Science.gov

Sample records for economies of scale

  1. ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND SCOPE IN WATER SUPPLY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the multiproduct nature of water supply relative to economies of scale and scope. he water utility is viewed as a multiproduct firm providing residential and nonresidential services with spatial variation. here are no significant economies of scale in the util...

  2. Economies of Scale and Scope in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, A. C.; Higgs, H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper estimates economies of scale and scope for 36 Australian universities using a multiple-input, multiple-output cost function over the period 1998-2006. The three inputs included in the analysis are full-time equivalent academic and non-academic staff and physical capital. The five outputs are undergraduate, postgraduate and PhD…

  3. DISCUSSION: ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND SCOPE IN AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH

    E-print Network

    Foltz, Jeremy D.

    DISCUSSION: ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND SCOPE IN AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH JEREMY D. FOLTZ Evolution in science such as recent develop- ments in agricultural biotechnology creates new challenges and the private sectors. The present exponential growth in agricul- tural biotechnology research in both the pub

  4. Economies of Scale and Cultural Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandy, Oscar H., Jr.

    This paper traces the development of federal regulations of the broadcast industry aimed at controlling the industry's monopoly abuses within the United States, and describes the development of the industry's major network domination of the media markets and audiences throughout the world. Suggested reasons for this transnational domination…

  5. Economies of Scale and Large Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Making classes larger saves money--and public universities across the country have found it a useful strategy to balance their budgets after decades of state funding cuts and increases to infrastructure costs. Where this author teaches, in the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences at California State University, Northridge (CSUN),…

  6. Economies of Scale and Cost-Quality Relationships in Elementary and Secondary Schools: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, D. A.

    Within the context of declining enrollment, this paper considers the questions of economies of scale, cost-quality interrelationships, and rigidities in the Ontario school system. From a survey of the pertinent literature, the author concludes that economies of scale are linked to the level, size, and pupil/teacher ratio of a school and operate…

  7. Economies of Scale and Scope in Network Industries: Lessons for the UK water and sewerage sectors

    E-print Network

    Pollitt, Michael G.; Steer, Steven J.

    Many studies of the water and sewerage industries place significant importance on the benefits of economies of scale and scope and how these relate to vertically integrated firms. We have re-examined the early literature on scale and scope economies...

  8. The Evolution of Economies of Scale Regarding Pollution Control: Cross-Sectional Evidence from a Transition Economy

    E-print Network

    Earnhart, Dietrich H.; Lizal, Lubomir

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses whether firms face economies and/or diseconomies of scale with respect to air pollution control by evaluating the effects of production on firm-level air emission levels. To achieve this objective, this paper uses an unbalanced...

  9. An empirical study of the economies of scale in AC transmission line construction costs

    E-print Network

    Baldick, Ross

    monopoly status of the electric transmission system as a natural monopoly. The purpose of this paper continued natural monopoly status. However, for nominal operating voltages above 200 kV, scale economies

  10. The Evolution of Economies of Scale Regarding Pollution Control: Cross-Sectional Evidence from a Transition Economy

    E-print Network

    Earnhart, Dietrich H.; Lizal, Lubomir

    2011-01-01

    on the level of air pollution emitted by large stationary sources. By estimating a separate set of production-related coefficients for each individual year of the sample period, the analysis permits economies/diseconomies of scale to vary over time, which... Institute maintains the REZZO-1 database, which records emissions for large, stationary sources. While the REZZO-1 database records emissions at individual units of individual facilities, the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute aggregates the air emissions...

  11. In Cloud, Can Scientific Communities Benefit from the Economies of Scale?

    E-print Network

    Shi, Weisong

    1 In Cloud, Can Scientific Communities Benefit from the Economies of Scale? Lei Wang, Jianfeng Zhan question to the success of cloud computing: in cloud, can small-to-medium scale scientific communities an innovative public cloud usage model for small-to-medium scale scientific communities to utilize elastic

  12. Issue in pollution control: interplant cost differences and economies of scale.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pittman, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Seeks evidence concerning the issues of the relative efficiencies of different institutional arrangements for pollution control and the implications of control requirements for economies of scale and barriers to entry. Data is derived from the estimation of a production function for 30 pulp and paper mills in Wisconsin and Michigan. Concludes that the systematic differences in marginal treatment costs for different mills are evidence of serious inefficiencies resulting from the current (US) system of pollution control regulation. The positive association of pollution control intensity with economies of scale suggests that any pollution control regime has some negative allocational effects in this industry (and presumably others). -K.Turner

  13. Multidimensional Scaling Analysis of the Dynamics of a Country Economy

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Maria Eugénia

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Portuguese short-run business cycles over the last 150 years and presents the multidimensional scaling (MDS) for visualizing the results. The analytical and numerical assessment of this long-run perspective reveals periods with close connections between the macroeconomic variables related to government accounts equilibrium, balance of payments equilibrium, and economic growth. The MDS method is adopted for a quantitative statistical analysis. In this way, similarity clusters of several historical periods emerge in the MDS maps, namely, in identifying similarities and dissimilarities that identify periods of prosperity and crises, growth, and stagnation. Such features are major aspects of collective national achievement, to which can be associated the impact of international problems such as the World Wars, the Great Depression, or the current global financial crisis, as well as national events in the context of broad political blueprints for the Portuguese society in the rising globalization process. PMID:24294132

  14. Multidimensional scaling analysis of the dynamics of a country economy.

    PubMed

    Tenreiro Machado, J A; Mata, Maria Eugénia

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Portuguese short-run business cycles over the last 150 years and presents the multidimensional scaling (MDS) for visualizing the results. The analytical and numerical assessment of this long-run perspective reveals periods with close connections between the macroeconomic variables related to government accounts equilibrium, balance of payments equilibrium, and economic growth. The MDS method is adopted for a quantitative statistical analysis. In this way, similarity clusters of several historical periods emerge in the MDS maps, namely, in identifying similarities and dissimilarities that identify periods of prosperity and crises, growth, and stagnation. Such features are major aspects of collective national achievement, to which can be associated the impact of international problems such as the World Wars, the Great Depression, or the current global financial crisis, as well as national events in the context of broad political blueprints for the Portuguese society in the rising globalization process. PMID:24294132

  15. Measuring the Informal Economy: A Validation Study of the Resource Generating Strategies Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyles, Loretta

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This article reports on the reliability and validity of a new instrument called the Resource Generating Strategies (RGS) Scale, which was created to measure participation in the informal economy. Method: Researchers interviewed 285 adult women who had received domestic violence services, were currently incarcerated, or were residing in…

  16. Potential Economies of Scale at the University of Bradford

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunworth, John; Bottomley, Anthony

    1974-01-01

    Applies output budgeting techniques to the "production" of graduates at a British University. The cost per student graduated in 18 different disciplines is first divided among (1) capital and maintenance costs, (2) teaching costs, and (3) administrative and general expenditures. The potential cost savings from more efficient utilization and…

  17. Economies of scale and asset values in power production

    SciTech Connect

    Considine, T.J.

    1999-12-01

    While innovative trading tools have become an increasingly important aspect of the electricity business, the future of any firm in the industry boils down to a basic bread and butter issue of generating power at competitive costs. While buying electricity from power pools at spot prices instead of generating power to service load may be profitable for some firms in the short run, the need to efficiently utilize existing plants in the long run remains. These competitive forces will force the closure of many inefficient plants. As firms close plants and re-evaluate their generating asset portfolios, the basic structure of the industry will change. This article presents some quantitative analysis that sheds light on this unfolding transformation.

  18. The Cost Function and Scale Economies in Academic Research Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lewis Guodo

    2002-01-01

    This empirical research examined scale economies of academic research libraries that belong to the Association of Research Libraries and developed a total cost function for estimating economies of scale. Argues that libraries are information provision organizations that provide multiproducts and multiservices and compares this study with previous…

  19. The Cost Function and Scale Economies in Academic Research Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lewis G.

    2003-01-01

    This empirical research examined scale economies of academic research libraries and developed a total cost function for estimating economies of scale. Suggests that libraries in general, and academic research libraries in particular, are information provision organizations that provide multiproducts and multiservices. Findings indicate that slight…

  20. Theory and evidence of economies of scale in the development of waste management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Shoou-Yuh; Rivera, A.L. . Dept. of Civil Engineering; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-01-01

    Waste is a cost of doing business. This cost can be considered in terms of the potential adverse health and environmental impacts, or the waste management costs associated with avoiding, minimizing, and controlling those impacts. There is an anticipated increase in the cost of waste management as a result of the increasing requirements for regulatory compliance. To meet the total waste management capacity needs of the organization and the compliance requirements, low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste management will need demonstrated technologies strategically managed as a technology portfolio. The role of the decision maker is to select the optimum mix of technologies and facilities to provide the waste management capacity needed for the next twenty years. The waste management system resulting from this mix includes multiple small-scale fixed facilities, large-scale centralized facilities, and waste management subcontracts. This study was conducted to examine the theory and evidence of economies of scale in the development of waste management systems as as exploratory research on the economic considerations in the process of technology selection and implementation. 25 refs., 24 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Reforming the wastewater treatment sector in Italy: Implications of plant size, structure, and scale economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraquelli, Giovanni; Giandrone, Roberto

    2003-10-01

    In the context of the restructuring of the water industry, this work examines the treatment processes of urban wastewaters in Italy, with reference to costs, size, and technology. The operating cost function of 103 plants confirms scope economies from vertical integration and strong economies of scale for the smaller structure, confirming the benefits coming from the aggregation of the existing little firms. A minimum efficient size at about 100,000 inhabitants, however, inhibits the creation of large monopolies at a local level and enables the maintenance of indirect competition. Among the explanatory variables of running costs, the pollution load of the input wastewater takes on a high statistical significance and suggests environmental prevention, while the strong impact of sludge concentration means it should be considered in the new tariff systems. The recent introduction of advanced treatments is expensive, but the costs are balanced by a notable improvement in the pureness of the effluent waters. As for general environmental policies, it is necessary to find a good compromise between the need to improve the effectiveness of the existing plants and the investments in areas where the water treatment service is still inexistent.

  2. In Cloud, Do Service Providers Benefit from the Economies of Scale?

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lei; Shi, Weisong; Liang, Yi; Yuan, Lin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we intend to answer one key question to the success of cloud computing: in cloud, do many task computing (MTC) or high throughput computing (HTC) service providers, which offer the corresponding computing service to end users, benefit from the economies of scale? Our research contributions are three-fold: first, we propose an innovative usage model, called dynamic service provision (DSP) model, for MTC or HTC service providers. In the DSP model, the resource provider provides the service of creating and managing runtime environments for MTC or HTC service providers, and consolidates heterogeneous MTC or HTC workloads on the cloud platform; second, according to the DSP model, we design and implement DawningCloud, which provides automatic management for heterogeneous workloads; third, a comprehensive evaluation of DawningCloud has been performed in an emulatation experiment. We found that for typical workloads, in comparison with the previous two cloud solutions, DawningCloud saves the resource c...

  3. Skills, division of labour and economies of scale among Amazonian hunters and South Indian honey collectors.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Paul L; Demps, Kathryn; Gurven, Michael; Gerkey, Drew; Kaplan, Hillard S

    2015-12-01

    In foraging and other productive activities, individuals make choices regarding whether and with whom to cooperate, and in what capacities. The size and composition of cooperative groups can be understood as a self-organized outcome of these choices, which are made under local ecological and social constraints. This article describes a theoretical framework for explaining the size and composition of foraging groups based on three principles: (i) the sexual division of labour; (ii) the intergenerational division of labour; and (iii) economies of scale in production. We test predictions from the theory with data from two field contexts: Tsimane' game hunters of lowland Bolivia, and Jenu Kuruba honey collectors of South India. In each case, we estimate the impacts of group size and individual group members' effort on group success. We characterize differences in the skill requirements of different foraging activities and show that individuals participate more frequently in activities in which they are more efficient. We evaluate returns to scale across different resource types and observe higher returns at larger group sizes in foraging activities (such as hunting large game) that benefit from coordinated and complementary roles. These results inform us that the foraging group size and composition are guided by the motivated choice of individuals on the basis of relative efficiency, benefits of cooperation, opportunity costs and other social considerations. PMID:26503681

  4. Scaling analysis of time series of daily prices from stock markets of transitional economies in the Western Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarvan, Darko; Stratimirovi?, Djordje; Blesi?, Suzana; Miljkovi?, Vladimir

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we have analyzed scaling properties of time series of stock market indices (SMIs) of developing economies of Western Balkans, and have compared the results we have obtained with the results from more developed economies. We have used three different techniques of data analysis to obtain and verify our findings: detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method, detrended moving average (DMA) method, and wavelet transformation (WT) analysis. We have found scaling behavior in all SMI data sets that we have analyzed. The scaling of our SMI series changes from long-range correlated to slightly anti-correlated behavior with the change in growth or maturity of the economy the stock market is embedded in. We also report the presence of effects of potential periodic-like influences on the SMI data that we have analyzed. One such influence is visible in all our SMI series, and appears at a period Tp ? 90 days. We propose that the existence of various periodic-like influences on SMI data may partially explain the observed difference in types of correlated behavior of corresponding scaling functions.

