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1

On the economies of scale in logistics industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzed the process of logistics morphology evolution and the development of logistics industry. It pointed out that the existence of economies of scale in logistics has propelled this process. Considering the nature of multi-function and network product of logistics activities, it defined the economies of scale in logistics industry and inquired their existing patterns. It qualitatively analyzed the

Qi-Wei Jiang; Wei-Ya Chen

2010-01-01

2

Economies of scale and utilization in electricity generation in Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost structure of electricity generation in Kuwait has been examined, with specific focus on the economies of scale and utilization. This has been done by estimating a translog variable-cost function using time-series data covering the period from 1965 to 1990. The results indicate the existence of diseconomies of scale in the generation of electricity, but no economies or diseconomies of

Nadeem A. Burney

1998-01-01

3

ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND SCOPE IN WATER SUPPLY  

EPA Science Inventory

This study examines the multiproduct nature of water supply relative to economies of scale and scope. he water utility is viewed as a multiproduct firm providing residential and nonresidential services with spatial variation. here are no significant economies of scale in the util...

4

Economies of Scale and Scope in E-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economies of scale are often cited in the higher education literature as being one of the drivers for the deployment of e-learning. They are variously used to support the notions that higher education is becoming more global, that national policy towards e-learning should promote scale efficiencies, that larger institutions will be better able to…

Morris, David

2008-01-01

5

Measuring economies of scale at the city market level.  

PubMed

Data envelopment analysis (DEA) techniques have been applied to the assessing efficiency and productivity among individual hospitals. In this article, we employ DEA to address whether economies of scale exist among hospital markets by first assessing individual hospitals operating in 2005 in the State of Florida and then by comparing hospital markets' efficiency relative to each other. The interest in hospital markets stems from issues relating to mergers among hospitals or the reallocation of services (inputs) among hospitals in a market area, particularly as occupancy rates and reimbursements are tending to fall. Facing more competition and stringent financial conditions, hospitals would benefit from decreasing costs by exploiting economies of scale. PMID:20973375

Valdmanis, Vivian G

2010-01-01

6

Water Supply in California: Economies of Scale, Efficiency, and Privatization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a water supply industry that consists of private and public providers, questions of interest include the following: Are there significant economies of scale, and if so at which population levels? How, on average, do private and public sector rates compare? Has there, over time, been a systematic change in the gap between private and public sector rates? Can it

John Houtsma

2003-01-01

7

Economies of Scale in U.S. Electric Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the estimations, cross-section data for 1955 and 1970 are analyzed using the translog cost function. It was found that in 1955 there were significant scale economies available to nearly all firms. By 1970, however, the bulk of U.S. electricity generation was by firms operating in the essentially flat area of the average cost curve. It is concluded that a

Laurits R. Christensen; William H. Greene

1976-01-01

8

Economies of Scale and Scope in Australian Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper estimates economies of scale and scope for 36 Australian universities using a multiple-input, multiple-output cost function over the period 1998-2006. The three inputs included in the analysis are full-time equivalent academic and non-academic staff and physical capital. The five outputs are undergraduate, postgraduate and PhD…

Worthington, A. C.; Higgs, H.

2011-01-01

9

DISCUSSION: ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND SCOPE IN AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH  

E-print Network

DISCUSSION: ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND SCOPE IN AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH JEREMY D. FOLTZ Evolution in science such as recent develop- ments in agricultural biotechnology creates new challenges and the private sectors. The present exponential growth in agricul- tural biotechnology research in both the pub

Foltz, Jeremy D.

10

An economy of scale system's mensuration of large spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The systems technology and cost particulars of using multipurpose platforms versus several sizes of bus type free flyer spacecraft to accomplish the same space experiment missions. Computer models of these spacecraft bus designs were created to obtain data relative to size, weight, power, performance, and cost. To answer the question of whether or not large scale does produce economy, the dominant cost factors were determined and the programmatic effect on individual experiment costs were evaluated.

Deryder, L. J.

1981-01-01

11

On entrepreneur ship, region and the constitution of scale and scope economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a framework of analysis in which: (1) the constitution of new sources of economies of scale or scope is supported by systemic entrepreneurship; (2) the realization of such economies by incremental entrepreneurship takes the form of external economies, or alternatively of internal economies, together with the prevalence of different combinations of organizations, technologies and regional characters; and

Marco Bellandi

1996-01-01

12

The Underground Economy of Spam: A Botmaster's Perspective of Coordinating Large-Scale Spam Campaigns  

E-print Network

The Underground Economy of Spam: A Botmaster's Perspective of Coordinating Large-Scale Spam, to provide novel insights into the underground economy of large-scale spam operations. 1 Introduction In the Internet's vast underground economy, unsolicited bulk email (or spam) serves an important role

California at Santa Barbara, University of

13

Economies of scale and technological development in securities depository and settlement systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the existence and extent of economies of scale in depository and settlement systems. Evidence from 16 settlement institutions across different regions for the years 1993–2000 indicates the existence of significant economies of scale. The degree of such economies, however, differs by size of settlement institution and region. While smaller settlement service providers reveal a high potential of

Heiko Schmiedel; Markku Malkamäki; Juha Tarkka

2006-01-01

14

Economies of Scale and Technological Development in Securities Depository and Settlement Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper investigates the existence and extent of economies,of scale in depository,and ,settlement ,systems. Evidence ,from ,16 settlement institutions across different regions for the years 1993–2000 indicates the existence of significant ,economies ,of scale. ,The degree ,of such economies, however, differs by size of settlement institution and region. While smaller settlement service providers reveal a high ,potential of economies

Heiko Schmiedel; Juha Tarkka

2003-01-01

15

Economies of scale and gender discrimination in transition: the case of the Republic of Tajikistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article tests for economies of scale and for evidence of discrimination based on gender lines in intra-household consumption allocations using data from the Living Standards Survey in the Republic of Tajikistan (TLSS). Overall results support the existence of household economies of scale in Tajikistan; however, empirical evidence supporting boy–girl discrimination is limited despite anecdotal evidence otherwise.

Anita Alves Pena

2011-01-01

16

Economies of scale and gender discrimination in transition: the case of the Republic of Tajikistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article tests for economies of scale and for evidence of discrimination based on gender lines in intra-household consumption allocations using data from the Living Standards Survey in the Republic of Tajikistan (TLSS). Overall results support the existence of household economies of scale in Tajikistan; however, empirical evidence supporting boy–girl discrimination is limited despite anecdotal evidence otherwise.

Anita Alves Pena

2012-01-01

17

A Marketing Economy of Scale - Big Brands Lose Less of their Customer Base than Small Brands  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been known for many years that there is a positive relationship between market share and profitability. One popular explanation is that larger firms enjoy economies of scale advantages over their smaller competitors. In this paper we report a little known marketing economy of scale; namely that big firms suffer from lower \\

Byron Sharp; Erica Riebe; John Dawes; Nick Danenberg

18

The Evolution of Economies of Scale Regarding Pollution Control: Cross-Sectional Evidence from a Transition Economy  

E-print Network

This paper assesses whether firms face economies and/or diseconomies of scale with respect to air pollution control by evaluating the effects of production on firm-level air emission levels. To achieve this objective, this paper uses an unbalanced...

Earnhart, Dietrich H.; Lizal, Lubomir

2011-01-01

19

LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

OAK B202 LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY. The ''Hydrogen Economy'' will reduce petroleum imports and greenhouse gas emissions. However, current commercial hydrogen production processes use fossil fuels and releases carbon dioxide. Hydrogen produced from nuclear energy could avoid these concerns. The authors have recently completed a three-year project for the US Department of Energy

K. R. SCHULTZ; L. C. BROWN; G. E. BESENBRUCH; C. J. HAMILTON

2003-01-01

20

In Cloud, Can Scientific Communities Benefit from the Economies of Scale?  

E-print Network

1 In Cloud, Can Scientific Communities Benefit from the Economies of Scale? Lei Wang, Jianfeng Zhan, Weisong Shi, Senior Member, IEEE, Yi Liang Abstract--The basic idea behind cloud computing question to the success of cloud computing: in cloud, can small-to-medium scale scientific communities

Shi, Weisong

21

Issue in pollution control: interplant cost differences and economies of scale.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seeks evidence concerning the issues of the relative efficiencies of different institutional arrangements for pollution control and the implications of control requirements for economies of scale and barriers to entry. Data is derived from the estimation of a production function for 30 pulp and paper mills in Wisconsin and Michigan. Concludes that the systematic differences in marginal treatment costs for different mills are evidence of serious inefficiencies resulting from the current (US) system of pollution control regulation. The positive association of pollution control intensity with economies of scale suggests that any pollution control regime has some negative allocational effects in this industry (and presumably others). -K.Turner

Pittman, R.W.

1981-01-01

22

Multidimensional Scaling Analysis of the Dynamics of a Country Economy  

PubMed Central

This paper analyzes the Portuguese short-run business cycles over the last 150 years and presents the multidimensional scaling (MDS) for visualizing the results. The analytical and numerical assessment of this long-run perspective reveals periods with close connections between the macroeconomic variables related to government accounts equilibrium, balance of payments equilibrium, and economic growth. The MDS method is adopted for a quantitative statistical analysis. In this way, similarity clusters of several historical periods emerge in the MDS maps, namely, in identifying similarities and dissimilarities that identify periods of prosperity and crises, growth, and stagnation. Such features are major aspects of collective national achievement, to which can be associated the impact of international problems such as the World Wars, the Great Depression, or the current global financial crisis, as well as national events in the context of broad political blueprints for the Portuguese society in the rising globalization process. PMID:24294132

Mata, Maria Eugénia

2013-01-01

23

Analysis of linear trade models and relation to?scale?economies  

PubMed Central

We discuss linear Ricardo models with a range of parameters. We show that the exact boundary of the region of equilibria of these models is obtained by solving a simple integer programming problem. We show that there is also an exact correspondence between many of the equilibria resulting from families of linear models and the multiple equilibria of economies of scale models. PMID:11038573

Gomory, Ralph E.; Baumol, William J.

1997-01-01

24

The role of artisanal and small-scale mining in China's economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decades have seen increased international attention paid to a number of features of artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM). The beneficial roles of ASM in society and the economy in many countries, however, are often overlooked, while its negative impacts dominate official press coverage and scholarly publications of the sector. Through a review of the available literature and statistics,

Lei Shen; Aaron James Gunson

2006-01-01

25

Factor substitution, and economies of scale and utilisation in Kuwait's crude oil industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost structure of the crude oil industry in Kuwait has been examined, with specific focus on factor substitution, and economies of scale and utilisation. This has been done by estimating translog cost functions, both long-run and short-run, using time-series data covering the period from 1976 to 1996. The results indicate that the implied production structure is non-homothetic, and the

Naief Al-Mutairi; Nadeem A. Burney

2002-01-01

26

Scale Economies, Product Differentiation, and the Pattern of Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

For some time now there has been con- siderable skepticism about the ability of comparative cost theory to explain the ac- tual pattern of international trade. Neither the extensive trade among the industrial countries, nor the prevalence in this trade of two-way exchanges of differentiated prod- ucts, make much sense in terms of standard theory. As a result, many people

Paul Krugman

1980-01-01

27

The Cost Function and Scale Economies in Academic Research Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This empirical research examined scale economies of academic research libraries that belong to the Association of Research Libraries and developed a total cost function for estimating economies of scale. Argues that libraries are information provision organizations that provide multiproducts and multiservices and compares this study with previous…

Liu, Lewis Guodo

2002-01-01

28

The Cost Function and Scale Economies in Academic Research Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This empirical research examined scale economies of academic research libraries and developed a total cost function for estimating economies of scale. Suggests that libraries in general, and academic research libraries in particular, are information provision organizations that provide multiproducts and multiservices. Findings indicate that slight…

Liu, Lewis G.

2003-01-01

29

In Cloud, Do Service Providers Benefit from the Economies of Scale?  

E-print Network

In this paper, we intend to answer one key question to the success of cloud computing: in cloud, do many task computing (MTC) or high throughput computing (HTC) service providers, which offer the corresponding computing service to end users, benefit from the economies of scale? Our research contributions are three-fold: first, we propose an innovative usage model, called dynamic service provision (DSP) model, for MTC or HTC service providers. In the DSP model, the resource provider provides the service of creating and managing runtime environments for MTC or HTC service providers, and consolidates heterogeneous MTC or HTC workloads on the cloud platform; second, according to the DSP model, we design and implement DawningCloud, which provides automatic management for heterogeneous workloads; third, a comprehensive evaluation of DawningCloud has been performed in an emulatation experiment. We found that for typical workloads, in comparison with the previous two cloud solutions, DawningCloud saves the resource c...

Wang, Lei; Shi, Weisong; Liang, Yi; Yuan, Lin

2010-01-01

30

In Cloud, Can Scientific Communities Benefit from the Economies of Scale?  

E-print Network

The basic idea behind Cloud computing is that resource providers offer elastic resources to end users. In this paper, we intend to answer one key question to the success of Cloud computing: in Cloud, can small or medium-scale scientific computing communities benefit from the economies of scale? Our research contributions are three-fold: first, we propose an enhanced scientific public cloud model (ESP) that encourages small- or medium-scale organizations to rent elastic resources from a public cloud provider; second, on a basis of the ESP model, we design and implement the DawningCloud system that can consolidate heterogeneous scientific workloads on a Cloud site; third, we propose an innovative emulation methodology and perform a comprehensive evaluation. We found that for two typical workloads: high throughput computing (HTC) and many task computing (MTC), DawningCloud saves the resource consumption maximally by 44.5% (HTC) and 72.6% (MTC) for service providers, and saves the total resource consumption maxim...

Wang, Lei; Shi, Weisong; Liang, Yi

2010-01-01

31

Scaling analysis of time series of daily prices from stock markets of transitional economies in the Western Balkans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we have analyzed scaling properties of time series of stock market indices (SMIs) of developing economies of Western Balkans, and have compared the results we have obtained with the results from more developed economies. We have used three different techniques of data analysis to obtain and verify our findings: detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method, detrended moving average (DMA) method, and wavelet transformation (WT) analysis. We have found scaling behavior in all SMI data sets that we have analyzed. The scaling of our SMI series changes from long-range correlated to slightly anti-correlated behavior with the change in growth or maturity of the economy the stock market is embedded in. We also report the presence of effects of potential periodic-like influences on the SMI data that we have analyzed. One such influence is visible in all our SMI series, and appears at a period Tp ? 90 days. We propose that the existence of various periodic-like influences on SMI data may partially explain the observed difference in types of correlated behavior of corresponding scaling functions.

Sarvan, Darko; Stratimirovi?, Djordje; Blesi?, Suzana; Miljkovi?, Vladimir

2014-12-01

32

Scaling analysis of time series of daily prices from stock markets of transitional economies in the Western Balkans  

E-print Network

In this paper we have analyzed scaling properties of time series of stock market indices (SMIs) of developing economies of Western Balkans, and have compared the results we have obtained with the results from more developed economies. We have used three different techniques of data analysis to obtain and verify our findings: Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) method, Detrended Moving Average (DMA) method, and Wavelet Transformation (WT) analysis. We have found scaling behavior in all SMI data sets that we have analyzed. The scaling of our SMI series changes from long-range correlated to slightly anti-correlated behavior with the change in growth or maturity of the economy the stock market is embedded in. We also report the presence of effects of potential periodic-like influences on the SMI data that we have analyzed. One such influence is visible in all our SMI series, and appears at a period $T_{p}\\approx 90$ days. We propose that the existence of various periodic-like influences on SMI data may partially...

Savran, Darko; Blesic, Suzana; Miljkovic, Vladimir

2014-01-01

33

Parametric and Non-Parametric Tests for Economies-of-Scale in Nonpoint Pollution Control: The Case of Bear River Basin, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides examples of both parametric and non-parametric tests for economies of scale in the control of non-point pollution. Because field-level control costs and control effectiveness are uncertain from the regulator's perspective (due to the existence of asymmetric information), we test for economies of scale in the correlations between control costs per unit abated (i.e., average control cost), on

Arthur J. Caplan; John Gilbert; Devalina Chatterjee

2009-01-01

34

Economies of scale in the US computer industry: An empirical investigation using data envelopment analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to recently, economists have had no good tools to measure the returns to scale of individual corporations in an industry. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is a linear programming technique for determining the efficiency frontier (the envelope) to the inputs and outputs of a collection of individual corporations or other productive units. While DEA offers an avenue for calculating the

Sten Thore

1996-01-01

35

Economies of scale in compliance with environmental regulation: The case of the 1972 Water Pollution Control Act amendments. The stock-price-behavior approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economies of scale in regulatory compliance cost of the 1972 amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are explored by examining the effects of regulation on the market returns of the affected firms in the pulp and paper, and the textile industries. Although the estimated market reaction may not reflect total effect of the new law on the individual

Moon

1989-01-01

36

Planning renewal of water mains while considering deterioration, economies of scale and adjacent infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural deterioration of water mains and their subsequent failure are affected by many factors, both static (e.g., pipe material, pipe size, age (vintage), soil type) and dynamic (e.g., climate, cathodic protection, pressure zone changes). This paper describes a non-homogeneous Poisson model developed for the analysis and forecast of breakage patterns in individual water mains, while considering both static and

Yehuda Kleiner; Amir Nafi; Balvant Rajani

37

Architecture of a prediction economy  

E-print Network

A design and implementation of a Prediction Economy is presented and compared to alternative designs. A Prediction Economy is composed of prediction markets, market managers, information brokers and automated trading agents. ...

Carver, Jason W

2008-01-01

38

The Political Economy of Inter-  

E-print Network

The Political Economy of Inter- national Relations Robert Gilpin After the end of World War II by the creative use of power in the support of an institutional framework that created a world economy. Gilpin's exposition of the influence of politics on the interna- tional economy was a model of clarity, making

Landweber, Laura

39

Adaptation of Economy Attitude Scale to Turkish Culture: Validity and Reliability Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economics affects us no matter what role we play in social life. Its foundation as a science was laid by the studies of Adam Smith, and since history it has become one of the disciplines accepted in university curriculums. Scarcity, opportunity costs and abandoning something in order to obtain another one are the core concepts of this discipline.…

Alagoz, Bullent

2015-01-01

40

Economies of Scale and Scope in Network Industries: Lessons for the UK water and sewerage sectors  

E-print Network

. By 2011 around 7.5m fixed lines2 or around 22% of the total3, had been subject to local loop unbundling and were operated by third parties. 1.3. History of the UK Electricity Industry Structure The public supply of electricity began in the late 19th... of England and Wales to continue operating in a largely vertically integrated structure, at odds with other UK network industries. In Section 2 we discuss the nature of a generalised firm and how the water (and sewerage) industry might be expected...

Pollitt, Michael G.; Steer, Stephen J.

41

The importance of scale economies and geographic diversification in community bank mergers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mergers of community banks across economic market areas potentially reduce both idiosyncratic and local market risk. A merger may reduce idiosyncratic risk because the larger post-merger bank has a larger customer base. Negative credit and liquidity shocks from individual customers would have smaller effects on the portfolio of the merged entity than on the individual community banks involved in the

William R. Emmons; R. Alton Gilbert; Timothy J. Yeager

2001-01-01

42

Economies of scale and firm size optimum in rural water supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is focused on modeling and analyzing the cost structure of water-supplying companies. A cross-sectional data set was collected with respect to water firms in rural areas of former East and West Germany. The empirical data are analyzed by applying a symmetric generalized McFadden (SGM) functional form. This flexible functional form allows for testing the concavity required by microeconomic

Johannes Sauer

2005-01-01

43

The knowledge economy of Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For regional development specialists and those concerned with local economies, the world of the so-called knowledge economy is tremendously important. Specifically, the knowledge economy is meant to be those segments of the economy that include financial and business services, health care, and education. In Europe, the subject is debated a great deal, and this latest 23-page report by The Work Foundation will no doubt add to that ongoing debate. In their report examining the knowledge economy in Europe (and its recent growth) they note that while the Continent continues to experience some growth in this sector of the economy, future growth may be hindered by a lack of significant investment in its knowledge base. The report also includes an extended definition of this notion of a knowledge economy for those who remain puzzled.

Brinkley, Ian; Lee, Neil

2006-01-01

44

Economies of Size in Production Agriculture  

PubMed Central

Economies of size refer to the ability of a farm to lower costs of production by increasing production. Agriculture production displays an L-shaped average cost curve where costs are lower initially but reach a point where no further gains are achieved. Spreading fixed costs, bulk purchases, and marketing power are cited as reasons for economies of size. Labor-reducing technologies may be the primary reason. Most studies do not include the external costs from prophylactic antibiotic use, impact on rural communities, and environmental damage associated with large-scale production. These can contribute to the economies of size. PMID:23144676

Duffy, Michael

2009-01-01

45

Big and beautiful? On non-parametrically measuring scale economies in non-convex technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge on the scale economies drives the incentives of regulators, governments and individual utilities to scale-up or scale-down the scale of operations. This paper considers the returns to scale (RTS) in non-convex frontier models. In particular, we evaluate RTS assumptions in a Free Disposal Hull model, which accounts for uncertainty and heterogeneity in the sample. Additionally, we provide a three-step

Kristof De Witte; Rui C. Marcques

2008-01-01

46

Big and beautiful? On non-parametrically measuring scale economies in non-convex technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge on the scale economies drives the incentives of regulators, governments and individual utilities to scale-up or\\u000a scale-down the scale of operations. This paper considers the returns to scale (RTS) in non-convex frontier models. In particular,\\u000a we evaluate RTS assumptions in a Free Disposal Hull model, which accounts for uncertainty and heterogeneity in the sample.\\u000a Additionally, we provide a three-step

Kristof De Witte; Rui C. Marques

2011-01-01

47

AGGLOMERATION ECONOMIES AND GEOGRAPHIC CONCENTRATION OF MANUFACTURING IN UKRAINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a post-Soviet economy, Ukraine has inherited substantial production assets and qualified personnel. However, the economy was dominated by large-scale enterprises designed for much bigger markets. After the collapse of the Soviet Union Ukrainian firms faced lack of planning, breaks in contacts with their former suppliers and customers, and distortion of prices. There was a clear need in restructuring of

Volodymyr Vakhitov

2008-01-01

48

Local-scale systems input-output analysis of embodied water for the Beijing economy in 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the most detailed and recent statistics available for Beijing, a local-scale embodiment analysis on water use was conducted, employing a systems input-output analysis that integrates economic systems with natural resources data. Systems analysis for water research at the local scale is a crucial part of a systems oriented water accounting framework. To our knowledge, however, related works have not been thoroughly conducted. In this paper, a set of embodied water intensity inventory data is presented, which is applicable to both intermediate input and final demand. Also, detailed analyses of Beijing's embodied water use accounting are presented. The embodied water intensity of the Water Production and Supply Industry Sector turns out to be the highest among the 42 sectors. For water embodied in final demand, the total amount is 3.48 km3, of which the water embodied in urban household consumption makes up nearly a half proportion. As a net virtual water importer, Beijing's water embodied in commodity trade totals 5.84×108 m3. As a result, in addition to improvements in technology and water use efficiency, adjustments in industrial structure and trade policies are also of significant importance to water conservation efforts.

Han, Mengyao; Guo, Shan; Chen, Hui; Ji, Xi; Li, Jiashuo

2014-09-01

49

49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel...

2010-10-01

50

49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel...

2011-10-01

51

49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel...

2013-10-01

52

49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel...

2012-10-01

53

The effectiveness of small scale Photovoltaic (PV) systems design and cost analysis simulation on Saudi Arabian Economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advantages of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) are much more than the disadvantages, RES such as solar, wind energy, biomass, and geothermal, which can be used for generating distributed power but cannot directly replace the existing electric energy grid technologies. The latter are far too well established to abandon, while the new RES technologies are not sufficiently developed to meet the total energy demand. Therefore, it is sensible to gradually infuse RES into existing grids and transform the system over time Saudi Arabia (SA) is a semi-developed nation with a population of over twenty nine million people. It is the largest country in western Asia with an area of 2.225MKm2. SA's largest export is oil, owning 1/5 of the world's supply, and producing twelve million barrels a day. However, SA is far behind in developing a smart grid and RES. A lot of this is to do with lack of participation by both the government and the private business sector. Currently SA spends over $13B a year on generating electricity from oil. SA is the largest consumer of petroleum in the Middle East, due to the high demand for transportation and electricity generation. According to the Saudi electrical company, the total amount of generated power in 2011 was 190.280GW. In addition, SA's electricity consumption is currently growing 8% a year. SA aims to generate 55GW of renewable energy by 2020, in order to free up fossil fuels for export. 41GW of the 55GW will be generated from solar energy. Smart grid technologies are also under consideration in SA; this will allow an efficient and reliable way to control the energy in the future. In addition, the potential for wind and geothermal energy is very high. In this thesis, there is a full exploration of RES components which are critical to manage carbon emission and the limitations of the current grid to the new RES technologies, which face barriers to full-scale deployment. A study in Dhahran, SA has been simulated on a installing a Dual-Tariff PV system using HOMER. The result of the simulation has been discussed, analyzed, and plotted. We also give evidence in the thesis how useful the small PV systems can be as oppose to the larger scale system that must deal with location issues.

Almansour, Faris Abdullah

54

Murphy's Moral Economy of Labor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral Economy of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize labor. (MJP)

Masters, Roger D.

1996-01-01

55

78 FR 46799 - Use of Market Economy Input Prices in Nonmarket Economy Proceedings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...120424022-3616-02] RIN 0625-XC001 Use of Market Economy Input Prices in Nonmarket Economy Proceedings AGENCY: Import Administration...normally will use the price that a nonmarket economy (``NME'') producer pays to a market...

