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1

Economies of scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working in groups of three, students analyze economies of scale. Each student constructs an individual short-run ATC curve, then the three students collaborate to determine if there are economies or diseconomies of scale and to create the long run ATC.

Maier, Mark

2

Economies of Scale in the Floriculture Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the cost structure of the floriculture industry in the United States. Economies of scale and input elasticities were estimated with a normalized quadratic cost function. Results suggest that economies of scale exist in the floriculture industry. As producers become large and more automated, they have a cost advantage relative to smaller producers who are producing the same

Sara K. Schumacher; Thomas L. Marsh

2003-01-01

3

Fusion power economy of scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the next 50 yr, the world will need to develop hundreds of gigawatts of non-fossil-fuel energy sources for production of electricity and fuels. Nuclear fusion can probably provide much of the required energy economically, if large single-unit power plants are acceptable. Large power plants are more common than most people realize: There are already many multiple-unit power plants producing

Dolan

1993-01-01

4

ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND SCOPE IN WATER SUPPLY  

EPA Science Inventory

This study examines the multiproduct nature of water supply relative to economies of scale and scope. he water utility is viewed as a multiproduct firm providing residential and nonresidential services with spatial variation. here are no significant economies of scale in the util...

5

Economies of Density versus Economies of Scale: Why Trunk and Local Service Airline Costs Differ  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a perception that U.S. trunk airlines had an inherent cost advantage over smaller regional airlines because of economies of scale. We have formulated a general model of airline costs, which we estimate by using panel data on large and small airlines. Differences in scale are shown to have no role in explaining higher costs for small airlines.

Douglas W. Caves; Laurits R. Christensen; Michael W. Tretheway

1984-01-01

6

Economies of Scale and Scope in E-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economies of scale are often cited in the higher education literature as being one of the drivers for the deployment of e-learning. They are variously used to support the notions that higher education is becoming more global, that national policy towards e-learning should promote scale efficiencies, that larger institutions will be better able to…

Morris, David

2008-01-01

7

Economies of Scale in the Operation of Public Elementary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates how a long-run average cost function was estimated for selected public elementary schools in Pennsylvania. The optimum sized elementary school was found to be one having 585.7 students and an educational plant of 71,832 square feet. Substantial economies of scale were evidenced up to the optimum attendance size. (Author/IRT)

Johnson, Gary P.; Mitten, Robert L.

1976-01-01

8

Food Expenditure, Food Preparation Time and Household Economies of Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the effect of household size on the allocation of household money and time to food consumption. A broad literature has examined household economies of scale. Since food is a private good, it might be expected that larger households, which could economize on shared goods such as housing, would spend more per equivalent household member on

Victoria Vernon

2004-01-01

9

Economies of Scale and Scope in Australian Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper estimates economies of scale and scope for 36 Australian universities using a multiple-input, multiple-output cost function over the period 1998-2006. The three inputs included in the analysis are full-time equivalent academic and non-academic staff and physical capital. The five outputs are undergraduate, postgraduate and PhD…

Worthington, A. C.; Higgs, H.

2011-01-01

10

DISCUSSION: ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND SCOPE IN AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH  

E-print Network

DISCUSSION: ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND SCOPE IN AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH JEREMY D. FOLTZ Evolution in science such as recent develop- ments in agricultural biotechnology creates new challenges and the private sectors. The present exponential growth in agricul- tural biotechnology research in both the pub

Foltz, Jeremy D.

11

An economy of scale system's mensuration of large spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The systems technology and cost particulars of using multipurpose platforms versus several sizes of bus type free flyer spacecraft to accomplish the same space experiment missions. Computer models of these spacecraft bus designs were created to obtain data relative to size, weight, power, performance, and cost. To answer the question of whether or not large scale does produce economy, the dominant cost factors were determined and the programmatic effect on individual experiment costs were evaluated.

Deryder, L. J.

1981-01-01

12

An empirical study of the economies of scale in AC transmission line construction costs  

E-print Network

1 An empirical study of the economies of scale in AC transmission line construction costs Krishnan of transmission construction. Index Terms-- Transmission costs, economies of scale, nominal capacity, available transmission capability. I. INTRODUCTION Transmission construction costs exhibit economies of scale; that is

Baldick, Ross

13

Economies of Scale in the Health Services Industry. Proceedings of an Invitational Seminar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Both the theory and application of economies of scale in health care are reviewed. Major papers include Marketing and Research and Development; Shared Services -- Their Production and Coordination by Hospital Associations and their Effect on Economies of ...

R. E. Brown

1972-01-01

14

The Evolution of Economies of Scale Regarding Pollution Control: Cross-Sectional Evidence from a Transition Economy  

E-print Network

This paper assesses whether firms face economies and/or diseconomies of scale with respect to air pollution control by evaluating the effects of production on firm-level air emission levels. To achieve this objective, this ...

Earnhart, Dietrich H.; Lizal, Lubomir

2011-01-01

15

Economies of Scale and Cost-Quality Relationships in Elementary and Secondary Schools: A Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the context of declining enrollment, this paper considers the questions of economies of scale, cost-quality interrelationships, and rigidities in the Ontario school system. From a survey of the pertinent literature, the author concludes that economies of scale are linked to the level, size, and pupil/teacher ratio of a school and operate…

Dawson, D. A.

16

Competition and Outsourcing with Scale Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scale economies are commonplace in operations, yet because of analytical challenges, relatively little is known about how firms should compete in their presence. This paper presents a model of competition between two firms that face scale economies; (i.e., each firm's cost per unit of demand is decreasing in demand). A general framework is used, which incorporates competition between two service

Gérard P. Cachon; Patrick T. Harker

2002-01-01

17

Scale Economies, Scope Economies, and Technical Change in Federal Reserve Payment Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade, the U.S. economy has witnessed a tremendous surge in the usage of electronic payment processing services and an increased importance of the firms that provide these services. In this paper, we estimate scale economies, scope economies, and technical change in the Federal Reserve's provision of payments processing from 1990 to 2000. We find considerable scale economies

Paul W. Bauer; ROBIN C. SICKLES

2004-01-01

18

Economies of scale and density in urban rail transport: effects on productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines economies of scale and density in urban rail transport. It isolates the effects of constant and non-constant returns on output and productivity growth using data relating to 17 rail systems in cities around the world. Estimates reveal constant returns to scale but increasing returns to density. The productivity model shows that total factor productivity change has been

Daniel J. Graham; Antonio Couto; William Edward Adeney; Stephen Glaister

2003-01-01

19

LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

OAK B202 LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY. The ''Hydrogen Economy'' will reduce petroleum imports and greenhouse gas emissions. However, current commercial hydrogen production processes use fossil fuels and releases carbon dioxide. Hydrogen produced from nuclear energy could avoid these concerns. The authors have recently completed a three-year project for the US Department of Energy

K. R. SCHULTZ; L. C. BROWN; G. E. BESENBRUCH; C. J. HAMILTON

2003-01-01

20

Multidimensional scaling analysis of the dynamics of a country economy.  

PubMed

This paper analyzes the Portuguese short-run business cycles over the last 150 years and presents the multidimensional scaling (MDS) for visualizing the results. The analytical and numerical assessment of this long-run perspective reveals periods with close connections between the macroeconomic variables related to government accounts equilibrium, balance of payments equilibrium, and economic growth. The MDS method is adopted for a quantitative statistical analysis. In this way, similarity clusters of several historical periods emerge in the MDS maps, namely, in identifying similarities and dissimilarities that identify periods of prosperity and crises, growth, and stagnation. Such features are major aspects of collective national achievement, to which can be associated the impact of international problems such as the World Wars, the Great Depression, or the current global financial crisis, as well as national events in the context of broad political blueprints for the Portuguese society in the rising globalization process. PMID:24294132

Tenreiro Machado, J A; Mata, Maria Eugénia

2013-01-01

21

Multidimensional Scaling Analysis of the Dynamics of a Country Economy  

PubMed Central

This paper analyzes the Portuguese short-run business cycles over the last 150 years and presents the multidimensional scaling (MDS) for visualizing the results. The analytical and numerical assessment of this long-run perspective reveals periods with close connections between the macroeconomic variables related to government accounts equilibrium, balance of payments equilibrium, and economic growth. The MDS method is adopted for a quantitative statistical analysis. In this way, similarity clusters of several historical periods emerge in the MDS maps, namely, in identifying similarities and dissimilarities that identify periods of prosperity and crises, growth, and stagnation. Such features are major aspects of collective national achievement, to which can be associated the impact of international problems such as the World Wars, the Great Depression, or the current global financial crisis, as well as national events in the context of broad political blueprints for the Portuguese society in the rising globalization process. PMID:24294132

Mata, Maria Eugenia

2013-01-01

22

Issue in pollution control: interplant cost differences and economies of scale.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seeks evidence concerning the issues of the relative efficiencies of different institutional arrangements for pollution control and the implications of control requirements for economies of scale and barriers to entry. Data is derived from the estimation of a production function for 30 pulp and paper mills in Wisconsin and Michigan. Concludes that the systematic differences in marginal treatment costs for different mills are evidence of serious inefficiencies resulting from the current (US) system of pollution control regulation. The positive association of pollution control intensity with economies of scale suggests that any pollution control regime has some negative allocational effects in this industry (and presumably others). -K.Turner

Pittman, R.W.

1981-01-01

23

Economies of scale, school violence and the optimal size of schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that policy in relation to education has relied too extensively on the more easily measured costs of production to support a common conclusion of economies of scale in school and\\/or district size. It argues that there are external costs that increase with size but that can be measured less easily that offset this case. This would imply

J. Stephen Ferris; E. G. West

2004-01-01

24

Economies of Scale, School Violence, and the Optimal Size of Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we argue that policy in relation to education has relied too extensively on the more easily measured costs of production to support a common conclusion of economies of scale in school and\\/or district size. We argue that there are external costs that increase with size but that can be measured less easily that could offset this case.

J. Stephen Ferris; Edwin G. West

2002-01-01

25

The role of artisanal and small-scale mining in China's economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decades have seen increased international attention paid to a number of features of artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM). The beneficial roles of ASM in society and the economy in many countries, however, are often overlooked, while its negative impacts dominate official press coverage and scholarly publications of the sector. Through a review of the available literature and statistics,

Lei Shen; Aaron James Gunson

2006-01-01

26

Contributions of Small-Scale Industrial (SSI) Sector in the Indian Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small-scale industry is a key to India's growth and alleviation of poverty and unemployment in the country Therefore, promotion of such enterprises in developing economies like India is of paramount importance since it brings about a great distribution of income and wealth, economic self-dependence, entrepreneurial development employment and a host of other positive, economic uplifting factors. Moreover, in a

Andrew Dutta; Manjeesh K Singh

2003-01-01

27

Scale Economies in Academic Excellence: An Exploratory Analysis of the United Kingdom's 1992 Research Selectivity Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a 1992 British assessment of university departments are analyzed, particularly the finding that in general, larger departments were given higher research ratings. Analysis suggests an "economies of scale" effect and components of performance attributable to either "size" or "non-size" are identified. Implications are drawn for academic…

Hoare, Anthony G.

1995-01-01

28

Measuring the Informal Economy: A Validation Study of the Resource Generating Strategies Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This article reports on the reliability and validity of a new instrument called the Resource Generating Strategies (RGS) Scale, which was created to measure participation in the informal economy. Method: Researchers interviewed 285 adult women who had received domestic violence services, were currently incarcerated, or were residing in…

Pyles, Loretta

2007-01-01

29

Technical and Organizational Change and Economies of Scale and Scope in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the impact of flexible automation (FA) and associated organizational techniques on scale and scope economies and optimal scale. It is based on an in-depth survey of 62 engineering firms in Brazil, India, Mexico, Thailand, Turkey and Venezuela. The paper finds that the replacement of old, mainly conventional, machine tools and transfer lines by new computer-numerically-controlled machine tools

Ludovico Alcorta

2001-01-01

30

Rates of return on university education with economies of scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents measurements of the rates of return obtained from investment in university education and the changes in these rates which might be expected with expansion. The social internal rate of return varies between 5 and 11% on different undergraduate courses at the University of Bradford. The private return to the successful student averages 12.2% for those who pay

Anthony Bottomley; John Dunworth

1974-01-01

31

Economies of scale and optimal selection of hydroelectric projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors define a purely hydroelectric power system as a power system consisting almost entirely of hydroelectric generating stations, where thermal backup stations are used only intermittently in dry periods. The expansion process for such a system consists of selecting from a set of available projects with certain investment cost and generating capacity characteristics. One of these characteristics is a

E. B. Hreinsson

2000-01-01

32

Scale Economies, Product Differentiation, and the Pattern of Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

For some time now there has been con- siderable skepticism about the ability of comparative cost theory to explain the ac- tual pattern of international trade. Neither the extensive trade among the industrial countries, nor the prevalence in this trade of two-way exchanges of differentiated prod- ucts, make much sense in terms of standard theory. As a result, many people

Paul Krugman

1980-01-01

33

Carnegie Mellon University Economies of Scale in Information Dissemination  

E-print Network

A dissertation submitted to the Graduate School in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering and Public Policy by John Chung-I Chuang Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and the Department of Engineering and Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University, is gratefully acknowledged

Chuang, John C.-I.

34

Online Allocation and Pricing with Economies of Scale Yishay Mansour  

E-print Network

with their Christmas lists of toys they want. Santa wants to give each child some toy from his or her list (all to each child the cheapest toy on his or her list and move on to the next child. But here we with an analysis of structural properties of optimal solutions that allow for uniform convergence analysis. We show

Gordon, Geoffrey J.

35

Economies of scale and asset values in power production  

SciTech Connect

While innovative trading tools have become an increasingly important aspect of the electricity business, the future of any firm in the industry boils down to a basic bread and butter issue of generating power at competitive costs. While buying electricity from power pools at spot prices instead of generating power to service load may be profitable for some firms in the short run, the need to efficiently utilize existing plants in the long run remains. These competitive forces will force the closure of many inefficient plants. As firms close plants and re-evaluate their generating asset portfolios, the basic structure of the industry will change. This article presents some quantitative analysis that sheds light on this unfolding transformation.

Considine, T.J.

1999-12-01

36

Economies of scale and optimal capital in nuclear and fossil fuel electricity production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tests for economies of scale in the electric utility industry using a five-year panel data set that includes both\\u000a fossil fuel and nuclear fuel electricity generation. In addition, a variable cost function is used as opposed to a total cost\\u000a function because the assumption of cost-minimizing production inputs is not met. That is, electric utilities are overcapitalized.\\u000a Therefore,

Russell Rhine

2001-01-01

37

Theory and evidence of economies of scale in the development of waste management systems  

SciTech Connect

Waste is a cost of doing business. This cost can be considered in terms of the potential adverse health and environmental impacts, or the waste management costs associated with avoiding, minimizing, and controlling those impacts. There is an anticipated increase in the cost of waste management as a result of the increasing requirements for regulatory compliance. To meet the total waste management capacity needs of the organization and the compliance requirements, low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste management will need demonstrated technologies strategically managed as a technology portfolio. The role of the decision maker is to select the optimum mix of technologies and facilities to provide the waste management capacity needed for the next twenty years. The waste management system resulting from this mix includes multiple small-scale fixed facilities, large-scale centralized facilities, and waste management subcontracts. This study was conducted to examine the theory and evidence of economies of scale in the development of waste management systems as as exploratory research on the economic considerations in the process of technology selection and implementation. 25 refs., 24 figs., 11 tabs.

Chang, Shoou-Yuh; Rivera, A.L. (North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-01-01

38

Reforming the wastewater treatment sector in Italy: Implications of plant size, structure, and scale economies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of the restructuring of the water industry, this work examines the treatment processes of urban wastewaters in Italy, with reference to costs, size, and technology. The operating cost function of 103 plants confirms scope economies from vertical integration and strong economies of scale for the smaller structure, confirming the benefits coming from the aggregation of the existing little firms. A minimum efficient size at about 100,000 inhabitants, however, inhibits the creation of large monopolies at a local level and enables the maintenance of indirect competition. Among the explanatory variables of running costs, the pollution load of the input wastewater takes on a high statistical significance and suggests environmental prevention, while the strong impact of sludge concentration means it should be considered in the new tariff systems. The recent introduction of advanced treatments is expensive, but the costs are balanced by a notable improvement in the pureness of the effluent waters. As for general environmental policies, it is necessary to find a good compromise between the need to improve the effectiveness of the existing plants and the investments in areas where the water treatment service is still inexistent.

Fraquelli, Giovanni; Giandrone, Roberto

2003-10-01

39

The formation of small-scale forestry in countries with economies in transition: Observations from Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithuania has been undergoing a transition from one political culture (based on a centrally planned economy and a one-party\\u000a system) to a radically different political culture (market economy and a democratic political system). After the declaration\\u000a of independence in Lithuania, some new phenomena emerged in forestry: the privatisation of forest industry, the formation\\u000a of a free timber market; increasing timber

Diana Mizaraite; Stasys Mizaras

2005-01-01

40

1912 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 18, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2000 Influence of Modularity and Economy-of-Scale  

E-print Network

1912 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 18, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2000 Influence of Modularity and Economy-of-Scale Effects on Design of Mesh-Restorable DWDM Networks John Doucette, Student and economy of scale. This is the first quantitative indication and explanation of why less highly connected

Grover, Wayne D.

41

Scaling analysis of time series of daily prices from stock markets of transitional economies in the Western Balkans  

E-print Network

In this paper we have analyzed scaling properties of time series of stock market indices (SMIs) of developing economies of Western Balkans, and have compared the results we have obtained with the results from more developed economies. We have used three different techniques of data analysis to obtain and verify our findings: Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) method, Detrended Moving Average (DMA) method, and Wavelet Transformation (WT) analysis. We have found scaling behavior in all SMI data sets that we have analyzed. The scaling of our SMI series changes from long-range correlated to slightly anti-correlated behavior with the change in growth or maturity of the economy the stock market is embedded in. We also report the presence of effects of potential periodic-like influences on the SMI data that we have analyzed. One such influence is visible in all our SMI series, and appears at a period $T_{p}\\approx 90$ days. We propose that the existence of various periodic-like influences on SMI data may partially...

Savran, Darko; Blesic, Suzana; Miljkovic, Vladimir

2014-01-01

42

Scale and Scope Economies in Banking: A Case Study of the Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the scale and scope efficiency of the Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan. Using the production approach to measuring bank outputs and costs, a translog cost function is estimated to provide an assessment of the bank’s scale and scope efficiency, and to quantify the extent to which its production costs are sensitive to size and output mix. Our

Musleh-Ud Din; Ejaz Ghani; Sarfraz K. Qureshi

1996-01-01

43

Scale-up of organic reactions in ball mills: process intensification with regard to energy efficiency and economy of scale.  

PubMed

The scale-up of the Knoevenagel-condensation between vanillin and barbituric acid carried out in planetary ball mills is investigated from an engineering perspective. Generally, the reaction proceeded in the solid state without intermediate melting and afforded selectively only one product. The reaction has been used as a model to analyze the influence and relationship of different parameters related to operation in planetary ball mills. From the viewpoint of technological parameters the milling ball diameter, dMB, the filling degree with respect to the milling balls' packing, ?MB,packing, and the filling degree of the substrates with respect to the void volume of the milling balls' packing, ?GS, have been investigated at different reaction scales. It was found that milling balls with small dMB lead to higher yields within shorter reaction time, treaction, or lower rotation frequency, rpm. Thus, the lower limit is set considering the technology which is available for the separation of the milling balls from the product after the reaction. Regarding ?MB,packing, results indicate that the optimal value is roughly 50% of the total milling beakers' volume, VB,total, independent of the reaction scale or reaction conditions. Thus, 30% of VB,total are taken by the milling balls. Increase of the initial batch sizes changes ?GS significantly. However, within the investigated parameter range no negative influence on the yield was observed. Up to 50% of VB,total can be taken over by the substrates in addition to 30% for the total milling ball volume. Scale-up factors of 15 and 11 were realized considering the amount of substrates and the reactor volume, respectively. Beside technological parameters, variables which influence the process itself, treaction and rpm, were investigated also. Variation of those allowed to fine-tune the reaction conditions in order to maximize the yield and minimize the energy intensity. PMID:25406485

Stolle, Achim; Schmidt, Robert; Jacob, Katharina

2014-01-01

44

Economies of scale and firm size optimum in rural water supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is focused on modeling and analyzing the cost structure of water-supplying companies. A cross-sectional data set was collected with respect to water firms in rural areas of former East and West Germany. The empirical data are analyzed by applying a symmetric generalized McFadden (SGM) functional form. This flexible functional form allows for testing the concavity required by microeconomic theory as well as the global imposition of such curvature restrictions without any loss of flexibility. The original specification of the SGM cost function is modified to incorporate fixed factors of water production and supply as, for example, groundwater intake or the number of connections supplied. The estimated flexible and global curvature correct cost function is then used to derive scale elasticities as well as the optimal firm size. The results show that no water supplier in the sample produces at constant returns to scale. The optimal firm size was found to be on average about three times larger than the existing one. These findings deliver evidence for the hypothesis that the legally set supplying areas, oriented at public administrative criteria as well as local characteristics of water resources, are economically inefficient. Hence structural inefficiency in the rural water sector is confirmed to be policy induced.

Sauer, Johannes

2005-11-01

45

Economies of scale in federally-funded state-organized public health programs: results from the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Programs.  

PubMed

This study investigates the existence of economies of scale in the provision of breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services by state National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) grantees. A translog cost function is estimated as a system with input factor share equations. The estimated cost function is then used to determine output levels for which average costs are decreasing (i.e., economies of scale exist). Data were collected from all state NBCCEDP programs and District of Columbia for program years 2006-2007, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 (N?=?147). Costs included all programmatic and in-kind contributions from federal and non-federal sources, allocated to breast and cervical cancer screening activities. Output was measured by women served, women screened and cancers detected, separately by breast and cervical services for each measure. Inputs included labor, rent and utilities, clinical services, and quasi-fixed factors (e.g., percent of women eligible for screening by the NBCCEDP). 144 out of 147 program-years demonstrated significant economies of scale for women served and women screened; 136 out of 145 program-years displayed significant economies of scale for cancers detected. The cost data were self-reported by the NBCCEDP State programs. Quasi-fixed inputs were allowed to affect costs but not economies of scale or the share equations. The main analysis accounted for clustering of observations within State programs, but it did not make full use of the panel data. The average cost of providing breast and cervical cancer screening services decreases as the number of women screened and served increases. PMID:24326873

Trogdon, Justin G; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Subramanian, Sujha; Crouse, Wesley

2014-12-01

46

Economies of Scale and Scope in Network Industries: Lessons for the UK water and sewerage sectors  

E-print Network

of the evolving structure of an industry has been tested. A review of it and a number of related studies have been presented by Levy (1984). Levy shows that industry-specific effects can have a deterministically important impact on whether individual industries... to be privatised (the government 2 March 2011 figures, source: http://www.offta.org.uk/charts.htm. Accessed 28th March 2011. 3 Quarter 4, 2010 figures for total lines, source: http://media...

Pollitt, Michael G.; Steer, Stephen J.

47

Hydrogen Economy: The Role of Nano-scaled Support Material for Electrocatalysts Aimed for Water Electrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role and importance of support materials for electrocatalysts aimed for water electrolysis is given. Besides their superior support characteristics such as electroconductivity, a high developed surface area and chemical stability, support materials should be an active participant in the catalytic activity through strong metal-support interactions (SMSI) with the metallic catalytic phase. Subject of this paper are several support materials: (i) Vulcan XC-72, (ii) Vulcan XC-72 with TiO2, (iii) multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and (iv) Magneli phases, i.e. nonstoichiometric titanium oxides. A comparison of catalytic activity of Co-based electrocatalysts deposited on all support materials mentioned is given.

Paunovi?, Perica; Popovski, Orce; Dimitrov, Aleksandar T.

48

Multiproduct Cost Function Estimation for American Higher Education: Economies of Scale and Scope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following Cohn, Rhine and Santos (1989) and Koshal and Koshal (1999),we use American data, i.e., a matched data set of 730 private and 820 public colleges and universities, to estimate multi-product cost functions in higher education. We use federal research grants as a proxy for research output and independent rankings of colleges as a quality proxy. We found that private

Balazs Varadi

2001-01-01

49

Economies of Scale and Scope at Large Commercial Banks: Evidence from the Fourier Flexible Functional Form  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study contributes new evidence on bank cost efficiency by computing efficiency measures from estimated cost functions. It overcomes deficiencies of previous studies by restricting the sample to homogeneous banks and by estimating Fourier flexible cost functions. A Fourier flexible cost function, which has the translog nested within it, can potentially approximate an arbitrary cost function well over the function's

Karlyn Mitchell; Nur M Onvural

1996-01-01

50

Economies of Scale Revisited: School District Operating Costs in British Columbia, 1972-82.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data prepared by the British Columbia School Trustees Association were used to identify fundamental variables affecting school district expenses. Correlation and multiple regression analysis reveal that teacher salary costs per pupil and mean school size combined with pupil-teacher ratio are the primary predictors of operating costs. (MCG)

Coleman, Peter; LaRocque, Linda

1984-01-01

51

Size Matters: Economies of Scale in Schools and Colleges. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report reviews the relationship in England between institutional size and the cost of Level 3 (mainly A-level) provision in three major settings: sixth form colleges (SFCs), general further education colleges (GFECs) and school sixth forms (SSFs). The study models how institutions might behave, given the funding regime and cost structures. It…

Owen, Glyn; Fletcher, Mick; Lester, Stan

2006-01-01

52

Challenges of Global Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

One way to analyze the phenomenon of development in the era of globalization is through an approach involving interaction of the economic and the political system. The global economy has altered economic structures and social policies at the level of the nation-state, because the latter limits and impedes the processes of generation and capital accumulation. The purpose of this document

Jose G. VARGAS-HERNANDEZ; Mohammad Reza NORUZI

2010-01-01

53

Economy of Command  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation proposes a principle of "economy of command", arguing that it provides a simple and natural explanation for some well-known properties of human language syntax. The focus is on the abstract combinatorial system that constructs the hierarchical structure of linguistic expressions, with long-distance dependencies…

Medeiros, David Peter

2012-01-01

54

China's WTO accession impacts on domestic automobile industry—a rudimental approach from the view of scale economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of successful domestic economic reforms combined wit h a fast-developing international market that is willing to purchase its labor-intense products, China's economy has grown approximately 10% per year over the past 28 years and the GDP per person has grown up to 10561RMB in 2004 1. This remarkable development has made China the second largest beneficiary of

Zhuo Chen; Pengyi Shi; Chenkai Ni; Yin Chen

55

Architecture of a prediction economy  

E-print Network

A design and implementation of a Prediction Economy is presented and compared to alternative designs. A Prediction Economy is composed of prediction markets, market managers, information brokers and automated trading agents. ...

Carver, Jason W

2008-01-01

56

Measuring Armenia's progress on the Tobacco Control Scale: an evaluation of tobacco control in an economy in transition, 2005–2009  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to measure the 5-year progress in the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Armenia by applying the Tobacco Control Scale, a rapid assessment tool developed to assess the strength of tobacco control policies in Europe. Setting Armenia, an economy in transition, has extreme smoking rates among men (62.5%) despite acceding to FCTC in 2004. However, little research has been carried out to evaluate Armenia's progress in tobacco control. Methods The Tobacco Control Scale total score was estimated for Armenia using the original methodology; however, a different source of data was used in estimating the subscores on tobacco price and tobacco control spending. Results Armenia's total score on Tobacco Control Scale has considerably improved from 2005 to 2009, mostly due to larger health warnings and advertising ban, and increased public spending on tobacco control. The scores for smoke-free public places, advertising ban, health warnings and treatment categories were below the European average in 2005 and 2007, while the price score was higher. Neither total tobacco control score nor any of its components showed a significant predictive value in a simple regression analysis using the total score and subscores as predictors for log-transformed per capita tobacco consumption. Conclusions Higher than the European average price score for Armenia cannot be explained by the concept of affordability alone and may reflect a measurement error due to peculiarities of transition economies. The applicability of the Tobacco Control Scale could be limited to countries with mature economies, but not to transition countries such as Armenia with different social, political and economic environment. The scale modification, such as an adjustment for the policy enforcement and the effectiveness of public tobacco control spending along with alternative measures of affordability would be warranted to enhance its applicability in low-income and middle-income countries. PMID:24578541

Movsisyan, Narine K; Connolly, Gregory N

2014-01-01

57

The Mimetic Turn of Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instead of speaking about a linguistic turn in the economy and production in the so called Post-Fordist society, information society or knowledge economy, we should frontally talk about the mimetic turn of economy and organizing in general. Mimesis is a Greek word for imitation. It is well known that Plato chased out art from the ideal republic because of its

Jussi Vähämäki

58

Peculiarity transformation of modern economies (example of Ukraine)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olena Slozko – PhD, Senior Research Adviser IWEIR NAS Ukraine Peculiarity transformation of modern economies (example of Ukraine) For the transformation of modern economies characterized by two features that impede the integration of world financial markets: first, large scale non-market sectors and relations, and secondly, the low information transparency. Typical is the low level of economy of Ukraine depends on

Olena Slozko

2011-01-01

59

The knowledge economy of Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For regional development specialists and those concerned with local economies, the world of the so-called knowledge economy is tremendously important. Specifically, the knowledge economy is meant to be those segments of the economy that include financial and business services, health care, and education. In Europe, the subject is debated a great deal, and this latest 23-page report by The Work Foundation will no doubt add to that ongoing debate. In their report examining the knowledge economy in Europe (and its recent growth) they note that while the Continent continues to experience some growth in this sector of the economy, future growth may be hindered by a lack of significant investment in its knowledge base. The report also includes an extended definition of this notion of a knowledge economy for those who remain puzzled.