  5. The economic-wide consequences of large-scale floods. How resilient is the European economy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koks, Elco; Thissen, Mark; De Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    For a successful adaptation strategy, it is necessary to have an in-depth understanding of the economic consequences of a flood. To assess the economic consequences of large-scale river floods in Europe, we introduce an integrated direct and indirect risk model for the European economy as a whole. The proposed methodology consists of multiple steps. First, a direct loss assessment is conducted for the 50 largest river basin districts in Europe, based on simulated floods for several return periods. Second, the direct losses in capital and labour are translated into the loss in production per sector. Third, the recovery of this production shock is modelled using a hybrid interregional input-output model, combining non-linear programming and input-output modelling. This combination makes it possible to find (1) the possible production losses in the affected regions and other European regions, (2) the required production in Europe to satisfy additional reconstruction demands from the affected regions and (3) the required production in other regions that is necessary to take over lost production in the affected region. Consequently, when knowing how much production is lost (or gained) in each region, the economic consequences can be assessed. Finally, the model outcome is loss estimation expressed in terms of expected annual damage. To assess these consequences, interregional supply and use tables are used, consisting of 256 different European NUTS2 regions. This data makes it possible to model the indirect losses for both the affected regions and the rest of Europe in detail. By combining the outcomes of all floods in all the river basin districts, it is possible to determine the flood risk of each region in Europe, even when a region is not directly hit by a flood. Consequently, the overall consequences for the European Union are found to be positive for small-scale floods and negative for large-scale floods.

  6. Spending Changes and Scale Economies When School Districts Consolidate Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, Thomas Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Educational policy makers continue to promote non-instructional service consolidation as one method to reduce operating costs through "economies of scale". Unfortunately, there is essentially no empirical evidence on the size or source of cost savings associated with such measures. Using panel data from 2004-2010, this mixed methods…

  7. Scale-up of organic reactions in ball mills: process intensification with regard to energy efficiency and economy of scale.

    PubMed

    Stolle, Achim; Schmidt, Robert; Jacob, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    The scale-up of the Knoevenagel-condensation between vanillin and barbituric acid carried out in planetary ball mills is investigated from an engineering perspective. Generally, the reaction proceeded in the solid state without intermediate melting and afforded selectively only one product. The reaction has been used as a model to analyze the influence and relationship of different parameters related to operation in planetary ball mills. From the viewpoint of technological parameters the milling ball diameter, dMB, the filling degree with respect to the milling balls' packing, ?MB,packing, and the filling degree of the substrates with respect to the void volume of the milling balls' packing, ?GS, have been investigated at different reaction scales. It was found that milling balls with small dMB lead to higher yields within shorter reaction time, treaction, or lower rotation frequency, rpm. Thus, the lower limit is set considering the technology which is available for the separation of the milling balls from the product after the reaction. Regarding ?MB,packing, results indicate that the optimal value is roughly 50% of the total milling beakers' volume, VB,total, independent of the reaction scale or reaction conditions. Thus, 30% of VB,total are taken by the milling balls. Increase of the initial batch sizes changes ?GS significantly. However, within the investigated parameter range no negative influence on the yield was observed. Up to 50% of VB,total can be taken over by the substrates in addition to 30% for the total milling ball volume. Scale-up factors of 15 and 11 were realized considering the amount of substrates and the reactor volume, respectively. Beside technological parameters, variables which influence the process itself, treaction and rpm, were investigated also. Variation of those allowed to fine-tune the reaction conditions in order to maximize the yield and minimize the energy intensity. PMID:25406485

  8. The economies of synthesis†

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    In this tutorial review the economies of synthesis are analysed from both detailed and macroscopic perspectives, using case-studies from complex molecule synthesis. Atom, step, and redox economy are more than philosophical constructs, but rather guidelines, which enable the synthetic chemist to design and execute an efficient synthesis. Students entering the field of synthesis might find this tutorial helpful for understanding the subtle differences between these economic principles and also see real-world situations where such principles are put into practice. PMID:19847337

  9. Economy of Command

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medeiros, David Peter

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a principle of "economy of command", arguing that it provides a simple and natural explanation for some well-known properties of human language syntax. The focus is on the abstract combinatorial system that constructs the hierarchical structure of linguistic expressions, with long-distance dependencies…

  10. An economy of scales: A selective review of obesity's economic causes, consequences, and solutions.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John

    2015-09-01

    This paper reviews the economic research on obesity, covering topics such as the measurement of, and trends in, obesity, the economic causes of obesity (e.g. the monetary price and time cost of food, food assistance programs, income, education, macroeconomic conditions, and peer effects), and the economic consequences of obesity (e.g. lower wages, a lower probability of employment, and higher medical care costs). It also examines the extent to which obesity imposes negative externalities, and economic interventions that could potentially internalize such externalities, such as food taxes, subsidies for school-based physical activity programs, and financial rewards for weight loss. It discusses other economic rationales for government intervention with respect to obesity, such as imperfect information, time inconsistent preferences, and irrational behavior. It concludes by proposing a research agenda for the field. Overall, the evidence suggests that there is no single dominant economic cause of obesity; a wide variety of factors may contribute a modest amount to the risk. There is consistent evidence regarding the economic consequences of obesity, which are lower wages and higher medical care costs that impose negative externalities through health insurance. Studies of economic approaches to preventing obesity, such as menu labeling, taxes on energy-dense foods, and financial rewards for weight loss find only modest effects on weight and thus a range of policies may be necessary to have a substantial effect on the prevalence of obesity. PMID:26279519

  11. Ministry of Economy, Trade

    E-print Network

    Goda, Keisuke

    costs in Japan have negative impact on the competitiveness of energy intensive industries. Reducing Energy 2224% Nuclear 2220% LNG 27% Coal 26% Oil 3% Basic Direction 1) To improve the selfsufficiencyMinistry of Economy, Trade and Industry The nuclear power ratio in domestic power generation has

  12. Finding economies of scale and coordination of care along the continuum to achieve true system integration.

    PubMed

    Davies, Maura

    2014-01-01

    Is it time to reduce hospitals and replace them with digitally enabled distributed specialty service delivery channels that focus on ambulatory care, urgent care, and patient reactivation? Is delivery system integration immaterial if care is standardized and supported by integrated information systems? Maybe Lean methodology needs to be applied across the entire delivery systems, not just within its component functions and processes. Comments are offered on each of these perspectives. PMID:25671876

  13. Architecture of a prediction economy

    E-print Network

    Carver, Jason W

    2008-01-01

    A design and implementation of a Prediction Economy is presented and compared to alternative designs. A Prediction Economy is composed of prediction markets, market managers, information brokers and automated trading agents. ...

  14. Adaptation of Economy Attitude Scale to Turkish Culture: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alagoz, Bullent

    2015-01-01

    Economics affects us no matter what role we play in social life. Its foundation as a science was laid by the studies of Adam Smith, and since history it has become one of the disciplines accepted in university curriculums. Scarcity, opportunity costs and abandoning something in order to obtain another one are the core concepts of this discipline.…

  15. Political economy of oil

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, F.E.

    1980-01-01

    A nontechnical discussion of the political economy of the world oil market is intended to inform the beginning student as well as serve as a reference book. Beginning with definitions and an explanation of units, the text covers the world economy, oil supply, oil prices, oil consumption and non-oil energy materials supplies, oil companies, macroeconomics, and the market in an effort to relate both macro- and microeconomic phenomena. Professor Banks feels that population is the most crucial factor in economics today, followed by nonfuel minerals and energy; the technical problems pertaining to energy, however, can be managed if the first two are faced and dealt with. He thinks the outlook is good for replacing oil with other energy sources. 143 references, 23 figures, 26 tables. (DKC)

  16. Measuring Armenia's progress on the Tobacco Control Scale: an evaluation of tobacco control in an economy in transition, 2005–2009

    PubMed Central

    Movsisyan, Narine K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to measure the 5-year progress in the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Armenia by applying the Tobacco Control Scale, a rapid assessment tool developed to assess the strength of tobacco control policies in Europe. Setting Armenia, an economy in transition, has extreme smoking rates among men (62.5%) despite acceding to FCTC in 2004. However, little research has been carried out to evaluate Armenia's progress in tobacco control. Methods The Tobacco Control Scale total score was estimated for Armenia using the original methodology; however, a different source of data was used in estimating the subscores on tobacco price and tobacco control spending. Results Armenia's total score on Tobacco Control Scale has considerably improved from 2005 to 2009, mostly due to larger health warnings and advertising ban, and increased public spending on tobacco control. The scores for smoke-free public places, advertising ban, health warnings and treatment categories were below the European average in 2005 and 2007, while the price score was higher. Neither total tobacco control score nor any of its components showed a significant predictive value in a simple regression analysis using the total score and subscores as predictors for log-transformed per capita tobacco consumption. Conclusions Higher than the European average price score for Armenia cannot be explained by the concept of affordability alone and may reflect a measurement error due to peculiarities of transition economies. The applicability of the Tobacco Control Scale could be limited to countries with mature economies, but not to transition countries such as Armenia with different social, political and economic environment. The scale modification, such as an adjustment for the policy enforcement and the effectiveness of public tobacco control spending along with alternative measures of affordability would be warranted to enhance its applicability in low-income and middle-income countries. PMID:24578541

  17. Economies of Size in Production Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Economies of size refer to the ability of a farm to lower costs of production by increasing production. Agriculture production displays an L-shaped average cost curve where costs are lower initially but reach a point where no further gains are achieved. Spreading fixed costs, bulk purchases, and marketing power are cited as reasons for economies of size. Labor-reducing technologies may be the primary reason. Most studies do not include the external costs from prophylactic antibiotic use, impact on rural communities, and environmental damage associated with large-scale production. These can contribute to the economies of size. PMID:23144676

  18. The Economics of Rural and Urban Small-Scale Industries in Sierra Leone. African Rural Economy Paper No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liedholm, Carl; Chuta, Enyinna

    Small-scale industry in Sierra Leone, Africa was examined in terms of: labor intensity; output generated per unit of capital; generation of positive economic profits by small-scale industry groups/processes; and seasonal and locational variations. Key analytical issues were the nature of small-scale industry supply and demand processes. Data were…

  19. Three-scale input-output modeling for urban economy: Carbon emission by Beijing 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G. Q.; Guo, Shan; Shao, Ling; Li, J. S.; Chen, Zhan-Ming

    2013-09-01

    For urban economies, an ecological endowment embodiment analysis has to be supported by endowment intensities at both the international and domestic scales to reflect the international and domestic imports of increasing importance. A three-scale input-output modeling for an urban economy to give nine categories of embodiment fluxes is presented in this paper by a case study on the carbon dioxide emissions by the Beijing economy in 2007, based on the carbon intensities for the average world and national economies. The total direct emissions are estimated at 1.03E+08 t, in which 91.61% is energy-related emissions. By the modeling, emissions embodied in fixed capital formation amount to 7.20E+07 t, emissions embodied in household consumption are 1.58 times those in government consumption, and emissions in gross capital formation are 14.93% more than those in gross consumption. As a net exporter of carbon emissions, Beijing exports 5.21E+08 t carbon embodied in foreign imported commodities and 1.06E+08 t in domestic imported commodities, while emissions embodied in foreign and domestic imported commodities are 3.34E+07 and 1.75E+08 t respectively. The algorithm presented in this study is applicable to the embodiment analysis of other environmental resources for regional economies characteristic of multi-scales.

  20. The effectiveness of small scale Photovoltaic (PV) systems design and cost analysis simulation on Saudi Arabian Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almansour, Faris Abdullah

    The advantages of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) are much more than the disadvantages, RES such as solar, wind energy, biomass, and geothermal, which can be used for generating distributed power but cannot directly replace the existing electric energy grid technologies. The latter are far too well established to abandon, while the new RES technologies are not sufficiently developed to meet the total energy demand. Therefore, it is sensible to gradually infuse RES into existing grids and transform the system over time Saudi Arabia (SA) is a semi-developed nation with a population of over twenty nine million people. It is the largest country in western Asia with an area of 2.225MKm2. SA's largest export is oil, owning 1/5 of the world's supply, and producing twelve million barrels a day. However, SA is far behind in developing a smart grid and RES. A lot of this is to do with lack of participation by both the government and the private business sector. Currently SA spends over $13B a year on generating electricity from oil. SA is the largest consumer of petroleum in the Middle East, due to the high demand for transportation and electricity generation. According to the Saudi electrical company, the total amount of generated power in 2011 was 190.280GW. In addition, SA's electricity consumption is currently growing 8% a year. SA aims to generate 55GW of renewable energy by 2020, in order to free up fossil fuels for export. 41GW of the 55GW will be generated from solar energy. Smart grid technologies are also under consideration in SA; this will allow an efficient and reliable way to control the energy in the future. In addition, the potential for wind and geothermal energy is very high. In this thesis, there is a full exploration of RES components which are critical to manage carbon emission and the limitations of the current grid to the new RES technologies, which face barriers to full-scale deployment. A study in Dhahran, SA has been simulated on a installing a Dual-Tariff PV system using HOMER. The result of the simulation has been discussed, analyzed, and plotted. We also give evidence in the thesis how useful the small PV systems can be as oppose to the larger scale system that must deal with location issues.

  1. Murphy's Moral Economy of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Roger D.

    1996-01-01

    Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral Economy of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize labor. (MJP)

  2. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a) Vehicle...