2013-08-02

56

Production Costs, Scale Economies, and Technical Change in U.S. Textile and Apparel Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elimination of quotas in textiles and apparel poses new threats from import competition. To survive, the sectors need to find least-cost methods of production. The production–cost structure of the U.S. textile and apparel industries is examined using a dual cost framework. A translog cost function is used to measure substitution elasticities between inputs, scale economies, and the nature of

Anusua Datta; Susan Christoffersen

2005-01-01

57

A Profile of Immigrants in Virginia's Economy  

E-print Network

1 A Profile of Immigrants in Virginia's Economy A Report for The Commonwealth Institute Richmond............................................................................................................. 27 ENTREPRENEURSHIP

Lewis, Robert Michael

58

The changing political economy of sex in South Africa: the significance of unemployment and inequalities to the scale of the AIDS pandemic.  

PubMed

Between 1990 and 2005, HIV prevalence rates in South Africa jumped from less than 1% to around 29%. Important scholarship has demonstrated how racialized structures entrenched by colonialism and apartheid set the scene for the rapid unfolding of the AIDS pandemic, like other causes of ill-health before it. Of particular relevance is the legacy of circular male-migration, an institution that for much of the 20th century helped to propel the transmission of sexually transmitted infections among black South Africans denied permanent urban residence. But while the deep-rooted antecedents of AIDS have been noted, less attention has been given to more recent changes in the political economy of sex, including those resulting from the post-apartheid government's adoption of broadly neo-liberal policies. As an unintentional consequence, male migration and apartheid can be seen as almost inevitably resulting in AIDS, a view that can disconnect the pandemic from contemporary social and economic debates. Combining ethnographic, historical, and demographic approaches, and focusing on sexuality in the late apartheid and early post-apartheid periods, this article outlines three interlinked dynamics critical to understanding the scale of the AIDS pandemic: (1) rising unemployment and social inequalities that leave some groups, especially poor women, extremely vulnerable; (2) greatly reduced marital rates and the subsequent increase of one person households; and (3) rising levels of women's migration, especially through circular movements between rural areas and informal settlements/urban areas. As a window into these changes, the article gives primary attention to the country's burgeoning informal settlements--spaces in which HIV rates are reported to be twice the national average--and to connections between poverty and money/sex exchanges. PMID:17097204

Hunter, Mark

2007-02-01

59

Political economy of population growth.  

PubMed

Tracing the origin of political economy as a class-science, this paper focuses on the political economy of population growth. Exposing the limitations of Malthusian ideas and their invalidity even for the capitalist economies, it discusses the subsequent revival of the Malthusian model during the period of de-colonization and the misinterpretation of the relationship between population growth and development in the developing and developed countries. Taking India, China, and Japan as some case studies, the paper examines the relationship between birth rate levels and some correlates. It elaborates on the Indian experience, emphasizing the association of population growth with poverty and unemployment and lays bare some of the hidden causes of these phenomena. The authors examine some interstate variations in India and identify constraints and prospects of the existing population policy. The paper proposes outlines of a democratic population policy as an integral part of India's development strategy which should recognize human beings not simply as consumers but also as producers of material values. It pleads for 1) restructuring of property relations; 2) bringing down the mortality rates and raising of the literacy levels, especially among females; and 3) improving nutritional levels, as prerequisites for bringing down birth rates. PMID:12179026

Mehta, S; Mehta, H S

1987-01-01

60

Economies of Scale and Smallness Policy in School Organization: Comparisons of New York State's Smallest K-12 Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of state educational consolidation policies and decentralizing curriculum reform initiatives on small school districts in New York are examined in this paper, with a focus on identifying patterns of environmental "embeddedness" that may include or exclude small districts from state equalization aid. Methodology involved multiple…

Wiles, David K.

61

Economy of middeck payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utilization of the middeck, designed as the crew quarters, for experiments is examined. The dimensions of the middeck's standard lockers, double lockers, adapter plates, and the galley, which are applicable for experiments, are described. The utilities available for middeck payloads include ac and dc electrical power supply, active and passive cooling, vacuum/vent line connections, and data handling, and four basic payload configurations are possible. The development of a middeck accommodations rack to make payload space more flexible and to enable an optimum number and variety of experiments to be flown is proposed. Diagrams of the orbiter's middeck and experimental designs are provided.

Michel, E. L.; Huffstetler, W. J.

1986-01-01

62

Economy of Yak Herders  

E-print Network

elaborate preparation. e) Draught Performance The male yaks mostly provide draught power. Young yaks are castrated when they reach around 4 years of age. A hole is pierced through their noses, which is used for fixing a wooden nose ring... to protect them from predators. Weaning takes place between the age of 6 month and 12 months or more depending on the reproductive status of the dams. A nose ring, which is designed to obstruct suckling, is used when weaning calves, which persists...

Gyamtsho, Pema

2000-01-01

63

The Political Economy of Lighthouses Laurent CARNIS  

E-print Network

1 The Political Economy of Lighthouses Laurent CARNIS Carnis Laurent (2003) "The Provision of Lighthouses Services: a Political Economy Perspective", Public Choice, Vol. 157(1): 51-56. http-012-9951-y #12;2 Introduction 2011 was the 200th anniversary of the establishment of the Lighthouse

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

64

The Political Economy of Entrepreneurship: An Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this introductory chapter to a collective volume dealing with the political economy of entrepreneurship,* we argue, based on a suggested unifying framework, that political economy is a fruitful approach to entrepreneurship. The importance of institutions in structuring such an analysis is also emphasized. The introduction also introduces the selected articles and puts them in context. Vital functions of the

Robin Douhan; Magnus Henrekson

2007-01-01

65

AGRICULTURE, 2005 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy  

E-print Network

STATUS OF WISCONSIN AGRICULTURE, 2005 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy Situation and Outlook: Farm Products, Farm Inputs and the General Economy Special Articles · Expansion, Modernization..............................................................................................................................v I. Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy

Radeloff, Volker C.

66

Wisconsin Agriculture Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy  

E-print Network

STATUS OF Wisconsin Agriculture 2010 · Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy · Current Outlook: Farm Products, Farm Inputs and the General Economy · Framing the Financial Crisis for Wisconsin Agriculture Farm Economy . . . . . . 1 II. Current Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Radeloff, Volker C.

67

A Caricature (Model) of the World Economy  

E-print Network

This paper provides a stylized model of the workings of a global economy where one of its key driving factors is economic agents’ continuous struggle to find assets in which to park financial resources. This struggle ...

Caballero, Ricardo

2010-11-23

68

Three Forms of the Knowledge Economy: Learning, Creativity and Openness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines and reviews three forms and associated discourses of the "knowledge economy": the "learning economy", based on the work of Bengt-Ake Lundvall; the "creative economy" based on the work of Charles Landry, John Howkins and Richard Florida; and the "open knowledge economy" based on the work of Yochai Benkler and others. Arguably,…

Peters, Michael A.

2010-01-01

69

Interregional Competition in the Cattle Feeding Economy with Special Emphasis on Economies of Size.  

E-print Network

TEXAS ALM UNIVERSITY TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION H, 0. Kunkel, Acting Director, College Station, Texas I. IN THE CATTLE FEEDING ECOI((OMY with special emphasis on economies of size Contents Highlights... In The .................... C:;I ttle Feecling - Fed-Beef Economy 9 Effects of Changes In Feedlot Size On The .................... Cattle Feeding - Fed-Beef Economy 24 Inlplications of Interregional Economic Relationships and Regional Price Differentials...

Dietrich, Raymond A.

1971-01-01

70

Fuel Economy With the price of gasoline at over $3.50 a gallon the fuel economy of  

E-print Network

Fuel Economy With the price of gasoline at over $3.50 a gallon the fuel economy of vehicles proposed raising the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFÃ?) standard for cars and trucks. In 2004, American cars needed to achieve an average fuel economy of 27.5 miles per gallon (MPG) while light trucks needed

Carriquiry, Alicia

71

Global Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning module from the Association of American Geographer's Center for Global Geography Education looks into the geographic characteristics of the global economy and the processes linking economic activities at local, regional, and global scales. Four case studies are included in the learning unit, each focusing on a different region (New Zealand, Chile, Central and South America, East/Southeast Asia).

2011-01-21

72

Indigenous Economies, Theories of Subsistence, and Women: Exploring the Social Economy Model for Indigenous Governance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…

Kuokkanen, Rauna

2011-01-01

73

What's New about the New Economy? Sources of Growth in the Managed and Entrepreneurial Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to document the fundamental shift that is taking place in OECD countries. This shift is from the managed economy to the entrepreneurial economy. While politicians and policy makers have made a plea for guidance in the era of entrepreneurship, scholars have been slow to respond. This paper attempts to make a first step identifying

David B. Audretsch; A. Roy Thurik

2001-01-01

74

Aspects of the political economy of development and synthetic biology  

E-print Network

What implications might synthetic biology’s potential as a wholly new method of production have for the world economy, particularly developing countries? Theories of political economy predict that synthetic biology can ...

Wellhausen, Rachel

75

The Distinctiveness of Entrepreneurship in Transition Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the distinctiveness of entrepreneurship and small business development in countries that are at different stages of transformation to market based economies. Following a discussion of the potential relevance of selected conceptualisations of entrepreneurship to transition conditions, the authors present original empirical data referring to the characteristics of entrepreneurs and their businesses from countries at different

David Smallbone; Friederike Welter

2001-01-01

76

The Political Economy of Kenya's Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using political economy analysis, this paper discusses three precipitating factors that were ignited by Kenya's 2007 election, which was too close to call beforehand and highly contested afterwards. These factors were: the gradual loss of the state's monopoly of legitimate force and the consequent diffusion of violence; the deliberate weakening of institutions outside the executive in favour of personalized presidential

Susanne D. Mueller

2008-01-01

77

Engendering the political economy of agrarian change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past thirty odd years, the analysis of agrarian social relations, institutions, and movements has benefited from the insights offered by feminist scholars whose intellectual project has been to bring into the political economy of agrarian change the pervasiveness of gender relations and their interconnections with broader processes of social change. The implications of this re-thinking are potentially radical.

Shahra Razavi

2009-01-01

78

T. R. Malthus: Principles of Political Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published in two volumes or as a set this provides a definitive scholarly variorum edition of Malthus's Principles of Political Economy. It contains the full text of the first 1820 edition, including Malthus's own invaluable 70-page summary, and contains details of all the additions, omissions and emendations that occurred between the first and the second, posthumous, edition of 1836. The

T. R. Malthus

79

THE IMPACT OF KNAPWEED ON MONTANA'S ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic impact of three invasive, exotic weeds--diffuse, spotted, and Russian knapweed (Centaurea diffusa, C. maculosa, and Acroptilon repens)--on Montana's economy was estimated using a procedure developed for another invasive weed species. Published data and that from a survey of county weed boards were used to estimate direct negative impacts of over $14 million annually due to infestation of over

Steven A. Hirsch; Jay A. Leitch

1996-01-01

80

The Political Economy of Deposit Insurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a political economy framework to analyze cross-country differences in deposit insurance coverage. It finds supporting evidence of the significance of private interest theories in explaining coverage of deposit insurance. Deposit insurance coverage is significantly higher in countries where poorly capitalized banks dominate the market and in countries where depositors are poorly educated. The analysis does not find

Luc Laeven

2004-01-01

81

The Political Economy of ``Natural'' Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural disasters occur in a political space. Although events beyond our control may trigger a disaster, the level of government preparedness and response greatly determines the extent of suffering incurred by the affected population. The authors use a political-economy model of disaster prevention, supported by case studies and preliminary empirics, to explain why some governments prepare well for disasters and

Charles Cohen; Eric D. Werker

2008-01-01

82

The Political Economy of Ways and Means: Procurement Contracts, Entrepreneurship, and Development in Africa  

E-print Network

Economy of Ways and Means: Procurement Contracts, Entrepreneurship,Economy of Ways and Means: Procurement Contracts, Entrepreneurship,Economy of Ways and Means: Procurement Contracts, Entrepreneurship,

Ngo Nyeck, Sybille

2013-01-01

83

A Political Economy Model of Corporate Governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a political economy model of how the corporate law rules governing publicly traded firms are determined. In our model, a corporate insiders' lobby com- petes for influence over politicians setting corporate law rules against an institutional investors' lobby that represents the interests of outside shareholders. We show that if the politicians who determine corporate law rules are influenced

Lucian Bebchuk; Zvika Neeman

84

Reconsidering an Economy of Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article has an overall aim as follows: to develop an alternative understanding to a narrow view of education, and in particular teacher training--preparatory and continuing--in terms of economy, as well as the competencies needed for the teaching profession. It takes the view that such an alternative is or could be found in the ideas put…

Takayanagi, Mitsutoshi

2014-01-01

85

The Political Economy of North American Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents 12 papers that proceed from the idea that Native American history in the United States and Canada is best understood not as an Indian-European cultural conflict but as an economic conflict between communal and capitalist modes of production. Three chapters are of particular educational interest. "Political Economy in…

Moore, John H., Ed.

86

Theories of Political Economy Fall 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

Program. This course is an introduction to recent theories of political economy. We use game-theoretical models to study how economic policies (taxes, public spending, redistri- bution, etc.) are chosen. We analyze the behavior of voters (why do people vote and how they choose among several parties), politicians (how they select their positions), parties (how they reach a compromise among their

Dino Gerardi

87

Responding to Diverse Needs of Changing Economies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the most important needs of changing economies is the need to respond to technological changes, economic restructuring, and labor market changes. Although formal vocational training schools do not usually respond well to changing economic circumstances, nonformal and proprietary or private institutions usually are highly responsive to the…

Johanson, Richard K.

88

BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF FUEL ECONOMY POTENTIAL  

E-print Network

into imports and domestics for both Automobiles and Light Trucks. Each combination must meet the CAFE standard. As an example, the standard is now 27.5 miles per gallon for Automobiles. The corporate average fuel economy size of automobiles was reduced. In addition, technology im­ provements, such as replacing the old push

Berger, Jim

89

Labour as an Agent of Production: A Classical Economy Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seminal works on labour and its contribution to the economy were attempted by classical economists. The classical political economy considered labour as the sole source of value, and only it can create an addition. The predominance of ascribed it as basis of all social life. This paper reviews the works of two classical political economy writers: Marx and Smith.

Rajasekharan Pillai

2010-01-01

90

Globalisation, Knowledge and the Myth of the Magnet Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the dominant view of the changing relationship between education, jobs and rewards in the global knowledge economy. This asserts that the developed economies can resolve issues of individual aspirations, economic efficiency and social justice through the creation of a high-skills, high-wage "magnet" economy. Here the authors…

Brown, Phillip; Lauder, Hugh

2006-01-01

91

THE ECONOMY OF MANATEE AND SARASOTA COUNTIES Effie Philippakos  

E-print Network

i THE ECONOMY OF MANATEE AND SARASOTA COUNTIES By Effie Philippakos Alan W. Hodges David Mulkey Charles M. Adams Abstract This report is intended to characterize the economies of Manatee and Sarasota-county region. The overall size and seasonal variations in the economies of Manatee and Sarasota Counties were

Florida, University of

92

Exact Measures of Income in a Hyperbolic Economy  

E-print Network

Exact Measures of Income in a Hyperbolic Economy JOHN PEZZEY EEN0203 #12;Exact Measures of Income in a Hyperbolic Economy John C. V. Pezzey Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies Australian National.K. Draft of 23 January 2002 Abstract. Exact optimal paths are calculated for a closed economy with human

Pezzey, Jack

93

Effects of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the Indian Economy  

E-print Network

1 Effects of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the Indian Economy Sourangsu Banerji Visiting study the effects of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) with respect to India and its economy. We try interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

94

Concepts and Translations of Political Economy and Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, the terms economics and political economy are translated in Korea, Japan, and China as Kyeongjaehak(which originally meant statecraft for the people's welfare) and Jeongchikyeongjaehak, respectively. However, the translation of Kyeongjaehak, in fact, originated in the very concept of political economy. The etymology of the translated terms for political economy in India and China actually accords with the original concept

Hun-Chang Lee

2008-01-01

95

Open economy models of distribution and growth Robert A. Blecker*  

E-print Network

Chapter 9 Open economy models of distribution and growth Robert A. Blecker* To appear in: Eckhard-Keynesian macro models for closed economies, the present chapter focuses on extensions of these models the post-Keynesian framework to a global economy that has become much more integrated in the past few

Carlini, David

96

FDI and the Opening Up of China's Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although China has been opening up its economy for more than twenty years, it is generally considered that its future accession to WTO will imply far-reaching consequences for its economy. In order to better understand what is at stake as China enters the WTO, this study is intended to investigate the degree of openness of China's economy at the end

Francoise Lemoine

2000-01-01

97

The Initiation of Homeless Youth into the Street Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…

Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C.; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S.

2009-01-01

98

The Role of Online Travel Agents in the Experience Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our society has evolved through the product economy and the service economy to the experience economy. Due to this fact the value of a travel product, nowadays, is far beyond the goods and services. Experiences are driving the travel industry and make the travel product more and more diverse. Moreover, not only the travel experience itself, but also an experience

Anton Bogdanovych; Marc Esteva; Simeon Simoff; Greg Smith

99

City of Ideas: Reinventing Boston's Innovation Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Boston Foundation has worked for over a century to improve the lives of Boston-area residents through its investigations into the housing market, economic development, and the future of public schools. This 56-page report on Boston's innovation economy was released in March 2012, and it looks into how Boston will remain competitive in a range of 21st century industries over the coming years. In the introduction to the work, Paul S. Grogan, CEO of The Boston Foundation, notes that "Macro-economic trends have not been kind to households on the low end of the economic ladder" and "Our second challenge is the degree to which rising health care costs have outpaced our investment in education." Moving on, curious readers will find chapters in the paper titled "A New Paradigm for Boston's Innovation Economy" and "Possible Scenarios for Boston in 2030." Public policy types and others will find this work to be quite interesting and thought-provoking.

2012-03-14

100

A Glossary of Political Economy Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Paul M. Johnson, political scientist at Auburn University, this Website serves as an excellent online reference for students of political economy. There are over 200 definitions here of relevant terms, including capitalism, communism, market economy, tariff, supply side economics, law of supply and demand, macroeconomics, and many more. The entries feature hypertext links to related terms in the glossary. Definitions range from a concise sentence to a brief essay depending on the topic. Communism, for instance, receives well over a full frame; capitalism is defined in a few sentences. Nonetheless, the definitions seem to be without any definite political bias and more-than-adequate for students in high school and undergraduate courses as well as, of course, for the merely curious.

Johnson, Paul M.

1994-01-01

101

A Glossary of Political Economy Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Paul M. Johnson, political scientist at Auburn University, this Website serves as an excellent online reference for students of political economy. There are over 200 definitions here of relevant terms, including capitalism, communism, market economy, tariff, supply side economics, law of supply and demand, macroeconomics, and many more. The entries feature hypertext links to related terms in the glossary. Definitions range from a concise sentence to a brief essay depending on the topic. Communism, for instance, receives well over a full frame; capitalism is defined in a few sentences. Nonetheless, the definitions seem to be without any definite political bias and more-than-adequate for students in high school and undergraduate courses as well as, of course, for the merely curious.

Johnson, Paul M.

2007-04-21

102

Individual diversity of functional brain network economy.  

PubMed

On average, brain network economy represents a trade-off between communication efficiency, robustness and connection cost, though, an analogous understanding on an individual level is largely missing. Evaluating resting-state networks of 42 healthy participants with 7 Tesla functional MRI and graph theory revealed that not even half of all possible connections were common across subjects. The strongest similarities among individuals were observed for interhemispheric and/or short-range connections, which may relate to the essential feature of the human brain to develop specialized systems within each hemisphere. Despite this marked variability in individual network architecture, all subjects exhibited equal small-world properties. Furthermore, interdependency between four major network economy metrics was observed across healthy individuals. The characteristic path length was associated with the clustering coefficient (r=0.93), the response to network attacks (peak correlation r=-0.97) and the physical connection cost in 3D space (r=-0.62). On the other hand, clustering was negatively related to attack response (r=-0.75) and connection cost (r=-0.59). Finally, increased connection cost was associated with better response to attacks (r=0.65). This indicates that functional brain networks with high global information transfer also exhibit strong network resilience. However, it seems that these advantages come at the cost of decreased local communication efficiency and increased physical connection cost. Except for wiring length, the results were replicated on a subsample at 3 Tesla (n=20). These findings highlight the finely tuned interrelationships between different parameters of brain network economy. Moreover, the understanding of the individual diversity of functional brain network economy may provide further insights in the vulnerability to mental and neurological disorders. PMID:25411715

Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Ganger, Sebastian; Windischberger, Christian; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

2014-11-20

103

The emotional economy of housing   

E-print Network

This paper offers an interpretation of the role of emotions in animating housing markets which complements more traditional economic and behavioural studies of locally based house-price inflation. Looking to debates within ...

Christie, H.; Smith, S.J.; Munro, M.

2008-10-01

104

The political economy of conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A political economic purview of energy conservation in the United States was delineated. The concepts of substitution and elasticity are distinguished, and further distinctions are made between short run price elasticity, cross price elasticity, and available fund elasticity. An assessment of the role which cost factors can play in conservation is given. The structure of the petroleum industry and foreign petroleum resources is discussed. Also discussed is the role of government, industry and the consumer with the economic sphere.

1975-01-01

105

The Economy of Explicit Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The risk posed by explicit instruction in composition is that the reduction of writing to stock moves and effective devices may diminish the writer's agency and guarantee reproduction of the teacher's. The advantage of explicit instruction is power: overt and recursive attention to selected strategies can help students imagine the public agency…

Kraemer, Don J.

2007-01-01

106

Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Golden Age of postwar capitalism has been eclipsed, and with it seemingly also the possibility of harmonizing equality and welfare with efficiency and jobs. Most analyses believe the the emerging postindustrial society is overdetermined by massive, convergent forces, such as tertiarization, new technologies, or globalization, all conspiring to make welfare states unsustainable in the future. Social Foundations of Postindustrial

Gosta Esping-Andersen

1998-01-01

107

The Political Economy of Entrepreneurship  

Microsoft Academic Search

We outline a politico-economic growth system centered around the entrepreneur. By defining entrepreneurs in relation to economic rents we are able to develop a more general theory comprising central aspects of research within the fields of entrepreneurship\\/small business, public choice and new institutional economics. The entrepreneurial function is shown to depend crucially on the existing institutional framework. We also point

Robin Douhan; Magnus Henrekson

2007-01-01

108

The market economy of trips  

E-print Network

Mobility on Demand (MOD) systems allow users to pick-up and drop-off vehicles (bikes, automobiles) ubiquitously in a network of parking stations. Asymmetric demand patterns cause unbalanced fleet allocation decreasing level ...

Papanikolaou, Dimitrios, M.S. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

109

Professors of the New Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Profiles four professors who epitomize the increasing influence of academe on new technology-driven Internet business: a start-up maven, Steven Kaplan; a social psychologist, Michael Ray; a cyberlawyer, David Post; and an e-commerce expert, Andrew B. Whinston. (DB)

Wilson, Robin

2000-01-01

110

The political economy of transition in resource-based economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 15 newly independent states that emerged from the breakdown of the Soviet Union are now celebrating their 10th anniversary of independence. This paper looks back over the first decade and draws some lessons from the experience made to date. It focuses on the energy-rich states of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), namely Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan (AKTU

Akram Esanov; Martin Raiser; Willem Buiter

111

Aspen: A microsimulation model of the economy  

SciTech Connect

This report presents, Aspen. Sandia National Laboratories is developing this new agent-based microeconomic simulation model of the U.S. economy. The model is notable because it allows a large number of individual economic agents to be modeled at a high level of detail and with a great degree of freedom. Some features of Aspen are (a) a sophisticated message-passing system that allows individual pairs of agents to communicate, (b) the use of genetic algorithms to simulate the learning of certain agents, and (c) a detailed financial sector that includes a banking system and a bond market. Results from runs of the model are also presented.

Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.; Quint, T.; Arnold, T.

1996-10-01

112

Policy Capacity for the Transition to a Biofuels Economy: A Comparative Study of the EU and USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scale of the ambition to decouple emissions growth from energy consumption in the economy runs counter to several decades of debates and literatures on the limits of government. Transport biofuels are an early and influential case of the policy capacity challenge in the transition to low-carbon economies. The case stands analytically for the policy-maker's dilemma of maintaining longer term

Adiran Kay; Robert Ackrill

2012-01-01

113

Low-Cost Carriers, Economies of Flows and Regional Externalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Williams A. M. and Baláž V. Low-cost carriers, economies of flows and regional externalities, Regional Studies. The emergence of low-cost carriers, following air travel re-regulation in Europe, has major implications for individual firms and regional economies. Understanding regions as ‘economies of flows’, the paper explores, largely conceptually, how uneven, fluctuating, and fragmentary changes in air travel and connectivity, resulting from

Allan M. Williams; Vladimir Baláž

2009-01-01

114

Efficiency and economy of wood-fired biomass energy systems in relation to scale regarding heat and power generation using combustion and gasification technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy objectives to increase biomass’ contribution to the energy supply in industrialised countries are quite ambitious, but biomass resources are rather limited and expensive in many situations. Therefore, an optimal utilisation of resources producing a maximum of energy at minimal costs is desirable. A wide variety of biomass conversion options with different performance characteristics exists. Also, the economic and energetic

Veronika Dornburg

2001-01-01

115

15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300.1 Section 1300...Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. (a) For purposes of...the export of technology to a nonmarket economy country, exporters of such...

2013-01-01

116

15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.  

...Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300.1 Section 1300...Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. (a) For purposes of...the export of technology to a nonmarket economy country, exporters of such...

2014-01-01

117

15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300.1 Section 1300...Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. (a) For purposes of...the export of technology to a nonmarket economy country, exporters of such...

2011-01-01

118

15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300.1 Section 1300...Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. (a) For purposes of...the export of technology to a nonmarket economy country, exporters of such...