Brinkley, Ian; Lee, Neil

2006-01-01

60

Scale economies, scope economies, and technical change in Federal Reserve payment processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade, the U.S. economy has witnessed a tremendous surge in the usage of electronic payment processing services and an increased importance of the firms that provide these services. The payments industry has also undergone changes in cost structure with the introduction of new technology. Unfortunately, data on the private provision of payment processing services are not available.

Robert M. Adams; Paul W. Bauer; Robin C. Sickles

2002-01-01

61

Scope and scale economies in Federal Reserve payment processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade, the U.S. economy has witnessed a tremendous surge in the usage of electronic payment processing services and an increased importance of the firms that provide these services. The payments industry has also undergone changes in cost structure with the introduction of new technology. Unfortunately, data on the private provision of payment processing services are not available.

Robert M. Adams; Paul W. Bauer; Robin C. Sickles

2002-01-01

62

Three-scale input-output modeling for urban economy: Carbon emission by Beijing 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For urban economies, an ecological endowment embodiment analysis has to be supported by endowment intensities at both the international and domestic scales to reflect the international and domestic imports of increasing importance. A three-scale input-output modeling for an urban economy to give nine categories of embodiment fluxes is presented in this paper by a case study on the carbon dioxide emissions by the Beijing economy in 2007, based on the carbon intensities for the average world and national economies. The total direct emissions are estimated at 1.03E+08 t, in which 91.61% is energy-related emissions. By the modeling, emissions embodied in fixed capital formation amount to 7.20E+07 t, emissions embodied in household consumption are 1.58 times those in government consumption, and emissions in gross capital formation are 14.93% more than those in gross consumption. As a net exporter of carbon emissions, Beijing exports 5.21E+08 t carbon embodied in foreign imported commodities and 1.06E+08 t in domestic imported commodities, while emissions embodied in foreign and domestic imported commodities are 3.34E+07 and 1.75E+08 t respectively. The algorithm presented in this study is applicable to the embodiment analysis of other environmental resources for regional economies characteristic of multi-scales.

Chen, G. Q.; Guo, Shan; Shao, Ling; Li, J. S.; Chen, Zhan-Ming

2013-09-01

63

Local-scale systems input-output analysis of embodied water for the Beijing economy in 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the most detailed and recent statistics available for Beijing, a local-scale embodiment analysis on water use was conducted, employing a systems input-output analysis that integrates economic systems with natural resources data. Systems analysis for water research at the local scale is a crucial part of a systems oriented water accounting framework. To our knowledge, however, related works have not been thoroughly conducted. In this paper, a set of embodied water intensity inventory data is presented, which is applicable to both intermediate input and final demand. Also, detailed analyses of Beijing's embodied water use accounting are presented. The embodied water intensity of the Water Production and Supply Industry Sector turns out to be the highest among the 42 sectors. For water embodied in final demand, the total amount is 3.48 km3, of which the water embodied in urban household consumption makes up nearly a half proportion. As a net virtual water importer, Beijing's water embodied in commodity trade totals 5.84×108 m3. As a result, in addition to improvements in technology and water use efficiency, adjustments in industrial structure and trade policies are also of significant importance to water conservation efforts.

Han, Mengyao; Guo, Shan; Chen, Hui; Ji, Xi; Li, Jiashuo

2014-09-01

64

The effectiveness of small scale Photovoltaic (PV) systems design and cost analysis simulation on Saudi Arabian Economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advantages of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) are much more than the disadvantages, RES such as solar, wind energy, biomass, and geothermal, which can be used for generating distributed power but cannot directly replace the existing electric energy grid technologies. The latter are far too well established to abandon, while the new RES technologies are not sufficiently developed to meet the total energy demand. Therefore, it is sensible to gradually infuse RES into existing grids and transform the system over time Saudi Arabia (SA) is a semi-developed nation with a population of over twenty nine million people. It is the largest country in western Asia with an area of 2.225MKm2. SA's largest export is oil, owning 1/5 of the world's supply, and producing twelve million barrels a day. However, SA is far behind in developing a smart grid and RES. A lot of this is to do with lack of participation by both the government and the private business sector. Currently SA spends over $13B a year on generating electricity from oil. SA is the largest consumer of petroleum in the Middle East, due to the high demand for transportation and electricity generation. According to the Saudi electrical company, the total amount of generated power in 2011 was 190.280GW. In addition, SA's electricity consumption is currently growing 8% a year. SA aims to generate 55GW of renewable energy by 2020, in order to free up fossil fuels for export. 41GW of the 55GW will be generated from solar energy. Smart grid technologies are also under consideration in SA; this will allow an efficient and reliable way to control the energy in the future. In addition, the potential for wind and geothermal energy is very high. In this thesis, there is a full exploration of RES components which are critical to manage carbon emission and the limitations of the current grid to the new RES technologies, which face barriers to full-scale deployment. A study in Dhahran, SA has been simulated on a installing a Dual-Tariff PV system using HOMER. The result of the simulation has been discussed, analyzed, and plotted. We also give evidence in the thesis how useful the small PV systems can be as oppose to the larger scale system that must deal with location issues.

Almansour, Faris Abdullah

65

Productivity, Markup, Scale Economies, and the Business Cycle: Estimates from firm-level panel data in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between productivity, markup, scale economies, and the business cycle. The paper contributes to the literature by presenting a simple econometric framework that permits simultaneous estimation of the changes in productivity, markup, and scale economies from a panel of firm-level data. The framework is then applied to Japanese firm-level data for 1994-2006. The results indicate that

KIYOTA Kozo

2010-01-01

66

The Evolution of the Knowledge Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper revisits the definition of the knowledge economy (Beck, 1992) and investi- gates changes in knowledge-based industries between 1991 and 2001. Using the General Edu- cational Development Reasoning (GEDR) scale (1-6), non-farm industries were classified as higher knowledge-based industries (GEDR level ? 5). The 2001 U.S. national industry-specific occupational employment and wage estimates data were analyzed to identify knowledge-

Hanas A. Cader

2008-01-01

67

Murphy's Moral Economy of Labor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral Economy of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize labor. (MJP)

Masters, Roger D.

1996-01-01

68

49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel...

2012-10-01

69

49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel...

2013-10-01

70

49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel...

2011-10-01

71

The political economy of famine.  

PubMed

This paper explores some of the reasons why the well-laid plans of the 1970's failed to be an effective bulwark against hunger. It is reflective rather than critical because we are faced with the certainty that just as surely as the famines of the 1980's followed the famines of the 1970's, the 1990's will again see drought, crop failure and, unless things change a great deal, famine as well. The analysis of the causes of hunger current in the 1970's can be summarized somewhat brutally as follows. Either there is not enough to eat, or what is available is poor in nutritional quality. Poor nutrition is synergistic with disease. Together they result in increasing debility and finally death. Famine is an unusual event, precipitated by this same triad of factors, on a catastrophic scale. The strategies which emerged from this analysis can be placed similarly under three broad headings. The first is that food production must be increased so that there is more available for everyone. The second is that national food security strategies should be developed and implemented. The third is that nutritional quality of people's diets should be improved. These are three major goals which have dominated international thinking for a decade. This paper argues that this analysis is at the very least incomplete and that the strategies based upon it have failed to make a marked impact on the risk vulnerable households face to famine. It goes on to suggest that, irrespective of the quantity and quality of food generally available, the households, poorer communities and poorer countries are able to lay claim to a share of what is available. These claims are mediated by a hierarchy of relationships--households within communities, communities within countries and countries in the world at large--and the nature of the relationships constitutes the 'political economy' within which famines arise and must be analysed. PMID:3737027

Hay, R W

1986-01-01

72

Economies of scale in the library world: the Dr Martin Luther King Jr Library in San Jose´, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the new Dr Martin Luther King Jr Library in San Jose´, California, which will house the collections of the San Jose´ Public Library’s main branch and the San Jose´ State University’s Library system in one new building. Outlines the conception of the project, the site selection and the planning process. Considers the communities served, usage patterns and services. Focuses

Paul Kauppila; Sharon Russell

2003-01-01

73

Competing in the Higher Education Market: Empirical Evidence for Economies of Scale and Scope in German Higher Education Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the late 1990s, the European higher education system has had to face deep structural changes. With the public authorities seeking to create an environment of quasi-markets in the higher education sector, the increased competition induced by recent reforms has pushed all publicly financed higher education institutions to use their resources more efficiently. Higher education institutions increasingly now aim at

Maria Olivares; Heike Wetzel

2011-01-01

74

The Political Economy of Transition Grard Roland  

E-print Network

1 The Political Economy of Transition Gérard Roland Gérard Roland is Professor of Economics on an earlier draft. He also thanks symposium participants in Prague, March 23 2001. #12;2 Political economy of reforms. The political economy argument in favor of gradualism was that an appropriate sequencing

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

75

Encyclopedia of the New Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Wired magazine, the Encyclopedia of the New Economy is a compendium of the key issues and terms that define the creation, buying, and selling of communication technology products. Terms are listed in alphabetical order and include both catch phrases and overviews. Wired Encyclopedia authors not only create a useful list of concepts, they also stimulate further thought on the controversies inherent in information technologies by leaving many definitions open-ended.

76

Scotland's Creative Economy: the Role of Universities  

E-print Network

Scotland's Creative Economy: the Role of Universities #12;www.universities-scotland.ac.uk #12 sector can continue to grow to the benefit of Scotland's economy and society. Andrew Dixon, Chief. Universities play a major role in the creative economy in identifying and growing talent and skills as well

Hall, Christopher

77

Economy of middeck payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utilization of the middeck, designed as the crew quarters, for experiments is examined. The dimensions of the middeck's standard lockers, double lockers, adapter plates, and the galley, which are applicable for experiments, are described. The utilities available for middeck payloads include ac and dc electrical power supply, active and passive cooling, vacuum/vent line connections, and data handling, and four basic payload configurations are possible. The development of a middeck accommodations rack to make payload space more flexible and to enable an optimum number and variety of experiments to be flown is proposed. Diagrams of the orbiter's middeck and experimental designs are provided.

Michel, E. L.; Huffstetler, W. J.

1986-01-01

78

Economy of Yak Herders  

E-print Network

the same every year. The herders move with their tents and belongings until they reach the new campsite. Winter camps have permanent hutments of stone and mud walls with a thick layer of mud packing on the roof to protect from snowfall. Those... Chest 18 Intestine and stomach 12 Liver, kidney, heart, etc 10 Head 12 Total 206 The hide is usually stored for processing into leather and leather goods. It is also used as rug with the hair left intact and often as a substitute for meat after...

Gyamtsho, Pema

2000-01-01

79

Design and Implementation of an Economy Plane for the Xinming Chen, Tilman Wolf  

E-print Network

Net, the economy plane of the network enables automated contracts for network services at various time scalesDesign and Implementation of an Economy Plane for the Internet Xinming Chen, Tilman Wolf ECE an economy plane for the Internet. 1. INTRODUCTION A key problem in deploying innovative features

80

Networked incubators. Hothouses of the new economy.  

PubMed

Business incubators such as Hotbank, CMGI, and Idealab! are a booming industry. Offering office space, funding, and basic services to start-ups, these organizations have become the hottest way to nurture and grow fledgling businesses. But are incubators a fleeting phenomenon born of an overheated stock market, or are they an important and lasting way of creating value and wealth in the new economy? The authors argue that one type of incubator, called a networked incubator, represents a fundamentally new and enduring organizational model uniquely suited to growing businesses in the Internet economy. It shares certain features with other incubators--mainly, it fosters a spirit of entrepreneurship and offers economies of scale. But its key distinguishing feature is its ability to give start-ups preferential access to a network of potential partners. Such incubators institutionalize their networking--they have systems in place to encourage networking, helping start-ups, for example, to meet with potential business allies. That doesn't mean incubatees get preferential treatment; it means only that they have built-in access to partnerships that might not have existed without the incubator. Even with this advantage, however, networked incubators can easily follow the road to ruin. To avoid failure, they must create a portfolio of companies and advisers that their incubatees can leverage. That can be done by strategically investing in portfolio firms and by enlisting a large set of business allies. It can also be done by establishing connections and relationships that are anchored more to the incubator than to particular individuals. PMID:11143156

Hansen, M T; Chesbrough, H W; Nohria, N; Sull, D N

2000-01-01

81

The political economy of national security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of international security and political economy are two sides of the same coin. Yet the disciplinary fields of security studies and political economy too often maintain a deliberate distance from each other. The three books discussed in this article are a welcome departure from such an artificial division between (inter)national security issues on the one hand, and economic

Alexandra Homolar

2010-01-01

82

The Political Economies of Immigration Law  

E-print Network

1 The Political Economies of Immigration Law Mariano-Florentino Cuéllar* A largely dysfunctional American immigration system is only poorly explained by simple depictions of the political economy attitudes, explicit presidential decisions, or general gridlock. Instead, the structure of immigration law

Rose, Michael R.

83

THE BURNING OF BIOMASS Economy, Environment, Health  

E-print Network

THE BURNING OF BIOMASS Economy, Environment, Health Kees Kolff, MD, MPH April 21, 2012 #12;OUR TRUCKS OF BIOMASS/ DAY (Currently 82) #12;BAD FOR THE ECONOMY · Taxpayers will pay 50% - tax credits, etc · Not a cogen project so only 25% efficient · Biomass better for biofuels, not electricity · MILL JOBS

84

The Internal Efficiency in Higher Education: An Analysis Based on Economies of Scope  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the studies of the internal efficiency in higher education, most have focused on the scale of university (the economies of scale), but little on internal operating efficiency in higher education, especially on the combined efficiency of outputs (the economies of scope). There are few theoretical discussions or experimental research on…

Gang, Cheng; Keming, Wu

2008-01-01

85

A Caricature (Model) of the World Economy  

E-print Network

This paper provides a stylized model of the workings of a global economy where one of its key driving factors is economic agents’ continuous struggle to find assets in which to park financial resources. This struggle ...

Caballero, Ricardo

2010-11-23

86

Fuel economy of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of on-road energy consumption, fuel economy (FE) of hydrogen fuel cell light-duty vehicles is projected to be 2.5–2.7 times the fuel economy of the conventional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) on the same platforms. Even with a less efficient but higher power density 0.6V per cell than the base case 0.7V per cell at the rated

Rajesh K Ahluwalia; X Wang; A Rousseau; R Kumar

2004-01-01

87

Three Forms of the Knowledge Economy: Learning, Creativity and Openness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines and reviews three forms and associated discourses of the ‘knowledge economy’: the ‘learning economy’, based on the work of Bengt-Åke Lundvall; the ‘creative economy’ based on the work of Charles Landry, John Howkins and Richard Florida; and the ‘open knowledge economy’ based on the work of Yochai Benkler and others. Arguably, these three forms and discourses represent

Michael A. Peters

2010-01-01

88

Three Forms of the Knowledge Economy: Learning, Creativity and Openness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines and reviews three forms and associated discourses of the "knowledge economy": the "learning economy", based on the work of Bengt-Ake Lundvall; the "creative economy" based on the work of Charles Landry, John Howkins and Richard Florida; and the "open knowledge economy" based on the work of Yochai Benkler and others. Arguably,…

Peters, Michael A.

2010-01-01

89

On the improvement of marine circular economy legislation in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress of marine circular economy legislation in China should be guaranteed by corresponding legal system. But with the unestablished mode of current Marine Circular Economy Legislation in China as well as the unsound laws and regulations, the existing legislation cannot adjust to the development pace of marine economy. Therefore, it's a must to improve our marine circular economy legislation

Quan Yongbo

2010-01-01

90

Global Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning module from the Association of American Geographer's Center for Global Geography Education looks into the geographic characteristics of the global economy and the processes linking economic activities at local, regional, and global scales. Four case studies are included in the learning unit, each focusing on a different region (New Zealand, Chile, Central and South America, East/Southeast Asia).

2011-01-21

91

Centre for the Study of African Economies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A research center within the Institute of Economics and Statistics, University of Oxford, the Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE) applies macroeconomic and microeconomic methods to African sociological, demographic, and political contexts. Selected abstracts and working papers from 1993 to present are available on topics ranging from central bank policy to health, crop choice, wages, and unemployment (.pdf format). In addition, users may browse the abstracts and tables of contents of articles from the CSAE publication The Journal of African Economies from 1996 to present.

92

Creativity Economy and a Crisis of the Economy? Coevolution of Knowledge, Innovation, and Creativity, and of the Knowledge Economy and Knowledge Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we define conceptually the “creativity economy” and suggest a model that interrelates creativity, knowledge,\\u000a and innovation economies. The “creativity economy” surpasses earlier concepts of the “creative economy” (creative industries,\\u000a creative occupations). We discuss patterns of a complex dialectic and cyclical interaction between phenomena of a crisis and\\u000a creative and\\/or innovative activities. Economic growth stimulates investments in innovation

Igor N. Dubina; Elias G. Carayannis; David F. J. Campbell

2012-01-01

93

Quantifying the Effects of the Demographic Transition in Developing Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates quantitatively the impact of the observed demographic transition on aggregate variables (factor prices, saving rate, output growth), and on inter-generational welfare in developing economies. It does so by developing a large-scale two-region equilibrium overlapping generations model calibrated to the North (more developed countries) and the South (less developed countries). The paper highlights that the effects of the

Orazio P. Attanasio; Sagiri Kitao; Giovanni L. Violante

2006-01-01

94

The Economy of a Lucky Country.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australia has one of the highest standards of living in the world. Agriculture, grazing, and mining are the mainstays of the country's economy. Since the end of World War II, Australia has developed an advanced industrial base that manufactures a wide range of goods, from automobiles to clothespins. (RM)

Thomas, Tony

1984-01-01

95

The Political Economy of Kenya's Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using political economy analysis, this paper discusses three precipitating factors that were ignited by Kenya's 2007 election, which was too close to call beforehand and highly contested afterwards. These factors were: the gradual loss of the state's monopoly of legitimate force and the consequent diffusion of violence; the deliberate weakening of institutions outside the executive in favour of personalized presidential

Susanne D. Mueller

2008-01-01

96

THE IMPACT OF KNAPWEED ON MONTANA'S ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic impact of three invasive, exotic weeds--diffuse, spotted, and Russian knapweed (Centaurea diffusa, C. maculosa, and Acroptilon repens)--on Montana's economy was estimated using a procedure developed for another invasive weed species. Published data and that from a survey of county weed boards were used to estimate direct negative impacts of over $14 million annually due to infestation of over

Steven A. Hirsch; Jay A. Leitch

1996-01-01

97

The Political Economy of National Security.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a course offered on the political economy of national security. Discusses the objective of the course as the introduction of major economic issues associated with national security. Outlines lecture topics, course readings, and class format. Evaluates course weaknesses and strengths. Includes course assignments and requirements. (RW)

Kapstein, Ethan B.

1990-01-01

98

Dynamics of Open Economy Business Cycle Models: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the dynamic implications of different preference formulations in open economy business cycle models with incomplete asset markets. In particular, we study two preference formulations: a time separable preference formulation with a fixed discount factor, and a time non-separable preference structure with an endogenous discount factor. We analyze the moment implications of two versions of an otherwise identical

Sunghyun Henry Kim; M. Ayhan Kose

2003-01-01

99

Evolution of the New Economy Business Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An earlier version of this paper is forthcoming in Eric Brousseau and Nicolas Curien, eds., The Economics of the Internet, Cambridge University Press. I am currently elaborating and detailing the arguments made here in a book for the W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, tentatively entitled, The New Economy Business Model and Sustainable Prosperity: The Future of High-Tech Employment

William Lazonick

2005-01-01

100

A Political Economy Model of Congressional Careers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories in political economy depend critically on assumptions about motivations of politicians. Our analysis starts from the premise that politicians, like other economic agents, are rational individuals who make career decisions by comparing the expected returns of alternative choices. The main goal of the paper is to quantify the returns to a career in the United States Congress. To achieve

Daniel Diermeier; Michael Keane; Antonio Merlo

2004-01-01

101

A Political Economy Model of Congressional Careers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories in political economy depend critically on assumptions about motivations of politicians. Our analysis starts from the premise that politicians, like other economic agents, are rational individuals who make career decisions by comparing the expected returns of alternative choices. The main goal of the paper is to quantify the returns to a career in the United States Congress. To achieve

Daniel Diermeier; Michael P. Keane; Antonio M. Merlo

2002-01-01

102

The Economy of the Early Roman Empire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many inhabitants of ancient Rome lived well. Tourists marvel at the temples, baths, roads and aqueducts that they built. Economists also want to understand the existence of a flourishing and apparently prosperous economy two millennia ago. Market institutions and a stable government appear to have been the combination that produced this remarkable result. This essay provides an economist's view of

Peter Temin

2006-01-01

103

Causal modeling of knowledge-based economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how research on knowledge-based economy (KBE) has increased noticeably in recent years. However, while some literature is available on construct model and validity analysis, little information is available on causal model. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This work used the Knowledge Assessment Scorecards of World Bank, applying the linear structural relation model to

Chih-Kai Chen

2008-01-01

104

The Oxford Handbook of the Digital Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic analysis of the digital economy has been a rapidly developing research area for more than a decade. Through authoritative examination by leading scholars, this Handbook takes a closer look at particular industries, business practices, and policy issues associated with the digital industry. The volume offers an up-to-date account of key topics, discusses open questions, and provides guidance for

Martin Peitz; Joel Waldfogel

105

Dynamic model and control of mixed economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lagging economy and high inflation of recent years can be quantitatively explained by a dynamic model which is based on well known structural equations and equations on price and wage reflecting collective bargaining and limited monopoly. Using the dynamic model, the effects of various economic policies are studied.

S. S. L. Chang; T. K. C. Peng

1971-01-01

106

Aspects of the political economy of development and synthetic biology  

E-print Network

What implications might synthetic biology’s potential as a wholly new method of production have for the world economy, particularly developing countries? Theories of political economy predict that synthetic biology can ...

Wellhausen, Rachel

107

Facing the Challenges of a Turbulent Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As college presidents face the challenges of a turbulent and uncertain economy, they are working to assess the impacts on their strategic financial positions and to develop response plans that reflect their institutional missions and values. How can college presidents navigate during these difficult economic times as they seek to hold on to the…

Gann, Pamela B.

2009-01-01

108

Fuel economy of hybrid fuel cell vehicles.  

SciTech Connect

The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

Ahluwalia, R.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2004-01-01

109

49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. 525...exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. ...this part or to amend an alternative average fuel economy standard...

2010-10-01

110

The changing political economy of sex in South Africa: The significance of unemployment and inequalities to the scale of the AIDS pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1990 and 2005, HIV prevalence rates in South Africa jumped from less than 1% to around 29%. Important scholarship has demonstrated how racialized structures entrenched by colonialism and apartheid set the scene for the rapid unfolding of the AIDS pandemic, like other causes of ill-health before it. Of particular relevance is the legacy of circular male-migration, an institution that

Mark Hunter

2007-01-01

111

THE ETHICS OF ECONOMIC INTERACTIONS IN THE NETWORK ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rise of the network economy brought about the strong conviction that economic interactions in the network economy could be based on cooperative, informed and transparent communication, which would counteract the negative welfare effects of unequal bargaining power, the opacity of the intentions of the parties, opportunistic behaviors, monopolies and market failures. So the contracts of the network economy nowadays

László Fekete

2006-01-01

112

Political economy of tobacco control in Thailand  

PubMed Central

Thailand has some of the world's strongest anti-tobacco legislation. This paper examines the political economy of tobacco control in Thailand, emphasising the identification of forces which have supported and opposed the passage of strong anti-tobacco measures. It argues that while a powerful tobacco control coalition was created in the late 1980s, the gains won by this coalition are now under threat from systematic attempts by transnational tobacco companies to strengthen their share of the Thai cigarette market. The possible privatisation of the Thailand Tobacco Monopoly could threaten the tobacco control cause, but the pro-control alliance is fighting back with a proposed Health Promotion Act which would challenge the tobacco industry with a hypothecated excise tax dedicated to health awareness campaigns.???Keywords: anti-tobacco legislation; political economy; Thailand; transnational tobacco companies PMID:11226361

Chantornvong, S.; McCargo, D.

2001-01-01

113

City of Ideas: Reinventing Boston's Innovation Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Boston Foundation has worked for over a century to improve the lives of Boston-area residents through its investigations into the housing market, economic development, and the future of public schools. This 56-page report on Boston's innovation economy was released in March 2012, and it looks into how Boston will remain competitive in a range of 21st century industries over the coming years. In the introduction to the work, Paul S. Grogan, CEO of The Boston Foundation, notes that "Macro-economic trends have not been kind to households on the low end of the economic ladder" and "Our second challenge is the degree to which rising health care costs have outpaced our investment in education." Moving on, curious readers will find chapters in the paper titled "A New Paradigm for Boston's Innovation Economy" and "Possible Scenarios for Boston in 2030." Public policy types and others will find this work to be quite interesting and thought-provoking.

2012-03-14

114

Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

2008-01-01

115

The Second Economy of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second economies of the Soviet Union and other East European countries derive from structural inadequacies in the socialist planning system and from the cultural and historical evolution of each East European society. This article combines the structural and cultural approaches to the second economy and focuses on four of its most prevalent forms: peasant household production, the shadow economy

Steven L. Sampson

1987-01-01

116

THE ECONOMY OF MANATEE AND SARASOTA COUNTIES Effie Philippakos  

E-print Network

i THE ECONOMY OF MANATEE AND SARASOTA COUNTIES By Effie Philippakos Alan W. Hodges David Mulkey Charles M. Adams Abstract This report is intended to characterize the economies of Manatee and Sarasota-county region. The overall size and seasonal variations in the economies of Manatee and Sarasota Counties were

Florida, University of

117

Effects of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the Indian Economy  

E-print Network

1 Effects of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the Indian Economy Sourangsu Banerji Visiting study the effects of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) with respect to India and its economy. We try interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

118

State of the economy and the prospect for recovery  

E-print Network

State of the economy and the prospect for recovery According to Dr. Ira Kalish, the director of global economics at Deloitte Research, the global economy has "stabilized" somewhat in the first quarter policy in the economy. Although the impact of the federal government stimulus package was debated

Moore, Paul A.

119

Exact Measures of Income in a Hyperbolic Economy  

E-print Network

Exact Measures of Income in a Hyperbolic Economy JOHN PEZZEY EEN0203 #12;Exact Measures of Income in a Hyperbolic Economy John C. V. Pezzey Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies Australian National.K. Draft of 23 January 2002 Abstract. Exact optimal paths are calculated for a closed economy with human

Pezzey, Jack

120

Options for small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) to overcome loss of economies of scale and incorporate increased proliferation resistance and energy security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The designers of innovative small and medium sized reactors pursue new design and deployment strategies making use of certain advantages provided by smaller reactor size and capacity to achieve reduced design complexity and simplified operation and maintenance requirements, and to provide for incremental capacity increase through multi-module plant clustering. Competitiveness of SMRs depends on the incorporated strategies to overcome loss

Vladimir Kuznetsov

2008-01-01

121

Factors Affecting Informal Economy of Rural Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It has been found that milk has the largest share of animal produce values consumed by the household, while particularly processed milk products are sold informally and that the consumption and sales values of animal produce processed in the households are required to be added to the unrecorded value calculation. Consumption of crops varies depending on the type of product. The own consumption ratio of crops is affected by the size of the enterprise, the number of individuals in the households and particularly the access to the markets of the enterprises in each region. An average informal value of 6,400.04 USD has been calculated per household, which is higher than the farm income, accounting for 4/5 of total household income. This can be attributed to the fact that the farms are generally small family enterprises with limited market-access opportunities.

Gonenc, Sertac; Tanrivermis, Harun

122

A Glossary of Political Economy Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Paul M. Johnson, political scientist at Auburn University, this Website serves as an excellent online reference for students of political economy. There are over 200 definitions here of relevant terms, including capitalism, communism, market economy, tariff, supply side economics, law of supply and demand, macroeconomics, and many more. The entries feature hypertext links to related terms in the glossary. Definitions range from a concise sentence to a brief essay depending on the topic. Communism, for instance, receives well over a full frame; capitalism is defined in a few sentences. Nonetheless, the definitions seem to be without any definite political bias and more-than-adequate for students in high school and undergraduate courses as well as, of course, for the merely curious.