  3. More Colleges Are Seeing the Virtues of Merging: Experts Predict a Wave of Consolidations, as Institutions Seek Economies of Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Werf, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Describes the recent trend toward collegiate mergers. Six mergers of higher education institutions were announced between November 200 and March 2001, with another three in negotiations. Mergers represent the last effort by an institution to salvage some of its identity before having to close completely, and many small schools are seeing the…

  4. Hydrodynamics from kinetic models of conservative economies

    E-print Network

    Düring, Bertram

    Hydrodynamics from kinetic models of conservative economies B. D¨uring G. Toscani Abstract of conservative economies, in which the density of wealth depends on additional parameters, like the propensity economy has often been faced by means of methods borrowed from the kinetic theory of rarefied gases [15

  5. Essays on Political Economy of Religion

    E-print Network

    Grigoriadis, Theocharis Nikolaou

    2012-01-01

    economy explanation of what Yiftachel Oren describes as fractured regions in Yiftachel Oren “Israel:economy and their commitment to collective welfare rather than optimal production may explain why IsraelIsrael. Government intervention is more intensive than in traditional welfare statist economies

  6. Economy of Yak Herders

    E-print Network

    Gyamtsho, Pema

    2000-01-01

    average precipitation excluding snowfall varies from 400 to 600 mm. Mean monthly temperatures vary between -8°C in January to 16°C in July. Population and Demographic Features The main villages and the number of households are shown in Table 2... 2924 * data collected in 1994 ** data collected in 1995 Table 8: Annual yak production schedule in Laya Activity Ja n Fe b Ma r Ap r Ma y Ju n Jul Au g Se p Oc t No v De c Herds moved to summer pastures...

  7. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...)(1) of this section for which a fuel economy value approved under 40 CFR part 600, does not exist... section for which a fuel economy value has been neither determined nor approved under 40 CFR part 600, the... subpart F of 40 CFR part 600. (c) Average fuel economy. Average fuel economy must be based upon...

  8. Towards the Political Economy of Pluriactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Terry

    1990-01-01

    Explores theoretical concerns of political economy approaches in agriculture and links these to farm pluriactivity. Focuses on relevance of debates concerning labor commoditization and uneven development, suggesting recognition of pluriactivity for broader understanding of political economy. Recommends broader approach for understanding economic…

  9. Networked incubators. Hothouses of the new economy.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M T; Chesbrough, H W; Nohria, N; Sull, D N

    2000-01-01

    Business incubators such as Hotbank, CMGI, and Idealab! are a booming industry. Offering office space, funding, and basic services to start-ups, these organizations have become the hottest way to nurture and grow fledgling businesses. But are incubators a fleeting phenomenon born of an overheated stock market, or are they an important and lasting way of creating value and wealth in the new economy? The authors argue that one type of incubator, called a networked incubator, represents a fundamentally new and enduring organizational model uniquely suited to growing businesses in the Internet economy. It shares certain features with other incubators--mainly, it fosters a spirit of entrepreneurship and offers economies of scale. But its key distinguishing feature is its ability to give start-ups preferential access to a network of potential partners. Such incubators institutionalize their networking--they have systems in place to encourage networking, helping start-ups, for example, to meet with potential business allies. That doesn't mean incubatees get preferential treatment; it means only that they have built-in access to partnerships that might not have existed without the incubator. Even with this advantage, however, networked incubators can easily follow the road to ruin. To avoid failure, they must create a portfolio of companies and advisers that their incubatees can leverage. That can be done by strategically investing in portfolio firms and by enlisting a large set of business allies. It can also be done by establishing connections and relationships that are anchored more to the incubator than to particular individuals. PMID:11143156

  10. A Caricature (Model) of the World Economy

    E-print Network

    Caballero, Ricardo

    2010-11-23

    This paper provides a stylized model of the workings of a global economy where one of its key driving factors is economic agents’ continuous struggle to find assets in which to park financial resources. This struggle ...

  11. Three Forms of the Knowledge Economy: Learning, Creativity and Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines and reviews three forms and associated discourses of the "knowledge economy": the "learning economy", based on the work of Bengt-Ake Lundvall; the "creative economy" based on the work of Charles Landry, John Howkins and Richard Florida; and the "open knowledge economy" based on the work of Yochai Benkler and others. Arguably,…

  12. How Small is Too Small? Scale Economies in Water Utilities

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    Richard Geddes, Susan Riha New York State Water Resources Institute and Dept of Policy Analysis & Management Cornell University NIWR Mid-Atlantic Water Conference September 25, 2014 New York State Water, Public Works Mgmt & Policy Local Gov Fed Gov State Gov Private Water main break in Cayuga St, Ithaca

  13. 78 FR 46799 - Use of Market Economy Input Prices in Nonmarket Economy Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Market Economy Input Prices in Nonmarket Economy Proceedings, 77 FR 38553 (June 28, 2012) (``Proposed..., 71 FR 61716 (October 19, 2006). \\3\\ See Countervailing Duty Investigation of Coated Free Sheet Paper... Republic of China; Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 63 FR 63834, 63838 (Nov....

  14. Indigenous Economies, Theories of Subsistence, and Women: Exploring the Social Economy Model for Indigenous Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuokkanen, Rauna

    2011-01-01

    The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…

  15. Aspects of the political economy of development and synthetic biology

    E-print Network

    Wellhausen, Rachel

    What implications might synthetic biology’s potential as a wholly new method of production have for the world economy, particularly developing countries? Theories of political economy predict that synthetic biology can ...

  16. Reconsidering an Economy of Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayanagi, Mitsutoshi

    2014-01-01

    This article has an overall aim as follows: to develop an alternative understanding to a narrow view of education, and in particular teacher training--preparatory and continuing--in terms of economy, as well as the competencies needed for the teaching profession. It takes the view that such an alternative is or could be found in the ideas put…

  17. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel cell vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2004-01-01

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  18. Estimating the Size and Impact of the Ecological Restoration Economy

    PubMed Central

    BenDor, Todd; Lester, T. William; Livengood, Avery; Davis, Adam; Yonavjak, Logan

    2015-01-01

    Domestic public debate continues over the economic impacts of environmental regulations that require environmental restoration. This debate has occurred in the absence of broad-scale empirical research on economic output and employment resulting from environmental restoration, restoration-related conservation, and mitigation actions — the activities that are part of what we term the “restoration economy.” In this article, we provide a high-level accounting of the size and scope of the restoration economy in terms of employment, value added, and overall economic output on a national scale. We conducted a national survey of businesses that participate in restoration work in order to estimate the total sales and number of jobs directly associated with the restoration economy, and to provide a profile of this nascent sector in terms of type of restoration work, industrial classification, workforce needs, and growth potential. We use survey results as inputs into a national input-output model (IMPLAN 3.1) in order to estimate the indirect and induced economic impacts of restoration activities. Based on this analysis we conclude that the domestic ecological restoration sector directly employs ~ 126,000 workers and generates ~ $9.5 billion in economic output (sales) annually. This activity supports an additional 95,000 jobs and $15 billion in economic output through indirect (business-to-business) linkages and increased household spending. PMID:26083034

  19. Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

  20. Perfect Competition and Competitive Equilibria in Economies of Indivisible Objects

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Daniel

    equilibrium, but that every such economy in which no trader exhibits complementarity does. The noPerfect Competition and Competitive Equilibria in Economies of Indivisible Objects Daniel Lehmann February, 2003, revised June 2003 Abstract It is shown that, in a pure exchange economy of indivisible

  1. Political economy of tobacco control in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chantornvong, S.; McCargo, D.

    2001-01-01

    Thailand has some of the world's strongest anti-tobacco legislation. This paper examines the political economy of tobacco control in Thailand, emphasising the identification of forces which have supported and opposed the passage of strong anti-tobacco measures. It argues that while a powerful tobacco control coalition was created in the late 1980s, the gains won by this coalition are now under threat from systematic attempts by transnational tobacco companies to strengthen their share of the Thai cigarette market. The possible privatisation of the Thailand Tobacco Monopoly could threaten the tobacco control cause, but the pro-control alliance is fighting back with a proposed Health Promotion Act which would challenge the tobacco industry with a hypothecated excise tax dedicated to health awareness campaigns.???Keywords: anti-tobacco legislation; political economy; Thailand; transnational tobacco companies PMID:11226361

  2. Analysis on Inclusion of Social Studies Economy Concepts in Coursebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seker, Mustafa; Osmanoglu, Ahmet Emin

    2015-01-01

    Having an efficient and satisfactory economy education may enable an individual to actively participate in decision making process about economy-related issues. This is very important for democratic societies. This research aims to search methods and levels of teaching "economy" concepts prepared for Turkey 2005 Social Studies Program in…

  3. The Initiation of Homeless Youth into the Street Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C.; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S.

    2009-01-01

    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…

  4. Characteristics of the Las Vegas/Clark County visitor economy

    SciTech Connect

    1988-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a review of the Clark County visitor economy and the Clark County visitor. The review, undertaken in support of NWPO`s two objectives mentioned above, addressed a number of topics including performance of the Clark County visitor economy as a generator of employment, earnings and tax base; importance of the Clark County visitor economy to the Nevada economy as a whole; elements of the Clark County visitor economy outside the Las Vegas strip and downtown areas; current trends in the Clark County visitor industry; and indirect economic effects of Clark County casino/hotel purchases.

  5. The emotional economy of housing 

    E-print Network

    Christie, H.; Smith, S.J.; Munro, M.

    2008-10-01

    This paper offers an interpretation of the role of emotions in animating housing markets which complements more traditional economic and behavioural studies of locally based house-price inflation. Looking to debates within ...

  6. The political economy of conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A political economic purview of energy conservation in the United States was delineated. The concepts of substitution and elasticity are distinguished, and further distinctions are made between short run price elasticity, cross price elasticity, and available fund elasticity. An assessment of the role which cost factors can play in conservation is given. The structure of the petroleum industry and foreign petroleum resources is discussed. Also discussed is the role of government, industry and the consumer with the economic sphere.

  7. Political economy of hospital financing.

    PubMed

    Breyer, F; Schneider, F

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we tried to explain the recent reform in the law of financing German hospitals. We first described five basic types of hospital payment systems which were available as alternatives to the decision on the reform in the early 1980s. In the next step we identified five concerned interest groups whose actions certainly had a great influence on the legislative process. We proposed a simple theoretical model to examine how these groups of actors evaluated the different payment systems. After deriving a preference ranking for each actor, we confronted these rankings with the respective revealed preferences, which could be inferred from their official statements towards the reform. It could also be shown that quite often the actual statements deviated strongly from the theoretically expected preferences because all groups were engaged in a highly interactive lobbying game. In the last step we compared these preferences to the actual outcome of the legislation and found that all groups have at least partly realized their targets. So in contrast to the typical results of interest group theory, the differences in bargaining power do to appear to have led to a solution which unambiguously benefits some groups of actors at the expense of others. It has to be repeated that the empirical analysis was limited to statements from the interest groups in the pre-legislative stage of the whole process. From this point the most promising procedure would appear to be the step-by-step analysis of the statements of the groups during the legislative process as well. This would give the researcher a chance to evaluate whether or not the theoretical hypotheses can be confirmed, whether or not our simple theoretical model is an appropriate way to understand the behavior of the affected groups and what was finally responsible for the outcome of the legislation. Therefore this paper should be seen as a first attempt to apply the framework of public choice theory to the field of health care financing and to demonstrate that much more research is needed. PMID:10151750

  8. The market economy of trips

    E-print Network

    Papanikolaou, Dimitrios, M.S. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    Mobility on Demand (MOD) systems allow users to pick-up and drop-off vehicles (bikes, automobiles) ubiquitously in a network of parking stations. Asymmetric demand patterns cause unbalanced fleet allocation decreasing level ...

  9. Professors of the New Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2000-01-01

    Profiles four professors who epitomize the increasing influence of academe on new technology-driven Internet business: a start-up maven, Steven Kaplan; a social psychologist, Michael Ray; a cyberlawyer, David Post; and an e-commerce expert, Andrew B. Whinston. (DB)

  10. Aspen: A microsimulation model of the economy

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.; Quint, T.; Arnold, T.

    1996-10-01

    This report presents, Aspen. Sandia National Laboratories is developing this new agent-based microeconomic simulation model of the U.S. economy. The model is notable because it allows a large number of individual economic agents to be modeled at a high level of detail and with a great degree of freedom. Some features of Aspen are (a) a sophisticated message-passing system that allows individual pairs of agents to communicate, (b) the use of genetic algorithms to simulate the learning of certain agents, and (c) a detailed financial sector that includes a banking system and a bond market. Results from runs of the model are also presented.

  11. Structure of the Texas Economy: Emphasis on Agriculture. 

    E-print Network

    Mustafa, Gholam; Jones, Lonnie L.

    1972-01-01

    . output model. The final payment sectors account for direct ply. ments for wages, salaries, other labor income, proprie- tor income, including profits, and payments made ' outside the State for goods and services imported. For this study, final... requirements for each sector of the economy. The specific objectives of the study were 1. To develop an input-output transaction matrix for the Texas economy. 2. To estimate direct and indirect interdepend- ence among the different sectors of the economy...

  12. Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place

    E-print Network

    Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place - Kingsland - Simon Milne is presented as a recently renewed, `vibrant suburb' These links are not currently working #12;Kingsland

  13. Economy of Scale in Multiserver Service Systems

    E-print Network

    Whitt, Ward

    = offered load = a/s = traffic intensity 6 #12;Erlang Loss Formula steady-state blocking probability B) , where B(0, a) = 1 and a = /µ. recursion for efficient computation 7 #12;Erlang Delay Formula steady-state) = B(s, a) 1 - + B(s, a) expected steady-state waiting time: EW(s, , µ) = C(s, a) 1 µ(1 - ) (Can start

  14. Statistical properties of stock market indices of different economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Boon Leong; Tan, Ying Oon

    2007-03-01

    Daily changes in the logarithm of stock market index from 1997 to 2004 are analyzed for countries from three subgroups of economies classified by the International Monetary Fund (IMF): developing Asian countries, newly industrialized Asian economies and major advanced economies. For all markets, the daily changes are well fitted by a non-Gaussian stable probability density. The time evolution of the standard deviation of the daily changes for each market obeys a power law. However, the developing Asian countries have the smallest stable density characteristic parameters ? and the largest exponents b of the power law, except China's SSEC and India's SENSEX. The values of ? and b for these two markets are closer to those of the newly industrialized Asian economies; in particular, those for China's SSEC are close to those for Hong Kong's HSI. The values of ? and b for the newly industrialized Asian economies are in between those for the developing Asian countries and major advanced economies, consistent with the results for generalized Hurst exponent [Physica A 324 (2003) 183]. The daily changes for the developing Asian countries and newly industrialized Asian economies have a weak long-range correlation, whereas the daily changes for the major advanced economies have a weak long-range anti-correlation.