2012-01-01

119

Pacific Institute Releases New Economy of Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Riveting reading, the Pacific Institute's report on The Economy of Water puts it all up front when it comes to the status and power of water as an issue of looming national and international significance. Looking at water from multiple perspectives, the report clearly details the impact and potential harm of current and pending zoning and privatization efforts on the part of utilities and other interested agencies, both public and private. In particular, the study focuses on the social and financial costs of water privatization efforts and their long term implications for specific countries and societies. Perhaps most compelling is the policy brief's emphasis on the competing forces of globalization and privatization and how they tend to play out and off of one another.

2002-01-01

120

Analysis on the Development of Low Carbon Marine Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the perspective of low carbon economy, the paper analyzes the factors that influencing the development of low carbon economy. It is showed that the damage of marine ecological environment results in the low ability of oceans in absorbing green gas; environmental pollution leads to lowering capacity of ocean to deal with the wastes; development of related marine industries brings

Wang Cao

2011-01-01

121

Adjustment of Global Imbalances and Its Impact on China's Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper discusses ways of adjusting the imbalances of the global economy and its impact on China's economy. The analysis in the paper shows that the cut of US fiscal deficits and the appreciation of the currencies of East Asia, including China's RMB, are necessary for a smooth adjustment of the global imbalances. The adjustments will have a positive

Jianhuai Shi

2006-01-01

122

Virtual phosphorus ore requirement of Japanese economy.  

PubMed

Phosphorus is indispensable for agricultural production. Hence, the consumption of imported food indirectly implies the import of phosphorus resources. The global consumption of agricultural products depends on a small number of ore-producing countries. For sustainable management of phosphorus resources, the global supply and demand network should be clarified. In this study, we propose the virtual phosphorus ore requirement as a new indicator of the direct and indirect phosphorus requirements for our society. The virtual phosphorus ore requirement indicates the direct and indirect demands for phosphorus ore transformed into agricultural products and fertilizer. In this study, the virtual phosphorus ore requirement was evaluated for the Japanese economy in 2005. Importantly, the results show that our society requires twice as much phosphorus ore as the domestic demand for fertilizer production. The phosphorus contained in "eaten" agricultural products was only 12% of virtual phosphorus ore requirement. PMID:21636108

Matsubae, Kazuyo; Kajiyama, Jun; Hiraki, Takehito; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

2011-08-01

123

A Stay-Rich View of the New Global Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major demographic changes around the world. Disproportionate sovereign debt. A shift from North America, Western Europe, and Japan to emerging economies as centers of growth. Unprecedented levels of market risk and volatility. The structure of the global economy is undergoing significant changes. Michael Oyster, managing principal of Fund…

Trusteeship, 2011

2011-01-01

124

Education, Globalisation and the Future of the Knowledge Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dominant view today is of a global knowledge-based economy, driven by the application of new technologies, accelerating the shift to high-skilled, high-waged European economies. This view is reflected in the expansion of higher education and the key role of higher education in national and European economic policy. The Lisbon agenda seeks to…

Brown, Phillip; Lauder, Hugh; Ashton, David

2008-01-01

125

Agent-based Microsimulation of Economy from A Complexity Perspective  

E-print Network

1 Agent-based Microsimulation of Economy from A Complexity Perspective Yu CHEN, Xiaomeng SU, Jinghai RAO, Hui XIONG, Renmin University Of China E-mail: Yuchen@pubic.bta.net.cnor {mmsu, jhrao and open new areas of interest. To test the usability and suitability of Swarm to model social-economy

126

Trust in the New Economy - The Case of Finnish Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changing role of trust in the New Economy forms an interesting research area. The purpose of this work is to contribute this area with a study that focuses on the role of banks in the New Economy. The major part of this work is a case study about three banks operating in Finland. The purpose is to analyse the

Toni Riipinen; Markku Tinnilä

127

Physical Modeling of economic systems: Classical and Quantum Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of theoretical physics, classical mechanics and quantum mechanics are used to develop classical and quantum models of economies and to derive their equations of motion that describe economy evolution in time, namely, Lagrange and Schrödinger equations correspondingly. The book is intended to economists and physicists interested in formal economics background.

Anatoly Kondratenko

2005-01-01

128

Cash, Money Laundering, and the Size of Underground Economy  

E-print Network

Givenavastempiricalevidencethatcashiswidelyusedinthe underground economy, inter-governmental bodies like FATF recommend policy measures aimed at limitation of cash and at combat of money laundering. We show that there is no simple monotone relationship between policy and the size of underground economy, so that the policy has at best a limited scope.

Alexei Deviatov

2009-01-01

129

Analysis of GM fuel economy surveys. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data obtained by General Motors Corporation in three fuel economy surveys of 1975 GM private passenger car owners are analyzed to determine seasonal, topographical, and geographical effects on the fuel economy of in-use vehicles. Data from the GM survey for 1532 cars formed the basis for this study. Additional seasonal, topographical, and geographical data associated with the locations of the

Janz

1976-01-01

130

19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. 351.408 Section...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. (a) Introduction...identifying dumping from a nonmarket economy country, the Secretary...

2012-04-01

131

49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525...TRANSPORTATION EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption...

2013-10-01

132

19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. 351.408 Section...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. (a) Introduction...identifying dumping from a nonmarket economy country, the Secretary...

2010-04-01

133

19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. 351.408 Section...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. (a) Introduction...identifying dumping from a nonmarket economy country, the Secretary...

2011-04-01

134

19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. 351.408 Section...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. (a) Introduction...identifying dumping from a nonmarket economy country, the Secretary...

2013-04-01

135

49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525...TRANSPORTATION EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption...

2011-10-01

136

19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.  

...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. 351.408 Section...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. (a) Introduction...identifying dumping from a nonmarket economy country, the Secretary...

2014-04-01

137

49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525...TRANSPORTATION EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption...

2012-10-01

138

49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525...TRANSPORTATION EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption...

2010-10-01

139

The classical Roots of neo-classical political economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neoclassical Political Economy applies the concepts and techniques of Neoclassical Analysis to elucidate the interrelations between the Economy, the Polity and the State. The basic issues at hand were clearly stated by the social thinkers of the 17th, 18th and 19th Centuries., often referred to (admiringly or disparagingly) as the \\

Stanislaw Wellisz

2002-01-01

140

National technology entrepreneurship policy: foundation of a network economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The confluence of disruptive technology and network modes of organization in modern, developed economies requires a national business environment conducive to entrepreneurship. National entrepreneurship policy study results report that a formal national coordination mechanism would be ineffectual, if not deleterious, for an entrepreneurial economy. For the US to sustain its competitive advantage, however, it is necessary to develop a national

Thomas A Hemphill

2005-01-01

141

Universities' Entrepreneurial Performance: The Role of Agglomeration Economies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spite of the extensive research on universities' entrepreneurship, whether research strength fosters or dampens their entrepreneurial performance remains controversial. Much research claims an influential role of research universities in regional economy, however, little has been said about what a part that the agglomeration economies may play…

Chen, Ping Penny

2011-01-01

142

Market and state: the perspective of constitutional political economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper approaches the market versus state issue from the perspective of constitutional political economy, a research program that has been advanced as a principal alternative to traditional welfare economics and its perspective on the relation between market and state. Constitutional political economy looks at market and state as different kinds of social arenas in which people may realize mutual

VIKTOR J. VANBERG

2005-01-01

143

Knowledge Work: The Rise of the Office Economy. Full Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rise of the office economy and its impact on vocational education and training (VET) in Australia were examined by replicating the methodology used in Carnevale and Rose's U.S. study on the impact of the new office economy. Both studies took a functional approach to analyzing economic activities and the work force and focused primarily on…

Doyle, Leonie; Kurth, Brian; Kerr, Ella

144

Higher Skills and the Knowledge Economy: The Challenge of Offshoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent economics literature on offshoring highlights the trend towards the relocation of high-skill jobs to emerging economies. This evolution presents a challenge to the established knowledge economy discourse on which the relationship between higher education, higher skills, higher productivity and higher incomes has been based. This paper…

Craig, John; Gunn, Andrew

2010-01-01

145

Entrepreneurship as a factor of innovative development for national economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entrepreneurship plays important role in provision the innovative mode to national economy development. Particularly, small and medium companies demonstrates significant innovation potential. The task of innovation transformation in national economy should be implemented through using entrepreneurship, based both on state and private property, as factor driving innovations. The author indicates on policy directions that would contribute to innovative entrepreneurial development

Imamnazar Tursunov; Farkhad Akhmedov

2009-01-01

146

The Political Economy of Ways and Means: Procurement Contracts, Entrepreneurship, and Development in Africa  

E-print Network

Economy of Ways and Means: Procurement Contracts, Entrepreneurship, andEconomy of Ways and Means: Procurement Contracts, Entrepreneurship, andEconomy of Ways and Means: Procurement Contracts, Entrepreneurship, and

Ngo Nyeck, Sybille

2013-01-01

147

40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

148

3 CFR 13494 - Executive Order 13494 of January 30, 2009. Economy in Government Contracting  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Executive Order 13494 of January 30, 2009. Economy in Government Contracting 13494 Order...13494 of January 30, 2009 EO 13494 Economy in Government Contracting By the...ordered that: Section 1. To promote economy and efficiency in Government...

2010-01-01

149

40 CFR 600.008-01 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

150

40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2011-07-01

151

40 CFR 600.209-85 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.209-85...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

152

40 CFR 600.510-08 - Calculation of average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-08 Section 600.510-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

2013-07-01

153

40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2011-07-01

154

40 CFR 600.209-95 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.209-95...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

155

40 CFR 600.510-08 - Calculation of average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-08 Section 600.510-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

2012-07-01

156

40 CFR 600.008-08 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

157

40 CFR 600.008-77 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

158

40 CFR 600.008-77 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

159

40 CFR 600.207-86 - Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type. 600.207-86...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

160

40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.210-08...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

161

76 FR 11196 - Antidumping Methodologies in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of Production...antidumping proceedings involving non-market economy (``NME'') countries. See Antidumping...in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of...

2011-03-01

162

40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.311-08 Range...

2013-07-01

163

40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.210-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2013-07-01

164

40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.210-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2012-07-01

165

40 CFR 600.211-08 - Sample calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Sample calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.211-08...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

166

40 CFR 600.207-93 - Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type. 600.207-93...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

167

40 CFR 600.008-01 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

168

40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.311-08 Range...

2012-07-01

169

40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

170

A proposal to extend our understanding of the global economy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellites acquire information on a global and repetitive basis. They are thus ideal tools for use when global scale and analysis over time is required. Data from satellites comes in digital form which means that it is ideally suited for incorporation in digital data bases and that it can be evaluated using automated techniques. The development of a global multi-source data set which integrates digital information is proposed regarding some 15,000 major industrial sites worldwide with remotely sensed images of the sites. The resulting data set would provide the basis for a wide variety of studies of the global economy. The preliminary results give promise of a new class of global policy model which is far more detailed and helpful to local policy makers than its predecessors. The central thesis of this proposal is that major industrial sites can be identified and their utilization can be tracked with the aid of satellite images.

Hough, Robbin R.; Ehlers, Manfred

1991-01-01

171

40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.210-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

172

77 FR 38553 - Proposed Modification to Regulation Concerning the Use of Market Economy Input Prices in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Modification to Regulation Concerning the Use of Market Economy Input Prices in Nonmarket Economy Proceedings AGENCY: Import Administration...normally will use the price that a nonmarket economy (``NME'') producer pays to a market...

2012-06-28

173

40 CFR 600.209-95 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.209-95...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

174

76 FR 65694 - Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of...liquidate such entries at the non-market economy (``NME'')-wide rate. FOR FURTHER...non-reviewed exporters. See Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment...

2011-10-24

175

TEXTUAL ECONOMY THROUGH CLOSE COUPLING OF SYNTAX AND SEMANTICS Matthew Stone Bonnie Webber  

E-print Network

TEXTUAL ECONOMY THROUGH CLOSE COUPLING OF SYNTAX AND SEMANTICS Matthew Stone Bonnie Webber Dept, thatexploitsthe hearer's recognitionof inferentiallinkstomaterial elsewhere withina sentence. Textual economy argue that achieving textual economy imposes strong requirements on the representation and reasoning

Stone, Matthew

176

76 FR 34046 - Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of...administrative reviews involving non-market economy countries (``NME''), the Department...the investigation or review. In market economy (``ME'') proceedings, the...

2011-06-10

177

40 CFR 600.209-85 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.209-85...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

178

University of Michigan Institute for Research on Labor, Employment and the Economy  

E-print Network

University of Michigan Institute for Research on Labor, Employment and the Economy (IRLEE) Mission innovation, increasing entrepreneurship, and improving the economy; (5) Foster a core of interdisciplinary

Shyy, Wei

179

The Impact of Credit on Village Economies  

E-print Network

This paper evaluates the short- and longer term impact of Thailand's "Million Baht Village Fund" program, among the largest scale government microfinance iniatives in the world, using pre- and post-program panel data and ...

Townsend, Robert

180

Child Care and the New Economy: Part I--Three Pillars of the New Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Late in 2008, when it was becoming apparent that the economic downturn was not a simple blip but a serious recession, Warren Buffet confidently predicted that the American economy would bounce back and be as strong as ever. However, he observed, "the economy that emerges will not be the same economy that entered the downturn." Since then, one…

Neugebauer, Roger

2009-01-01

181

Method of predicting a change in an economy  

DOEpatents

An economy whose activity is to be predicted comprises a plurality of decision makers. Decision makers include, for example, households, government, industry, and banks. The decision makers are represented by agents, where an agent can represent one or more decision makers. Each agent has decision rules that determine the agent's actions. Each agent can affect the economy by affecting variable conditions characteristic of the economy or the internal state of other agents. Agents can communicate actions through messages. On a multiprocessor computer, the agents can be assigned to processing elements.

Pryor, Richard J (Albuquerque, NM); Basu, Nipa (Albany, NY)

2006-01-10

182

THE SUBSTANTIVE ECONOMY OF MONEY --KARL POLANYI IN THE TRADITION OF "OLD" INSTITUTIONALISM--  

E-print Network

THE SUBSTANTIVE ECONOMY OF MONEY --KARL POLANYI IN THE TRADITION OF "OLD" INSTITUTIONALISM-- Introduction First Part - The Purpose of a Substantive Economy §1/ Karl Polanyi's Method : a point of view §2 / Substantive Economy and the Question of Value §3 / Institutions and forms of integration : economy

Boyer, Edmond

183

Supply chain practices in the context of an emerging economy  

E-print Network

The emergence of the BRIC economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China as a formidable economic powerhouse is turning into a reality. The center of the world's economic gravity is slowly shifting towards these emerging ...

Bhaumik, Vijan

2010-01-01

184

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place  

E-print Network

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place - Greenwoods Corner - Simon, tourism must sustain and enhance local quality of life ­ "Communities will work for tourism if tourism

185

Potential Roles of Ammonia in a Hydrogen Economy  

E-print Network

Potential Roles of Ammonia in a Hydrogen Economy A Study of Issues Related to the Use Ammonia..................................................................... 6 II. AMMONIA PROPERTIES......................................................... 6 III. AMMONIA PRODUCTION........................................................ 7 IV. AMMONIA DECOMPOSITION

186

Globalization and the Future of the National Economy  

E-print Network

Many observers are concerned that the growth of globalization will undermine and destroy national economies. For the past six years, Professor Suzanne Berger, the Raphael Dorman and Helen Starbuck Professor of Political ...

Boyd, James Patrick

2006-03-17

187

Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy  

SciTech Connect

Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CARB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4%, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6%. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CARB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

Aceves, S., LLNL

1997-01-01

188

Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy  

SciTech Connect

Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CAROB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4 %, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6 %. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CAROB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

Aceves, S.; Glaser, R.; Richardson, J.

1997-01-01

189

The political economy of government interventions in financial crises  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 examines how political economy considerations affect the desirability of banking unions. It presents a model in which bank recapitalizations are carried out by rent-seeking policymakers. These policymakers face ...

Foar??, Octavia Daniela

2014-01-01

190

Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in fuel economy with increasing restriction. However, the level of restriction required to cause a substantial (10-15%) decrease in fuel economy (such as that cited in the literature) was so severe that the vehicle was almost undrivable. Acceleration performance on all vehicles was improved with a clean air filter. Once it was determined how severe the restriction had to be to affect the carbureted vehicle fuel economy, the 2007 Buick Lucerne was retested in a similar manner. We were not able to achieve the level of restriction that was achieved with the 1972 Pontiac with the Lucerne. The Lucerne's air filter box would not hold the filter in place under such severe conditions. (It is believed that this testing exceeded the design limits of the air box.) Tests were conducted at a lower restriction level (although still considerably more severe than the initial clogged filter testing), allowing the air filter to stay seated in the air box, and no significant change was observed in the Lucerne's fuel economy or the AFR over the HFET cycle. Closed-loop control in modern fuel injected vehicle applications is sophisticated enough to keep a clogged air filter from affecting the vehicle fuel economy. However for older, open-loop, carbureted vehicles, a clogged air filter can affect the fuel economy. For the vehicle tested, the fuel economy with a new air filter improved as much as 14% over that with a severely clogged filter (in which the filter was so clogged that drivability was impacted). Under a more typical state of clog, the improvement with a new filter ranged from 2 to 6%.

Norman, Kevin M [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

2009-02-01

191

California's Green Economy  

E-print Network

California's Green Economy California Green Workforce Coalition July 9, 2010 Bonnie Graybill Employment Development Department Labor Market Information Division #12;Understanding the Green Economy What's green economy Demand leads to pressure for additional supply of products and services Survey covers

192

On Optimal Monetary Policy Rules and the Role of MCIs in the Open Economy.  

E-print Network

On Optimal Monetary Policy Rules and the Role of MCIs in the Open Economy. By Alfred V. Guender consequences for the conduct of optimal monetary policy in the forward-looking open economy framework. As opposed to the closed economy framework optimal monetary policy in the open economy depends on both demand

Hickman, Mark

193

Montana Economy at a Glance September 2012 Montana Department of Labor & Industry Research & Analysis Bureau  

E-print Network

Montana Economy at a Glance September 2012 Montana Department of Labor & Industry Research to the economy over the last decade and helping to stabilize the Montana economy during the 2007-2010 recession The healthcare industry plays a positive and inte- gral role in the state's economy.Figure one shows the percent

Lawrence, Rick L.

194

Relative Economy of Different Methods of Airplane Construction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of the relative economy of airplane construction shows that monoplanes are cheaper than biplanes; that all-metal construction is much more expensive than mixed construction; that multi-engine airplanes are more expensive than single-engine types of the same carrying capacity and speed;that the cost of airplanes is materially reduced by increasing their size without increasing the number of engines. The greatest economy usually coincides with the best aerodynamic and static conditions and the cost is always increased by safety requirements.

Herrmann, H

1931-01-01

195

Stretched exponential distributions in nature and economy: “fat tails” with characteristic scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   To account quantitatively for many reported “natural” fat tail distributions in Nature and Economy, we propose the stretched\\u000a exponential family as a complement to the often used power law distributions. It has many advantages, among which to be economical\\u000a with only two adjustable parameters with clear physical interpretation. Furthermore, it derives from a simple and generic\\u000a mechanism in terms

J. Laherrère; Didier SORNETTE

1998-01-01

196

Measuring flood footprint of a regional economy - A case study for the UK flooding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the urban economy and society is central to understanding the broad impacts of flooding and to identify cost-effective adaptation and mitigation measures. Assessments of the flooding impacts on cities have traditionally focused on the initial impact on people and assets. These initial estimates (so-called ';direct damage') are useful both in understanding the immediate implications of damage, and in marshalling the pools of capital and supplies required for re-building after an event. Since different economies as well as societies are coupled, especially under the current economic crisis, any small-scale damage may be multiplied and cascaded throughout wider economic systems and social networks. The direct and indirect damage is currently not evaluated well and could be captured by quantification of what we call the flood footprint. Flooding in one location can impact the whole UK economy. Neglecting these knock-on costs (i.e. the true footprint of the flood) means we might be ignoring the economic benefits and beneficiaries of flood risk management interventions. In 2007, for example, floods cost the economy about £3.2 bn directly, but the wider effect might actually add another 50% to 250% to that. Flood footprint is a measure of the exclusive total socioeconomic impact that is directly and indirectly caused by a flood event to the flooding region and wider economic systems and social networks. We adopt the UK 2012 flooding. An input-output basic dynamic inequalities (BDI) model is used to assess the impact of the floodings on the level of a Yorkshire economy, accounting for interactions between industries through demand and supply of intermediate consumption goods with a circular flow. After the disaster the economy will be unbalanced. The recovery process finishes when the economy is completely balance, i.e., when labour production capacity equals demands and production and all the variables reach pre-disaster levels. The analysis is carried out focusing on 42 sectors. Most regional data have been produced from the Multisectoral Dynamic Model of the UK economy. The flooding caused a 3.56% direct damage in the Yorkshire economy, while the indirect accounted for 14.58%.Utilities and transportation where the sectors that suffered the greatest direct impact. This impact indirectly transferred through business and supply chain to services, construction and primary industries.

Guan, D.

2013-12-01

197

The Impact of Credit on Village Economies.  

PubMed

This paper evaluates the short-term impact of Thailand's 'Million Baht Village Fund'program, among the largest scale government microfinance iniative in the world, using pre- and post-program panel data and quasi-experimental cross-village variation in credit-per-household. We find that the village funds have increased total short-term credit, consumption, agricultural investment, income growth (from business and labor), but decreased overall asset growth. We also find a positive impact on wages, an important general equilibrium effect. The findings are broadly consistent qualitatively with models of credit-constrained household behavior and models of intermediation and growth. PMID:22844546

Kaboski, Joseph P; Townsend, Robert M

2012-04-01

198

The Impact of Credit on Village Economies  

PubMed Central

This paper evaluates the short-term impact of Thailand’s ‘Million Baht Village Fund’program, among the largest scale government microfinance iniative in the world, using pre- and post-program panel data and quasi-experimental cross-village variation in credit-per-household. We find that the village funds have increased total short-term credit, consumption, agricultural investment, income growth (from business and labor), but decreased overall asset growth. We also find a positive impact on wages, an important general equilibrium effect. The findings are broadly consistent qualitatively with models of credit-constrained household behavior and models of intermediation and growth. PMID:22844546

Kaboski, Joseph P.; Townsend, Robert M.

2011-01-01

199

The Role of Information in the Economy of the Southeast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special issue presents 15 papers presented at an invitational conference on the role of information in the economic development of the southeastern region of the United States: (1) "Three Days in February: A Summary Report on the Role of Information in the Economy of the Southeast Conference" (Joel Sigmon); (2) "Impressions of the Conference…

Curry, Elizabeth, Ed.

1990-01-01

200

17.100J / 14.781J / 15.678J Political Economy I: Theories of the State and the Economy, Fall 2005  

E-print Network

Political Economy I explores the major social science paradigms for analyzing relations among state, economy, and society. Through readings, lectures and discussion of original texts in political liberalism and individualism, ...

Piore, Michael

201

Economic Impact of Pharmacy Graduates on a Regional Economy  

PubMed Central

Objectives To analyze the impact of recent pharmacy graduates on a local economy. Methods Input-output analysis was applied to data from Spokane County, Washington, in 2006 and the findings were reviewed and conclusions were drawn. Results The local college of pharmacy added nearly $1 million (in 2006) directly to the local economy. New pharmacists added nearly $400,000 in direct value. However, because the graduates alleviated a shortage of pharmacists in the area, thereby avoiding both the tangible and intangible (eg, human health) economic costs of a continued shortage, the true economic impact may have been even greater. Conclusions Doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) graduates entering the workforce add substantial value, both to the local retail pharmacy industry specifically and the local economy in general. Thus, the economic impact of the pharmacy practice program training these students is also substantial. PMID:19564989

Rosenman, Robert; Bozman, Carl S.

2009-01-01

202

Since 1975, the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks has been regulated by the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards,  

E-print Network

Since 1975, the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks has been regulated by the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, established during the energy crises of the 1970s. Calls to increase fuel economy are usually met by a fierce debate on the effectiveness of the CAFE standards

203

Interneuron Diversity series: Circuit complexity and axon wiring economy of cortical interneurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the brain is constrained by wiring length and maintenance costs. The apparently inverse relationship between number of neurons in the various interneuron classes and the spatial extent of their axon trees suggests a mathematically definable organization, reminiscent of ‘small-world’ or scale-free networks observed in other complex systems. The wiring-economy-based classification of cortical inhibitory interneurons is supported by

György Buzsáki; Caroline Geisler; Darrell A. Henze; Xiao-Jing Wang

2004-01-01

204

Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics and East European Economies (SITE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics and East European Economies (SITE/ÃÂstekonomiska Institutet) is an independent research institute at the Stockholm School of Economics. SITE is concerned with the transition from planned to market economies in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Academic research on-site includes a bibliography of recent working papers (1990-present), with most papers from 1998 available for download [.pdf]. Monthly updates of key indicators discussed in the quarterly SITE publication Russian Economic Trends (RET) are also available [.pdf] in addition to RET subscription information and other discussion channels.

205

Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several new and forthcoming books published by the National Academies Press (NAP) can now be read online through NAP's OpenBook feature, that allows readers to view full text of books (.html). The first listed here, "Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards", is an unedited pre-print. It gives the results of a the National Academies Transportation Research Board's recent investigation into the impacts of the CAFE program, which was passed in 1975 in response to oil shortages and required that auto manufacturers increase the sales-weighted average fuel economy for passenger cars and light-duty trucks.

2001-01-01

206

Restore the Economy with Loans to All Taxpayers The mess on Wall Street spilled over into the rest of the economy when it induced a crisis in  

E-print Network

Restore the Economy with Loans to All Taxpayers The mess on Wall Street spilled over into the rest of the economy when it induced a crisis in confidence. People felt insecure and sought to increase their cash is to put enough money into the economy that people will be willing to spend at the level needed to keep

Buehrer, R. Michael

207

15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300...FOREIGN TRADE BOARD REPORTS ON EXPORTS OF TECHNOLOGY § 1300.1 Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries....