Johnson, Paul M.

2007-04-21

123

A Glossary of Political Economy Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Paul M. Johnson, political scientist at Auburn University, this Website serves as an excellent online reference for students of political economy. There are over 200 definitions here of relevant terms, including capitalism, communism, market economy, tariff, supply side economics, law of supply and demand, macroeconomics, and many more. The entries feature hypertext links to related terms in the glossary. Definitions range from a concise sentence to a brief essay depending on the topic. Communism, for instance, receives well over a full frame; capitalism is defined in a few sentences. Nonetheless, the definitions seem to be without any definite political bias and more-than-adequate for students in high school and undergraduate courses as well as, of course, for the merely curious.

Johnson, Paul M.

1994-01-01

124

Open economy models of distribution and growth Robert A. Blecker*  

E-print Network

Chapter 9 Open economy models of distribution and growth Robert A. Blecker* To appear in: Eckhard-Keynesian macro models for closed economies, the present chapter focuses on extensions of these models the post-Keynesian framework to a global economy that has become much more integrated in the past few

Carlini, David

125

Is Chinese stock market a barometer of macro economy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

How macro economy affects the stock market? Whether the stock market is a barometer of macro economy? This paper studies these questions based on the relationship analysis of the Shanghai A share volatility and macro economy. Using Granger causality test and VAR model, it empirically analyzed the relationship between the two series from May 2006 to March 2010. The results

Zhao Yucheng

2011-01-01

126

The Cultural Economy of Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasingly important fraction of contemporary economic activity is devoted to the production of cultural outputs, i.e. goods and services with high levels of aesthetic or semiotic content. This kind of economic activity is especially, and increasingly, associated with a number of large cities scattered over the globe. A conceptual account of this phenomenon is provided on the basis of

Allen J. Scott

1997-01-01

127

The Structure and Future of the Information Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the United States economy and reviews National Income Accounting concepts and evidence about future of an information economy. It is concluded that information economy growth will be in products, not services, and that it will not continue at same rate it has in past. Thirty-six references are cited. (EJS)

Cooper, Michael D.

1983-01-01

128

The Initiation of Homeless Youth into the Street Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…

Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C.; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S.

2009-01-01

129

The Upside of a Down Economy: Buying Locally  

E-print Network

and Executive Director, Local First Arizona Small Business Owner The economy isn't something far awayThe Upside of a Down Economy: Buying Locally Wednesday, April 3, 2013 12:00 ­ 1:30 p.m. Wrigley that someone else is going to fix for us--we have the power to turn the economy around. Learn how your own

Hall, Sharon J.

130

The Upside of a Down Economy: Buying Locally  

E-print Network

First Arizona and Small Business Owner The economy isn't something far away that someone else is goingThe Upside of a Down Economy: Buying Locally Wednesday, September 26, 2012 5:00 ­ 6:30 p to fix for us-- we have the power to turn the economy around. Learn how your own purchasing habits can

Hall, Sharon J.

131

The Role of Online Travel Agents in the Experience Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our society has evolved through the product economy and the service economy to the experience economy. Due to this fact the value of a travel product, nowadays, is far beyond the goods and services. Experiences are driving the travel industry and make the travel product more and more diverse. Moreover, not only the travel experience itself, but also an experience

Anton Bogdanovych; Marc Esteva; Simeon Simoff; Greg Smith

132

The political economy of conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A political economic purview of energy conservation in the United States was delineated. The concepts of substitution and elasticity are distinguished, and further distinctions are made between short run price elasticity, cross price elasticity, and available fund elasticity. An assessment of the role which cost factors can play in conservation is given. The structure of the petroleum industry and foreign petroleum resources is discussed. Also discussed is the role of government, industry and the consumer with the economic sphere.

1975-01-01

133

Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Golden Age of postwar capitalism has been eclipsed, and with it seemingly also the possibility of harmonizing equality and welfare with efficiency and jobs. Most analyses believe the the emerging postindustrial society is overdetermined by massive, convergent forces, such as tertiarization, new technologies, or globalization, all conspiring to make welfare states unsustainable in the future. Social Foundations of Postindustrial

Gosta Esping-Andersen

1998-01-01

134

The Economy of Explicit Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The risk posed by explicit instruction in composition is that the reduction of writing to stock moves and effective devices may diminish the writer's agency and guarantee reproduction of the teacher's. The advantage of explicit instruction is power: overt and recursive attention to selected strategies can help students imagine the public agency…

Kraemer, Don J.

2007-01-01

135

THE WATER ECONOMY OF ISRAEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the water sector of Israel. It describes sources and uses and reviews economic and political issues. The focus is solely on Israel; regional water questions ? the subject of other papers in the conference? are not discussed. The public debate on water in Israel is overshadowed nowadays by the acute crisis we are experiencing; the country is

Yoav Kislev

2001-01-01

136

Political economy of Ramsey taxation  

E-print Network

We study the dynamic taxation of capital and labor in the Ramsey model under the assumption that taxes and public good provision are decided by a self-interested politician who cannot commit to policies. We show that, as ...

Acemoglu, Daron

137

Professors of the New Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Profiles four professors who epitomize the increasing influence of academe on new technology-driven Internet business: a start-up maven, Steven Kaplan; a social psychologist, Michael Ray; a cyberlawyer, David Post; and an e-commerce expert, Andrew B. Whinston. (DB)

Wilson, Robin

2000-01-01

138

Aspen: A microsimulation model of the economy  

SciTech Connect

This report presents, Aspen. Sandia National Laboratories is developing this new agent-based microeconomic simulation model of the U.S. economy. The model is notable because it allows a large number of individual economic agents to be modeled at a high level of detail and with a great degree of freedom. Some features of Aspen are (a) a sophisticated message-passing system that allows individual pairs of agents to communicate, (b) the use of genetic algorithms to simulate the learning of certain agents, and (c) a detailed financial sector that includes a banking system and a bond market. Results from runs of the model are also presented.

Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.; Quint, T.; Arnold, T.

1996-10-01

139

Interindustry analysis of the economy of Northeast Texas emphasizing agriculture  

E-print Network

indirect effects of the factory on the local economy. Such indirect effects may be expected to continue until virtually all sectors of the local economy are affected by the initial change. Leantief developed the input-output method of analyzing..., an interregional analysis was developed and the interdependence between sectors in northern and southern California was estimated. In 1969, the Office of Business Economics of the U. S Depart- ment of Commerce published a study of the American economy for 1963...

Lippke, Lawrence Arnold

2012-06-07

140

A VECX* Model of the Swiss Economy  

E-print Network

relates to a common sample for all tests. In establishing the unit root properties of the core variables we shall first check if their first differences are in fact stationary. The unit root tests applied to the levels, to be discussed subsequently... ) to the estimation of a structural cointegrated VAR model that relates the core macroeconomic variables of the Swiss economy to current and lagged values of a number of key foreign variables. We identify and test a long-run structure between the variables. Moreover...

Assenmacher-Wesche, Katrin; Pesaran, M Hashem

141

Enviromental Impacts of A Regional Economy: An Application To The Aragonese Economy (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to analyse the environmental impacts of a regional economy (Aragon, Spain) by way of its atmospheric emissions. Our starting point is the construction of a Social Accounting Matrix with Environmental Accounts for this region. We calculated environmental indicators from the underlying SAM model considering the households and foreign sector accounts as exogenous accounts, while

R. Duarte; M. Flores; J. Sanchez-Choliz

2010-01-01

142

Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy

Kevin M Norman; Shean P Huff; Brian H West

2009-01-01

143

The Midwest Economy Curriculum Package: An Examination of the Midwest Economy and Its Prospects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During 1995-96, the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago's (Illinois) Research Department carried out a comprehensive study of the Midwest economy. Researchers looked at the region's performance over the past 10-15 years to look for lessons for the future. The study included a series of academic symposia which brought together academic, private sector,…

Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, IL.

144

Pacific Institute Releases New Economy of Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Riveting reading, the Pacific Institute's report on The Economy of Water puts it all up front when it comes to the status and power of water as an issue of looming national and international significance. Looking at water from multiple perspectives, the report clearly details the impact and potential harm of current and pending zoning and privatization efforts on the part of utilities and other interested agencies, both public and private. In particular, the study focuses on the social and financial costs of water privatization efforts and their long term implications for specific countries and societies. Perhaps most compelling is the policy brief's emphasis on the competing forces of globalization and privatization and how they tend to play out and off of one another.

2002-01-01

145

Beyond political economy: actor networks and the globalization of agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a critical assessment of the traditional political economy approaches in analysis of agricultural globalization. The use of the actor network perspective is suggested to enhance our understanding of the globalization process. To illustrate the applicability of actor network theory to political economy studies, the globalization of the Canadian rapeseed (Brassica rapa and B. napus) industry is analyzed.

Lawrence Busch; Arunas Juska

1997-01-01

146

Fuel economy of automotive vehicles - some statistical approaches  

SciTech Connect

Subjects covered by the paper include: interpolation, extrapolation and smoothing of time-series data; curvilinearity in the regression analysis of fuel-economy data; an approach to the regionalization of fuel-economy shortfall; and the effect of transformations of variables on the coefficient of determination (R/sup 2/) in regression analysis.

McAdams, H.T.

1981-12-01

147

The role of networks in political economy  

E-print Network

This dissertation investigates the different roles that networks play in political economy. In the first chapter, I study how a political party uses electoral data to monitor and incentivize the political brokers who control ...

Larreguy Arbesú, Horacio Alejandro

2013-01-01

148

Growth of money economy and some questions of transition in late pre?colonial India  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the more remarkable but neglected features of the growth of commercial capitalism on an international scale from the sixteenth century consists of widespread processes of monetization affecting a number of Asian societies, and especially India. This was in turn connected with commercialization of both agrarian and urban economy, and the development of markets and manufactures. By the middle

Frank Perlin

1984-01-01

149

'Globalization', the geopolitical economy of migration and the 'spatial vent'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a rapidly expanding literature in the last decade, the question of migration remains a neglected area of research in IPE, global political economy and political geography. In addressing this deficiency, this article seeks to contribute to the growing debate over the links between 'globalization', IPE and the geopolitical economy of migration. Rather than the more 'traditional' focus of IPE,

Michael Samers

1999-01-01

150

Wisconsin Agriculture Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy  

E-print Network

STATUS OF Wisconsin Agriculture 2010 · Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy · Current Outlook: Farm Products, Farm Inputs and the General Economy · Framing the Financial Crisis for Wisconsin Agriculture Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural and Life Sciences University

Radeloff, Volker C.

151

A Stay-Rich View of the New Global Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major demographic changes around the world. Disproportionate sovereign debt. A shift from North America, Western Europe, and Japan to emerging economies as centers of growth. Unprecedented levels of market risk and volatility. The structure of the global economy is undergoing significant changes. Michael Oyster, managing principal of Fund…

Trusteeship, 2011

2011-01-01

152

Capital Markets and the Instability of Open Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a framework for analyzing the role of financial factors as a source of stability in small open economies. Our basic model is a dynamic open economy with a tradeable good produced with capital and a country-specific factor. We also assume that firms face credit constraints, with the constraint being tighter at a lower level of financial development.

Philippe Aghion; Philippe Bacchetta; Abhijit Banerjee

2000-01-01

153

THE IMPACT OF TRANSPORTATION INFRAESTRUCTURE ON THE COLOMBIAN ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper measures some of the impacts that development in transportation infrastructure could have on the Colombian economy during the period 1905-1990. The first section of the paper analyzes the responsiveness of the economy to changes in transportation costs and changes in transportation length network, by estimating the demand elasticities for railroads’ freight and passenger services. This enables us to

María Teresa Ramírez

1999-01-01

154

Ecological evaluation of Beijing economy based on emergy indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated ecological evaluation of the Beijing economy was presented in the paper based on the emergy accounting with the data in 2004. Through calculating environmental and economic inputs within and outside the Beijing economy, this paper discusses the Beijing’s resource structure, economic situation and trade status based on a series of emergy indicators. Through the comparison of the systematic

M. M. Jiang; J. B. Zhou; B. Chen; Z. F. Yang; X. Ji; L. X. Zhang; G. Q. Chen

2009-01-01

155

ETA-MACRO: A model of energy-economy interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A market economy is simulated through a dynamic nonlinear optimization process. To describe the production relationship within this economy, two dynamic submodels are incorporated: ETA, a process analysis for energy technology assessment; and a macroeconomic growth model providing for substitution between capital, labor, and energy inputs. The focus is on one specific policy option--banning the introduction of additional civilian nuclear

A. S. Manne

1977-01-01

156

Higher Skills and the Knowledge Economy: The Challenge of Offshoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent economics literature on offshoring highlights the trend towards the relocation of high-skill jobs to emerging economies. This evolution presents a challenge to the established knowledge economy discourse on which the relationship between higher education, higher skills, higher productivity and higher incomes has been based. This paper…

Craig, John; Gunn, Andrew

2010-01-01

157

Taking Energy Conservation as the Central of Developing Circular Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circular economy is the economy activities which rely on technological innovation to accomplish the reduction target to obtain the economic benefit and protect environment. Economic technology can be divided into circular one and noncircular one. The noncircular technology is the basis of the circular technology. Just as YCC, the Isasmelting furnace technology's utilization is the core and the breaking point

Tang Xiangyang; Lin Xiuqun

2011-01-01

158

The Impact of Credit on Village Economies  

E-print Network

This paper evaluates the short- and longer term impact of Thailand's "Million Baht Village Fund" program, among the largest scale government microfinance iniatives in the world, using pre- and post-program panel data and ...

Townsend, Robert

159

A proposal to extend our understanding of the global economy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellites acquire information on a global and repetitive basis. They are thus ideal tools for use when global scale and analysis over time is required. Data from satellites comes in digital form which means that it is ideally suited for incorporation in digital data bases and that it can be evaluated using automated techniques. The development of a global multi-source data set which integrates digital information is proposed regarding some 15,000 major industrial sites worldwide with remotely sensed images of the sites. The resulting data set would provide the basis for a wide variety of studies of the global economy. The preliminary results give promise of a new class of global policy model which is far more detailed and helpful to local policy makers than its predecessors. The central thesis of this proposal is that major industrial sites can be identified and their utilization can be tracked with the aid of satellite images.

Hough, Robbin R.; Ehlers, Manfred

1991-01-01

160

19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. 351.408 Section...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. (a) Introduction...identifying dumping from a nonmarket economy country, the Secretary...

2012-04-01

161

19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. 351.408 Section...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. (a) Introduction...identifying dumping from a nonmarket economy country, the Secretary...

2011-04-01

162

19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. 351.408 Section...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. (a) Introduction...identifying dumping from a nonmarket economy country, the Secretary...

2013-04-01

163

The political economy of national defense  

SciTech Connect

This timely study covers both the economic and the political aspects of defense spending-first by providing a theoretical framework and then by explaining, in a political economy context, the results of decisions to allocate scarce resources to defense. The authors provide a comprehensive picture of the interaction between defense spending and the economic and political structure of the United States, complementing their exploration of topical concerns such as SDI with analysis of long-term trends and issues of timeless importance in the defense debate. Because of the politicizing of defense planning and procurement, there have been few significant applications of optimization techniques to high-level defense issues over the past decade. As a result, there has been a rapid decline in the importance of those techniques-historically the focus of books on defense economics. Like its predecessors, this book presents optimization techniques applicable to a wide variety of defense problems, but it also illustrates what happens in actual practice and why defense decisions are often not economically efficient. The authors discuss alternatives for cases when political constraints make efficient solutions unlikely and explore changes in the defense establishment and political structures that would make economically efficient resource allocations a reality.

Weida, W.J.; Gertcher, F.L.

1987-01-01

164

Health benefits of a low carbon economy.  

PubMed

This article summarizes a presentation given at 'Health and Well-being: the 21st Century Agenda', which focused on the potential to make progress by making appropriate connections between activity to promote health and respond to the threat of climate change. It argues that a transition to a low carbon economy would bring together two of our greatest public health challenges, supporting action to improve public health within resource constraints and action to avert climate change as far as possible. Deep cuts in emissions are needed to prevent dangerous consequences arising from climate change. In addition, many of the policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions will, in themselves, have beneficial effects on public health. This article provides an overview of several modelling studies which demonstrate that well-designed initiatives that curb greenhouse gas emissions in energy, residential construction, urban transport and agricultural systems can enhance global public health, including improving health among poor populations. Some of these health co-benefits can be achieved in a relatively short time frame, and they can help offset the costs of climate change mitigation policies. PMID:22784582

Haines, A

2012-09-01

165

The Nature and Extent of Innovative Activity in a Peripheral Regional Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

HARRISON R. T. and HART M. (1990) The nature and extent of innovative activity in a peripheral fegional economy, Reg. Studies24, 383–393. This paper examines the impact of technology policy at the regional scale in the United Kingdom, with particular reference to Northern Ireland. Analysis of the size and industrial structure of high technology employment in Great Britain and Northern

Richard T. Harrison; Mark Hart

1990-01-01

166

Valuing forest recreation on the national level in a transition economy: The case of Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recreation benefits constitute a substantial part of the total economic value of forests, and are important for the choice of multi-functional forest policies. The application of methods valuing such benefits is in its infancy in transition economies in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), so value estimates for policy use are sometimes transferred from Western Europe proportionally scaled down by GDP.

Anna Bartczak; Henrik Lindhjem; Ståle Navrud; Marianne Zandersen; Tomasz ?ylicz

2008-01-01

167

Child Care and the New Economy: Part I--Three Pillars of the New Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Late in 2008, when it was becoming apparent that the economic downturn was not a simple blip but a serious recession, Warren Buffet confidently predicted that the American economy would bounce back and be as strong as ever. However, he observed, "the economy that emerges will not be the same economy that entered the downturn." Since then, one…

Neugebauer, Roger

2009-01-01

168

40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.311-08 Range...

2013-07-01

169

40 CFR 600.510-86 - Calculation of average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-86 Section 600.510-86...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

2011-07-01

170

40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2011-07-01

171

3 CFR 13494 - Executive Order 13494 of January 30, 2009. Economy in Government Contracting  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Executive Order 13494 of January 30, 2009. Economy in Government Contracting 13494 Order...13494 of January 30, 2009 EO 13494 Economy in Government Contracting By the...ordered that: Section 1. To promote economy and efficiency in Government...

2010-01-01

172

40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.311-08 Range...

2012-07-01

173

76 FR 11196 - Antidumping Methodologies in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of Production...antidumping proceedings involving non-market economy (``NME'') countries. See Antidumping...in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of...

2011-03-01

174

40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2011-07-01

175

The Political Economy of Nursing Homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nursing home industry receives three- quarters of its income from government. The industry earns high profits while providing poor patient care. Considerable swindling of government funds occurs. One category is nickel and diming, which consists of clipping every possible dollar from government money as it passes through nursing home accounts. Another method—large scale and often within the law—involves the

Mary Adelaide Mendelson; David Hapgood

1974-01-01

176

Forthcoming in: Nauro Campos and Jan Fidrmuc (eds.), "Political Economy of Transition and  

E-print Network

literature documenting the superior educational attainment in most transition economies, as wellForthcoming in: Nauro Campos and Jan Fidrmuc (eds.), "Political Economy of Transition Publishers, Boston/Dordrecht/London. Human Capital, Growth and Inequality in Transition Economies By Michael

Royal Holloway, University of London

177

TEXTUAL ECONOMY THROUGH CLOSE COUPLING OF SYNTAX AND SEMANTICS Matthew Stone Bonnie Webber  

E-print Network

TEXTUAL ECONOMY THROUGH CLOSE COUPLING OF SYNTAX AND SEMANTICS Matthew Stone Bonnie Webber Dept, thatexploitsthe hearer's recognitionof inferentiallinkstomaterial elsewhere withina sentence. Textual economy argue that achieving textual economy imposes strong requirements on the representation and reasoning

Stone, Matthew

178

40 CFR 600.209-95 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.209-95...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

179

40 CFR 600.209-85 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.209-85...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

180

University of Michigan Institute for Research on Labor, Employment and the Economy  

E-print Network

University of Michigan Institute for Research on Labor, Employment and the Economy (IRLEE) Mission innovation, increasing entrepreneurship, and improving the economy; (5) Foster a core of interdisciplinary

Shyy, Wei

181

Supply chain practices in the context of an emerging economy  

E-print Network

The emergence of the BRIC economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China as a formidable economic powerhouse is turning into a reality. The center of the world's economic gravity is slowly shifting towards these emerging ...

Bhaumik, Vijan

2010-01-01

182

Improving the Energy Economy of Buildings by Building Automation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was, by using literature, calculations and experimental research, to investigate the possibilities for improving the energy economy of buildings by building automation, to estimate the need of investments and to present the recom...

1983-01-01

183

Ecological evaluation of Beijing economy based on emergy indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated ecological evaluation of the Beijing economy was presented in the paper based on the emergy accounting with the data in 2004. Through calculating environmental and economic inputs within and outside the Beijing economy, this paper discusses the Beijing's resource structure, economic situation and trade status based on a series of emergy indicators. Through the comparison of the systematic indicators of Beijing with those of the selected Chinese cities, the general status of the Beijing economy in China is identified. The results also show that most indicators of Beijing are located at middle levels among the selected Chinese cities. Particularly, the environmental impacts, expressed by the ratio of waste to the renewable emergy, and the ratio of waste to the total emergy use, are 84.2 and 0.26, respectively in Beijing in 2004, which indicate that the Beijing economy is greatly reliant on the imported intensive fuels, goods and services with high empower density and environmental loading.

Jiang, M. M.; Zhou, J. B.; Chen, B.; Yang, Z. F.; Ji, X.; Zhang, L. X.; Chen, G. Q.

2009-05-01

184

Globalization and the Future of the National Economy  

E-print Network

Many observers are concerned that the growth of globalization will undermine and destroy national economies. For the past six years, Professor Suzanne Berger, the Raphael Dorman and Helen Starbuck Professor of Political ...

Boyd, James Patrick

2006-03-17

185

Interregional Competition in the Cattle Feeding Economy with Special Emphasis on Economies of Size.  

E-print Network

and the establishment of .ye, specialized cattle slaughtering and processing r~lants near concentrated cattle feeding areas. Con- rlnuous adjustments relative to location, size and *lye of firm, volume and type of output, and man- practices employed are essential... if cattle ~d slaughtering firms are to compete in the 3ing - fed-beef economy. This study utilizes a multi-dimensional tranship- rncnt motlel to determine the least-cost location and 1 c~tirnurn levels of cattle feeding and fed-cattle slaugh- *.: among...

Dietrich, Raymond A.

1971-01-01

186

Evolution of cooperative problem solving in an artificial economy  

PubMed

We address the problem of how to reinforce learning in ultracomplex environments, with huge state-spaces, where one must learn to exploit a compact structure of the problem domain. The approach we propose is to simulate the evolution of an artificial economy of computer programs. The economy is constructed based on two simple principles so as to assign credit to the individual programs for collaborating on problem solutions. We find empirically that starting from programs that are random computer code, we can develop systems that solve hard problems. In particular, our economy learned to solve almost all random Blocks World problems with goal stacks that are 200 blocks high. Competing methods solve such problems only up to goal stacks of at most 8 blocks. Our economy has also learned to unscramble about half a randomly scrambled Rubik's cube and to solve several commercially sold puzzles. PMID:11112253

Baum; Durdanovic

2000-12-01

187

Economies of Traffic Density in the Deregulated Airline Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article estimates a structural model of competition among hub-and-spoke airlines in order to measure the strength of economies of traffic density on individual route segments. We find that economies of density were strong during the sample period (fourth quarter 1985), stronger than previous estimates by Douglas Caves, Laurits Christensen, and Michael Tretheway derived from traditional cost-function methods. We also

Jan K. Brueckner; Pablo T. Spiller

1994-01-01

188

Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy  

SciTech Connect

Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CARB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4%, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6%. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CARB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

Aceves, S., LLNL

1997-01-01

189

Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy  

SciTech Connect

Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CAROB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4 %, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6 %. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CAROB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

Aceves, S.; Glaser, R.; Richardson, J.

1997-01-01

190

The political economy of government interventions in financial crises  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 examines how political economy considerations affect the desirability of banking unions. It presents a model in which bank recapitalizations are carried out by rent-seeking policymakers. These policymakers face ...

Foar??, Octavia Daniela

2014-01-01

191

Environmental policy in transition economies : the effectiveness of pollution changes  

E-print Network

Most economists and analysts claim that extended use of pollution charges in environmental policy will have substantial efficiency advantages in countries undergoing transition to market economies. Essentially this paper ...

Söderholm, Patrik

1999-01-01

192

Deciphering the effects of agglomeration economies on firms’ productive efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work assess the effects of MAR and Jacob’s type agglomeration economies on a sample of firms in the machineries and textiles industries in Greece for the periods 1989-91 and 1999-01. The analysis employs a stochastic production frontier function and allows agglomeration economies to enter as inputs and\\/or as factors reducing inefficiency. Results re-confirm that the effects of agglomeration

Dimitris Skuras; Kostas Tsekouras; Efthalia Dimara

2011-01-01

193

THE SUBSTANTIVE ECONOMY OF MONEY --KARL POLANYI IN THE TRADITION OF "OLD" INSTITUTIONALISM--  

E-print Network

THE SUBSTANTIVE ECONOMY OF MONEY --KARL POLANYI IN THE TRADITION OF "OLD" INSTITUTIONALISM-- Introduction First Part - The Purpose of a Substantive Economy §1/ Karl Polanyi's Method : a point of view §2 / Substantive Economy and the Question of Value §3 / Institutions and forms of integration : economy

Boyer, Edmond

194

Use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy. One of the important requirements for Gen. IV High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGR) is passive safety. Currently all the HTGR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. [1] The decay heat first is transferred to core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. Similar concepts have been widely used in sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) designs, advanced light water reactors like AP1000. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area. RVACS tends to be less expensive. However, it limits the largest achievable power level for modular HTGRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface). When the relative decay heat removal capability is reduced, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annual designs with internal reflector can mitigate this effect therefore further increase the power. Another way to increase power is to increase power density. However, it is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides safety, HTGRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor designs. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of HTGRs. Forsberg [2] pointed out other disadvantages of using RVACS such as conflicting functional requirements for the reactor vessel and scaling distortion for integral effect test of the system performance. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume based passive decay removal system, call Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS has been widely used in SFR designs and in liquid salt cooled high temperature reactors. The containment cooling system in BWR is another example of volume based decay removal systems. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one in reactor side and another is in environment side. DRACS has the benefits of increasing the power as needed (scalability) and modularity. This paper introduces the concept of using DRACS to enhance HTGRs passive safety and economy.

Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou

2011-06-01

195

Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in fuel economy with increasing restriction. However, the level of restriction required to cause a substantial (10-15%) decrease in fuel economy (such as that cited in the literature) was so severe that the vehicle was almost undrivable. Acceleration performance on all vehicles was improved with a clean air filter. Once it was determined how severe the restriction had to be to affect the carbureted vehicle fuel economy, the 2007 Buick Lucerne was retested in a similar manner. We were not able to achieve the level of restriction that was achieved with the 1972 Pontiac with the Lucerne. The Lucerne's air filter box would not hold the filter in place under such severe conditions. (It is believed that this testing exceeded the design limits of the air box.) Tests were conducted at a lower restriction level (although still considerably more severe than the initial clogged filter testing), allowing the air filter to stay seated in the air box, and no significant change was observed in the Lucerne's fuel economy or the AFR over the HFET cycle. Closed-loop control in modern fuel injected vehicle applications is sophisticated enough to keep a clogged air filter from affecting the vehicle fuel economy. However for older, open-loop, carbureted vehicles, a clogged air filter can affect the fuel economy. For the vehicle tested, the fuel economy with a new air filter improved as much as 14% over that with a severely clogged filter (in which the filter was so clogged that drivability was impacted). Under a more typical state of clog, the improvement with a new filter ranged from 2 to 6%.

