy supply in industrialised countries are quite ambitious, but biomass resources are rather limited and expensive in many situations. Therefore, an optimal utilisation of resources producing a maximum of energy at minimal costs is desirable. A wide variety of biomass conversion options with different performance characteristics exists. Also, the economic and energetic

  17. Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place

    E-print Network

    Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place - Greenwoods Corner - Simon, tourism must sustain and enhance local quality of life ­ "Communities will work for tourism if tourism

  18. Pacific Institute Releases New Economy of Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    Riveting reading, the Pacific Institute's report on The Economy of Water puts it all up front when it comes to the status and power of water as an issue of looming national and international significance. Looking at water from multiple perspectives, the report clearly details the impact and potential harm of current and pending zoning and privatization efforts on the part of utilities and other interested agencies, both public and private. In particular, the study focuses on the social and financial costs of water privatization efforts and their long term implications for specific countries and societies. Perhaps most compelling is the policy brief's emphasis on the competing forces of globalization and privatization and how they tend to play out and off of one another.

  19. Teaching engineering economy in the context of design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Callen; S. M. Jeter; A. Koblasz; J. T. Luxhoj; C. S. Park; H. R. Parsaei; W. G. Sullivan; G. J. Thuesen

    1994-01-01

    Engineering economy is a subset of engineering that involves the application of technical and economic analysis, with the goal of deciding which course of action best meets performance criteria and simultaneously uses scarce capital in a prudent manner. The impact of engineering economy principles on an organization is maximized when introduced early in the process of designing a product, process

  20. Green Transport Management of Logistics Enterprises Based on Circular Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Guirong; Li Gengke; Zhao Zongjian; Mu Yuxin

    2010-01-01

    Circular economy is a new concept of sustainable development model of economic development with the objective of making the most effective use of resources and protecting the environment. Green Logistics is the achievement of circular economy in the logistics field. From the demand perspective, green transportation should be environment-friendly transportation and resources-saved transportation. Besides, we should establish a scientific and

  1. The Evolution of Real Estate in the Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dapeng Hu; Anthony Pennington-Cross

    This paper examines economic indicators to show how the role of the real estate industry in the economy has evolved over time. This examination spans the early 1980s through 1999. Our key conclusion includes the followings. In terms of economic flows real estate is as important a part of the economy as ever. About 11% of GDP each year is

  2. The importance of the pharmaceutical industry to the UK economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Earl-Slater

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to indicate the importance of the pharmaceutical industry to the UK economy. Data on various aspects of the industry are presented and examined. As background information a collection of policies and pressures on the pharmaceutical environment are identified and discussed. The evidence shows what the UK economy stands to lose if it loses its

  3. A Stay-Rich View of the New Global Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trusteeship, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Major demographic changes around the world. Disproportionate sovereign debt. A shift from North America, Western Europe, and Japan to emerging economies as centers of growth. Unprecedented levels of market risk and volatility. The structure of the global economy is undergoing significant changes. Michael Oyster, managing principal of Fund…

  4. Wisconsin Agriculture Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy

    E-print Network

    Radeloff, Volker C.

    STATUS OF Wisconsin Agriculture 2010 · Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy · Current Outlook: Farm Products, Farm Inputs and the General Economy · Framing the Financial Crisis for Wisconsin Agriculture Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural and Life Sciences University

  5. Vulnerability of national economies to the impacts of climate change on fisheries

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, John D.

    1S5 Canada Introduction 174 Methods 175 Spatial scale of climate vulnerability assessment 175Vulnerability of national economies to the impacts of climate change on fisheries Edward H. Allison The three components of vulnerability 175 Exposure 176 Abstract Anthropogenic global warming has

  6. Use of the Systems Approach for Successful Token Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Catherine C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The three basic steps of the systems approach are described: the mission profile, the functional analysis, and the method-means. The advantageous use of these steps in planning a token economy is illustrated by a systematic evaluation of a token economy implemented in a sixth-grade setting. (Author)

  7. China and the changing landscape of the world economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liming Wang; Jinghai Zheng

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of emerging markets is changing the landscape of the world economy and may have profound implications for international relations. China is often regarded as the most influential emerging market economy because, during the last three decades, it has become increasingly integrated into the world economic system and its success and failure now affect the well-being of other

  8. Regenerating America: Meeting the Challenge of Building Local Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Medard; And Others

    The document includes five papers on the implications and applications of regeneration by the Regeneration Project, based in Emmaus, Pa. The first paper, "Regenerating America: Meeting the Challenge of Building Local Economies," (Medard Gabel) defines regeneration as economic recovery and growth, fostered by diversification within a local economy.…

  9. The Upside of a Down Economy: Buying Locally

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    The Upside of a Down Economy: Buying Locally Wednesday, September 26, 2012 5:00 ­ 6:30 p is available off Third Street, north of the building. Kimber Lanning Founder and Executive Director, Local improve the local economy, create jobs, and contribute recirculating dollars for community establishments

  10. The Impact of International Oil Price Fluctuation on China's Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Qianqian

    2011-01-01

    Oil is an important lifeline in our national economic development, and its price fluctuations also affect every field of the economy. With the rapid economic development, China's demand for oil has increased and the dependence on imported oil also on the increase. Therefore, the negative effect of high oil price on China's economy is growing up. In this paper, we

  11. Fuel demand on UK roads and dieselisation of fuel economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Bonilla

    2009-01-01

    Because of high oil prices, and climate change policy, governments are now seeking ways to improve new car fuel economy thus contributing to air quality and energy security. One strategy is to increase dieselisation rates of the vehicle fleet. Recent trends in fuel economy show improvement since 1995, however, efforts need to go further if the EU Voluntary Agreement targets

  12. 49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525...TRANSPORTATION EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption...

  13. 49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525...TRANSPORTATION EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption...

  14. 49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525...TRANSPORTATION EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption...

  15. Higher Skills and the Knowledge Economy: The Challenge of Offshoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, John; Gunn, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Recent economics literature on offshoring highlights the trend towards the relocation of high-skill jobs to emerging economies. This evolution presents a challenge to the established knowledge economy discourse on which the relationship between higher education, higher skills, higher productivity and higher incomes has been based. This paper…

  16. The Theory of Attention and the Economy of Understanding as a New Price Model in the Information Economy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula Georgy

    2008-01-01

    Most prices in the information economy (scientific information) are based on length of information, duration of online time, actuality etc., but most of these price concepts give little satisfaction to the customer because they are irrational and not comprehensible. Till today there exist no price concepts in the information economy concidering the attention or understanding of information. Therefore the theory

  17. The Impact of Credit on Village Economies

    E-print Network

    Townsend, Robert

    This paper evaluates the short- and longer term impact of Thailand's "Million Baht Village Fund" program, among the largest scale government microfinance iniatives in the world, using pre- and post-program panel data and ...

  18. 76 FR 11196 - Antidumping Methodologies in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ...Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of Production...proceedings involving non-market economy (``NME'') countries...Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of Production...the Secretary of Commerce, Attention: Christopher Mutz,...

  19. 40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...311-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.311-08 Range of fuel economy for...

  20. Big country dependent economy development of Taiwan—Functions of Japan, the US, and China in Taiwan's economy development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung Hsiung-Shen; Ting-Sheng Weng

    2010-01-01

    Although with limited land and resources and a dense population, Taiwan, situated in eastern Asia, has developed to be a model in the eyes of international economists after World War II; its cause and process worth study. As well known, the island economy- based Taiwan has to rely on big country economy in order to develop smoothly; moreover, the Taiwan's

  1. TEXTUAL ECONOMY THROUGH CLOSE COUPLING OF SYNTAX AND SEMANTICS Matthew Stone Bonnie Webber

    E-print Network

    Stone, Matthew

    TEXTUAL ECONOMY THROUGH CLOSE COUPLING OF SYNTAX AND SEMANTICS Matthew Stone Bonnie Webber Dept, thatexploitsthe hearer's recognitionof inferentiallinkstomaterial elsewhere withina sentence. Textual economy argue that achieving textual economy imposes strong requirements on the representation and reasoning

  2. 40 CFR 600.510-08 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for...fuel economy those design changes expected to have comparable effects on in-use fuel economy; (5) The test procedure...

  3. 40 CFR 600.510-08 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for...fuel economy those design changes expected to have comparable effects on in-use fuel economy; (5) The test procedure...

  4. Health benefits of a low carbon economy.

    PubMed

    Haines, A

    2012-09-01

    This article summarizes a presentation given at 'Health and Well-being: the 21st Century Agenda', which focused on the potential to make progress by making appropriate connections between activity to promote health and respond to the threat of climate change. It argues that a transition to a low carbon economy would bring together two of our greatest public health challenges, supporting action to improve public health within resource constraints and action to avert climate change as far as possible. Deep cuts in emissions are needed to prevent dangerous consequences arising from climate change. In addition, many of the policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions will, in themselves, have beneficial effects on public health. This article provides an overview of several modelling studies which demonstrate that well-designed initiatives that curb greenhouse gas emissions in energy, residential construction, urban transport and agricultural systems can enhance global public health, including improving health among poor populations. Some of these health co-benefits can be achieved in a relatively short time frame, and they can help offset the costs of climate change mitigation policies. PMID:22784582

  5. University of Michigan Institute for Research on Labor, Employment and the Economy

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    University of Michigan Institute for Research on Labor, Employment and the Economy (IRLEE) Mission innovation, increasing entrepreneurship, and improving the economy; (5) Foster a core of interdisciplinary

  6. Stretched exponential distributions in nature and economy: ``fat tails'' with characteristic scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laherrère, J.; Sornette, D.

    1998-04-01

    To account quantitatively for many reported "natural" fat tail distributions in Nature and Economy, we propose the stretched exponential family as a complement to the often used power law distributions. It has many advantages, among which to be economical with only two adjustable parameters with clear physical interpretation. Furthermore, it derives from a simple and generic mechanism in terms of multiplicative processes. We show that stretched exponentials describe very well the distributions of radio and light emissions from galaxies, of US GOM OCS oilfield reserve sizes, of World, US and French agglomeration sizes, of country population sizes, of daily Forex US-Mark and Franc-Mark price variations, of Vostok (near the south pole) temperature variations over the last 400 000 years, of the Raup-Sepkoski's kill curve and of citations of the most cited physicists in the world. We also discuss its potential for the distribution of earthquake sizes and fault displacements. We suggest physical interpretations of the parameters and provide a short toolkit of the statistical properties of the stretched exponentials. We also provide a comparison with other distributions, such as the shifted linear fractal, the log-normal and the recently introduced parabolic fractal distributions.

  7. Effect Size and Moderators of Effects for Token Economy Interventions 

    E-print Network

    Soares, Denise

    2012-02-14

    EFFECT SIZE AND MODERATORS OF EFFECTS FOR TOKEN ECONOMY INTERVENTIONS A Dissertation by DENISE A. SOARES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... EFFECT SIZE AND MODERATORS OF EFFECTS FOR TOKEN ECONOMY INTERVENTIONS A Dissertation by DENISE A. SOARES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR...

  8. Ecological evaluation of Beijing economy based on emergy indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, M. M.; Zhou, J. B.; Chen, B.; Yang, Z. F.; Ji, X.; Zhang, L. X.; Chen, G. Q.

    2009-05-01

    An integrated ecological evaluation of the Beijing economy was presented in the paper based on the emergy accounting with the data in 2004. Through calculating environmental and economic inputs within and outside the Beijing economy, this paper discusses the Beijing's resource structure, economic situation and trade status based on a series of emergy indicators. Through the comparison of the systematic indicators of Beijing with those of the selected Chinese cities, the general status of the Beijing economy in China is identified. The results also show that most indicators of Beijing are located at middle levels among the selected Chinese cities. Particularly, the environmental impacts, expressed by the ratio of waste to the renewable emergy, and the ratio of waste to the total emergy use, are 84.2 and 0.26, respectively in Beijing in 2004, which indicate that the Beijing economy is greatly reliant on the imported intensive fuels, goods and services with high empower density and environmental loading.

  9. Globalization and the Future of the National Economy

    E-print Network

    Boyd, James Patrick

    2006-03-17

    Many observers are concerned that the growth of globalization will undermine and destroy national economies. For the past six years, Professor Suzanne Berger, the Raphael Dorman and Helen Starbuck Professor of Political ...

  10. ON THE DIFFERENTIAL IMPACT OF FDI ON HOST ECONOMIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodora S. Kosma; Constantina Kottaridi; Jimmy McHugh

    This study sheds light on a central yet under-investigated issue in the European Integration debate, namely, the role of FDI on the growth process of EU countries. Most of the relevant literature to date treats host economies as homogeneous and consequently doesn't allow for a differential impact of FDI on their growth. The paper employs a small open economy two-sector

  11. Vocational Preparation of The Hardcore Unemployed: The Token Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Jack; Turner, Walter L.

    1973-01-01

    This article describes a demonstration project designed to assist in the upgrading of job skills among hardcore, inner-city, underemployed clients. The token economy procedure is described and its use in the present study is detailed. (Author)

  12. The political economy of government interventions in financial crises

    E-print Network

    Foar??, Octavia Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Chapter 1 examines how political economy considerations affect the desirability of banking unions. It presents a model in which bank recapitalizations are carried out by rent-seeking policymakers. These policymakers face ...

  13. Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S., LLNL

    1997-01-01

    Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CARB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4%, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6%. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CARB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

  14. Diffusion and Effects of Cyber-Crime in Developing Economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nir Kshetri

    2010-01-01

    Cyber-crime's footprints across the developing world are getting bigger. The aim of this article is to examine the structure of cyber-crimes in developing economies. Its central idea is that economic and institutional factors facing cyber-criminals and potential victims in the developing world are different from those in the developed world. In economies characterised by low internet penetration rates and few

  15. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, Kevin M [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in fuel economy with increasing restriction. However, the level of restriction required to cause a substantial (10-15%) decrease in fuel economy (such as that cited in the literature) was so severe that the vehicle was almost undrivable. Acceleration performance on all vehicles was improved with a clean air filter. Once it was determined how severe the restriction had to be to affect the carbureted vehicle fuel economy, the 2007 Buick Lucerne was retested in a similar manner. We were not able to achieve the level of restriction that was achieved with the 1972 Pontiac with the Lucerne. The Lucerne's air filter box would not hold the filter in place under such severe conditions. (It is believed that this testing exceeded the design limits of the air box.) Tests were conducted at a lower restriction level (although still considerably more severe than the initial clogged filter testing), allowing the air filter to stay seated in the air box, and no significant change was observed in the Lucerne's fuel economy or the AFR over the HFET cycle. Closed-loop control in modern fuel injected vehicle applications is sophisticated enough to keep a clogged air filter from affecting the vehicle fuel economy. However for older, open-loop, carbureted vehicles, a clogged air filter can affect the fuel economy. For the vehicle tested, the fuel economy with a new air filter improved as much as 14% over that with a severely clogged filter (in which the filter was so clogged that drivability was impacted). Under a more typical state of clog, the improvement with a new filter ranged from 2 to 6%.

  16. On Optimal Monetary Policy Rules and the Role of MCIs in the Open Economy.

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    On Optimal Monetary Policy Rules and the Role of MCIs in the Open Economy. By Alfred V. Guender consequences for the conduct of optimal monetary policy in the forward-looking open economy framework. As opposed to the closed economy framework optimal monetary policy in the open economy depends on both demand

  17. Nuclides Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Evgeny; Subbotin, Stanislav [RRC 'Kurchatov institute', Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    Traditionally the subject of discussion about the nuclear technology development is focused on the conditions that facilitate the nuclear power deployment. The main objective of this work is seeking of methodological basis for analysis of the coupling consequences of nuclear development. Nuclide economy is the term, which defines a new kind of society relations, dependent on nuclear technology development. It is rather closed to the setting of problems then to the solving of them. Last year Dr. Jonathan Tennenbaum published in Executive Intelligence Review Vol. 33 no 40 the article entitled as 'The Isotope Economy' where main interconnections for nuclear energy technologies and their infrastructure had been explained on the popular level. There he has given several answers and, therefore, just here we will try to expand this concept. We were interested by this publication because of similarity of our vision of resource base of technologies development. The main paradigm of 'Isotope economy' was expresses by Lyndon H. LaRouche: 'Instead of viewing the relevant resources of the planet as if they were a fixed totality, we must now assume responsibility of man's creating the new resources which will be more than adequate to sustain a growing world population at a constantly improved standard of physical per-capita output, and personal consumption'. We also consider the needed resources as a dynamic category. Nuclide economy and nuclide logistics both are needed for identifying of the future development of nuclear power as far we follow the holistic analysis approach 'from cave to grave'. Thus here we try to reasoning of decision making procedures and factors required for it in frame of innovative proposals development and deployment. The nuclear power development is needed in humanitarian scientific support with maximally deep consideration of all inter-disciplinary aspects of the nuclear power and nuclear technologies implementation. The main objectives for such consideration should be prognosis of all political, social, environmental and infra-structural consequences. Understanding of this necessity turned us to use the formalism of so called techno-dynamics and represent of resources needed for nuclear technology development as dynamic categories. The basic ideas of the methodology of innovative project assessment have been applied for holistic analysis of the development of the nuclear systems. This methodology has been developed for innovative proposals analysis in frame of IAEA INPRO project and it was a consensus product of the wide international expert's society discussions. All aspects of application of radioactivity in the industry and medicine had not been presented because the main ideas are quite evident but scale factor of their using has too big uncertainties. But cyclic character of organizing fuel management for the future development of nuclear technologies was added by cycles of structure materials as well. It has obtained that asymptotically the nuclear technology generates their specific compositions of structure materials. Thus wide scale using of the nuclear power will make new kind of metals that will be materials of nuclear quality. Development of new technologies and their penetration on the market will be accompanied by the several kinds of critical events. Crisis of resource's supplying is only most well known of them. But it is not both the single and not the most important. The model of corporation development made on Marshall's theory unambiguously demonstrates that transition from one technology to another can be made only in conditions of falling of the market. This result does not allow us to predict of time of the optimal transition from one technology basis onto the nets generation but it gives an indicator of readiness for changing of the mainstream. For the analysis of new innovative initiative it has been used the scale factor. Thus it shows that required installed capacity of G.N.E.P. systems will not be less then two hundred GW. Therefore the burner segment of the projected syste ms s

  18. Relative Economy of Different Methods of Airplane Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, H

    1931-01-01

    A comparison of the relative economy of airplane construction shows that monoplanes are cheaper than biplanes; that all-metal construction is much more expensive than mixed construction; that multi-engine airplanes are more expensive than single-engine types of the same carrying capacity and speed;that the cost of airplanes is materially reduced by increasing their size without increasing the number of engines. The greatest economy usually coincides with the best aerodynamic and static conditions and the cost is always increased by safety requirements.

  19. PECO 5501A/ PSCI 5501A/ SOCI 5504A Selected Problems in Political Economy

    E-print Network

    economy of water at the local (municipal) scale, with particular attention to the issue of "water1 PECO 5501A/ PSCI 5501A/ SOCI 5504A Selected Problems in Political Economy: Political Economy) how these crises might be resolved. A political economy of water is useful both for understanding one

  20. Measuring flood footprint of a regional economy - A case study for the UK flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, D.

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of the urban economy and society is central to understanding the broad impacts of flooding and to identify cost-effective adaptation and mitigation measures. Assessments of the flooding impacts on cities have traditionally focused on the initial impact on people and assets. These initial estimates (so-called ';direct damage') are useful both in understanding the immediate implications of damage, and in marshalling the pools of capital and supplies required for re-building after an event. Since different economies as well as societies are coupled, especially under the current economic crisis, any small-scale damage may be multiplied and cascaded throughout wider economic systems and social networks. The direct and indirect damage is currently not evaluated well and could be captured by quantification of what we call the flood footprint. Flooding in one location can impact the whole UK economy. Neglecting these knock-on costs (i.e. the true footprint of the flood) means we might be ignoring the economic benefits and beneficiaries of flood risk management interventions. In 2007, for example, floods cost the economy about £3.2 bn directly, but the wider effect might actually add another 50% to 250% to that. Flood footprint is a measure of the exclusive total socioeconomic impact that is directly and indirectly caused by a flood event to the flooding region and wider economic systems and social networks. We adopt the UK 2012 flooding. An input-output basic dynamic inequalities (BDI) model is used to assess the impact of the floodings on the level of a Yorkshire economy, accounting for interactions between industries through demand and supply of intermediate consumption goods with a circular flow. After the disaster the economy will be unbalanced. The recovery process finishes when the economy is completely balance, i.e., when labour production capacity equals demands and production and all the variables reach pre-disaster levels. The analysis is carried out focusing on 42 sectors. Most regional data have been produced from the Multisectoral Dynamic Model of the UK economy. The flooding caused a 3.56% direct damage in the Yorkshire economy, while the indirect accounted for 14.58%.Utilities and transportation where the sectors that suffered the greatest direct impact. This impact indirectly transferred through business and supply chain to services, construction and primary industries.