  15. Political economy of tobacco control in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chantornvong, S; McCargo, D

    2001-03-01

    Thailand has some of the world's strongest anti-tobacco legislation. This paper examines the political economy of tobacco control in Thailand, emphasising the identification of forces which have supported and opposed the passage of strong anti-tobacco measures. It argues that while a powerful tobacco control coalition was created in the late 1980s, the gains won by this coalition are now under threat from systematic attempts by transnational tobacco companies to strengthen their share of the Thai cigarette market. The possible privatisation of the Thailand Tobacco Monopoly could threaten the tobacco control cause, but the pro-control alliance is fighting back with a proposed Health Promotion Act which would challenge the tobacco industry with a hypothecated excise tax dedicated to health awareness campaigns. PMID:11226361

  16. A Stay-Rich View of the New Global Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trusteeship, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Major demographic changes around the world. Disproportionate sovereign debt. A shift from North America, Western Europe, and Japan to emerging economies as centers of growth. Unprecedented levels of market risk and volatility. The structure of the global economy is undergoing significant changes. Michael Oyster, managing principal of Fund…

  17. Education, Globalisation and the Future of the Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Phillip; Lauder, Hugh; Ashton, David

    2008-01-01

    The dominant view today is of a global knowledge-based economy, driven by the application of new technologies, accelerating the shift to high-skilled, high-waged European economies. This view is reflected in the expansion of higher education and the key role of higher education in national and European economic policy. The Lisbon agenda seeks to…

  18. Models of the U.S. Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Samuel L.; Wright, Lawrence W.

    1977-01-01

    Ways are suggested in which economists and applied mathematicians construct and use models to study the economy. Several models are developed, each accompanied by a BASIC computer program to test its assumptions. (DT)

  19. DEPARTMENT of ANTHROPOLOGY CERTIFICATE IN ECONOMY AND CULTURE

    E-print Network

    Chen, Zhongping

    DEPARTMENT of ANTHROPOLOGY CERTIFICATE IN ECONOMY AND CULTURE The Certificate in Economy-capitalist economic practices, as well as anthropological approaches to contemporary capitalisms. The Certificate Origins of Global Interdependence 121A Kinship and Social Organization 125A Economic Anthropology 125B

  20. Universities' Entrepreneurial Performance: The Role of Agglomeration Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ping Penny

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the extensive research on universities' entrepreneurship, whether research strength fosters or dampens their entrepreneurial performance remains controversial. Much research claims an influential role of research universities in regional economy, however, little has been said about what a part that the agglomeration economies may play…

  1. STRUCTURE AND IMPLICATIONS OF MIGRATION IN A TRANSITIONAL ECONOMY

    E-print Network

    Bateman, Ian J.

    STRUCTURE AND IMPLICATIONS OF MIGRATION IN A TRANSITIONAL ECONOMY: BEYOND THE PLANNED IN A TRANSITIONAL ECONOMY: BEYOND THE PLANNED AND SPONTANEOUS DICHOTOMY IN VIETNAM by Heather Xiaoquan Zhang2 P perception is exhibited in the terms frequently adopted to analyse population movements, including

  2. Higher Skills and the Knowledge Economy: The Challenge of Offshoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, John; Gunn, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Recent economics literature on offshoring highlights the trend towards the relocation of high-skill jobs to emerging economies. This evolution presents a challenge to the established knowledge economy discourse on which the relationship between higher education, higher skills, higher productivity and higher incomes has been based. This paper…

  3. A proposal to extend our understanding of the global economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hough, Robbin R.; Ehlers, Manfred

    1991-01-01

    Satellites acquire information on a global and repetitive basis. They are thus ideal tools for use when global scale and analysis over time is required. Data from satellites comes in digital form which means that it is ideally suited for incorporation in digital data bases and that it can be evaluated using automated techniques. The development of a global multi-source data set which integrates digital information is proposed regarding some 15,000 major industrial sites worldwide with remotely sensed images of the sites. The resulting data set would provide the basis for a wide variety of studies of the global economy. The preliminary results give promise of a new class of global policy model which is far more detailed and helpful to local policy makers than its predecessors. The central thesis of this proposal is that major industrial sites can be identified and their utilization can be tracked with the aid of satellite images.

  4. The Impact of Credit on Village Economies

    E-print Network

    Townsend, Robert

    This paper evaluates the short- and longer term impact of Thailand's "Million Baht Village Fund" program, among the largest scale government microfinance iniatives in the world, using pre- and post-program panel data and ...

  5. The Political economy of world energy

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The continuous growth in global energy consumption has created international concern about the linkage between energy and socioeconomic development. Provoked by awareness of the potential effects of long-term growth in energy use on fuel availability, economics, geopolitics, and environmental quality, considerable scholarly attention has focused on assessing historical patterns as well as generating plausible estimates of alternative energy futures. While conservation projections to the middle of the next century suggest the existing developed countries will then be using about one-half of the world's energy with the US share declining to roughly one-sixth of the world's total, overall consumption is likely to increase due to population growth as well as economic modernization among the current set of developing countries. Not surprisingly, scenarios such as this raise the question of the social, political, and economic implications of varying energy supply systems. This book seeks to provide answers to that question by presenting a broad, historical analysis of the role played by changing energy management systems in the international political economy of this century. In the study, the author primarily concentrates on attempting to identify institutional factors and salient events shaping the politics and economics of global energy supply and utilization patterns from approximately 1900 to 1980. While the primary emphasis is on the Western industrialized countries and the less-developed countries (LDCs) which are energy-producing states, some attention also is devoted to the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and the energy-importing LDCs.

  6. [Ethical aspects of health care economy].

    PubMed

    Schreiner, P W

    2000-08-01

    One of the present-day problems which illustrates several ethical issues is the development of health care, generally referred to as health policy. For over 25 years there has been a debate relating to runaway costs in health care. This led to various retrenchment attempts which failed altogether and will probably continue to fail in the future unless there is a radical change in approaching the subject. Brief explanations regarding the economies of public health care will show that by means of this science statements concerning the consequences as regards costs and efficiency can be made, but the material organisation of a health care system remains somewhat vague. The same applies to ethics as a science. To be able to explain how a health care system can be organised, one has to take a stand based on the system of values relevant to the particular individual. Yet the question is not, whether a certain concept is right or good, but rather to what extent it is plausible. It can be illustrated that the case against restricting health services cannot be justified. Following this there will be a discussion as to who is actually authorized to enforce such restrictions in a society with competing value systems, and which criteria can be applied. Finally the author will try to conceptualize the situation, taking a stand based upon his own views and beliefs. PMID:11022569

  7. 40 CFR 600.510-08 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-08 Section 600...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model...

  8. 40 CFR 600.311-12 - Determination of values for fuel economy labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Determination of values for fuel economy labels. 600.311-12 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.311-12...

  9. 40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.210-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and...

  10. 40 CFR 600.510-86 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-86 Section 600...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model...

  11. 40 CFR 600.008-77 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related...

  12. 40 CFR 600.008-77 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and...

  13. 40 CFR 600.008-01 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related...

  14. 40 CFR 600.510-08 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-08 Section 600...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model...

  15. 40 CFR 600.311-12 - Determination of values for fuel economy labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Determination of values for fuel economy labels. 600.311-12 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.311-12...

  16. 40 CFR 600.311-12 - Determination of values for fuel economy labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Determination of values for fuel economy labels. 600.311-12 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.311-12...

  17. 40 CFR 600.209-95 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.209-95...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and...

  18. 40 CFR 600.008-01 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and...

  19. 40 CFR 600.510-86 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-86 Section 600...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model...

  20. 40 CFR 600.510-93 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-93 Section 600...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model...

  1. 40 CFR 600.510-93 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-93 Section 600...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model...

  2. The U.S. economy critically de-pends on a wide array of chemical

    E-print Network

    , electrici- ty generation, and a wide range of products and materials produced by the chemical industry. The industrial-scale, cost-effec- tive production of these chemicals using cheap and abundant nonfood biologicalThe U.S. economy critically de- pends on a wide array of chemical products, ranging from plastics

  3. The Economy Goes to College: The Hidden Promise of Higher Education in the Post-Industrial Service Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Rose, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This report explores the crucial transformation of the United States from an industrial to a post-industrial economy, with a particular focus on the shifting skill levels and incomes of American workers. It shows the increasing value of postsecondary education in today's economy and examines how workers have fared as the nation's focus has shifted…

  4. The Economic Impact of a Rural Higher Education Institution on the Local Economy and the Nonlocal Metropolitan Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Troy M.

    This case study examines the impacts of South Plains College (SPC) (Levelland, Texas) on the local rural economy of Hockley County in which it is situated, as well as on the economy of neighboring, more metropolitan Lubbock County. The study addressed both business volume and employment impacts. Direct business volume impact was derived from four…

  5. Heritage Modern: Cityscape of the Late Socialist Political Economy in Trinidad, Cuba

    E-print Network

    Tanaka, Maki

    2011-01-01

    Conservation in Trinidad grapple with the reformed economyConservation must stay afloat in the late socialist political economyConservation gets frustrated over the underperformance of their responsibility, while the socialist planned economy

  6. 40 CFR 600.510-08 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-08 Section 600...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

  7. 40 CFR 600.510-08 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-08 Section 600...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

  8. 40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.210-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  9. 40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.210-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  10. Child Care and the New Economy: Part I--Three Pillars of the New Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Late in 2008, when it was becoming apparent that the economic downturn was not a simple blip but a serious recession, Warren Buffet confidently predicted that the American economy would bounce back and be as strong as ever. However, he observed, "the economy that emerges will not be the same economy that entered the downturn." Since then, one…

  11. Method of predicting a change in an economy

    DOEpatents

    Pryor, Richard J (Albuquerque, NM); Basu, Nipa (Albany, NY)

    2006-01-10

    An economy whose activity is to be predicted comprises a plurality of decision makers. Decision makers include, for example, households, government, industry, and banks. The decision makers are represented by agents, where an agent can represent one or more decision makers. Each agent has decision rules that determine the agent's actions. Each agent can affect the economy by affecting variable conditions characteristic of the economy or the internal state of other agents. Agents can communicate actions through messages. On a multiprocessor computer, the agents can be assigned to processing elements.

  12. Effect Size and Moderators of Effects for Token Economy Interventions 

    E-print Network

    Soares, Denise

    2012-02-14

    -1 EFFECT SIZE AND MODERATORS OF EFFECTS FOR TOKEN ECONOMY INTERVENTIONS A Dissertation by DENISE A. SOARES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... AND MODERATORS OF EFFECTS FOR TOKEN ECONOMY INTERVENTIONS A Dissertation by DENISE A. SOARES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY...

  13. Supply chain practices in the context of an emerging economy

    E-print Network

    Bhaumik, Vijan

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of the BRIC economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China as a formidable economic powerhouse is turning into a reality. The center of the world's economic gravity is slowly shifting towards these emerging ...

  14. Stretched exponential distributions in nature and economy: ``fat tails'' with characteristic scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laherrère, J.; Sornette, D.

    1998-04-01

    To account quantitatively for many reported "natural" fat tail distributions in Nature and Economy, we propose the stretched exponential family as a complement to the often used power law distributions. It has many advantages, among which to be economical with only two adjustable parameters with clear physical interpretation. Furthermore, it derives from a simple and generic mechanism in terms of multiplicative processes. We show that stretched exponentials describe very well the distributions of radio and light emissions from galaxies, of US GOM OCS oilfield reserve sizes, of World, US and French agglomeration sizes, of country population sizes, of daily Forex US-Mark and Franc-Mark price variations, of Vostok (near the south pole) temperature variations over the last 400 000 years, of the Raup-Sepkoski's kill curve and of citations of the most cited physicists in the world. We also discuss its potential for the distribution of earthquake sizes and fault displacements. We suggest physical interpretations of the parameters and provide a short toolkit of the statistical properties of the stretched exponentials. We also provide a comparison with other distributions, such as the shifted linear fractal, the log-normal and the recently introduced parabolic fractal distributions.

  15. Ecological evaluation of Beijing economy based on emergy indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, M. M.; Zhou, J. B.; Chen, B.; Yang, Z. F.; Ji, X.; Zhang, L. X.; Chen, G. Q.

    2009-05-01

    An integrated ecological evaluation of the Beijing economy was presented in the paper based on the emergy accounting with the data in 2004. Through calculating environmental and economic inputs within and outside the Beijing economy, this paper discusses the Beijing's resource structure, economic situation and trade status based on a series of emergy indicators. Through the comparison of the systematic indicators of Beijing with those of the selected Chinese cities, the general status of the Beijing economy in China is identified. The results also show that most indicators of Beijing are located at middle levels among the selected Chinese cities. Particularly, the environmental impacts, expressed by the ratio of waste to the renewable emergy, and the ratio of waste to the total emergy use, are 84.2 and 0.26, respectively in Beijing in 2004, which indicate that the Beijing economy is greatly reliant on the imported intensive fuels, goods and services with high empower density and environmental loading.