Norman, Kevin M [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

2009-02-01

196

Dynamic systems of regional economy management optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most actual problems of the Russian economic life is a regional economic systems formation. The hierarchy of economic and branch priorities should follow from the general idea of an industrial policy. The matter is that the concept of an industrial policy is defined by the system of priorities mainly incorporated in it. The problem of priorities is not solved yet neither on federal, nor at a regional level. It is necessary to recognize, that a substantiation of this or that variant of priorities - objectively a challenge. Such substantiation can be received with the help of dynamic structural modeling and management technology. At formation of the regional industrial policy program the special attention is given to creation of modern type commercial structures. In regions there are headquarters and branches of many largest corporations, holdings and banks. Besides it, many regional enterprises already became inter-regional or even the transnational companies. In this connection an assistance of transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups in vertically integrated companies and modern type holdings can become a prominent aspect of an industrial policy. Regional economic structures should be reconstructed gradually on the general model of the world class competitive companies. Assistance to creation of new corporational control systems, the organization of headquarters and the central services work - all this can be included into the sphere of regional administration industrial policy. The special attention should be turned on necessity of development of own system of the corporate structures, capable to provide to the region an independent participation in use of the natural resources and industrial-technological potential, at the stage of a regional industrial policy program formation. Transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups into modern type vertically-integrated companies and holdings can become one of the major directions of an industrial policy of region. The situational-analytical centers (SAC) of regional administration The major component of SAC is dynamic modeling, analysis, forecasting and optimization systems, based on modern intellectual information technologies. Spheres of SAC are not only financial streams management and investments optimization, but also strategic forecasting functions, which provide an optimum choice, "aiming", search of optimum ways of regional development and corresponding investments. It is expedient to consider an opportunity of formation of the uniform organizational-methodical center of an industrial policy of region. This organization can be directly connected to the scheduled-analytical services of the largest economic structures, local authorities, the ministries and departments. Such "direct communication" is capable to provide an effective regional development strategic management. Anyway, the output on foreign markets demands concentration of resources and support of authorities. Offered measures are capable to provide a necessary coordination of efforts of a various level economic structures. For maintenance of a regional industrial policy an attraction of all newest methods of strategic planning and management is necessary. Their activity should be constructed on the basis of modern approaches of economic systems management, cause the essence of an industrial policy is finally reduced to an effective regional and corporate economic activities control centers formation. Opportunities of optimum regional economy planning and management as uniform system Approaches to planning regional economic systems can be different. We will consider some most effective methods of planning and control over a regional facilities condition. All of them are compact and evident, that allows to put them into the group of average complexity technologies. At the decision of problems of a regional resource management is rather perspective the so-called "topographical" approach, which is used by intellectual information tec

Trofimov, S.; Kudzh, S.

197

An estimation of urban ecosystem health under mode of recycling economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling economy is urban sustainable development strategy important realization ways, and recycling economy development model can not do without the support of urban ecosystem. Therefore, the health status of urban ecosystem is directly related to the region can achieve recycling economy. This thesis constructs a recycling economy ecosystem health estimation index system. By using this index system, this thesis makes

Guibin Suo

2011-01-01

198

California's Green Economy  

E-print Network

California's Green Economy California Green Workforce Coalition July 9, 2010 Bonnie Graybill Employment Development Department Labor Market Information Division #12;Understanding the Green Economy What's green economy Demand leads to pressure for additional supply of products and services Survey covers

199

Statistical mechanics analysis of the equilibria of linear economies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimal ('equilibrium') macroscopic properties of an economy with N industries endowed with different technologies, P commodities and one consumer are derived in the limit N\\to \\infty with n = N/P fixed using the replica method. When technologies are strictly inefficient, a phase transition occurs upon increasing n. For low n, the system is in an expanding phase characterized by the existence of many profitable opportunities for new technologies. For high n, technologies roughly saturate the possible productions and the economy becomes strongly selective with respect to innovations. The phase transition and other significant features of the model are discussed in detail. When the inefficiency assumption is relaxed, the economy becomes unstable at high n.

DeMartino, A.; Marsili, M.; Pérez Castillo, I.

2004-04-01

200

Relative Economy of Different Methods of Airplane Construction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of the relative economy of airplane construction shows that monoplanes are cheaper than biplanes; that all-metal construction is much more expensive than mixed construction; that multi-engine airplanes are more expensive than single-engine types of the same carrying capacity and speed;that the cost of airplanes is materially reduced by increasing their size without increasing the number of engines. The greatest economy usually coincides with the best aerodynamic and static conditions and the cost is always increased by safety requirements.

Herrmann, H

1931-01-01

201

On Optimal Monetary Policy Rules and the Role of MCIs in the Open Economy.  

E-print Network

On Optimal Monetary Policy Rules and the Role of MCIs in the Open Economy. By Alfred V. Guender consequences for the conduct of optimal monetary policy in the forward-looking open economy framework. As opposed to the closed economy framework optimal monetary policy in the open economy depends on both demand

Hickman, Mark

202

The Composition and Cyclical Behavior of Trade Flows and Emerging Economy Business Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that: (i) unlike developed open economies, emerg- ing economies import a substantial part of their equipment and export few or only a selective set of capital goods, (ii) capital good imports display large procyclical business cycle swings, and (iii) unlike devel- oped countries, exports are acyclical in emerging economies. Previous work has shown that emerging economy business

Reinout De Bocky

203

Montana Economy at a Glance September 2012 Montana Department of Labor & Industry Research & Analysis Bureau  

E-print Network

Montana Economy at a Glance September 2012 Montana Department of Labor & Industry Research to the economy over the last decade and helping to stabilize the Montana economy during the 2007-2010 recession The healthcare industry plays a positive and inte- gral role in the state's economy.Figure one shows the percent

Lawrence, Rick L.

204

The Physical Economy of the United States of America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States is not only the world's largest economy, but it is also one of the world's largest consumers of natural resources. The country, which is inhabited by some 5% of the world's population, uses roughly one?fifth of the global primary energy supply and 15% of all extracted materials. This article explores long?term trends and patterns of material use

Sylvia Gierlinger; Fridolin Krausmann

2012-01-01

205

An empirical study of economies of scope in home healthcare.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To apply the economic theory of economies of scope to the home healthcare industry. DATA SOURCES: Data on 488 observations obtained from the Cost Report (HCFA Form 1728-86) of all Connecticut state-licensed, Medicare-certified home health agencies. STUDY DESIGN: The Cost Report was the primary source of data for this study. Information on total cost, scope, and other related factors was collected. Logarithmic and nonlinear regression analyses were used to identify factors related to scope and also to test for economies of scope. DATA COLLECTION METHOD: Data collected were both cross-sectional and time series (from 1988-1992). Data accuracy was verified using description of frequencies, measures of central tendency and variation, and a calculation package so that a computer calculation on the data could be compared with the agency's calculation. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: It was determined that initially as scope increases, costs go down, thus proving economies of scope. For larger values of scope, it was determined that costs go up, proving diseconomies of scope. CONCLUSIONS: Many of the home health agencies included in this study provide more services than is cost effective given the economic theory of economies of scope. PMID:9240283

Gonzales, T I

1997-01-01

206

Fuel economy rebound effect of U.S. household vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an econometric estimation of the rebound effect for household vehicle travel in the US based on analysis of survey data collected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) at approximately three-year intervals over a 15-year period. The rebound effect measures the tendency to take back potential energy savings from fuel economy improvements as increased travel. Vehicle use models were estimated for one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-vehicle households. The results confirm recent estimates based on national or state-level data: a long-run take back of about 20% of potential energy savings. Consumer responses to changes in fuel economy or fuel price per gallon appear to be equal and opposite in sign. Recognizing the interdependencies among miles of travel, fuel economy and price is key to obtaining meaningful results.

Greene, D.L.; Kahn, J.R.; Gibson, R.C.

1999-07-01

207

The health effects of leaving school in a bad economy.  

PubMed

This study investigates the lasting health effects of leaving school in a bad economy. Three empirical patterns motivate this study: Leaving school in a bad economy has persistent and negative career effects, career and health outcomes are correlated, and fluctuations in contemporaneous economic conditions affect health in the short-run. I draw data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Age 40 Health Supplement. Members of my sample left school between 1976 and 1992. I find that men who left school when the school-leaving state unemployment rate was high have worse health at age 40 than otherwise similar men, while leaving school in a bad economy lowers depressive symptoms at age 40 among women. A 1 percentage point increase in the school-leaving state unemployment rate leads to a 0.5% to 18% reduction in the measured health outcomes among men and a 6% improvement in depressive symptoms among women. PMID:23994070

Maclean, Johanna Catherine

2013-09-01

208

Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several new and forthcoming books published by the National Academies Press (NAP) can now be read online through NAP's OpenBook feature, that allows readers to view full text of books (.html). The first listed here, "Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards", is an unedited pre-print. It gives the results of a the National Academies Transportation Research Board's recent investigation into the impacts of the CAFE program, which was passed in 1975 in response to oil shortages and required that auto manufacturers increase the sales-weighted average fuel economy for passenger cars and light-duty trucks.

2001-01-01

209

Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics and East European Economies (SITE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics and East European Economies (SITE/ÃÂstekonomiska Institutet) is an independent research institute at the Stockholm School of Economics. SITE is concerned with the transition from planned to market economies in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Academic research on-site includes a bibliography of recent working papers (1990-present), with most papers from 1998 available for download [.pdf]. Monthly updates of key indicators discussed in the quarterly SITE publication Russian Economic Trends (RET) are also available [.pdf] in addition to RET subscription information and other discussion channels.

210

17.100J / 14.781J / 15.678J Political Economy I: Theories of the State and the Economy, Fall 2005  

E-print Network

Political Economy I explores the major social science paradigms for analyzing relations among state, economy, and society. Through readings, lectures and discussion of original texts in political liberalism and individualism, ...

Piore, Michael

211

The Valorization of Surveillance: Towards a Political Economy of Facebook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much excitement surrounds Facebook, the social networking site based on user-generated content that has attracted 64 million active users since its inception in 2004. This paper begins to out- line a political economy of Facebook in an attempt to draw atten- tion to the underlying economic relations that structure the web- site, and the way in which the site fits

Nicole S. Cohen

212

World development and the restructuring of the industrial economies  

SciTech Connect

A symposium on World Development and the Restructuring of Industrial Economies held at Bellagio, Lake Como, Italy during the week of 10-15 September 1979 was organized to discuss adjustments required by industrialized economies when adapting to changes inherent in present world development trends, as well as to help define national and international policy measures that might be used to facilitate the restructuring process. This report reviews the key issues, alternative strategies for restructuring, and policy measures for restructuring discussed at the symposium. It also offers some conclusions based on the results of the symposium. 16 references.

Walker, D.O.

1980-01-01

213

Wisconsin Agriculture Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy  

E-print Network

STATUS OF Wisconsin Agriculture 2011 · Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy · Current Outlook: Farm of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural and Life Sciences University of Wisconsin-Madison Cooperative Extension University of Wisconsin-Extension #12;Status of Wisconsin Agriculture, 2011 An annual

Radeloff, Volker C.

214

Energy and the Wealth of Nations Understanding the Biophysical Economy  

E-print Network

Economy Charles A.S. Hall, SUNY, Environmental Science & Forestry Kent Klitgaard been treated as a social science in which economies are modeled sheets that drive our "petroleum economy." Hall and Klitgaard explore the relation

Hall, Charles A.S.

215

The Political Economy of Elite Dominance and Ethnic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite more than four decades of planning efforts with an emphasis on balanced regional development, inter- and intra-state disparities in key indicators of quality of life in India are striking. Using Indian state- level data for the period 1960-92, the present paper examines the nature of political economy of elite dominance and ethnic heterogeneity, both of which could in principle

Sarmistha Pal; Sugata Ghosh

2005-01-01

216

The moral economy of violence: Israel's first Lebanon War, 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article uses Israel's invasion of Lebanon in 1982 as a case study in the historical and cultural construction of the legitimacy of armed force. The discussion develops the concept of a ‘moral economy of violence’ which suggests that the legitimacy that state leaders and their publics take for granted in the use of military force is dependent on a

Karine Hamilton

2011-01-01

217

AGRICULTURE, 2008 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy  

E-print Network

STATUS OF WISCONSIN AGRICULTURE, 2008 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy Situation and Outlook of Working Lands in Wisconsin · Hired Labor on Wisconsin Dairy Farms Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural and Life Sciences University of Wisconsin-Madison Cooperative Extension

Radeloff, Volker C.

218

The role of education in knowledge economies in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Education and universities, along with biotechnology, intellectual property and ICT development, are often mentioned without in-depth critical analysis in discussions of modern knowledge economies. In the face of global marketplaces and the fluidity of intellectual capital, the idea of the role of primary, secondary and tertiary education will necessarily be refashioned in developing nations. Western concepts such as liberal studies

Alan S. Weber

2011-01-01

219

F. Solano Constâncio on political economy: A “science of proportions”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article provides an analysis of the work of Francisco Solano Constâncio (1777–1846), a Portuguese author who lived in Paris for most of his life. He had a very colourful and diversified career, which included the practice of medicine, political agitation, scientific journalism, diplomacy, linguistics, history, and the popularisation of political economy. As far as this last aspect is concerned,

José Luís Cardoso

2009-01-01

220

AGRICULTURE, 2004 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy  

E-print Network

STATUS OF WISCONSIN AGRICULTURE, 2004 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy Situation and Outlook Situation: Implications for U.S. Agriculture · The Evolution and Current Status of Livestock Production and Meat Processing in Wisconsin Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural

Radeloff, Volker C.

221

AGRICULTURE, 2005 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy  

E-print Network

STATUS OF WISCONSIN AGRICULTURE, 2005 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy Situation and Outlook, and Specialization in the Wisconsin Dairy Industry · The Economic Importance of Value-added Agriculture in Wisconsin · The Economic Value of Wisconsin's Green Industry Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College

Radeloff, Volker C.

222

AGRICULTURE, 2007 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy  

E-print Network

STATUS OF WISCONSIN AGRICULTURE, 2007 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy Situation and Outlook and Challenges · Current Prospects for the 2007 Farm Bill Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural and Life Sciences University of Wisconsin-Madison Cooperative Extension University

Radeloff, Volker C.

223

AGRICULTURE, 2006 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy  

E-print Network

STATUS OF WISCONSIN AGRICULTURE, 2006 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy Situation and Outlook-Added Agriculture · Organic Farming in Wisconsin · A New Wisconsin Cooperative Law Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural and Life Sciences University of Wisconsin-Madison Cooperative

Radeloff, Volker C.

224

Art and Creativity in the Global Economies of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creativity: what might this mean for art and art educators in the creative economies of globalisation? The task of this discussion is to look at the state of creativity and its role in education, in particular art education, and to seek some understanding of the register of creativity, how it is shaped, and how legitimated in the globalised world…

Grierson, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

225

Evolution and Simulation Analysis of Mine Ecological Economy System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mine ecological carrying capability and ecological elastic capability were analysised and the dynamics model of system evolution on mine ecological economy was put forward based on mine ecological carrying capability and ecological elastic capability as state factors of mine eco-system, economic development activities intensity of mineral resources and economic development speed of mineral resources as state factors of mine economic

Sun Shun-li

2010-01-01

226

A Political Economy of University Funding: The English Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this paper is the coalition United Kingdom government policy on university funding in England as a political economy. It depicts higher education as a public and private good in the context of international trends in "cost sharing" and it addresses the centrality of economic drivers for the profile and orientation of higher education,…

Saunders, Murray

2012-01-01

227

Work in progress: narratives of aspiration from the new economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central to the discourses of the new economy is the model of the flexible, adaptive, ambitious and individualistic worker. This article considers the subjective purchase of that model by analysing interviews with three young women living and working in urban Australia. Their respective narratives of aspiration illustrate contrasting responses to the challenges posed by an increasingly unclear and unstable vocational

George Morgan

2006-01-01

228

Poultry Markets: On the Underground Economy of Twitter Followers  

E-print Network

Poultry Markets: On the Underground Economy of Twitter Followers Gianluca Stringhini, Manuel Egele {gianluca, maeg, chris, vigna}@cs.ucsb.edu ABSTRACT Since Twitter has emerged as one of the easiest ways into following them. A number of websites have emerged to help Twitter users create a large network of followers

Kruegel, Christopher

229

The Political Economy of the World Trading System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Political Economy of the World Trading System is a comprehensive textbook account of the economics, institutional mechanics and politics of the world trading system. This third edition has been expanded and updated to cover developments in the World Trade Organisation (WTO) since its formation, including the Doha Round, presenting the essentials of trade negotiations and the WTO's rules and

Bernard M. Hoekman; Michel M. Kostecki

2001-01-01

230

The water intensity of the transitional hydrogen economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water intensity of the transitional hydrogen economy is analyzed by quantifying the direct and indirect water requirements to annually manufacture 60 billion kg of hydrogen partly by thermoelectrically powered electrolysis. It is determined that up to 143 billion gallons of water would be directly consumed as a feedstock, with a total consumption including evaporation of cooling water at power

Michael E Webber

2007-01-01

231

The Sustainability of Budget Deficits in a Stochastic Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transversality condition on government debt requires a zero limit of discounted future debt. The paper shows that, in a stochastic economy, the relevant discount rate depends on the probability distribution of future debt over states of nature. Discount rates on future government debt, spending, and taxes are generally not related to the rates of return on government debt. The

Henning Bohn

1995-01-01

232

EMISSIONS AND FUEL ECONOMY OF FEDERAL ALTERNATIVELY FUELED FLEET VEHICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents results from a study designed to investigate the effects of automobile fuels on emissions and fuel economy. The study is part of a larger program mandated by the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988 that requires the Department of Energy (DOE), in cooperation w...

233

Generic Skills for the New Economy. Review of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The generic skills needed for the new economy were identified through a review of research studies. First, the development of sets of key competencies/key skills in Great Britain, the United States, and Australia were examined. The U.S. model, which involves a broader, more flexible, and more holistic set of generic skills, was contrasted with the…

Kearns, Peter

234

Restore the Economy with Loans to All Taxpayers The mess on Wall Street spilled over into the rest of the economy when it induced a crisis in  

E-print Network

Restore the Economy with Loans to All Taxpayers The mess on Wall Street spilled over into the rest of the economy when it induced a crisis in confidence. People felt insecure and sought to increase their cash is to put enough money into the economy that people will be willing to spend at the level needed to keep

Buehrer, R. Michael

235

15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300...FOREIGN TRADE BOARD REPORTS ON EXPORTS OF TECHNOLOGY § 1300.1 Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries....

2011-01-01

236

15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.  

...2014-01-01 false Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300...FOREIGN TRADE BOARD REPORTS ON EXPORTS OF TECHNOLOGY § 1300.1 Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries....

2014-01-01

237

15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300...FOREIGN TRADE BOARD REPORTS ON EXPORTS OF TECHNOLOGY § 1300.1 Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries....

2013-01-01

238

15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300...FOREIGN TRADE BOARD REPORTS ON EXPORTS OF TECHNOLOGY § 1300.1 Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries....

2010-01-01

239

15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300...FOREIGN TRADE BOARD REPORTS ON EXPORTS OF TECHNOLOGY § 1300.1 Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries....

2012-01-01

240

Environmental Impacts of the Emerging Digital Economy: The E-for-Environment E-Commerce?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet-led digital economy is changing both the production and consumption patterns at the global scale. Although great\\u000a potential exists to harness information technology in general and the Internet in particular and improve the environment,\\u000a possible negative impacts of e-commerce on the environment should also be considered and dealt with. In this forum, we discuss\\u000a both the potential positive and

DANIEL Z. SUI; DAVID W. REJESKI

2002-01-01

241

Mathematical Appendix to Open Economy Models of Distribution and Growth  

E-print Network

Mathematical Appendix to Open Economy Models of Distribution and Growth Robert A. Blecker May 2010) The effect of an increase in the market power parameter (inversely related to market power) on the steady-state wage share is definitely positive: d d = (µ + ) |J| > 0 (A.6) The effect of an increase in the market

Carlini, David

242

ZIMOD: A Simple Computer Model of the Zimbabwean Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a rationale for the construction and use of a simple consistency model of the Zimbabwean economy that incorporates an input-output matrix. The model is designed to investigate alternative industrial strategies and their consequences for the balance of payments, consumption, and overall gross domestic product growth for a…

Knox, Jon; And Others

1988-01-01

243

Poultry Markets: On the Underground Economy of Twitter Followers  

E-print Network

Poultry Markets: On the Underground Economy of Twitter Followers Gianluca Stringhini, Manuel Egele {gianluca, maeg, chris, vigna}@cs.ucsb.edu ABSTRACT Since Twitter has emerged as one of the easiest ways users to follow them. A number of websites have emerged to help Twitter users create a large network

Vigna, Giovanni

244

The Socialist System: The Political Economy of Communism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides a comprehensive account of the structure, conduct, and performance of the centrally planned economies of Eastern Europe, the USSR, Communist China and the Marxist LDCs, looking at 26 nations in all. The author focuses on reform, perhaps the most important issue facing countries such as the USSR, Poland, Hungary, and China. Bureaucracy, soft budget constraints, markets, and

Janos Kornai

1992-01-01

245

The Impact of Terrorism on the US Economy and Business  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an edited transcript of an invited panel discussion that was presented at the 28th annual meeting of the Association for Behavior Analysis in Toronto, Ontario. The speakers in this discussion addressed how behavior managers might contribute to understanding the impact of terrorism on the economy and business, behavioral drivers in the new business context, and how we

Mark P. Alavosius; Leslie Wilk Braksick; Aubrey C. Daniels; Dwight Harshbarger; Ramona Houmanfar; Jose Zeilstra

2003-01-01

246

The shadow price of foreign exchange in a dual economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the shadow price of foreign exchange for a dual economy with tariffs, quotas, or VERs. We show that the shadow exchange rate is greater than the official rate in the presence of tariffs, whereas it is greater or smaller than the official rate in the presence of quotas, depending upon whether capital is sector-specific or perfectly mobile.

Chi-Chur Chao; Eden S. H. Yu

1995-01-01

247

Taxation of Investment and Savings in a World Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equilibrium of capital and equilibrium market prices are derived for a world economy with a unified securities market, mobile capital, no uncertainty, and varying tax rates on different sources of income in each country. The paper then characterizes optimal tax rates for a small country in this setting, focusing on the peculiar incentives created when the before-tax rate of

Roger H Gordon

1986-01-01

248

Impact of China on Economies in East Asian Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines China's emergence as a global economic power over the last few decades. It provides an overview of China's economic growth and its impact on East Asian Region (South Korea and Japan). There exits both competitive and complementary linkages relationships among EAR economies. It also explains the flow of capital in the form of FDI.

Ji Hong

249

The Moral Economy of Violence in the US Inner City  

PubMed Central

In an 8-week period, there were 16 shootings with three fatalities, three stabbings, and 14 additional “aggravated assaults” in the four square blocks surrounding our field site in the Puerto Rican corner of North Philadelphia. In the aftermath of the shoot-outs, the drug sellers operating on our block were forced to close down their operations by several mothers who repeatedly called the police. Drawing on the concept of moral economy (Thompson, Scott, Taussig), Mauss’s interpretation of gift exchange, and a political economy critique of hypercarceralization in the United States, we understand the high levels of US inner-city violence as operating within a moral logic framed by economic scarcity and hostile state relations. Residents seek security, self-respect, and profit in social networks that compel them to participate in solidary exchanges of assistive violence dynamized by kinship and gender obligations. A hierarchical, extractive drug economy fills the void left by deindustrialization, resulting in a dynamic of embodied primitive accumulation at the expense of addicted customers and chronically incarcerated just-in-time street sellers at high risk of assault. Nevertheless, the mobilization of violence organizing the illegal drug economy also follows ethical norms and obligations that are recognized as legitimate by many local residents. PMID:25067849

Karandinos, George; Hart, Laurie Kain; Castrillo, Fernando Montero; Bourgois, Philippe

2014-01-01

250

The Learning Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern economies can be characterised as ‘learning economies’ in which knowledge is the crucial resource and learning is the most important process. Different kinds of learning and economically relevant types of knowledge can likewise be identified. It is argued that pure market economies, if such existed, would have severe problems in terms of learning and innovation. The ‘learning economy’ is

Bengt-äke Lundvall; Björn Johnson

1994-01-01

251

The Use of Community Impact Studies in a Declining Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges and their surrounding communities have a supplier/consumer relationship--in exchange for the use of tax-exempt land and tax-supported services, the college acts as a cultural and educational center that provides the community with social and economic benefits. However, in times of a declining economy, this symbiotic relationship is not…

Owings, Thomas G.

252

Dismantling the Myth of the "New" American Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A marked transformation in the U.S. economy has yet to occur. The living standards of most working families have neither fully recovered from the recession of the early 1990s nor benefitted from the overall growth in productivity. (Author)

Mishel, Lawrence; Bernstein, Jared; Schmitt, John

1998-01-01

253

Land Use Regulations and Efficiency of Seoul's Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To revitalize Seoul's economy it is necessary for the Korean government to restructure various systems and facilities to make them convenient for businesses. Numerous land use regulations currently retard not only business activities of domestic firms but also foreign direct investments in Korea, most of which are interested in locating their businesses in the Capital Region. This paper concerns mainly

Bun Song Lee

1998-01-01

254

Comparison of Mandatory Fuel Economy Standards and Automobile Excise Taxes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the passage and signing of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, mandatory fuel economy standards will be imposed on automobile manufacturers starting in 1978 and continuing through 1985. These standards are given. Standards of 18, 19, and 20 mpg a...

C. Difiglio

1976-01-01

255

Modernization of Costa Rica's Beef Cattle Economy: 1950-1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measured in strictly economic terms of profits, diversified exports, hard currency earnings and a more favorable trade balance, Costa Rica's beef cattle economy took a giant step toward modernization between 1950-1985. Unfortunately, this modernization had a minimum of socially desirable and environmentally adaptive components. Costa Rica, like other developing Latin American countries, is learning that economic development frequently entails painful

John Augelli

1989-01-01

256

Future Faces of the Cuban Economy: A Bayesian Forecast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis investigates the applicability and results of a Bayesian approach used to forecast the future direction of the Cuban economy. The Castro regime, bound to a stagnant political ideology, has limited the options by which to save socialism and the...

B. J. Bernales

1995-01-01

257

The political economy of social security: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the literature on the political economy of social security. We review models that address the following questions: (i) Why do social security programs that transfer resources from young and middle-aged workers to the elderly exist? (ii) What are the economic and political interactions between social security systems and other redistributive programs of the welfare state? (iii) How

Vincenzo Galasso; Paola Profeta

2002-01-01

258

The Rural Economy in a New Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technological change, globalization, and localization have changed rural economies. They have increased labor productivity, reducing the importance of labor costs in location decisions; decreased the importance of distance; increased the importance of economies of scale; and increased the role of local conditions and choices in determining…

Johnson, Thomas G.

259

Remuneration differences in the emerging economies of China and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging economies by definition tend to be less dependent on expatriate skills and labour than lower-income countries, yet remuneration (pay plus benefits) differences between expatriate and local workers persist in them to some degree. According to relative deprivation theory, economic development paradoxically elevates the salience of relatively small gaps in remuneration. We therefore expected workers to report injustice and demotivation

Erhua Zhou; Zhao Lu; Xiaoyan Li; Tian Li; T. S. Papola; Jesim Pais; Partha Pratim Sahu

2010-01-01

260

Fuel economy of hybrid fuel-cell vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.

261

COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMY UNDER CONDITIONS OF OPEN MARKETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the article factors of economic growth of Russia at a global competitiveness are analyzed. I n contemporary conditions, influence on competitiveness of national economy is emerged . There were necessary system transformations in conditions of transition from scheduled to the market pattern of functioning in the Russian economy. Branch changes of development of economy in conditions of the open

Vitaly ALESHCHENKO; Alexandru NEDELEA

2008-01-01

262

The informal economy and business cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vast literature has focused on what causes businesses to move into informality and what is the impact of an enlarging informal sector on growth. This paper shows that the size of the informal economy also affects business cycle volatility. Informal businesses are usually small in size, which not only prevents them from achieving economies of scale and from operating

Gisele Ferreira-Tiryaki

2008-01-01

263

Dynamics of an InformationFiltering Economy Jeffrey O. Kephart, James E. Hanson, David W. Levine, Benjamin N. Grosof,  

E-print Network

of information economies: very large open economies of automated information agents that are likely to come of future information economies? Previous research in automated economies is equivocal. Under certain asDynamics of an Information­Filtering Economy Jeffrey O. Kephart, James E. Hanson, David W. Levine

Polz, Martin

264

25 CFR 142.8 - Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation? 142.8 Section...THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES ALASKA RESUPPLY OPERATION § 142.8 Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation? Yes....

2010-04-01

265

25 CFR 142.8 - Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation? 142.8 Section...THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES ALASKA RESUPPLY OPERATION § 142.8 Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation? Yes....

2011-04-01

266

25 CFR 142.8 - Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation? 142.8 Section...THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES ALASKA RESUPPLY OPERATION § 142.8 Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation? Yes....

2012-04-01

267

25 CFR 142.8 - Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation? 142.8 Section...THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES ALASKA RESUPPLY OPERATION § 142.8 Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation? Yes....

2013-04-01

268

25 CFR 142.8 - Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation?  

...economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation? 142.8 Section...THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES ALASKA RESUPPLY OPERATION § 142.8 Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation? Yes....

2014-04-01

269

40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600.311-86 Section 600...Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-86 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator...

2010-07-01

270

40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600.311-08 Section 600...Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-08 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator...

2010-07-01

271

Of energy and the economy : theory and evidence for their functional relationship  

E-print Network

This paper offers a set of explicit functional relationships that link energy and the economy. Despite the reliance on energy permeating the whole economy, no such complete relationships had been presented before. How ...