  1. A meta-analysis of estimates of urban agglomeration economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia C. Melo; Daniel J. Graham; Robert B. Noland

    2009-01-01

    Although the productivity gains of urban agglomeration economies are generally found to be positive, there is a great deal of variability in the magnitude of reported estimates. This paper undertakes a quantitative review of the empirical literature on agglomeration through a meta-analysis of 729 elasticities taken from 34 different studies. The objective is to make sense of the range of

  2. Economic Impact of Pharmacy Graduates on a Regional Economy

    PubMed Central

    Rosenman, Robert; Bozman, Carl S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the impact of recent pharmacy graduates on a local economy. Methods Input-output analysis was applied to data from Spokane County, Washington, in 2006 and the findings were reviewed and conclusions were drawn. Results The local college of pharmacy added nearly $1 million (in 2006) directly to the local economy. New pharmacists added nearly $400,000 in direct value. However, because the graduates alleviated a shortage of pharmacists in the area, thereby avoiding both the tangible and intangible (eg, human health) economic costs of a continued shortage, the true economic impact may have been even greater. Conclusions Doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) graduates entering the workforce add substantial value, both to the local retail pharmacy industry specifically and the local economy in general. Thus, the economic impact of the pharmacy practice program training these students is also substantial. PMID:19564989

  3. The Valorization of Surveillance: Towards a Political Economy of Facebook

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole S. Cohen

    Much excitement surrounds Facebook, the social networking site based on user-generated content that has attracted 64 million active users since its inception in 2004. This paper begins to out- line a political economy of Facebook in an attempt to draw atten- tion to the underlying economic relations that structure the web- site, and the way in which the site fits

  4. The role of hydrogen cars in the economy of California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guihua Wang

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen has been proposed as an alternative transportation fuel that could reduce energy consumption and eliminate tailpipe emissions when used in fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). To investigate the potential effects of hydrogen vehicles on California’s economy over the next two decades, we employed the modified Costs for Advanced Vehicles and Energy (CAVE) model and a California-specific computable general equilibrium model.

  5. Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics and East European Economies (SITE)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics and East European Economies (SITE/Ã?stekonomiska Institutet) is an independent research institute at the Stockholm School of Economics. SITE is concerned with the transition from planned to market economies in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Academic research on-site includes a bibliography of recent working papers (1990-present), with most papers from 1998 available for download [.pdf]. Monthly updates of key indicators discussed in the quarterly SITE publication Russian Economic Trends (RET) are also available [.pdf] in addition to RET subscription information and other discussion channels.

  6. Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    Several new and forthcoming books published by the National Academies Press (NAP) can now be read online through NAP's OpenBook feature, that allows readers to view full text of books (.html). The first listed here, "Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards", is an unedited pre-print. It gives the results of a the National Academies Transportation Research Board's recent investigation into the impacts of the CAFE program, which was passed in 1975 in response to oil shortages and required that auto manufacturers increase the sales-weighted average fuel economy for passenger cars and light-duty trucks.

  7. The Rural Economy in a New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas G.

    Technological change, globalization, and localization have changed rural economies. They have increased labor productivity, reducing the importance of labor costs in location decisions; decreased the importance of distance; increased the importance of economies of scale; and increased the role of local conditions and choices in determining…

  8. World development and the restructuring of the industrial economies

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.O.

    1980-01-01

    A symposium on World Development and the Restructuring of Industrial Economies held at Bellagio, Lake Como, Italy during the week of 10-15 September 1979 was organized to discuss adjustments required by industrialized economies when adapting to changes inherent in present world development trends, as well as to help define national and international policy measures that might be used to facilitate the restructuring process. This report reviews the key issues, alternative strategies for restructuring, and policy measures for restructuring discussed at the symposium. It also offers some conclusions based on the results of the symposium. 16 references.

  9. 15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300...FOREIGN TRADE BOARD REPORTS ON EXPORTS OF TECHNOLOGY § 1300.1 Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries....

  10. 15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300...FOREIGN TRADE BOARD REPORTS ON EXPORTS OF TECHNOLOGY § 1300.1 Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries....

  11. 15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300...FOREIGN TRADE BOARD REPORTS ON EXPORTS OF TECHNOLOGY § 1300.1 Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries....

  12. 15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300...FOREIGN TRADE BOARD REPORTS ON EXPORTS OF TECHNOLOGY § 1300.1 Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries....

  13. 15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300...FOREIGN TRADE BOARD REPORTS ON EXPORTS OF TECHNOLOGY § 1300.1 Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries....

  14. Restore the Economy with Loans to All Taxpayers The mess on Wall Street spilled over into the rest of the economy when it induced a crisis in

    E-print Network

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Restore the Economy with Loans to All Taxpayers The mess on Wall Street spilled over into the rest of the economy when it induced a crisis in confidence. People felt insecure and sought to increase their cash is to put enough money into the economy that people will be willing to spend at the level needed to keep

  15. Wisconsin Agriculture Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy

    E-print Network

    Radeloff, Volker C.

    STATUS OF Wisconsin Agriculture 2011 · Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy · Current Outlook: Farm of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural and Life Sciences University of Wisconsin-Madison Cooperative Extension University of Wisconsin-Extension #12;Status of Wisconsin Agriculture, 2011 An annual

  16. Information, efficiency, and the core of an economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B Wilson

    1978-01-01

    The meaning of exchange efficiency is examined in the context of an economy in which agents differ in their endowments of information. Definitions of efficiency, and of the core, are proposed which emphasize the role of communication. Opportunities for insurance are preserved by restricting communication, or in a market system by restricting insider trading, prior to the pooling of information

  17. The Political Economy of Agrarian Change: Dinosaur or Phoenix?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucia da Corta

    In this paper I argue for the resurrection of the political economy of agrarian change (PEACH) in mainstream policy research in order to understand the deeper causes of poverty and its transformation in rural areas. I critically examine chronic poverty research and argue that in the wake of the devastating critique of PEACH theory, an unlikely combination of post-structural and

  18. AGRICULTURE, 2008 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy

    E-print Network

    Radeloff, Volker C.

    STATUS OF WISCONSIN AGRICULTURE, 2008 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy Situation and Outlook of Working Lands in Wisconsin · Hired Labor on Wisconsin Dairy Farms Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural and Life Sciences University of Wisconsin-Madison Cooperative Extension

  19. The Learning Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bengt-äke Lundvall; Björn Johnson

    1994-01-01

    Modern economies can be characterised as ‘learning economies’ in which knowledge is the crucial resource and learning is the most important process. Different kinds of learning and economically relevant types of knowledge can likewise be identified. It is argued that pure market economies, if such existed, would have severe problems in terms of learning and innovation. The ‘learning economy’ is

  20. AGRICULTURE, 2007 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy

    E-print Network

    Radeloff, Volker C.

    STATUS OF WISCONSIN AGRICULTURE, 2007 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy Situation and Outlook and Challenges · Current Prospects for the 2007 Farm Bill Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural and Life Sciences University of Wisconsin-Madison Cooperative Extension University

  1. AGRICULTURE, 2004 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy

    E-print Network

    Radeloff, Volker C.

    STATUS OF WISCONSIN AGRICULTURE, 2004 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy Situation and Outlook Situation: Implications for U.S. Agriculture · The Evolution and Current Status of Livestock Production and Meat Processing in Wisconsin Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural

  2. AGRICULTURE, 2006 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy

    E-print Network

    Radeloff, Volker C.

    STATUS OF WISCONSIN AGRICULTURE, 2006 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy Situation and Outlook-Added Agriculture · Organic Farming in Wisconsin · A New Wisconsin Cooperative Law Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural and Life Sciences University of Wisconsin-Madison Cooperative

  3. AGRICULTURE, 2005 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy

    E-print Network

    Radeloff, Volker C.

    STATUS OF WISCONSIN AGRICULTURE, 2005 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy Situation and Outlook, and Specialization in the Wisconsin Dairy Industry · The Economic Importance of Value-added Agriculture in Wisconsin · The Economic Value of Wisconsin's Green Industry Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College

  4. The Economy of Energy Conservation in Educational Facilities. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    Prepared with the assistance of a panel of experts, this report sets forth available information for school architects and administrators facing the energy crisis. The booklet tells specifically how economies can be effected in the operation and maintenance of school buildings; in the modernization of existing schools; and in the planning of

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF LOWER BODY COMPRESSION CLOTHING ON MARKERS OF RUNNING ECONOMY DURING SUBMAXIMAL

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    THE INFLUENCE OF LOWER BODY COMPRESSION CLOTHING ON MARKERS OF RUNNING ECONOMY DURING SUBMAXIMAL ........................................................................................................................ 24 Research Design

  6. EMISSIONS AND FUEL ECONOMY OF FEDERAL ALTERNATIVELY FUELED FLEET VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents results from a study designed to investigate the effects of automobile fuels on emissions and fuel economy. The study is part of a larger program mandated by the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988 that requires the Department of Energy (DOE), in cooperation w...

  7. Level Ordering and Economy in the Lexical Phonology of Turkish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inkelas, Sharon; Orgun, Cemil Orhan

    1995-01-01

    Supports the theory of level ordering by demonstrating, on the basis of productive morphology and phonology, that Turkish has four lexical levels. The first is the principle of Level Economy, which accounts for systematic exceptionality. The second is Level Prespecification, which exempts a root entirely from early lexical levels. Both of these…

  8. The effect of attentional focus on running economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Schücker; Norbert Hagemann; Bernd Strauss; Klaus Völker

    2009-01-01

    In research on motor control, the detrimental effect of an internal focus of attention on movement execution of well-learned motor skills is a frequently replicated finding. This experimental study was designed to determine whether this effect is observed with physiological variables during endurance exercise. We examined whether the focus of attention can influence running economy (oxygen consumption at a set

  9. A Political Economy of University Funding: The English Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Murray

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the coalition United Kingdom government policy on university funding in England as a political economy. It depicts higher education as a public and private good in the context of international trends in "cost sharing" and it addresses the centrality of economic drivers for the profile and orientation of higher education,…

  10. What Factors Affect Average Fuel Economy of US Passenger Vehicles?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suman Gautam

    2010-01-01

    The auto industry consumes about 70 percent of total petroleum products used in the United States and is a major source of green house gas emissions. With the limited supply of traditional non-renewable energy and a slow growing renewable energy industry, it is important to increase energy efficiency to meet energy demand. Fuel economy, a measure of energy efficiency in

  11. The influence of metallurgical sector on Ukrainian economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bohdan Petrushchak

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the influence of metallurgical sector on Ukrainian economy. We try to examine what is iron ore for Ukraine – a basis for successful economic development or resource curse, and investigate the impact of steel and iron companies on performance of domestic stock exchange.

  12. Work in Progress: Narratives of Aspiration from the New Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George

    2006-01-01

    Central to the discourses of the new economy is the model of the flexible, adaptive, ambitious and individualistic worker. This article considers the subjective purchase of that model by analysing interviews with three young women living and working in urban Australia. Their respective narratives of aspiration illustrate contrasting responses to…

  13. Internationalization Strategies of Liberal Arts Institutions in a Globalizing Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alles, Patrick D.

    2013-01-01

    The complex forces of globalization have transformed higher education institutions in two significant ways. First, they have been compelled to emphasize curricula and degree programs that complement the demands of the contemporary global economy. Second, their drive to expand existing dimensions of internationalization has become a new component…

  14. The Socialist System: The Political Economy of Communism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janos Kornai

    1992-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive account of the structure, conduct, and performance of the centrally planned economies of Eastern Europe, the USSR, Communist China and the Marxist LDCs, looking at 26 nations in all. The author focuses on reform, perhaps the most important issue facing countries such as the USSR, Poland, Hungary, and China. Bureaucracy, soft budget constraints, markets, and

  15. Conceptions of Tourism Lifestyle Entrepreneurship: Transition Economy Context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vlatka Skokic; Alison Morrison

    2011-01-01

    Lifestyle non-economic motives have been recognised as a significant motivational factor for tourism and hospitality entrepreneurs. However, knowledge on the subject is mainly drawn from the perspective of western developed economies, with a paucity of studies focusing on transition and developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to investigate tourism entrepreneurship within the former socialist countries, particularly focusing on

  16. Assessment of Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Economies

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

    2009-08-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the marginal lands in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies and evaluate their biomass productivity potential. Twelve categories of marginal lands are identified using the Global Agro-Ecological Zones system of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

  17. The integration of the developing countries into the world economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner Glastetter

    1988-01-01

    Despite decades of efforts, it has not yet been possible to integrate the developing countries satisfactorily into the world\\u000a economy. Professor Glastetter examines the reasons for the failure of the integration strategies pursued hitherto and discusses\\u000a the prospects of success with alternative approaches.

  18. Agglomeration and the Geography of Localization Economies in Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Baldwin; Desmond Beckstead; W. Mark Brown; David L. Rigby

    2008-01-01

    Baldwin J. R., Beckstead D., Brown W. M. and Rigby D. L. Agglomeration and the geography of localization economies in Canada, Regional Studies.?This paper maps the spatial variation in productivity levels across Canadian cities and models the underlying determinants of that variation. There are two main goals. The first is to confirm the existence, the nature and the size of

  19. The Future of Government: Mixed Economy or Minimal State?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Quiggin

    1999-01-01

    After nearly a century of expansion, the role of government has contracted, at least in qualitative terms, over the past twenty years. The assumption that this is a natural and inevitable trend is mistaken. The success of the 'mixed economy' in the period from 1945 to 1970, and the limited benefits generated so far by reforms aimed at a contraction

  20. The Impact of Terrorism on the US Economy and Business

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark P. Alavosius; Leslie Wilk Braksick; Aubrey C. Daniels; Dwight Harshbarger; Ramona Houmanfar; Jose Zeilstra

    2003-01-01

    This paper is an edited transcript of an invited panel discussion that was presented at the 28th annual meeting of the Association for Behavior Analysis in Toronto, Ontario. The speakers in this discussion addressed how behavior managers might contribute to understanding the impact of terrorism on the economy and business, behavioral drivers in the new business context, and how we

  1. Taxation of Investment and Savings in a World Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger H Gordon

    1986-01-01

    The equilibrium of capital and equilibrium market prices are derived for a world economy with a unified securities market, mobile capital, no uncertainty, and varying tax rates on different sources of income in each country. The paper then characterizes optimal tax rates for a small country in this setting, focusing on the peculiar incentives created when the before-tax rate of

  2. The Impact of Climate Change on the United States Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Mendelsohn; James E. Neumann

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of climate change on economic behaviour is an important aspect of deciding when to take policy actions to prevent or mitigate its consequences. This book applies advanced new economics methodologies to assess impacts on potentially vulnerable aspects of the US economy: agriculture, timber, coastal resources, energy expenditure, fishing, outdoor recreation. It is intended to provide improved understanding

  3. Automotive fuel economy program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    An energy outlook is presented that focuses on petroleum demand and supply, and the effects of fuel economy standards on petroleum savings. Passenger car and light truck fuel economy activities are summarized including sales patterns and trends. Other fuel economy related activities are discussed and include compliance activities, the gas guzzler tax, legislative recommendations, and voluntary fuel economy programs.

  4. Use of a token economy to increase compliance during hemodialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Carton, J S; Schweitzer, J B

    1996-01-01

    We report the effects of using a token economy to treat noncompliant behavior in a 10-year-old male hemodialysis patient. The results of an ABAB design indicated that the intervention increased compliant behavior during both treatment phases and that compliance was maintained at 3- and 6-month follow-up observations. PMID:8881351

  5. The Political Economy Of The Human Right To Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Couret Branco; Pedro Damiao Henriques

    2008-01-01

    Water being essential to human survival, a political economy directed to satisfying human basic needs, should be especially concerned with the issue of water availability and distribution. Why is there such inequality in its distribution? This inequality represents a serious violation of a human right, as it will be developed in the paper and therefore should not be tolerated. The

  6. HUMAN CAPITAL AND THE FUTURE OF TRANSITION ECONOMIES* Michael Spagat

    E-print Network

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    HUMAN CAPITAL AND THE FUTURE OF TRANSITION ECONOMIES* By Michael Spagat Royal Holloway, University advantage of their family backgrounds and invest substantially in their own human capital. At a bad, Development, Human Capital, Education, Growth, Multiple Equilibria Address for Correspondence: Department

  7. Key role of cultural and creative industries in the economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hendrik van der Pol

    As culture and creativity become an increasing driving force in the international marketplace, it is essential to measure their impact not only on the economy but also on society at large. UNESCO has always been at the forefront of addressing the dual cultural and economic nature of cultural goods and services, working on both the theory and the practice. The

  8. An illicit economy: Scavenging and recycling of medical waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masum A. Patwary; William Thomas O’Hare; M. H. Sarker

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a significant illicit economy, including black and grey aspects, associated with medical waste scavenging and recycling in a megacity, considering hazards to the specific group involved in scavenging as well as hazards to the general population of city dwellers. Data were collected in Dhaka, Bangladesh, using a variety of techniques based on formal representative sampling for fixed

  9. The political economy of social security: a survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincenzo Galasso; Paola Profeta

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys the literature on the political economy of social security. We review models that address the following questions: (i) Why do social security programs that transfer resources from young and middle-aged workers to the elderly exist? (ii) What are the economic and political interactions between social security systems and other redistributive programs of the welfare state? (iii) How

  10. Fuel Economy of Vehicles Made in 2004 Description of the sample

    E-print Network

    Carriquiry, Alicia

    Fuel Economy of Vehicles Made in 2004 Description of the sample: A random sample of 36 cars and light trucks was obtained from all the vehicle models made in 2004. The combined fuel economy estimate the vehicles got 22 MPG or less. There was a good deal of variability in the fuel economy of the 36 cars

  11. On sustainable development of population and national economy.

    PubMed

    Tian, X

    1995-01-01

    This article offers a strategy for achieving sustainable development of population and the national economy in China. It is argued that economic growth and population growth must be in balance and coordinated. In 1993 it was estimated that a national economic growth rate of 4.03-4.60% was needed in order to balance the natural population growth rate of 1.15% at the existing standard of living. When the national economy grows faster than population in the life expectancy time period, overpopulation can be checked. Population must be balanced with sufficient means for subsistence. The key measure of sustainable development is the ratio between the size of the working-age population and the means of production. The number of people in the labor force is positively related to fixed assets and negatively related to the labor force's technical equipment. China's problems include weak industrial fixed assets, a surplus labor force, and slow growth in industrial and agricultural productivity. Potential solutions are to shift employment from a cultivation-oriented rural economy to a diversified rural economy, to increase the pace of change to an industrial and commercial economy, and to increase the pace of change to nonmaterial production and to raising employment efficiency. Solutions are dependent upon improvement in the quality of population, which means increased levels of education. China still has 181,610,00 people who are illiterate or semi-illiterate among the working-age population. Sustainable development also relies on active promotion of social support for the elderly by a pension system, family support, and reemployment of the elderly. Surplus labor should be absorbed by the service industry. Population structure and economic development are more advanced in coastal areas that have 41% of total population. Inland areas should develop labor-intensive, technology-intensive, and investment-intensive industries. Northwest areas need an educated population, improved transportation, and a stronger economic base. PMID:12290856

  12. An Attention Economy Perspective on the Effectiveness of Incomplete Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nitza Geri; Seev Neumann; Rebecca Schocken; Yishai Tobin

    2008-01-01

    This study suggests an attention economy perspective on incomplete information, asserting that people use partial information as basis for action, hence an effective information system should provide them just with the most useful partial information, and should avoid redundant informa- tion that wastes their limited attention resources. These assertions were empirically examined via simulation of a speech-reading process that measured

  13. Pleasures of Benthamism: Victorian Literature, Utility, Political Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen Blake

    This book offers a fresh look at the often-censured but imperfectly understood traditions of Utilitarianism and political economy in their bearing for Victorian literature and culture. It treats writings by Jeremy Bentham, Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo, James and John Stuart Mill, Charles Dickens, Thomas Carlyle, Anthony Trollope, George Eliot, Elizabeth Gaskell, and Rabindranath Tagore. It sets texts in

  14. Poultry Markets: On the Underground Economy of Twitter Followers

    E-print Network

    Kruegel, Christopher

    Poultry Markets: On the Underground Economy of Twitter Followers Gianluca Stringhini, Manuel Egele Twitter profiles. 1. INTRODUCTION Nowadays, Twitter is the most popular microblogging site on the Internet into authorizing a rogue OAuth application [2], or by leveraging vulnerabilities on the social networking site

  15. Poultry Markets: On the Underground Economy of Twitter Followers

    E-print Network

    Vigna, Giovanni

    Poultry Markets: On the Underground Economy of Twitter Followers Gianluca Stringhini, Manuel Egele microblogging site on the Internet. The rapid growth that Twitter sustained over the recent past resulted vulnerabilities on the social networking site, such as Cross- Site Scripting (XSS) [9]. In this paper, we consider

  16. Ecological utilization of leather tannery waste with circular economy model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Hu; Zuobing Xiao; Rujun Zhou; Weijun Deng; Mingxi Wang; Shuangshuang Ma

    2011-01-01

    Circular economy (CE) focuses on resource-productivity and eco-efficiency improvement in a comprehensive way, especially on the industrial structure optimization of new technology development and application, equipment renewal and management renovation. The leather industry on the one side boosts the local economic development, on the other side however leads to the tremendous environment pollution and biological chains destruction. The CE model

  17. Fuel economy and traffic fatalities: multivariate analysis of international data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B. Noland

    2005-01-01

    In the US motor vehicle fuel economy standards were imposed in the late 1970s, in response to the oil crises of that decade. Since then, efforts to increase the standards have not occurred, one reason being the argument that smaller vehicles (which are generally more efficient) are considered less safe. Recent analyses (Energy J.( 2004)) suggests that variance in vehicle

  18. Political Science 213 Theories of International Political Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Büthe

    Purpose: PS 213 is a seminar on the theories of international political economy. We will systematically examine theoretical explanations for why countries open their markets to international trade in some products, but not others; why governments sometime use tariffs but at other times non-tariff barriers to protect domestic producers; why many countries have removed restriction on capital in- and outflows

  19. Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place

    E-print Network

    need jobs and strong communities ­ Visitors have a role How do you attract and manage visitorsTourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place - Mt Eden Village - Simon.nz/Our-Ships-And-Services/Kaitaki/iSITE.aspx) #12;Better still, give visitors the information they need before, during and after travel and `connect