2010-01-01

208

The Learning Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern economies can be characterised as ‘learning economies’ in which knowledge is the crucial resource and learning is the most important process. Different kinds of learning and economically relevant types of knowledge can likewise be identified. It is argued that pure market economies, if such existed, would have severe problems in terms of learning and innovation. The ‘learning economy’ is

Bengt-äke Lundvall; Björn Johnson

1994-01-01

209

The Rural Economy in a New Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technological change, globalization, and localization have changed rural economies. They have increased labor productivity, reducing the importance of labor costs in location decisions; decreased the importance of distance; increased the importance of economies of scale; and increased the role of local conditions and choices in determining…

Johnson, Thomas G.

210

Wisconsin Agriculture Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy  

E-print Network

STATUS OF Wisconsin Agriculture 2011 · Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy · Current Outlook: Farm of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural and Life Sciences University of Wisconsin-Madison Cooperative Extension University of Wisconsin-Extension #12;Status of Wisconsin Agriculture, 2011 An annual

Radeloff, Volker C.

211

Legal Regulation on Logistics Management from Aspects of Global Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper firstly focuses on the research background of the thesis, and point out the adjustment of relation between the government and the market during the process of the globalization of economy, which is called the change and movement of main stream in the social realm during the period of reform in China. With the impact of this very social

Shudi Zhu; Lina Huang

2008-01-01

212

Energy and the Wealth of Nations Understanding the Biophysical Economy  

E-print Network

Economy Charles A.S. Hall, SUNY, Environmental Science & Forestry Kent Klitgaard been treated as a social science in which economies are modeled sheets that drive our "petroleum economy." Hall and Klitgaard explore the relation

Hall, Charles A.S.

213

The political economy of international green certificate markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the political economy of establishing bilateral trade in green certificate markets as one step towards harmonization of European green electricity support systems. We outline some of the economic principles of an integrated bilateral green certificates market, and then discuss a number of issues that are deemed to be critical for the effectiveness, stability and legitimacy of such

Patrik Söderholm

2008-01-01

214

AGRICULTURE, 2008 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy  

E-print Network

STATUS OF WISCONSIN AGRICULTURE, 2008 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy Situation and Outlook of Working Lands in Wisconsin · Hired Labor on Wisconsin Dairy Farms Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural and Life Sciences University of Wisconsin-Madison Cooperative Extension

Radeloff, Volker C.

215

The Political Economy of Agrarian Change: Dinosaur or Phoenix?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I argue for the resurrection of the political economy of agrarian change (PEACH) in mainstream policy research in order to understand the deeper causes of poverty and its transformation in rural areas. I critically examine chronic poverty research and argue that in the wake of the devastating critique of PEACH theory, an unlikely combination of post-structural and

Lucia da Corta

216

AGRICULTURE, 2004 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy  

E-print Network

STATUS OF WISCONSIN AGRICULTURE, 2004 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy Situation and Outlook Situation: Implications for U.S. Agriculture · The Evolution and Current Status of Livestock Production and Meat Processing in Wisconsin Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural

Radeloff, Volker C.

217

AGRICULTURE, 2007 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy  

E-print Network

STATUS OF WISCONSIN AGRICULTURE, 2007 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy Situation and Outlook and Challenges · Current Prospects for the 2007 Farm Bill Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural and Life Sciences University of Wisconsin-Madison Cooperative Extension University

Radeloff, Volker C.

218

AGRICULTURE, 2006 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy  

E-print Network

STATUS OF WISCONSIN AGRICULTURE, 2006 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy Situation and Outlook-Added Agriculture · Organic Farming in Wisconsin · A New Wisconsin Cooperative Law Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural and Life Sciences University of Wisconsin-Madison Cooperative

Radeloff, Volker C.

219

Art and Creativity in the Global Economies of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creativity: what might this mean for art and art educators in the creative economies of globalisation? The task of this discussion is to look at the state of creativity and its role in education, in particular art education, and to seek some understanding of the register of creativity, how it is shaped, and how legitimated in the globalised world…

Grierson, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

220

The Political Economy of Colonial Education: Mozambique, 1930-1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under colonial fascism and during the revolutionary period leading to independence, the schooling of the African majority in Mozambique had no direct link with the economy, was more a mechanism of social control than of labor reproduction, and (in contrast to other African colonies) did not produce an African middle class supportive of the…

Cross, Michael

1987-01-01

221

The effect of attentional focus on running economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In research on motor control, the detrimental effect of an internal focus of attention on movement execution of well-learned motor skills is a frequently replicated finding. This experimental study was designed to determine whether this effect is observed with physiological variables during endurance exercise. We examined whether the focus of attention can influence running economy (oxygen consumption at a set

Linda Schücker; Norbert Hagemann; Bernd Strauss; Klaus Völker

2009-01-01

222

Work in Progress: Narratives of Aspiration from the New Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Central to the discourses of the new economy is the model of the flexible, adaptive, ambitious and individualistic worker. This article considers the subjective purchase of that model by analysing interviews with three young women living and working in urban Australia. Their respective narratives of aspiration illustrate contrasting responses to…

Morgan, George

2006-01-01

223

EMISSIONS AND FUEL ECONOMY OF FEDERAL ALTERNATIVELY FUELED FLEET VEHICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents results from a study designed to investigate the effects of automobile fuels on emissions and fuel economy. The study is part of a larger program mandated by the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988 that requires the Department of Energy (DOE), in cooperation w...

224

The Role of Entrepreneurship for Cluster Formation in the Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper summarizes the contribution of the entrepreneurship to the cluster formation in the economy. Emphasis is placed on the so-called “pure” entrepreneurial clusters. The features of the latter are commented on the background of an example from the Bulgarian reality. During the last decades entrepreneurship has become a significant factor for economic development. This is associated first with the

Emil PAPAZOV

2011-01-01

225

Conceptions of Tourism Lifestyle Entrepreneurship: Transition Economy Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifestyle non-economic motives have been recognised as a significant motivational factor for tourism and hospitality entrepreneurs. However, knowledge on the subject is mainly drawn from the perspective of western developed economies, with a paucity of studies focusing on transition and developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to investigate tourism entrepreneurship within the former socialist countries, particularly focusing on

Vlatka Skokic; Alison Morrison

2011-01-01

226

The Socialist System: The Political Economy of Communism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides a comprehensive account of the structure, conduct, and performance of the centrally planned economies of Eastern Europe, the USSR, Communist China and the Marxist LDCs, looking at 26 nations in all. The author focuses on reform, perhaps the most important issue facing countries such as the USSR, Poland, Hungary, and China. Bureaucracy, soft budget constraints, markets, and

Janos Kornai

1992-01-01

227

Perspectives on the Current State Of the Milwaukee Economy  

E-print Network

of the city's tax-base and social capital). Finally, in Milwaukee's slow-growth regional economy, the labor that the lion's share of job growth in the next decade will be in low-paying, low-skill jobs. This report is divided into the following sections, each organized around a series of key charts and tables: · A Slow-Growth

Saldin, Dilano

228

Impact of China on Economies in East Asian Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines China's emergence as a global economic power over the last few decades. It provides an overview of China's economic growth and its impact on East Asian Region (South Korea and Japan). There exits both competitive and complementary linkages relationships among EAR economies. It also explains the flow of capital in the form of FDI.

Ji Hong

229

Assessment of Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Economies  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study is to examine the marginal lands in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies and evaluate their biomass productivity potential. Twelve categories of marginal lands are identified using the Global Agro-Ecological Zones system of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

2009-08-01

230

The Moral Economy of Violence in the US Inner City  

PubMed Central

In an 8-week period, there were 16 shootings with three fatalities, three stabbings, and 14 additional “aggravated assaults” in the four square blocks surrounding our field site in the Puerto Rican corner of North Philadelphia. In the aftermath of the shoot-outs, the drug sellers operating on our block were forced to close down their operations by several mothers who repeatedly called the police. Drawing on the concept of moral economy (Thompson, Scott, Taussig), Mauss’s interpretation of gift exchange, and a political economy critique of hypercarceralization in the United States, we understand the high levels of US inner-city violence as operating within a moral logic framed by economic scarcity and hostile state relations. Residents seek security, self-respect, and profit in social networks that compel them to participate in solidary exchanges of assistive violence dynamized by kinship and gender obligations. A hierarchical, extractive drug economy fills the void left by deindustrialization, resulting in a dynamic of embodied primitive accumulation at the expense of addicted customers and chronically incarcerated just-in-time street sellers at high risk of assault. Nevertheless, the mobilization of violence organizing the illegal drug economy also follows ethical norms and obligations that are recognized as legitimate by many local residents. PMID:25067849

Karandinos, George; Hart, Laurie Kain; Castrillo, Fernando Montero; Bourgois, Philippe

2014-01-01

231

Domination and evolution in agent based model of an economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce Agent Based Model of a pure exchange economy and a simple economy that includes production, consumption and distributions. Markets are described by Edgeworth Exchange in both models. Trades are binary bilateral trades at prices that are set in each trade. We found that the prices converge over time to a value that is not the standard Equilibrium value given by the Walrasian Tattonement fiction. The average price, and the distributions of Wealth, depends on the degree of Domination (persuasive power) we introduced based on differentials in trading "leverage" due to wealth differences. The full economy model is allowed to evolve by replacement of agents that do not survive with agents having random properties. We found that, depending upon the average productivity compared to the average consumption, very different kinds of behavior emerged. The Economy as a whole reaches a steady state by the population adapting to the conditions of productivity and consumption. Correlations develop in a population between what would be for each individual a random assignment of Productivity, Labor power, Wealth, and Preferences. The population adapts to the economic environment by development of these Correlations and without any learning process. We see signs of emerging social structure as a result of necessity of survival.

Kazmi, Syed S.

232

Fuel Economy of Vehicles Made in 2004 Description of the sample  

E-print Network

Fuel Economy of Vehicles Made in 2004 Description of the sample: A random sample of 36 cars and light trucks was obtained from all the vehicle models made in 2004. The combined fuel economy estimate the vehicles got 22 MPG or less. There was a good deal of variability in the fuel economy of the 36 cars

Carriquiry, Alicia

233

Colleges Are Wary of Global Economy's Effect on Foreign Enrollments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economists in both India and China see signs of slackening economic activity, from currency fluctuations in India to a falloff in imports, electricity consumption, and real-estate sales in China. A weakening of the economies in the two countries could be worrisome news for American colleges, for which an uptick in full-paying foreign students has…

Fischer, Karin

2012-01-01

234

Improvement in Running Economy After 6 Weeks of Plyometric Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined whether a 6-week regimen of ply- ometric training would improve running economy (i.e., the oxygen cost of submaximal running). Eighteen regular but not highly trained distance runners (age 5 29 6 7 (mean 6 SD) years) were randomly assigned to experimental and con- trol groups. All subjects continued regular running training for 6 weeks; experimental subjects also

AMANDA M. TURNER; MATT OWINGS; JAMES A. SCHWANE

2003-01-01

235

The Political Economy of Private Roads David Levinson  

E-print Network

4 The Political Economy of Private Roads David Levinson CosaNostra Pizza #3569 is on Vista Road just down from Kings Park Mall. Vista Road used to belong to the State of California and now is called the entire intersection and turned it into a drive- through mall. Now the roads feed into a parking system

Levinson, David M.

236

The political economy of social security: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the literature on the political economy of social security. We review models that address the following questions: (i) Why do social security programs that transfer resources from young and middle-aged workers to the elderly exist? (ii) What are the economic and political interactions between social security systems and other redistributive programs of the welfare state? (iii) How

Vincenzo Galasso; Paola Profeta

2002-01-01

237

Scale-up of bubbling fluidized bed reactors — A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scale-up of bubbling fluidized bed reactors to commercial size is a complex and troublesome endeavor. In particular, the proper scale-up of the hydrodynamics and chemical conversion inside the fluidized bed is subject to many eventualities and pitfalls which may drastically deteriorate the reactor's performance and economy. The main challenge of fluidized bed scaling is the scale dependence of many

Tilman J. Schildhauer; Serge M. A. Biollaz; J. Ruud van Ommen

238

POTENTIAL FOR REDUCING COST OF ENERGY BY SCALING UP A LOW-MASS WIND TURBINE DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost of wind energy is a function of turbine size. Economies of scale are offset by a fundamental mass-driven diseconomy, resulting in an optimum point. The diseconomy is very dependent on turbine design, while the economies of scale are relatively independent. As a result a low-mass design will reach its optimum at a larger scale than a heavier design.

Geoff Henderson

239

The value relevance of earnings in a transition economy: The case of Romania  

E-print Network

in transition economies. Several studies have investigated the case of China (Bao & Chow, 1999; Chen, Chen, & SuThe value relevance of earnings in a transition economy: The case of Romania Andrei Filip reserved. Keywords: Value relevance; Transition economy; Eastern and Central Europe; Romania

Muðan, Uðurhan

240

The Core of an Economy with Multilateral Environmental Externalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

When environmental externalities are international - i.e. transfrontier - they most often are multilateral and embody public good characteristics. Improving upon inefficient laissez-faire equilibria requires voluntary cooperation for which the game-theoretic core concept provides optimal outcomes that have interesting properties against free riding. To define the core, however, the characteristic function of the game associated with the economy (which specifies

Henry Tulkens; Parkash Chander

1997-01-01

241

Ecological utilization of leather tannery waste with circular economy model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circular economy (CE) focuses on resource-productivity and eco-efficiency improvement in a comprehensive way, especially on the industrial structure optimization of new technology development and application, equipment renewal and management renovation. The leather industry on the one side boosts the local economic development, on the other side however leads to the tremendous environment pollution and biological chains destruction. The CE model

Jing Hu; Zuobing Xiao; Rujun Zhou; Weijun Deng; Mingxi Wang; Shuangshuang Ma

2011-01-01

242

A comparative study of projection models on China's food economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades, China's food supply and demand has been a hot topic for both politicians and academics given China's rapid economic development and its sheer market size. Accordingly, researchers are trying to project the future development of China's food economy. This article reviews several influential projection models and compares their model structure, major assumptions and projection results.

Xiaoyong Zhang

2003-01-01

243

China's energy economy: A survey of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the literature on China's energy economy, focusing particularly on: (i) the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth; (ii) China's changing energy intensity; (iii) energy demand and energy-non-energy substitution; (iv) the emergence of energy markets in China; and (v) economic reforms in the energy industry. After reviewing the literature, the paper presents the main findings that some

Hengyun Ma; Les Oxley; John Gibson

2010-01-01

244

Pleasures of Benthamism: Victorian Literature, Utility, Political Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book offers a fresh look at the often-censured but imperfectly understood traditions of Utilitarianism and political economy in their bearing for Victorian literature and culture. It treats writings by Jeremy Bentham, Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo, James and John Stuart Mill, Charles Dickens, Thomas Carlyle, Anthony Trollope, George Eliot, Elizabeth Gaskell, and Rabindranath Tagore. It sets texts in

Kathleen Blake

245

40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.  

...false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR...Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

2014-07-01

246

40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR...Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

2013-07-01

247

40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

248

40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

2012-07-01

249

Political Economy Graduate Certificate c/o Department of Political Science  

E-print Network

Political Economy Graduate Certificate c/o Department of Political Science Clark C346 Colorado.stevis@colostate.edu Political Economy Graduate Interdisciplinary Studies Program Enrollment Form (*) (03/01/05) Name

250

THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF LABOUR MARKET POLICIES IN WESTERN AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES  

E-print Network

THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF LABOUR MARKET POLICIES IN WESTERN AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES OLAF VAN, which is a key element of the flexicurity model. Building on the political economy literature, we test in the political economy literature, but hardly for Eastern European countries, because of a lack of data. We

Galis, Frietson

251

Economic Contributions of the Florida Craft Brewing Industry to the Florida Economy  

E-print Network

Economic Contributions of the Florida Craft Brewing Industry to the Florida Economy Timothy G.....................................................................................................34 #12;i Economic Contributions of the Florida Craft Brewing Industry to the Florida Economy of the Florida craft brewing industry on the state's economy, which was conducted using the University of Florida

Florida, University of

252

Scenario planning and futurology of the Persian Gulf post-oil economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the economy of Persian Gulf countries following a post-oil economy. This is accompanied with a futurology study and planning of certain scenarios that can be applied to these countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study applies a futurology approach by investigating various scenarios to explore the Arab economy after oil. As such,

Ali Asghar Pourezzat; Mostafa Nejati; Ghazaleh Taheri Attar; Seyed Mahdi Sharifmousavi

2011-01-01

253

EconoGrid: A detailed Simulation Model of a Standards-based Grid Compute Economy  

E-print Network

EconoGrid: A detailed Simulation Model of a Standards-based Grid Compute Economy EconoGrid is a detailed simulation model, implemented in SLX1 , of a grid compute economy that implements selected of users. In a grid compute economy, computing resources are sold to users in a market where price

254

On Optimal Monetary Policy Rules and the Construction of MCIs in the Open Economy  

E-print Network

On Optimal Monetary Policy Rules and the Construction of MCIs in the Open Economy By Alfred V open-economy forward-looking model to underscore the important role of the real exchange rate channel in the conduct of optimal monetary policy. As opposed to the closed economy, optimal monetary policy in the open

Hickman, Mark

255

Economic Contributions of the Florida Craft Brewing Industry to the Florida Economy  

E-print Network

Economic Contributions of the Florida Craft Brewing Industry to the Florida Economy Timothy G Contributions of the Florida Craft Brewing Industry to the Florida Economy Executive Summary The Florida Brewers on the state's economy, which was conducted using the University of Florida's Food and Resource Economics

Florida, University of

256

Evolution Model on Relationship between Logistics and Economy of Port Cities and Its Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Logistics and economy influence each other, and their relationship is dynamically changeable. The economy of different stages exhibits various demand for logistics. In order to explore the evolution law of the relationship between logistics and economy, this paper establishes an index system, a comprehensive comparison platform and an evolution model by the methods of principal component analysis and logistic equation.

Hang Chen; Weixin Luan; Yuewei Wang

2008-01-01

257

High-Technology Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies: Firm Informality and Contextualization of Resource-Based Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-technology entrepreneurship in emerging economies takes place in a context very different from that of developed economies. In large measure, this difference is due to greater resource constraints and higher levels of firm informality in emerging economies. In this study, we examine formal versus informal young high-technology ventures, assessing the extent to which firm informality moderates the relationship between technology

Ana Cristina O. Siqueira; Garry D. Bruton

2010-01-01

258

Competition and the Evolution of Market Structure in the Economy : A Simulation Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an evolutionary simulation model, based on replicator dynamics, is developed. The purpose is to identify changes in the patterns of evolution of the market structure caused by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in the E-conomy in comparison to the Old Economy (without ICT). The relationship between the two economy concepts can be summed up from an industrial

B. Cornelia Friedrich

2004-01-01

259

25 CFR 142.8 - Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...ALASKA RESUPPLY OPERATION § 142.8 Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...Whenever possible joint arrangements for economy will be entered into with other...

2013-04-01

260

Allais's Trading Process And The Dynamic Evolution of an OLG Markets Economy  

E-print Network

Allais's Trading Process And The Dynamic Evolution of an OLG Markets Economy Jean-Michel Courtault Bertrand Crettez Naila Hayek November 2003 Abstract We study a trading process for a pure exchange economy the second fundamental conver- gence theorem of Allais [1967] to a pure exchange economy with overlapping

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

261

Contribution, Linkages and Impacts of the Fisheries Sector to Hawaii's Economy  

E-print Network

#12;Contribution, Linkages and Impacts of the Fisheries Sector to Hawaii's Economy: A Social Contribution 11-373 #12;#12;1 Contribution, Linkages and Impacts of the Fisheries Sector to Hawaii's Economy economy. For example, a key factor concerning recent regulations over longline fishing in Hawaii

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

262

25 CFR 142.8 - Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation?  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...ALASKA RESUPPLY OPERATION § 142.8 Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...Whenever possible joint arrangements for economy will be entered into with other...

2014-04-01

263

25 CFR 142.8 - Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...ALASKA RESUPPLY OPERATION § 142.8 Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...Whenever possible joint arrangements for economy will be entered into with other...

2011-04-01

264

Estimating the Economic Impact for the Commercial Hard Clam Culture Industry on the Economy of  

E-print Network

1 Estimating the Economic Impact for the Commercial Hard Clam Culture Industry on the Economy that the economic impact of the cultured hard clam industry on the economy of Florida was approximately $34 million communities and the statewide economy Florida. A follow-up study to the 2000 study was recently funded

Florida, University of

265

25 CFR 142.8 - Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...ALASKA RESUPPLY OPERATION § 142.8 Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...Whenever possible joint arrangements for economy will be entered into with other...

2010-04-01

266

25 CFR 142.8 - Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...ALASKA RESUPPLY OPERATION § 142.8 Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...Whenever possible joint arrangements for economy will be entered into with other...

2012-04-01

267

Entrepreneurship, Foreign Direct Investment and Growth in Transitional Economies: The Case of Poland and China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts an investigation into the trend, pattern and determinants of foreign direct investment (hereafter FDI) in Poland and China and analyzes the role of entreprenership in this process. During the transition period, Poland and China were among the most successful economies in transition, changing from a central regulated economy to a market economy. The transformation occurred quickly and

Pellegrino Manfra

268

Local politics and foreign ventures in China's transitional economy: the political economy of Singaporean investments in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The re-articulation of China into the global economy since December 1978 has led to a tremendous influx of foreign capital during the past two decades. Constrained by the limited domestic market and encouraged by home-country government, transnational corporations from Singapore are regionalising increasingly into the Asia Pacific region. To date, a significant amount of Singaporean investments abroad has gone to

Henry Wai-chung Yeung

2000-01-01

269

Fuel Economy Improvement Potential of a Heavy Duty Truck using V2x Communication  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we introduce an intelligent driver assistance system to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty vehicles irrespective of the driving style of the driver. We specifically study the potential of V2I and V2V communications to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty trucks. Most ITS communications today are oriented towards vehicle safety, with communications strategies and hardware that tend to focus on low latency. This has resulted in technologies emerging with a relatively limited range for the communications. For fuel economy, it is expected that most benefits will be derived with greater communications distances, at the scale of many hundred meters or several kilometers, due to the large inertia of heavy duty vehicles. It may therefore be necessary to employ different communications strategies for ITS applications aimed at fuel economy and other environmental benefits than what is used for safety applications in order to achieve the greatest benefits.

LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Verma, Rajeev [Eaton Corporation; Norris, Sarah [Eaton Corporation; Cochran, Robert [Eaton Corporation

2014-01-01

270

Political economy of the energy-groundwater nexus in India: exploring issues and assessing policy options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indian agriculture is trapped in a complex nexus of groundwater depletion and energy subsidies. This nexus is the product of past public policy choices that initially offered opportunities to India's small-holder-based irrigation economy but has now generated in its wake myriad economic, social, and environmental distortions. Conventional `getting-the-price-right' solutions to reduce these distortions have consistently been undermined by the invidious political economy that the nexus has created. The historical evolution of the nexus is outlined, the nature and scale of the distortions it has created are explored, and alternative approaches which Indian policy makers can use to limit, if not eliminate, the damaging impacts of the distortions, are analysed.

Shah, Tushaar; Giordano, Mark; Mukherji, Aditi

2012-08-01

271

Fuel Economy Comparisons of Series, Parallel and HMT Hydraulic Hybrid Architectures  

E-print Network

Fuel Economy Comparisons of Series, Parallel and HMT Hydraulic Hybrid Architectures Zhekang Du, Kai and do not require costly batteries, they have the potential to achieve high fuel economy and performance and effectiveness in engine management. This paper compares the fuel economies and performance

Li, Perry Y.

272

40 CFR 600.207-86 - Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type. 600.207-86...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

273

Knowledge economy, Learning society and Lifelong Learning A review of the French literature  

E-print Network

1 Knowledge economy, Learning society and Lifelong Learning A review of the French literature savoir" or more often "économie de la connaissance" (knowledge economy-KE-). Similar difficulties arise economy (or society) and the initial and further education systems. But it also could explain why some

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

274

40 CFR 600.207-93 - Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type. 600.207-93...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

275

40 CFR 600.211-08 - Sample calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Sample calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.211-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

276

The 'New Economy' and Economic Growth in Transition Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of the 'new economy' to economic growth in developing countries has so far been minimal. Despite the recent hype, the 'old economy' will for long be the fundamental force behind economic growth in transition economies. Nonetheless, in the longer run the 'new economy' offers great potential for faster economic growth in postsocialist economies. Realizing this potential is however

Marcin Piatkowski

2002-01-01

277

Underdeveloping Appalachia: Toward an environmental sociology of extractive economies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation uses mixed methods to examine the role of the coal industry in the reproduction of Central Appalachia as an internal periphery within the United States and the economic, ecological, and human inequalities this entails. It also analyzes the related political economy and power structure of coal in a national context. Particularly important for analysis of the region's underdevelopment are the class relations involved in unequal ecological exchange and the establishment of successive "modes of extraction." I employ a historical comparative analysis of Appalachia to evaluate Bunker's thesis that resource dependent peripheries often become locked into a "mode of extraction" (with aspects parallel to Marxist concepts of mode of production) triggering economic and ecological path dependencies leading to underdevelopment. This historical comparative analysis establishes the background for a closer examination of the political economy of the modern US coal industry. After sketching the changes in the structure of monopoly and competition in the coal industry I employ network analysis of the directorate interlocks of the top twenty coal firms in the US within the larger energy policy-planning network to examine their connections with key institutions of the policy formation network of think tanks and business groups. My findings show the importance of the capacities of fossil fuel fractions of the capitalist class in formulating energy policy around issues such as the 2009 climate legislation. As a contribution to the growing literature applying the concept of metabolism as link between contemporary and classical theory, I examine the conflict at Coal River Mountain from the vantage points of ecology, political economy, and human development in dialectical rotation. Utilizing Marx's method of successive abstractions, the mountain is presented as a nexus of metabolic rifts in the human relationship to the earth's natural systems and an impediment to genuine human development. Finally, I conclude with some implications of this analysis for building a critical environmental sociology of extractive economies. This dissertation includes previously published materials.