Chang, Vincent H. (Vincent Hua-Cheng)

2007-01-01

272

Political Economy Graduate Certificate c/o Department of Political Science  

E-print Network

Political Economy Graduate Certificate c/o Department of Political Science Clark C346 Colorado.stevis@colostate.edu Political Economy Graduate Interdisciplinary Studies Program Enrollment Form (*) (03/01/05) Name

273

Quantum Mechanics and the Principle of Least Radix Economy  

E-print Network

A new variational method, the principle of least radix economy, is formulated. It generalizes the principle of least action yielding two classes of physical solutions: least action paths and quantum wavefunctions. The Schr\\"odinger and Klein-Gordon equations and the breaking of the commutativity of spacetime geometry are then derived from this method, which is shown to include the Boltzmann's principle of classical statistical thermodynamics as well.

Vladimir Garcia-Morales

2014-01-06

274

The Macroeconomic Impacts of E-Business on the Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing use of information and communications technology (ICT) by business—e-business—profoundly affects the economy. This article covers some of the macroeconomic impacts of e-business. Evidence from empirical studies examining the impact that greater use of ICT by business has on productivity and national economic growth is presented, along with discussion of how e-business changes the volatility and complicates measurement of

James Prieger; Daniel Heil

2009-01-01

275

40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type... ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model...

2011-07-01

276

Evaluation of fuel economy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the fuel economy of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle is investigated. A vehicle control algorithm which yields\\u000a operating points where operational cost of HEV is minimal is suggested. The operational cost of HEV is decided considering\\u000a both the cost of fossil fuel consumed by an engine and the cost of electricity consumed by an electric motor. A

Dookhwan Choi; Hyunsoo Kim

2002-01-01

277

Interlocking firm networks and emerging Mega-City Regions The hidden geography of the knowledge economy in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalization has entailed a reorganisation of spatial development processes on the global, European, national and regional scales. New forms of hierarchical and network development and functional differentiation between cities can be observed. In this context, the knowledge economy has been highlighted as a central issue in economic geography and innovation studies over the past decade. With the aim of identifying

Uddevalla Symposium; Stefan Lüthi; Alain Thierstein

278

Political economy of the energy-groundwater nexus in India: exploring issues and assessing policy options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indian agriculture is trapped in a complex nexus of groundwater depletion and energy subsidies. This nexus is the product of past public policy choices that initially offered opportunities to India's small-holder-based irrigation economy but has now generated in its wake myriad economic, social, and environmental distortions. Conventional `getting-the-price-right' solutions to reduce these distortions have consistently been undermined by the invidious political economy that the nexus has created. The historical evolution of the nexus is outlined, the nature and scale of the distortions it has created are explored, and alternative approaches which Indian policy makers can use to limit, if not eliminate, the damaging impacts of the distortions, are analysed.

Shah, Tushaar; Giordano, Mark; Mukherji, Aditi

2012-08-01

279

Fuel Economy Improvement Potential of a Heavy Duty Truck using V2x Communication  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we introduce an intelligent driver assistance system to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty vehicles irrespective of the driving style of the driver. We specifically study the potential of V2I and V2V communications to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty trucks. Most ITS communications today are oriented towards vehicle safety, with communications strategies and hardware that tend to focus on low latency. This has resulted in technologies emerging with a relatively limited range for the communications. For fuel economy, it is expected that most benefits will be derived with greater communications distances, at the scale of many hundred meters or several kilometers, due to the large inertia of heavy duty vehicles. It may therefore be necessary to employ different communications strategies for ITS applications aimed at fuel economy and other environmental benefits than what is used for safety applications in order to achieve the greatest benefits.

LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Verma, Rajeev [Eaton Corporation; Norris, Sarah [Eaton Corporation; Cochran, Robert [Eaton Corporation

2014-01-01

280

THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF LABOUR MARKET POLICIES IN WESTERN AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES  

E-print Network

THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF LABOUR MARKET POLICIES IN WESTERN AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES OLAF VAN, which is a key element of the flexicurity model. Building on the political economy literature, we test in the political economy literature, but hardly for Eastern European countries, because of a lack of data. We

Galis, Frietson

281

Economic Contributions of the Florida Craft Brewing Industry to the Florida Economy  

E-print Network

Economic Contributions of the Florida Craft Brewing Industry to the Florida Economy Timothy G.....................................................................................................34 #12;i Economic Contributions of the Florida Craft Brewing Industry to the Florida Economy of the Florida craft brewing industry on the state's economy, which was conducted using the University of Florida

Florida, University of

282

The Danish Ministry of Economy and Business Affairs/The Danish Energy  

E-print Network

The Danish Ministry of Economy and Business Affairs/The Danish Energy Authority Poland for using EU Funds for Energy Projects December 2004 #12;The Danish Ministry of Economy and Business Affairs of Economy and Labour. In general, the Polish administration of the EU structural funds is strongly de

283

Economy class syndrome: still a recurrent complication of long journeys.  

PubMed

Economy class syndrome is a rare but still unavoidable complication of long haul flights, particularly in patients who carry various intrinsic risk factors. The tendency to affect even asymptomatic young people and the greater risk to fragment and propagate to the pulmonary circulation are the main characteristics of deep vein thrombosis of long-flight travelers. We report the clinical history of eight patients admitted to intensive care unit for confirmed or highly suspected economy class syndrome. Seven of them developed the syndrome within 72 h from a long return flight, one suffered from pulmonary embolism after a 12-h car trip. Two out of eight patients died, one because of extremely severe hemodynamic impairment, the other as a consequence of multiple organ failure caused by a concomitant myocardial infarction. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism represent one of the main medical problems of air travel and cause almost 20% of deaths in people with no medical history. Although economy class syndrome occurs mostly in elderly, even the healthy young population can be affected and, in fact, three out of eight patients of our series were under 50 years of age. All our patients but one carried a well recognized risk factor for deep vein thrombosis. Clinical symptoms of deep vein thrombosis can sometimes be aspecific and confusing, so that a certain proportion of post-travel deep vein thrombosis, evolving favorably and not giving rise to pulmonary embolism, might effectively remain undiagnosed. Economy class syndrome is still quite difficult to deal with and controversial in terms of preventive strategies. PMID:17496687

Feltracco, Paolo; Barbieri, Stefania; Bertamini, Francesca; Michieletto, Elisa; Ori, Carlo

2007-04-01

284

Quantum Mechanics and the Principle of Least Radix Economy  

E-print Network

A new variational method, the principle of least radix economy, is formulated. The mathematical and physical relevance of the radix economy, also called digit capacity, is established, showing how physical laws can be derived from this concept in a unified way. The principle reinterprets and generalizes the principle of least action yielding two classes of physical solutions: least action paths and quantum wavefunctions. A new physical foundation of the Hilbert space of quantum mechanics is then accomplished and it is used to derive the Schroedinger, Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations and the breaking of the commutativity of spacetime geometry. The formulation provides an explanation of how determinism and random statistical behavior coexist in spacetime and a framework is developed that allows to interpret dynamical processes in terms of chains of digits. These methods lead to a new (pre-geometrical) foundation for Lorentz transformations and special relativity. The Parker-Rhodes combinatorial hierarchy is encompassed within our approach and this leads to an estimate of the interaction strength of the electromagnetic and gravitational forces that agrees with the experimental values to an error of less than one thousand. Finally, it is shown how the principle of least-radix economy leads to establish Boltzmann's principle of classical statistical thermodynamics and the Second Law of thermodynamics. A new expression for a general (path-dependent) nonequilibrium entropy is derived showing that it satisfies the Second Law.

Vladimir Garcia-Morales

2014-01-06

285

An analysis of bulk agricultural commodity buying behavior in selected developing economies  

E-print Network

with the newer markets of developing and centrally plan- ned economies. Second was an increase in demand for grains and oilseeds by rapidly growing developing economies such as South Korea, Taiwan and Mexico, The importance that developing economies have... imported the greatest average annual share at 43. 7, 32. 3 and 10. 2 percent, respectively. Growth Commodities Increased agricultural trade with developing and centrally planned economies was composed primarily of foadgrains, feedgrains and oilseeds...

Moore, Kimberly Renee

2012-06-07

286

EconoGrid: A detailed Simulation Model of a Standards-based Grid Compute Economy  

E-print Network

EconoGrid: A detailed Simulation Model of a Standards-based Grid Compute Economy EconoGrid is a detailed simulation model, implemented in SLX1 , of a grid compute economy that implements selected of users. In a grid compute economy, computing resources are sold to users in a market where price

287

Economic Contributions of the Florida Craft Brewing Industry to the Florida Economy  

E-print Network

Economic Contributions of the Florida Craft Brewing Industry to the Florida Economy Timothy G Contributions of the Florida Craft Brewing Industry to the Florida Economy Executive Summary The Florida Brewers on the state's economy, which was conducted using the University of Florida's Food and Resource Economics

Florida, University of

288

On Optimal Monetary Policy Rules and the Construction of MCIs in the Open Economy  

E-print Network

On Optimal Monetary Policy Rules and the Construction of MCIs in the Open Economy By Alfred V open-economy forward-looking model to underscore the important role of the real exchange rate channel in the conduct of optimal monetary policy. As opposed to the closed economy, optimal monetary policy in the open

Hickman, Mark

289

Evolution Model on Relationship between Logistics and Economy of Port Cities and Its Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Logistics and economy influence each other, and their relationship is dynamically changeable. The economy of different stages exhibits various demand for logistics. In order to explore the evolution law of the relationship between logistics and economy, this paper establishes an index system, a comprehensive comparison platform and an evolution model by the methods of principal component analysis and logistic equation.

Hang Chen; Weixin Luan; Yuewei Wang

2008-01-01

290

The Influence of a Token Economy and Methylphenidate on Attentive and Disruptive Behavior during Sports with Adhd-Diagnosed Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated in a summer program designed to evaluate the influence of stimulant medication and a token economy on attentive and disruptive behavior during kickball games. Attentive and disruptive behavior were assessed using an interval coding system, and daily ratings on the ADHD Index of the Conners Teacher Rating Scale-Revised were also

David Reitman; Stephen D. A. Hupp; Patrick M. O’Callaghan; Veronica Gulley; John Northup

2001-01-01

291

The development of national economy and family planning in China.  

PubMed

China has made great strides in family planning and in developing her national economy during the period of the 6th 5-year plan. In 1980, China's tasks were to develop the national economy and to provide her people with enough to eat and wear. By 1986, these needs had been met. The average annual growth rate for the national gross output value of industry and agriculture may reach 10% during the 6th 5-year plan and should be approximately 7% in the 7th 5-year plan. China's future goal is for all her people to be well off at the turn of the century. Controlling population growth is one of the most important steps in reaching this goal China's population growth rates were 23.33 per 1000 in 1971 and dropped to 10.81 per 1000 in 1984. Although China's family planning program advocates one child per couple, 70% of the total married women of childbearing age have 2 or 3 children. Continued publicity and education and improved medical care should gradually decrease the birth rate even more. The author cites Engels in arguing that it is one of the superiorities of the socialist system to make population growth consciously fit for the development of material production. He refutes an American view that China's population would automatically decrease with the development of a free economy and offers the US's 12 million unemployed in 1982 and 2 million homeless in 1985 as evidence that a free economy also results in overpopulation. He concludes that further demographic research should be conducted and should implement China's family planning program with different measures suited to local conditions at different stages. PMID:12268821

Xu, D

1986-07-01

292

Technical efficiency and economies of diversification in health care.  

PubMed

In national health services, where there is a tendency towards a lack of resources and a continuous increase in demand, it is necessary to implement decisions that promote efficiency. In this paper we focus on potential diversification economies as a strategy to increase efficiency levels. We evaluate the change in efficiency in Catalan hospitals between 1987 and 1992, and analyse the presence of possible diversification economies in each hospital. We use Data Envelopment Analysis, which does not need information on either input or output prices. The results are that the majority of hospitals could increase their efficiency and reduce their costs by diversification to the output-mix offered. Potential productivity gains are between 29% and 46%. PMID:11105416

Prior, D; Solà, M

2000-09-01

293

System Dynamics Model on Harmonious Development of Chinese Science & Technology, Education and Economy under High Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on Harmonious development of Science & Technology, Education and Economy(STEE) are hotspots in the world under Knowledge Economy and Globalization era whose base is High Technology. However there are very few researches on harmonious development of Chinese Science & Technology, Education and Economy(CSTEE). Thus, this paper tries to study CSTEE system with System Dynamics Method, model it and test

Xu Qingrui; Fan Baoqun; Yu Quan

294

Allais's Trading Process And The Dynamic Evolution of an OLG Markets Economy  

E-print Network

Allais's Trading Process And The Dynamic Evolution of an OLG Markets Economy Jean-Michel Courtault Bertrand Crettez Naila Hayek November 2003 Abstract We study a trading process for a pure exchange economy the second fundamental conver- gence theorem of Allais [1967] to a pure exchange economy with overlapping

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

295

Contribution, Linkages and Impacts of the Fisheries Sector to Hawaii's Economy  

E-print Network

#12;Contribution, Linkages and Impacts of the Fisheries Sector to Hawaii's Economy: A Social Contribution 11-373 #12;#12;1 Contribution, Linkages and Impacts of the Fisheries Sector to Hawaii's Economy economy. For example, a key factor concerning recent regulations over longline fishing in Hawaii

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

296

Estimating the Economic Impact for the Commercial Hard Clam Culture Industry on the Economy of  

E-print Network

1 Estimating the Economic Impact for the Commercial Hard Clam Culture Industry on the Economy that the economic impact of the cultured hard clam industry on the economy of Florida was approximately $34 million communities and the statewide economy Florida. A follow-up study to the 2000 study was recently funded

Florida, University of

297

Development of the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy in the Thai Business Sector: Evidence, Future Research & Policy Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines current state of the development of the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy in the Thai business sector. Available empirical evidence in Thailand is discussed. The paper also compares and discusses 'Sufficiency Economy' businesses in Thailand and sustainable enterprises in the West, followed by ten derived 'Sufficiency Economy' business practices. Practitioner-oriented literature is also reviewed, including confusion among the Sufficiency

Sooksan Kantabutra

298

The new open economy macroeconomics of government debt  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce an overlapping generations structure of the Blanchard (J. Polit. Econ. 93 (1985) 121) type in a New Open Economy Macroeconomics (NOEM) model. This allows us to study a wider range of fiscal shocks compared to the traditional Mundell–Fleming (MF) and to the baseline Redux models. We show that a debt-financed tax cut appreciates the short-run

Giovanni Ganelli

2005-01-01

299

The State of the Indian Economy 2009-10  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite signs of recovery from the global financial crisis, the GDP growth rate for the Indian economy is likely to be between 5.8 to 6.1 per cent in 2009-10, below the 6.7 per cent recorded in fiscal 2008-09. While there has been an improvement in Indian industry, particularly the manufacturing sector, the adverse impact of the fall in kharif production

Mathew Joseph; Karan Singh; Pankaj Vashisht; Dony Alex; Alamuru Soumya; Ritika Tewari; Ritwik Banerjee

2009-01-01

300

Mathematical modeling of multiple-effect evaporators and energy economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a mathematical model was developed for multiple-effect evaporators. These evaporators have cocurrent, countercurrent and parallel flow operation options. Each operation was investigated with and without pre-heaters. The effect of pre-heating on evaporation process was investigated from the point of energy economy. A sugar factory's data was used with the applied models as a case study. The results

Durmus Kaya; H. Ibrahim Sarac

2007-01-01

301

Scale Economies and Efficiency in U.S. Agriculture: Are Traditional Farms History?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural transformation of agriculture in recent decades has raised serious concerns about the future of the family farm. This study examines the economic performance of U.S. farms, to explore the potential of smaller farms to compete with larger entities, and ultimately to survive in this rapidly changing environment. We use deterministic and stochastic frontier methods and survey data to

Catherine Morrison Paul; Richard Nehring; David Banker; Agapi Somwaru

2004-01-01

302

Efficiency and its determinants in pharmaceutical industries: ownership, R&D and scale economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to measure the efficiency of pharmaceutical firms and identify their determinants using Korean and American samples from 1992 to 2004. We document some stylized facts in the patterns and sources of efficiency change in Korean and American pharmaceutical firms. The evidence shows that ownership structure can substantially influence the efficiency of pharmaceutical firms. Especially,

Taewoo You; Xiaoying Chen; Mark E. Holder

2010-01-01

303

Documentation of the DRI Model of the US economy, December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) uses models of the US economy developed by Data Resources, Inc. (DRI) for conducting policy analyses, preparing forecasts for the Annual Energy Outlook, the Short-Term Energy Outlook, and related analyses in conjunction with EIA`s National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and its other energy market models. Both the DRI Model of the US Economy and the DRI Personal Computer Input-Output Model (PC-IO){sup 2} were developed and are maintained by DRI as proprietary models. This report provides documentation, as required by EIA standards for the use of proprietary models; describes the theoretical basis, structure and functions of both DRI models; and contains brief descriptions of the models and their equations. Appendix A describes how the two large-scale models documented here are used to support the macroeconomic and interindustry modeling associated with the National Energy Modeling System. Appendix B is an article by Stephen McNees of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston on ``How Large are Economic Forecast Errors.`` This article assesses the forecast accuracy of a number of economic forecasting models (groups) and is attached as an independent assessment of the forecast accuracy of the DRI Model of the US Economy.

Not Available

1994-02-28

304

Dynamic systems of regional economy management optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most actual problems of the Russian economic life is a regional economic systems formation. The hierarchy of economic and branch priorities should follow from the general idea of an industrial policy. The matter is that the concept of an industrial policy is defined by the system of priorities mainly incorporated in it. The problem of priorities is

S. Trofimov; S. Kudzh

2004-01-01

305

Foreign Direct Investments in Small Business of Transition Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public notion usually attributes superior qualities to foreign direct investments in transition economies. According to a common belief they are equipped with modern technology, possess up-to-date managerial capacities, use state-of-the-art management practices, are more effective than local companies and show better financial performances. These qualities clearly distinguish foreign ventures from domestic ones. There is an empirical evidence that proves existence

Miklos Szanyi

1998-01-01

306

An Evaluation of Economy-based Resource Trading and Scheduling on Computational Power Grids for  

E-print Network

1 An Evaluation of Economy-based Resource Trading and Scheduling on Computational Power Grids, Computational Economy, Resource Trading, Nimrod/G Resource Broker, Scheduling, and Parameter Sweep Applications, resource allocation or co-allocation, online control, scalability, transparency, and "economy

Buyya, Rajkumar

307

Knowledge economy, Learning society and Lifelong Learning A review of the French literature  

E-print Network

1 Knowledge economy, Learning society and Lifelong Learning A review of the French literature savoir" or more often "économie de la connaissance" (knowledge economy-KE-). Similar difficulties arise economy (or society) and the initial and further education systems. But it also could explain why some

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

308

40 CFR 600.211-08 - Sample calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Sample calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.211-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

309

Fuel Economy Comparisons of Series, Parallel and HMT Hydraulic Hybrid Architectures  

E-print Network

Fuel Economy Comparisons of Series, Parallel and HMT Hydraulic Hybrid Architectures Zhekang Du, Kai and do not require costly batteries, they have the potential to achieve high fuel economy and performance and effectiveness in engine management. This paper compares the fuel economies and performance

Li, Perry Y.

310

40 CFR 600.207-86 - Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type. 600.207-86...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

311

40 CFR 600.207-93 - Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type. 600.207-93...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

312

The Political Economy of International Unions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We model an international union as a group of countries deciding together the provision of certain public goods and policies because of spillovers. The countries are heterogeneous either in preferences and\\/or in economic fundamentals. The trade off between the benefits of coordination and the loss of independent policymaking endogenously determines the size, the composition and the scope of unions. Our

Alberto F Alesina; Ignazio Angeloni; Federico Etro

2001-01-01

313

The Political Economy of Social Pacts: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most significant achievements of the postwar era has been the reconciliation of economic growth with varying degrees of social justice within western European welfare states. Yet the capacity for achieving this compromise has been thrown into question by a number of major challenges. Pressures for retrenchment including \\

MARTIN RHODES

2001-01-01

314

A Political Economy Model of Congressional Careers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our main goal is to quantify the returns to a career in the United States Congress. We specify a dynamic model of career decisions of a member of Congress and estimate this model using a newly collected dataset. Given estimates of the structural model, we assess reelection probabilities, estimate the effect of congressional experience on private and public sector wages,

Daniel Diermeier; Michael Keane; Antonio Merlo

2005-01-01

315

The Political Economy of Urban Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work was intended as a contribution to the theory of the nonprofit organization, local public finance, and human resources. There is a discussion of approaches to evaluating school systems, the validity of any of which depends upon prior knowledge of the resource-performance relationship, or the educational production function. A case study…

Katzman, Martin T.

316

The political economy of electricity market liberalization  

E-print Network

science. As a final point, the study suggests that EU or OECD membership, the existence of electricity market reform idea, population density, electricity consumption, income level, educational level, imports of goods and services (as % of GDP) and country...

Erdogdu, Erkan

2012-05-17

317

The Political Economy of Intellectual Property Treaties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intellectual property treaties have two main types of provisions: national treatment of foreign inventors, and harmonization of protections. I characterize the circumstances in which countries would want to treat foreign inventors the same as national inventors. I then argue that national treatment of foreign inventors leads to stronger intellectual property protection than is optimal, and that this effect is exacerbated

Suzanne Scotchmer

2001-01-01

318

The Cultural Economy of Fashion Buying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to examine the qualification and mediation of fashionable clothing by fashion buyers at Selfridges, London. The author examines the ‘active and reflexive role of economic agents in the qualification of products’ in their ‘habitual and routine’ working practices, describing how buyers are active in defining, shaping, transforming, qualifying and requalifiying products. Through this qualification

Joanne Entwistle

2006-01-01

319

The political economy of satellite business  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite communications systems are the outcome of the fusion of big governments, high technology and big business, whose needs they meet. As a major growth sector they are becoming extremely important in economic terms. But satellite communications raise wider issues of the relationships between rich and poor countries and within rich countries. They will crucially influence the location of economic

Gareth Locksley

1983-01-01

320

Economy of flight at supersonic speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prandtl's theory is used to determine the airflow over bodies and wings adapted to supersonic flight. By making use of these results, and by incorporating in them an allowance for the probable skin friction, some estimates of expected lift-drag ratios are made for various flight speeds with the best configuration. At each speed a slender body and wings having the best angle of sweepback are considered. For the range of supersonic speeds shown an airplane of normal density and loading would be required to operate at an altitude of the order of 60,000 feet. The limiting value of 1-1/2 times the speed of sound corresponds to a flight speed of 1000 miles per hour. At this speed about 1.5 miles per gallon of fuel are expected. It is interesting to note that this value corresponds to a value of more than 15 miles per gallon when the weight is reduced to correspond to that of an ordinary automobile.

Jones, R. T.

1976-01-01

321

Documenting the Birth of a Financial Economy  

E-print Network

The birth and explosive growth of mobile money in Kenya has provided economists with an opportunity to study the evolution and impact of a new financial system. Mobile money is an innovation that allows individuals to ...

Suri, Tavneet

322

A political economy of accounting standard setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years accounting researchers have identified “political” lobbying as a problem for accounting standard setting.\\u000a This paper presents a simple game-theoretic analysis of the political process to identify situations where companies have\\u000a incentives to lobby the political principal instead of participating in the usual due process of accounting standard setting.\\u000a Analysis of the model suggests that “political” lobbying is

Roland Königsgruber

2010-01-01

323

Keynesian Management of the Economy Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to give college economics students insights into the problems of demand management, this game involves students in manipulating government expenditure, with incomes policy and devaluation options, to try to secure the objectives of full employment, low inflation, and an acceptable balance of payments position. (RM)

Brownless, C. J.

1984-01-01

324

Ethical Aspects of Business, Economy and Politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the main attention being given within the economic activity to the issues of efficiency and competitiveness, one shouldnt oversee the ethical aspects of business and economic policy. Quite important are also the matters of truth and false in economic research. Several phenomena and processes subsidies, dumping, weapons trading, fiscal system and policy do have also their moral dimension, not

G. Z. W. KOLODKO

2007-01-01

325

Taxonomy of digital economy business models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Availability of high speed Internet connections, micropayment and credit card infrastructure has introduced new business models for vendors and enabled average consumers to use the Internet for shopping. Today it is possible to buy anything on the web with just a few clicks of a mouse, from groceries and gadgets to music and software. Penetration of smartphones and similar devices

Marko Jurisic; Dragutin Kermek

2011-01-01

326

CONTRIBUTION OF HOSPITALS TO NORTH DAKOTA'S ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community hospital administrators in North Dakota were surveyed to determine the amount and type of expenditures made to North Dakota entities in 1997. Estimates of net revenues retained within the state were also solicited. Forty-two of the 44 community hospitals in the state responded. Economic activity from hospitals in the state was divided into two groups--community hospitals and all hospitals.

Dean A. Bangsund; F. Larry Leistritz

1999-01-01

327

Introduction: the crisis of economies and economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article introduces to the current issue of the journal by critically reviewing the articles published therein in light of both recent literature and current economic developments. The main topics dealt with concern the role of mainstream economics and ideology in creating the cultural and economic environment that lead to the crisis in the first place and that hinders now

Carlo DIppoliti

2011-01-01

328

[Economy of generic drugs in Latin America].  

PubMed

In terms of economics, implementing generic drug policy is nothing other than consolidating (or even, creating) drug markets that set competitive prices, the result of which favors public access to essential drugs. This article approaches the topic of generic drugs from the economic perspective by examining various regulatory models in order to evaluate and leverage generic drug policy implementation options as a mechanism for battling some of the markets' specific weaknesses. The conclusion is that there is no single unequivocal method for promoting the use of generic drugs, and that the most favorable way to integrate markets may be through a broad combination of alternatives. These alternatives are grouped and analyzed according to the market issues or challenges that must be overcome. Several options are then identified based on the degree of market consolidation to be obtained. PMID:18291074

Tobar, Federico

2008-01-01

329

The future of the global economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although world growth is continuous throughout history, the balance of power is constantly shifting from one nation to another. From Egypt to Ancient Greece and Rome, all the way through modern western civilization, different nations struggle for power through various ways such as: war, science and technology, arts, commerce, economical transactions, and other forms of interaction.In this article we use

George P. Boretos

2009-01-01

330

Economy of grassland renovation: a model approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grassland renovation is a relatively expensive activity. However, a cost\\/benefit analysis is hard to make, since financial benefits are difficult to determine. The benefits involve mainly the temporary increase of net grass production. The focus of this paper is on a model simulating the grass production over time. It assumes that the gross grass production, the nutritive value and the

I. E. Hoving

2005-01-01

331

Physical principles for economies of skilled movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some elementary principles regarding constraints on movements, which may be useful in modeling and interpreting motor control strategies for skilled movements. Movements which are optimum with respect to various objectives, or “costs”, are analyzed and compared. The specific costs considered are related to movement time, distance, peak velocity, energy, peak acceleration, and rate of change of acceleration

W. L. Nelson

1983-01-01

332

The political economy of International Accounting Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 1 January 2005, all stock exchange listed companies in the European Union (EU) began using International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) written by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). This article argues that the IASB's introduction of fair value accounting reflects and reinforces changed relations of production in which the financial sector increasingly dominates the productive sector, nationally institutionalized economic

James Perry; Andreas Nölke

2006-01-01

333

Political economy of the US oil industry  

SciTech Connect

The political struggles over oil policy in the 1950s were contests between narrow economic interest groups to collect economic rents, as would be expected if government is considered to be just another forum for rent seeking behavior, with government intervention accepted as a norm. Conversely, the attempt to obtain decontrol of natural gas production during this period, during which consumer interests and pro-market ideology were important factors, presaged the oil politics of the 1970s. The significant impact of consumer interests on oil policy contradicts the expectations of public choice theorists that consumers will be disadvantaged in contests with well organized and wealthy interest groups. The ability of latent interest groups to influence policy when represented by politicians and private actors acting as political entrepreneurs was demonstrated during the 1970s as they dominated oil politics. Substantial economic rents, generated by the OPEC price increases, were transferred to consumers and refiners, while tax break were eliminated despite the economic resources available to producers. The pattern of distribution of those economic rents, as well as various tax breaks and exemptions from controls, was skewed toward small producers and refiners, reflecting a traditional ideological prejudice against big business. Econometric analysis revealed that ideology, party and oil production by constituents were the most important influences on congressional voting.

Isser, S.N.

1989-01-01

334

Future of Liquid Biofuels for APEC Economies  

SciTech Connect

This project was initiated by APEC Energy Working Group (EWG) to maximize the energy sector's contribution to the region's economic and social well-being through activities in five areas of strategic importance including liquid biofuels production and development.

Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

2008-05-01

335

The Emotional Economy of Capital Sentencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

You often hear that one reason capital jurors condemn capital defendants is that jurors don't empathize with defendants. And one reason they don't empathize is that the process of capital sentencing is rigged against empathy. Using data from the South Carolina segment of the Capital Jury Project, I try to examine the role emotion plays in capital sentencing.\\u000aWithout entering

Stephen P. Garvey

2000-01-01

336

Documenting the birth of a financial economy.  