  20. Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place

    E-print Network

    jobs and strong communities ­ Visitors have a role How do you attract and manage visitorsTourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place - Eden Valley - Simon Milne.nz/Our-Ships-And-Services/Kaitaki/iSITE.aspx) #12;Better still, give visitors the information they need before, during and after travel and `connect

  1. Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place

    E-print Network

    We need jobs and strong communities ­ Visitors have a role How do you attract and manage visitorsTourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place - Sandringham - Simon Milne.nz/Our-Ships-And-Services/Kaitaki/iSITE.aspx) #12;Better still, give visitors the information they need before, during and after travel and `connect

  2. Transparency of Information and Coordination in Economies with Investment Complementarities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George-Marios Angeletos; Alessandro Pavan

    2004-01-01

    How do public and private information affect equilibrium allocations and social welfare in economies with investment complementarities? And what is the optimal transparency in the information conveyed, for example, by economic statistics, policy announcements, or news in the media? We first consider an environment where the complementarities are weak so that the equilibrium is unique no matter the structure of

  3. TRANSPARENCY OF INFORMATION AND COORDINATION IN ECONOMIES WITH INVESTMENT COMPLEMENTARITIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George-Marios Angeletos; Alessandro Pavan

    How do public and private information affect equilibrium allocations and social welfare in economies with investment complementarities? And what is the optimal transparency in the information conveyed, for example, by economic statistics, policy announcements, or news in the media? We first consider an environment where the complementarities are weak so that the equilibrium is unique no matter the structure of

  4. The Core of an Economy with Multilateral Environmental Externalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Tulkens; Parkash Chander

    1997-01-01

    When environmental externalities are international - i.e. transfrontier - they most often are multilateral and embody public good characteristics. Improving upon inefficient laissez-faire equilibria requires voluntary cooperation for which the game-theoretic core concept provides optimal outcomes that have interesting properties against free riding. To define the core, however, the characteristic function of the game associated with the economy (which specifies

  5. The effects of oil price shocks on the Iranian economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Reza Farzanegan; Gunther Markwardt

    2009-01-01

    The Iranian economy is highly vulnerable to oil price fluctuations. This paper analyzes the dynamic relationship between oil price shocks and major macroeconomic variables in Iran by applying a VAR approach. The study points out the asymmetric effects of oil price shocks; for instance, positive as well as negative oil price shocks significantly increase inflation. We find a strong positive

  6. The effects of oil price shocks on the Iranian economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Reza Farzanegan; Gunther Markwardt

    2008-01-01

    The Iranian economy is highly vulnerable to oil price fluctuations. This paper analyzes the dynamic relationship between oil price shocks and major macroeconomic variables in Iran by applying a VAR approach. The study points out the asymmetric effects of oil price shocks; for instance, positive as well as negative oil price shocks significantly increase inflation. We find a strong positive

  7. The Economy of Conflict in the Oil Rich Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AUGUSTINE IKELEGBE

    2005-01-01

    Economies of war underpinned by greed and opportunities have been posited to underlie causality, dynamics and the sustenance of conflicts and particularly Africa's resource wars. The study examines the economy of conflict in the resource conflicts in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. It was found that a conflict economy comprising an intensive and violent struggle for resource opportunities, inter

  8. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel-cell vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  9. 71 FR 77872 - Fuel Economy Labeling of Motor Vehicles: Revisions To Improve Calculation of Fuel Economy Estimates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-12-27

    ...integrated real-time total hydrocarbon (THC) data collection for fuel economy calculations...are tested for the exhaust emissions of THC, CO, NO X , CH 4 , and CO 2 . For diesel-cycle vehicles, THC is sampled and analyzed continuously...

  10. Political Economy Graduate Certificate c/o Department of Political Science

    E-print Network

    Political Economy Graduate Certificate c/o Department of Political Science Clark C346 Colorado.stevis@colostate.edu Political Economy Graduate Interdisciplinary Studies Program Enrollment Form (*) (03/01/05) Name

  11. 76 FR 34046 - Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ...administrative reviews involving non-market economy countries (``NME''), the Department...the investigation or review. In market economy (``ME'') proceedings, the Department...comments to the Secretary of Commerce, Attention: Julia Hancock, Special...

  12. Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment Capabilities in APEC Economies

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P

    2008-11-01

    This survey of biomass resource assessments and assessment capabilities in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies considered various sources: academic and government publications, media reports, and personal communication with contacts in member economies.

  13. Constructing green supply chain based on the mode of circulation economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Li; Jiao Lan

    2010-01-01

    Circulation economy is a form of economic organization through the integration of industrial chains,to achieve re-use, multiple use, and recycling. The green supply chain is a kind of modern green logistic model that through minimum resource input to reach the highest efficiency and maximum recycling, to realize the coordinated development of economy and ecology at the idea of circular economy

  14. Explaining the Regional Distribution of New Economy Firms ? A Count Data Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk Dohse; Andrea Schertler

    2003-01-01

    Although there is a host of literature on the locational choice of traditional economy firms, relatively little is known about the locational needs and preferences of new economy firms. Therefore, the current paper provides an empirical analysis of the factors determining the regional distribution of new economy firms in Germany. Using a count data analysis, we find evidence that the

  15. THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF LABOUR MARKET POLICIES IN WESTERN AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    E-print Network

    Galis, Frietson

    THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF LABOUR MARKET POLICIES IN WESTERN AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES OLAF VAN, which is a key element of the flexicurity model. Building on the political economy literature, we test in the political economy literature, but hardly for Eastern European countries, because of a lack of data. We

  16. Non-existence of equilibrium in an incomplete stock market economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Momi

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers a production economy with incomplete stock markets and demonstrates non-existence of equilibrium for a set of endowments with a positive measure in such an economy. As for the existence of equilibrium in an incomplete market economy, many previous studies have proved the generic existence. Therefore, our result is in sharp contrast to them. The cause of non-existence

  17. EconoGrid: A detailed Simulation Model of a Standards-based Grid Compute Economy

    E-print Network

    EconoGrid: A detailed Simulation Model of a Standards-based Grid Compute Economy EconoGrid is a detailed simulation model, implemented in SLX1 , of a grid compute economy that implements selected of users. In a grid compute economy, computing resources are sold to users in a market where price

  18. On Optimal Monetary Policy Rules and the Construction of MCIs in the Open Economy

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    On Optimal Monetary Policy Rules and the Construction of MCIs in the Open Economy By Alfred V open-economy forward-looking model to underscore the important role of the real exchange rate channel in the conduct of optimal monetary policy. As opposed to the closed economy, optimal monetary policy in the open

  19. Revisiting Marshall's Agglomeration Economies: Technological Relatedness and the Evolution of the Sheffield Metals Cluster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antony Potter; H. Doug Watts

    2012-01-01

    Potter A. and Watts H. D. Revisiting Marshall's agglomeration economies: technological relatedness and the evolution of the Sheffield metals cluster, Regional Studies. According to Alfred Marshall, firms receive increasing returns from a trinity of agglomeration economies: a local pool of skilled labour, local supplier linkages and local knowledge spillovers. This article re-examines the mechanisms underlying Marshall's agglomeration economies in the

  20. Investigating incidents of fraud in small economies: the case for Cyprus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Krambia-Kapardis; Anastasios Zopiatis

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent and types of fraud victimization in small economies or specific industries in such economies. In addition, the paper identifies the state of the art in a small economy and considers policy implications. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Drawing on an extensive literature review, a questionnaire was developed, pilot tested and administered

  1. Fuel Economy Through Teamwork. Energy Savings in School Transportation Publication Series. 1. Pupil Transportation and Energy Conservation. 2. Purchasing for Fuel Economy. 3. Driving for Fuel Economy. 4. Operating for Fuel Economy. 5. The Science of Saving Fuel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRI Systems, Inc., Phoenix, AZ.

    This publication series of five booklets presents a summary of tips for saving energy in pupil transportation. The first booklet offers guidelines and suggestions to assist school transportation administration in achieving better fuel economy and cost management goals. The second presents purchasing tips and shows ways to use benefit cost analysis…

  2. 25 CFR 142.8 - Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...ALASKA RESUPPLY OPERATION § 142.8 Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...Whenever possible joint arrangements for economy will be entered into with other...

  3. 25 CFR 142.8 - Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...ALASKA RESUPPLY OPERATION § 142.8 Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...Whenever possible joint arrangements for economy will be entered into with other...

  4. Estimating the Economic Impact for the Commercial Hard Clam Culture Industry on the Economy of

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    1 Estimating the Economic Impact for the Commercial Hard Clam Culture Industry on the Economy that the economic impact of the cultured hard clam industry on the economy of Florida was approximately $34 million communities and the statewide economy Florida. A follow-up study to the 2000 study was recently funded

  5. 25 CFR 142.8 - Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...ALASKA RESUPPLY OPERATION § 142.8 Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...Whenever possible joint arrangements for economy will be entered into with other...

  6. Allais's Trading Process And The Dynamic Evolution of an OLG Markets Economy

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Allais's Trading Process And The Dynamic Evolution of an OLG Markets Economy Jean-Michel Courtault Bertrand Crettez Naila Hayek November 2003 Abstract We study a trading process for a pure exchange economy the second fundamental conver- gence theorem of Allais [1967] to a pure exchange economy with overlapping

  7. DOCUMENTS DE TRAVAIL / WORKING PAPERS The Resilience of the Indian Economy to Rising

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DOCUMENTS DE TRAVAIL / WORKING PAPERS No 11-2008 The Resilience of the Indian Economy to Rising Oil raffinage pétrolier, le déséquilibre de la balance commerciale permis par un large afflux de capitaux, et le of the Indian Economy to Rising Oil Prices as a Validation Test for a Global Energy-Environment-Economy CGE

  8. 40 CFR 600.207-86 - Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type. 600.207-86 Section 600...Exhaust Emission Values for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles § 600.207-86 Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type. (a) Fuel economy values...

  9. An Evaluation of Economy-based Resource Trading and Scheduling on Computational Power Grids for

    E-print Network

    Buyya, Rajkumar

    1 An Evaluation of Economy-based Resource Trading and Scheduling on Computational Power Grids, Computational Economy, Resource Trading, Nimrod/G Resource Broker, Scheduling, and Parameter Sweep Applications, resource allocation or co-allocation, online control, scalability, transparency, and "economy

  10. Quantum Mechanics and the Principle of Least Radix Economy

    E-print Network

    Vladimir Garcia-Morales

    2015-01-08

    A new variational method, the principle of least radix economy, is formulated. The mathematical and physical relevance of the radix economy, also called digit capacity, is established, showing how physical laws can be derived from this concept in a unified way. The principle reinterprets and generalizes the principle of least action yielding two classes of physical solutions: least action paths and quantum wavefunctions. A new physical foundation of the Hilbert space of quantum mechanics is then accomplished and it is used to derive the Schr\\"odinger and Dirac equations and the breaking of the commutativity of spacetime geometry. The formulation provides an explanation of how determinism and random statistical behavior coexist in spacetime and a framework is developed that allows dynamical processes to be formulated in terms of chains of digits. These methods lead to a new (pre-geometrical) foundation for Lorentz transformations and special relativity. The Parker-Rhodes combinatorial hierarchy is encompassed within our approach and this leads to an estimate of the interaction strength of the electromagnetic and gravitational forces that agrees with the experimental values to an error of less than one thousandth. Finally, it is shown how the principle of least-radix economy naturally gives rise to Boltzmann's principle of classical statistical thermodynamics. A new expression for a general (path-dependent) nonequilibrium entropy is proposed satisfying the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

  11. Development of a more market-oriented economy in china.

    PubMed

    Chow, G C

    1987-01-16

    Before 1978 in China, the economic institutions for agriculture and industry operated essentially under a centrally planned system. The reasons for a change toward a more market-oriented economy and the key elements of economic reform are discussed. Today the major issues being deliberated by the leading economic officials include reform of the price system, the administrative structure of state-owned enterprises, the banking system and macroeconomic control mechanisms, and foreign trade and investment. PMID:17750384

  12. Optimization of Driving Styles for Fuel Economy Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL] [ORNL; Aguilar, Juan P. [Georgia Institute of Technology] [Georgia Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Modern vehicles have sophisticated electronic control units, particularly to control engine operation with respect to a balance between fuel economy, emissions, and power. These control units are designed for specific driving conditions and testing. However, each individual driving style is different and rarely meets those driving conditions. In the research reported here we investigate those driving style factors that have a major impact on fuel economy. An optimization framework is proposed with the aim of optimizing driving styles with respect to these driving factors. A set of polynomial metamodels are constructed to reflect the responses produced by changes of the driving factors. Then we compare the optimized driving styles to the original ones and evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the optimization formulation.

  13. The Regional Location of Knowledge Based Economy Activities in Israel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dafna Schwartz

    2006-01-01

    The article analyzes the spatial location behavior of economic activity that is knowledge based, by decomposing the Knowledge-based\\u000a Economy Index developed by the OECD (1999) and elaborated by Cooke and Schwartz (2003) into major components that represent\\u000a groups with different characteristics. The spatial behavior is analyzed in Israel in the years 1995–2002. We find that business\\u000a services and high tech

  14. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel-cell vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh K. Ahluwalia; X. Wang; A. Rousseau

    2005-01-01

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy

  15. Attention Economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef Falkinger

    2003-01-01

    Attracting attention is a basic feature of economic life but no standard economic problem. A new theoretical model is developed which describes the general structure of competition for attention and characterizes equilibria. The exogenous fundamentals of an attention economy are the space of receiving subjects with their attention capacity, and the potential set of competing companies (senders) with their radiation

  16. Attention economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef Falkinger

    2007-01-01

    A new theoretical model is developed which describes the structure of competition for attention and characterizes equilibria. The exogenous fundamentals of an attention economy are the space of receiving subjects with their attention capacity, and the potential set of competing firms (senders) with their radiation technology. The endogenous variables explained by the theory are equilibrium audiences (the clients belonging to

  17. Fuel economy screening study of advanced automotive gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klann, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel economy potentials were calculated and compared among ten turbomachinery configurations. All gas turbine engines were evaluated with a continuously variable transmission in a 1978 compact car. A reference fuel economy was calculated for the car with its conventional spark ignition piston engine and three speed automatic transmission. Two promising engine/transmission combinations, using gasoline, had 55 to 60 percent gains over the reference fuel economy. Fuel economy sensitivities to engine design parameter changes were also calculated for these two combinations.

  18. The Political Economy of Modern Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manne, Henry G.

    1971-01-01

    Until the end of the 19th century there were basically two traditions in American universities, all of which, for practical purposes, were private, nonprofit institutions. The first and unquestionably more important of these traditions was that of the church-related college. The second great tradition was the notion of elitist, liberal education.…

  19. The Political Economy of Social Pacts: \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTIN RHODES

    2001-01-01

    One of the most significant achievements of the postwar era has been the reconciliation of economic growth with varying degrees of social justice within western European welfare states. Yet the capacity for achieving this compromise has been thrown into question by a number of major challenges. Pressures for retrenchment including \\

  20. The real (war) economy of Angola

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Reno

    Diamonds feature in many recent analyses of the financial underpinnings of Angola's long-running civil war. Both lawful and illicit exports of diamonds gain attention for their significant roles in bolstering the finances of the Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (MPLA) regime and their União Nacional para a Indepêndencia Total de Angola (UNITA) opponents. Much of this attention focus- es

  1. Documenting the Birth of a Financial Economy

    E-print Network

    Suri, Tavneet

    The birth and explosive growth of mobile money in Kenya has provided economists with an opportunity to study the evolution and impact of a new financial system. Mobile money is an innovation that allows individuals to ...

  2. Water Economy of the Dorcas Gazelle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Cloudsley-Thompson; Laurice Ghobrial

    1965-01-01

    ALTHOUGH the physiology of the camel, kangaroo-rat, jerboa and various domestic animals of desert regions has been examined in some detail1,2, nothing is known of the heat and water relations of that most typical desert mammal, the gazelle. It has occasionally been suggested that gazelles may be able to live indefinitely on dry food without water, like desert rodents, but

  3. The Political Economy of Price Cap Regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale E. Lehman; Dennis L. Weisman

    2000-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a dramatic substitutionof price cap regulation for rate-of-return regulationin the telecommunications industry. The 1996Telecommunications Act empowers state regulators toset the terms of competitive entry in local telephonemarkets. We investigate whether the form of regulationendogenously affects the regulator's behavior withrespect to competitive entry. The evidence revealsthat regulators in price cap jurisdictions tend to setmore liberal terms

  4. Beyond the Prestige Economy of Graduate Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Julie

    1993-01-01

    It is proposed that the prestige and protected environment of graduate study can inflate a student's sense of personal authority and identification without adequate preparation for realities of college teaching. Contact with faculty outside the home graduate school, as in a new interinstitutional program, is seen as healthier professional…

  5. The Political Economy of Corporate Governance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Pagano; Paolo F. Volpin

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the political determinants of investor and employment protection. Our model predicts that proportional electoral systems are conducive to weaker investor protection and stronger employment protection than majoritarian systems. This predic- tion is consistent with international panel data evidence. The proportionality of the voting system is significantly and negatively correlated with shareholder protection in a panel of 45 countries,

  6. Overall Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that they provide. So, to project employment, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) starts by projecting the gross domestic product (GDP) for 2018. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the…

  7. Overall Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that these workers provide. So, to project employment, BLS starts by estimating the components of gross domestic product (GDP) for 2020. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the size--in…

  8. Global Advance of the Knowledge Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Andersson; Martin G. Curley; Piero Formica

    \\u000a As has been discussed already, the impact of the knowledge-based era is pervasive. It does not apply only to individual sectors\\u000a or only developed countries. Although there is a massive difference in the readiness and ability of different actors to take\\u000a advantage of the new opportunities and counter the difficulties, change has arrived across the board.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Only a few years

  9. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The site informs visitors about Japan's current economic policies. Reports available include the plans to reform the economic structure, trade issues, and the 1997 White Paper on International Trade which looks at trends in world trade and long-term issues concerning Japanese trade and industry. A collection of chronologically sorted press releases, transcripts of press conferences, statistics on industrial production, and a summary of industrial economic trends can be found at this site. A collection of trade-related reports and Japanese submissions to the World Trade Organization (WTO) are also available.

  10. Physical principles for economies of skilled movements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Nelson

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents some elementary principles regarding constraints on movements, which may be useful in modeling and interpreting motor control strategies for skilled movements. Movements which are optimum with respect to various objectives, or “costs”, are analyzed and compared. The specific costs considered are related to movement time, distance, peak velocity, energy, peak acceleration, and rate of change of acceleration

  11. THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF STATE TERROR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emizet Kisangani; E. Wayne Nafziger

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes factors contributing to terrorism, using its initial meaning from the French Revolution in which the state is the terrorist. The independent economic variables are mineral exports\\/GDP, military expenditures\\/GDP, real GDP growth, real per capita GDP, and population density, and the dependent variable is democide, the murder of people by government. Analysis of the data indicates that mineral

  12. The political economy of International Accounting Standards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Perry; Andreas Nölke

    2006-01-01

    On 1 January 2005, all stock exchange listed companies in the European Union (EU) began using International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) written by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). This article argues that the IASB's introduction of fair value accounting reflects and reinforces changed relations of production in which the financial sector increasingly dominates the productive sector, nationally institutionalized economic

  13. Political economy of smog in southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation is in the field of environmental economics and is about institutional change. Chapter 1 sets up a contrast between utilitarian and functionalist thinking on institutional change. Functionalist theory is shown to go usefully beyond utilitarian theory in explaining the outcome of institutional operation and change. Chapter 2 introduces the politics of air pollution control along with a supply-demand model to represent utilitarian theory. Chapter 3 provides a brief history of air pollution control in Southern California that is couched in terms of the supply and demand for clean air. In chapter 4 the rational is for using visibility reduction as the measure of air quality is given along with the basic trends in this indicator; results show a general improvement in air quality. In chapter 5 the concept of structural change is introduced. The regulation of the automobile is heavily implicated. In chapter 6, the air-quality trends are controlled for basic causal factors. Chapter 7 concludes that the changes predicted by the utilitarian model do not occur, while the results are consistent with the functionalist model.

  14. Economy of grassland renovation: a model approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. E. Hoving

    2005-01-01

    Grassland renovation is a relatively expensive activity. However, a cost\\/benefit analysis is hard to make, since financial benefits are difficult to determine. The benefits involve mainly the temporary increase of net grass production. The focus of this paper is on a model simulating the grass production over time. It assumes that the gross grass production, the nutritive value and the

  15. The Political Economy of Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lykins, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Government agencies and professional organizations have attempted to improve education research by creating common standards for judging research quality. However, the absence of agreement regarding research quality has limited the effectiveness of this approach. This article argues that, rather than focusing on standards, policy makers should…

  16. The politics of state, society and economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Luiz

    2000-01-01

    Takes issue with the way in which economics deals with the state and assumes homogeneous capacity. Instead it argues that differences in growth rates between countries can be traced back to the capacity of the state and political system. A state that is relatively capable is able to provide a political environment conducive to growth. It highlights the role of

  17. The political economy of climate adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Linnér, Björn-Ola; Goodsite, Michael E.

    2015-07-01

    Initiatives to adapt to the effects of climate change are growing in number but may fail to achieve the desired outcomes unless critical competing interests are taken into account during the planning process.

  18. Future of Liquid Biofuels for APEC Economies

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

    2008-05-01

    This project was initiated by APEC Energy Working Group (EWG) to maximize the energy sector's contribution to the region's economic and social well-being through activities in five areas of strategic importance including liquid biofuels production and development.