Wishart, William Ryan

278

Quantum Mechanics and the Principle of Least Radix Economy  

E-print Network

A new variational method, the principle of least radix economy, is formulated. The mathematical and physical relevance of the radix economy, also called digit capacity, is established, showing how physical laws can be derived from this concept in a unified way. The principle reinterprets and generalizes the principle of least action yielding two classes of physical solutions: least action paths and quantum wavefunctions. A new physical foundation of the Hilbert space of quantum mechanics is then accomplished and it is used to derive the Schr\\"odinger and Dirac equations and the breaking of the commutativity of spacetime geometry. The formulation provides an explanation of how determinism and random statistical behavior coexist in spacetime and a framework is developed that allows dynamical processes to be formulated in terms of chains of digits. These methods lead to a new (pre-geometrical) foundation for Lorentz transformations and special relativity. The Parker-Rhodes combinatorial hierarchy is encompassed within our approach and this leads to an estimate of the interaction strength of the electromagnetic and gravitational forces that agrees with the experimental values to an error of less than one thousandth. Finally, it is shown how the principle of least-radix economy naturally gives rise to Boltzmann's principle of classical statistical thermodynamics. A new expression for a general (path-dependent) nonequilibrium entropy is proposed satisfying the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

Vladimir Garcia-Morales

2015-01-08

279

Training to maximize economy of motion in running gait.  

PubMed

Recent reviews of how training affects running performance have indicated, to varying degrees, that running economy (RE) is a determinant of running performance. However, the literature suggests that the relationship between training-induced changes in biomechanics and RE is still largely unknown. While there is some evidence that high intensity interval training, plyometrics, and altitude/hypoxia training can improve economy, it remains unclear how these improvements are mediated. In addition, although it is clear from the literature that meaningful differences in RE exist among runners, the causes for the inherent differences are not clear. Consequently, suggestions are made to explore more individualized and integrated models of the determinants of performance that might better explain the interrelatedness of gait, RE, V.O2max, and peak performance. PMID:18477874

McCann, Daniel J; Higginson, Brian K

2008-01-01

280

Inequality in developing economies: the role of institutional development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the distributive impact of institutional change in developing countries. In such economies, property rights\\u000a systems may preserve the interests of an influential minority, who can control key-markets, access to assets and investment\\u000a opportunities, especially if they enjoy disproportionate political power. We test this hypothesis using cross-section and\\u000a panel data methods on a sample of low- and middle-income

Adalgiso Amendola; Joshy Easaw; Antonio Savoia

2011-01-01

281

Business Cycles in Developing Economies: The Case of Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to establish stylized facts for the small developing economy of Tunisia using time series techniques over the period 1963-93. This is achieved by testing for the macroeconomic variables driving the business cycle. The paper extends the vector-autoregression (VAR) approach adopted by Blanchard and Quah (1989) and by Gali (1992), which aliows only for short-term

Khalifa H. Ghali

1998-01-01

282

Scale effects in Schumpeterian models of economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Early models of Schumpeterian growth incorporate scale effects predicting that large economies grow faster than small economies,\\u000a and that population growth causes accelerating per capita income growth. An absence of clear empirical evidence for these\\u000a scale effects has led some researchers to question the foundations underlying the Schumpeterian approach to growth. This paper\\u000a reviews empirical evidence on the relationship

Elias Dinopoulos; Peter Thompson

1999-01-01

283

Small-scale processing of biomass for biorefinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current fossil-based economy is moving towards a more bio-based economy. To enable this transition, many different processes for biorefinery are being developed. Small-scale biorefinery processes can be beneficial, not only socially and ecologically, but also economically. The main motivation for small-scale biorefinery is local re-use of materials, like water, minerals, organic matter, CO2, and heat. This minimizes costs for

M. E. Bruins; J. P. M. Sanders

2012-01-01

284

Fuel economy screening study of advanced automotive gas turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel economy potentials were calculated and compared among ten turbomachinery configurations. All gas turbine engines were evaluated with a continuously variable transmission in a 1978 compact car. A reference fuel economy was calculated for the car with its conventional spark ignition piston engine and three speed automatic transmission. Two promising engine/transmission combinations, using gasoline, had 55 to 60 percent gains over the reference fuel economy. Fuel economy sensitivities to engine design parameter changes were also calculated for these two combinations.

Klann, J. L.

1980-01-01

285

Overall Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that these workers provide. So, to project employment, BLS starts by estimating the components of gross domestic product (GDP) for 2020. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the size--in…

Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

2012-01-01

286

Overall Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that they provide. So, to project employment, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) starts by projecting the gross domestic product (GDP) for 2018. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the…

Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

2010-01-01

287

Dynamic systems of regional economy management optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most actual problems of the Russian economic life is a regional economic systems formation. The hierarchy of economic and branch priorities should follow from the general idea of an industrial policy. The matter is that the concept of an industrial policy is defined by the system of priorities mainly incorporated in it. The problem of priorities is

S. Trofimov; S. Kudzh

2004-01-01

288

The Higher Education-Economy Tie: A Sampling of Exemplary Programs in the West. Higher Education and the Economy of the West. Working Paper #3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper, one of a series from the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education's project "Higher Education and the Economy of the West," describes 31 programs in 16 western states that illustrates higher education's contribution to the economy. Four school-university partnerships are described: the Pueblo School District 60/University of

Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO.

289

Revival of classical political economy: An exposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to discuss the theoretical foundations and policy implications of two of the offshoots of modern macroeconomics viz., supply-side economics and rational expectations; and second to evaluate the recent development of thinking in macroeconomics. Thereby it tries to bring forth the current state of macroeconomics, although the term “current” itself is a difficult

V. Basil Hans

1996-01-01

290

The Political Economy of Bulimia Nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulimia Nervosa constitutes a major social problem. There have, however, been few, if any, attempts to understand the distinctive features of this disorder from within the social sciences. Rather, the increasing prevalence of all forms of eating disorders are understood as a product of how the concepts of ‘femininity’ and the ‘controlled body’ are constructed within contemporary society. Bulimia and

Iain Pirie

2011-01-01

291

Mechanisms and economy of molecular machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cells contain millions of biomolecules that function as molecular machines. This paper reviews aspects of the mechanisms of these machines (alternative pathways and cooperativity) as well as the economic principles of their use in cells. The focus is on the machines that process the genetic information, in particular RNA polymerases.

Klumpp, Stefan

2012-11-01

292

Mapping the structure of the world economy.  

PubMed

We have developed a new series of environmentally extended multi-region input-output (MRIO) tables with applications in carbon, water, and ecological footprinting, and Life-Cycle Assessment, as well as trend and key driver analyses. Such applications have recently been at the forefront of global policy debates, such as about assigning responsibility for emissions embodied in internationally traded products. The new time series was constructed using advanced parallelized supercomputing resources, and significantly advances the previous state of art because of four innovations. First, it is available as a continuous 20-year time series of MRIO tables. Second, it distinguishes 187 individual countries comprising more than 15,000 industry sectors, and hence offers unsurpassed detail. Third, it provides information just 1-3 years delayed therefore significantly improving timeliness. Fourth, it presents MRIO elements with accompanying standard deviations in order to allow users to understand the reliability of data. These advances will lead to material improvements in the capability of applications that rely on input-output tables. The timeliness of information means that analyses are more relevant to current policy questions. The continuity of the time series enables the robust identification of key trends and drivers of global environmental change. The high country and sector detail drastically improves the resolution of Life-Cycle Assessments. Finally, the availability of information on uncertainty allows policy-makers to quantitatively judge the level of confidence that can be placed in the results of analyses. PMID:22794089

Lenzen, Manfred; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Moran, Daniel; Geschke, Arne

2012-08-01

293

Economy of flight at supersonic speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prandtl's theory is used to determine the airflow over bodies and wings adapted to supersonic flight. By making use of these results, and by incorporating in them an allowance for the probable skin friction, some estimates of expected lift-drag ratios are made for various flight speeds with the best configuration. At each speed a slender body and wings having the best angle of sweepback are considered. For the range of supersonic speeds shown an airplane of normal density and loading would be required to operate at an altitude of the order of 60,000 feet. The limiting value of 1-1/2 times the speed of sound corresponds to a flight speed of 1000 miles per hour. At this speed about 1.5 miles per gallon of fuel are expected. It is interesting to note that this value corresponds to a value of more than 15 miles per gallon when the weight is reduced to correspond to that of an ordinary automobile.

Jones, R. T.

1976-01-01

294

Carbohydrate Economy Clearinghouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A creation of the Institute for Local Self-Reliance (ILSR), the Carbohydrate Economy Clearinghouse (CEC) provides up-to-date information on "all facets of the plant matter-based industrial economy" from paints and inks to fuels and construction materials made from plants. In addition to the latest "new materials economy" news, the CEC site hosts a directory of carbohydrate economy companies as well as ILSR reports on plant matter-based products and technologies (in English, French, and Spanish).

295

The political economy of electricity market liberalization  

E-print Network

More than half of the countries in the world have introduced a reform process in their power sectors and billions of dollars have been spent on liberalizing electricity markets around the world. Ideological considerations, political composition...

Erdogdu, Erkan

2012-05-17

296

Documenting the Birth of a Financial Economy  

E-print Network

The birth and explosive growth of mobile money in Kenya has provided economists with an opportunity to study the evolution and impact of a new financial system. Mobile money is an innovation that allows individuals to ...

Suri, Tavneet

297

The Economies of Central Asia: A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ex-Soviet republics of Central Asia have instituted some economic reforms within their authoritarian political systems, including reliance on worldwide exports of their energy, mineral, and agricultural products, and select imports. Besides relatively poor and aid-dependent Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, all have now recovered their pre-independence levels of income and begun to grow at respectable rates. The petro-dependent states of Turkmenistan

Martin C Spechler

2008-01-01

298

The Economies of Central Asia: A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ex-Soviet republics of Central Asia have instituted some economic reforms within their authoritarian political systems, including reliance on worldwide exports of their energy, mineral, and agricultural products, and select imports. Besides relatively poor and aid-dependent Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, all have now recovered their pre-independence levels of income and begun to grow at respectable rates. The petro-dependent states of Turkmenistan

Martin C Spechler

299

The Political Economy of FEMA Disaster Payments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central contribution of public choice theory to the analysis of government activity is in viewing the activities of government,\\u000a not as determined by some single altruistic dictator, but rather as the result of a process involving individual political\\u000a agents who react to the incentives they face. Federal disaster relief, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency\\u000a (FEMA), is one

Thomas A. Garrett; Russell S. Sobel

2002-01-01

300

The Political Economy of FEMA Disaster Payments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We find that presidential and congressional influences affect the rate of disaster declaration and the allocation of FEMA disaster expenditures across states. States politically important to the president have a higher rate of disaster declaration by the president, and disaster expenditures are higher in states having congressional representation on FEMA oversight committees. Election year impacts are also found. Our models

Thomas A. Garrett; Russell S. Sobel

2003-01-01

301

Stock Market Openings: Experience of Emerging Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is an exploratory examination of the benefits and risks associated with opening of stock markets. Specifically, we estimate changes in the level and volatility of stock returns, inflation, and exchange rates around market openings. We find that stock returns increase immediately after market opening without a concomitant increase in volatility. Stock markets become more efficient as determined by

E. Han Kim; Vijay Singal

2000-01-01

302

The economy of brain network organization.  

PubMed

The brain is expensive, incurring high material and metabolic costs for its size--relative to the size of the body--and many aspects of brain network organization can be mostly explained by a parsimonious drive to minimize these costs. However, brain networks or connectomes also have high topological efficiency, robustness, modularity and a 'rich club' of connector hubs. Many of these and other advantageous topological properties will probably entail a wiring-cost premium. We propose that brain organization is shaped by an economic trade-off between minimizing costs and allowing the emergence of adaptively valuable topological patterns of anatomical or functional connectivity between multiple neuronal populations. This process of negotiating, and re-negotiating, trade-offs between wiring cost and topological value continues over long (decades) and short (millisecond) timescales as brain networks evolve, grow and adapt to changing cognitive demands. An economical analysis of neuropsychiatric disorders highlights the vulnerability of the more costly elements of brain networks to pathological attack or abnormal development. PMID:22498897

Bullmore, Ed; Sporns, Olaf

2012-05-01

303

The Physical Economy of the United States of America  

PubMed Central

The United States is not only the world's largest economy, but it is also one of the world's largest consumers of natural resources. The country, which is inhabited by some 5% of the world's population, uses roughly one-fifth of the global primary energy supply and 15% of all extracted materials. This article explores long-term trends and patterns of material use in the United States. Based on a material flow account (MFA) that is fully consistent with current standards of economy-wide MFAs and covers domestic extraction, imports, and exports of materials for a 135-year period, we investigated the evolution of the U.S. industrial metabolism. This process was characterized by an 18-fold increase in material consumption, a multiplication of material use per capita, and a shift from renewable biomass toward mineral and fossil resources. In spite of considerable improvements in material intensity, no dematerialization has happened so far; in contrast to other high-income countries, material use has not stabilized since the 1970s, but has continued to grow. This article compares patterns and trends of material use in the United States with those in Japan and the United Kingdom and discusses the factors underlying the disproportionately high level of U.S. per capita resource consumption. PMID:24436632

Gierlinger, Sylvia; Krausmann, Fridolin

2012-01-01

304

The Political Economy of Financial Fragility  

Microsoft Academic Search

While financial liberalization has in general favourable effects, reforms in countries with poor regulation is often followed by financial crises. We explain this variation as the outcome of lobbying interests capturing the reform process. Even after liberalization, market investors must rely on enforcement of investor protection, which may be structured so as to block funding for new entrants, or limit

Erik Feijen; Enrico C Perotti

2005-01-01

305

The Political Economy of Rural School Consolidation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that social, political, and economic circumstances provide better explanations of rural school consolidation than the advertised curricular, pedagogical, or administrative benefits. Modern views of schooling over recent decades emphasize economic development and the need to improve international competitiveness. There is a…

DeYoung, Alan J.; Howley, Craig B.

306

Physical principles for economies of skilled movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some elementary principles regarding constraints on movements, which may be useful in modeling and interpreting motor control strategies for skilled movements. Movements which are optimum with respect to various objectives, or “costs”, are analyzed and compared. The specific costs considered are related to movement time, distance, peak velocity, energy, peak acceleration, and rate of change of acceleration

W. L. Nelson

1983-01-01

307

The Political Economy of Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Government agencies and professional organizations have attempted to improve education research by creating common standards for judging research quality. However, the absence of agreement regarding research quality has limited the effectiveness of this approach. This article argues that, rather than focusing on standards, policy makers should…

Lykins, Chad

2011-01-01

308

Political Economy of the Kyoto Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kyoto Protocol, negotiated in December 1997, is the first international treaty to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. But Kyoto does not mark the conclusion to international cooperation on climate change. It is really just a beginning. This paper shows that, in the aggregate, the benefits of undertaking the Kyoto reductions should exceed the corresponding costs-provided these are achieved cost-effectively.

Scott Barrett

1998-01-01

309

The effects of trypanosomiasis on rural economy*  

PubMed Central

Trypanosomiasis, both of humans and of livestock, is one of the most important factors restricting economic development in Africa today. The present paper outlines how this disease is limiting agricultural, veterinary and forestry development in the Sudan, Bechuanaland and West Africa. The present tsetse-fly distribution is reviewed. Glossina palpalis and G. morsitans occur in the south Sudan and G. morsitans in the Ngamiland district of Bechuanaland; G. morsitans, G. palpalis and G. tachinoides are the most important species in West Africa. These tsetse flies have altered the cattle distribution in all three regions and, in addition to causing widespread disease, have created local overstocking problems in the tsetse-free grazing areas, and have enforced nomadism on breeding herds and economic loss in slaughter cattle along the trade cattle routes in West Africa. Human trypanosomiasis is not now such an urgent problem and public health measures have led to its control in all three areas. Increased agricultural development, which can be a successful and economic method of reclaiming land from tsetse flies, must be intensified in all three areas. Forest conservation policy comes into conflict with tsetse control measures only in West Africa. Detailed tsetse-fly surveys and research, on which future plans can be firmly based, are now urgently required. ImagesFIG. 6 PMID:14001093

Wilson, S. G.; Morris, K. R. S.; Lewis, I. J.; Krog, E.

1963-01-01

310

The Grid Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work identifies challenges in managing resources in a Grid computing environment and proposes computational economy as a metaphor for effective management of resources and application scheduling. It identifies distributed resource management challenges and requirements of economy-based Grid systems, and discusses various representative economy-based systems, both historical and emerging, for cooperative and competitive trading of resources such as CPU cycles,

RAJKUMAR BUYYA; DAVID ABRAMSON; SRIKUMAR VENUGOPAL

2005-01-01

311

Differences in nitrogen economy of temperate trees.  

PubMed

Twenty-four temperate tree species were classified into three groups based on cluster analysis of relative growth rate, nitrogen concentration, nitrogen-production efficiency, nitrogen-distribution ratio and nitrogen-use efficiency as follows: Group I (Asteridae and Rosidae), Group II (Dilleniidae and Hamamelidae) and Group III (Coniferopsidae). Relative growth rate (RGR) was high in Group II, moderate in Group I and low in Group III. The regression coefficient for the relationship between RGR and leaf nitrogen concentration was higher in Group II than in Group I, and no relationship was observed in Group III. Parameter analysis of RGR indicated that RGR per unit leaf nitrogen was important for all three groups, but that the allocation of nitrogen to leaves was particularly important in Groups I and II. The ratio of dark respiratory rate (R) to net photosynthetic rate (A) was higher in Group I than in Group II. Neither A nor R was measured in the Group III species. A linear relationship was observed between leaf nitrogen concentration and A in Group II, but this relationship was not evident in Group I. PMID:11390306

Shinano, T; Osaki, M; Kato, M

2001-06-01

312

Political economy of the US oil industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The political struggles over oil policy in the 1950s were contests between narrow economic interest groups to collect economic rents, as would be expected if government is considered to be just another forum for rent seeking behavior, with government intervention accepted as a norm. Conversely, the attempt to obtain decontrol of natural gas production during this period, during which consumer

Isser

1989-01-01

313

Sources of Slow Growth in African Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers some econometric evidence on the sources of slow growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. The evidence suggests that the continent's slow growth can be explained in an international cross-country framework, without the need to invoke a special explanation unique to Sub-Saharan Africa. We find that poor economic policies have played an especially important role in the slow growth, most

Jeffrey D. Sachs; Andrew M. Warner

1997-01-01

314

Law as Economy: Convention, Corporation, Currency  

E-print Network

1015 Law as Economy: Convention, Corporation, Currency Ritu Birla* I. Law as Economy: Nomos. Law Inside/Outside Economy of an orthodox faith in economy as universal law, that is, in the free market as the law of the universe

Barrett, Jeffrey A.

315

Performance effects of information asymmetry and economies of scope in diversified service firms.  

PubMed

This study examined the performance effects of information asymmetry and economies of scope in diversified service firms. Tests using both accounting- and stock-market-based measures of performance revealed that information asymmetry improved performance more than economies of scope. As hypothesized, the benefits of information asymmetry were greater for firms offering services whose quality cannot be determined until after their purchase (experience services), and the benefits of economies of scope were greater for firms offering services whose quality can be determined prior to purchase (search services). However, without considering the interactive effects of service characteristics, economies of scope were negatively associated with performance for diversified service firms overall. PMID:10123744

Nayyar, P R

1993-02-01

316

Spark-Timing Control Based on Correlation of Maximum-Economy Spark Timing, Flame-front Travel, and Cylinder-Pressure Rise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted on a full-scale air-cooled cylinder in order to establish an effective means of maintaining maximum-economy spark timing with varying engine operating conditions. Variable fuel-air-ratio runs were conducted in which relations were determined between the spark travel, and cylinder-pressure rise. An instrument for controlling spark timing was developed that automatically maintained maximum-economy spark timing with varying engine operating conditions. The instrument also indicated the occurrence of preignition.

Cook, Harvey A; Heinicke, Orville H; Haynie, William H

1947-01-01

317

16 CFR 502.102 - “Economy size.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.102 “Economy size.” (a) The term economy size means any printed matter consisting of the words “economy size,” “economy pack,” “budget pack,” “bargain...

2010-01-01

318

16 CFR 502.102 - “Economy size.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.102 “Economy size.” (a) The term economy size means any printed matter consisting of the words “economy size,” “economy pack,” “budget pack,” “bargain...

2011-01-01

319

16 CFR 502.102 - “Economy size.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.102 “Economy size.” (a) The term economy size means any printed matter consisting of the words “economy size,” “economy pack,” “budget pack,” “bargain...

2012-01-01

320

16 CFR 502.102 - “Economy size.”  

...AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.102 “Economy size.” (a) The term economy size means any printed matter consisting of the words “economy size,” “economy pack,” “budget pack,” “bargain...

2014-01-01

321

16 CFR 502.102 - “Economy size.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.102 “Economy size.” (a) The term economy size means any printed matter consisting of the words “economy size,” “economy pack,” “budget pack,” “bargain...

2013-01-01

322

Cost and Pecuniary Economies in Cotton Production and Marketing: A Study of Texas Southern High Plains Cotton Producers.  

E-print Network

per unit of output. Second, some inputs, such a heavy equipment, can be used in a more effective manner on larger operations. In addition to speciali zation of labor and technological forces, there are financial contributions to economies .of size.... Such economies may arise from three sources: ? Input economies; ? Marketing economies; ? Economies of vertical integration. Regardless of how pecuniary discounts are achieved, their effect is to lower the technical long-run average cost curves for the farms...

Smith, E.G.; Richardson, J.W.; Knutson, R.D.

1984-01-01

323

Remuneration differences in the emerging economies of China and India.  

PubMed

Emerging economies by definition tend to be less dependent on expatriate skills and labour than lower-income countries, yet remuneration (pay plus benefits) differences between expatriate and local workers persist in them to some degree. According to relative deprivation theory, economic development paradoxically elevates the salience of relatively small gaps in remuneration. We therefore expected workers to report injustice and demotivation regarding relative remuneration, despite the closing of remuneration gaps between expatriate and local workers due to the economic development of recent years. To explore that possibility, 482 skilled professionals from a variety of sectors and organizations in two emerging economies, India (n = 233, response rate = 54%) and China (n = 249, response rate = 58%), participated in the research. International salaries were greater than local salaries by a factor of 2.73:1 in India and 1.90:1 in China; these mean ratios bordered on intolerable in the India sample and were largely tolerable among the sample from China. In both countries, differently remunerated workers differed in their justice cognitions and their demotivation, with lowered motivation and fewer justice cognitions in the locally salaried, local workers. These differences were however more statistically significant between people working in India than in China. Insofar as the motivational and justice gaps persisted, the findings support relative deprivation theory. Insofar as the same gaps appear to be sharper in the country with the higher-not lower-mean remuneration differential, they do not. An in-country workshop with local experts who interpreted the findings (in India), and content analysis of the participants' recommendations (in China) jointly recommended linking remuneration to (i) workplace performance instead of (ii) economy-of-origin, to help promote (iii) fairness. PMID:22044057

Zhou, Erhua Iris; Lu, Zhao; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Tian; Papola, T S; Pais, Jesim; Sahu, Partha Pratim

2010-10-01

324

Consumer Preferences and the Political Economy of Trade.  

E-print Network

?? By integrating theory from political economy and consumer psychology, this dissertation provides a framework for understanding consumer preferences toward trade liberalization. Public support for… (more)

Hearn, Edward Ogle

2013-01-01

325

Running for Exercise Mitigates Age-Related Deterioration of Walking Economy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Impaired walking performance is a key predictor of morbidity among older adults. A distinctive characteristic of impaired walking performance among older adults is a greater metabolic cost (worse economy) compared to young adults. However, older adults who consistently run have been shown to retain a similar running economy as young runners. Unfortunately, those running studies did not measure the metabolic cost of walking. Thus, it is unclear if running exercise can prevent the deterioration of walking economy. Purpose To determine if and how regular walking vs. running exercise affects the economy of locomotion in older adults. Methods 15 older adults (69±3 years) who walk ?30 min, 3x/week for exercise, “walkers” and 15 older adults (69±5 years) who run ?30 min, 3x/week, “runners” walked on a force-instrumented treadmill at three speeds (0.75, 1.25, and 1.75 m/s). We determined walking economy using expired gas analysis and walking mechanics via ground reaction forces during the last 2 minutes of each 5 minute trial. We compared walking economy between the two groups and to non-aerobically trained young and older adults from a prior study. Results Older runners had a 7–10% better walking economy than older walkers over the range of speeds tested (p?=?.016) and had walking economy similar to young sedentary adults over a similar range of speeds (p?=?.237). We found no substantial biomechanical differences between older walkers and runners. In contrast to older runners, older walkers had similar walking economy as older sedentary adults (p?=?.461) and ?26% worse walking economy than young adults (p<.0001). Conclusion Running mitigates the age-related deterioration of walking economy whereas walking for exercise appears to have minimal effect on the age-related deterioration in walking economy. PMID:25411850

Ortega, Justus D.; Beck, Owen N.; Roby, Jaclyn M.; Turney, Aria L.; Kram, Rodger

2014-01-01

326

Thought on sustainable development strategies of airlines under the low-carbon economy background  

Microsoft Academic Search

With greenhouse gas emission, its effect has become more and more serious. Low-carbon economy model should become human being's option for sustainable development. This paper analyses the necessity of airline's sustainable development strategy under low-carbon economy background, and the basic characteristics of low-carbon economy and its influences on airline in China. It indicates that, in order to sustainable development, Chinese

Long Jilin

2011-01-01

327

The Role of Hyperthermia in the Water Economy of Desert Birds B. Irene Tieleman1  

E-print Network

87 The Role of Hyperthermia in the Water Economy of Desert Birds B. Irene Tieleman1 Joseph B A number of authors have suggested that hyperthermia, the elevation of body temperature (Tb) 2 ­4 C above the role of hyperthermia in the water economy of birds is scattered throughout the literature. We purposed

Williams, Jos. B.