  16. Globalization and the Future of the National Economy

    E-print Network

    Boyd, James Patrick

    2006-03-17

    Many observers are concerned that the growth of globalization will undermine and destroy national economies. For the past six years, Professor Suzanne Berger, the Raphael Dorman and Helen Starbuck Professor of Political ...

  17. The Political economy of environmental policy with overlapping generations

    E-print Network

    Karp, Larry; Rezai, Amon

    2012-01-01

    stock. The steady state stock level in the political economysteady state stock is about 2% higher than in the political economysteady state welfare gain is about 3%. A social planner For the purpose of comparing the political economy

  18. Vocational Preparation of The Hardcore Unemployed: The Token Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Jack; Turner, Walter L.

    1973-01-01

    This article describes a demonstration project designed to assist in the upgrading of job skills among hardcore, inner-city, underemployed clients. The token economy procedure is described and its use in the present study is detailed. (Author)

  19. The political economy of government interventions in financial crises

    E-print Network

    Foar??, Octavia Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Chapter 1 examines how political economy considerations affect the desirability of banking unions. It presents a model in which bank recapitalizations are carried out by rent-seeking policymakers. These policymakers face ...

  20. Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S.; Glaser, R.; Richardson, J.

    1997-01-01

    Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CAROB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4 %, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6 %. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CAROB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

  1. Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S., LLNL

    1997-01-01

    Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CARB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4%, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6%. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CARB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

  2. Environmental policy in transition economies : the effectiveness of pollution changes

    E-print Network

    Söderholm, Patrik

    1999-01-01

    Most economists and analysts claim that extended use of pollution charges in environmental policy will have substantial efficiency advantages in countries undergoing transition to market economies. Essentially this paper ...

  3. Use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy. One of the important requirements for Gen. IV High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGR) is passive safety. Currently all the HTGR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. [1] The decay heat first is transferred to core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. Similar concepts have been widely used in sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) designs, advanced light water reactors like AP1000. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area. RVACS tends to be less expensive. However, it limits the largest achievable power level for modular HTGRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface). When the relative decay heat removal capability is reduced, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annual designs with internal reflector can mitigate this effect therefore further increase the power. Another way to increase power is to increase power density. However, it is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides safety, HTGRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor designs. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of HTGRs. Forsberg [2] pointed out other disadvantages of using RVACS such as conflicting functional requirements for the reactor vessel and scaling distortion for integral effect test of the system performance. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume based passive decay removal system, call Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS has been widely used in SFR designs and in liquid salt cooled high temperature reactors. The containment cooling system in BWR is another example of volume based decay removal systems. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one in reactor side and another is in environment side. DRACS has the benefits of increasing the power as needed (scalability) and modularity. This paper introduces the concept of using DRACS to enhance HTGRs passive safety and economy.

  4. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in fuel economy with increasing restriction. However, the level of restriction required to cause a substantial (10-15%) decrease in fuel economy (such as that cited in the literature) was so severe that the vehicle was almost undrivable. Acceleration performance on all vehicles was improved with a clean air filter. Once it was determined how severe the restriction had to be to affect the carbureted vehicle fuel economy, the 2007 Buick Lucerne was retested in a similar manner. We were not able to achieve the level of restriction that was achieved with the 1972 Pontiac with the Lucerne. The Lucerne's air filter box would not hold the filter in place under such severe conditions. (It is believed that this testing exceeded the design limits of the air box.) Tests were conducted at a lower restriction level (although still considerably more severe than the initial clogged filter testing), allowing the air filter to stay seated in the air box, and no significant change was observed in the Lucerne's fuel economy or the AFR over the HFET cycle. Closed-loop control in modern fuel injected vehicle applications is sophisticated enough to keep a clogged air filter from affecting the vehicle fuel economy. However for older, open-loop, carbureted vehicles, a clogged air filter can affect the fuel economy. For the vehicle tested, the fuel economy with a new air filter improved as much as 14% over that with a severely clogged filter (in which the filter was so clogged that drivability was impacted). Under a more typical state of clog, the improvement with a new filter ranged from 2 to 6%.

  5. 19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... nonmarket economy countries. 351.408 Section 351.408 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... economy countries. (a) Introduction. In identifying dumping from a nonmarket economy country, the... production in a market economy country. (See section 773(c) of the Act.) This section clarifies when and...

  6. Dynamic systems of regional economy management optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, S.; Kudzh, S.

    One of the most actual problems of the Russian economic life is a regional economic systems formation. The hierarchy of economic and branch priorities should follow from the general idea of an industrial policy. The matter is that the concept of an industrial policy is defined by the system of priorities mainly incorporated in it. The problem of priorities is not solved yet neither on federal, nor at a regional level. It is necessary to recognize, that a substantiation of this or that variant of priorities - objectively a challenge. Such substantiation can be received with the help of dynamic structural modeling and management technology. At formation of the regional industrial policy program the special attention is given to creation of modern type commercial structures. In regions there are headquarters and branches of many largest corporations, holdings and banks. Besides it, many regional enterprises already became inter-regional or even the transnational companies. In this connection an assistance of transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups in vertically integrated companies and modern type holdings can become a prominent aspect of an industrial policy. Regional economic structures should be reconstructed gradually on the general model of the world class competitive companies. Assistance to creation of new corporational control systems, the organization of headquarters and the central services work - all this can be included into the sphere of regional administration industrial policy. The special attention should be turned on necessity of development of own system of the corporate structures, capable to provide to the region an independent participation in use of the natural resources and industrial-technological potential, at the stage of a regional industrial policy program formation. Transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups into modern type vertically-integrated companies and holdings can become one of the major directions of an industrial policy of region. The situational-analytical centers (SAC) of regional administration The major component of SAC is dynamic modeling, analysis, forecasting and optimization systems, based on modern intellectual information technologies. Spheres of SAC are not only financial streams management and investments optimization, but also strategic forecasting functions, which provide an optimum choice, "aiming", search of optimum ways of regional development and corresponding investments. It is expedient to consider an opportunity of formation of the uniform organizational-methodical center of an industrial policy of region. This organization can be directly connected to the scheduled-analytical services of the largest economic structures, local authorities, the ministries and departments. Such "direct communication" is capable to provide an effective regional development strategic management. Anyway, the output on foreign markets demands concentration of resources and support of authorities. Offered measures are capable to provide a necessary coordination of efforts of a various level economic structures. For maintenance of a regional industrial policy an attraction of all newest methods of strategic planning and management is necessary. Their activity should be constructed on the basis of modern approaches of economic systems management, cause the essence of an industrial policy is finally reduced to an effective regional and corporate economic activities control centers formation. Opportunities of optimum regional economy planning and management as uniform system Approaches to planning regional economic systems can be different. We will consider some most effective methods of planning and control over a regional facilities condition. All of them are compact and evident, that allows to put them into the group of average complexity technologies. At the decision of problems of a regional resource management is rather perspective the so-called "topographical" approach, which is used by intellectual information tec

  7. 40 CFR 600.008-08 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-General Provisions § 600.008-08... that model year; (iii) The fuel economy value of the FTP or HFET test is higher than expected based on... required before the 2011 model year. (c) Review of fuel economy data. (1) Fuel economy data must be...

  8. The Impact of Credit on Village Economies

    PubMed Central

    Kaboski, Joseph P.; Townsend, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the short-term impact of Thailand’s ‘Million Baht Village Fund’program, among the largest scale government microfinance iniative in the world, using pre- and post-program panel data and quasi-experimental cross-village variation in credit-per-household. We find that the village funds have increased total short-term credit, consumption, agricultural investment, income growth (from business and labor), but decreased overall asset growth. We also find a positive impact on wages, an important general equilibrium effect. The findings are broadly consistent qualitatively with models of credit-constrained household behavior and models of intermediation and growth. PMID:22844546

  9. 40 CFR 600.008-01 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-General Provisions § 600.008-01... percentage of the standards specified by the Administrator for that model year; (iii) The fuel economy value... Administrator for that model year; or (v) The fuel economy value is a potential fuel economy leader for a...

  10. Measuring flood footprint of a regional economy - A case study for the UK flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, D.

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of the urban economy and society is central to understanding the broad impacts of flooding and to identify cost-effective adaptation and mitigation measures. Assessments of the flooding impacts on cities have traditionally focused on the initial impact on people and assets. These initial estimates (so-called ';direct damage') are useful both in understanding the immediate implications of damage, and in marshalling the pools of capital and supplies required for re-building after an event. Since different economies as well as societies are coupled, especially under the current economic crisis, any small-scale damage may be multiplied and cascaded throughout wider economic systems and social networks. The direct and indirect damage is currently not evaluated well and could be captured by quantification of what we call the flood footprint. Flooding in one location can impact the whole UK economy. Neglecting these knock-on costs (i.e. the true footprint of the flood) means we might be ignoring the economic benefits and beneficiaries of flood risk management interventions. In 2007, for example, floods cost the economy about £3.2 bn directly, but the wider effect might actually add another 50% to 250% to that. Flood footprint is a measure of the exclusive total socioeconomic impact that is directly and indirectly caused by a flood event to the flooding region and wider economic systems and social networks. We adopt the UK 2012 flooding. An input-output basic dynamic inequalities (BDI) model is used to assess the impact of the floodings on the level of a Yorkshire economy, accounting for interactions between industries through demand and supply of intermediate consumption goods with a circular flow. After the disaster the economy will be unbalanced. The recovery process finishes when the economy is completely balance, i.e., when labour production capacity equals demands and production and all the variables reach pre-disaster levels. The analysis is carried out focusing on 42 sectors. Most regional data have been produced from the Multisectoral Dynamic Model of the UK economy. The flooding caused a 3.56% direct damage in the Yorkshire economy, while the indirect accounted for 14.58%.Utilities and transportation where the sectors that suffered the greatest direct impact. This impact indirectly transferred through business and supply chain to services, construction and primary industries.

  11. A REVIEW OF STUDIES OF ECONOMIES IN SCHOOLHOUSE CONSTRUCTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOHERTY, LEO D.; WHEATLEY, ARTRELLE

    ECONOMIES IN PLANNING AND DESIGNING BEGIN WITH THE WISE CHOICE OF AN ARCHITECT. COMPLETE INFORMATION ON BUILDING NEEDS, ENROLLMENT PROJECTIONS, AND PROGRAM MUST BE AVAILABLE. INCLUSION OF MULTIPLE-USE ROOMS, MINIMAL PERIMETER WALLS, LOWERED CEILINGS, MINIMAL WASTE SPACE, MINIMAL USE OF GLASS, AND USE OF STOCK PLANS ARE CONCEPTS WHICH CAN EFFECT…

  12. Economic Impact of Pharmacy Graduates on a Regional Economy

    PubMed Central

    Rosenman, Robert; Bozman, Carl S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the impact of recent pharmacy graduates on a local economy. Methods Input-output analysis was applied to data from Spokane County, Washington, in 2006 and the findings were reviewed and conclusions were drawn. Results The local college of pharmacy added nearly $1 million (in 2006) directly to the local economy. New pharmacists added nearly $400,000 in direct value. However, because the graduates alleviated a shortage of pharmacists in the area, thereby avoiding both the tangible and intangible (eg, human health) economic costs of a continued shortage, the true economic impact may have been even greater. Conclusions Doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) graduates entering the workforce add substantial value, both to the local retail pharmacy industry specifically and the local economy in general. Thus, the economic impact of the pharmacy practice program training these students is also substantial. PMID:19564989

  13. Distribution Of Wealth In A Network Model Of The Economy

    E-print Network

    Ma, Tao; Serota, R A

    2012-01-01

    We show, analytically and numerically, that wealth distribution in the Bouchaud-M\\'ezard network model of the economy is described by a three-parameter generalized inverse gamma distribution. In the mean-field limit of a network with any two agents linked, it reduces to the inverse gamma distribution.

  14. 17.100J / 14.781J / 15.678J Political Economy I: Theories of the State and the Economy, Fall 2005

    E-print Network

    Piore, Michael

    Political Economy I explores the major social science paradigms for analyzing relations among state, economy, and society. Through readings, lectures and discussion of original texts in political liberalism and individualism, ...

  15. Measuring Dynamic Patterns in the Structure of Substate Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHugh, Richard; And Others

    The objective of this study was to explore a new method of analyzing the performance of substate economies. Conventional analyses of economic diversity and growth are limited by their reliance on static measures of economic structure. Such measures do not capture the patterns of growth dynamics or structural change a region may be experiencing.…

  16. 15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300...FOREIGN TRADE BOARD REPORTS ON EXPORTS OF TECHNOLOGY § 1300.1 Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries....

  17. 15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300...FOREIGN TRADE BOARD REPORTS ON EXPORTS OF TECHNOLOGY § 1300.1 Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries....

  18. 15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300...FOREIGN TRADE BOARD REPORTS ON EXPORTS OF TECHNOLOGY § 1300.1 Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries....

  19. 15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300...FOREIGN TRADE BOARD REPORTS ON EXPORTS OF TECHNOLOGY § 1300.1 Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries....

  20. 15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300...FOREIGN TRADE BOARD REPORTS ON EXPORTS OF TECHNOLOGY § 1300.1 Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries....

  1. Impact of the Changing Farm Economy on Rural Communities. Evaluation of Interrelationships between Agriculture and the Economy of Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Notie H., Jr.; Jones, Lonnie L.