PubMed

The birth and explosive growth of mobile money in Kenya has provided economists with an opportunity to study the evolution and impact of a new financial system. Mobile money is an innovation that allows individuals to store, send, and receive money on their mobile phone via text message. This system has opened up basic financial services to many who were previously excluded, and has had real and measurable impacts on the ability of households to protect themselves against health risks. Using a unique survey instrument covering nearly 2,300 households over 2008-2010, we first document the lightning-fast adoption of mobile money in Kenya, which was faster than most documented modern technologies in the United States. We then present evidence on how this innovation allows households to respond better to unexpected adverse health events. We find that in the face of these events, users of mobile money are better able to tap into remittances to finance additional health care costs without having to forego necessary expenditures on education, food, and other consumption needs. PMID:22689945

Suri, Tavneet; Jack, William; Stoker, Thomas M

2012-06-26

337

Documenting the birth of a financial economy  

PubMed Central

The birth and explosive growth of mobile money in Kenya has provided economists with an opportunity to study the evolution and impact of a new financial system. Mobile money is an innovation that allows individuals to store, send, and receive money on their mobile phone via text message. This system has opened up basic financial services to many who were previously excluded, and has had real and measurable impacts on the ability of households to protect themselves against health risks. Using a unique survey instrument covering nearly 2,300 households over 2008–2010, we first document the lightning-fast adoption of mobile money in Kenya, which was faster than most documented modern technologies in the United States. We then present evidence on how this innovation allows households to respond better to unexpected adverse health events. We find that in the face of these events, users of mobile money are better able to tap into remittances to finance additional health care costs without having to forego necessary expenditures on education, food, and other consumption needs. PMID:22689945

Suri, Tavneet; Jack, William; Stoker, Thomas M.

2012-01-01

338

Running economy of elite male and elite female runners.  

PubMed

Twenty female and 45 male middle and long-distance runners, in training for the U.S. Olympic Trials, served as subjects. Ninety percent of both men and women subjects reached the Trials; eight women and 12 men qualified for the Olympic Games and five won medals. Each subject completed a VO2max and a series of submax treadmill runs, for the purpose of comparing heart rate (HR), VO2, and blood lactate (HLa) among men and women and among runners of various event specialties. Results showed the men to be taller, heavier, to have a lower six-site skinfold sum and a higher VO2max, than the women (P less than 0.05); there was no difference in age. When compared in running economy, men used less oxygen (ml.min-1.kg-1) at common absolute velocities, but VO2 (ml.km-1.kg-1) was not different between men and women at equal relative intensities (%VO2max). When men and women of equal VO2max were compared, the men were significantly more economical, using any method of comparison. Also, when comparisons of men and women of equal economy were made, it was found that the men had an even greater advantage over the "matched" women subjects than the mean VO2max comparison using all subjects. In looking at the SD (800-/1500-m runners), MD (3-K/5-K/10-K runners) and LD (marathon runners), it was found that the SD runners used the least oxygen (ml.min-1.kg-1) at speeds of marathon race pace and faster, but not at slower speeds. Men and women responded similarly in this regard. Running economy data for speeds slower than typical race paces, tended to show the LD runners to be most economical, suggesting that the speeds over which runners are tested plays an important part in determining which subjects are the most economical. It was concluded that at absolute running velocities, men are more economical than women, but when expressed in ml.km-1.kg-1 there are no gender differences at similar relative intensities of running. Also, when men and women of equal VO2max or equal economy are matched, the men show a better aerobic profile. It is recommended that economy data be collected up to speeds equal to over 90% VO2max. PMID:1560747

Daniels, J; Daniels, N

1992-04-01

339

The Political Economy of Educational Innovation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout North America and the world, educators are awash in urgings and suggestions about how to change what they do and how they do it. "Challenges" and "crises" are identified and elaborated. Teachers are made to feel embarrassed if they are unaware of "cutting-edge technologies" and uniformed about profound demographic and attitudinal shifts…

Doughty, Howard A.; Meaghan, Diane E.; Barrett, Ralph V.

2009-01-01

340

States economy consumes 25% of the  

E-print Network

. Electrically-powered chillers will gen- erate chilled water for air conditioning. The new plant will also use.S. lifestyle. One- third of U.S. energy is provided by oil, and is used to power our cars, fuel the trucks

Baltisberger, Jay H.

341

The Political Economy of Debt Bondage  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the effects of restricting bonded labor clauses in tenancy or debt contracts? While such restrictions reduce agents' ability to credibly commit ex ante to repay principals in states where they default on their financial obligations, they also generate a pecuniary externality on other principal-agent pairs by reducing the equilibrium profit earned by principals. This turns out to imply

Ulf von Lilienfeld-Toal; Dilip Mookherjee

2010-01-01

342

Sources of Slow Growth in African Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers some econometric evidence on the sources of slow growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. The evidence suggests that the continent's slow growth can be explained in an international cross-country framework, without the need to invoke a special explanation unique to Sub-Saharan Africa. We find that poor economic policies have played an especially important role in the slow growth, most

Jeffrey D. Sachs; Andrew M. Warner

1997-01-01

343

Fuel economy screening study of advanced automotive gas turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel economy potentials were calculated and compared among ten turbomachinery configurations. All gas turbine engines were evaluated with a continuously variable transmission in a 1978 compact car. A reference fuel economy was calculated for the car with its conventional spark ignition piston engine and three speed automatic transmission. Two promising engine/transmission combinations, using gasoline, had 55 to 60 percent gains over the reference fuel economy. Fuel economy sensitivities to engine design parameter changes were also calculated for these two combinations.

Klann, J. L.

1980-01-01

344

Overall Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that these workers provide. So, to project employment, BLS starts by estimating the components of gross domestic product (GDP) for 2020. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the size--in…

Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

2012-01-01

345

Overall Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that they provide. So, to project employment, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) starts by projecting the gross domestic product (GDP) for 2018. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the…

Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

2010-01-01

346

Diversified Business Groups in Emerging Economies Emerging Economies Emerging Economies Emerging Economies Emerging Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Diversified business groups dominate the organizational landscape of many emerging and transition economies. Are these diversified groups good or bad for these economies? How can we explain their emergence and persistence? Why are they so visible and dominant in developing countries but not in devel- oped ones? How should regulatory authorities view them? In this paper

MAITREESH GHATAK; RAJA KALI

347

Weight of Nations: Material Outflows from Industrial Economies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

World Resources Institute (WRI) has recently released this publication on resource and materials use, entitled "Weight of Nations: Material Outflows from Industrial Economies." The report examines material flows in Austria, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, and the US, and develops "model accounts of the complete 'material cycle' or the flow of raw materials through the processes of extraction, production, use, and disposal." In addition, the report documents the annual quantity of materials that are recycled and those that rapidly become pollution or potentially harmful waste. The Website offers author descriptions and sections of the report, in addition to the full (.pdf) report.

Amann, Christof.; Bringezu, Stefan.; Fischer-Kowalski, Marina, 1946-.; Huttler, Walter.; Kleijn, Stef.; Matthews, Emily.

2000-01-01

348

Towards a political economy of urbanizaton in Third World countries  

SciTech Connect

Urbanization has emerged as one of the major issues confronting contemporary developing countries. The essays in this volume bring a new perspective to bear on the urbanization problem in the Third World, particularly on the survival mechanisms of the poor. The authors, who include anthropologists, geographers, economists and sociologists, examine the impact of colonialism on the economies of the Third World countries, their dependence on advanced industrial societies for capital and technology, their urban class structures, and the role of their governments in shaping the urban process.

Safa H.I. (ed.)

1981-01-01

349

Structure of the Texas Economy: Emphasis on Agriculture.  

E-print Network

for markets and supplies. The study may be used to predict the effects of a change in one sector upon others in the State. By quantifying and por- traying the intricate flows of goods and services that bind sectors in the economy together, this study pro... Input-Output Model Using Location Quotients," Departmental Program and . -n~s~r~~~vely, assistant professor and research associate, Depart- Model Documentation 71-4, Department of Agricultural Eco- nent of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology...

Mustafa, Gholam; Jones, Lonnie L.

1972-01-01

350

Injection Drug Users' Involvement In Drug Economy: Dynamics of Sociometric and Egocentric Social Networks  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this analysis was to examine the effect of social network cohesiveness on drug economy involvement, and to test whether this relationship is mediated by drug support network size in a sample of active injection drug users. Involvement in the drug economy was defined by self-report of participation in at least one of the following activities: selling drugs, holding drugs or money for drugs, providing street security for drug sellers, cutting/packaging/cooking drugs, selling or renting drug paraphernalia (e.g., pipes, tools, rigs), and injecting drugs in others’ veins. The sample consists of 273 active injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland who reported having injected drugs in the last 6 months and were recruited through either street outreach or by their network members. Egocentric drug support networks were assessed through a social network inventory at baseline. Sociometric networks were built upon the linkages by selected matching characteristics, and k-plex rank was used to characterize the level of cohesiveness of the individual to others in the social network. Although no direct effect was observed, structural equation modeling indicated k-plex rank was indirectly associated with drug economy involvement through drug support network size. These findings suggest the effects of large-scale sociometric networks on injectors’ drug economy involvement may occur through their immediate egocentric networks. Future harm reduction programs for injection drug users (IDUs) should consider providing programs coupled with economic opportunities to those drug users within a cohesive network subgroup. Moreover, individuals with a high connectivity to others in their network may be optimal individuals to train for diffusing HIV prevention messages.

Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl; Muth, Stephen Q.; Rudolph, Abby

2014-01-01

351

Carbohydrate Economy Clearinghouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A creation of the Institute for Local Self-Reliance (ILSR), the Carbohydrate Economy Clearinghouse (CEC) provides up-to-date information on "all facets of the plant matter-based industrial economy" from paints and inks to fuels and construction materials made from plants. In addition to the latest "new materials economy" news, the CEC site hosts a directory of carbohydrate economy companies as well as ILSR reports on plant matter-based products and technologies (in English, French, and Spanish).

352

Nonstandard Exchange Economies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Edgeworth's conjecture that as the number of traders in an exchange economy increases the core approaches that set of competitive equilibria has been formalized both as a theorem about a sequence of finite economies, and as a theorem about an economy havi...

D. J. Brown, A. Robinson

1971-01-01

353

Predicting Individual Fuel Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the

Zhenhong Lin; David L Greene

2011-01-01

354

Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: economy.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to present an efficient tool for evaluating the economy part of the sustainability of pig farming systems. The selected tool IDEA was tested on a sample of farms from 15 contrasted systems in Europe. A statistical analysis was carried out to check the capacity of the indicators to illustrate the variability of the population and to analyze which of these indicators contributed the most towards it. The scores obtained for the farms were consistent with the reality of pig production; the variable distribution showed an important variability of the sample. The principal component analysis and cluster analysis separated the sample into five subgroups, in which the six main indicators significantly differed, which underlines the robustness of the tool. The IDEA method was proven to be easily comprehensible, requiring few initial variables and with an efficient benchmarking system; all six indicators contributed to fully describe a varied and contrasted population. PMID:25222654

Ilari-Antoine, E; Bonneau, M; Klauke, T N; Gonzàlez, J; Dourmad, J Y; De Greef, K; Houwers, H W J; Fabrega, E; Zimmer, C; Hviid, M; Van der Oever, B; Edwards, S A

2014-12-01

355

The Resilience of the Indian Economy to Rising Oil Prices as a Validation Test for a Global Energy-Environment-Economy CGE Model  

E-print Network

as on how short-term mechanisms ­ and policy action ­ can smooth the negative impacts of energy price shocks1 The Resilience of the Indian Economy to Rising Oil Prices as a Validation Test for a Global Energy-Environment-Economy CGE Model Céline Guivarcha, * , Stéphane Hallegattea,b , Renaud Crassousa

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

356

Since 1975, the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks has been regulated by the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards,  

E-print Network

Since 1975, the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks has been regulated by the corporate in vehicle weight and correlated the decline in new car weight with about a 20% increase in occupant fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks and highway fatalities are negative: higher miles per

357

Spark-Timing Control Based on Correlation of Maximum-Economy Spark Timing, Flame-front Travel, and Cylinder-Pressure Rise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted on a full-scale air-cooled cylinder in order to establish an effective means of maintaining maximum-economy spark timing with varying engine operating conditions. Variable fuel-air-ratio runs were conducted in which relations were determined between the spark travel, and cylinder-pressure rise. An instrument for controlling spark timing was developed that automatically maintained maximum-economy spark timing with varying engine operating conditions. The instrument also indicated the occurrence of preignition.

Cook, Harvey A; Heinicke, Orville H; Haynie, William H

1947-01-01

358

The Impact of Climate Change on the United States Economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the impacts of climate change on economic behaviour is an important aspect of deciding when to take policy actions to prevent or mitigate its consequences. This book applies advanced new economics methodologies to assess impacts on potentially vulnerable aspects of the US economy: agriculture, timber, coastal resources, energy expenditure, fishing, outdoor recreation. It is intended to provide improved understanding of key issues raised in the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports. It concludes that some climate change may produce economic gains in the agriculture and forestry sectors, whereas energy, coastal structures, and water sectors may be harmed. The book will serve as an important reference for the scientific, economic, and policy community, and will also be of interest to natural resource/environmental economists as an example of economic valuation techniques. The volume will clearly be of main importance to researchers and policymakers in the US, but will also be influential as a model for assessment of impacts on economies worldwide.

Mendelsohn, Robert; Neumann, James E.

2004-08-01

359

40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model...ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model... (a) Base level . 5-cycle fuel economy values for a...

2010-07-01

360

E-conomy Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A joint effort of the Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy (BRIE), the College of Engineering, the Haas School of Business, and the School of Information Management and Systems (SIMS), E-conomy Project creates "an intellectual resource to focus on the profound transformation being wrought by new digital technologies." Along with describing the focuses of the project, this Website also includes course descriptions and syllabi, news articles on the E-conomy Project, and papers and presentations from the E-conomy Project-sponsored conference, The Digital Economy in International Perspective: Common Construction or Regional Rivalry.

361

Intelligent Development and Implementation of Coal Enterprise Recycling Economy Application System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of recycling economy in coal enterprise is man-machine system involving many industries, large range, omni directional and hierarchical support system, it provides information collection, information processing, information query and information accomplishment. The purpose of this system development is to collect data of recycling economy development¿realize data share¿integrally and comprehensively evaluate the effect of recycling economy by using these

Xu Jun

2010-01-01

362

16 CFR 502.102 - “Economy size.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.102 “Economy size.” (a) The term economy size means any printed matter consisting of the words “economy size,” “economy pack,” “budget pack,” “bargain...

2012-01-01

363

16 CFR 502.102 - “Economy size.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.102 “Economy size.” (a) The term economy size means any printed matter consisting of the words “economy size,” “economy pack,” “budget pack,” “bargain...

2010-01-01

364

16 CFR 502.102 - “Economy size.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.102 “Economy size.” (a) The term economy size means any printed matter consisting of the words “economy size,” “economy pack,” “budget pack,” “bargain...

2013-01-01

365

16 CFR 502.102 - “Economy size.”  

...AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.102 “Economy size.” (a) The term economy size means any printed matter consisting of the words “economy size,” “economy pack,” “budget pack,” “bargain...

2014-01-01

366

16 CFR 502.102 - “Economy size.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.102 “Economy size.” (a) The term economy size means any printed matter consisting of the words “economy size,” “economy pack,” “budget pack,” “bargain...

2011-01-01

367

MAEP: A Standard Communication Protocol for Artificial Economy - An Instance of X-SS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes Multi-agent Artificial Economy communication Protocol (MAEP). MAEP is an in- stance of X-SS (eXtensible Social System) Protocol. MAEP is designed to be a standard communication protocol specially for artificial economy, such as X- Economy and World Trade League. Adopting XML as a representation of MAEP, we realize the interop- erability of message structure that is indispensable to

Akio Sashima; Koichi Kurumatani

2002-01-01

368

Reflections on the legal features of the socialist market economy in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China’s socialist market economy is a market economy co-existing with a large public sector of the economy, affected by the\\u000a State as a policymaker, a regulator and an important actor along with private ones; general interests in principle prevail\\u000a over individual ones. A major role of the law is of providing the tools for administrative leadership and efficient macro-control.\\u000a Legal

Ignazio Castellucci

2011-01-01

369

Connecting experience and economy--aspects of disguised positioning.  

PubMed

The focus of this article is the use of experience made within the literature of the "new" economical discipline of experience economy. By combining a methodological individualism with a causal and dehumanising picture of the process of experience, this discipline conceives economic interactions as acts of autonomy. These acts, it is claimed, are part of economical instrumental reason restructuring itself by using experiences as tools in convincing consumers that they are free to pursue their respective paths of lives. Described through the use of positioning theory, however, this turns out to be a result of an effort of equipping consumers with a new economic norm of forced positioning disguised as deliberate self-positioning. PMID:22895895

Christensen, Bo Allesøe

2013-03-01

370

The political economy of oil and the Niger Delta crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is about the burgeoning crisis in Nigeria's Oil Producing Niger Delta region. Discerning the intersecting contributive factors to the crisis, this dissertation suggests that the Niger Delta crisis is symptomatic of challenges to development in Nigeria. Due to the insidious colonial/neo-colonial practices of subjugation, and exploitation of the host communities, it is suggested that the extractive, super-profit motive of Shell, the concomitant environmental degradation, corruption of a bellicose state, ethnic conflict and suffering of the masses are outcomes of a long historically debilitating relationship with international capital which causes irreparable retardation to the host communities. From cash crop economy to a mono-oil economy resources are removed from the communities and used to enhance the colonial state and their post-colonial harbingers of misery. Hence, the indigenous people claim that the Niger Delta is in a crisis, and they are willing to confront the triple alliance of multinational oil companies like Shell, the Nigerian State and the local elite so long as these allies of subjugation continue to neglect the goose that lays the proverbial golden egg (oil that is). Theoretically, a hybrid Political Economy approach was adopted as the over-aching framework for the study, while Dependency theory, modified by what I have called African Transformative scholarly perspective, served as the conceptual tool. Primary and secondary sources of data, including personal observation, interviews, official government documents and other publications were utilized for this analysis. In view of recommendations, it is suggested that first, the Nigerian state should assume decisive and unflinching leadership in holding oil companies responsible for their activities in the host communities; second, oil companies (like Shell) should see themselves as an integral part of the host communities; invest in their development by providing employment opportunities and adhering to humane environmental practices. Finally, I suggest that the ownership and control of all resources, including oil should be vested in those communities in which they are found. The revenues accruing to the constitutive states of Nigeria will be accordingly taxed with the revenues from the taxes utilized for the general good of the polity especially the less endowed communities.

Ighodaro, Osaro O.

371

Running for Exercise Mitigates Age-Related Deterioration of Walking Economy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Impaired walking performance is a key predictor of morbidity among older adults. A distinctive characteristic of impaired walking performance among older adults is a greater metabolic cost (worse economy) compared to young adults. However, older adults who consistently run have been shown to retain a similar running economy as young runners. Unfortunately, those running studies did not measure the metabolic cost of walking. Thus, it is unclear if running exercise can prevent the deterioration of walking economy. Purpose To determine if and how regular walking vs. running exercise affects the economy of locomotion in older adults. Methods 15 older adults (69±3 years) who walk ?30 min, 3x/week for exercise, “walkers” and 15 older adults (69±5 years) who run ?30 min, 3x/week, “runners” walked on a force-instrumented treadmill at three speeds (0.75, 1.25, and 1.75 m/s). We determined walking economy using expired gas analysis and walking mechanics via ground reaction forces during the last 2 minutes of each 5 minute trial. We compared walking economy between the two groups and to non-aerobically trained young and older adults from a prior study. Results Older runners had a 7–10% better walking economy than older walkers over the range of speeds tested (p?=?.016) and had walking economy similar to young sedentary adults over a similar range of speeds (p?=?.237). We found no substantial biomechanical differences between older walkers and runners. In contrast to older runners, older walkers had similar walking economy as older sedentary adults (p?=?.461) and ?26% worse walking economy than young adults (p<.0001). Conclusion Running mitigates the age-related deterioration of walking economy whereas walking for exercise appears to have minimal effect on the age-related deterioration in walking economy. PMID:25411850

Ortega, Justus D.; Beck, Owen N.; Roby, Jaclyn M.; Turney, Aria L.; Kram, Rodger

2014-01-01

372

Entrepreneurship Selection and Performance: A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Education in Developing Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This meta-analytical review of empirical studies of the impact of schooling on entrepreneurship selection and performance in developing economies looks at variations in impact across specific characteristics of the studies. A marginal year of schooling in developing economies raises enterprise income by an average of 5.5 percent, which is close to the average return in industrial countries. The return varies,

Justin van der Sluis; Mirjam van Praag; Wim Vijverberg

2005-01-01

373

Opportunities and challenges of nanotechnology in the green economy.  

PubMed

In a world of finite resources and ecosystem capacity, the prevailing model of economic growth, founded on ever-increasing consumption of resources and emission pollutants, cannot be sustained any longer. In this context, the "green economy" concept has offered the opportunity to change the way that society manages the interaction of the environmental and economic domains. To enable society to build and sustain a green economy, the associated concept of "green nanotechnology" aims to exploit nano-innovations in materials science and engineering to generate products and processes that are energy efficient as well as economically and environmentally sustainable. These applications are expected to impact a large range of economic sectors, such as energy production and storage, clean up-technologies, as well as construction and related infrastructure industries. These solutions may offer the opportunities to reduce pressure on raw materials trading on renewable energy, to improve power delivery systems to be more reliable, efficient and safe as well as to use unconventional water sources or nano-enabled construction products therefore providing better ecosystem and livelihood conditions.However, the benefits of incorporating nanomaterials in green products and processes may bring challenges with them for environmental, health and safety risks, ethical and social issues, as well as uncertainty concerning market and consumer acceptance. Therefore, our aim is to examine the relationships among guiding principles for a green economy and opportunities for introducing nano-applications in this field as well as to critically analyze their practical challenges, especially related to the impact that they may have on the health and safety of workers involved in this innovative sector. These are principally due to the not fully known nanomaterial hazardous properties, as well as to the difficulties in characterizing exposure and defining emerging risks for the workforce. Interestingly, this review proposes action strategies for the assessment, management and communication of risks aimed to precautionary adopt preventive measures including formation and training of employees, collective and personal protective equipment, health surveillance programs to protect the health and safety of nano-workers. It finally underlines the importance that occupational health considerations will have on achieving an effectively sustainable development of nanotechnology. PMID:25294341

Iavicoli, Ivo; Leso, Veruscka; Ricciardi, Walter; Hodson, Laura L; Hoover, Mark D

2014-01-01

374

Estimates of the Open Economy New Keynesian Phillips Curve for Euro Area Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the existing literature on the open economy New Keynesian Phillips Curve by incorporating three different\\u000a factors of production, domestic labor and imported as well as domestically produced intermediate goods, into a general model\\u000a which nests existing closed economy and open economy models. The model is estimated for nine euro area countries and the euro\\u000a area aggregate. We

Fabio Rumler; Oesterreichische Nationalbank

2007-01-01

375

The dual reality of the Chinese knowledge economy  

PubMed Central

This paper draws on stem cell research and financial derivatives as two case studies to analyse the role of scientific knowledge and technology in the development of the Chinese knowledge economy. The findings suggest that, despite China’s recent commitments in acquiring international expertise, there is a decoupling between knowledge acquisitions and applications in the institutionalisation of knowledge within these sectors. Scientific-based knowledge and professional know-how are on the one hand perceived as prime drivers of China’s development, yet they on the other hand remain subordinate to existing administrative infrastructures. The paper further elucidates the causes and implications of this by describing the dual reality of knowledge in relation to an isomorphic process of rationalisation outlined by new institutional organisational theory. PMID:24416075

Arnoldi, Jakob; Zhang, Joy Yueyue

2013-01-01

376

Linkage of Fisheries Sectors to Hawaii's Economy and Economic Impacts of  

E-print Network

Linkage of Fisheries Sectors to Hawaii's Economy and Economic Impacts of Longline Fishing-355 #12;1 Linkage of Fisheries Sectors to Hawaii's Economy and Economic Impacts of Longline Fishing by environmental issues. This paper examines the linkages between Hawaii's fisheries sectors and the rest

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

377

The “hidden hand” behind the resilience of the stateless economy of Somalia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a framework of analysis of economic markets in stateless Somalia. It argues that the informal market that sustained private sector activities under the repressive policies of Siad Barré's government has provided a functioning system to the economy. In small communities that achieved internal law and order, their economy boomed in an unprecedented free-market environment, and the no-government

Jamil A. Mubarak

1997-01-01

378

A growth model for a two-sector economy with endogenous productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growth model is developed for an open dual economy. The economy expands due to a higher growth rate of labour productivity in the modern sector through the Kaldor-Verdoorn channel and higher effective demand through a Keynesian channel. The model incorporates a retardation mechanism affecting the slopes of productivity and output growth schedules as labour surplus and economies of scale

Codrina Rada

2007-01-01

379

The dawn of the e-lance economy.  

PubMed

Will the large industrial corporation dominate the twenty-first century as it did the twentieth? Maybe not. Drawing on their research at MIT's Initiative on Inventing the Organizations of the 21st Century, Thomas Malone and Robert Laubacher postulate a world in which business is not controlled through a stable chain of management in a large, permanent company. Rather, it is carried out autonomously by independent contractors connected through personal computers and electronic networks. These electronically connected free-lancers-e-lancers-would join together into fluid and temporary networks to produce and sell goods and services. When the job is done--after a day, a month, a year--the network would dissolve and its members would again become independent agents. Far from being a wild hypothesis, the e-lance economy is, in many ways, already upon us. We see it in the rise of outsourcing and telecommuting, in the increasing importance within corporations of ad-hoc project teams, and in the evolution of the Internet. Most of the necessary building blocks of this type of business organization--efficient networks, data interchange standards, groupware, electronic currency, venture capital micromarkets--are either in place or under development. What is lagging behind is our imagination. But, the authors contend, it is important to consider sooner rather than later the profound implications of how such an e-lance economy might work. They examine the opportunities, and the problems, that may arise and anticipate how the role of managers may change fundamentally--or possibly even disappear altogether. PMID:10185429

Malone, T W; Laubacher, R J

1998-01-01

380

Effect of Water-Alcohol Injection and Maximum Economy Spark Advance on Knock-Limited Performance and Fuel Economy of a Large Air-Cooled Cylinder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a coolant solution of 25 percent ethyl alcohol, 25 percent methyl alcohol, and 50 percent water by volume and maximum-economy spark advance on knock-limited performance and fuel economy of a large air-cooled cylinder. The knock-limited performance of the cylinder at engine speeds of 2100 and 2500 rpm was determined for coolant-fuel ratios of 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4. The effect of water-alcohol injection on fuel economy was determined in constant charge-air flow tests. The tests were conducted at a spark advance of 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark advance.

Heinicke, Orville H.; Vandeman, Jack E.

1945-01-01

381

Applications of Complex Systems in Business and Economy  

E-print Network

In this paper the complex systems are discussed from the business and economics point of view. It will be showed and motivated that social systems are typically chaotic and/or non-linear and therefore non-equilibrium or complex systems. It is discussed that the rapid change global consumer behaviour is underway, that further increases the complexity in the business and management. For successful management under complexity, a following principles are offered: openness and international competition, tolerance and variety of the ideas, self-reliability and low dependence on external help. The paper discusses the opportunities and challenges in management under complexity from macro and micro economic perspective. It is motivated that small economies have good prospects to gain from the global processes underway, if they can demonstrate flexible production, reliable business ethics and good risk management. In this environment, the challenges for corporate managements are being also permanently changed: the bala...

Kitt, Robert

2012-01-01

382

Pluralist methodology for development economics: the example of moral economy of Indian labour markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper adds a moral angle to the pluralist approach to development economics, exploring the normative assumptions found in all the five main schools of thought that have analysed India's rural labour markets (neoclassical, new institutionalist, Marxist political economy, formalized political economy and feminist). The theorizations that are used by each have normative overtones, which are distinguished here from normative

Wendy Olsen

2007-01-01

383

Determination of Maximum Possible Fuel Economy of HEV for Known Drive Cycle: Genetic Algorithm Based Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a methodological approach to investigate the maximum fuel economy that could be achieved by a hybrid vehicle with parallel configuration for a known drive cycle. A backward looking hybrid vehicle model is used for computation of fuel economies. The optimization process represents a constrained, multi-domain and time-varying problem, which is highly nonlinear. Here, genetic algorithm (GA) based

R. Sudath Wimalendra; Lanka Udawatta; E. M. C. P. Edirisinghe; Sudarshana Karunarathna

2008-01-01

384

Comparative case studies of the effects of inflation targeting in emerging economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the question of whether inflation targeting is an effective policy tool in emerging economies using a novel non-experimental evaluation approach. In particular, we adopt synthetic control methods to assess the effect that inflation targeting has had on each emerging economy that adopted such policies in the 1990s and 2000s. The evidence suggests that inflation targeting helped Colombia,

Wang-Sheng Lee

2011-01-01

385

Utilization of waste heat in trucks for increased fuel economy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improvements in fuel economy for a broad spectrum of truck engines and waste heat utilization concepts are evaluated and compared. The engines considered are the diesel, spark ignition, gas turbine, and Stirling. The waste heat utilization concepts include preheating, regeneration, turbocharging, turbocompounding, and Rankine engine compounding. Predictions were based on fuel-air cycle analyses, computer simulation, and engine test data. The results reveal that diesel driving cycle performance can be increased by 20% through increased turbocharging, turbocompounding, and Rankine engine compounding. The Rankine engine compounding provides about three times as much improvement as turbocompounding but also costs about three times as much. Performance for either is approximately doubled if applied to an adiabatic diesel.