328

China's Economy in 2007/2008: Coping with Problems of Runaway Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractFuelled by high domestic investment and rapid export expansion, China's economy grew by 11.4 percent in 2007, the highest increase since 1994 and the fifth consecutive year of double-digit growth. Such spectacular growth performance is unprecedented in the world s economic history. However, the Chinese Government is again worried about a possible “hard landing” for the economy, as no economy

John Wong

2008-01-01

329

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN TRANSITIONAL ECONOMIES: REVIEW AND INTEGRATION OF NEARLY TWO DECADES OF RESEARCH (SUMMARY)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this review is to systematically map research on entrepreneurship in transitional economies since the start of institutional reforms. We build on Smallbone & Welter’s (2001) conceptual arguments on the distinctiveness of entrepreneurship in transitional economies and extend two recent surveys (Yang & Li, 2007 and Meyer & Peng, 2005) of empirical research in this context. We address

Ivan M. Manev; Tatiana S. Manolova

2008-01-01

330

USAGES OF THE INTERNET AND e-TOURISM. TOWARDS A NEW ECONOMY OF TOURISM  

E-print Network

1 USAGES OF THE INTERNET AND e-TOURISM. TOWARDS A NEW ECONOMY OF TOURISM Christian Longhi on the organization of industry and the market dynamics in the tourism activities, focusing in the European scene. Tourism incorporates many features of the contemporaneous information and communication economy. Even if e-tourism

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

331

Impact to New Jersey's Economy of the Loss of Electric Power in New Jersey's  

E-print Network

Impact to New Jersey's Economy of the Loss of Electric Power in New Jersey's Urban Industrial #12;Report 5, Electricity Case Electricity Case: Impact to New Jersey's Economy of the Loss of Electric Power in New Jersey's Urban Industrial Corridor CREATE Report September 13, 2005 Michael Greenberg

Wang, Hai

332

Study on the Evaluation of National Economy of Port Projects under the Green GDP Calculation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional GDP calculation system neglects the cost of natural resources and environment. It can't effectively embodies the correlation between the economic development and the environment and resources. Practice of the Green National Economic Accounting, measuring and guiding the national economy with the index sign of Green GDP, not only can reflect the economy growth level, but also the diapason

Liu Cuilian; Yu Lin

2010-01-01

333

BA Political Economy Political Economy caters for students who wish to understand the  

E-print Network

BA Political Economy Political Economy caters for students who wish to understand the political, philosophical and social underpinnings of modern economies,andwhomayfeeluncomfortablewiththehighly mathematical to International Relations; Introduction to Political Economy; Problems of World History/End of Empire

Miall, Chris

334

Opportunities and challenges of nanotechnology in the green economy.  

PubMed

In a world of finite resources and ecosystem capacity, the prevailing model of economic growth, founded on ever-increasing consumption of resources and emission pollutants, cannot be sustained any longer. In this context, the "green economy" concept has offered the opportunity to change the way that society manages the interaction of the environmental and economic domains. To enable society to build and sustain a green economy, the associated concept of "green nanotechnology" aims to exploit nano-innovations in materials science and engineering to generate products and processes that are energy efficient as well as economically and environmentally sustainable. These applications are expected to impact a large range of economic sectors, such as energy production and storage, clean up-technologies, as well as construction and related infrastructure industries. These solutions may offer the opportunities to reduce pressure on raw materials trading on renewable energy, to improve power delivery systems to be more reliable, efficient and safe as well as to use unconventional water sources or nano-enabled construction products therefore providing better ecosystem and livelihood conditions.However, the benefits of incorporating nanomaterials in green products and processes may bring challenges with them for environmental, health and safety risks, ethical and social issues, as well as uncertainty concerning market and consumer acceptance. Therefore, our aim is to examine the relationships among guiding principles for a green economy and opportunities for introducing nano-applications in this field as well as to critically analyze their practical challenges, especially related to the impact that they may have on the health and safety of workers involved in this innovative sector. These are principally due to the not fully known nanomaterial hazardous properties, as well as to the difficulties in characterizing exposure and defining emerging risks for the workforce. Interestingly, this review proposes action strategies for the assessment, management and communication of risks aimed to precautionary adopt preventive measures including formation and training of employees, collective and personal protective equipment, health surveillance programs to protect the health and safety of nano-workers. It finally underlines the importance that occupational health considerations will have on achieving an effectively sustainable development of nanotechnology. PMID:25294341

Iavicoli, Ivo; Leso, Veruscka; Ricciardi, Walter; Hodson, Laura L; Hoover, Mark D

2014-01-01

335

Effect of Water-Alcohol Injection and Maximum Economy Spark Advance on Knock-Limited Performance and Fuel Economy of a Large Air-Cooled Cylinder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a coolant solution of 25 percent ethyl alcohol, 25 percent methyl alcohol, and 50 percent water by volume and maximum-economy spark advance on knock-limited performance and fuel economy of a large air-cooled cylinder. The knock-limited performance of the cylinder at engine speeds of 2100 and 2500 rpm was determined for coolant-fuel ratios of 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4. The effect of water-alcohol injection on fuel economy was determined in constant charge-air flow tests. The tests were conducted at a spark advance of 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark advance.

Heinicke, Orville H.; Vandeman, Jack E.

1945-01-01

336

The theory of the dual economy and African entrepreneurship in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of the dual economy so permeate research and policy that some very important developments are being overlooked. Their implications could considerably shift the emphasis of policy. This paper looks at this aspect of an important piece of research on Kenyan African businessmen and puts it into a context of the dual economy. The implications of a third sector in

David Steele

1975-01-01

337

Introduction Introduction to paradoxes of creativity: managerial and organizational challenges in the cultural economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This special issue explores the paradoxes caused by the challenge of managing and organizing creativity in the cultural economy. Conventional views of the individual creative artist are replaced by a view of creativity as a social process embedded within organizational and institutional contexts. The cultural economy is broadly defined in terms of breadth of industries included and depth elements

GERNOT GRABHER; CANDACE JONES

338

Human Resources Development and the Structure of Oil Economies: Critical Issues with Illustration from Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil economies have unique structural characteristics that present challenges to mainstream economic policies. This paper examines the relevance of some of the conventional economic and human resources policies being proposed for the oil economies. A case is presented to illustrate that many of these policy recommendations are not based on an adequate understanding of the institutional structure of these countries

I. Sirageldin; M. Khorshid

1995-01-01

339

THE FAILURE OF THE POLL TAX AND CLASSICAL LIBERAL POLITICAL ECONOMY: LESSONS FOR THE FUTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The failure of the Poll Tax has been claimed to be an indictment of the principles of classical liberal political economy that it was intended to apply to local government finance. This article argues that, on the contrary, the failure of the Poll Tax was entirely predictable from the perspective of classical liberal political economy, and, in particular, public choice

John Meadowcroft

2006-01-01

340

Equilibrium Exchange Rates in Transition Economies: Taking Stock of the Issues &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.?In this paper, we present an overview of a number of issues relating to the equilibrium exchange rates of transition economies of the former soviet bloc. In particular, we present a critical overview of the various methods available for calculating equilibrium exchange rates and discuss how useful they are likely to be for the transition economies. Amongst our findings is

Balázs Égert; László Halpern; Ronald MacDonald

2006-01-01

341

A Ricardo model with economics of scale  

SciTech Connect

The simple n-good two-country Ricardo model of international trade has been extremely influential in economics. In this classical model the outcome from trade is always beneficial to both trading countries, and always better than autarky, i.e. no trade. However, in the classical Ricardo models the production functions are always assumed to be either linear in their inputs or to have diseconomies, that is, decreasing returns to scale. This paper extends the analysis of the classical n-good two-country Ricardo Model of international trade to the case where the production functions have economies of scale. It addresses the technical difficulties inherent in economies of scale by integer programming and linear programming methods. The analysis reveals the existence of a well defined region which fills in solidly with equilibrium points as the number of goods becomes large. New economic conclusions follow from the ability to analyze these large models, among them that, in the presence of economies of scale, considerable conflict exists between the interests of the two trading partners and outcomes worse than autarky occur.

Gomory, R.

1994-12-31

342

The impact of circular migration on a village economy.  

PubMed

The author examines the economy of a rural village in Indonesia in which a high proportion of households rely on remittances from urban informal sector earnings. Household income and per capita income are analyzed according to whether or not households have at least one temporary migrant, and by the sex and age of the household head. Findings indicate that "remittances from short-term circular migration push many households into the middle and upper income ranges. However, the wealthiest households continue to rely on traditional high earning activities and do not depend on remittances. The poorest households are scattered among those who rely on remittances and those still totally dependent upon traditional low earning village activities, regardless of the sex and age of the household head." PMID:12281906

Hetler, C B

1989-04-01

343

Econonatology: the physics of the economy in labour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fear of crashes preoccupies stock market observers, both investors and economic decision makers (governments, banks). This is reflected in major efforts to predict future stock values. However, an economic system under prolonged stress may have in its nature to plunge to lower performance levels but recover without suffering damage. To support this claim, we draw parallels between two complex systems: that of the heart, as observed through the rate of heartbeat, and the economy, measured by the stock index record. The ultimate stress situation of fetal heartbeat during labour provides a conceptual basis for accommodating heavy crashes. It also suggests a different perspective for evaluating crashes and post crash recovery in order to diagnose, and (ultimately) prognose, ‘economic health’, in addition to monitoring the stock index value.

Struzik, Zbigniew R.

2003-06-01

344

Powered Ankle-Foot Prosthesis for the Improvement of Amputee Walking Economy  

E-print Network

Powered Ankle-Foot Prosthesis for the Improvement of Amputee Walking Economy by Samuel Kwok-Wai Au LIBRARIES #12;#12;Powered Ankle-Foot Prosthesis for the Improvement of Amputee Walking Economy by Samuel The human ankle provides a significant amount of net positive work during the stance period of walking

Herr, Hugh

345

Research on the Circular Economy Development Mode of Automobile Replacement Parts Industry Based on Reverse Logistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems such as resource shortage and environment depravation are increasingly salient, developing Circular economy having become an unescapable choice of many countries. As an important support of developing Circular economy, the economical and social value of reverse logistics have emerged gradually. The thesis selected the recycle of disabled automobile replacement parts as research object, pointing out that developing the reverse

Yuyan Sun Huimin

2010-01-01

346

Entrepreneurship in Transition Economies: The Role of Institutions and Generational Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition economies have lower rates of entrepreneurship than are observed in most developed and developing market economies. The difference is even more marked in the countries of the former Soviet Union than those of Central and Eastern Europe. We link these differences partly with the legacy of communist planning, which needs to be replaced with formal market-supporting institutions. But

Saul Estrin; Tomasz Mickiewicz

2010-01-01

347

Regulating the cellular economy of supply and demand Jan-Hendrik S. HofmeyraY  

E-print Network

Minireview Regulating the cellular economy of supply and demand Jan-Hendrik S. HofmeyraY *, Athel March 2000 Edited by Gunnar von Heijne Abstract Cellular metabolism is a molecular economy. In addition, a num- ber of concepts central to the classical view of metabolic reg- ulation are shown

348

ENTREPRENEURSHIP, URBANIZATION ECONOMIES AND PRODUCTIVITY OF REGIONS: A MULTILEVEL APPROACH APPLIED TO EUROPEAN REGIONS (SUMMARY)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional economic growth literature has established that differences in regional productivity can to large extent be explained by the density of economic activity. This effect of ‘urbanization economies’ has been documented for regions in the United States (Ciccone and Hall 1996) and Europe (Ciccone 2002). Many studies have since contributed to ‘opening’ the black box of urbanization economies (Duranton and

Niels S. Bosma

2009-01-01

349

Knowledge for What? Wales, Militarisation and the Endless Promotion of the Knowledge Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "knowledge economy" has become the buzzword of development policy in the early twenty-first century. Nations and regions around the world are all told that they must transform themselves into knowledge economies to survive and prosper. This article uses the example of Wales and its recent embrace of a massive military privatisation project in…

Tannock, Stuart

2009-01-01

350

What Is Hampering the Development of Our Education? The New Economy and the New Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the turn of the twenty-first century a paradigm shift in economic development is taking place in the world. This is reflected in the transition to what goes by the name of the new economy. Given birth by the information and communications revolution, this economy is developing under the conditions of globalization and competition while…

Maksakovskii, V. P.

2006-01-01

351

1,The Danish Ministry of Economy and Business Affairs/Danish Energy Authority  

E-print Network

1,The Danish Ministry of Economy and Business Affairs/Danish Energy Authority Master Plan for Legionowo Hydraulic Analyses May 2003 #12;The Danish Ministry of Economy and Business Affairs/Danish Energy Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy on assistance to an Environment Related Energy Sector Programme

352

The Danish Ministry of Economy and Business Affairs/The Danish Energy  

E-print Network

The Danish Ministry of Economy and Business Affairs/The Danish Energy Authority CHP Plant Legionowo Poland Description of the Electricity Market in Poland/CHP-Feasibility analysis April 2003 #12;The Danish Ministry of Economy and Business Affairs/The Danish Energy Authority CHP Plant Legionowo Poland Description

353

Inflation Targeting in the Open Economy: Which Rate of Inflation to Target?  

E-print Network

Inflation Targeting in the Open Economy: Which Rate of Inflation to Target? By Alfred V. Guender discussions on the subject. All errors are those of the author. #12;2 Inflation Targeting in the Open Economy: Which Rate of Inflation to Target?" Abstract: This paper attempts to explain why the central banks

Hickman, Mark

354

The Response of Developing Island Economies to Coral1 Bleaching Events2  

E-print Network

The Response of Developing Island Economies to Coral1 Bleaching Events2 James George Baldwin1 bleaching induced coral reef degradation and the economies of the U.N. defined small island developing reef, ecosystem services, small island developing states,5 tourism, coral bleaching6 Corresponding

Bauer, Dana Marie

355

Investigating Stock Price Dynamics in an Oil-Dependent Economy: The Case of Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent literature on stock markets has used modern time series techniques such as cointegration and causality to identify macroeconomic variables that cause stock index movements. But this type of investigation has to a large extent remained confined to markets belonging to well developed and diversified economies. Motivated by the lack of set-ups involving stock markets from economies with different

Ali Arifa; Khalifa H. Ghali; Imed Limam

2002-01-01

356

From Farming to International Business: The Social Auspices of Entrepreneurship in a Growing Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entrepreneurship has been traditionally concentrated in the hands of a few small communities in most developing economies. As these economies restructure, it is evident that these communities will be unable to satisfy the increased demand for new entrepreneurs. The analysis in this paper suggests that new business networks will compensate for the weak family background of first-generation entrepreneurs under some

Kaivan Munshi

2007-01-01

357

Income inequality in corporatist and liberal economies: a comparison of trends within OECD countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines trends in income distribution since the war in a number of OECD economies. It is shown that while most economies during the first two decades experienced decreasing income inequality, associated with the post-war boom, there has been considerable divergence thereafter. In this process the institutions of each country have mattered a great deal. By examining both liberal

Francis Green; Andrew Henley; Euclid Tsakalotos

1994-01-01

358

China's Energy Economy: A Survey of the Literature by Hengyun Ma and Les Oxley  

E-print Network

1 China's Energy Economy: A Survey of the Literature by Hengyun Ma and Les Oxley No: 2/2009 #12;2 WORKING PAPER No. 2/2009 China's Energy Economy: A Survey of the Literature Hengyun Ma1,2 and Les Oxley1 February 16 2009 Abstract This paper reviews literature on China's energy economics, focusing especially on

Hickman, Mark

359

System-of-Systems Framework for the Future Hydrogen-Based Transportation Economy: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

From a supply chain view, this paper traces the flow of transportation fuels through required systems and addresses the current petroleum-based economy, DOE's vision for a future hydrogen-based transportation economy, and the challenges of a massive market and infrastructure transformation.

Duffy, M.; Sandor, D.

2008-06-01

360

The Role of Craft Industry in Germany's Social Market Economy. Social Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social market economy success in the Federal Republic of Germany is due to free competition, enterprise in the business community, and employees' social security. Craft industries play a major role in Germany's market economy. The craft industry is second only to the manufacturing industry, comprising 23 percent of German firms. There are seven…

Schroder, Karsten

1992-01-01

361

ISOKINETIC ECCENTRIC EXERCISE OF QUADRICEPS FEMORIS DOES NOT AFFECT RUNNING ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vassilis, P, Vassilios, B, Vassilis, M, Athanasios, JZ, Vassilis, T, Christina, K, and Yiannis, K. Isokinetic eccentric exercise of quadriceps femoris does not affect running economy. JS trength Cond Res 22: 1222-1227, 2008—The purpose of this study was to investigate whether running economy is affected by isokinetic eccentric exercise designed to cause muscle damage. Twenty- four young healthy men performed

PASCHALIS VASSILIS; BALTZOPOULOS VASSILIOS; MOUGIOS VASSILIS; JAMURTAS Z. ATHANASIOS; THEOHARIS VASSILIS; KARATZAFERI CHRISTINA; KOUTEDAKIS YIANNIS

362

The Danish Ministry of Economy and Business Affairs/The Danish Energy  

E-print Network

The Danish Ministry of Economy and Business Affairs/The Danish Energy Authority Poland for using EU Funds for Energy Projects December 2004 #12;The Danish Ministry of Economy and Business Affairs/The Danish Energy Authority Poland - Electricity and Gas Market Development Study and Practical Guidelines

363

The Danish Ministry of Economy and Business Affairs/Danish Energy Authority  

E-print Network

The Danish Ministry of Economy and Business Affairs/Danish Energy Authority CHP Plant Legionowo Poland - Final Report Master Plan for PEC Legionowo December 2004 #12;The Danish Ministry of Economy and Business Affairs/Danish Energy Authority CHP Plant Legionowo Poland - Final Report Master plan for PEC

364

Utilization of waste heat in trucks for increased fuel economy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improvements in fuel economy for a broad spectrum of truck engines and waste heat utilization concepts are evaluated and compared. The engines considered are the diesel, spark ignition, gas turbine, and Stirling. The waste heat utilization concepts include preheating, regeneration, turbocharging, turbocompounding, and Rankine engine compounding. Predictions were based on fuel-air cycle analyses, computer simulation, and engine test data. The results reveal that diesel driving cycle performance can be increased by 20% through increased turbocharging, turbocompounding, and Rankine engine compounding. The Rankine engine compounding provides about three times as much improvement as turbocompounding but also costs about three times as much. Performance for either is approximately doubled if applied to an adiabatic diesel.

Leising, C. J.; Purohit, G. P.; Degrey, S. P.; Finegold, J. G.

1978-01-01

365

Study of a Russian University's Organisational Culture in Transition from Planned to Market Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transition from a planned centralist economy to a market economy over the last decade of the 20th century has presented Russian universities with many profound challenges. These challenges require universities to review and consider their organisational culture and deserve careful study. This paper describes the changes that have taken place…

Pushnykh, Victor; Chemeris, Valeriy

2006-01-01

366

Far from Silicon Valley: How emerging economies are re-shaping our understanding of global entrepreneurship  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe three distinct but interrelated processes -- spillover and catch up, brokering and bottom up -- that link globalization to entrepreneurship in emerging economies. We then outline an ambitious research agenda concerning entrepreneurship in the emerging economy context. Is most of such entrepreneurship Kirznerian or Schumpeterian? How do brokering processes work in this context? What informal

T. L. Hill; Ram Mudambi

2010-01-01

367

A Preliminary Analysis of Adaptive Responding under Open and Closed Economies  

PubMed Central

In the current investigation, we evaluated the effects of open and closed economies on the adaptive behavior of 2 individuals with developmental disabilities. Across both types of economy, progressive-ratio (PR) schedules were used in which the number of responses required to obtain reinforcement increased as the session progressed. In closed-economy sessions, participants were able to obtain reinforcement only through interaction with the PR schedule requirements (i.e., more work resulted in more reinforcer access). In open-economy sessions, participants obtained reinforcers by responding on the PR schedule and were given supplemental (free) access to the reinforcers after completion of the session. In general, more responding was associated with the closed economy. PMID:16270843

2005-01-01

368

Emerging Digital Economy II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An update of the 1998 US Department of Commerce document Emerging Digital Economy (reviewed in the April 17, 1998 Scout Report), the second volume of this annual report shows that, although ecommerce remains less than one percent of the retail share of the economy, it continues to grow, "outpacing last year's most optimistic projections." New chapters and analyses include "Contribution of Information Technology to Gross Product Originating Per Worker" and "Labor Markets in the Digital Economy."

Buckley, Patricia.; Cooke, Sandra.; Dumagan, Jess.; Gill, Gurmukh.; Henry, David.; Pastore, Dennis.

369

New Economy Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New Economy Index is a series of indicators that are "gathered from existing public and private data, to illustrate fundamental structural changes in the US economy, to show what those changes mean in the lives of working Americans, and to measure the nation's progress in several key foundation areas for future economic growth." The data in this excellent resource are divided into three sections. What's New About the New Economy includes thirteen indications that show the uniqueness and structure of the new technology-based and innovation-based economy. The second section considers the ways in which the New Economy will affect the lives of American workers. Finally, the third section, Foundations for Future Growth, projects the future growth of technology in the US. The site also includes information about the data sources, endnotes, and several side articles. Although the New Economy Index was created in 1998, the information is still valid and useful.

370

An Assessment of the Economic Importance of the San Carlos Island Shrimp Processing Industry to the Lee County Economy  

E-print Network

to the Lee County Economy Chuck Adams, David Mulkey, and Alan Hodges Food and Resource Economics Department the shrimp processing industry on San Carlos Island contributes to the Lee County economy. Most of the shrimp of the revenues earned on a trip are spent within the Lee County economy. During seasons when shrimp landings

Florida, University of

371

49 CFR 575.401 - Vehicle labeling of fuel economy, greenhouse gas, and other pollutant emissions information.  

...labeling of fuel economy, greenhouse gas, and other pollutant emissions information...CONSUMER INFORMATION Energy Independence and Security Act; Consumer Information ...labeling of fuel economy, greenhouse gas, and other pollutant emissions...

2014-10-01

372

Analysis of the holistic impact of the Hydrogen Economy on the coal industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As gas prices soar and energy demand continues to grow amidst increasingly stringent environmental regulations and an assortment of global pressures, implementing alternative energy sources while considering their linked economic, environmental and societal impacts becomes a more pressing matter. The Hydrogen Economy has been proposed as an answer to meeting the increasing energy demand for electric power generation and transportation in an environmentally benign way. Based on current hydrogen technology development, the most practical feedstock to fuel the Hydrogen Economy may prove to be coal via hydrogen production at FutureGen plants. The planned growth of the currently conceived Hydrogen Economy will cause dramatic impacts, some good and some bad, on the economy, the environment, and society, which are interlinked. The goal of this research is to provide tools to inform public policy makers in sorting out policy options related to coal and the Hydrogen Economy. This study examines the impact of a transition to a Hydrogen Economy on the coal industry by creating FutureGen penetration models, forecasting coal MFA's which clearly provide the impact on coal production and associated environmental impacts, and finally formulating a goal programming model that seeks the maximum benefit to society while analyzing the trade-offs between environmental, social, and economical concerns related to coal and the Hydrogen Economy.

Lusk, Shannon Perry

373

Hydrogen Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 48 minute radio broadcast discusses how a switch between using fossil fuels - oil, coal, natural gas - with cleaner burning hydrogen might occur, thereby lowering production of the greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide) and stopping global warming. The show also considers a report published in the journal, Science, that says no new technology is needed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. There is discussion about what national policies could make a hydrogen economy a reality; which renewable energy technologies should be developed and invested in; how hydrogen will be generated and stored; and how best to build the infrastructure needed for a sustainable energy future.

374

40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

375

40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2012-07-01

376

40 CFR 600.206-93 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled, electric, alcohol...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

377

40 CFR 600.314-08 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.314-08...

2013-07-01

378

40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2013-07-01

379

40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

380

40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

381

40 CFR 600.206-86 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel, and electric vehicle...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

382

40 CFR 600.314-01 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2011-07-01

383

40 CFR 600.314-86 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2011-07-01

384

40 CFR 600.314-08 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2011-07-01

385

40 CFR 600.008-08 - Review of fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the Administrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Review of fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

386

40 CFR 600.314-86 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

387

40 CFR 600.314-01 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

388

40 CFR 600.314-08 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

389

40 CFR 600.314-08 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for...  

...Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.314-08...

2014-07-01

390

40 CFR 600.314-08 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.314-08...

2012-07-01

391

The token economy: a decade later.  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, the token economy has been extended widely across populations and behaviors in treatment, rehabilitation, educational, and community settings. Outcome research has expanded as well to include large-scale program evaluations and comparative and combined treatment studies of the token economy. In a previous review (Kazdin & Bootzin, 1972), several obstacles were identified for the effective application of the token economy. These included identifying procedures to enhance program efficacy, to train staff, to overcome client resistance, and to promote long-term maintenance and transfer of training. The present paper discusses recent advances in research and reviews progress on the major issues identified previously. New issues have become salient in the last decade that pertain to the extension of the token economy to institutional settings. The demands for maintaining the integrity of treatment, the ability to integrate token economies within existing institutional constraints, and the disseminability of the procedures on a large scale are major issues that may dictate the future of the token economy. PMID:6754677

Kazdin, A E

1982-01-01

392

Agents modeling agents in information economies  

SciTech Connect

Our goal is to design and build agents that act intelligently when placed in an agent-based information economy, where agents buy and sell services (e.g. thesaurus, search, task planning services, etc.). The economy we are working in is the University of Michigan Digital Library (UMDL), a large scale multidisciplinary effort to build an infrastructure for the delivery of library services. In contrast with a typical economy, an information economy deals in goods and services that are often derived from unique sources (authors, analysts, etc.), so that many goods and services are not interchangeable. Also, the cost of replicating and transporting goods is usually negligible, and the quality of goods and services is difficult to measure objectively: even two sources with essentially the same information might appeal to different audiences. Thus, each agent has its own assessment of the quality of goods and services delivered.