    A reduction in agricultural activity in a rural farming community will result in reduced activity in almost every sector of the local economy. The result may be measured in loss of employment and income. This report provides a method to estimate such economic impacts with a minimum of data collection and manipulation. Most of the input data…

  2. EMISSIONS AND FUEL ECONOMY OF FEDERAL ALTERNATIVELY FUELED FLEET VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents results from a study designed to investigate the effects of automobile fuels on emissions and fuel economy. The study is part of a larger program mandated by the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988 that requires the Department of Energy (DOE), in cooperation w...

  3. Work in Progress: Narratives of Aspiration from the New Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George

    2006-01-01

    Central to the discourses of the new economy is the model of the flexible, adaptive, ambitious and individualistic worker. This article considers the subjective purchase of that model by analysing interviews with three young women living and working in urban Australia. Their respective narratives of aspiration illustrate contrasting responses to…

  4. A Political Economy of University Funding: The English Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Murray

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the coalition United Kingdom government policy on university funding in England as a political economy. It depicts higher education as a public and private good in the context of international trends in "cost sharing" and it addresses the centrality of economic drivers for the profile and orientation of higher education,…

  5. Assessment of Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Economies

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

    2009-08-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the marginal lands in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies and evaluate their biomass productivity potential. Twelve categories of marginal lands are identified using the Global Agro-Ecological Zones system of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

  6. DRI Model of the U.S. Economy -- Model Documentation:

    EIA Publications

    1993-01-01

    Provides documentation on Data Resources, Inc., DRI Model of the U.S. Economy and the DRI Personal Computer Input/Output Model. It also describes the theoretical basis, structure and functions of both DRI models; and contains brief descriptions of the models and their equations.

  7. The Moral Economy of Violence in the US Inner City

    PubMed Central

    Karandinos, George; Hart, Laurie Kain; Castrillo, Fernando Montero; Bourgois, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    In an 8-week period, there were 16 shootings with three fatalities, three stabbings, and 14 additional “aggravated assaults” in the four square blocks surrounding our field site in the Puerto Rican corner of North Philadelphia. In the aftermath of the shoot-outs, the drug sellers operating on our block were forced to close down their operations by several mothers who repeatedly called the police. Drawing on the concept of moral economy (Thompson, Scott, Taussig), Mauss’s interpretation of gift exchange, and a political economy critique of hypercarceralization in the United States, we understand the high levels of US inner-city violence as operating within a moral logic framed by economic scarcity and hostile state relations. Residents seek security, self-respect, and profit in social networks that compel them to participate in solidary exchanges of assistive violence dynamized by kinship and gender obligations. A hierarchical, extractive drug economy fills the void left by deindustrialization, resulting in a dynamic of embodied primitive accumulation at the expense of addicted customers and chronically incarcerated just-in-time street sellers at high risk of assault. Nevertheless, the mobilization of violence organizing the illegal drug economy also follows ethical norms and obligations that are recognized as legitimate by many local residents. PMID:25067849

  8. Colleges Are Wary of Global Economy's Effect on Foreign Enrollments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Economists in both India and China see signs of slackening economic activity, from currency fluctuations in India to a falloff in imports, electricity consumption, and real-estate sales in China. A weakening of the economies in the two countries could be worrisome news for American colleges, for which an uptick in full-paying foreign students has…

  9. Controlling for Economy of Expression in Creativity Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, John F.

    1983-01-01

    Examined whether lengthy responses to the blank card reflect a contaminating factor such as glibness in creativity research. Two groups of college students completed the Remote Associates Test, Thematic Apperception Test, or Hand Test. Results suggested that blank cards among ambiguous stimuli evoke not glibness but economy of expression. (JAC)

  10. Contagion in an interacting economy Pierre Paga

    E-print Network

    Kühn, Reimer

    Contagion in an interacting economy Pierre Paga and Reimer K¨uhn Department of mathematics, King comparisons with simulations in the case of a scale-free graph. 1 Introduction Modern economies form complex network. The physical perspective spurred by the development of econophysics is some- what different

  11. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel-cell vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  12. Of energy and the economy : theory and evidence for their functional relationship

    E-print Network

    Chang, Vincent H. (Vincent Hua-Cheng)

    2007-01-01

    This paper offers a set of explicit functional relationships that link energy and the economy. Despite the reliance on energy permeating the whole economy, no such complete relationships had been presented before. How ...

  13. Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment Capabilities in APEC Economies

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P

    2008-11-01

    This survey of biomass resource assessments and assessment capabilities in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies considered various sources: academic and government publications, media reports, and personal communication with contacts in member economies.

  14. 40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy... been adjusted in accordance with the derived 5-cycle calculations in § 600.210-08. (c) If...

  15. 40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy... been adjusted in accordance with the derived 5-cycle calculations in § 600.210-08. (c) If...

  16. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year...

  17. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year...

  18. Underdeveloping Appalachia: Toward an environmental sociology of extractive economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wishart, William Ryan

    This dissertation uses mixed methods to examine the role of the coal industry in the reproduction of Central Appalachia as an internal periphery within the United States and the economic, ecological, and human inequalities this entails. It also analyzes the related political economy and power structure of coal in a national context. Particularly important for analysis of the region's underdevelopment are the class relations involved in unequal ecological exchange and the establishment of successive "modes of extraction." I employ a historical comparative analysis of Appalachia to evaluate Bunker's thesis that resource dependent peripheries often become locked into a "mode of extraction" (with aspects parallel to Marxist concepts of mode of production) triggering economic and ecological path dependencies leading to underdevelopment. This historical comparative analysis establishes the background for a closer examination of the political economy of the modern US coal industry. After sketching the changes in the structure of monopoly and competition in the coal industry I employ network analysis of the directorate interlocks of the top twenty coal firms in the US within the larger energy policy-planning network to examine their connections with key institutions of the policy formation network of think tanks and business groups. My findings show the importance of the capacities of fossil fuel fractions of the capitalist class in formulating energy policy around issues such as the 2009 climate legislation. As a contribution to the growing literature applying the concept of metabolism as link between contemporary and classical theory, I examine the conflict at Coal River Mountain from the vantage points of ecology, political economy, and human development in dialectical rotation. Utilizing Marx's method of successive abstractions, the mountain is presented as a nexus of metabolic rifts in the human relationship to the earth's natural systems and an impediment to genuine human development. Finally, I conclude with some implications of this analysis for building a critical environmental sociology of extractive economies. This dissertation includes previously published materials.

  19. Fuel Economy Improvement Potential of a Heavy Duty Truck using V2x Communication

    SciTech Connect

    LaClair, Tim J; Verma, Rajeev; Norris, Sarah; Cochran, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an intelligent driver assistance system to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty vehicles irrespective of the driving style of the driver. We specifically study the potential of V2I and V2V communications to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty trucks. Most ITS communications today are oriented towards vehicle safety, with communications strategies and hardware that tend to focus on low latency. This has resulted in technologies emerging with a relatively limited range for the communications. For fuel economy, it is expected that most benefits will be derived with greater communications distances, at the scale of many hundred meters or several kilometers, due to the large inertia of heavy duty vehicles. It may therefore be necessary to employ different communications strategies for ITS applications aimed at fuel economy and other environmental benefits than what is used for safety applications in order to achieve the greatest benefits.

  20. 40 CFR 600.510-93 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... meet the minimum driving range requirements established by the Secretary of Transportation (49 CFR part...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy... Manufacturer's Average Carbon-Related Exhaust Emissions § 600.510-93 Calculation of average fuel economy....

  1. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

  2. 40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  3. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

  4. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

  5. 40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  6. 40 CFR 600.510-86 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...)(1) and has two-wheel drive. (4) An average fuel economy calculation will be made for the category of light trucks which is defined in § 600.511(e)(1) and has four-wheel drive. (5) An average fuel economy...-wheel drive. (6) An average fuel economy calculation will be made for the category of light trucks...

  7. Economy class syndrome: still a recurrent complication of long journeys.

    PubMed

    Feltracco, Paolo; Barbieri, Stefania; Bertamini, Francesca; Michieletto, Elisa; Ori, Carlo

    2007-04-01

    Economy class syndrome is a rare but still unavoidable complication of long haul flights, particularly in patients who carry various intrinsic risk factors. The tendency to affect even asymptomatic young people and the greater risk to fragment and propagate to the pulmonary circulation are the main characteristics of deep vein thrombosis of long-flight travelers. We report the clinical history of eight patients admitted to intensive care unit for confirmed or highly suspected economy class syndrome. Seven of them developed the syndrome within 72 h from a long return flight, one suffered from pulmonary embolism after a 12-h car trip. Two out of eight patients died, one because of extremely severe hemodynamic impairment, the other as a consequence of multiple organ failure caused by a concomitant myocardial infarction. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism represent one of the main medical problems of air travel and cause almost 20% of deaths in people with no medical history. Although economy class syndrome occurs mostly in elderly, even the healthy young population can be affected and, in fact, three out of eight patients of our series were under 50 years of age. All our patients but one carried a well recognized risk factor for deep vein thrombosis. Clinical symptoms of deep vein thrombosis can sometimes be aspecific and confusing, so that a certain proportion of post-travel deep vein thrombosis, evolving favorably and not giving rise to pulmonary embolism, might effectively remain undiagnosed. Economy class syndrome is still quite difficult to deal with and controversial in terms of preventive strategies. PMID:17496687

  8. Quantum Mechanics and the Principle of Least Radix Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Morales, Vladimir

    2015-03-01

    A new variational method, the principle of least radix economy, is formulated. The mathematical and physical relevance of the radix economy, also called digit capacity, is established, showing how physical laws can be derived from this concept in a unified way. The principle reinterprets and generalizes the principle of least action yielding two classes of physical solutions: least action paths and quantum wavefunctions. A new physical foundation of the Hilbert space of quantum mechanics is then accomplished and it is used to derive the Schrödinger and Dirac equations and the breaking of the commutativity of spacetime geometry. The formulation provides an explanation of how determinism and random statistical behavior coexist in spacetime and a framework is developed that allows dynamical processes to be formulated in terms of chains of digits. These methods lead to a new (pre-geometrical) foundation for Lorentz transformations and special relativity. The Parker-Rhodes combinatorial hierarchy is encompassed within our approach and this leads to an estimate of the interaction strength of the electromagnetic and gravitational forces that agrees with the experimental values to an error of less than one thousandth. Finally, it is shown how the principle of least-radix economy naturally gives rise to Boltzmann's principle of classical statistical thermodynamics. A new expression for a general (path-dependent) nonequilibrium entropy is proposed satisfying the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

  9. Exploring neighborhood power production technologies and business models for developing economies

    E-print Network

    Adepetu, Adeyemi (Adeyemi Adetayo)

    2014-01-01

    A Neighborhood Power Producer business solution, which aggregates customers and therefore employs economies of scale, is one solution to the energy access issue of most developing economies. In this approach, entrepreneurs ...

  10. Development of a more market-oriented economy in china.

    PubMed

    Chow, G C

    1987-01-16

    Before 1978 in China, the economic institutions for agriculture and industry operated essentially under a centrally planned system. The reasons for a change toward a more market-oriented economy and the key elements of economic reform are discussed. Today the major issues being deliberated by the leading economic officials include reform of the price system, the administrative structure of state-owned enterprises, the banking system and macroeconomic control mechanisms, and foreign trade and investment. PMID:17750384

  11. Optimization of Driving Styles for Fuel Economy Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas; Aguilar, Juan P.

    2012-01-01

    Modern vehicles have sophisticated electronic control units, particularly to control engine operation with respect to a balance between fuel economy, emissions, and power. These control units are designed for specific driving conditions and testing. However, each individual driving style is different and rarely meets those driving conditions. In the research reported here we investigate those driving style factors that have a major impact on fuel economy. An optimization framework is proposed with the aim of optimizing driving styles with respect to these driving factors. A set of polynomial metamodels are constructed to reflect the responses produced by changes of the driving factors. Then we compare the optimized driving styles to the original ones and evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the optimization formulation.

  12. Documentation of the DRI Model of the US economy, December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-28

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) uses models of the US economy developed by Data Resources, Inc. (DRI) for conducting policy analyses, preparing forecasts for the Annual Energy Outlook, the Short-Term Energy Outlook, and related analyses in conjunction with EIA`s National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and its other energy market models. Both the DRI Model of the US Economy and the DRI Personal Computer Input-Output Model (PC-IO){sup 2} were developed and are maintained by DRI as proprietary models. This report provides documentation, as required by EIA standards for the use of proprietary models; describes the theoretical basis, structure and functions of both DRI models; and contains brief descriptions of the models and their equations. Appendix A describes how the two large-scale models documented here are used to support the macroeconomic and interindustry modeling associated with the National Energy Modeling System. Appendix B is an article by Stephen McNees of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston on ``How Large are Economic Forecast Errors.`` This article assesses the forecast accuracy of a number of economic forecasting models (groups) and is attached as an independent assessment of the forecast accuracy of the DRI Model of the US Economy.

  13. Introduction1 While in some areas of the world the economy is

    E-print Network

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    affects the global economy: the rich tends to become richer while the poorer unfortunately usually becomesIntroduction1 While in some areas of the world the economy is growing and the purchasing power developed economy, in which consumer have a rather strong purchasing power. The US, France and the UK

  14. 40 CFR 600.209-95 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.209-95...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  15. 40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.210-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  16. The Political Economy of Urban Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzman, Martin T.