  19. A VECX* Model of the Swiss Economy

    E-print Network

    Assenmacher-Wesche, Katrin; Pesaran, M Hashem

    differences of the core variables when the lag length is selected by the AIC. The remaining ambiguities, particularly in relation to domestic and foreign output seem to be due to the unusual fluctuations caused by the first oil-price shock at the beginning... included. In addition, we consider the price of oil as the most important commodity price, which is expected to have direct and indirect impacts on world inflation. Finally, international business cycles and interest rate cycles are allowed to have...

  20. Documenting the birth of a financial economy.

    PubMed

    Suri, Tavneet; Jack, William; Stoker, Thomas M

    2012-06-26

    The birth and explosive growth of mobile money in Kenya has provided economists with an opportunity to study the evolution and impact of a new financial system. Mobile money is an innovation that allows individuals to store, send, and receive money on their mobile phone via text message. This system has opened up basic financial services to many who were previously excluded, and has had real and measurable impacts on the ability of households to protect themselves against health risks. Using a unique survey instrument covering nearly 2,300 households over 2008-2010, we first document the lightning-fast adoption of mobile money in Kenya, which was faster than most documented modern technologies in the United States. We then present evidence on how this innovation allows households to respond better to unexpected adverse health events. We find that in the face of these events, users of mobile money are better able to tap into remittances to finance additional health care costs without having to forego necessary expenditures on education, food, and other consumption needs. PMID:22689945

  1. The Physical Economy of the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    Gierlinger, Sylvia; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2012-01-01

    The United States is not only the world's largest economy, but it is also one of the world's largest consumers of natural resources. The country, which is inhabited by some 5% of the world's population, uses roughly one-fifth of the global primary energy supply and 15% of all extracted materials. This article explores long-term trends and patterns of material use in the United States. Based on a material flow account (MFA) that is fully consistent with current standards of economy-wide MFAs and covers domestic extraction, imports, and exports of materials for a 135-year period, we investigated the evolution of the U.S. industrial metabolism. This process was characterized by an 18-fold increase in material consumption, a multiplication of material use per capita, and a shift from renewable biomass toward mineral and fossil resources. In spite of considerable improvements in material intensity, no dematerialization has happened so far; in contrast to other high-income countries, material use has not stabilized since the 1970s, but has continued to grow. This article compares patterns and trends of material use in the United States with those in Japan and the United Kingdom and discusses the factors underlying the disproportionately high level of U.S. per capita resource consumption. PMID:24436632

  2. Oil's tenacious lock on health of economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Canes

    2009-01-01

    Oil is so vital that its importance cannot be overstated, says the author. Current world reserves are estimated at 1,000 billion barrels - a 43-year supply at current rates of consumption, he reports. The ultimate supply, however, is much greater, he adds, a fact that casts the world's economic outlook in a positive light. The challenge for the US is

  3. Sources of Slow Growth in African Economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey D. Sachs; Andrew M. Warner

    1997-01-01

    This paper offers some econometric evidence on the sources of slow growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. The evidence suggests that the continent's slow growth can be explained in an international cross-country framework, without the need to invoke a special explanation unique to Sub-Saharan Africa. We find that poor economic policies have played an especially important role in the slow growth, most

  4. The Political Economy of Social Security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georges Casamatta; Helmuth Cremer; Pierre Pestieau

    2000-01-01

    We consider a two-period overlapping generations model in which individual voters differ by age and by productivity. In such a setting, a redistributive pay-as-you-go system is politically sustainable, even when the interest rate is higher than the rate of population growth. The workers with medium wages (not those with the lowest wages) and the retirees form a majority which votes

  5. The political economy of social security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georges CASAMATTA; Helmuth CREMER; Pierre PESTIEAU

    1999-01-01

    We consider a two-period overlapping generations model in which individual voters differ not only according to age but also productivity. In such a setting, a (redistributive) Pay-As-You-Go system is politically sustainable, even when the interest rate is larger than the rate of population growth. The medium wages workers (not the lowest) join the retirees to form a majority and vote

  6. Weight of Nations: Material Outflows from Industrial Economies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Amann, Christof.

    2000-01-01

    World Resources Institute (WRI) has recently released this publication on resource and materials use, entitled "Weight of Nations: Material Outflows from Industrial Economies." The report examines material flows in Austria, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, and the US, and develops "model accounts of the complete 'material cycle' or the flow of raw materials through the processes of extraction, production, use, and disposal." In addition, the report documents the annual quantity of materials that are recycled and those that rapidly become pollution or potentially harmful waste. The Website offers author descriptions and sections of the report, in addition to the full (.pdf) report.

  7. Performance effects of information asymmetry and economies of scope in diversified service firms.

    PubMed

    Nayyar, P R

    1993-02-01

    This study examined the performance effects of information asymmetry and economies of scope in diversified service firms. Tests using both accounting- and stock-market-based measures of performance revealed that information asymmetry improved performance more than economies of scope. As hypothesized, the benefits of information asymmetry were greater for firms offering services whose quality cannot be determined until after their purchase (experience services), and the benefits of economies of scope were greater for firms offering services whose quality can be determined prior to purchase (search services). However, without considering the interactive effects of service characteristics, economies of scope were negatively associated with performance for diversified service firms overall. PMID:10123744

  8. FOOD SECURITY IN A COMMERCIALISING RURAL ECONOMY: INITIAL FINDINGS FROM A CASE STUDY OF TWO DISTRICTS IN UGANDA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. C. Apili Ejupu; M. T. Makhura; J. F. Kirsten

    1999-01-01

    The agricultural sector in Uganda has for long been characterised by a clear dichotomy between the rural cash economy (dominated by coffee, cofton and tobacco production) and the subsistence economy (production of staple foods such as millet, sweet potatoes, maize, bananas, cassava and beans). The on-going transformation of the rural economy to a cash economy has resulted in staple food

  9. International Technology Diffusion and the Growth of TFP in the Manufacturing Sector of Developing Economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Savvides; Marios Zachariadis

    2005-01-01

    AbstractThis paper evaluates various channels through which foreign technology diffuses to the manufacturing sector of developing economies. These economies undertake virtually no own R&D, so they rely on foreign technology to a much larger extent than developed economies. We investigate the direct effect of foreign R&D, as well as technology embodied in imports of intermediate and capital goods and foreign

  10. The effects of the fluctuations in oil prices on the performance of the Libyan economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdusalam F Yahia

    2008-01-01

    The Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya is a small oil-producing developing economy in North Africa. Its economy depends heavily on oil revenue. Oil exports accounted for 92-97 percent of annual total Libyan exports and contributed 40-60 percent of annual GDP during the period 1963-2006. The Libyan economy, like other Middle Eastern oil producers, has been subject to several strong external

  11. A Comprehensive Dea Approach for the Resource Allocation Problem based on Scale Economies Classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoya LI; Jinchuan CUI

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the resource allocation problem based on data envelopment analysis (DEA) which is generally found\\u000a in practice such as in public services and in production process. In management context, the resource allocation has to achieve\\u000a the effective-efficient-equality aim and tries to balance the different desires of two management layers: central manager\\u000a and each sector. In mathematical

  12. Since 1975, the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks has been regulated by the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards,

    E-print Network

    Since 1975, the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks has been regulated by the corporate in vehicle weight and correlated the decline in new car weight with about a 20% increase in occupant fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks and highway fatalities are negative: higher miles per

  13. 16 CFR 502.102 - “Economy size.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.102 “Economy size.” (a) The term economy size means any printed matter consisting of the words “economy size,” “economy pack,” “budget pack,” “bargain...

  14. 16 CFR 502.102 - “Economy size.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.102 “Economy size.” (a) The term economy size means any printed matter consisting of the words “economy size,” “economy pack,” “budget pack,” “bargain...

  15. 16 CFR 502.102 - “Economy size.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.102 “Economy size.” (a) The term economy size means any printed matter consisting of the words “economy size,” “economy pack,” “budget pack,” “bargain...

  16. The neoliberal political economy and erosion of retirement security.

    PubMed

    Polivka, Larry; Luo, Baozhen

    2015-04-01

    The origins and trajectory of the crisis in the United States retirement security system have slowly become part of the discussion about the social, political, and economic impacts of population aging. Private sources of retirement security have weakened significantly since 1980 as employers have converted defined benefits precisions to defined contribution plans. The Center for Retirement Research (CRR) now estimates that over half of boomer generation retirees will not receive 70-80% of their wages while working. This erosion of the private retirement security system will likely increase reliance on the public system, mainly Social Security and Medicare. These programs, however, have increasingly become the targets of critics who claim that they are not financially sustainable in their current form and must be significantly modified. This article will focus on an analysis of these trends in the erosion of the United States retirement security system and their connection to changes in the United States political economy as neoliberal, promarket ideology, and policies (low taxes, reduced spending, and deregulation) have become dominant in the private and public sectors. The neoliberal priority on reducing labor costs and achieving maximum shareholder value has created an environment inimical to maintain the traditional system of pension and health care benefits in both the private and public sectors. This article explores the implications of these neoliberal trends in the United States economy for the future of retirement security. PMID:26035594

  17. Simulation study of the impact of world oil prices on the development of the Libyan economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abosedra

    1984-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine quantitatively how sensitive and vulnerable the Libyan economy's aggregates are to fluctuations in world oil prices. In order to achieve the goal, a macroeconomic model of the Libyan economy was constructed using annual data from 1962-1978. The model contains 36 relations, of which 19 are behavioral equations and 17 are identities. The

  18. The Impact of Climate Change on the United States Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendelsohn, Robert; Neumann, James E.

    2004-08-01

    Understanding the impacts of climate change on economic behaviour is an important aspect of deciding when to take policy actions to prevent or mitigate its consequences. This book applies advanced new economics methodologies to assess impacts on potentially vulnerable aspects of the US economy: agriculture, timber, coastal resources, energy expenditure, fishing, outdoor recreation. It is intended to provide improved understanding of key issues raised in the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports. It concludes that some climate change may produce economic gains in the agriculture and forestry sectors, whereas energy, coastal structures, and water sectors may be harmed. The book will serve as an important reference for the scientific, economic, and policy community, and will also be of interest to natural resource/environmental economists as an example of economic valuation techniques. The volume will clearly be of main importance to researchers and policymakers in the US, but will also be influential as a model for assessment of impacts on economies worldwide.

  19. E-conomy Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A joint effort of the Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy (BRIE), the College of Engineering, the Haas School of Business, and the School of Information Management and Systems (SIMS), E-conomy Project creates "an intellectual resource to focus on the profound transformation being wrought by new digital technologies." Along with describing the focuses of the project, this Website also includes course descriptions and syllabi, news articles on the E-conomy Project, and papers and presentations from the E-conomy Project-sponsored conference, The Digital Economy in International Perspective: Common Construction or Regional Rivalry.

  20. The effect of standards and fuel prices on automobile fuel economy: An international analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sofronis Clerides; Theodoros Zachariadis

    2008-01-01

    There is an intense debate over whether fuel economy standards or fuel taxation is the more efficient policy instrument to raise fuel economy and reduce CO2 emissions of cars. The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of standards and fuel prices on new-car fuel economy with the aid of cross-section time series analysis of data from 18

  1. Impacts of world oil market shocks on the US economy

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, W.P.; Earley, R.F.

    1983-07-01

    This report presents research on the relationship between shocks to the world oil market and resultant impacts on the United States economy. It also compares EIA simulation results to simulation results extracted from a review of the literature and also to recently released results from the Energy Modeling Forum, No. 7, currently underway at Stanford University. The primary focus of the paper is to identify the short-term impacts on the economy in the absence of any policy response to ameliorate these adverse impacts. Five disruption cases are considered in the EIA analysis: 2 million, 4 million, 6 million, 8 million and 10 million barrels per day Free World curtailments. A GNP loss function is calculated showing the percentage loss in Real GNP, relative to the base case level, for a given percentage increase in the world oil price, also relative to the base case value. This GNP loss function provides a framework for comparing results of the other studies surveyed, shown as points superimposed on the EIA GNP loss curve. The points which fall on a horizontal line at a 50-percent increase in the world oil price represent results for a common scenario being analyzed by the EMF. The remaining points represent results extracted from the literature review. The EIA GNP loss curve falls close to the middle of both sets of results. The loss function also indicates a slight non-linearity as the world oil price increases, a finding that is consistent with the results of the other researchers.

  2. "A great complication of circumstances"--Darwin and the economy of nature.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    In 1749, Linnaeus presided over the dissertation "Oeconomia Naturae," which argued that each creature plays an important and particular role in nature's economy. This phrase should be familiar to readers of Darwin, for he claims in the Origin that "all organic beings are striving, it may be said, to seize on each place in the economy of nature." Many scholars have discussed the influence of political economy on Darwin's ideas. In this paper, I take a different tack, showing that Darwin's idea of an economy of nature stemmed from the views of earlier naturalists like Linnaeus and Lyell. I argue, in the first section of the paper, that Linnaeus' idea of oeconomia naturae is derived from the idea of the animal economy, and that his idea of politia naturae is an extension of the idea of a politia civitatis. In the second part, I explore the use of the concept of stations in the work of De Candolle and Lyell - the precursor to Darwin's concept of places. I show in the third part of the paper that the idea of places in an economy of nature is employed by Darwin at many key points in his thinking: his discussion of the Galapagos birds, his reading of Malthus, etc. Finally, in the last section, I demonstrate that the idea of a place in nature's economy is essential to Darwin's account of divergence. To tell his famous story of divergence and adaptation, Darwin needed the economy of nature. PMID:20665080

  3. Towards a "Critical Cultural Political Economy" Account of the Globalising of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Susan L.; Dale, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines the basis of an alternative theoretical approach to the study of the globalisation of "education"--a Critical, Cultural Political Economy of Education (CCPEE) approach. Our purpose here is to bring this body of concepts--critical, cultural, political, economy--into our interrogation of globalising projects and…

  4. The impact of oil price dynamics on the macroeconomic indicators of the Russian economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roman Melnikov

    2010-01-01

    The paper assesses the dependence of basic macroeconomic indicators of the Russian economy on the oil price dynamics on the world market. Hypotheses about the sensitivity of macroeconomic indicators of the Russian economy to oil price fluctuations are formulated, and a simultaneous equations system is specified and estimated in order to test these hypotheses. The scenarios of reaction of the

  5. The challenge of building agent-based models of the economy

    E-print Network

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    The challenge of building agent-based models of the economy European Central Bank Frankfurt, June model complexity of a real economy #12;Krugman on ABM (Nov. 30, 2010) This WSJ article about economists is a gross exaggeration. "... those of us who hadn't forgotten Keynes, who paid attention to things like

  6. USAGES OF THE INTERNET AND e-TOURISM. TOWARDS A NEW ECONOMY OF TOURISM

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 USAGES OF THE INTERNET AND e-TOURISM. TOWARDS A NEW ECONOMY OF TOURISM Christian Longhi on the organization of industry and the market dynamics in the tourism activities, focusing in the European scene. Tourism incorporates many features of the contemporaneous information and communication economy. Even if e-tourism

  7. The political economy of oil and the Niger Delta crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ighodaro, Osaro O.

    This study is about the burgeoning crisis in Nigeria's Oil Producing Niger Delta region. Discerning the intersecting contributive factors to the crisis, this dissertation suggests that the Niger Delta crisis is symptomatic of challenges to development in Nigeria. Due to the insidious colonial/neo-colonial practices of subjugation, and exploitation of the host communities, it is suggested that the extractive, super-profit motive of Shell, the concomitant environmental degradation, corruption of a bellicose state, ethnic conflict and suffering of the masses are outcomes of a long historically debilitating relationship with international capital which causes irreparable retardation to the host communities. From cash crop economy to a mono-oil economy resources are removed from the communities and used to enhance the colonial state and their post-colonial harbingers of misery. Hence, the indigenous people claim that the Niger Delta is in a crisis, and they are willing to confront the triple alliance of multinational oil companies like Shell, the Nigerian State and the local elite so long as these allies of subjugation continue to neglect the goose that lays the proverbial golden egg (oil that is). Theoretically, a hybrid Political Economy approach was adopted as the over-aching framework for the study, while Dependency theory, modified by what I have called African Transformative scholarly perspective, served as the conceptual tool. Primary and secondary sources of data, including personal observation, interviews, official government documents and other publications were utilized for this analysis. In view of recommendations, it is suggested that first, the Nigerian state should assume decisive and unflinching leadership in holding oil companies responsible for their activities in the host communities; second, oil companies (like Shell) should see themselves as an integral part of the host communities; invest in their development by providing employment opportunities and adhering to humane environmental practices. Finally, I suggest that the ownership and control of all resources, including oil should be vested in those communities in which they are found. The revenues accruing to the constitutive states of Nigeria will be accordingly taxed with the revenues from the taxes utilized for the general good of the polity especially the less endowed communities.

  8. Paying Attention to Attention: New Economies for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Castell, Suzanne; Jenson, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Challenging formal education's traditional monopoly over the mass-scale acculturation of youth, the technological infrastructure of the new economy brings in its wake a new attentional economy in which any connected adult or child owns and controls a full economic share of her or his own attention. For youth who have never known the text-bound…

  9. The Right to Work and the Political Economy of Human Rights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Couret Branco

    2006-01-01

    The general purpose of this paper is to promote a political economy whose objective is to promote the deepening of human rights. In particular my attention will be focused on the political economy of the right to work.The first part of the paper concerns the description of the historical process that led to the proclamation of a right to work

  10. Economy of scale and the role of publicly available congestion

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    is the travel information business heading? ·Is there a justification for non-exclusive ("public") provision-time/advanced travel information systemIn the U.S. · Travel time information collected from: detectors, cameras travel information sent via text messages and e-mails (e.g. NAVTEQ-Traffic.com), Westwood One ­ SmartTraveler

  11. Introduction Introduction to paradoxes of creativity: managerial and organizational challenges in the cultural economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GERNOT GRABHER; CANDACE JONES

    Summary This special issue explores the paradoxes caused by the challenge of managing and organizing creativity in the cultural economy. Conventional views of the individual creative artist are replaced by a view of creativity as a social process embedded within organizational and institutional contexts. The cultural economy is broadly defined in terms of breadth of industries included and depth elements

  12. Ecological accounting and evaluation of urban economy: Taking Beijing city as the case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xi Ji

    2011-01-01

    Urban economy is confronted with increasing biophysical limitations derived from the exhaustion of natural resources and the depletion of environmental capacity, and human cultural diversity has been declining during the fast urbanization. The conventional anthropocentric economics, regarding the natural environment as the ‘exterior’ of human economy, is invalid in the scientific evaluation on the contribution of natural resources and environment

  13. The European House of Education: Education and Economy--A New Partnership. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    Five areas essential to developing partnerships between the education systems and economies of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe were analyzed: (1) state and social partner roles in supporting links between education/training and the economy; (2) contribution of the world of work to education and training; (3) education/training to…

  14. Chapter 4 The Agronomy and Economy of Some Important Industrial Crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. P. Prabhakaran Nair

    2009-01-01

    A range of perennial tropical crops represent the industrial crops of great economic value to the developing world. Among these, arecanut, cardamom, cashew, cinchona, cocoa, coconut, coffee, oil palm, palmyra, rubber, tea, and wattle are the most important ones with much commercial value to the economy of the third world. This chapter describes the agronomy and economy of the most

  15. The Impact of Community Colleges on Oregon's 1980-81 Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Mike

    A statewide study was conducted in 1982 to describe the impact of Oregon's 15 community colleges on the state's economy as well as the impact of each college on the economy of its district. Economic impact was defined for the study as the money in circulation within the state or college district due to the existence of the college; i.e.,…

  16. THE ROLE OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP IN MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS IN EMERGENT ECONOMIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constantin BR?TIANU; Sorin ANAGNOSTE

    2011-01-01

    Doing business in an emerging economy is a challenge for any company. Combining the global know-how and the local resources will increase chances for success in any kind of economic activity. The purpose of this research is to analyze the role of transformational leadership in mergers and acquisitions, in emergent economies. More specifically, we shall present the case of the

  17. Local linkage, external economies and the ironfoundry industry of the West Midlands and East Lancashire Conurbations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Taylor

    1973-01-01

    Taylor M. J. (1973) Local linkage, external economies and the ironfoundry industry of the West Midlands and East Lancashire Conurbations, Reg. Studies7, 387–400. The paper attempts to measure the impact of local external economies on the material linkages of ironfoundries in the West Midlands and East Lancashire conurbations. To facilitate measurement of this impact a simple interaction model is employed

  18. Economic Contributions of the Florida Craft Brewing Industry to the Florida Economy

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Economic Contributions of the Florida Craft Brewing Industry to the Florida Economy Timothy G Contributions of the Florida Craft Brewing Industry to the Florida Economy Executive Summary The Florida Brewers Guild (FBG) commissioned this study of the economic impact of the Florida craft brewing industry

  19. Contribution, Linkages and Impacts of the Fisheries Sector to Hawaii's Economy

    E-print Network

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    #12;Contribution, Linkages and Impacts of the Fisheries Sector to Hawaii's Economy: A Social Contribution 11-373 #12;#12;1 Contribution, Linkages and Impacts of the Fisheries Sector to Hawaii's Economy and Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Management University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822

  20. Utilization of waste heat in trucks for increased fuel economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leising, C. J.; Purohit, G. P.; Degrey, S. P.; Finegold, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Improvements in fuel economy for a broad spectrum of truck engines and waste heat utilization concepts are evaluated and compared. The engines considered are the diesel, spark ignition, gas turbine, and Stirling. The waste heat utilization concepts include preheating, regeneration, turbocharging, turbocompounding, and Rankine engine compounding. Predictions were based on fuel-air cycle analyses, computer simulation, and engine test data. The results reveal that diesel driving cycle performance can be increased by 20% through increased turbocharging, turbocompounding, and Rankine engine compounding. The Rankine engine compounding provides about three times as much improvement as turbocompounding but also costs about three times as much. Performance for either is approximately doubled if applied to an adiabatic diesel.