Vidal, J.M.; Durfee, E.H. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1996-12-31

393

Clinical bioethics in china: the challenge of entering a market economy.  

PubMed

Over the last quarter-century, China has experienced dramatic changes associated with its development of a market economy. The character of clinical practice is also profoundly influenced by the ways in which reimbursement scales are established in public hospitals. The market distortions that lead to the over-prescription of drugs and the medically unindicated use of more expensive drugs and more costly high-technology diagnostic and therapeutic interventions create the most significant threat to patients. The payment of red packets represents a black-market attempt to circumvent the non-market constraint on physicians' fees for services. These economic and practice pattern changes are taking place as China and many Pacific Rim societies are reconsidering the moral foundations of their professional ethics and their bioethics. The integrity of the medical profession and the trust of patients in physicians can only be restored and protected if the distorting forces of contemporary public policy are altered. PMID:16464767

Chen, Xiao-Yang

2006-02-01

394

Rent Control with Matching Economies: A Model of European Housing Market Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Housing markets are thin, and consumer search for housing is costly, time consuming, and risky. Mismatches between tenants and dwellings are common in a laissez-faire market. There are scale economies in accumulating tenants and houses and then matching them up to improve welfare. In many European countries, some housing is rent controlled and rationed by public centralized matching. Waiting time,

Alex Anas

1997-01-01

395

78 FR 77489 - Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy Submission of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy Submission of Questionnaire for OMB Review AGENCY: United...and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy. The investigation was instituted under section...

2013-12-23

396

40 CFR 600.206-86 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel, and electric vehicle...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

397

40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

398

40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

399

40 CFR 600.206-93 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled, electric, alcohol...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

400

40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2013-07-01

401

40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2012-07-01

402

Does a robotic scrub nurse improve economy of movements?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective: Robotic assistance during surgery has been shown to be a useful resource to both augment the surgical skills of the surgeon through tele-operation, and to assist the surgeon handling the surgical instruments to the surgeon, similar to a surgical tech. We evaluated the performance and effect of a gesture driven surgical robotic nurse in the context of economy of movements, during an abdominal incision and closure exercise with a simulator. Methods: A longitudinal midline incision (100 mm) was performed on the simulated abdominal wall to enter the peritoneal cavity without damaging the internal organs. The wound was then closed using a blunt needle ensuring that no tissue is caught up by the suture material. All the instruments required to complete this task were delivered by a robotic surgical manipulator directly to the surgeon. The instruments were requested through voice and gesture recognition. The robotic system used a low end range sensor camera to extract the hand poses and for recognizing the gestures. The instruments were delivered to the vicinity of the patient, at chest height and at a reachable distance to the surgeon. Task performance measures for each of three abdominal incision and closure exercises were measured and compared to a human scrub nurse instrument delivery action. Picking instrument position variance, completion time and trajectory of the hand were recorded for further analysis. Results: The variance of the position of the robotic tip when delivering the surgical instrument is compared to the same position when a human delivers the instrument. The variance was found to be 88.86% smaller compared to the human delivery group. The mean task completion time to complete the surgical exercise was 162.7+/- 10.1 secs for the human assistant and 191.6+/- 3.3 secs (P<.01) when using the robotic standard display group. Conclusion: Multimodal robotic scrub nurse assistant improves the surgical procedure by reducing the number of movements (lower variance in the picking position). The variance of the picking point is closely related to the concept of economy of movements in the operating room. Improving the effectiveness of the operating room can potentially enhance the safety of surgical interventions without affecting the performance time.

Wachs, Juan P.; Jacob, Mithun; Li, Yu-Ting; Akingba, George

2012-02-01

403

Southwest Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dallas Federal Reserve Bank publishes Southwest Economy bimonthly; it covers "agriculture, banking, energy, high technology, manufacturing and international trade" in the Texas- New Mexico- Louisiana region.

1995-01-01

404

EXTREME EVENTS: OBSERVATIONS, MODELING AND ECONOMICS, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Impacts of natural disasters on a dynamic economy  

E-print Network

of natural disasters on a dynamic economy Andreas Groth,1,2 Patrice Dumas,3,1 Michael Ghil,1,2,4 and St.S. economy, based on multivariate singular spectrum analysis. We analyze a total of nine aggregate indicators in a 52-year interval (1954­2005) and demonstrate that the be- havior of the U.S. economy changes

Ghil, Michael

405

Table of Contents Page 2National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and Its Forecasted Impact on the Florida Economy  

E-print Network

Impact on the Florida Economy History and Evaluation of the Economic Impact of the Magnet Lab Forecasted Impact on the Florida Economy The National Science Foundation (NSF) awarded the National High generated by Magnet Lab activities across the broader statewide economy. Since 1990, the Magnet Lab has

Weston, Ken

406

78 FR 2690 - Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part I; Institution of Investigation and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part I; Institution of Investigation...Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part I, for the purpose of preparing...Digital Trade in the U.S and Global Economies, Part I, will: Describe...

2013-01-14

407

40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2012-07-01

408

40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2013-07-01

409

40 CFR 600.210-12 - Calculation of fuel economy and CO2 emission values for labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy and CO2 emission values for labeling...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2013-07-01

410

40 CFR 600.210-12 - Calculation of fuel economy and CO2 emission values for labeling.  

...2014-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy and CO2 emission values for labeling...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2014-07-01

411

40 CFR 600.210-12 - Calculation of fuel economy and CO2 emission values for labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy and CO2 emission values for labeling...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2012-07-01

412

Export quality: representing Fijian bodies and the economy of war.  

PubMed

Fijian bodies have become a valuable commodity in the economy of war. Remittances from workers overseas are Fiji's largest income – exceeding that of tourism and sugar export. This essay examines historical and contemporary representations of the black male body that perpetuate the exploitation of Fijians by inscribing the Fijian male body as warrior, criminal and protector. Taking a multidisciplinary approach informed by sociology, cultural theory, Pacific studies, visual culture, feminist and post-colonial theory, my practice is the vehicle through which I address issues of neocolonial commodification of Fijian bodies. Through an analysis of my own staged photographs and vernacular images taken by Fijians working for private security military companies and British and US armies, I hope to challenge audiences to consider their own perceptions of Fijian agency and subjectivity. By theorising the politicisation of the black body and interrogating colonial representations of blackness, I argue that we can begin to create links between the historical and contemporary exploitation of Fijians and that at the essence of both is an underlying racial hierarchy and economic requirement for cheap and, arguably, expendable labour. PMID:21761619

Bolatagici, Torika

2011-01-01

413

The Impact of Importation of Grant and Research Money on a State Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent article by Lillis and Tonkovich that discusses the impact upon a regional economy of the "export" of grant and contract research services by a university is criticized. Several analytical errors are identified. (LBH)

Bourque, Philip J.; Pedersen, Douglas H.

1977-01-01

414

[From biodiversity to biodiversification: a new economy of nature?].  

PubMed

This paper explores the relations between economy and ecology in the last quarter of the 20th century with the example of biodiversity. From its definition in the 1980s, the concept of biodiversity responded not only to conservational concerns but also to hopes and demands of economic profitability. The paper argues that archival systems of inventorying and surveying nature, the biodiversity database and the biodiversity portfolio, changed the view on nature from a resource to an investment. The paper studies the alliances of ecologists and environmental economists in managing nature according to economic principles of successful asset management, "diversification", with the aim to distribute risk, minimize ecological loss and maximize overall ecosystem performance. Finally, the paper discusses the assumptions and the consequences of transferring principles from financial risk management to landscape management. How has the substitution of the existential values of nature by shareholder value affected the relations between ecology, environment, and ecosystem conservation? Who gains and who looses in exchanging natural capital and financial capital, yields, and profits? PMID:24988757

Höhler, Sabine

2014-03-01

415

40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

416

78 FR 12787 - Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2; Institution of Investigation and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2; Institution of Investigation...Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2. The Commission's report...Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 1, which is scheduled to be...

2013-02-25

417

78 FR 54677 - Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy; Institution of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy; Institution of Investigation and Scheduling...Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy. DATES: January 21, 2014: Deadline...that those barriers have on the U.S. economy and U.S. jobs. As requested by...

2013-09-05

418

Lessons from the UK Know How Funds Initiative: Development of Peer Education for Business in Emergent Market Economies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship that has existed historically between industry and higher education in Western economies is currently being mirrored in the transforming economies of the former Soviet Union. These emerging market economies have been encouraged by their association with a now obsolete British Council awards scheme to study historical and current…

Morrison, A.

2003-01-01

419

Are you sitting comfortably? The political economy of the body.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between the mass production of furniture in modern industrial societies and lower back pain (LBP). The latter has proven to be a major cost to health services and private industry throughout the industrialised world and now represents a global health issue as recent WHO reports on obesity and LBP reveal. Thus far there have been few co-ordinated attempts to deal with the causes of the problem through public policy. Drawing upon a range of sources in anthropology, health studies, politics and economics, the paper argues that this a modern social problem rooted in the contingent conjuncture of natural and social causal mechanisms. The key question it raises is: what are the appropriate mechanisms for addressing this problem? This paper develops an analysis rooted in libertarian social theory and argues that both the state and the capitalist market are flawed mechanisms for resolving this problem. There remains a fundamental dilemma for libertarians, however. Whilst the state and the market may well be flawed mechanisms, they are the dominant ones shaping global political economy. To what extent can libertarians work within these structures and remain committed to libertarian goals? PMID:19170972

Wilkin, Peter

2009-01-01

420

An Assessment of the Technical Feasibility of Cogenerator Participation in the ERCOT Broker and Economy Programs  

E-print Network

Utilities in Texas have several methods to exchange economy and emergency power under rules established by the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The power exchanges permit utilities with temporary surplus energy to supply power...

Bracheen, L.

421

David Hume's model of man: Classical political economy as “inspired” political economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to analyse David Hume's model of man. We show that three major elements characterize his representation of man: first the weaknesses and limitations of human rationality; second, the psychological foundations of human behaviour, with a particular focus on the role of association in human cognition; and third, the collective dimension of individual learning through

Alain Marciano

2006-01-01

422

Impact of Vehicle Weight Reduction on a Class 8 Truck for Fuel Economy Benefits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this study funded by The Aluminum Association, Ricardo evaluates class 8 truck and trailer fuel economy improvements through the implementation of lightweight materials. All tests were performed in simulations utilizing published and Ricardo proprietary data within three drive cycles. Itâs concluded when comparing an aluminum intensive truck to a steel intensive truck, that the aluminum truck has a 1%-6% increase in fuel economy with an unloaded trailer and 2%-5% increase in fuel economy with a half loaded trailer (40,000 lbs. GVW).

Association, The A.

423

The architecture of dependence : a digital entertainment entrepreneurship laboratory in the network economy  

E-print Network

The dual phenomena of the information revolution and the rise of the network economy presents an interesting challenge to the architect. Architecture must shift away from the design of singular buildings, and more towards ...

Tsai, Allen L. (Allen Lun), 1972-

1999-01-01

424

NATURE'S BLESSING OR NATURE'S CURSE: THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF TRANSITION IN RESOURCE-BASED ECONOMIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the reform progress made in the energy-rich states of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan (AKTU for short) and contrasts their development to that in the resource-poor countries at the CIS periphery. The main argument of the paper is that far from being a blessing that would have allowed energy-rich countries to

Akram Esanov; Martin Raiser; Willem Buiter

2004-01-01

425

Classical Political Economy and the Role of Universities in the New Knowledge Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher education has become the new star ship in the policy fleet for governments around the world. The public policy focus on higher education, in part, reflects a growing consensus in macroeconomics of 'new growth' or 'endogenous growth' theory, based on the work of Solow, Lucas and Romer that argues that the driving force behind economic growth is technological change

Michael A. Peters

2003-01-01

426

Monuments for capital : the production of urban centralities for a global economy  

E-print Network

Keywords: Monument, CBD, Office tower, Podium, Global economy, China. The Central Business District (CBD) is the monument of the regional urban condition. A monument, which is expressive of financial competence and global ...

Ruthenberg, Yaacov Eyal

2013-01-01

427

Veterinary Services in Belize: adapting organisational models to the needs of small economies.  

PubMed

International trade in agricultural goods is governed by the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the 'SPS Agreement') of the World Trade Organization. Small economies, such as the economy of Belize, must have the necessary infrastructure in place to meet their obligations and exercise their rights under the SPS Agreement. In response to the shortcomings of a small economy, the Belize Government has established the Belize Agricultural Health Authority (BAHA) as its organisational model, to meet the challenges of providing Veterinary Services in this new millennium, as well as the demands of the international trade in animals and plants and their products. This model became operational in the year 2000 and has received national and international recognition as an appropriate model for small economies. The success of BAHA is due to strong political support and its dual public and private sector characteristics. PMID:15884582

Góngora, V

2003-08-01

428

Bose-Einstein distribution of money in a free-market economy. II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We argue about the application of methods of statistical mechanics to free economy (Kusmartsev F. V., Phys. Lett. A, 375 (2011) 966) and find that the most general distribution of money or income in a free-market economy has a general Bose-Einstein distribution form. Therewith the market is described by three parameters: temperature, chemical potential and the space dimensionality. Numerical simulations and a detailed analysis of a generic model confirm this finding.

Kürten, K. E.; Kusmartsev, F. V.

2011-01-01

429

Correlations of fuel economy, exhaust hydro-carbon concentrations, and vehicle performance efficiency  

E-print Network

. The state of operation of the internal conbustion engine is directly related to its combustion efficiency which may be measured by several parameters, in this case fuel economy, as measured by gasoline mileage and air pollution potential as measured... of the SAE. being used for tune-ups and the possibility of establishing new methods so that the internal combustion engine can operate at peak efficiency which will result in less emissions and better fuel economy. Problem. ? Hydrocarbon emissions...

Baumann, Philip Douglas

1974-01-01

430

Techno economic systems and excessive consumption: a political economy of 'pathological' gambling.  

PubMed

This article argues that gambling is a paradigmatic form of consumption that captures the intensified logic at the heart of late modern capitalist societies. As well as a site of intensified consumption, it claims that gambling has also become the location of what has been described as a new form of 'social pathology' related to excess play. Drawing on Castells' (1996) notion of techno-economic systems, it explores the ways that intersections between technology, capital and states have generated the conditions for this situation, and critiques the unequal distribution of gambling environments that result. It argues that, while the products of these systems are consumed on a global scale, the risks associated with them tend to be articulated in bio-psychological discourses of 'pathology' which are typical of certain types of knowledge that have salience in neo-liberal societies, and which work to conceal wider structural relationships. We argue that a deeper understanding of the political and cultural economy of gambling environments is necessary, and provide a synoptic overview of the conditions upon which gambling expansion is based. This perspective highlights parallels with the wider global economy of finance capital, as well as the significance of intensified consumption, of which gambling is an exemplary instance. It also reveals the existence of a geo-political dispersal of 'harms', conceived as deteriorations of financial, temporal and social relationships, which disproportionately affect vulnerable social groups. From this, we urge an understanding of commercial gambling based on a critique of the wider social body of gambling environments within techno economic systems, rather than the (flawed) individual bodies within them. PMID:24320073

Reith, Gerda

2013-12-01

431

17.424 International Political Economy of Advanced Industrial Societies, Spring 2007  

E-print Network

This graduate class is designed as a PhD-level overview of international political economy (IPE), with an emphasis on the advanced industrial countries. The syllabus is divided into three sections: international trade; ...

Singer, David Andrew

432

Vehicle fuel economy benefit and aftertreatment requirement of an HCCI-SI engine system  

E-print Network

This body of work dimensions the HCCI fuel economy benefits and required aftertreatment performance for compliance with emissions regulations in North America and Europe. The following parameters were identified as key ...

Hardy, AliciA Jillian Jackson, 1978-

2007-01-01

433

40 CFR 600.510-08 - Calculation of average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978 Passenger Automobiles...Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid...automobiles manufactured during model years 1993 through 2019...

2010-07-01

434

Reframing Automobile Fuel Economy Policy in North America: The Politics of Punctuating a Policy Equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USA and Canada generate over one?third of the transportation?related emissions of carbon dioxide in the world. Motor vehicles produce a majority of these emissions. This paper examines how the US Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulatory standard for light?duty vehicles has established an underlying fuel economy policy paradigm for the highly integrated North American automotive sector. While these standards

Anthony Perl; James A. Dunn jr

2007-01-01

435

Workforce Development in the Global Economy  

E-print Network

Workforce Development in the Global Economy: LINKING SKILLS AND CAPABILITIES Phil Psilos & Competitiveness Duke University INTRODUCTION NOVEMBER 2011 #12;Workforce Development in the Global Economy competitiveness, and innovation in the knowledge economy. Duke CGGC works with a network of researchers

Richardson, David

436

Further results on the macroeconomic effects of AIDS: the dualistic, labor-surplus economy.  

PubMed

Analyses by Cuddington in 1993 and forthcoming work from Cuddington and Hancock model the macroeconomic effects of the AIDS epidemic using a modified Solow growth model. This single-sector framework rests upon the assumption that labor and capital are always efficiently allocated throughout the economy with neither market failures nor policy-induced distortions resulting in resource misallocation. Economies in low-income developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, however, are not operating at capacity. Impact models based upon the potential growth path of economies will therefore significantly overstate the effect of an AIDS epidemic. The author thus incorporates the presence of underemployment and dual labor markets to redress the limitations of these earlier impact models. The dual-economy simulations of the economic impact of AIDS using Tanzanian data suggest that the macroeconomic consequences of the epidemic are of the same order of magnitude as those obtained using a single-sector, full-employment model: gross domestic product (GDP) is 15-25% smaller by 2010 than it would have been without AIDS, and per capita GDP is 0-10% smaller. Output lost from AIDS in the dual-economy framework is approximately the same as the output gain achievable through policies designed to increase labor market flexibility. Findings suggest that serious economic reform in economies fraught with AIDS may lessen the negative economic effects of the epidemic. PMID:12345580

Cuddington, J T

1993-09-01

437

Application of the Input-Output Decomposition Technique to China's Regional Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural decomposition techniques based on input-output table have become a widely used tool for analyzing long term economic growth. However, due to limitations of data, such techniques have never been applied to China's regional economies. Fortunately, in 2003, China's Interregional Input-Output Table for 1987 and Multi-regional Input-Output Table for 1997 were published, making decomposition analysis of China's regional economies possible.

Bo Meng; Qu Chao

2007-01-01

438

Strategic fit in transitional economies: The case of China’s electronics industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strategic fit paradigm, originally derived from observations in market-based economies, asserts that an appropriate match between environment and strategy has significant and positive implications for business performance. Based on a random sample of Chinese electronics firms, this study systematically examines the applicability of the strategic fit paradigm in China’s centrally planned economy in transition. Results indicate that while environment-strategy

Bryan A. Lukas; J. Justin Tan; G. Tomas M Hult

2001-01-01

439

Multi-Economy Foresight Activities of the APEC Center for Technology Foresight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foresight has been recognized as an important tool for S&T planning and policy. The foresight methods themselves are also applied in different contexts and situations, depending on the objectives and application. This paper discusses 5 multi -economy projects completed during 1998-2002 by the APEC CTF. The first section provides a short description of the Center' s 5 multi-economy projects as

Witaya Jeradechakul; Chatri Sripaipan; Tamsin Jewell

440

State of the Art in Economics Education and Research in Transition Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the institutional capacity to create and evaluate economic policies remains a critical need—and constraint—in most transition economies if they are to complete the successful passage to fully functioning market economies. To take an active role in the transition process, economic policymakers, business leaders, government officials, and others need a thorough grounding in market-based economics. This requires strengthening

Boris Pleskovic; Anders Åslund; William Bader; Robert Campbell

2000-01-01

441

Divorce Economy  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Is divorce good for the economy? Some market analysts in South Korea would answer with a resounding "geu rum yo!" That's "Yes!" in Korean. Korea's rapidly rising divorce rate seems to have softened the stigma attached...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2006-08-09

442

Center on Japanese Economy and Business Economy and  

E-print Network

Center on Japanese Economy and Business Center on Japanese Economy and Business AnnuAl report 2012 25 Events 26 Conferences 26 Inequality, Fragmentation, and Integration in the World Economy 26 an International Fashion Brand: From Japan by Way of China 39 Japan's Powers That Be: Ideals, Reality, and Rhetoric

Venkataraman, Latha

443

Higher Education and the Economy: A Survey of the Impacts on Pennsylvania's Economy of Its Colleges and Universities. Case Study Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economic impact of Pennsylvania colleges and universities on the community, region, and state and the immediate new economic return for public and private dollars were assessed. One study phase involved the collective impacts of all of the accredited 2- and 4-year degree-granting colleges and universities in Pennsylvania upon the total economy

Greenwood, Robert; And Others

444

Knowledge Economy and Research Innovation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "knowledge economy" has been received with considerable scepticism by scholars within the fields of political economy, social and political philosophy, and higher education. Key arguments within this literature are reviewed in this article to suggest that, despite policy claims, "knowledge economy" does not describe a "new" mode of economic…

Bastalich, Wendy

2010-01-01

445

Political Economy and Science OLLI Lecture 02  

E-print Network

;Outline · Review Growth · Public Goods · Estimate Gains · Political Economy of Science · Caveats and my;Growth and Science · Expenditures on basic research vary · 2% Long Run growth rate does not · Either #12;How Do We Fund Public Goods? · Usually taxes · Who do we tax? ­ Rich! · World scale => tax high

Stoiciu, Mihai

446

The Knowledge Economy and Higher Education: Rankings and Classifications, Research Metrics and Learning Outcomes Measures as a System for Regulating the Value of Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the global knowledge economy (the k-economy), comprised by (1) open source knowledge flows and (2) commercial markets in intellectual property and knowledge-intensive goods. Like all economy the global knowledge economy is a site of production. It is also social and cultural, taking the form of a one-world community mediated…

Marginson, Simon

2009-01-01

447

Varieties of Capitalism and the Limits of Entrepreneurship Policy: Institutional Reform in Germany’s Coordinated Market Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent debates on the comparative institutional advantages of diverse national models of capitalist development tend to differentiate\\u000a between liberal market economies like the United States dominated by market coordination and coordinated market economies\\u000a like Germany that highlight nonmarket coordination schemes. Institutional advantages of the liberal type inform reform initiatives\\u000a in coordinated market economies, involving the domain of entrepreneurship policy. These

Alexander Ebner

2010-01-01

448

From a Failed-Growth Economy to a Steady-State Economy  

E-print Network

From a Failed-Growth Economy to a Steady-State Economy By Herman Daly A steady-state economy of negative growth, a depression such as we are entering now, is a failed-growth economy, not a steady-state economy. Halting an accelerating downward spiral is necessary but is not the same thing as resuming

Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

449

Education and Training for Development in East Asia: The Political Economy of Skill Formation in East Asian Newly Industrialised Economies. ESRC Pacific Asia Programme [Series].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a detailed analysis of the development of education and training systems in Asia and the relationship with the process of economic growth. Focus is on four impoverished agrarian economies--Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan--that were transformed in little more than a generation into East Asian "tigers":…

Ashton, David; Green, Francis; James, Donna; Sung, Johnny

450

Predicting Individual Fuel Economy  

SciTech Connect

To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel economies based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel economy estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel economy data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel economy based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG. The EPA 2008 estimates appear to be equally inaccurate and substantially more biased relative to the self-reported data. Furthermore, the 2008 estimates exhibit an underestimation bias that increases with increasing fuel economy, suggesting that the new numbers will tend to underestimate the real-world benefits of fuel economy and emissions standards. By including several simple driver and vehicle attributes, the Individualized Model reduces the unexplained variance by over 55% and the standard error by 33% based on an independent test sample. The additional explanatory variables can be easily provided by the individuals.

Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

2011-01-01

451

Canadian Economy Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's a bird, it's a plane, no, it's Captain Economy! That's right, at this very comprehensive site devoted to Canada's economy, visitors can ask the little green guy with the cape and dollar sign on his chest for help. In fact, his first feat is to address just what an economy is anyway. The site offers all sorts of statistics about all of the great economic indicators like inflation rate, unemployment rate, exchange rate, etc. Visitors to the site can click on one of the subpages devoted to explaining economic topics such as Key Indicators, Economic Concepts, and Key Economic Events.

452

Ruptures, rights, and repair: the political economy of trauma in Haiti.  

PubMed

This article analyzes the unintended consequences of humanitarian and development interventions in Haiti implemented to facilitate its postconflict transition following the period of military rule between 1991 and 1994. International and national governmental and nongovernmental initiatives to provide redress and healing to victims of human rights abuses from this period inadvertently contributed to the growth of a political economy of trauma. I argue that state-sponsored and non-state interventions aimed at truth seeking, acknowledging past ruptures, and reparations have intersected with the politics of local communities in ways that contribute to the commoditization of suffering in the political economy of trauma. The experience of a woman whose bodily integrity and personal sovereignty were violated by members of Haiti's terror apparatus demonstrates the presence of a terror economy. My witnessing of her interactions with the international and national humanitarian and development aid organizations that assisted her in the aftermath of violation revealed the contours of the compassion economy. It is the compassion economy that is the particular focus of this article. I evaluate whether rendering visible or audible the individual and collective suffering of the past truly aid processes of social reconstruction, democratization, and peace building, especially in states plagued with ongoing social, political, and economic insecurity. I argue that the forms of citizenship that these interventions engender are rarely permanent, especially in fragile or failed states, and may exacerbate the societal cleavages that gave rise to conflict. PMID:19836120

James, Erica Caple

2010-01-01

453

Ecological accounting and evaluation of urban economy: Taking Beijing city as the case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban economy is confronted with increasing biophysical limitations derived from the exhaustion of natural resources and the depletion of environmental capacity, and human cultural diversity has been declining during the fast urbanization. The conventional anthropocentric economics, regarding the natural environment as the 'exterior' of human economy, is invalid in the scientific evaluation on the contribution of natural resources and environment as well as human culture when facing the current urban crises. The theory of embodied cosmic exergy, as the latest development of ecological economics and ecological thermodynamics, is introduced in this study to construct an ecological evaluation framework of urban economy. The advantage of embodied cosmic exergy dedicated to ecological economics has been discussed in comparison with other ecological evaluation alternatives. Transformities describing hierarchies and manifesting quality are systematically calculated and tabulated. A new framework of embodied cosmic exergy based on network accounting (EmexNA) is sketched out in this study, taking not only diversity flows but also ecological stocks into consideration. The stock based concept of 'ecological wealth' and the flow based concept of 'ecological cost' as well as related evaluation indicators are developed based on EmexNA. Taking Beijing city as the case, the network accounting and related ecological evaluation of a practical urban economy are carried out in this study in the light of the basic social, economic and environmental data available from 1990 to 2005 of Beijing. The system construction and the ecological mechanism of the development of Beijing economy are correspondingly illuminated and discussed.