Leising, C. J.; Purohit, G. P.; Degrey, S. P.; Finegold, J. G.

1978-01-01

386

Career and Training in the New Economy: A Study Focused to Small Scale Enterprises Located in OSTIM Organized Industrial Region in Ankara/Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore and describe training levels related to careers, employment, and influences of "new economy" in small and mid-sized firms. The organizational side of career development behaviors was also a focus of this study. Interviews related to company policies and practices were conducted with 26 employers or managers…

Aksoy, Hasan Huseyin

2007-01-01

387

The energy efficiency of the Russian economy: Current state and an outlook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of analysis of the current state of the effectiveness of using fuel and energy in the Russian economy are presented. Forecast assessments of the energy-intensity of the Russian economy for the period up to the year 2030 are made.

Filippov, S. P.; Mokhina, E. V.; Makarova, E. M.; Grigor'eva, N. A.; Magalimov, I. V.

2010-12-01

388

Specialisation-based external economies, supply of primary factors and government size  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of changes in the supply of primary factors on the size of government and welfare. Unlike the existing studies, this paper utilises a model where the presence of monopolistic in the intermediate good sector gives rise to specialisation-based external economies in the final good sector. The size of theses external economies affects the magnitude of

Sajid Anwar

2005-01-01

389

Introduction Introduction to paradoxes of creativity: managerial and organizational challenges in the cultural economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This special issue explores the paradoxes caused by the challenge of managing and organizing creativity in the cultural economy. Conventional views of the individual creative artist are replaced by a view of creativity as a social process embedded within organizational and institutional contexts. The cultural economy is broadly defined in terms of breadth of industries included and depth elements

GERNOT GRABHER; CANDACE JONES

390

Cultural economy of landscape : development pathways in the english lake district  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief characterization of the cultural economy of landscape is provided, with special reference to the English Lake District. The early development of tourism in the region in relation to its natural, literary, and artistic assets is described. I examine the cultural economy of landscape in relation to three critical social groups, namely, producers of local goods and services, residents,

Allen J. Scott

2010-01-01

391

Vicious and virtuous circles — The political economy of unemployment in interwar UK and USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a political economy model of multiple unemployment equilibria to provide a theory of an endogenous natural rate of unemployment for the UK and the US interwar period. The theory here sees the natural rate and the associated path of unemployment as a reaction to mainly demand shocks and the institutional structure of the economy. The channel through

Kent Matthews; Patrick Minford; Ruthira Naraidoo

2008-01-01

392

GDP Jobs Direct Structure of Australian economy, employment and  

E-print Network

Biomass Solar PV 3020 Abatement below businss as usual Mt CO2e Industry Buildings Forestry Power Transport water heating efficiency Car fuel economy Commercial lighting efficiency Residential stand-by savings

Pezzey, Jack

393

Effects of Footwear and Strike Type on Running Economy  

E-print Network

. Sports Exerc., Vol. 44, No. 7, pp. 1335­1343, 2012. Purpose: This study tests if running economy differs biomechanics. The first is shoes. Footwear such as sandals or moccasins were invented less than 50,000 yr ago

Lieberman, Daniel E.

394

The Impact of Community Colleges on Oregon's 1980-81 Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A statewide study was conducted in 1982 to describe the impact of Oregon's 15 community colleges on the state's economy as well as the impact of each college on the economy of its district. Economic impact was defined for the study as the money in circulation within the state or college district due to the existence of the college; i.e.,…

Stevenson, Mike

395

Modes of state intervention and business group performance in China's transitional economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the contingent nature of state intervention affecting business group performance in the context of a transition economy by identifying different modes of state intervention in China's transitional economy. Using data on China's 76 business groups collected in 2006, I find that, at the group level, modes of state intervention have different economic effects on business group performance,

Xinxiang Chen

2010-01-01

396

On preparation of Poland´s regions to knowledge-based economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poland is in a phase of preparing intensively to the European Union Membership intensifying negotiation process and making necessary adjustments of its law and structures. One of actions is preparation to attain Poland''s readiness to use Structural Funds. Apart of fulfilling legal and institutional accession requirements, Poland must undertake an effort transitioning from middle income economy to the innovation-based economy

Stanislaw Walukiewicz; Tadeusz Zoltowski; Aneta Kaminska

2002-01-01

397

The MPG Survey: Questioning the Biased Perception of Automobile Fuel Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a survey about the perception of achievable automobile fuel economies versus EPA ratings. The survey follows up of a driving experiment in which the fuel consumed was 30% lower than the rated consumption for the same distance. On one hand, the results of the survey suggest that for most people, the perception of the possible fuel economy

Q. Binh Dam

2008-01-01

398

III--Combined Reliability and Economy in Operation of Large Electric Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the practises in use on the Philadelphia Electric Company system in attaining the maximum system economy consistent with high degree of service reliability. The system comprises not only steam electric stations of different efficiencies, but also a large hydroelectric plant and a major high-voltage interconnection with two large neighboring utilities, so that problems of operating economy are

J. W. Anderson; Herbert Estrada

1932-01-01

399

Proceedings of the Cornell International Symposium and Workshop on the Hydrogen Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document contains the proceedings of a symposium on the hydrogen energy economy conducted at Cornell University in August, 1973. The participants included both advocates and skeptics, so that the principles in each camp would have direct intellectual contact in order to achieve a better understanding of the potential of the hydrogen economy, either pro or con. Both viewpoints are

S. Linke

1975-01-01

400

Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy report, Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States Report to Congress, estimates the effects on employment of a U.S. economy transformation to hydrogen between 2020 and 2050. The report includes study results on employment impacts from hydrogen market expansion in the transportation, stationary, and portable power sectors and

George S. Tolley; Donald W. Mintz; Marianne M; Barton A. Smith; Eric Carlson; Stefan Unnasch; Michael Lawrence; Harry Chmelynski

2008-01-01

401

The Schumpeterian role of financial innovations in the New Economy's business cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alan Greenspan claims that modern financial innovations, especially financial derivatives, were major contributors to a Schumpeterian process of 'creative destruction' which produced a high-growth 'New Economy' and opposes their regulation. A different perspective emerges when it is recognised that the 'New Economy' followed the general contours of a Schumpeterian business cycle, and the role of modern financial innovations is examined

Charles G. Leathers; J. Patrick Raines

2004-01-01

402

Milking the Media: The U.S. Political Economy's Obstruction of Food Free Speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

A response to a myriad of rising doubts of the constitutionality of free speech regarding food, the present manuscript offers an alternative political economy and critical legal studies approach to agricultural product disparagement (APD) laws and the disconnect between legal theories and the realities that complicate the legal process. In reality, it is the political economy facing the legal, media,

Lauren Asmus

2010-01-01

403

The Role of Education and Training in the Economy. Working Paper No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is intended to provide a brief introduction to how economists assess the importance of education and training in the Australian economy and how the allocation of resources to education can be assessed. Included in the introduction are statistics illustrating the enormous impact of education and training on Australia's economy and a…

Maglen, Leo

404

Impact of higher energy prices on the US economy: 1973--1974. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of macroeconomic simulations that address the question of what would have happened to the US economy if energy prices had not risen at an extremely rapid rate during 1973 and 1974 is described. The results show that the Congressional Research Service estimate that the higher prices reduced the real output of the economy by $100 billion by the

Chapel

1975-01-01

405

‘Land grab’ as development strategy? The political economy of agricultural investment in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the domestic political economy of so-called ‘land-grabbing’ in Ethiopia, assessing the motivations of the Ethiopian government, which has strongly promoted foreign agricultural investment. The paper draws on a unique set of federal and regional databases detailing foreign and domestic investments in Ethiopia to analyse the likely role investment will play in the Ethiopian economy and the areas

Tom Lavers

2012-01-01

406

Knowledge for What? Wales, Militarisation and the Endless Promotion of the Knowledge Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "knowledge economy" has become the buzzword of development policy in the early twenty-first century. Nations and regions around the world are all told that they must transform themselves into knowledge economies to survive and prosper. This article uses the example of Wales and its recent embrace of a massive military privatisation project in…

Tannock, Stuart

2009-01-01

407

1,The Danish Ministry of Economy and Business Affairs/Danish Energy Authority  

E-print Network

1,The Danish Ministry of Economy and Business Affairs/Danish Energy Authority Master Plan: · The planning processes initiated during the project should be continued/ followed up · Master Plan for Legionowo Hydraulic Analyses May 2003 #12;The Danish Ministry of Economy and Business Affairs/Danish Energy

408

The Danish Ministry of Economy and Business Affairs/The Danish Energy  

E-print Network

: · The planning processes initiated during the project should be continued/ followed up. · Master PlanThe Danish Ministry of Economy and Business Affairs/The Danish Energy Authority CHP Plant Legionowo Ministry of Economy and Business Affairs/The Danish Energy Authority CHP Plant Legionowo Poland Description

409

ISOKINETIC ECCENTRIC EXERCISE OF QUADRICEPS FEMORIS DOES NOT AFFECT RUNNING ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vassilis, P, Vassilios, B, Vassilis, M, Athanasios, JZ, Vassilis, T, Christina, K, and Yiannis, K. Isokinetic eccentric exercise of quadriceps femoris does not affect running economy. JS trength Cond Res 22: 1222-1227, 2008—The purpose of this study was to investigate whether running economy is affected by isokinetic eccentric exercise designed to cause muscle damage. Twenty- four young healthy men performed

PASCHALIS VASSILIS; BALTZOPOULOS VASSILIOS; MOUGIOS VASSILIS; JAMURTAS Z. ATHANASIOS; THEOHARIS VASSILIS; KARATZAFERI CHRISTINA; KOUTEDAKIS YIANNIS

410

Welfare cost of business cycles in economies with individual consumption risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The welfare cost of random consumption fluctuations is known from De Santis (2007) to be increasing in the level of individual consumption risk in the economy. It is also known from Barillas et al. (2009) to increase if agents in the economy care about robustness to model misspecification. In this paper, we combine these two effects and calculate the cost

Martin Ellison; Thomas J. Sargent

2012-01-01

411

The Danish Ministry of Economy and Business Affairs/Danish Energy Authority  

E-print Network

The Danish Ministry of Economy and Business Affairs/Danish Energy Authority CHP Plant Legionowo Poland - Final Report Master Plan for PEC Legionowo December 2004 #12;The Danish Ministry of Economy and Business Affairs/Danish Energy Authority CHP Plant Legionowo Poland - Final Report Master plan for PEC

412

B2b, old economy businesses and the role of quality : part 1 – the simple alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the impact of the Internet on the business transactions of organisations. Three main impacts – globalisation, customisation, and customer demands solutions are examined. It is argued that the medium and large old economy companies will be most affected by transactions within the new economy, and this leads to both problems and possibilities. The paper has identified three

A. R. T. Williams; B. G. Dale; R. L. Visser; T. Van der Wiele

2001-01-01

413

Analysis of In-Use Fuel Economy Shortfall Based on Voluntarily Reported MPG Estimates  

SciTech Connect

The usefulness of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) passenger car and light truck fuel economy estimates has been the subject of debate for the past three decades. For the labels on new vehicles and the fuel economy information given to the public, the EPA adjusts dynamometer test results downward by 10% for the city cycle and 22% for the highway cycle to better reflect real world driving conditions. These adjustment factors were developed in 1984 and their continued validity has repeatedly been questioned. In March of 2005 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and EPA's fuel economy information website, www.fueleconomy.gov, began allowing users to voluntarily share fuel economy estimates. This paper presents an initial statistical analysis of more than 3,000 estimates submitted by website users. The analysis suggests two potentially important results: (1) adjusted, combined EPA fuel economy estimates appear to be approximately unbiased estimators of the average fuel economy consumers will experience in actual driving, and (2) the EPA estimates are highly imprecise predictors of any given individual's in-use fuel economy, an approximate 95% confidence interval being +/-7 MPG. These results imply that what is needed is not less biased adjustment factors for the EPA estimates but rather more precise methods of predicting the fuel economy individual consumers will achieve in their own driving.

Greene, David L [ORNL; Goeltz, Rick [ORNL; Hopson, Dr Janet L [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tworek, Elzbieta [ORNL

2007-01-01

414

Analysis of In-Use Fuel Economy Shortfall Based on Voluntarily Reported MPG Estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) passenger car and light truck fuel economy estimates has been the subject of debate for the past three decades. For the labels on new vehicles and the fuel economy information given to the public, the EPA adjusts dynamometer test results downward by 10% for the city cycle and 22% for the highway

David L Greene; Rick Goeltz; Janet L Hopson; Elzbieta Tworek

2007-01-01

415

TASK FORCE ON HIGHER EDUCATION AND THE ECONOMY TESTIMONY OF ROBERT A. ALTENKIRCH  

E-print Network

TASK FORCE ON HIGHER EDUCATION AND THE ECONOMY TESTIMONY OF ROBERT A. ALTENKIRCH PRESIDENT, NJIT Force on Higher Education and the Economy. New Jersey is home to three accomplished public research higher education, we now sit on the cusp of an important decision about whether our State's public

Bieber, Michael

416

China's Energy Economy: A Survey of the Literature by Hengyun Ma and Les Oxley  

E-print Network

1 China's Energy Economy: A Survey of the Literature by Hengyun Ma and Les Oxley No: 2/2009 #12;2 WORKING PAPER No. 2/2009 China's Energy Economy: A Survey of the Literature Hengyun Ma1,2 and Les Oxley1 February 16 2009 Abstract This paper reviews literature on China's energy economics, focusing especially on

Hickman, Mark

417

BA Political Economy Political Economy caters for students who wish to understand the  

E-print Network

BA Political Economy Political Economy caters for students who wish to understand the political, philosophical and social underpinnings of modern economies,andwhomayfeeluncomfortablewiththehighly mathematical to International Relations; Introduction to Political Economy; Problems of World History/End of Empire

Miall, Chris

418

Hydrogen Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 48 minute radio broadcast discusses how a switch between using fossil fuels - oil, coal, natural gas - with cleaner burning hydrogen might occur, thereby lowering production of the greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide) and stopping global warming. The show also considers a report published in the journal, Science, that says no new technology is needed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. There is discussion about what national policies could make a hydrogen economy a reality; which renewable energy technologies should be developed and invested in; how hydrogen will be generated and stored; and how best to build the infrastructure needed for a sustainable energy future.

419

Growing a market economy  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

1997-09-01

420

Recent development of Japanese economy and its impact on Japanese society  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japanese economy, which had suffered from a severe recession or almost zeros growth for over a decade, Japanese economy is now on track of its recovery. We will firstly examine factors behind the recovery, and secondly analyse its influences on Japanese society.

Hiromasa Kubo

2007-01-01

421

Beyond Oil and Radical Islam: From Classifications to Links of Economy and Religion in Central Asia  

E-print Network

Commanding Right and Forbidding Wrong? Islamic Elites, Business and the State in Tajikistan Lecture by TimBeyond Oil and Radical Islam: From Classifications to Links of Economy and Religion in Central Asia Tuesday, October 18th, 2011, 5 pm, ZMO Political Islam and Economy in Central Asia: Islamic Movements

Peters, Achim

422

Study of a Russian University's Organisational Culture in Transition from Planned to Market Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transition from a planned centralist economy to a market economy over the last decade of the 20th century has presented Russian universities with many profound challenges. These challenges require universities to review and consider their organisational culture and deserve careful study. This paper describes the changes that have taken place…

Pushnykh, Victor; Chemeris, Valeriy

2006-01-01

423

Effects of concurrent endurance and strength training on running economy and &OV0312;O2 kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

MILLET, G. P., B. JAOUEN, F. BORRANI, and R. CANDAU. Effects of concurrent endurance and strength training on running economy and VO2 kinetics. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 34, No. 8, pp. 1351-1359, 2002. Purpose: It has been suggested that endurance training influences the running economy (CR) and the oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics in heavy exercise by accelerating the primary

GREGOIRE P. MILLET; BERNARD JAOUEN; FABIO BORRANI; ROBIN CANDAU

2002-01-01

424

Education of Political Economy and Economic Thought in the Czech Lands in the First Half of the 19th Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of cameralism and the classical school of political economy was implemented on university premises in the Czech Lands as the education of Adam Smith was adopted. It was spread out by presentations of Wenzel Gustav Kopetz, the Professor of political economy at the University of Prague, and by professors of political economy at the Olomouc Lyceum (from 1827

Jaroslav Krameš

2010-01-01

425

Does a robotic scrub nurse improve economy of movements?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective: Robotic assistance during surgery has been shown to be a useful resource to both augment the surgical skills of the surgeon through tele-operation, and to assist the surgeon handling the surgical instruments to the surgeon, similar to a surgical tech. We evaluated the performance and effect of a gesture driven surgical robotic nurse in the context of economy of movements, during an abdominal incision and closure exercise with a simulator. Methods: A longitudinal midline incision (100 mm) was performed on the simulated abdominal wall to enter the peritoneal cavity without damaging the internal organs. The wound was then closed using a blunt needle ensuring that no tissue is caught up by the suture material. All the instruments required to complete this task were delivered by a robotic surgical manipulator directly to the surgeon. The instruments were requested through voice and gesture recognition. The robotic system used a low end range sensor camera to extract the hand poses and for recognizing the gestures. The instruments were delivered to the vicinity of the patient, at chest height and at a reachable distance to the surgeon. Task performance measures for each of three abdominal incision and closure exercises were measured and compared to a human scrub nurse instrument delivery action. Picking instrument position variance, completion time and trajectory of the hand were recorded for further analysis. Results: The variance of the position of the robotic tip when delivering the surgical instrument is compared to the same position when a human delivers the instrument. The variance was found to be 88.86% smaller compared to the human delivery group. The mean task completion time to complete the surgical exercise was 162.7+/- 10.1 secs for the human assistant and 191.6+/- 3.3 secs (P<.01) when using the robotic standard display group. Conclusion: Multimodal robotic scrub nurse assistant improves the surgical procedure by reducing the number of movements (lower variance in the picking position). The variance of the picking point is closely related to the concept of economy of movements in the operating room. Improving the effectiveness of the operating room can potentially enhance the safety of surgical interventions without affecting the performance time.

Wachs, Juan P.; Jacob, Mithun; Li, Yu-Ting; Akingba, George

2012-02-01

426

Emerging Digital Economy II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An update of the 1998 US Department of Commerce document Emerging Digital Economy (reviewed in the April 17, 1998 Scout Report), the second volume of this annual report shows that, although ecommerce remains less than one percent of the retail share of the economy, it continues to grow, "outpacing last year's most optimistic projections." New chapters and analyses include "Contribution of Information Technology to Gross Product Originating Per Worker" and "Labor Markets in the Digital Economy."

Buckley, Patricia.; Cooke, Sandra.; Dumagan, Jess.; Gill, Gurmukh.; Henry, David.; Pastore, Dennis.

427

Investigation of vehicle and driver aggressivity and relation to fuel economy testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As vehicle technologies continue to improve it is becoming more evident one of the last major factors impacting fuel economy left today is the driver. In this study the driver is defined as the operator of a vehicle and the difference between driving styles of the driver and vehicle is defined as aggressivity. Driver aggressivity is proven to have a substantial impact on fuel economy in many studies. Many fuel economy tests have been created, all to measure the fuel efficiency of today's vehicles and their related technologies. These tests typically require that the drivers be trained or experienced in fuel economy testing unless the impact of the driver on fuel economy is the variable being tested. It is also recommended, for certain tests, that the driver stay with the same vehicle for the tests entirety. Although these are the requirements, having the same trained drivers for the entirety of a fuel economy test may not always be a viable option. This leads to the question of, what impact can a set of drivers, who are asked to drive the same, have on fuel consumption during a fuel consumption test? The SAE J1321 Type II Fuel Consumption Test Procedure was followed on two identical trucks with two drivers that were untrained in fuel economy testing in order to answer this question. It was found in this particular study that the driver variability can impose up to a 10% fuel economy difference on shorter distance routes where the driver is kept the same. By increasing the distance of the route and swapping drivers variability in fuel economy reduced to 5%. It was shown by this particular test that the impact of the driver when asked to drive the same is minimal compared to real world results of up to 30%. A larger data set and more testing is still necessary to completely understand and validate the impact of the driver on fuel economy testing.

Stichter, Jonathan Seth

428

Role of sugar cane in Brazil's history and economy  

SciTech Connect

The history and evolution of the sugar-cane culture in Brazil is reviewed. An econometric model is constructed to explain the economic relationships of supply and demand of sugar, hydrous ethanol (ethyl alcohol), and anhydrous ethanol in Brazil overtime. Estimates of the parameters in the model are obtained using the methods of ordinary least squares and three stages least squares. Because the number of exogenous variables is larger than the number of observations, principal components of the exogenous variables is used. The model estimated using three stages least squares with seven principal components has the best performance among the alternatives considered. Using the estimated model, the level of a number of policy variables is determined in consistency with the objectives of ethanol production established by the Brazilian government for 1985. It is estimated that in 1985 the proportion of anhydrous ethanol added to gasoline must be 16.5%. Analysis of the net income accrued by producers and the government since the creation of the National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) in 1975 reveals that producers of sugar have been able to triple their net annual income. Independent producers of ethanol have also been able to accrue positive net results during this period. It is concluded that the Proalcool has been beneficial to the Brazilian economy, largely because of the savings in oil imports and the internal creation of jobs, while at the same time it has contributed to a superavit in the government's budget.

Nastari, P.M.

1983-01-01

429

New Economy Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New Economy Index is a series of indicators that are "gathered from existing public and private data, to illustrate fundamental structural changes in the US economy, to show what those changes mean in the lives of working Americans, and to measure the nation's progress in several key foundation areas for future economic growth." The data in this excellent resource are divided into three sections. What's New About the New Economy includes thirteen indications that show the uniqueness and structure of the new technology-based and innovation-based economy. The second section considers the ways in which the New Economy will affect the lives of American workers. Finally, the third section, Foundations for Future Growth, projects the future growth of technology in the US. The site also includes information about the data sources, endnotes, and several side articles. Although the New Economy Index was created in 1998, the information is still valid and useful.

430

Southwest Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dallas Federal Reserve Bank publishes Southwest Economy bimonthly; it covers "agriculture, banking, energy, high technology, manufacturing and international trade" in the Texas- New Mexico- Louisiana region.

1995-01-01

431

[From biodiversity to biodiversification: a new economy of nature?].  

PubMed

This paper explores the relations between economy and ecology in the last quarter of the 20th century with the example of biodiversity. From its definition in the 1980s, the concept of biodiversity responded not only to conservational concerns but also to hopes and demands of economic profitability. The paper argues that archival systems of inventorying and surveying nature, the biodiversity database and the biodiversity portfolio, changed the view on nature from a resource to an investment. The paper studies the alliances of ecologists and environmental economists in managing nature according to economic principles of successful asset management, "diversification", with the aim to distribute risk, minimize ecological loss and maximize overall ecosystem performance. Finally, the paper discusses the assumptions and the consequences of transferring principles from financial risk management to landscape management. How has the substitution of the existential values of nature by shareholder value affected the relations between ecology, environment, and ecosystem conservation? Who gains and who looses in exchanging natural capital and financial capital, yields, and profits? PMID:24988757

Höhler, Sabine

2014-03-01

432

The international political economy of food: a global crisis.  

PubMed

The largest gap between national regulation and transnational economic organization is in the agro-food sector. This gap is the legacy of the post-World War II food regime, whose implicit rules gave priority to national farm programs (including import controls and export subsidies); placed the United States at the center; generated chronic surpluses; and allowed international power to take the unusual form of subsidized exports of surplus commodities, particularly wheat. The author analyzes the emergence and contradictions of the postwar food regime as a tension between replication and integration of national agro-food sectors, often interpreted as "export of the U.S. model." By the early 1970s, replication led to international economic conflict, while transnational corporations found national regulatory frameworks to be obstacles to further integration of a potentially global agro-food sector. A new axis between Asian import countries and new agricultural countries, such as Brazil, has destabilized the Atlantic-centered food regime, without creating a new regime. Alternative future regime are identified, based on the shift from agriculture to food, employment, and land use as political issues: private global regulation or democratic regulation of nested, regional agro-food economies, federated at the international level. PMID:7591379

Friedmann, H

1995-01-01

433

An Assessment of the Economic Importance of the San Carlos Island Shrimp Processing Industry to the Lee County Economy  

E-print Network

to the Lee County Economy Chuck Adams, David Mulkey, and Alan Hodges Food and Resource Economics Department the shrimp processing industry on San Carlos Island contributes to the Lee County economy. Most of the shrimp of the revenues earned on a trip are spent within the Lee County economy. During seasons when shrimp landings

Florida, University of

434

The Restructuring of China's Higher Education: An Experience for Market Economy and Knowledge Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1990s, China's higher education has been under a profound process of restructuring, which involves not only higher education institutions but also the government at both the central and local levels as well as the whole of society. The restructuring is arguably the continuation of the adjustments that have been made since the founding of

Zhao, Jushan; Guo, Junying

2002-01-01

435

78 FR 46799 - Use of Market Economy Input Prices in Nonmarket Economy Proceedings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...seq.). List of Subjects in 19 CFR Part 351 Administrative practice and procedure, Antidumping, Business and industry, Cheese, Confidential business information, Countervailing duties, Freedom of information, Investigations, Reporting and...

2013-08-02

436

Environmental impacts of the emerging digital economy: the e-for-environment e-commerce?  

PubMed

The Internet-led digital economy is changing both the production and consumption patterns at the global scale. Although great potential exists to harness information technology in general and the Internet in particular and improve the environment, possible negative impacts of e-commerce on the environment should also be considered and dealt with. In this forum, we discuss both the potential positive and negative impacts of e-commerce. Drawing from insights gained from the complexity theory, we also delineate some broad contours for environmental policies in the information age. Given the paradoxical nature of technological innovations, we want to caution the scientific community and policymakers not to treat the Internet as the Holy Grail for environmental salvation. PMID:11815820

Sui, Daniel Z; Rejeski, David W

2002-02-01

437

19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.  

...for nonmarket economies will be applied. (b) Economic Comparability. In determining whether a country is at a level of...emphasis on per capita GDP as the measure of economic comparability. (c) Valuation of Factors of Production. For...

2014-04-01

438

19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for nonmarket economies will be applied. (b) Economic Comparability. In determining whether a country is at a level of...emphasis on per capita GDP as the measure of economic comparability. (c) Valuation of Factors of Production. For...

2010-04-01

439

The effects of a downhill running bout on running economy.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether downhill (DH) running (10-min @ 214.4 m·min(-1) and -10% grade) would elicit acute and delayed effects on running economy (RE) upon completion of DH running (RE2) and daily over 72 h (RE3, RE4, RE5). Fifteen runners (8 female, 7 male) completed the protocol. RE was measured during level running performed at 70% VO2peak. A baseline RE test (RE1) was used for comparison. Muscle soreness was significantly elevated at RE3 and RE4 vs. RE1. Oxygen uptake was significantly elevated at RE2 relative to RE3, RE4 and RE5 but was not different from RE1. Heart rate was similarly elevated at RE2. Measures of ankle, knee and hip joint angles at heel strike and toe off were not affected at any time-point in a subset of subjects (N = 6). A short DH running bout did not elicit significant delayed adverse effects on oxygen uptake or gait parameters relative to baseline. PMID:22742080

Braun, William A; Paulson, Sally

2012-07-01

440

Cost and Pecuniary Economies in Cotton Production and Marketing: A Study of Texas Southern High Plains Cotton Producers.  

E-print Network

P. Clarke, Director The Texas A&M University System, College Station, Texas CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Objectives 1 Cost of Production or Economies of Size Studies 2 ECONOMIES OF SIZE 3 Methodology 4 Study Area 4 Procedure 5 INPUT ECONOMIES... of Marketing Economies for Farm Structure 17 TOTAL BENEFITS BY FARM SIZE 17 CONCLUSIONS 19 REFERENCES SUMMARY In recent years, the "family farm" and its chances for survival has emerged as one of the major agricultural policy issues. The decline in farm...

Smith, E.G.; Richardson, J.W.; Knutson, R.D.