  1. Inflation Targeting in the Open Economy: Which Rate of Inflation to Target?

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    Inflation Targeting in the Open Economy: Which Rate of Inflation to Target? By Alfred V. Guender discussions on the subject. All errors are those of the author. #12;2 Inflation Targeting in the Open Economy: Which Rate of Inflation to Target?" Abstract: This paper attempts to explain why the central banks

  2. The political economy of rural development in China: reflections on current rural policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flemming Christiansen; Heather Xiaoquan Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines some of the main political economy dynamics of the policy initiatives on rural development that have been taken since 2003, and provides an overview of the main issues that they are addressing. The paper first outlines the major agrarian problems that have emerged over the recent decade and more, indicating their main political-economy causations, and then systematically

  3. Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George S. Tolley; Donald W. Mintz; Marianne M; Barton A. Smith; Eric Carlson; Stefan Unnasch; Michael Lawrence; Harry Chmelynski

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy report, Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States Report to Congress, estimates the effects on employment of a U.S. economy transformation to hydrogen between 2020 and 2050. The report includes study results on employment impacts from hydrogen market expansion in the transportation, stationary, and portable power sectors and

  4. Research and Development at U.S. Research Universities: An Analysis of Scope Economies

    E-print Network

    Foltz, Jeremy D.

    Research and Development at U.S. Research Universities: An Analysis of Scope Economies by Kwansoo and sources of economies of scope in R&D at U.S. research universities. The analysis evaluates the tradeoffs and synergies arising between traditional university research outputs (articles and doctorates) and academic

  5. What Is Hampering the Development of Our Education? The New Economy and the New Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maksakovskii, V. P.

    2006-01-01

    At the turn of the twenty-first century a paradigm shift in economic development is taking place in the world. This is reflected in the transition to what goes by the name of the new economy. Given birth by the information and communications revolution, this economy is developing under the conditions of globalization and competition while…

  6. RESEARCH ON THE EVALUATION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT BASED ON ECONOMY DEVELOPMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-Jie Chen; Xiao-Feng Fu; Ying Fan; Yi-Ming Wei

    2004-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the sustainable development, the PREEST system model has been put forward including the population, resource, economy, environment and science & technology. In this paper, as the center of the economy development, the development level and the harmony degree of the PREEST system have been completed in Chinese Mainland during 1980~2000. Then, according to the integrated

  7. The impact of oil prices on an oil-importing developing economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan F. Schubert; Stephen J. Turnovsky

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of an increase in the price of oil on a small developing economy. We consider the extent to which the impacts of oil price shocks depend upon the economy's internal production structure and its access to the world financial market, and find that the long-run impact depends much more on the former than the latter.

  8. 76 FR 9544 - Antidumping Methodologies in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ...under ILO Chapter 6A because fewer market economy countries that are found to be economically...Policy Bulletin 04.1: Non-Market Economy Surrogate Country Selection Process...addressed to the Secretary of Commerce, Attention: Christopher Mutz, Office of...

  9. Consumer Surplus in the Digital Economy: Estimating the Value of Increased Product

    E-print Network

    Consumer Surplus in the Digital Economy: Estimating the Value of Increased Product Variety of the attention in academic research and in the press has been on the relative operational effi- ciency Surplus in the Digital Economy default, this value has been ignored, effectively treat- ing convenience

  10. The Mismanaged Integration of Zaporizhzhya with the World Economy: Implications for Regional Development in Peripheral Regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Van Zon

    1998-01-01

    VAN ZON H. (1998) The mismanaged integration of Zaporizhzhya with the world economy: implications for regional development in peripheral regions, Reg. Studies 32, 607-618. In Soviet times, Zaporizhzhya, a major industrial town in South Eastern Ukraine, developed in almost complete isolation from the world economy and world society. After the independence of Ukraine in 1991, Zaporizhzhya endured rapid industrial decline.

  11. The Role of Craft Industry in Germany's Social Market Economy. Social Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Karsten

    1992-01-01

    Social market economy success in the Federal Republic of Germany is due to free competition, enterprise in the business community, and employees' social security. Craft industries play a major role in Germany's market economy. The craft industry is second only to the manufacturing industry, comprising 23 percent of German firms. There are seven…

  12. Composition of small and large firms? business networks in transition economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Portugal Ferreira; Dan Li; Fernando A. Ribeiro Serra

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has theorized on the composition of firms' business networks but has not empirically examined business networks in transition economies may vary for different firms. In this study, using firm level data from twenty six transition economies collected by the World Bank and the EBRD in 1999-2000, we conduct a set of logistic regression models to investigate the composition

  13. 40 CFR 600.510-86 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...to zero. SF3 IWC =The 3000 lb. inertia weight class sales divided by total sales...combined fuel economy of all 3000 lb. inertia weight class base leves in the compliance...combined fuel economy of all 4000 lb. inertia weight class base levels in the...

  14. Bank Recycling of Petro Dollars to Emerging Market Economies During the Current Oil Price Boom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes Wiegand

    2008-01-01

    High oil prices have once again led to large external surpluses of oil exporting countries, similar to the 1970s and 1980s. This paper analyzes the extent to which (i) oil exporters use bank deposits to invest these surpluses, and (ii) banks are lending on these funds to emerging market economies. Bank recycling of petro dollars to emerging market economies is

  15. Evaluating the Consumer Response to Fuel Economy: A Review of the Literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloria Helfand; Ann Wolverton

    2011-01-01

    In modeling how the U.S. market responds to changes in national fuel economy standards, the question of how consumers evaluate trade-offs between the cost of consuming more fuel economy than they would otherwise choose and the expected fuel savings that result is potentially quite important. Consumer vehicle choice models are a means to predict the change in vehicle purchase patterns,

  16. Welfare Effects of Financial Innovation in Incomplete Markets Economies with Several Consumption Goods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronel Elul

    1995-01-01

    We show that in almost every incomplete markets economy with more than one consumption good, and with sufficiently many uninsured states of nature, at any general equilibrium of this economy it is possible to arbitrarily perturb the equilibrium utilities merely by introducing the appropriate asset-making, for example, all agents worse off. This result demonstrates that the examples given by Hart

  17. The Response of Developing Island Economies to Coral1 Bleaching Events2

    E-print Network

    Bauer, Dana Marie

    The Response of Developing Island Economies to Coral1 Bleaching Events2 James George Baldwin1 bleaching induced coral reef degradation and the economies of the U.N. defined small island developing reef, ecosystem services, small island developing states,5 tourism, coral bleaching6 Corresponding

  18. System-of-Systems Framework for the Future Hydrogen-Based Transportation Economy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, M.; Sandor, D.

    2008-06-01

    From a supply chain view, this paper traces the flow of transportation fuels through required systems and addresses the current petroleum-based economy, DOE's vision for a future hydrogen-based transportation economy, and the challenges of a massive market and infrastructure transformation.

  19. Study of a Russian University's Organisational Culture in Transition from Planned to Market Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pushnykh, Victor; Chemeris, Valeriy

    2006-01-01

    The transition from a planned centralist economy to a market economy over the last decade of the 20th century has presented Russian universities with many profound challenges. These challenges require universities to review and consider their organisational culture and deserve careful study. This paper describes the changes that have taken place…

  20. The thermodynamics of chemical looping combustion applied to the hydrogen economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niall R. McGlashan

    2010-01-01

    Adoption of the hydrogen economy (HE) is one means by which industrial economies can reduce point source CO2 emissions. At its simplest, H2 is generated centrally using a primary energy source to split water; the H2 is then transmitted to end users, thereby ‘carrying’ energy from the central plant to, say, a motor vehicle. Assuming the primary energy input to

  1. The State of the Economy: Resources and Costs for Educational Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhead, Jesse

    It is most difficult to believe that the American economy can soon return to the stable growth rates that were enjoyed from 1958 to 1973. Factors that contribute to a slow-growth economy include changes in the age of the average citizen, pressures for larger expenditures for armaments, pricefixing by oligopolies, rising raw materials prices,…

  2. Circumstance and Choice: The Role of Initial Conditions and Policies in Transition Economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha de Melo; Cevdet Denizer; Alan Gelb; Stoyan Tenev

    2001-01-01

    This article takes an integrated approach to evaluating the interaction of initial condi- tions, political change, reforms and economic performance in a unified framework covering 28 transition economies in East Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, and the fsu. Initial conditions and economic policy jointly determine the large differences in economic performance among transition economies. Initial conditions dominate in explaining inflation,

  3. Beyond Oil and Radical Islam: From Classifications to Links of Economy and Religion in Central Asia

    E-print Network

    Peters, Achim

    Beyond Oil and Radical Islam: From Classifications to Links of Economy and Religion in Central Asia Tuesday, October 18th, 2011, 5 pm, ZMO Political Islam and Economy in Central Asia: Islamic Movements Commanding Right and Forbidding Wrong? Islamic Elites, Business and the State in Tajikistan Lecture by Tim

  4. Fuel economy screening study of advanced automotive gas turbine engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klann

    1980-01-01

    Fuel-economy potentials were calculated and compared among 10 turbomachinery configurations. All gas-turbine engines were evaluated with a continuously variable transmission in a 1978 compact car. A reference fuel economy was calculated for the car with its conventional spark-ignition piston engine and three-speed automatic transmission. The best free-turbine engine was also evaluated with the conventional transmission. Two promising engine\\/transmission combinations, using

  5. Clinical bioethics in china: the challenge of entering a market economy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Yang

    2006-02-01

    Over the last quarter-century, China has experienced dramatic changes associated with its development of a market economy. The character of clinical practice is also profoundly influenced by the ways in which reimbursement scales are established in public hospitals. The market distortions that lead to the over-prescription of drugs and the medically unindicated use of more expensive drugs and more costly high-technology diagnostic and therapeutic interventions create the most significant threat to patients. The payment of red packets represents a black-market attempt to circumvent the non-market constraint on physicians' fees for services. These economic and practice pattern changes are taking place as China and many Pacific Rim societies are reconsidering the moral foundations of their professional ethics and their bioethics. The integrity of the medical profession and the trust of patients in physicians can only be restored and protected if the distorting forces of contemporary public policy are altered. PMID:16464767

  6. Emerging Digital Economy II

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Buckley, Patricia.

    An update of the 1998 US Department of Commerce document Emerging Digital Economy (reviewed in the April 17, 1998 Scout Report), the second volume of this annual report shows that, although ecommerce remains less than one percent of the retail share of the economy, it continues to grow, "outpacing last year's most optimistic projections." New chapters and analyses include "Contribution of Information Technology to Gross Product Originating Per Worker" and "Labor Markets in the Digital Economy."

  7. Hydrogen Economy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This 48 minute radio broadcast discusses how a switch between using fossil fuels - oil, coal, natural gas - with cleaner burning hydrogen might occur, thereby lowering production of the greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide) and stopping global warming. The show also considers a report published in the journal, Science, that says no new technology is needed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. There is discussion about what national policies could make a hydrogen economy a reality; which renewable energy technologies should be developed and invested in; how hydrogen will be generated and stored; and how best to build the infrastructure needed for a sustainable energy future.

  8. Agents modeling agents in information economies

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, J.M.; Durfee, E.H. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Our goal is to design and build agents that act intelligently when placed in an agent-based information economy, where agents buy and sell services (e.g. thesaurus, search, task planning services, etc.). The economy we are working in is the University of Michigan Digital Library (UMDL), a large scale multidisciplinary effort to build an infrastructure for the delivery of library services. In contrast with a typical economy, an information economy deals in goods and services that are often derived from unique sources (authors, analysts, etc.), so that many goods and services are not interchangeable. Also, the cost of replicating and transporting goods is usually negligible, and the quality of goods and services is difficult to measure objectively: even two sources with essentially the same information might appeal to different audiences. Thus, each agent has its own assessment of the quality of goods and services delivered.

  9. Does a robotic scrub nurse improve economy of movements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachs, Juan P.; Jacob, Mithun; Li, Yu-Ting; Akingba, George

    2012-02-01

    Objective: Robotic assistance during surgery has been shown to be a useful resource to both augment the surgical skills of the surgeon through tele-operation, and to assist the surgeon handling the surgical instruments to the surgeon, similar to a surgical tech. We evaluated the performance and effect of a gesture driven surgical robotic nurse in the context of economy of movements, during an abdominal incision and closure exercise with a simulator. Methods: A longitudinal midline incision (100 mm) was performed on the simulated abdominal wall to enter the peritoneal cavity without damaging the internal organs. The wound was then closed using a blunt needle ensuring that no tissue is caught up by the suture material. All the instruments required to complete this task were delivered by a robotic surgical manipulator directly to the surgeon. The instruments were requested through voice and gesture recognition. The robotic system used a low end range sensor camera to extract the hand poses and for recognizing the gestures. The instruments were delivered to the vicinity of the patient, at chest height and at a reachable distance to the surgeon. Task performance measures for each of three abdominal incision and closure exercises were measured and compared to a human scrub nurse instrument delivery action. Picking instrument position variance, completion time and trajectory of the hand were recorded for further analysis. Results: The variance of the position of the robotic tip when delivering the surgical instrument is compared to the same position when a human delivers the instrument. The variance was found to be 88.86% smaller compared to the human delivery group. The mean task completion time to complete the surgical exercise was 162.7+/- 10.1 secs for the human assistant and 191.6+/- 3.3 secs (P<.01) when using the robotic standard display group. Conclusion: Multimodal robotic scrub nurse assistant improves the surgical procedure by reducing the number of movements (lower variance in the picking position). The variance of the picking point is closely related to the concept of economy of movements in the operating room. Improving the effectiveness of the operating room can potentially enhance the safety of surgical interventions without affecting the performance time.

  10. The new approaches of attention economy and experience economy in management of the cultural tourism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Niculescu; D?nu? Steg?rescu

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of important tourism trends, in particular, trends in the motivations and interests of cultural tourists. Cultural Tourism is one of the most important and rapidly expanding economic and social phenomena of the contemporary world. Recently WTO identified a shift in tourism behavior towards culture and a more sophisticated tourist. Also, UNESCO recognizes the strong links

  11. The production of information in the attention economy

    PubMed Central

    Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Online traces of human activity offer novel opportunities to study the dynamics of complex knowledge exchange networks, in particular how emergent patterns of collective attention determine what new information is generated and consumed. Can we measure the relationship between demand and supply for new information about a topic? We propose a normalization method to compare attention bursts statistics across topics with heterogeneous distribution of attention. Through analysis of a massive dataset on traffic to Wikipedia, we find that the production of new knowledge is associated to significant shifts of collective attention, which we take as proxy for its demand. This is consistent with a scenario in which allocation of attention toward a topic stimulates the demand for information about it, and in turn the supply of further novel information. However, attention spikes only for a limited time span, during which new content has higher chances of receiving traffic, compared to content created later or earlier on. Our attempt to quantify demand and supply of information, and our finding about their temporal ordering, may lead to the development of the fundamental laws of the attention economy, and to a better understanding of social exchange of knowledge information networks. PMID:25989177

  12. The production of information in the attention economy.

    PubMed

    Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Online traces of human activity offer novel opportunities to study the dynamics of complex knowledge exchange networks, in particular how emergent patterns of collective attention determine what new information is generated and consumed. Can we measure the relationship between demand and supply for new information about a topic? We propose a normalization method to compare attention bursts statistics across topics with heterogeneous distribution of attention. Through analysis of a massive dataset on traffic to Wikipedia, we find that the production of new knowledge is associated to significant shifts of collective attention, which we take as proxy for its demand. This is consistent with a scenario in which allocation of attention toward a topic stimulates the demand for information about it, and in turn the supply of further novel information. However, attention spikes only for a limited time span, during which new content has higher chances of receiving traffic, compared to content created later or earlier on. Our attempt to quantify demand and supply of information, and our finding about their temporal ordering, may lead to the development of the fundamental laws of the attention economy, and to a better understanding of social exchange of knowledge information networks. PMID:25989177

  13. A computable general equilibrium assessment of the impact of illegal immigration on the Greek economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander H. Sarris; Stavros Zografakis

    1999-01-01

    .   Recent years have witnessed a large inflow of illegal immigrants into Greece. Past surveys have examined the extent and nature\\u000a of this immigration, but have not analysed the impacts on the economy. This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis\\u000a of the impact of illegal immigration on the economy of the small open type, like that of Greece. The

  14. Table of Contents Page 2National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and Its Forecasted Impact on the Florida Economy

    E-print Network

    Weston, Ken

    Impact on the Florida Economy History and Evaluation of the Economic Impact of the Magnet Lab Forecasted Impact on the Florida Economy The National Science Foundation (NSF) awarded the National High generated by Magnet Lab activities across the broader statewide economy. Since 1990, the Magnet Lab has

  15. Lower-body determinants of running economy in male and female distance runners.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Kyle R; Mcguigan, Michael R; Kilding, Andrew E

    2014-05-01

    A variety of training approaches have been shown to improve running economy in well-trained athletes. However, there is a paucity of data exploring lower-body determinants that may affect running economy and account for differences that may exist between genders. Sixty-three male and female distance runners were assessed in the laboratory for a range of metabolic, biomechanical, and neuromuscular measures potentially related to running economy (ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) at a range of running speeds. At all common test velocities, women were more economical than men (effect size [ES] = 0.40); however, when compared in terms of relative intensity, men had better running economy (ES = 2.41). Leg stiffness (r = -0.80) and moment arm length (r = 0.90) were large-extremely largely correlated with running economy and each other (r = -0.82). Correlations between running economy and kinetic measures (peak force, peak power, and time to peak force) for both genders were unclear. The relationship in stride rate (r = -0.27 to -0.31) was in the opposite direction to that of stride length (r = 0.32-0.49), and the relationship in contact time (r = -0.21 to -0.54) was opposite of that of flight time (r = 0.06-0.74). Although both leg stiffness and moment arm length are highly related to running economy, it seems that no single lower-body measure can completely explain differences in running economy between individuals or genders. Running economy is therefore likely determined from the sum of influences from multiple lower-body attributes. PMID:24126900

  16. Labor and the Emerging World Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Bloom; Adi Brender

    1993-01-01

    This paper explores the emergence of a world economy since 1950 and its implications for the world's labor force. There are four main sets of conclusions. First, although the integration of national economies since 1950 has been considerable, the world economy is still in its adolescence. Rapid integration has occurred among the industrial economies, but integration among the developing economies

  17. Input-Output Modelling of the Urban and Regional Economy: The Importance of External Trade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Harris; Aying Liu

    1998-01-01

    HARRIS R. I. D. and LIU A. (1998) Input-output modelling of the urban and regional economy: the importance of external trade, Reg. Studies 32 , 851-862. The modelling of regional and local economies, especially through using the input-output (IO) approach, is a standard practice for many economic consultants and yet quite often this is based on little if any primary

  18. Modeling the effect of engine assembly mass on engine friction and vehicle fuel economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Feng; Stodolsky, Frank

    An analytical model is developed to estimate the impact of reducing engine assembly mass (the term engine assembly refers to the moving components of the engine system, including crankshafts, valve train, pistons, and connecting rods) on engine friction and vehicle fuel economy. The relative changes in frictional mean effective pressure and fuel economy are proportional to the relative change in assembly mass. These changes increase rapidly as engine speed increases. Based on the model, a 25% reduction in engine assembly mass results in a 2% fuel economy improvement for a typical mid-size passenger car over the EPA Urban and Highway Driving Cycles.

  19. Hidden Innovation: A Reconsideration of An 'Old Economy' Industry in a 'New Economy' Region

    E-print Network

    Chiang, Lifang

    2008-01-01

    abilities, such as CNC, CAD and programming, required forshop skills and in CNC programming, to apprenticeship andCNC tools? • What percentage of your machine shop contractors use AutoCad? Programming?

  20. A Sense of Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tretter, Thomas R.; Jones, M. Gail

    2003-01-01

    Points out the importance of an understanding of a sense of scale and presents an activity that uses distance or time as a measure. The activity illustrates for students what the universe would look like at various scales. (DDR)

  1. The Scale of Things

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is an activity about size and scale. Learners will create and walk through a distance scale model of the size of the Solar System. This activity requires a straight line distance of approximately 295 meters (300 yards).

  2. 78 FR 46799 - Use of Market Economy Input Prices in Nonmarket Economy Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ...meaningful'' (i.e., 33 percent or more of total purchases) for years, and there does not appear to be a reason to stray from that practice.\\2\\ Another commenter argued that the Department in its Proposed Rule did not sufficiently explain...