    This work was intended as a contribution to the theory of the nonprofit organization, local public finance, and human resources. There is a discussion of approaches to evaluating school systems, the validity of any of which depends upon prior knowledge of the resource-performance relationship, or the educational production function. A case study…

  17. Fuel economy screening study of advanced automotive gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klann, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel economy potentials were calculated and compared among ten turbomachinery configurations. All gas turbine engines were evaluated with a continuously variable transmission in a 1978 compact car. A reference fuel economy was calculated for the car with its conventional spark ignition piston engine and three speed automatic transmission. Two promising engine/transmission combinations, using gasoline, had 55 to 60 percent gains over the reference fuel economy. Fuel economy sensitivities to engine design parameter changes were also calculated for these two combinations.

  18. Documenting the Birth of a Financial Economy

    E-print Network

    Suri, Tavneet

    The birth and explosive growth of mobile money in Kenya has provided economists with an opportunity to study the evolution and impact of a new financial system. Mobile money is an innovation that allows individuals to ...

  19. Derrida on Teaching: The Economy of Erasure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores Derrida's claim that teaching is a deconstructive process. In order to explore this claim, the Derridean concept of "erasure" is explored. Using the concept of erasure, this article examines two important aspects of teaching: the name that teachers establish for themselves, and, teaching against social power from a Derridean…

  20. The political economy of capitated managed care.

    PubMed

    Emery, D W; Fawson, C; Herzberg, R Q

    1997-03-01

    Despite the fact that billions of dollars are being invested in capitated managed care, it has yet to be subjected to the rigors of robust microeconomic modeling; hence, the seemingly intuitive assumptions driving managed care orthodoxy continue to gain acceptance with almost no theoretical examination or debate. The research in this paper finds the standard unidimensional model of risk generally used to analyze capitation--i.e., that risk is homogenous in nature, organizationally fungible, and linear in amplitude--to be inadequate. Therefore, the paper proposes to introduce a multidimensional model based on the assumption that phenomenologically unrelated species of risk result from non-homogenous types of socioeconomic activity in the medical marketplace. The multidimensional analysis proceeds to concentrate on two species of risk: probability risk and technical risk. A two-dimensional risk matrix reveals that capitation, far from being a market-oriented solution, actually prevents the formation of a dynamic price system necessary to optimize marketplace trades of medical goods and services. The analysis concludes that a universal attempt to purchase healthcare through capitation or any other insurance mechanism would render the reasonable attainment of social efficiency highly problematic. While in reality there are other identifiable species of risk (such as cost-utility risk), the analysis proceeds to hypothesize what a market-oriented managed care approach might look like within a two-dimensional risk matrix. PMID:10169519

  1. Political economy of the US oil industry

    SciTech Connect

    Isser, S.N.

    1989-01-01

    The political struggles over oil policy in the 1950s were contests between narrow economic interest groups to collect economic rents, as would be expected if government is considered to be just another forum for rent seeking behavior, with government intervention accepted as a norm. Conversely, the attempt to obtain decontrol of natural gas production during this period, during which consumer interests and pro-market ideology were important factors, presaged the oil politics of the 1970s. The significant impact of consumer interests on oil policy contradicts the expectations of public choice theorists that consumers will be disadvantaged in contests with well organized and wealthy interest groups. The ability of latent interest groups to influence policy when represented by politicians and private actors acting as political entrepreneurs was demonstrated during the 1970s as they dominated oil politics. Substantial economic rents, generated by the OPEC price increases, were transferred to consumers and refiners, while tax break were eliminated despite the economic resources available to producers. The pattern of distribution of those economic rents, as well as various tax breaks and exemptions from controls, was skewed toward small producers and refiners, reflecting a traditional ideological prejudice against big business. Econometric analysis revealed that ideology, party and oil production by constituents were the most important influences on congressional voting.

  2. The political economy of climate adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Linnér, Björn-Ola; Goodsite, Michael E.

    2015-07-01

    Initiatives to adapt to the effects of climate change are growing in number but may fail to achieve the desired outcomes unless critical competing interests are taken into account during the planning process.

  3. Future of Liquid Biofuels for APEC Economies

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

    2008-05-01

    This project was initiated by APEC Energy Working Group (EWG) to maximize the energy sector's contribution to the region's economic and social well-being through activities in five areas of strategic importance including liquid biofuels production and development.

  4. Documenting the birth of a financial economy

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Tavneet; Jack, William; Stoker, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    The birth and explosive growth of mobile money in Kenya has provided economists with an opportunity to study the evolution and impact of a new financial system. Mobile money is an innovation that allows individuals to store, send, and receive money on their mobile phone via text message. This system has opened up basic financial services to many who were previously excluded, and has had real and measurable impacts on the ability of households to protect themselves against health risks. Using a unique survey instrument covering nearly 2,300 households over 2008–2010, we first document the lightning-fast adoption of mobile money in Kenya, which was faster than most documented modern technologies in the United States. We then present evidence on how this innovation allows households to respond better to unexpected adverse health events. We find that in the face of these events, users of mobile money are better able to tap into remittances to finance additional health care costs without having to forego necessary expenditures on education, food, and other consumption needs. PMID:22689945

  5. The effects of trypanosomiasis on rural economy*

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, S. G.; Morris, K. R. S.; Lewis, I. J.; Krog, E.

    1963-01-01

    Trypanosomiasis, both of humans and of livestock, is one of the most important factors restricting economic development in Africa today. The present paper outlines how this disease is limiting agricultural, veterinary and forestry development in the Sudan, Bechuanaland and West Africa. The present tsetse-fly distribution is reviewed. Glossina palpalis and G. morsitans occur in the south Sudan and G. morsitans in the Ngamiland district of Bechuanaland; G. morsitans, G. palpalis and G. tachinoides are the most important species in West Africa. These tsetse flies have altered the cattle distribution in all three regions and, in addition to causing widespread disease, have created local overstocking problems in the tsetse-free grazing areas, and have enforced nomadism on breeding herds and economic loss in slaughter cattle along the trade cattle routes in West Africa. Human trypanosomiasis is not now such an urgent problem and public health measures have led to its control in all three areas. Increased agricultural development, which can be a successful and economic method of reclaiming land from tsetse flies, must be intensified in all three areas. Forest conservation policy comes into conflict with tsetse control measures only in West Africa. Detailed tsetse-fly surveys and research, on which future plans can be firmly based, are now urgently required. ImagesFIG. 6 PMID:14001093

  6. The political economy of nuclear restraint

    SciTech Connect

    Solingen, E.

    1994-12-31

    The author examines the economic component of domestic liberalization in different regional contexts in order to get closer to identifying an important engine of regime creation. In particular, ruling coalitions pursuing economic liberalization seem more likely to embrace regional nuclear regimes than their inward-looking, nationalist, and radical-confessional counterparts. The author suggests an alternate interpretation for why different states choose different portfolios to cope with their respective security concerns. The emphasis is more on explaining a favorable disposition to enter regime-like arrangements in nuclear matters than on listing incentives to procure nuclear weapons. The argument is relevant only to would-be or second-tier nuclear powers.

  7. Overall Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that they provide. So, to project employment, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) starts by projecting the gross domestic product (GDP) for 2018. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the…

  8. Overall Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that these workers provide. So, to project employment, BLS starts by estimating the components of gross domestic product (GDP) for 2020. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the size--in…

  9. The Physical Economy of the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Gierlinger, Sylvia; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2012-06-01

    The United States is not only the world's largest economy, but it is also one of the world's largest consumers of natural resources. The country, which is inhabited by some 5% of the world's population, uses roughly one-fifth of the global primary energy supply and 15% of all extracted materials. This article explores long-term trends and patterns of material use in the United States. Based on a material flow account (MFA) that is fully consistent with current standards of economy-wide MFAs and covers domestic extraction, imports, and exports of materials for a 135-year period, we investigated the evolution of the U.S. industrial metabolism. This process was characterized by an 18-fold increase in material consumption, a multiplication of material use per capita, and a shift from renewable biomass toward mineral and fossil resources. In spite of considerable improvements in material intensity, no dematerialization has happened so far; in contrast to other high-income countries, material use has not stabilized since the 1970s, but has continued to grow. This article compares patterns and trends of material use in the United States with those in Japan and the United Kingdom and discusses the factors underlying the disproportionately high level of U.S. per capita resource consumption. PMID:24436632

  10. The Physical Economy of the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    Gierlinger, Sylvia; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2012-01-01

    The United States is not only the world's largest economy, but it is also one of the world's largest consumers of natural resources. The country, which is inhabited by some 5% of the world's population, uses roughly one-fifth of the global primary energy supply and 15% of all extracted materials. This article explores long-term trends and patterns of material use in the United States. Based on a material flow account (MFA) that is fully consistent with current standards of economy-wide MFAs and covers domestic extraction, imports, and exports of materials for a 135-year period, we investigated the evolution of the U.S. industrial metabolism. This process was characterized by an 18-fold increase in material consumption, a multiplication of material use per capita, and a shift from renewable biomass toward mineral and fossil resources. In spite of considerable improvements in material intensity, no dematerialization has happened so far; in contrast to other high-income countries, material use has not stabilized since the 1970s, but has continued to grow. This article compares patterns and trends of material use in the United States with those in Japan and the United Kingdom and discusses the factors underlying the disproportionately high level of U.S. per capita resource consumption. PMID:24436632

  11. The Higher Education-Economy Tie: A Sampling of Exemplary Programs in the West. Higher Education and the Economy of the West. Working Paper #3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO.

    This paper, one of a series from the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education's project "Higher Education and the Economy of the West," describes 31 programs in 16 western states that illustrates higher education's contribution to the economy. Four school-university partnerships are described: the Pueblo School District 60/University of

  12. 40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08 Section 600.209-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF... Calculating Fuel Economy Values § 600.209-08 Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for...

  13. Spark-Timing Control Based on Correlation of Maximum-Economy Spark Timing, Flame-front Travel, and Cylinder-Pressure Rise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Harvey A; Heinicke, Orville H; Haynie, William H

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on a full-scale air-cooled cylinder in order to establish an effective means of maintaining maximum-economy spark timing with varying engine operating conditions. Variable fuel-air-ratio runs were conducted in which relations were determined between the spark travel, and cylinder-pressure rise. An instrument for controlling spark timing was developed that automatically maintained maximum-economy spark timing with varying engine operating conditions. The instrument also indicated the occurrence of preignition.

  14. Since 1975, the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks has been regulated by the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards,

    E-print Network

    Since 1975, the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks has been regulated by the corporate in vehicle weight and correlated the decline in new car weight with about a 20% increase in occupant fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks and highway fatalities are negative: higher miles per

  15. The neoliberal political economy and erosion of retirement security.

    PubMed

    Polivka, Larry; Luo, Baozhen

    2015-04-01

    The origins and trajectory of the crisis in the United States retirement security system have slowly become part of the discussion about the social, political, and economic impacts of population aging. Private sources of retirement security have weakened significantly since 1980 as employers have converted defined benefits precisions to defined contribution plans. The Center for Retirement Research (CRR) now estimates that over half of boomer generation retirees will not receive 70-80% of their wages while working. This erosion of the private retirement security system will likely increase reliance on the public system, mainly Social Security and Medicare. These programs, however, have increasingly become the targets of critics who claim that they are not financially sustainable in their current form and must be significantly modified. This article will focus on an analysis of these trends in the erosion of the United States retirement security system and their connection to changes in the United States political economy as neoliberal, promarket ideology, and policies (low taxes, reduced spending, and deregulation) have become dominant in the private and public sectors. The neoliberal priority on reducing labor costs and achieving maximum shareholder value has created an environment inimical to maintain the traditional system of pension and health care benefits in both the private and public sectors. This article explores the implications of these neoliberal trends in the United States economy for the future of retirement security. PMID:26035594

  16. Subsistence economy of el paraiso, an early peruvian site.

    PubMed

    Quilter, J; E, B O; Pearsall, D M; Sandweiss, D H; Jones, J G; Wing, E S

    1991-01-18

    Studies of food remains from the Preceramic monumental site of E1 Paraíso, Peru (1800 to 1500 B.C.), have shed new light on a debate regarding the relative importance of seafood versus terrestrial resources and the role of cultigens in subsistence economies during the early development of Peruvian civilization. Fish was the primary animal food at the site whereas plant foods consisted of a mixture of cultivated resources (squashes, beans, peppers, and jicama) with an additional reliance on fruits (guava, lucuma, and pacae). Wild plants, especially the roots of sedges and cat-tail, also may have accounted for a substantial part of the diet. Cotton was a chief crop, used in making fishing tackle and the textiles that served as clothing and items of high value and status. As an example of the beginnings of civilization, El Paraíso is a case in which impressive architecture was built on a relatively simple subsistence economy and energy was expended in the production of resources useful in local and regional exchange systems. PMID:17733284

  17. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Ke, Jing; McNeil, Michael

    2012-07-01

    As part of the ongoing effort to estimate the foreseeable impacts of aggressive minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) programs in the world’s major economies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a scenario to analyze the technical potential of MEPS in 13 major economies around the world1 . The “best available technology” (BAT) scenario seeks to determine the maximum potential savings that would result from diffusion of the most efficient available technologies in these major economies.

  18. Towards a "Critical Cultural Political Economy" Account of the Globalising of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Susan L.; Dale, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines the basis of an alternative theoretical approach to the study of the globalisation of "education"--a Critical, Cultural Political Economy of Education (CCPEE) approach. Our purpose here is to bring this body of concepts--critical, cultural, political, economy--into our interrogation of globalising projects and…

  19. Linkage of Fisheries Sectors to Hawaii's Economy and Economic Impacts of

    E-print Network

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    Linkage of Fisheries Sectors to Hawaii's Economy and Economic Impacts of Longline Fishing-355 #12;1 Linkage of Fisheries Sectors to Hawaii's Economy and Economic Impacts of Longline Fishing, University of Hawaii at Manoa PingSun Leung College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources University

  20. The political economy of oil and the Niger Delta crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ighodaro, Osaro O.