Ji, Xi

2011-03-01

454

Predicting Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy as a Function of Highway Speed  

SciTech Connect

The www.fueleconomy.gov website offers information such as window label fuel economy for city, highway, and combined driving for all U.S.-legal light-duty vehicles from 1984 to the present. The site is jointly maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and also offers a considerable amount of consumer information and advice pertaining to vehicle fuel economy and energy related issues. Included with advice pertaining to driving styles and habits is information concerning the trend that as highway cruising speed is increased, fuel economy will degrade. An effort was undertaken to quantify this conventional wisdom through analysis of dynamometer testing results for 74 vehicles at steady state speeds from 50 to 80 mph. Using this experimental data, several simple models were developed to predict individual vehicle fuel economy and its rate of change over the 50-80 mph speed range interval. The models presented require a minimal number of vehicle attributes. The simplest model requires only the EPA window label highway mpg value (based on the EPA specified estimation method for 2008 and beyond). The most complex of these simple model uses vehicle coast-down test coefficients (from testing prescribed by SAE Standard J2263) known as the vehicle Target Coefficients, and the raw fuel economy result from the federal highway test. Statistical comparisons of these models and discussions of their expected usefulness and limitations are offered.

Thomas, John F [ORNL; Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL

2013-01-01

455

Entrepreneurship in transitional economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the relationship among socio-political culture and the economic environment. It places the entrepreneur\\u000a at the forefront of the Transitional Economy and identifies the entrepreneur as a catalyst for change and progress. Within\\u000a wider world changes, this discussion and interrogation of entrepreneurial development in the Transitional Economy provides\\u000a new knowledge from the perspective of both the authors and

Janusz K. Tanas; David B. Audretsch

456

General Calculation Formula on the Influence of Extraction Steam Pressure Loss on Thermal Economy of Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction steam pressure loss will occur as extraction steam flows through the pipe and the heater. The thermal economy of the unit is decreased by the occurrence of extraction steam pressure loss. Based on the basic equations of thermodynamic system, the influence of drain water enthalpy on thermal efficiency of unit is calculated in the paper, and the law of

Zhang Xue-lei; Wang Song-ling; Chen Hai-ping; Zhou Lan-xin

2005-01-01

457

Virtual Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Launched February 26, 1999, Virtual Economy (VE) is an Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS), Biz/ed, and Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC-UK) learning tool based on the UK governmental model for economic forecasting and planning. This elaborate site contains a "floor plan" for constructing a functional budget and is complete with teacher and student guides, case studies, and model details.

1999-01-01

458

Cooperatives' contributions to a plural economy  

E-print Network

23 Cooperatives' contributions to a plural economy Jérôme Blanc* and Denis Colongo** T he European economy(1) . The central theme of the conference was the contributions of cooperatives to a plural economy and solidarity economy and elsewhere, and some of them draw on Karl Polanyi's conceptual framework (a key

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

459

Antimatter Economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Antimatter Economy will bring every country into the 21st century without destroying our environment and turn the Star Trek dream into reality by using antimatter from comets. At the April 2002 joint meeting of the American Physical Society and American Astronomical Society, I announced that comets were composed of antimatter, there were 109 antimatter elements, and the Periodic Table of Elements had been updated to include the antimatter elements. When matter and antimatter come together, energy is produce according to Einstein's equation of mass times the speed of light squared or E = mc2. Antimatter energy creates incredible opportunities for humanity. People in spacecraft will travel to the moon in hours, planets in days, and stars in weeks. Antimatter power will replace fossil plants and produce hydrogen from off-peak electrical power. Hydrogen will supplant gas in cars, trucks, and other vehicles. The billions of ton of coal, billions of barrels of oil, and trillions of cubic feet of natural gas will be used to make trillions of dollars of products to bring countries into the 21st century. Within this millennium, the Worlds Gross National Product will increase from 30 trillion to 3,000 trillion plus 1,500 trillion from space commercialization bringing the Total Gross National Product to 4,500 trillion. Millions of businesses and billions of jobs will be created. However, the real benefits will come from taking billions of people out of poverty and empowering them to pursue their dreams of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. Please visit www.AntimatterEnergy.com.

Hansen, Norm

2004-05-01

460

A Moral Economy of Patents: Case of Finnish Research Universities' Patent Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the concept of moral economy for higher education studies through a study of Finnish research universities' patent policies. Patent policies not only stimulate the commercialization of research, they also set norms for behavior and aim to clarify how to distribute rights…

Kauppinen, Ilkka

2014-01-01

461

The Aesthetic EconomyThe production of value in the field of fashion modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article delineates the operations of one particular ‘aesthetic economy’, focusing on the way in which aesthetics in the field of fashion modelling are central to the economic calculations of this market. Drawing on the work of Bourdieu and Blumer, the author argues that economic calculations are intertwined with cultural concerns, bound to forms of cultural knowledge, capital and acquired

Joanne Entwistle

2002-01-01

462

On Reverse Logistics Management Dimension of Government and Market: From the Perspective of Circular Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circular economy and reverse logistics management are belonging to the same sequence matters of the “two-oriented society” construction. The development of reverse logistics management has significant economic value and social value. The article defines two-dimensional properties of the government and the market in the process of reverse logistics management, analysis of the status and their causes on government failure and

Guisheng Chen; Ze Chen

2010-01-01

463

Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer`s surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer`s surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Duleep, K.G. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1992-03-01

464

Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer's surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer's surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

Greene, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Duleep, K.G. (Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States))

1992-03-01

465

Manual of Scaling Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This manual reviews the derivation of the similitude relationships believed to be important to ice accretion and examines ice-accretion data to evaluate their importance. Both size scaling and test-condition scaling methods employing the resulting similarity parameters are described, and experimental icing tests performed to evaluate scaling methods are reviewed with results. The material included applies primarily to unprotected, unswept geometries, but some discussion of how to approach other situations is included as well. The studies given here and scaling methods considered are applicable only to Appendix-C icing conditions. Nearly all of the experimental results presented have been obtained in sea-level tunnels. Recommendations are given regarding which scaling methods to use for both size scaling and test-condition scaling, and icing test results are described to support those recommendations. Facility limitations and size-scaling restrictions are discussed. Finally, appendices summarize the air, water and ice properties used in NASA scaling studies, give expressions for each of the similarity parameters used and provide sample calculations for the size-scaling and test-condition scaling methods advocated.

Bond, Thomas H. (Technical Monitor); Anderson, David N.

2004-01-01

466

Manifestations of climate change impacts affecting socio-economy in Bangladesh : Looking through the framework of sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the climate change effects on the socio-economy in Bangladesh, focusing on the framework of sustainable development and assisting in “policy and integration” innovation. The paper also aims to project the importance of translation of physical parameter changes in climate change models into effects on natural productive systems and the socio-economy

A. M. M. Maruf Hossain

2010-01-01

467

The Evolving Economics of Schooling. ESA845, The Economy of Schooling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume, part of a series of monographs that explores the relationship between the economy and schooling, is intended to show how economists have sought to cast light on the economic nature of education, on resource allocation problems within the education sector, and on policy implications of such analyses. The first part describes the basic…

Harrold, Ross

468

The Political Economy of Post-Secondary Education: A Comparison of British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A policy sociology approach is taken to examine the connections between neo-liberalism, post-secondary provincial education (PSE) policy in Canada and the impact of those policies. Our thesis regarding the broad political economy of PSE is that over the last two decades the adoption of this ideology has been a major cause of some dramatic changes…

Fisher, Donald; Rubenson, Kjell; Jones, Glen; Shanahan, Theresa

2009-01-01

469

Integration of Trade and Disintegration of Production in the Global Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last few decades have seen a spectacular integration of the global economy through trade. The rising integration of world markets has brought with it a disintegration of the production process, however, in which manufacturing or services activities done abroad are combined with those performed at home. The author compares several different measures of foreign outsourcing and argues that they

Robert C. Feenstra

1998-01-01

470

Economies of Scope in Distance Education: The Case of Chinese Research Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the rapid development of information technologies, distance education has become "another form of product differentiation in the output mix produced by the multi-product university or college" (Cohn & Cooper, 2004, p. 607). This article aims at analyzing the economies of scope of distance education (as an educational output) in Chinese…

Li, Fengliang; Chen, Xinlei

2012-01-01

471

The impact of the air conditioning load on the economy of electric power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the energy efficient technologies as applied to power system economy, together with their direct impact on the environment. It deals with the simulation of the daily load curve of electric power networks in the presence of an air conditioning load, taking into account the power system's peak load, its load factor, the magnitude and the starting time

Mohamed M. Saied

1997-01-01

472

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN TRANSITIONAL ECONOMIES: REVIEW AND INTEGRATION OF TWO DECADES OF RESEARCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review maps research on entrepreneurship in transitional economies since the start of institutional reforms. Data came from 129 academic journal articles published between 1990 and 2009. 62 articles reported research on macro (country) level, discussing the nature and speed of reform, credit constraints, assistance programs and the role of small business for economic development. 67 articles studied micro (firm)

IVAN M. MANEV; TATIANA S. MANOLOVA

2010-01-01

473

Location of foreign manufacturers in China: Agglomeration economies and country of origin effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from China, this article finds that agglomeration economies derived from the clustering of manufacturing and foreign investment activities, combined with better access to markets, influence the location of foreign manufacturers. Foreign enterprises are attracted to cities with investment incentives, but they avoid high labour cost locations. The locational patterns also suggest country of origin effects. American, Hong Kong

Canfei He

2003-01-01

474

Economic Impact of the ACESA of 2009 on the W.Va. Economy 1 Policy Brief  

E-print Network

of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) on the West Virginia Economy in 2009 By Randall A. Childs, Ph are the sole responsibility of the author. #12;The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Congress passed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 on February 13, 2009 due to growing

Mohaghegh, Shahab

475

Impact of New Economy on IS Education: A Case of UNSW.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing importance of information technology and innovation in the market place brings with it a need for the better management of professional knowledge for knowledge workers in the New Economy. This paper illustrates some major steps underway at the University of New South Wales, Australia towards building an educational system for IS…

Handzic, Meliha; Scifleet, Paul

476

Comparison between response dynamics in transition economies and developed economies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In developed economies, the sign of the price increment influences the volatility in an asymmetric fashion—negative increments tend to result in larger volatility (increments with larger magnitudes), while positive increments result in smaller volatility. We explore whether this asymmetry extends from developed economies to European transition economies and, if so, how such asymmetry changes over time as these transition economies develop and mature. We analyze eleven European transition economies and compare the results with those obtained by analyzing U.S. market indices. Specifically, we calculate parameters that quantify both the volatility asymmetry and the strength of its dependence on prior increments. We find that, like their developed economy counterparts, almost all transition economy indices exhibit a significant volatility asymmetry, and the parameter ? characterizing asymmetry fluctuates more over time for transition economies. We also investigate how the association between volatility and volatility asymmetry varies by type of market. We test the hypothesis of a negative correlation between volatility and volatility asymmetry. We find that, for developed economies, ? experiences local minima during (i) “Black Monday” on October 19, 1987, (ii) the dot-com bubble crash in 2002, and (iii) the 2007-2009 global crisis while for transition economies, ? experiences local maxima during times of economic crisis.

Tenenbaum, Joel; Horvati?, Davor; Baji?, Slavica Cosovi?; Pehlivanovi?, Be?o; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

2010-10-01

477

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES AND MACRO-INSTABILITIES IN THE TWIN ECONOMIES OF SINGAPORE AND HONG KONG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a small, open-economy IS-LM prototype model, this paper examines the sources of macroeconomic instabilities in Hong Kong and Singapore operating under two different currency board arrangements. The empirical findings suggest that in general, both external and internal factors contribute to the macroeconomic volatilities observed in the two economies. There is evidence of a tradeoff between exchange rate and

YUE MA; Y. Y. KUEH; RAYMOND C. W. NG

2007-01-01

478

Role of University-Industry-Government Linkages in the Innovation Processes of a Small Catching-Up Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the transformation process from a command economy, the extraordinary statist university-industry-government (UIG) linkages model was replaced by an extreme version of laissez-faire relationships. A more modern interaction-based UIG model could be implemented only by changing the whole national innovation system of catching-up economies. The…

Varblane, Urmas; Mets, Tonis; Ukrainski, Kadri

2008-01-01

479

A SURVEY OF SMALL MANUFACTURING FIRMS AND THEIR VIEWS ON THE CURRENT STATE OF THE ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent radio address (REFERENCE January 19, 2008), President Bush applauded Wright manufacturing, a Maryland entrepreneurial company. The importance of entrepreneurs such as Wright Manufacturing and their company's creation of jobs and opportunities for the American worker help to keep the economy growing. President Bush indicated that he and his advisors as well as many outside advisors believe that

Martin S. Bressler; Linda A. Bressler

480

The Role of the Nasal Passages in the Water Economy of Crested Larks and Desert Larks  

E-print Network

219 The Role of the Nasal Passages in the Water Economy of Crested Larks and Desert Larks B. Irene Neil Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210; 3 Mitrani Center for Desert Ecology, Blaustein Institute for Desert, es- pecially those species occupying desert habitats. However, this hypothesis was originally based

Williams, Jos. B.

481

The Passions of Learning in Tight Circumstances: Toward a Political Economy of the Mind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economies make their demands, and by necessity, people adjust, learn, and survive. People adjust to tight circumstances with passion and ingenuity. Necessity and its passions are the stuff of reality and generally more than schools or educational research can handle. Mainstream theories of learning have captured economic constraints only…

McDermott, Ray

2010-01-01

482

Aspects of the Changing Role of Horticulture in the London Garden Economy  

E-print Network

Aspects of the Changing Role of Horticulture in the London Garden Economy Summary report Horticultural knowledge is something that can take a lifetime to acquire. Yet those people that live and own the degree to which a love for horticulture can be fostered within such a climate. By examining two places

Jones, Peter JS

483

The Political Economy of Education Policy: The Case of Class Size Reduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Develops a political economy framework for mapping and interpreting the competing purposes of schooling by examining five paradoxes in national policy debates addressing class size in public elementary schools. The framework highlights answers to the question: What kind of an economic good is education? (education as a service industry, producer…

Mitchell, Douglas E.; Mitchell, Ross E.

2003-01-01

484

Fuel Economy of the Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet (released in AEO2005)  

EIA Publications

The U.S. fleet of light-duty vehicles consists of cars and light trucks, including minivans, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) and trucks with gross vehicle weight less than 8,500 pounds. The fuel economy of light-duty vehicles is regulated by the (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) CAFE standards set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Currently, the CAFE standard is 27.5 miles per gallon (mpg) for cars and 20.7 mpg for light trucks. The most recent increase in the CAFE standard for cars was in 1990, and the most recent increase in the CAFE standard for light trucks was in 1996.

2005-01-01

485

The economic impact of shale gas development on state and local economies: benefits, costs, and uncertainties.  

PubMed

It is often assumed that natural gas exploration and development in the Marcellus Shale will bring great economic prosperity to state and local economies. Policymakers need accurate economic information on which to base decisions regarding permitting and regulation of shale gas extraction. This paper provides a summary review of research findings on the economic impacts of extractive industries, with an emphasis on peer-reviewed studies. The conclusions from the studies are varied and imply that further research, on a case-by-case basis, is necessary before definitive conclusions can be made regarding both short- and long-term implications for state and local economies. PMID:23552649

Barth, Jannette M

2013-01-01

486

Costs of rearing children in agricultural economies: an alternative estimation approach and findings from rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

There are changes in child costs during demographic transition. This study examines household time allocation from 66 agricultural households in 3 villages in Tangail District in rural north central Bangladesh in 1984-85 (371 days). Component and total child-rearing costs are estimated in alternative ways. Conventional "opportunity wage" measures are considered overestimated. The methodological shortcomings of direct cost accounting procedures and consumer demand methods in computing time cost and monetary cost of child rearing are pointed out. In this study's alternative computation, age standardized equivalent costs are generated. Child food consumption costs were generated from a large national survey conducted in 1983. Nonfood expenditures were estimated by food to nonfood expenditure ratios taken from the aforementioned survey. For estimating breast-feeding costs, an estimate was produced based on the assumption that costs for infant food consumption were a fixed proportion of food costs for older children. Land ownership groups were set up to reflect socioeconomic status: 1) landless households, 2) marginal farm households with 1 acre or .4 hectares of land, 3) middle income households with 1-2 acres of land, 4) upper middle income households with 2-4 acres of land, and 5) upper income or rich households with over 4 acres of land. The nonmarket wage rate for hired household help was used to determine the value of cooking, fetching water, and household cleaning and repairing. The results confirm the low costs of child rearing in high fertility societies. Productive nonmarket activities are effective in subsidizing the costs of children. The addition of a child into households already with children has a low impact on time costs of children; "this economies of scale effect is estimated ... at 20%." The highest relative costs were found in the lowest income households, and the lowest costs were in the highest income households. 5% of total household income is devoted to child rearing in the lowest income households compared to 1% of income in the highest income households. The implications are that fertility decline is more directly related to structural changes in the economy, satisfaction of existing demand for family planning, and the producing additional demand for fertility control. PMID:12286245

Khan, M M; Magnani, R J; Mock, N B; Saadat, Y S

1993-03-01

487

From Ganja to crack: Caribbean participation in the underground economy in Brooklyn, 1976-1986. Part 1. Establishment of the marijuana economy.  

PubMed

The involvement of Caribbean youth in drug distribution (marijuana from the mid-1960s to 1981; cocaine hydrochloride powder and crack from 1981 to 1987, the time of writing) throughout the Circum-Caribbean area and in North America is described. Social, economic, and cultural outcomes of these engagements are highlighted, and the relationship between the underground economy of drugs and the corporate, capitalist economy is explored. Responding to high rates of unemployment and to other problems of migrant adaptation, young Caribbean African males established a multimillion dollar marijuana (ganja) trading network which linked cultivators on the islands with exporters/importers and street-level distributors in North American cities. By 1976, its participants had become Rastafarians, or followers of an ideology of self-reliance and indigenous development. Following its precepts, they reinvested marijuana revenues to revive cottage industry and agriculture. In Caribbean or minority neighborhoods, therefore, marijuana was a "positive vibration" and its distributors were lionized. PMID:1757168

Hamid, A

1991-06-01

488

Effects of drivetrain hybridization on fuel economy and dynamic performance of parallel hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles have proved to be the most practical solution in reaching very high fuel economy as well as very low emissions. However, there is no standard solution for the optimal size or ratio of the internal combustion engine and the electric system. The optimum choice includes complex tradeoffs between the heat engine and electric propulsion system on one

Srdjan M. Lukic; Ali Emadi

2004-01-01

489

Predictors of "New Economy" Career Orientation in an Australian Sample of Late Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors surveyed 207 late adolescents on measures of new economy career orientation (protean and boundaryless career orientation), career adaptability (planning, self-exploration, environmental exploration, decision making, and self-regulation), disposition (proactive disposition), and environmental support (social support) and hypothesized…

Creed, Peter; Macpherson, Jennifer; Hood, Michelle

2011-01-01

490

Evaluating the Mechanism of Oil Price Shocks and Fiscal Policy Responses in the Malaysian Economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper aims to explore the symmetric impact of oil price shock on economy, to understand its mechanism channel and how fiscal policy response towards it. The Generalized Impulse Response Function and Variance Decomposition under the VAR methodology were employed. The empirical findings suggest that symmetric oil price shock has a positive and direct impact on oil revenue and government expenditure. However, the real GDP is vulnerable in a short-term but not in the long term period. These results would confirm that fiscal policy is the main mechanism channel that mitigates the adverse effects oil price shocks to the economy.

Bekhet, Hussain A.; Yusoff, Nora Yusma Mohamed

2013-06-01

491

The University of Nebraska at Omaha's Contribution to the Omaha Regional Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education is a primary mission of metropolitan universities. This article measures the value of education at the level of a student credit hour-the metric. It applies this metric to determine the value of education transmitted at the University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) for one academic year and the total contribution of UNO to the economy of the…

Corcoran, William J.

2007-01-01

492

Marketing Mardi Gras: Commodification, Spectacle and the Political Economy of Tourism in New Orleans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Recent urban scholarship on the rise of the tourism industry, place marketing and the transformation of cities into entertainment destinations has been dominated by four major themes: the primacy of 'consumption' over 'production'; the eclipse of exchange-value by sign-value; the idea of autoreferential culture; and, the ascendancy of textual deconstruction and discursive analyses over political economy critiques of capitalism.

Kevin Fox Gotham

2002-01-01

493

My Morning Coffee: The Effect of Climate Change on the Economies of Coffee-Producing Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through its effect on export crops, climate change will have important effects on economic systems and government capacity in sub-Saharan Africa. We show that climate change effects on three important export crops - coffee, cocoa and cotton - will undermine large portions of the economy, not just the rural farmers who grow these crops. Our analysis is based high-resolution data on crop location, temperature, and water requirements in conjunction with new projections for temperature increases and precipitation changes in sub-Saharan Africa. Our focus on export crops is distinct from most work on the effects of climate change on agriculture, which often focuses on subsistence and food crops. We posit that substantial and important effects on the economy and political systems will come from negative impacts on cash crops, which underpin many economies in sub-Saharan Africa. For instance, 3% of cropland in Uganda (and 2% in Ethiopia) is used for coffee production and over 3.5 million households are involved in the sector; by contrast, 7% of cropland in Uganda (and 11% in Ethiopia) is used for maize, which contributes much less to the formal economy. The relationship between the value of coffee exported and government revenue illustrates the importance of coffee to political and economic stability. A drop in the export value of coffee by 10% in Uganda will drive government revenue down by 20%, and while there is uncertainty around the exact impact of climate change, it is likely that production will take a turn for the worse. We use these factors to assess reliance of select country's economy on these crops, from the farmer to the exporter; the sensitivity of the crops to variation in the climate; and the subsequent impact on government capacity. Our research illustrates how strongly the impacts of climate change are linked to economic and political structures.

Shilling, K.; Brauman, K. A.

2012-12-01

494

Tipping the balance of power: the case of Large Scale Systems Integrators and their supply chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Large Scale Systems Integrator (LSSI) model of supply chain organisation and management is gaining in popularity as Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) seek gains from distributed innovation and leveraged supplier R&D, all the while maintaining economies of scale at the assembly stage. The LSSI model requires a change in the roles and responsibilities of both OEM and its suppliers. Ultimately,

Irene J. Petrick

2007-01-01

495

Integrated economy-energy-environment policy analysis: a case study for the People's Republic of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is the first systematic and comprehensive attempt to deal with the economic implications of carbon abatement for the Chinese economy in the light of the economics of climate change, of which this dissertation is the results. It consists of nine chapters. After a brief introduction, Chapter 2 discusses some economic aspects of climate change. This in turn will

Z. X. Zhang

1996-01-01

496

Accelerating Municipal Bond Market Development in Emerging Economies: An Assessment of Strategies and Progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages of using municipal bonds to finance urban infrastructure are increasingly evident to policymakers in emerging economies, some of whom are undertaking efforts to accelerate the development of municipal bond markets in their countries. Many of these efforts use the strengths of the U.S. municipal market as a guide to suggest the kinds of market characteristics necessary to attract

James Leigland

1997-01-01

497

Privatization Policy and Dynamics of the Retail Market in a Transitional Economy1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a theoretical framework in which the impact of different privatization strategies on the dynamics of the retail market in a transitional economy can be analyzed. The analysis shows that rational behavior of the monopolistic manufacturer under uncertainty of demand naturally implies organization of the retail market. The equilibrium characteristics of unrestricted (competitive) and restricted (monopolistic) retail markets

Jacek Cukrowski

498

The Spread of Contingent Work in the Knowledge-Based Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Permanent employment, typical of industrial societies and bolstered by numerous social guaranties, has been declining in the past 2 decades. There has been a steady expansion of various forms of contingent work. The decomposition of traditional work is a logical consequence of the characteristic patterns of the knowledge-based economy. According…

Szabo, Katalin; Negyesi, Aron

2005-01-01

499

The intellectual foundations of the social market economy : Theory, policy, and implications for European integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper suggests that an adequate understanding of the notion of the social market economy, which has become a prominent aspect of debates on the social model of the European Constitution, is to be assessed in the context of the historist tradition in German economic and social thought. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper explores the intellectual history of the

Alexander Ebner

2006-01-01

500

Economic value added versus cash value added: The case of companies in transitional economy, Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the application of the increasingly popular economic value added (EVA) and cash value added (CVA) measures of financial performance of private and publicly-traded firms. EVA and CVA are measured for a sample of Polish firms. Since traditional accounting measures are not robust indicators of corporate performance of firms in transitional economies, these alternate measures provide better assessment

Edward Urbanczyk; Edyta Midoduchowska-Jaroszewicz; Agnieszka Szczesna-Urbaniak

2005-01-01