1984-01-01

441

Scaling analysis of stock markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we apply the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), local scaling detrended fluctuation analysis (LSDFA), and detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) to investigate correlations of several stock markets. DFA method is for the detection of long-range correlations used in time series. LSDFA method is to show more local properties by using local scale exponents. DCCA method is a developed method to quantify the cross-correlation of two non-stationary time series. We report the results of auto-correlation and cross-correlation behaviors in three western countries and three Chinese stock markets in periods 2004-2006 (before the global financial crisis), 2007-2009 (during the global financial crisis), and 2010-2012 (after the global financial crisis) by using DFA, LSDFA, and DCCA method. The findings are that correlations of stocks are influenced by the economic systems of different countries and the financial crisis. The results indicate that there are stronger auto-correlations in Chinese stocks than western stocks in any period and stronger auto-correlations after the global financial crisis for every stock except Shen Cheng; The LSDFA shows more comprehensive and detailed features than traditional DFA method and the integration of China and the world in economy after the global financial crisis; When it turns to cross-correlations, it shows different properties for six stock markets, while for three Chinese stocks, it reaches the weakest cross-correlations during the global financial crisis.

Bu, Luping; Shang, Pengjian

2014-06-01

442

Scaling analysis of stock markets.  

PubMed

In this paper, we apply the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), local scaling detrended fluctuation analysis (LSDFA), and detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) to investigate correlations of several stock markets. DFA method is for the detection of long-range correlations used in time series. LSDFA method is to show more local properties by using local scale exponents. DCCA method is a developed method to quantify the cross-correlation of two non-stationary time series. We report the results of auto-correlation and cross-correlation behaviors in three western countries and three Chinese stock markets in periods 2004-2006 (before the global financial crisis), 2007-2009 (during the global financial crisis), and 2010-2012 (after the global financial crisis) by using DFA, LSDFA, and DCCA method. The findings are that correlations of stocks are influenced by the economic systems of different countries and the financial crisis. The results indicate that there are stronger auto-correlations in Chinese stocks than western stocks in any period and stronger auto-correlations after the global financial crisis for every stock except Shen Cheng; The LSDFA shows more comprehensive and detailed features than traditional DFA method and the integration of China and the world in economy after the global financial crisis; When it turns to cross-correlations, it shows different properties for six stock markets, while for three Chinese stocks, it reaches the weakest cross-correlations during the global financial crisis. PMID:24985421

Bu, Luping; Shang, Pengjian

2014-06-01

443

Agents modeling agents in information economies  

SciTech Connect

Our goal is to design and build agents that act intelligently when placed in an agent-based information economy, where agents buy and sell services (e.g. thesaurus, search, task planning services, etc.). The economy we are working in is the University of Michigan Digital Library (UMDL), a large scale multidisciplinary effort to build an infrastructure for the delivery of library services. In contrast with a typical economy, an information economy deals in goods and services that are often derived from unique sources (authors, analysts, etc.), so that many goods and services are not interchangeable. Also, the cost of replicating and transporting goods is usually negligible, and the quality of goods and services is difficult to measure objectively: even two sources with essentially the same information might appeal to different audiences. Thus, each agent has its own assessment of the quality of goods and services delivered.

Vidal, J.M.; Durfee, E.H. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1996-12-31

444

Terms-of-Trade and Trade Balance: Some Empirical Evidence of Asian Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of terms-of-trade and oil price on trade balance in Asian economies. Generally, the results of the normalized cointegrating vectors show that the impact of terms-of-trade on trade balance is different across economies. An increase in oil price or permanent oil price will lead to a decrease in terms-of-trade while the impact of an increase in

Wong Hock Tsen

2009-01-01

445

40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2012-07-01

446

40 CFR 600.314-08 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2011-07-01

447

40 CFR 600.314-86 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2011-07-01

448

40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2013-07-01

449

40 CFR 600.314-01 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2011-07-01

450

The Grants Economy and Study of the American Family: A Possible Framework for TransDisciplinary Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use and allocation of family and societal resources are guided by market forces and the grants economy. This paper expands on the grants economy with special reference to the family. Examples of grants within families and between families and society are cited as well as the possible ramifications on the grants economy of cross-generational estrange ment and impeded communications, lengthened

Gordon E. Bivens

1976-01-01

451

EXTREME EVENTS: OBSERVATIONS, MODELING AND ECONOMICS, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Impacts of natural disasters on a dynamic economy  

E-print Network

of natural disasters on a dynamic economy Andreas Groth,1,2 Patrice Dumas,3,1 Michael Ghil,1,2,4 and St.S. economy, based on multivariate singular spectrum analysis. We analyze a total of nine aggregate indicators in a 52-year interval (1954­2005) and demonstrate that the be- havior of the U.S. economy changes

Ghil, Michael

452

Jobless Recovery: The New Economy? The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) Business Cycle Dating Committee called  

E-print Network

Jobless Recovery: The New Economy? The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) Business Cycle unemployment reflects the movements of the business cycle. When the economy booms, the labor markets heat up in the economy have seen few signs of recovery, until the recent October employment release. The October figure

Ahmad, Sajjad

453

Poverty Trap in a Tributary Mode of Production: The Peasant Economy of Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paradox of EthiopiaÕs agrarian economy is that, despite underwriting a world civilization, the transition to an industrial economy has eluded it. Using a model of AfroAsiatic tributarism, we attribute this outcome to endemic extractive contests between a predominantly landed peasantry and a titled, prebendary overlord class. The latterÕs strategy of political accumulation inevitably engendered immiserization of overlord and peasant

Berhanu Abegaz

2004-01-01

454

The deregulated global economy: women workers and strategies of resistance.  

PubMed

This article discusses the lack of input from women in international debates about the global economy. Women in the South are the most vulnerable to exploitation and most ignored in international discussions of how to protect fair labor standards. Restructuring has led to loss of secure jobs in the public sector and the expansion of female employment in low-paid, insecure, unskilled jobs. Businesses desire a cheap and flexible workforce. Declines in social services, the elimination of subsidies on basic goods, and the introduction of user fees puts pressure on women to supplement family income. A parallel outcome is reduced employment rights, neglect of health and safety standards, and increased disregard among women for their domestic responsibilities. There is a need for alternative models of development. The Self-Employed Women's Organization in India serves as a model for resisting exploitation among self-employed and home-based employees. Female industrial strikers are demanding attention to excessive hours of work, enforced overtime, bullying, and lack of sanitary and medical facilities. There is always fear that organized resistance will lead to industrial relocation or loss of jobs. The International Labor Organization has had a code for 20 years, but the threat of exposure to the press is sometimes more effective. There must be regulation throughout subcontracting chains of transnational companies. International alliances should revolve around issues/strategies identified by workers. International alliances are needed for influencing multinational companies and national governments and lobbying global economic and financial institutions. Standards that are included in social clause discussions are minimum requirements that do not address gender-specific issues. Women Working Worldwide is developing a position statement of social clauses that incorporates a women's perspective. PMID:12347718

Hale, A

1996-10-01

455

Exploration of sustainable development by applying green economy indicators.  

PubMed

Following the global trend of sustainable development, development of green economy is the best way of slowing the negative ecological and environmental impact. This research establishes the Taiwan's green economic indicators based on the ecological footprint and energy analysis. The results are as follows: Taiwan's ecological footprint in 2008 intensity index was at 4.364; ecological overshoot index was at 3.364, showing that Taiwan's ecological system is in overload state. Moreover, this study utilizes energy analysis model to study the sustainable development of Taiwan. Findings showed that total energy use in 2008 was 3.14 × 10(23) sej (solar energy joule, sej), energy of renewable resources was 1.30 × 10(22) sej, energy of nonrenewable resources was 2.26 × 10(23) sej, energy of products from renewable resources was 1.30 × 10(22)sej, energy of currency flow was 8.02 × 10(22) sej and energy of wastes flow was 6.55 × 10(22) sej. Taiwan's energy per capita and the utilization rate of energy is lower while the environmental loading rate is significantly higher comparing to some other countries. The foregoing findings indicate that Taiwan currently belongs to an economic development pattern based on high resource consumption. The economic development is mainly established on the exploitation and utilization of nonrenewable resources. Therefore, Taiwan should change the development pattern, regulate the industrial structure, promote the utilization rate of resources, develop green pollution-free products, and enhance the sustainable development of ecological economic system. PMID:21336490

Chen, Yungkun; Chen, Chia-Yon; Hsieh, Tsuifang

2011-11-01

456

DYNAMICS OF OPEN-ECONOMY BUSINESS-CYCLE MODELS: ROLE OF THE DISCOUNT FACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the dynamic implications of different preference formulations in open-economy business-cycle models with incomplete asset markets. In particular, we study two preference formulations: a time-separable preference formulation with a fixed discount factor, and a time-nonseparable preference structure with an endogenous discount factor. We analyze the moment implications of two versions of an otherwise identical open-economy model one with

Sunghyun Henry Kim; M. Ayhan Kose

2003-01-01

457

Table of Contents Page 2National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and Its Forecasted Impact on the Florida Economy  

E-print Network

Impact on the Florida Economy History and Evaluation of the Economic Impact of the Magnet Lab Forecasted Impact on the Florida Economy The National Science Foundation (NSF) awarded the National High generated by Magnet Lab activities across the broader statewide economy. Since 1990, the Magnet Lab has

Weston, Ken

458

40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2012-07-01

459

40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2013-07-01

460

40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

461

40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2012-07-01

462

40 CFR 600.206-86 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel, and electric vehicle...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

463

40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2013-07-01

464

40 CFR 600.206-93 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled, electric, alcohol...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

465

Lessons from the UK Know How Funds Initiative: Development of Peer Education for Business in Emergent Market Economies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship that has existed historically between industry and higher education in Western economies is currently being mirrored in the transforming economies of the former Soviet Union. These emerging market economies have been encouraged by their association with a now obsolete British Council awards scheme to study historical and current…

Morrison, A.

2003-01-01

466

The real new economy.  

PubMed

During the soar-and-swoon days of the late 1990s, many people believed that information technology, and the Internet in particular, were "changing everything" in business. A fundamental change did happen in the 1990s, but it was less about technology than about competition. Under director Diana Farrell, the McKinsey Global Institute has conducted an extensive study of productivity and its connection to corporate IT spending and use during that period. The study revealed that information technology is important--but not central--to the fate of industries and individual companies. So if information technology was not the primary factor in the productivity surge, what was? The study points to competition and innovation. In those industries that saw increases in competitive intensity, managers were forced to innovate aggressively to protect their revenues and profits. Those innovations--in products, business practices, and technology--led to the gains in productivity. In fact, a critical dynamic of the new economy--the real new economy--is the virtuous cycle of competition, innovation, and productivity growth. Managers can innovate in many ways, but during the 1990s, information technology was a particularly powerful tool, for three reasons: First, IT enabled the development of attractive new products and efficient new business processes. Second, it facilitated the rapid industrywide diffusion of innovations. And third, it exhibited strong scale economies--its benefits multiplied rapidly as its use expanded. This article reveals surprising data on how various industries in the United States and Europe were affected by competition, innovation, and information technology in the 1990s and offers insights about how managers can get more from their IT investments. PMID:14521102

Farrell, Diana

2003-10-01

467

The architecture of dependence : a digital entertainment entrepreneurship laboratory in the network economy  

E-print Network

The dual phenomena of the information revolution and the rise of the network economy presents an interesting challenge to the architect. Architecture must shift away from the design of singular buildings, and more towards ...

Tsai, Allen L. (Allen Lun), 1972-

1999-01-01

468

STATE OF THE BANGLADESH ECONOMY IN FY 2002-2003 - A MACROECONOMIC OVERVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the beginning of the fiscal year 2001-2002 (FY02), the Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD), in its annual Independent Review of Bangladesh's Development (IRBD), benchmarking the initial conditions of the economy observed that \\

Debapriya Bhattacharya

469

Techno economic systems and excessive consumption: a political economy of 'pathological' gambling.  

PubMed

This article argues that gambling is a paradigmatic form of consumption that captures the intensified logic at the heart of late modern capitalist societies. As well as a site of intensified consumption, it claims that gambling has also become the location of what has been described as a new form of 'social pathology' related to excess play. Drawing on Castells' (1996) notion of techno-economic systems, it explores the ways that intersections between technology, capital and states have generated the conditions for this situation, and critiques the unequal distribution of gambling environments that result. It argues that, while the products of these systems are consumed on a global scale, the risks associated with them tend to be articulated in bio-psychological discourses of 'pathology' which are typical of certain types of knowledge that have salience in neo-liberal societies, and which work to conceal wider structural relationships. We argue that a deeper understanding of the political and cultural economy of gambling environments is necessary, and provide a synoptic overview of the conditions upon which gambling expansion is based. This perspective highlights parallels with the wider global economy of finance capital, as well as the significance of intensified consumption, of which gambling is an exemplary instance. It also reveals the existence of a geo-political dispersal of 'harms', conceived as deteriorations of financial, temporal and social relationships, which disproportionately affect vulnerable social groups. From this, we urge an understanding of commercial gambling based on a critique of the wider social body of gambling environments within techno economic systems, rather than the (flawed) individual bodies within them. PMID:24320073

Reith, Gerda

2013-12-01

470

Political Economy As A Conceptual Framework For The Analysis Of School-University Cooperation  

E-print Network

This article presents a further explication of school-university cooperation, a subject initially addressed by these authors in the Summer, 1982 issue of this Journal. Political economy theory is used as a framework for ...

Mahlios, Marc C.; Carpenter, Robert L.

1982-01-01

471

Globalization, the New Economy, and the Commodification of Language and Identity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores ways in which the globalized new economy has resulted in the commodification of language and identity, sometimes separately, sometimes together. The article is based on recent ethnographic, sociolinguistic research in francophone areas of Canada. (Author/VWL)

Heller, Monica

2003-01-01

472

Governing urban land : the political economy of the ULCRA in Mumbai  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I look at the political economy of the Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation) Act (ULCRA) in Mumbai, India. Enacted in 1976, the stated aim of this legislation was to prevent speculation in the urban land ...

Siddiqi, Faizan Jawed

2013-01-01

473

Monuments for capital : the production of urban centralities for a global economy  

E-print Network

Keywords: Monument, CBD, Office tower, Podium, Global economy, China. The Central Business District (CBD) is the monument of the regional urban condition. A monument, which is expressive of financial competence and global ...

Ruthenberg, Yaacov Eyal

2013-01-01

474

The transformation of the Japanese commercial code and its impact on the Japanese economy  

E-print Network

The legal system is an essential basis of the society and economy of every country, and it changes continually in accordance with national social and economic situations. The Japanese Commercial Code is no exception. One ...

Yoshida, Toshihiro, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01

475

Thermodynamic accounting of ecosystem contribution to economic sectors with application to 1992 U.S. economy.  

PubMed

Incorporation of ecological considerations in decision-making is essential for sustainable development, but is hindered by inadequate appreciation of the role of ecosystems, and lack of scientifically rigorous techniques for including their contribution. This paper develops a novel thermodynamic accounting framework for including the contribution of natural capital via thermodynamic input-output analysis. This framework is applied to the 1992 US economy comprising 91 industry sectors, resulting in delineation of the myriad ways in which sectors of the US economy rely on ecosystem products and services. The contribution of ecosystems is represented via the concept of ecological cumulative exergy consumption (ECEC), which is related to emergy analysis but avoids any of its controversial assumptions and claims. The use of thermodynamics permits representation of all kinds of inputs and outputs in consistent units, facilitating the definition of aggregate metrics. Total ECEC requirement indicates the extent to which each economic sector relies directly and indirectly on ecological inputs. The ECEC/money ratio indicates the relative monetary versus ecological throughputs in each sector, and indicates the relationship between the thermodynamic work needed to produce a product or service and the corresponding economic activity. This ratio is found to decrease along economic supply chains, indicating industries that are higher up in the economic food chain price ecosystem contribution more than the basic infrastructure industries such as mining and manufacturing. The ratio of CEC with and without inclusion of ecosystems indicates the extent to which conventional thermoeconomic analysis underestimates the contribution of ecosystems. Such ratios, made available for the first time, provide unique insight into the importance of natural capital, and are especially useful in hybrid thermodynamic life cycle analysis of industrial systems. The approach, data compiled in this work, and the resulting insight provide a more ecologically conscious tool for environmental decision-making, and has potential applications at micro as well as macro scales. PMID:15487791

Ukidwe, Nandan U; Bakshi, Bhavik R

2004-09-15

476

The Intersectoral Linkage Effects in Turkish Economy: An Application of Static Leontief Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the leading activities of Turkish Economy whose changes in their structure of production, value-added and employment are interrelated with the other activities of the economy, are found by using the input-output model which is presented and called as an Application of the General Equilibrium Theory by Leontief. For this purpose; firstly theoretical foundations of the input-output model

Gülsün Gürkan Yay; Serkan Keçeli

2009-01-01

477

Evolution stages of oasis economy and its dependence on natural resources in Tarim River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines spatio-temporal characteristics of an oasis economy and its relationship with water and mineral resources\\u000a in the Tarim River Basin from 1965 to 2005. A spatial autocorrelation model, the center of gravity model, and index system\\u000a of the regional central city are used to probe the evolution laws of spatial structure of oasis economy. The study finds that:

Xuning Qiao; Degang Yang; Xinhuan Zhang

2009-01-01

478

Divorce Economy  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Is divorce good for the economy? Some market analysts in South Korea would answer with a resounding "geu rum yo!" That's "Yes!" in Korean. Korea's rapidly rising divorce rate seems to have softened the stigma attached...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2006-08-09

479

Distributional efiects of public education in an economy with public pensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Westudy,how the allocation of government,expenditures between two major outlays--education and,pay-as-you-go social security--affects human ,capital distribution in an ,economy ,with heterogeneous,agents. We consider an overlapping,generations economy,where the government maintains both programs, and allocates tax revenues to finance them. In our model, human capital is one ,of the factors of production. It is itself produced ,as a ,combined ,result of public

Gerhard Glomm; Michael Kaganovich

2003-01-01

480

Nitrogen use efficiency in the US economy: Towards mitigation of climate change impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen (N) interacts strongly with climate change in determining the severity and extent of many human health and environmental issues, such as eutrophication, poor air quality, and the maintenance of a secure food system. We were motivated by such N-climate interactions and their environmental impacts as part of a broader assessment of N in the continental United States. We here seek to identify and quantify inefficiencies associated with intentional N creation (i.e., creating synthetic N fertilizers and cultivating N-fixing legumes) among the major N-dependent sectors of the United States economy. We define efficiency of N use as the proportion N directly incorporated into food, fiber, biofuel, and industrial goods from the pool of intentionally created N. We are interested in whether reductions in N use could be achieved without changing the current functioning of the major N-dependent economic sectors. Our analysis points to substantial inefficiencies in N use at the national scale. A large percentage of the N applied as synthetic fertilizer and fixed by legumes annually fails to enter the United States food supply. Much of the unincorporated N enters air, land and water, where it can impact human health and ecosystems. The climate change forcing of N is uncertain, though it appears that the combined effects of intentionally and unintentionally created N on climate is roughly neutral in the United States (i.e., net effect of N-enhanced C storage, nitrous oxide emissions, N-based aerosols, and tropospheric ozone on climate forcing). Thus, it is reasonable to expect that improved efficiencies in N use would have minimal negative side effects on the United States economy, human health and the environment. We suggest that policies aimed at improving N-use efficiencies are an alternative to direct climate mitigation strategies in offsetting several impacts of climate change on human health and ecosystem functioning.

Houlton, B. Z.; Boyer, E. W.; Finzi, A. C.; Galloway, J. N.; Leach, A.; Liptzin, D.; Melillo, J. M.; Rosenstock, T.; Sobota, D. J.; Townsend, A. R.

2011-12-01

481

Vehicle fuel economy benefit and aftertreatment requirement of an HCCI-SI engine system  

E-print Network

This body of work dimensions the HCCI fuel economy benefits and required aftertreatment performance for compliance with emissions regulations in North America and Europe. The following parameters were identified as key ...

Hardy, AliciA Jillian Jackson, 1978-

2007-01-01

482

17.424 International Political Economy of Advanced Industrial Societies, Spring 2007  

E-print Network

This graduate class is designed as a PhD-level overview of international political economy (IPE), with an emphasis on the advanced industrial countries. The syllabus is divided into three sections: international trade; ...

Singer, David Andrew

483

The political economy of rural-urban conflict : lessons from West Africa & India  

E-print Network

This dissertation occupies the intersection between the fields of International Development, Political Economy, and Peace & Conflict Studies to examine how economic networks spanning the rural-urban divide condition conflict ...

McDougal, Topher L. (Topher Leinberger)

2011-01-01

484

Reaping Environmental Benefits of a Global Hydrogen Economy: How Large, Fow Soon, and at What Risks?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Western world has taken an aggressive posture to transition to a global hydrogen economy. While numerous technical challenges need to be addressed to achieve this it is timely to examine the environmental benefits and risks of this transition. Hydrogen provides an efficient energy carrier that promises to enhance urban and regional air quality that will benefit human health. It could also reduce risks of climate change if large-scale hydrogen production by renewable or nuclear energy sources becomes viable. While it is well known that the byproduct of energy produced from hydrogen is water vapor, it is not well known that the storage and transfer of hydrogen is inevitably accompanied by measurable leakage of hydrogen. Unintended consequences of hydrogen leakage include reduction in global oxidative capacity, changes in tropospheric ozone, and increase in stratospheric water that would exacerbate halogen induced ozone losses as well as impact the earth's radiation budget and climate. We construct plausible global hydrogen energy use and leak scenarios and assess their impacts using global 3-D simulations by the Model for Ozone And Related Trace species (MOZART). The hydrogen fluxes and photochemistry in our model successfully reproduce the contemporary hydrogen cycle as observed by a network of remote global stations. Our intent is to determine environmentally tolerable leak rates and also facilitate a gradual phasing in of a hydrogen economy over the next several decades as the elimination of the use of halocarbons gradually reduces halogen induced stratospheric ozone loss rates. We stress that the leak rates in global hydrogen infrastructure and the future evolution of microbial soil sink of hydrogen that determines its current lifetime (about 2 years) are principal sources of uncertainty in our assessment.

Dubey, M. K.; Horowitz, L. W.; Rahn, T. A.; Kinnison, D. E.

2004-12-01

485

Distributional Effects of Public Education in an Economy with Public Pensions &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study how the allocation of government expenditures between two major outlays—education and pay-as-you-go social security—affects human capital distribution in an economy with heterogeneous agents. We consider an overlapping generations economy where the government maintains both programs, and allocates tax revenues to finance them. In our model, human capital is one of the factors of production. It is itself produced

Gerhard Glomm; Michael Kaganovich

2003-01-01

486

The simulation and forecast of China education-economy system: Econometrics and system dynamics combining model  

Microsoft Academic Search

China education-economy system was analyzed by traditional region economic theory and complex social economic theory. The econometric equation of system elements interaction was built based on the Cobb-Douglas production function. The simulation model of China education-economy system was built by combining econometrics and system dynamics methods. The comparison with historical data proved the correctness of the model. The simulation indicates

Liang Zhang; Chunhong Zhu; Na Li

2010-01-01

487

The impact of institutional changes on corporate governance mechanisms in transition economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine how institutional changes affect corporate governance in transition economies. We develop a transition model that\\u000a specifies three stages of the transition process including the early, intermediate, and late. We develop a framework for assessing\\u000a the effectiveness of widely recognized corporate governance mechanisms (CGMs) in and across these stages. Our general proposition\\u000a is that as transition economies move from

Son A. Le; Mark J. Kroll; Bruce A. Walters

2010-01-01

488

Agglomeration Economies among High Technology Firms in Advanced Production Areas: The Case of Denver\\/Boulder  

Microsoft Academic Search

LYONS D. (1995) Agglomeration economies among high technology firms in advanced production areas: the case of Denver\\/Boulder, Reg. Studies29, 265–278. Research on the agglomeration economies generated by high technology industry has tended to focus on either core high technology areas or fabrication clusters. This paper directs attention to intermediate or advanced production areas through an investigation of the agglomeration advantages

Donald Lyons

1995-01-01

489

Higher Education and the Economy: A Survey of the Impacts on Pennsylvania's Economy of Its Colleges and Universities. Case Study Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economic impact of Pennsylvania colleges and universities on the community, region, and state and the immediate new economic return for public and private dollars were assessed. One study phase involved the collective impacts of all of the accredited 2- and 4-year degree-granting colleges and universities in Pennsylvania upon the total economy

Greenwood, Robert; And Others

490

The simulation of China education-economy system: a system dynamics model  

Microsoft Academic Search

China education-economy system is typical complex system. Both traditional region economic theory and complex social economic theory were used to analyze it. The econometric equation of system constituents' interactions was built based on the Cobb-Douglas production function. The integrated system model was built according to system dynamics. The simulation indicates that China education-economy system develops steadily in the next 10-15

Liang Zhang; Xuehua Zhang; Na Li

2010-01-01

491

State of the Art in Economics Education and Research in Transition Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the institutional capacity to create and evaluate economic policies remains a critical need—and constraint—in most transition economies if they are to complete the successful passage to fully functioning market economies. To take an active role in the transition process, economic policymakers, business leaders, government officials, and others need a thorough grounding in market-based economics. This requires strengthening

Boris Pleskovic; Anders Åslund; William Bader; Robert Campbell

2000-01-01

492

From Time Replacement to Gross Replacement: The Effect of Online Virtual Game on Real Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the activities in the online virtual world becoming more and more complex, online virtual world seems to have developing into a virtual economy. This article develops a gross replacement model to analyze the effect of online virtual activities on the macro-economy. We propose that virtual activities, which include in-world activities and inter-world activity, do generate economic value and affect

Hui Peng; Hong Wu

2009-01-01

493

Workforce Development in the Global Economy  

E-print Network

Workforce Development in the Global Economy: LINKING SKILLS AND CAPABILITIES Phil Psilos & Competitiveness Duke University INTRODUCTION NOVEMBER 2011 #12;Workforce Development in the Global Economy competitiveness, and innovation in the knowledge economy. Duke CGGC works with a network of researchers

Richardson, David

494

Types of Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Across the different sciences one of the common challenges that researchers encounter is defining and measuring different variables. An essential part of that process is creating and using scales. In this investigation, students learn about a range of dif

Taylor, Amy R.; Jones, M. G.; Falvo, Michael R.

2009-04-01

495

Insights on the Higher Education-Economy Relationship: Interviews with the Stakeholders. Higher Education and the Economy of the West. Working Paper #4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper, one of a series from the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education's (WICHE) project "Higher Education and the Economy of the West," presents a summary of interviews, conducted by the WICHE staff during the fall and winter of 1991-92 with 22 "Frontier Thinkers." Issues discussed included planning for the future, responding to…

Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO.

496

Education and Training for Development in East Asia: The Political Economy of Skill Formation in East Asian Newly Industrialised Economies. ESRC Pacific Asia Programme [Series].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a detailed analysis of the development of education and training systems in Asia and the relationship with the process of economic growth. Focus is on four impoverished agrarian economies--Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan--that were transformed in little more than a generation into East Asian "tigers":…

Ashton, David; Green, Francis; James, Donna; Sung, Johnny

497

Knowledge Economy and Research Innovation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "knowledge economy" has been received with considerable scepticism by scholars within the fields of political economy, social and political philosophy, and higher education. Key arguments within this literature are reviewed in this article to suggest that, despite policy claims, "knowledge economy" does not describe a "new" mode of economic…

Bastalich, Wendy

2010-01-01

498

Emergent Behavior in Information Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the dynamic behavior of information economies: verylarge open economies of automated information agents that will exist onthe Internet. Such large interacting systems are likely to exhibit emergentphenomena not straightforward to anticipate. We model a simpleinformation economy that revolves around economically-aware newsfilteringbrokers to whom consumers choose to subscribe. Our analysesand simulations reveal interesting emergent phenomena. One negativephenomenon we observe...

Jeffrey O. Kephart; James E. Hanson; Deffrey O. Levine; Benjamin N. Grosof; Jakka Sairamesh; Richard Segal; Steve R. White

1998-01-01

499

Study and application of evaluation method for harmonious development of economy-logistics system in port cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimization of economy-logistics system can create enormous economic benefit, which is a common problem in port cities. This paper puts forward a method to evaluate the harmonious status of economy-logistics system by means of factor analysis and fuzzy mathematics. Then the paper provides a case study of Dalian city. The results indicate that the harmonious development of economy-logistics system

Hang Chen; Weixin Luan; Yuewei Wang

2008-01-01

500

Predicting Individual Fuel Economy  

SciTech Connect

To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel economies based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel economy estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel economy data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel economy based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG. The EPA 2008 estimates appear to be equally inaccurate and substantially more biased relative to the self-reported data. Furthermore, the 2008 estimates exhibit an underestimation bias that increases with increasing fuel economy, suggesting that the new numbers will tend to underestimate the real-world benefits of fuel economy and emissions standards. By including several simple driver and vehicle attributes, the Individualized Model reduces the unexplained variance by over 55% and the standard error by 33% based on an independent test sample. The additional explanatory variables can be easily provided by the individuals.

Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

2011-01-01