  3. The real new economy.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Diana

    2003-10-01

    During the soar-and-swoon days of the late 1990s, many people believed that information technology, and the Internet in particular, were "changing everything" in business. A fundamental change did happen in the 1990s, but it was less about technology than about competition. Under director Diana Farrell, the McKinsey Global Institute has conducted an extensive study of productivity and its connection to corporate IT spending and use during that period. The study revealed that information technology is important--but not central--to the fate of industries and individual companies. So if information technology was not the primary factor in the productivity surge, what was? The study points to competition and innovation. In those industries that saw increases in competitive intensity, managers were forced to innovate aggressively to protect their revenues and profits. Those innovations--in products, business practices, and technology--led to the gains in productivity. In fact, a critical dynamic of the new economy--the real new economy--is the virtuous cycle of competition, innovation, and productivity growth. Managers can innovate in many ways, but during the 1990s, information technology was a particularly powerful tool, for three reasons: First, IT enabled the development of attractive new products and efficient new business processes. Second, it facilitated the rapid industrywide diffusion of innovations. And third, it exhibited strong scale economies--its benefits multiplied rapidly as its use expanded. This article reveals surprising data on how various industries in the United States and Europe were affected by competition, innovation, and information technology in the 1990s and offers insights about how managers can get more from their IT investments. PMID:14521102

  4. Consumer Power: A Comparison of the Old Economy and the Internet Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Behrang Rezabakhsh; Daniel Bornemann; Ursula Hansen; Ulf Schrader

    2006-01-01

    From the very beginning of the Internet, a decisive shift from supplier power to consumer power was predicted by several authors\\u000a and is still maintained in recent literature. Although the Internet has grown rapidly within the last years and electronic\\u000a markets have evolved, a theoretical framework for consumer power on the Internet still cannot be identified. Few authors have\\u000a taken

  5. Impact of Vehicle Weight Reduction on a Class 8 Truck for Fuel Economy Benefits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-07-10

    In this study funded by The Aluminum Association, Ricardo evaluates class 8 truck and trailer fuel economy improvements through the implementation of lightweight materials. All tests were performed in simulations utilizing published and Ricardo proprietary data within three drive cycles. It’s concluded when comparing an aluminum intensive truck to a steel intensive truck, that the aluminum truck has a 1%-6% increase in fuel economy with an unloaded trailer and 2%-5% increase in fuel economy with a half loaded trailer (40,000 lbs. GVW).

  6. The deregulated global economy: women workers and strategies of resistance.

    PubMed

    Hale, A

    1996-10-01

    This article discusses the lack of input from women in international debates about the global economy. Women in the South are the most vulnerable to exploitation and most ignored in international discussions of how to protect fair labor standards. Restructuring has led to loss of secure jobs in the public sector and the expansion of female employment in low-paid, insecure, unskilled jobs. Businesses desire a cheap and flexible workforce. Declines in social services, the elimination of subsidies on basic goods, and the introduction of user fees puts pressure on women to supplement family income. A parallel outcome is reduced employment rights, neglect of health and safety standards, and increased disregard among women for their domestic responsibilities. There is a need for alternative models of development. The Self-Employed Women's Organization in India serves as a model for resisting exploitation among self-employed and home-based employees. Female industrial strikers are demanding attention to excessive hours of work, enforced overtime, bullying, and lack of sanitary and medical facilities. There is always fear that organized resistance will lead to industrial relocation or loss of jobs. The International Labor Organization has had a code for 20 years, but the threat of exposure to the press is sometimes more effective. There must be regulation throughout subcontracting chains of transnational companies. International alliances should revolve around issues/strategies identified by workers. International alliances are needed for influencing multinational companies and national governments and lobbying global economic and financial institutions. Standards that are included in social clause discussions are minimum requirements that do not address gender-specific issues. Women Working Worldwide is developing a position statement of social clauses that incorporates a women's perspective. PMID:12347718

  7. Informal and underground economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Frey; Friedrich Schneider

    2000-01-01

    There is a widespread feeling that a substantial and increasing share of activities take place outside the official economy. This holds, in particular, for developing and transition but also for high income economies. Such activities are unrecorded by the system of national income accounting, which has become the accepted standard in all countries of the world. The existence and increase

  8. Exploration of sustainable development by applying green economy indicators.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yungkun; Chen, Chia-Yon; Hsieh, Tsuifang

    2011-11-01

    Following the global trend of sustainable development, development of green economy is the best way of slowing the negative ecological and environmental impact. This research establishes the Taiwan's green economic indicators based on the ecological footprint and energy analysis. The results are as follows: Taiwan's ecological footprint in 2008 intensity index was at 4.364; ecological overshoot index was at 3.364, showing that Taiwan's ecological system is in overload state. Moreover, this study utilizes energy analysis model to study the sustainable development of Taiwan. Findings showed that total energy use in 2008 was 3.14 × 10(23) sej (solar energy joule, sej), energy of renewable resources was 1.30 × 10(22) sej, energy of nonrenewable resources was 2.26 × 10(23) sej, energy of products from renewable resources was 1.30 × 10(22)sej, energy of currency flow was 8.02 × 10(22) sej and energy of wastes flow was 6.55 × 10(22) sej. Taiwan's energy per capita and the utilization rate of energy is lower while the environmental loading rate is significantly higher comparing to some other countries. The foregoing findings indicate that Taiwan currently belongs to an economic development pattern based on high resource consumption. The economic development is mainly established on the exploitation and utilization of nonrenewable resources. Therefore, Taiwan should change the development pattern, regulate the industrial structure, promote the utilization rate of resources, develop green pollution-free products, and enhance the sustainable development of ecological economic system. PMID:21336490

  9. The Political Economy of Unfairness in U.S. Health Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Oberlander

    2006-01-01

    Oberlander discusses the political economy of unfairness in US health policy by first highlighting the moral issues raised by the US's system of financing medical care and then by analyzing the political dynamics that sustain that system.

  10. Globalization, the New Economy, and the Commodification of Language and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Monica

    2003-01-01

    Explores ways in which the globalized new economy has resulted in the commodification of language and identity, sometimes separately, sometimes together. The article is based on recent ethnographic, sociolinguistic research in francophone areas of Canada. (Author/VWL)

  11. The transformation of the Japanese commercial code and its impact on the Japanese economy

    E-print Network

    Yoshida, Toshihiro, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    The legal system is an essential basis of the society and economy of every country, and it changes continually in accordance with national social and economic situations. The Japanese Commercial Code is no exception. One ...

  12. Thermodynamic accounting of ecosystem contribution to economic sectors with application to 1992 U.S. economy.

    PubMed

    Ukidwe, Nandan U; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2004-09-15

    Incorporation of ecological considerations in decision-making is essential for sustainable development, but is hindered by inadequate appreciation of the role of ecosystems, and lack of scientifically rigorous techniques for including their contribution. This paper develops a novel thermodynamic accounting framework for including the contribution of natural capital via thermodynamic input-output analysis. This framework is applied to the 1992 US economy comprising 91 industry sectors, resulting in delineation of the myriad ways in which sectors of the US economy rely on ecosystem products and services. The contribution of ecosystems is represented via the concept of ecological cumulative exergy consumption (ECEC), which is related to emergy analysis but avoids any of its controversial assumptions and claims. The use of thermodynamics permits representation of all kinds of inputs and outputs in consistent units, facilitating the definition of aggregate metrics. Total ECEC requirement indicates the extent to which each economic sector relies directly and indirectly on ecological inputs. The ECEC/money ratio indicates the relative monetary versus ecological throughputs in each sector, and indicates the relationship between the thermodynamic work needed to produce a product or service and the corresponding economic activity. This ratio is found to decrease along economic supply chains, indicating industries that are higher up in the economic food chain price ecosystem contribution more than the basic infrastructure industries such as mining and manufacturing. The ratio of CEC with and without inclusion of ecosystems indicates the extent to which conventional thermoeconomic analysis underestimates the contribution of ecosystems. Such ratios, made available for the first time, provide unique insight into the importance of natural capital, and are especially useful in hybrid thermodynamic life cycle analysis of industrial systems. The approach, data compiled in this work, and the resulting insight provide a more ecologically conscious tool for environmental decision-making, and has potential applications at micro as well as macro scales. PMID:15487791

  13. Veterinary Services in Belize: adapting organisational models to the needs of small economies.

    PubMed

    Góngora, V

    2003-08-01

    International trade in agricultural goods is governed by the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the 'SPS Agreement') of the World Trade Organization. Small economies, such as the economy of Belize, must have the necessary infrastructure in place to meet their obligations and exercise their rights under the SPS Agreement. In response to the shortcomings of a small economy, the Belize Government has established the Belize Agricultural Health Authority (BAHA) as its organisational model, to meet the challenges of providing Veterinary Services in this new millennium, as well as the demands of the international trade in animals and plants and their products. This model became operational in the year 2000 and has received national and international recognition as an appropriate model for small economies. The success of BAHA is due to strong political support and its dual public and private sector characteristics. PMID:15884582

  14. From holy war to opium war? A case study of the opium economy in north-eastern Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Goodhand, J

    2000-06-01

    This paper examines the recent growth of the opium economy in north-eastern Afghanistan. A detailed analysis of one village in Badakshan Province reveals profound changes in the local economy and social institutions. The paper describes two major shifts in the local economy: first, the switch from wheat to poppy cultivation; and second, the shift from the livestock trade to the opium trade. It then examines the underlying causes and impacts of the opium economy on social relations in the village. Although a case study of a community living on the margins of the global economy, it is argued that these changes have important implications for international policymakers. The emergence of the opium economy in north-eastern Afghanistan is symptomatic of new and expanding forms of trans-border trade associated with the restructuring of the global political economy. PMID:10887663

  15. Urban Economies Resource Productivity and Decoupling: Metabolism Trends of 1996-2011 in Sweden, Stockholm, and Gothenburg.

    PubMed

    Kalmykova, Yuliya; Rosado, Leonardo; Patrício, João

    2015-07-21

    Resource productivity and evidence of economic decoupling were investigated on the basis of the time series in 1996-2011 of material flow analysis for Sweden, Stockholm, and Gothenburg. In the three cases, absolute reductions in CO2 emissions by about 20% were observed, energy consumption per capita decreased, while gross domestic product (GDP) per capita grew. The energy consumption of the residential and public sectors decreased drastically, while the transport energy consumption is still growing steadily. Decoupling of the economy as a whole (i.e., including materials) is not yet happening at any scale. The domestic material consumption (DMC) continues to increase, in parallel with the GDP. The rate of increase for DMC is slower than that for GDP in both Stockholm and Sweden as a whole (i.e., relative decoupling). The metabolism of the cities does not replicate the national metabolism, and the two cities each have their own distinct metabolism profiles. As a consequence, policy implications for each of the case studies were suggested. In general, because of the necessarily different roles of the two cities in the national economy, generic resource productivity benchmarks, such as CO2 per capita, should be avoided in favor of sectorial benchmarks, such as industry, transport, or residential CO2 per capita. In addition, the share of the city impacts caused by the provision of a service for the rest of the country, such as a port, could be allocated to the national economy. PMID:26065831

  16. Emissions and fuel economy of the Dresser Economizer, a retrofit device. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the results of testing the Dresser Economizer as part of an evaluation under section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. This device is a gasket which is installed between the intake manifold and the cylinder head. The device is claimed to improve fuel economy and driveability. The results of EPA testing show the Dresser Economizer device does not have any significant effect on regulated exhaust emissions or fuel economy.

  17. Oil price shocks in an island economy: an analysis of the oil price-macroeconomy relationship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makena Coffman

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to clarify the oil price-macroeconomy relationship within a small open economy using a computable general\\u000a equilibrium model for Hawaii. Like many islands, Hawaii is both oil and tourism-dependant. Hawaii meets nearly 90% of its\\u000a energy needs through oil-burning and tourism accounts for roughly one-third of the economy. A doubling of the world price\\u000a of oil is simulated,

  18. Scaling analysis of stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Luping; Shang, Pengjian

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we apply the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), local scaling detrended fluctuation analysis (LSDFA), and detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) to investigate correlations of several stock markets. DFA method is for the detection of long-range correlations used in time series. LSDFA method is to show more local properties by using local scale exponents. DCCA method is a developed method to quantify the cross-correlation of two non-stationary time series. We report the results of auto-correlation and cross-correlation behaviors in three western countries and three Chinese stock markets in periods 2004-2006 (before the global financial crisis), 2007-2009 (during the global financial crisis), and 2010-2012 (after the global financial crisis) by using DFA, LSDFA, and DCCA method. The findings are that correlations of stocks are influenced by the economic systems of different countries and the financial crisis. The results indicate that there are stronger auto-correlations in Chinese stocks than western stocks in any period and stronger auto-correlations after the global financial crisis for every stock except Shen Cheng; The LSDFA shows more comprehensive and detailed features than traditional DFA method and the integration of China and the world in economy after the global financial crisis; When it turns to cross-correlations, it shows different properties for six stock markets, while for three Chinese stocks, it reaches the weakest cross-correlations during the global financial crisis.

  19. 17.424 International Political Economy of Advanced Industrial Societies, Spring 2007

    E-print Network

    Singer, David Andrew

    This graduate class is designed as a PhD-level overview of international political economy (IPE), with an emphasis on the advanced industrial countries. The syllabus is divided into three sections: international trade; ...

  20. Montana Economy at a Glance September 2012 Montana Department of Labor & Industry Research & Analysis Bureau

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Montana Economy at a Glance September 2012 Montana Department of Labor & Industry Research demand for healthcare workers. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% Utilities Educational Services Agriculture, Forestry Administrative and Waste Services Professional Services Construction Other Business Services Leisure Activities

  1. 40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES...year that the new coefficients must take effect. The Administrator will issue guidance...coefficients that are in currently in effect. (3) General alternate fuel...

  2. 40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES...year that the new coefficients must take effect. The Administrator will issue guidance...coefficients that are in currently in effect. (3) General alternate fuel...

  3. Economic Contributions of the Florida Craft Brewing Industry to the Florida Economy

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Economic Contributions of the Florida Craft Brewing Industry to the Florida Economy Timothy G...................................................................... 3 The Florida Craft Brewing Industry...........................................................................................22 Appendix A. Craft Brewing Establishments Operating in Florida, 2013

  4. 'Kind of Blue' and the Economy of Modal Jazz

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Samuel

    2006-05-09

    interpreted against the backdrop of shifting race relations, with extremes marked out by on the one hand the assimilation of blues idioms in the white- dominated early rock and roll, and on the other the leanings of rhythm and blues and incipient soul music... of the ‘chromatic upper neighbour motion’ explored in the fourth segment of ‘Flamenco Sketches’.19 A more substantial link to ‘Flamenco Sketches’ lies in the fact that the two scales reproduce the same pitch sets as the opening two levels on that track; that is...

  5. Increasing the Fuel Economy and Safety of New Light-DutyVehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Tom; Ross, Marc

    2006-09-18

    One impediment to increasing the fuel economy standards forlight-duty vehicles is the long-standing argument that reducing vehiclemass to improve fuel economy will inherently make vehicles less safe.This technical paper summarizes and examines the research that is citedin support of this argument, and presents more recent research thatchallenges it. We conclude that the research claiming that lightervehicles are inherently less safe than heavier vehicles is flawed, andthat other aspects of vehicle design are more important to the on-roadsafety record of vehicles. This paper was prepared for a workshop onexperts in vehicle safety and fuel economy, organized by the William andFlora Hewlett Foundation, to discuss technologies and designs that can betaken to simultaneously improve vehicle safety and fuel economy; theworkshop was held in Washington DC on October 3, 2006.

  6. The impact of institutional changes on corporate governance mechanisms in transition economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Son A. Le; Mark J. Kroll; Bruce A. Walters

    2010-01-01

    We examine how institutional changes affect corporate governance in transition economies. We develop a transition model that\\u000a specifies three stages of the transition process including the early, intermediate, and late. We develop a framework for assessing\\u000a the effectiveness of widely recognized corporate governance mechanisms (CGMs) in and across these stages. Our general proposition\\u000a is that as transition economies move from

  7. Money and capital as competing media of exchange in a news economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Andolfatto; Fernando M. Martin

    2009-01-01

    Conventional theory suggests that fiat money will have value in capital-poor economies. We demonstrate that fiat money may also have value in capital-rich economies, if the price of capital is excessively volatile. Excess asset-price volatility is generated by news; information that has no social value, but is privately useful in forming forecasts over the short-run return to capital. One advantage

  8. Popular Education in Solidarity Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Melo Neto, José Francisco; da Costa, Francisco Xavier Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to show the relation between popular education and solidarity economy in experiences of solidarity economy enterprises in Brazil. It is based on diverse experiences which have occurred in various sectors of this economy, highlighting those experiences which took place in João Pessoa with the creation of a Cooperative of Workers…

  9. Impacts of Information Technologies on Urban Economies and Politics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SASKIA SASSEN

    2001-01-01

    Economic globalization and telecommunications have contributed to produce a spatiality for the urban which pivots on de-territorialized cross-border networks and territorial locations with massive concentrations of resources. This is not a completely new feature. Over the centuries cities have been at the intersection of processes with supra-urban and even intercontinental scalings. What is different today is the intensity, complexity and

  10. Manual of Scaling Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Thomas H. (Technical Monitor); Anderson, David N.

    2004-01-01

    This manual reviews the derivation of the similitude relationships believed to be important to ice accretion and examines ice-accretion data to evaluate their importance. Both size scaling and test-condition scaling methods employing the resulting similarity parameters are described, and experimental icing tests performed to evaluate scaling methods are reviewed with results. The material included applies primarily to unprotected, unswept geometries, but some discussion of how to approach other situations is included as well. The studies given here and scaling methods considered are applicable only to Appendix-C icing conditions. Nearly all of the experimental results presented have been obtained in sea-level tunnels. Recommendations are given regarding which scaling methods to use for both size scaling and test-condition scaling, and icing test results are described to support those recommendations. Facility limitations and size-scaling restrictions are discussed. Finally, appendices summarize the air, water and ice properties used in NASA scaling studies, give expressions for each of the similarity parameters used and provide sample calculations for the size-scaling and test-condition scaling methods advocated.

  11. On Discretion versus Commitment and the Role of the Direct Exchange Rate Channel in a Forward-Looking Open Economy Model.

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    -Looking Open Economy Model. By Alfred V. Guender* Department of Economics University of Canterbury Christchurch the behavior of key economic variables to differ dramatically in an open economy compared to a closed economy. In an open economy, the policymaker can no longer perfectly stabilize real output and the rate of inflation

  12. Knowledge Economy and Research Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastalich, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The "knowledge economy" has been received with considerable scepticism by scholars within the fields of political economy, social and political philosophy, and higher education. Key arguments within this literature are reviewed in this article to suggest that, despite policy claims, "knowledge economy" does not describe a "new" mode of economic…

  13. On Discretion versus Commitment and the Role of the Direct Exchange Rate Channel in a Forward-Looking Open Economy Model.

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    -Looking Open Economy Model. By Alfred V. Guender* Department of Economics University of Canterbury Christchurch the behavior of the key economic variables in the open economy to be dramatically different from that in the closed economy. In the open economy, the policymaker can no longer perfectly stabilize real output

  14. The Uncontrolled Economic Engine of the Developing Economies, Speeding up the Climate Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, K. M.; Khan, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    As we progress into the 21st century, the world faces challenges of truly global nature bearing implications on the whole world in one way or another. The global economic engine has shifted from the western world (Developed Economies) to the eastern world (Developing Economies) which has brought about tremendous change in the climate related variables in this part of the world. As uncontrolled carbon emissions grow in the developing economies, the phenomenon of global warming and climate shifts become more and more prevalent. While this economic activity provides income for millions of households, it is contributing generously to the rapid degradation of the environment. Developing economies as it has been seen do not employ or abide by stringent regulations regarding emissions which result in uncontrolled emissions. In this particular scenario, it is a tedious task to convince governments in the developing economies to implement regulations regarding emissions because businesses in these economies deem such regulations to be economically unviable. The other side of the problem is that these uncontrolled emission are causing evident climate shifts which has had adverse impacts on the agricultural societies where shifting climates are leading to reduced agricultural output and productivity. Consequently the lives of millions associated directly or indirectly with agriculture are affected and on a more global level, the agricultural produce is decreasing which increases the chances of famine in parts of the world. The situation could have devastating impacts on the global economy and environmental standards and therefore needs to be addressed on emergency basis. The first step towards betterment could be the introduction of the carbon trading economy in the developing economies which would incentivize emission reduction and become more attractive and in the process sustaining minimum possible damage to the environment. Though carbon trading is a formidable first step in the right direction, it is in no way the only step and many other steps need to be taken. Agricultural economies have to study climate changes in detail and inculcate findings into their agricultural practices in order to keep the productivity from reducing.

  15. The Knowledge Economy and Higher Education: Rankings and Classifications, Research Metrics and Learning Outcomes Measures as a System for Regulating the Value of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the global knowledge economy (the k-economy), comprised by (1) open source knowledge flows and (2) commercial markets in intellectual property and knowledge-intensive goods. Like all economy the global knowledge economy is a site of production. It is also social and cultural, taking the form of a one-world community mediated…

  16. Economy in Government: Automatic Data Processing Equipment; Report of the Subcommittee on Priorities and Economy in Government . . . Together with Supplemental Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    This report is based on hearings that the subcommittee held on July 1, 1970, entitled "Economy in Government Property Management--Procurement of Data Processing Equipment" as well as General Accounting Office and General Services Administration reports. It focuses upon the phenomenal growth in the use of automatic data processing equipment by the…

  17. From a Failed-Growth Economy to a Steady-State Economy

    E-print Network

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    From a Failed-Growth Economy to a Steady-State Economy By Herman Daly A steady-state economy of negative growth, a depression such as we are entering now, is a failed-growth economy, not a steady-state economy. Halting an accelerating downward spiral is necessary but is not the same thing as resuming

  18. Canadian Economy Online

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    It's a bird, it's a plane, no, it's Captain Economy! That's right, at this very comprehensive site devoted to Canada's economy, visitors can ask the little green guy with the cape and dollar sign on his chest for help. In fact, his first feat is to address just what an economy is anyway. The site offers all sorts of statistics about all of the great economic indicators like inflation rate, unemployment rate, exchange rate, etc. Visitors to the site can click on one of the subpages devoted to explaining economic topics such as Key Indicators, Economic Concepts, and Key Economic Events.

  19. Scales of climate impacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William C. Clark

    1985-01-01

    Climates, ecosystems, and societies interact over a tremendous range of temporal and spatial scales. Scholarly work on climate impacts has tended to emphasize different questions, variables, and modes of explanation depending on the primary scale of interest. Much of the current debate on cause and effect, vulnerability, marginality, and the like stems from uncritical or unconscious efforts to transfer experience,

  20. An empirical analysis of oil price fluctuation on agricultural productivity in an oil-exporting economy: A case study of Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haling

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the agricultural production process in an oil-exporting economy and to determine whether increases in petroleum revenues during the 1970's and 1980's obstructed productivity growth for small-scale agricultural producers. Numerous academic studies have addressed the issue of a decline in the manufacturing and agricultural sectors of a resource exporting country during a resource

  1. An evaluation of the performance of an applied general equilibrium model of the Spanish economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy J. Kehoe; Clemente Polo; Ferran Sancho

    1995-01-01

    Summary In 1985–86 the authors were members of a team that constructed a static applied general equilibrium model that was used to analyze the impact on the Spanish economy of the 1986 fiscal reform, which accompanied Spain's entry into the European Community. This paper compares the results obtained to recently published data for 1985–87; we find that the model performed

  2. Innovation of China's Circular Agricultural Development in the Perspective of Low Carbon Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanyan Li

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of the concept and characteristics of circular economy, this paper analyzes the restraining factors of China's circular agricultural development as follows: issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers are outstanding; the problems of agricultural resources and agricultural ecological environment are serious; the quality of agricultural products cannot meet the demand of domestic and international market for food. Based

  3. Antimatter Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Norm

    2004-05-01

    The Antimatter Economy will bring every country into the 21st century without destroying our environment and turn the Star Trek dream into reality by using antimatter from comets. At the April 2002 joint meeting of the American Physical Society and American Astronomical Society, I announced that comets were composed of antimatter, there were 109 antimatter elements, and the Periodic Table of Elements had been updated to include the antimatter elements. When matter and antimatter come together, energy is produce according to Einstein's equation of mass times the speed of light squared or E = mc2. Antimatter energy creates incredible opportunities for humanity. People in spacecraft will travel to the moon in hours, planets in days, and stars in weeks. Antimatter power will replace fossil plants and produce hydrogen from off-peak electrical power. Hydrogen will supplant gas in cars, trucks, and other vehicles. The billions of ton of coal, billions of barrels of oil, and trillions of cubic feet of natural gas will be used to make trillions of dollars of products to bring countries into the 21st century. Within this millennium, the Worlds Gross National Product will increase from 30 trillion to 3,000 trillion plus 1,500 trillion from space commercialization bringing the Total Gross National Product to 4,500 trillion. Millions of businesses and billions of jobs will be created. However, the real benefits will come from taking billions of people out of poverty and empowering them to pursue their dreams of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. Please visit www.AntimatterEnergy.com.

  4. Submicron scaling of HBTs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark J. W. Rodwell; Miguel Urteaga; Thomas Mathew; Dennis Scott; Dino Mensa; Q. Lee; James Guthrie; Y. Betser; Suzanne C. Martin; R. P. Smith; S. Jaganathan; Sundararajan Krishnan; Stephen I. Long; R. Pullela; Bipul Agarwal; Uddalak Bhattacharya; Lorene Samoska; Mattias Dahlstrom

    2001-01-01

    The variation of heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) bandwidth with scaling is reviewed. High bandwidths are obtained by thinning the base and collector layers, increasing emitter current density, decreasing emitter contact resistivity, and reducing the emitter and collector junction widths. In mesa HBTs, minimum dimensions required for the base contact impose a minimum width for the collector junction, frustrating device scaling.

  5. Universities as drivers of the urban economies in Asia : the case of Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tran Ngoc Ca

    2006-01-01

    This study looks at the contribution of the university system in Vietnam to the socioeconomic development in general, and their relationship with firms, dynamic actors of the economy in particular. The study uses different methods of research, from reliance on secondary data to interviews with universities and survey of firms. Several case studies of the key universities in four regions

  6. A Moral Economy of Patents: Case of Finnish Research Universities' Patent Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the concept of moral economy for higher education studies through a study of Finnish research universities' patent policies. Patent policies not only stimulate the commercialization of research, they also set norms for behavior and aim to clarify how to distribute rights…

  7. Entrepreneurship in transitional economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janusz K. Tanas; David B. Audretsch

    This paper explores the relationship among socio-political culture and the economic environment. It places the entrepreneur\\u000a at the forefront of the Transitional Economy and identifies the entrepreneur as a catalyst for change and progress. Within\\u000a wider world changes, this discussion and interrogation of entrepreneurial development in the Transitional Economy provides\\u000a new knowledge from the perspective of both the authors and

  8. An Assessment of Integrated Climate Change Impacts on the Agricultural Economy of Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David N. Yates; Kenneth M. Strzepek

    1998-01-01

    This study used a quadratic programming sector model to assess the integrated impacts of climate change on the agricultural economy of Egypt. Results from a dynamic global food trade model were used to update the Egyptian sector model and included socio-economic trends and world market prices of agricultural goods. In addition, the impacts of climate change from three bio-physical sectors

  9. The Economic Impact of Six Cultural Institutions on the Economy of the Columbus SMSA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwi, David

    The impact of six cultural institutions on the Columbus, Ohio, economy was determined by measuring their 1978 direct and indirect financial effects. The six institutions are Ballet Metropolitan, Columbus Museum of Art, Columbus Symphony Orchestra, Center of Science and Industry, Players Theatre of Columbus, and Columbus Association for the…

  10. Integration of Trade and Disintegration of Production in the Global Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Feenstra

    1998-01-01

    The last few decades have seen a spectacular integration of the global economy through trade. The rising integration of world markets has brought with it a disintegration of the production process, however, in which manufacturing or services activities done abroad are combined with those performed at home. The author compares several different measures of foreign outsourcing and argues that they

  11. THE IMPACT OF FUNDED RESEARCH BY THE UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND ON THE RHODE ISLAND ECONOMY IN FY10

    E-print Network

    Rhode Island, University of

    THE IMPACT OF FUNDED RESEARCH BY THE UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND ON THE RHODE ISLAND ECONOMY IN FY10 The contributions the University of Rhode Island makes to Rhode Island's economy continue to be highly significant the benefits provided by the University of Rhode Island have become increasingly critical to the economic

  12. The Extensive Margin of International Trade in a Transition Economy: The Case of Mongolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chingunjav Amarsanaa; Yoshinori Kurokawa

    2011-01-01

    Using the Kehoe and Ruhl (2009) methodology, we investigate whether the variety of traded goods, which is the extensive margin of trade, has actually changed in a transition economy, such as Mongolia, as predicted by recent theoretical models. We find large increases in the extensive margin of Mongoliafs trade with major trade partners such as Japan from 1997 to 2002,

  13. Impact of New Economy on IS Education: A Case of UNSW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handzic, Meliha; Scifleet, Paul

    The growing importance of information technology and innovation in the market place brings with it a need for the better management of professional knowledge for knowledge workers in the New Economy. This paper illustrates some major steps underway at the University of New South Wales, Australia towards building an educational system for IS…

  14. POSSIBILITIES FOR THE UTILIZATION OF METALLURGICAL SLAG IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE POLISH ECONOMY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. SKUZA; C. KOLMASIAK; R. PRUSAK

    The article presents the current possibilities for the utilization of blast-furnace and steelmaking slag in the reali- ties of the Polish economy. Particular consideration is given to the legislation applicable to this area and to the physical and chemical requirements imposed on this material. Some aspects of environmental protection are described, and selected indicators are given, which must be met

  15. Cooperatives' contributions to a plural economy

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    23 Cooperatives' contributions to a plural economy Jérôme Blanc* and Denis Colongo** T he European economy(1) . The central theme of the conference was the contributions of cooperatives to a plural economy and solidarity economy and elsewhere, and some of them draw on Karl Polanyi's conceptual framework (a key

  16. The Effect of Social and Token Economy Reinforcements on Academic Achievement of Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Ashoori, Mohammad; Sereshki, Narges Adib

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the effect of social and token economy reinforcements on academic achievement of 9th grade boy students with intellectual disabilities in an experimental science class in Tehran Province. Method The method used for this study was experimental by pre-test, post- test with a control group. The boy students with intellectual disabilities from three junior high schools participated in this study. The sample consisted of thirty, 9th grade boy students with intellectual disabilities in the selected schools; the schools were chosen by the multi-stage cluster method. To measure the progress of students in the science class, a teacher made test and the Wechsler intelligence test for matching the groups for IQ were used. To ensure validity, the content validity criteria depended tests calculated by the Lashe method and teachers' perspective were used. The reliability coefficient was obtained by the reliability coefficient of related tests; the percent agreement method and the obtained data were analyzed using one-way variance analysis and Shefe prosecution test. Results The results showed that there was a significant increase in academic achievement of students with intellectual disabilities when using token economy than using social reinforcements compared with the control group. Also, when using social reinforcements, the academic achievement of students was more than the control group. Conclusion Token economy and social reinforcements increased the academic achievement of students with intellectual disabilities in the science class; and also the effect of token economy reinforcements was more than social reinforcements on the subjects. PMID:22952517

  17. The Passions of Learning in Tight Circumstances: Toward a Political Economy of the Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Economies make their demands, and by necessity, people adjust, learn, and survive. People adjust to tight circumstances with passion and ingenuity. Necessity and its passions are the stuff of reality and generally more than schools or educational research can handle. Mainstream theories of learning have captured economic constraints only…

  18. Aspects of the Changing Role of Horticulture in the London Garden Economy

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    Aspects of the Changing Role of Horticulture in the London Garden Economy Summary report Horticultural knowledge is something that can take a lifetime to acquire. Yet those people that live and own the degree to which a love for horticulture can be fostered within such a climate. By examining two places

  19. The Economic Impact of Eight Cultural Institutions on the Economy of the St. Louis SMSA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwi, David

    The impact of eight cultural institutions on the economy of the St. Louis (Missouri) area was determined by measuring their 1978 direct and indirect financial effects. The institutions are the St. Louis Art Museum, St. Louis Conservatory and School for the Arts, Missouri Botannical Garden, St. Louis Symphony, McDonnell Planetarium, Loretto-Hilton…

  20. The Economic Impact of Ten Cultural Institutions on the Economy of the Salt Lake SMSA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwi, David

    The impact of 10 cultural institutions on the Salt Lake City economy was determined by measuring their 1978 direct and indirect financial effects. The institutions are Ballet West, Pioneer Memorial Theatre, Repertory Dance Theatre, Salt Lake City Art Center, Theatre 138, Tiffany's Attic, Utah Museum of Fine Arts, Utah Symphony, Utah Opera Company,…

  1. The Economic Impact of Five Cultural Institutions on the Economy of the San Antonio SMSA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwi, David

    The impact on the economy of five cultural institutions in the San Antonio, Texas, area was determined by measuring their 1978 direct and indirect financial effects. The institutions are the San Antonio Symphony, San Antonio Opera, Witte Museum, Museum of Transportation, and the Carver Cultural Center. Data gathered from the six institutions…

  2. Biological invasions are increasing as a result of the integration of global economies (Cohen and Carlton

    E-print Network

    Crews, Stephen

    Biological invasions are increasing as a result of the integration of global economies (Cohen, and invasions by plants and animals Mark E Torchin1 and Charles E Mitchell2 Biological invasions cause billions to one fundamental question ­ what factors deter- mine invasion success? ­ remain elusive (Keane

  3. Military Dollars and Public Sense: Do Big Defense Budgets Help the Economy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Cassidy; Kevin B. Bean

    1991-01-01

    This section explores the link between the continued American commitment to large-scale military spending and the apparent decline of the American economy. Indeed the assumption that war preparation benefits everyone has been a fundamental part of American political culture throughout the Cold War. Military spending raises three problematical issues for the U.S. economy. This is what critics call the opportunity

  4. Fuel Economy of the Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet (released in AEO2005)

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. fleet of light-duty vehicles consists of cars and light trucks, including minivans, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) and trucks with gross vehicle weight less than 8,500 pounds. The fuel economy of light-duty vehicles is regulated by the (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) CAFE standards set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Currently, the CAFE standard is 27.5 miles per gallon (mpg) for cars and 20.7 mpg for light trucks. The most recent increase in the CAFE standard for cars was in 1990, and the most recent increase in the CAFE standard for light trucks was in 1996.

  5. The economic impact of shale gas development on state and local economies: benefits, costs, and uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Barth, Jannette M

    2013-01-01

    It is often assumed that natural gas exploration and development in the Marcellus Shale will bring great economic prosperity to state and local economies. Policymakers need accurate economic information on which to base decisions regarding permitting and regulation of shale gas extraction. This paper provides a summary review of research findings on the economic impacts of extractive industries, with an emphasis on peer-reviewed studies. The conclusions from the studies are varied and imply that further research, on a case-by-case basis, is necessary before definitive conclusions can be made regarding both short- and long-term implications for state and local economies. PMID:23552649

  6. The functioning of natural ecosystems and the health of the human economy have been intrinsically linked since

    E-print Network

    Hall, Charles A.S.

    for a coming transition,focusing especially on oil because of its central role in the industrial economy. We growth. The most important roles for ecologists in this time of tran- sition are to quantify connections ecosystems to the human economy In the preindustrial world, solar-powered ecosystems sup- ported the human

  7. The efficiency loss of tax limits: The political economy of local tax regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rune J. Sørensen

    Fiscal federalism suggests that local services should be financed by local taxes, and that national tax constraints will cause a loss of allocative efficiency. Political economy claims that tax limits can improve efficiency. An unconstrained local government may induce excessive government spending, and tax limits can rectify this bias by curtailing the \\

  8. The Varieties of Resource Experience: Natural Resource Export Structures and the Political Economy of Economic Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Isham; Michael Woolcock; Lant Pritchett; Gwen Busby

    2005-01-01

    Many oil, mineral, and plantation crop--based economies experienced a substantial deceleration in growth following the commodity boom and bust of the 1970s and early 1980s. This article illustrates how countries dependent on point source natural resources (those extracted from a narrow geographic or economic base, such as oil and minerals) and plantation crops are predisposed to heightened economic and social

  9. The Economic Impact of Ten Cultural Institutions on the Economy of the Springfield, Illinois SMSA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwi, David

    The impact on the economy of 10 cultural institutions in Springfield, Illinois, was determined by measuring their 1978 direct and indirect financial effects. The institutions are the Springfield Symphony Orchestra, Springfield Theatre Guild, Springfield Art Association, Springfield Ballet, Art Collection in Illinois State Museum, Old State…

  10. Global Citizenship and Marginalisation: Contributions towards a Political Economy of Global Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balarin, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The development of a global form of citizenship stands in a rather tense relation with the realities of vast numbers of marginalised citizens across the globe, to the extent that marginality appears to be the hidden other of global citizenship. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the development of a political economy of global citizenship…

  11. The effect of scale on the response to reform by Chinese state-owned construction units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elliott Parker

    1997-01-01

    Using firm-level data on large and medium state-owned construction units, a production function approach evaluates the effect of scale on the response of Chinese state enterprises to reform. Large state units have greater economies of scale, but are less productive and less input price efficient as investment increases in nonproductive fixed assets. Large unit profits are declining fastest, and a

  12. From little things big things grow: scaling-up assessment of experiential learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Quinn; Simon Shurville

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The new economies of the twenty-first century require new approaches to learning and teaching from higher education (HE). Accordingly many universities have gradually scaled-up learner-centred approaches, including flexible delivery and technology-enhanced learning, from the domains of enthusiasts towards the institutional level. This paper seeks to argue that these new economies and styles of learning and teaching bring similar

  13. Disadvantaged young people accessing the new urban economies of the post?industrial city

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Raffo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine current and evolving supply side transition policy initiatives in the light of (a) particular demand side needs of urban young people classified as those most disadvantaged and potentially marginalized; and (b) the emerging realities of accessing and operating within particular examples of high value?added knowledge work arenas of the new urban economies

  14. Diversification strategies and scope economies: evidence from a sample of Italian regional bus transport providers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabetta Ottoz; Marina Di Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of Local Public Transport (LPT) companies diversify their production lines by providing a large set of services. We investigate the cost structure of a sample of LPT companies operating in Italy and assess the presence and the magnitude of scope economies. We split the whole sample of firms according to their diversification strategy: private firms, mainly diversifying

  15. Diversification strategies and scope economies: evidence from a sample of Italian regional bus transport providers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabetta Ottoz; Marina Di Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of Local Public Transport (LPT) companies diversify their production lines by providing a large set of services. We investigate the cost structure of a sample of LPT companies operating in Italy and assess the presence and the magnitude of scope economies. We split the whole sample of firms according to their diversification strategy: private firms, mainly diversifying

  16. Privatization Policy and Dynamics of the Retail Market in a Transitional Economy1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacek Cukrowski

    This paper develops a theoretical framework in which the impact of different privatization strategies on the dynamics of the retail market in a transitional economy can be analyzed. The analysis shows that rational behavior of the monopolistic manufacturer under uncertainty of demand naturally implies organization of the retail market. The equilibrium characteristics of unrestricted (competitive) and restricted (monopolistic) retail markets

  17. Playing the Scales: Regional Transformations and the Differentiation of Rural Space in the Chilean Wine Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, John; Murray, Warwick E.

    2011-01-01

    Globalization and industrial restructuring transform rural places in complex and often contradictory ways. These involve both quantitative changes, increasing the size and scope of operation to achieve economies of scale, and qualitative shifts, sometimes leading to a shift up the quality/price scale, towards finer spatial resolution and…

  18. The future of nonfuel minerals in the US and World economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Leontief; S. Nasar; J. C. M. Koo; I. Sohn

    1983-01-01

    This book projects future production and consumption levels, decade by decade, to the year 2030. Taking future growth and structural change into account, the authors examine the levels of 26 major nonfuel minerals. They offer a discussion of the role of resources in the economy, a review of past U.S. minerals policy, and a summary of previous studies projecting future

  19. The Economic Effect of Education in an Information Technology-Penetrating Economy: Evidence from Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Chi Wai

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the economic effect of education in terms of its impact on the earnings of workers in an information technology (IT)-diffusing economy, based on data from Hong Kong's 2006 by-census and survey on the usage and penetration of IT in industries. Education enhances the productivity of workers and increases their lifetime incomes.…

  20. Technical Workers in a Newly Industrialising Economy: The Work Experience of Engineers in Singapore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hing AiyunI

    1991-01-01

    This study looks at the work experience and work related problems of engineers in the specific context of Singapore's political economy. Data was drawn from in-depth interviews and a survey of 250 engineers working in the country's top 20 electronic multinationals. Despite the optimism of visionaries regarding the future of work in high-tech societies it is argued that \\

  1. Forecasting the resurgence of the US economy in 2001: an expert judgment approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew R. Blair; Robert Nachtmann; Thomas L. Saaty; Rozann Whitaker

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a forecast of the date for the resumption of growth of the US economy in 2001. It uses an expert judgment approach within the framework of decision theory, the Analytic Hierarchy Process, as well as its generalization to dependence and feedback, the Analytic Network Process.Note: We request the reader of this article to regard the following in

  2. Kaleidoscope Economies: The Processes of Cooperation, Competition, and Control in Regional Economic Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry Patchell

    1996-01-01

    Regional economies resemble a kaleidoscope. Just as the color and brilliance of pieces of glass in a kaleidoscope change with the angle of reflection, firms engage in relationships which profoundly influence the development potential of each individual or firm. In order to understand regional development as a self-generating process, this paper examines the evolution of cooperation among firms in regional

  3. The Impact of Maritime Tourism on the Greek Economy via the Tourism Satellite Account

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mihail N. Diakomihalis

    2007-01-01

    Maritime tourism is a special interest tourism, showing significant demand increase worldwide. The activities of cruising, yachting and coastal tourism shipping constitute the Greek market of maritime tourism.?The aim of this paper is to estimate the economic impact of the maritime tourism industry on the major macroeconomic factors of the Greek economy.?The Tourism Satellite Account (TSA) has been applied by

  4. "Creative Destruction": Knowledge Economy Policy and the Future of the Arts and Humanities in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullen, Elizabeth; Robb, Simon; Kenway, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Policy conceptualizations of the global knowledge economy have led to the channelling of much Higher Education and Research and Development funding into the priority areas of science and technology. Among other things, this diversion of funding calls into question the future of traditional humanities and creative arts faculties. How these…

  5. "The Bell Curve": Another Chapter in the Continuing Political Economy of Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Robert G.; Newby, Diane E.

    1995-01-01

    Criticizes Charles Murray's "The Bell Curve" and attempts a more cogent analysis of the respective roles of blacks and the U.S. political economy. Utilizes a sociology of knowledge framework to discuss the evolving nature of blacks in the nation's workforce. Briefly discusses eugenics and the history of racist social theories. (MJP)

  6. 48 - Challenges of Infrastructure Rehabilitation and Reconstruction in War - affected Economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoeffler Anke

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we considered the challenges of infrastructure rehabilitation and reconstruction in twelve war-affected economies in Africa. Our survey of the water, transport, energy and telecommunication sector showed that the standard of infrastructure provision is very low in all of the twelve countries. On average only about 30 per cent of the population have access to safe water and

  7. SWFs and the global economy: the impact of the Gulf oil producers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Rios-Morales; Mohamed Ramady; Louis Brennan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role of sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) in sustaining global economies. The subject of SWFs has increasingly garnered the concerns of policymakers, market players and scholars for two main reasons: First, these funds represent the largest concentration of capital that the world has ever known, with the Arabian Gulf SWFs

  8. Urban Amenities and Agglomeration Economies? The Locational Behaviour and Economic Success of Dutch Fashion Design Entrepreneurs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rik Wenting; Oedzge Atzema; Koen Frenken

    2011-01-01

    The spatial clustering of industries is traditionally explained by agglomeration economies benefiting co-located firms. The focus on firms rather than people has been challenged by Florida arguing that urban amenities attract creative people to certain cities. On the basis of a questionnaire, an analysis is made of the extent to which these two mechanisms affect the locational behaviour of Dutch

  9. Prospective Trends in the Socio-Economic Context of Education in European Market Economy Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, M.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to project and analyze the prospective long-term trends in the socioeconomic context of the educational systems of European market economies and to outline in global terms the probable implication for education and training in the future. Composed of three chapters, the chapter 1 focuses on projected long-term…

  10. The Political Economy of Work in the 21st Century: Implications for an Aging American Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicker, Martin

    The prospective place of the aging worker in the employment environment of the 21st century is examined. The following are among the specific topics discussed: (1) the real world of work and retirement; (2) the changing employment environment; (3) the restructuring of business in the United States; (4) globalization and the economy; (5) downsizing…

  11. A Modification of the Token Economy for Nonresponsive Youth in Family-Style Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Clinton E.; Nash, Heather M.; Handwerk, Michael L.; Friman, Patrick C.

    2004-01-01

    Out-of-home treatment for youth with conduct problems is increasing rapidly in this country. Most programs for these youth deliver treatment in a group format and commonly employ some version of a token economy. Despite widespread evidence of effectiveness, a substantial minority of treated youth fail to respond. Participants for this study were 3…

  12. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Greene; K. G. Duleep

    1992-01-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer's surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of COâ and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from

  13. Costs and benefits of automative fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Greene; K. G. Duleep

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle costs, fuel savings, consumers' surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO2 and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from

  14. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Greene; K. G. Duleep

    1992-01-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer`s surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of COâ and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from

  15. A Modification of the Token Economy for Nonresponsive Youth in Family-Style Residential Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clinton E. Field; Heather M. Nash; Michael L. Handwerk; Patrick C. Friman

    2004-01-01

    Out-of-home treatment for youth with conduct problems is increasing rapidly in this country. Most programs for these youth deliver treatment in a group format and commonly employ some version of a token economy. Despite widespread evidence of effectiveness, a substantial minority of treated youth fail to respond. Participants for this study were 3 youth who were nonresponsive to treatment provided

  16. An approach to estimating the economic impact of climatic change on a regional economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Johnson; J C Stabler

    1991-01-01

    In previous attempts to estimate the economic impact of climatic change on a regional economy, techniques which tend to understate the actual impact of the hypothesized modification on the natural environment have been used. Most of these studies have not simulated a change in production technology in response to an altered climatic regime. Few have incorporated the effect of an

  17. Emissions and fuel economy of a prechamber diesel engine with natural gas dual fuelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Ding; P. G. Hill

    1986-01-01

    A four-cylinder turbocharged prechamber diesel engine (Caterpillar 3304) was operated with natural gas and pilot diesel fuel ignition over a wide range of load and speed. Measurements were made of fuel consumption and the emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and the oxides of nitrogen. Improvements in fuel economy and emissions were found to be affected by the diesel fuel-gas

  18. The Zero Bound in an Open Economy: A Foolproof Way of Escaping from a Liquidity Trap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars-E-O Svensson

    2001-01-01

    The paper examines the transmission mechanism of monetary policy in an open economy with and without a binding zero bound on nominal interest rates. In particular, a foolproof way of escaping from a liquidity trap is suggested, consisting of a price-level target path, a devaluation of the currency and a temporary exchange rate peg, which is later abandoned in favor

  19. Alberta's 2002 Teacher Strike: The Political Economy of Labor Relations in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnetson, Bob

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, approximately two thirds of school teachers in the Canadian province of Alberta went on strike. Drawing on media, government and union documents, this case study reveals some contours of the political economy of labor relations in education that are normally hidden from view. Among these features are that the state can react to worker…

  20. Foreign Direct Investment and Trade Openness: The Case of Developing Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liargovas, Panagiotis G.; Skandalis, Konstantinos S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of trade openness for attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows, using a sample of 36 developing economies for the period 1990-2008. It provides a direct test of causality between FDI inflows, trade openness and other key variables in developing regions of the world: Latin America, Asia, Africa, CIS…

  1. Priorities in Teaching Economic Geography: "Placing" the Economy, Sense of Geograph"ies", Intellectual Bridging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettlinger, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    This paper identifies some personal priorities in teaching economic geography. The author places the economy relationally regarding social, cultural and political dimensions of life; she clarifies different modes of geographic inquiry-geographies; and she taps the breadth of economic geography by including a wide range of substantive topics. She…

  2. The Impact of the Tariff-Rate Quota on Sugar Imports on the US Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noel D. Uri; Roy Boyd

    1994-01-01

    Examines the impact of the sugar tariff-rate import quota programme on the United States economy. Uses a computable general equilibrium model composed of 14 producing sectors, 14 consuming sectors, six household categories classified by fincome, and a government. Examines the effects of abolishing the tariff-rate import quota on sugar prices and quantities. Suggests that a complete elimination of the sugar

  3. HOW DOES A SMALL MEDIUM ENTERPRISE SUCCEED IN AN EMERGING ECONOMY? THE CASE OF ISKON INTERNET, CROATIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damon A. Revelas

    The country of Croatia has experienced a tremendous amount of social, political and economic change in the past 15 years. Transition from communism to a market economy has brought with it Western management thinking. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a successful model of small business development in an emerging economy, such as Croatia. The case study method

  4. Blue Economy Summer School (BESS) gives you the chance to learn a new way of thinking in the mind of the current and the later generation of

    E-print Network

    Hellebrand, Sybille

    Blue Economy Summer School (BESS) gives you the chance to learn a new way of thinking in the mind economic, social and environmental crisis. "The Blue Economy" permits to respond to the basic needs of all of the Club of Rome. The 100 models of innovations promise 100 million jobs in 10 years. The Blue Economy

  5. Presented at the CHASE (Human and Cooperative Aspects of Software Engineering) Workshop at ICSE2008, Leipzig, Germany, May, The Economy of Collective Attention for Situated

    E-print Network

    Nakakoji, Kumiyo

    , Leipzig, Germany, May, 2008. The Economy of Collective Attention for Situated Knowledge Collaboration. Keywords Collective attention economy, situated knowledge collaboration 1. INTRODUCTION Programming in support of situated knowledge collaboration, we propose the conceptual framework of collective attention

  6. The Westernization of Arab Pedagogies: Abu Dhabi Attempts to Move towards a Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrystall, Steve

    2014-01-01

    As the oil reserves in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are forecast to become depleted over the next 50 to 150 years, the emirate of Abu Dhabi has set a vision to develop a knowledge economy in order to develop alternative sources of revenue in areas such as tourism, alternative energy and innovative business enterprises. Reformation of its…

  7. Fostering the Common Good: The Portrayal of the Social Economy in Secondary Business and Economics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John P.; Stocks, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    In this research study, we undertook a content analysis of thirteen economics and business textbooks, which were examined for their coverage of the social economy, which encompasses a range of nonprofit and social enterprise organizations that put "people before profits." The goal was to understand the ways that these textbooks represent official…

  8. Offshore Pariahs? Small Island Economies, Tax Havens, and the Reconfiguration of Global Finance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Christensen

    2002-01-01

    The stock of wealth held offshore is estimated at US$6 trillion. Many small island economies (SIEs) host offshore finance centers, and some SIEs are highly dependent upon offshore finance. Extreme examples have over 90% of government revenues derived from finance sector activities. Since 1998 a series of international initiatives have been launched to combat harmful tax practices, money laundering, and

  9. Country image and consumer preference for emerging economy products: the moderating role of consumer materialism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Demirbag; Sunil Sahadev; Kamel Mellahi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to explore the moderating role of materialism in the relationship between country image and product preference with particular reference to emerging economies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Young consumers from a UK university were surveyed on their intention to buy three categories of products from six countries. Findings – The findings show that the moderating role of materialism

  10. The Meaning of Foreign Investment in the Chinese Economy. Training Discussion Paper No. 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Claudio de Moura

    As the Chinese economy opens up to the outside world, the decision to engage in joint ventures with foreign capital is among the most important national policies. Significant direct consequences of joint ventures are the influx of foreign capital, expanding exports, and employment creation. However, the great importance of joint ventures lies in…

  11. Income Convergence during the Disintegration of the World Economy, 1919?39

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Branko Milanovic

    2003-01-01

    Some economists have argued that the process of disintegration of the world economy between the two world wars led to income divergence between the countries. This is in keeping with the view that economic integration leads to income convergence. The paper shows that the view that the period 1919?39 was associated with divergence of incomes among the rich countries is

  12. New perspective on product design in the period of low carbon economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guo Xiya; Meng Xiang

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, the author presents more reasonable and more comprehensive location on product design by analyzing the characteristics of low carbon economy time, she puts forward Four-dimensional product design standards consisting of practical, aesthetic, emotional and ecological standards which accord with the economic development model and she also proposes “from Pregnancy to the afterlife” ecological view of product

  13. HEV Control Strategy for Real-Time Optimization of Fuel Economy and Emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie H. Johnson; Keith B. Wipke; David J. Rausen

    2000-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV's) offer additional flexibility to enhance the fuel economy and emissions of vehicles. The Real-Time Control Strategy (RTCS) presented here optimizes efficiency and emissions of a parallel configuration HEV. In order to determine the ideal operating point of the vehicle's engine and motor, the control strategy considers all possible engine-motor torque pairs. For a given operating point,

  14. The cost of fuel economy in the Indian passenger vehicle market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy Chugh; Maureen L. Cropper; Urvashi Narain

    2011-01-01

    To investigate how fuel economy is valued in the Indian car market, we compute the cost to Indian consumers of purchasing a more fuel-efficient vehicle and compare it to the benefit of lower fuel costs over the life of the vehicle. We estimate hedonic price functions for four market segments (petrol hatchbacks, diesel hatchbacks, petrol sedans, and diesel sedans) to

  15. An institution-based view of international business strategy: a focus on emerging economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike W. Peng; Denis Y. L. Wang; Yi Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Leveraging the recent research interest in emerging economies, this Perspective paper argues that an institution-based view of international business (IB) strategy has emerged. It is positioned as one leg that helps sustain the “strategy tripod” (the other two legs consisting of the industry- and resource-based views). We then review four diverse areas of substantive research: (1) antidumping as entry barriers;

  16. An institution-based view of international business strategy: a focus on emerging economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike W Peng; Denis Y L Wang; Yi Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Leveraging the recent research interest in emerging economies, this Perspective paper argues that an institution-based view of international business (IB) strategy has emerged. It is positioned as one leg that helps sustain the “strategy tripod” (the other two legs consisting of the industry- and resource-based views). We then review four diverse areas of substantive research: (1) antidumping as entry barriers;

  17. Adventure Travel and Sustainable Tourism in the Peripheral Economy of Nepal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David N. Zurick

    1992-01-01

    Adventure travel is one of the fastest growing but least understood forms of international tourism. Its role in the economic development of remote world places and its impact on local society, economy, and the environment are not fully comprehended, even though adventure tourism has been adopted enthusiastically by many Third World nations. The paper analyzes adventure travel in Nepal and

  18. Macroeconomic Effects of Social Security Privatization in a Small Unionized Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonis Adam

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of a pension system privatization in a unionized economy. Using an overlapping-generations framework we show that in an environment characterized by unemployment, a reform towards a private pension system in the steady state may result in lower levels of employment and capital stock. In this case even if the privatization increases the welfare of all

  19. Fuel economy and life-cycle cost analysis of a fuel cell hybrid vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwi Seong Jeong; Byeong Soo Oh

    2002-01-01

    The most promising vehicle engine that can overcome the problem of present internal combustion is the hydrogen fuel cell. Fuel cells are devices that change chemical energy directly into electrical energy without combustion. Pure fuel cell vehicles and fuel cell hybrid vehicles (i.e. a combination of fuel cell and battery) as energy sources are studied. Considerations of efficiency, fuel economy,

  20. 40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling...determine the range of city and the range of highway...a class is the maximum city and the minimum city fuel economy value for...the date of the general model introduction for the...

  1. The Impact Of Oil And Gas Production On The Nigerian Economy: A Rural Sector Econometric Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Nga

    The oil economy of Nigeria is very important to the country, but the people of Nigeria still suffer from a corrupt government. Despite the revenues being brought in from oil exports, the Nigerian government still holds a large unemployment rate and a high poverty rate. This paper shows the amount of oil being produced per day, as well as, the

  2. Australian Education: An Overview of a System Adapting to a Post-Industrial Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Richard J.

    This paper offers a brief overview of the Australian education system and compares it with the United States system of education. The Australian economy presents no threat to U.S. hegemony, but its education system presents an interesting contrast. The paper describes the following features of the Australian education system: governance; school…

  3. Responses to Globalization from a Big Transition Economy: The Case of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ding Lu

    2005-01-01

    Five years after its accession to the World Trade Organization, China has to carry out full commitments of market opening in many fronts, in particular the local currency banking services. Meanwhile, as China gradually rises to the rank of the middle-income countries, it faces the possible conflicts between ensuring a smooth integration of its economy into the global market and

  4. Farid Toubal Intangible Assets. In Princeton Encyclopedia of the World Economy edited by Kenneth A.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    costs at the level of the firm. The empirical evidence confirms thatMNEs have a larger value of intangible assets relative to their market value (compared to other firms). Industries with a high proportion. Reinert & Ramkishen S. Rajan. 2009. The integration of the world economy has underlined the need for firms

  5. Mass impacts on fuel economies of conventional vs. hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    An, F.; Santini, D. J.; Energy Systems

    2004-01-01

    The strong correlation between vehicle weight and fuel economy for conventional vehicles (CVs) is considered common knowledge, and the relationship of mass reduction to fuel consumption reduction for conventional vehicles (CVs) is often cited without separating effects of powertrain vs. vehicle body (glider), nor on the ground of equivalent vehicle performance level. This paper challenges the assumption that this relationship is easily summarized. Further, for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) the relationship between mass, performance and fuel consumption is not the same as for CVs, and vary with hybrid types. For fully functioning (all wheel regeneration) hybrid vehicles, where battery pack and motor(s) have enough power and energy storage, a very large fraction of kinetic energy is recovered and engine idling is effectively eliminated. This paper assesses two important impacts of shifting from conventional to hybrid vehicles in terms of the mass vs. fuel economy relationship - (1) significant improvements in fuel economy with little or no change in mass, and (2) once a switch to hybrid powertrains has been made, the effectiveness of mass reduction in improving fuel economy will be diminished relative to conventional vehicles. In this paper, we discuss vehicle tractive load breakdowns and impacts of hybridization on vehicle efficiency, discuss capture of kinetic energy by conversion to electrical energy via regenerative braking, assess benefits of shutting off the engine when the vehicle does not require power, and investigate energy losses associated with vehicle mass.

  6. The Main Principles of Simulation Modeling of the Sustainable Development Complexes System: Case of World Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chistilin, Dmitry

    The phenomenon of states changes of the world economy during the last 200 years shows that there is a certain 70-year regularity in its development, which is expressed in increased structural complexity of the global economic system every 70 years. The development happens after certain periods of bifurcation (up to 50 years) accompanied by the lower rates of economic development, and periods of adaptation (up to 20 years) with the higher rates. The theoretical justification of this process shows that the increased structural complexity of the global economic system is the external manifestations of the self-organization process in a large complex system we call the “world economy”. The “world economy” is regarded as global economic environment where countries and their group organizations are ordinary agents. Every agent has the same properties as the system: they can be open, non-equilibrium, dissipative, self-organizing; they can also have the aim - to maintain integrity through the main function (development). We can watch the fractal symmetry of all general properties ranging from the global system to its ordinary agent. Development, the main function of the system, is viewed as the movement of economic environment. Basing on the assumption about maintaining boundary limits of system stability we solve the task of stable movement of environment and sustainable development of the global civilization in the context of fixed main properties and system characteristics. On the basis of outlined properties we make a mathematical model of non-linear dynamic system - development of the global system.

  7. The Main Principles of Simulation Modeling of the Sustainable Development Complexes System: Case of World Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dmitry Chistilin

    2009-01-01

    The phenomenon of states changes of the world economy during the last 200 years shows that there is a certain 70-year regularity\\u000a in its development, which is expressed in increased structural complexity of the global economic system every 70 years. The\\u000a development happens after certain periods of bifurcation (up to 50 years) accompanied by the lower rates of economic development,

  8. Hunger Discipline and Social Parasites: The Political Economy of the Living Wage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TONY ROBINSON

    2004-01-01

    This article examines how New Deal commitments to a living wage were overturned by neoliberal market forces after the 1970s capital accumulation crisis. A period of urban financial- ization followed, characterized by a shift of urban fortunes away from labor and toward capital. Today's living wage movement critiques the resulting economy in which top-tier success is linked to declining worker

  9. What is the Viability of Cellulosic Ethanol as an Alternative to Fossil Fuels in today's Economy?

    E-print Network

    Iglesia, Enrique

    What is the Viability of Cellulosic Ethanol as an Alternative to Fossil Fuels in today's Economy. Assessing the viability of cellulosic ethanol as an alternative to fossil fuels in today's and future introduces far less CO2 and GHGs into the atmosphere. Cellulosic ethanol in particular has garnered much

  10. The Commutative Effect and Casuality of Openness and Indigenous Factors Among World Economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kui-Wai Li; Xianbo Zhou

    2008-01-01

    The paper studies the commutative and causality relationship between economic openness and indigenous factors. The construction of the Openness Index and the Indigenous Index provides a measure on the extent of openness and indigenous development among world economies. The two indices are used to study their commutative effect and causality. The empirical findings show that there is a positive and

  11. hen the fiscal fallout of the economy finally trickled down to higher education state funding, Purdue

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    costs and increase efficiencies in areas like energy conservation by monitoring heat and air conW hen the fiscal fallout of the economy finally trickled down to higher education state funding not compromise on, however, was the quality of the Purdue degree. And apparently, it's worth a lot. US News

  12. The Political Economy of Congestion Charges and Settlements in Packet Networks

    E-print Network

    The Political Economy of Congestion Charges and Settlements in Packet Networks William H. Lehr-based pricing in the Internet. We extend earlier work by Mackie-Mason and Varian [21] on congestion of settlements between service providers that arises. With optimal congestion prices, it will probably

  13. Environment, economy and energy: Meeting the multiple challenges of the 1990s

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Rowe; Cheryl A. LaFleur

    1992-01-01

    In the fall of 1991, New England Electric System (NEES) released its third major resource plan, NEESPLAN 3: Environment, Economy, and Energy in the 1990s.' In it, the Company set three major goals for the decade: (1) to reduce continuously the environmental impacts of providing electric service, including a 45% reduction in our weighted air emissions index between 1990 and

  14. The Effect of Sulfinpyrazone (Anturan) on Platelet Economy and Blood Coagulation in Man

    PubMed Central

    Smythe, H. A.; Ogryzlo, M. A.; Murphy, E. A.; Mustard, J. F.

    1965-01-01

    Sulfinpyrazone (Anturan) administered in therapeutic doses over a period of several weeks produced prolongation of platelet survival and reduced turnover but with little change in blood coagulation. The changes in platelet survival and turnover were associated with reduced platelet adhesiveness. It is therefore possible to affect platelet economy in man significantly, without producing corresponding effects on blood coagulation. PMID:14272500

  15. Contradiction, convergence and the knowledge economy: the confluence of academic and commercial biotechnology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Peter Vallas; Daniel Lee Kleinman

    2008-01-01

    Efforts to understand the structure of the emerging knowledge economy have paid particular attention to the shifting boundary between academic and commercial (for-profit) research, especially in life sciences. Yet, empirical studies have tended to adopt a segmented approach, focusing on either industry or the academy, thus obscuring the increasingly interwoven nature of these two domains. In this paper, we explore

  16. Meeting the Skills Needs of a Buoyant Economy: Apprenticeship--The Irish Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Len

    2006-01-01

    The Irish economy has grown at an unprecedented rate over the last decade and the demand for skilled workers has increased dramatically. The Irish Standards-Based Apprenticeship (SBA) system has been one of the cornerstones of intermediate skills development with the capacity to produce high-quality craft workers and in sufficient numbers to meet…

  17. The contribution of tourism development to economic growth in the Korean economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-Ok Oh

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the causal relations between tourism growth and economic expansion for the Korean economy by using Engle and Granger two-stage approach and a bivariate Vector Autoregression (VAR) model. Two principle results emerge from this study. First, the results of a cointegration test indicate that there is no long-run equilibrium relation between two series. Second, the outcomes of Granger

  18. SELF-REGULATION AND SOCIAL WELFARE: THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF CORPORATE

    E-print Network

    Lyon, Thomas P.

    SELF-REGULATION AND SOCIAL WELFARE: THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF CORPORATE ENVIRONMENTALISM* JOHN W University Abstract We extend the economic theory of regulation to allow for strategic self-regulation firms to reduce toxic releases. We establish conditions under which self-regulation, if it occurs

  19. Adoption of Inflation Targeting and Tax Revenue Performance in Emerging Market Economies: An Empirical Investigation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of 2009, there were nineteen emerging market economies which have adopted this monetary policy strategy a pragmatic response to difficulties of central banks in conducting their monetary policy using an exchange as the primary monetary policy objective; (iii) an information-inclusive strategy to set monetary policy

  20. Determinants of consumer interest in fuel economy: Lessons for strengthening the conservation argument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Popp; Liesbeth Van de Velde; Gina Vickery; Guido Van Huylenbroeck; Wim Verbeke; Bruce Dixon

    2009-01-01

    With an outlook for higher global energy prices and concomitant increase of agricultural resources for the pursuit of fuel, consumers are expected to seek more fuel-economic transportation alternatives. This paper examines factors that influence the importance consumers place on fuel economy, with attention given to differences between American and European consumers. In a survey conducted simultaneously in the United States