    This study is about the burgeoning crisis in Nigeria's Oil Producing Niger Delta region. Discerning the intersecting contributive factors to the crisis, this dissertation suggests that the Niger Delta crisis is symptomatic of challenges to development in Nigeria. Due to the insidious colonial/neo-colonial practices of subjugation, and exploitation of the host communities, it is suggested that the extractive, super-profit motive of Shell, the concomitant environmental degradation, corruption of a bellicose state, ethnic conflict and suffering of the masses are outcomes of a long historically debilitating relationship with international capital which causes irreparable retardation to the host communities. From cash crop economy to a mono-oil economy resources are removed from the communities and used to enhance the colonial state and their post-colonial harbingers of misery. Hence, the indigenous people claim that the Niger Delta is in a crisis, and they are willing to confront the triple alliance of multinational oil companies like Shell, the Nigerian State and the local elite so long as these allies of subjugation continue to neglect the goose that lays the proverbial golden egg (oil that is). Theoretically, a hybrid Political Economy approach was adopted as the over-aching framework for the study, while Dependency theory, modified by what I have called African Transformative scholarly perspective, served as the conceptual tool. Primary and secondary sources of data, including personal observation, interviews, official government documents and other publications were utilized for this analysis. In view of recommendations, it is suggested that first, the Nigerian state should assume decisive and unflinching leadership in holding oil companies responsible for their activities in the host communities; second, oil companies (like Shell) should see themselves as an integral part of the host communities; invest in their development by providing employment opportunities and adhering to humane environmental practices. Finally, I suggest that the ownership and control of all resources, including oil should be vested in those communities in which they are found. The revenues accruing to the constitutive states of Nigeria will be accordingly taxed with the revenues from the taxes utilized for the general good of the polity especially the less endowed communities.

  1. Opportunities and challenges of nanotechnology in the green economy.

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Leso, Veruscka; Ricciardi, Walter; Hodson, Laura L; Hoover, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    In a world of finite resources and ecosystem capacity, the prevailing model of economic growth, founded on ever-increasing consumption of resources and emission pollutants, cannot be sustained any longer. In this context, the "green economy" concept has offered the opportunity to change the way that society manages the interaction of the environmental and economic domains. To enable society to build and sustain a green economy, the associated concept of "green nanotechnology" aims to exploit nano-innovations in materials science and engineering to generate products and processes that are energy efficient as well as economically and environmentally sustainable. These applications are expected to impact a large range of economic sectors, such as energy production and storage, clean up-technologies, as well as construction and related infrastructure industries. These solutions may offer the opportunities to reduce pressure on raw materials trading on renewable energy, to improve power delivery systems to be more reliable, efficient and safe as well as to use unconventional water sources or nano-enabled construction products therefore providing better ecosystem and livelihood conditions.However, the benefits of incorporating nanomaterials in green products and processes may bring challenges with them for environmental, health and safety risks, ethical and social issues, as well as uncertainty concerning market and consumer acceptance. Therefore, our aim is to examine the relationships among guiding principles for a green economy and opportunities for introducing nano-applications in this field as well as to critically analyze their practical challenges, especially related to the impact that they may have on the health and safety of workers involved in this innovative sector. These are principally due to the not fully known nanomaterial hazardous properties, as well as to the difficulties in characterizing exposure and defining emerging risks for the workforce. Interestingly, this review proposes action strategies for the assessment, management and communication of risks aimed to precautionary adopt preventive measures including formation and training of employees, collective and personal protective equipment, health surveillance programs to protect the health and safety of nano-workers. It finally underlines the importance that occupational health considerations will have on achieving an effectively sustainable development of nanotechnology. PMID:25294341

  2. Journal of Biomechanics 40 (2007) 12621267 Is economy of competitive cyclists affected by the anteriorposterior

    E-print Network

    Hull, Maury

    2007-01-01

    ­posterior foot position on the pedal does not affect cycling economy in competitive cyclists pedaling at a steady-state foot position, _VO2 was measured as each cyclist pedaled at steady state with a cadence of 90 rpmJournal of Biomechanics 40 (2007) 1262­1267 Is economy of competitive cyclists affected

  3. The Role of Hyperthermia in the Water Economy of Desert Birds B. Irene Tieleman1

    E-print Network

    Williams, Jos. B.

    87 The Role of Hyperthermia in the Water Economy of Desert Birds B. Irene Tieleman1 Joseph B, and to assess its net effect on the water economy of birds, especially species living in deserts. In this review. 1522-2152/99/7201-97106$03.00 Introduction Deserts are harsh regions characterized by intense solar

  4. The dual reality of the Chinese knowledge economy

    PubMed Central

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Zhang, Joy Yueyue

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws on stem cell research and financial derivatives as two case studies to analyse the role of scientific knowledge and technology in the development of the Chinese knowledge economy. The findings suggest that, despite China’s recent commitments in acquiring international expertise, there is a decoupling between knowledge acquisitions and applications in the institutionalisation of knowledge within these sectors. Scientific-based knowledge and professional know-how are on the one hand perceived as prime drivers of China’s development, yet they on the other hand remain subordinate to existing administrative infrastructures. The paper further elucidates the causes and implications of this by describing the dual reality of knowledge in relation to an isomorphic process of rationalisation outlined by new institutional organisational theory. PMID:24416075

  5. The Value of Institutional Change in Israel's Water Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadan, Ezra; Ben-Zvi, Ruth

    1987-01-01

    Water resource development is commonly associated with hardware components, of the water supply system and not the existing institutions and established arrangements. In this paper we inquire into the social cost of the institutional arrangements existing in Israel's water economy, quantify the potential of institutional changes, and assess their capacity to compete with projects aimed at the development of "new" resources. The present situation is examined against situations which might have evolved should institutional barriers be relaxed using a linear programming model of Israel's water supply and farming systems in the various regions and social strata. The findings presented demonstrate the low economic cost of the institutional alternative relative to that provided through new resource development.

  6. Applications of Complex Systems in Business and Economy

    E-print Network

    Kitt, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the complex systems are discussed from the business and economics point of view. It will be showed and motivated that social systems are typically chaotic and/or non-linear and therefore non-equilibrium or complex systems. It is discussed that the rapid change global consumer behaviour is underway, that further increases the complexity in the business and management. For successful management under complexity, a following principles are offered: openness and international competition, tolerance and variety of the ideas, self-reliability and low dependence on external help. The paper discusses the opportunities and challenges in management under complexity from macro and micro economic perspective. It is motivated that small economies have good prospects to gain from the global processes underway, if they can demonstrate flexible production, reliable business ethics and good risk management. In this environment, the challenges for corporate managements are being also permanently changed: the bala...

  7. Utilization of waste heat in trucks for increased fuel economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leising, C. J.; Purohit, G. P.; Degrey, S. P.; Finegold, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Improvements in fuel economy for a broad spectrum of truck engines and waste heat utilization concepts are evaluated and compared. The engines considered are the diesel, spark ignition, gas turbine, and Stirling. The waste heat utilization concepts include preheating, regeneration, turbocharging, turbocompounding, and Rankine engine compounding. Predictions were based on fuel-air cycle analyses, computer simulation, and engine test data. The results reveal that diesel driving cycle performance can be increased by 20% through increased turbocharging, turbocompounding, and Rankine engine compounding. The Rankine engine compounding provides about three times as much improvement as turbocompounding but also costs about three times as much. Performance for either is approximately doubled if applied to an adiabatic diesel.

  8. 25 CFR 142.8 - Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation? 142.8 Section 142.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES ALASKA RESUPPLY OPERATION § 142.8 Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation? Yes. The Manager...

  9. 25 CFR 142.8 - Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation? 142.8 Section 142.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES ALASKA RESUPPLY OPERATION § 142.8 Is economy of operation a requirement for the...

  10. Report of the Governor's Commission on Higher Education and the Economy, January 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Blue Ribbon Commission on Higher Education and the Economy of Connecticut, Inc., Hartford.

    The Governor's Commission on Higher Education and the Economy's assessment of the Connecticut system and ways that the educational needs of the economy and the state can be met during a period of declining enrollments and fiscal constraints is presented. Working committees of the commission studied governance and management; business, labor, and…

  11. Contribution, Linkages and Impacts of the Fisheries Sector to Hawaii's Economy

    E-print Network

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    #12;Contribution, Linkages and Impacts of the Fisheries Sector to Hawaii's Economy: A Social Contribution 11-373 #12;#12;1 Contribution, Linkages and Impacts of the Fisheries Sector to Hawaii's Economy and Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Management University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822

  12. Design and Implementation of an Economy Plane for the Xinming Chen, Tilman Wolf

    E-print Network

    Design and Implementation of an Economy Plane for the Internet Xinming Chen, Tilman Wolf ECE on the establishment of economic relationships between entities. · Design of economy plane functionality using two relationships. We present the design of a protocol that asso- ciates access to network services with economic

  13. Research and Development at U.S. Research Universities: An Analysis of Scope Economies

    E-print Network

    Foltz, Jeremy D.

    patents. We propose a new measure of economies of scope based on a primal representation of the underlying data from 92 research universities show significant economies of scope between articles and patents, but modest complementarities. (JEL O3, O31, O33, C6, L31) Keywords: R&D, university, patent, scope

  14. The European House of Education: Education and Economy--A New Partnership. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    Five areas essential to developing partnerships between the education systems and economies of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe were analyzed: (1) state and social partner roles in supporting links between education/training and the economy; (2) contribution of the world of work to education and training; (3) education/training to…

  15. The Political Economy of Land Conflict in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon

    E-print Network

    Simmons, Cynthia S.

    The Political Economy of Land Conflict in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon Cynthia S. Simmons in the Brazilian Amazon was to enhance social welfare and alleviate dire poverty in other parts of the country that arose with the opening of the Amazon frontier in the 1970s. The paper presents a political economy

  16. S ~ C ~and Tlymmics of the Global Economy:Network sls sf International

    E-print Network

    White, Douglas R.

    S ~ C ~and Tlymmics of the Global Economy:Network sls sf International Trade 1961980* DAV][DA. m issuesin international political economy.Theworld-systemapproach suggests that the structure of the global of the world economic system and to identify the roles that particular counfries play in the global division

  17. What Is Hampering the Development of Our Education? The New Economy and the New Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maksakovskii, V. P.

    2006-01-01

    At the turn of the twenty-first century a paradigm shift in economic development is taking place in the world. This is reflected in the transition to what goes by the name of the new economy. Given birth by the information and communications revolution, this economy is developing under the conditions of globalization and competition while…

  18. Knowledge for What? Wales, Militarisation and the Endless Promotion of the Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannock, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    The "knowledge economy" has become the buzzword of development policy in the early twenty-first century. Nations and regions around the world are all told that they must transform themselves into knowledge economies to survive and prosper. This article uses the example of Wales and its recent embrace of a massive military privatisation project in…

  19. A Knowledge Economy and a Learning Society: A Comparative Analysis of New Zealand and Australian Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines discourses and developments of the knowledge economy and learning society in Australia and New Zealand. It outlines the international context of the rise of the knowledge-based economy and sets the New Zealand and Australian debates against this backdrop. A current heightened emphasis on education and learning in both countries…

  20. SELF-REGULATION AND SOCIAL WELFARE: THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF CORPORATE

    E-print Network

    Lyon, Thomas P.

    SELF-REGULATION AND SOCIAL WELFARE: THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF CORPORATE ENVIRONMENTALISM* JOHN W that an increased threat of regu- lation (as proxied by increased membership in conservation groups) indeed induces for the Study of the Economy and the State for financial support. 1 Bruce Smart, Beyond Compliance: A New

  1. 77 FR 38553 - Proposed Modification to Regulation Concerning the Use of Market Economy Input Prices in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ...; Countervailing Duties, Final Rule, 62 FR 27296, 27366 (May 19, 1997); Shakeproof Assembly Components Div. of Ill...: Market Economy Inputs, Expected Non- Market Economy Wages, Duty Drawback; and Request for Comments, 71 FR..., Cheese, Confidential business information, Countervailing duties, Freedom of information,...

  2. TRB 05-1336 The Effect of Fuel Economy on Automobile Safety: A Reexamination

    E-print Network

    TRB 05-1336 The Effect of Fuel Economy on Automobile Safety: A Reexamination November 16, 2004 Word, the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks has been regulated by the Corporate Average Fuel the decline in new car weight with about a 20 percent increase in occupant fatalities. The time

  3. System-of-Systems Framework for the Future Hydrogen-Based Transportation Economy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, M.; Sandor, D.

    2008-06-01

    From a supply chain view, this paper traces the flow of transportation fuels through required systems and addresses the current petroleum-based economy, DOE's vision for a future hydrogen-based transportation economy, and the challenges of a massive market and infrastructure transformation.

  4. Powered Ankle-Foot Prosthesis for the Improvement of Amputee Walking Economy

    E-print Network

    Herr, Hugh

    Powered Ankle-Foot Prosthesis for the Improvement of Amputee Walking Economy by Samuel Kwok-Wai Au LIBRARIES #12;#12;Powered Ankle-Foot Prosthesis for the Improvement of Amputee Walking Economy by Samuel indicate that transtibial amputees using conventional prostheses exhibit higher gait metabolic rates as com

  5. Page 1 of 13 Economy-based Content Replication for Peering Content Delivery Networks

    E-print Network

    Melbourne, University of

    Page 1 of 13 Economy-based Content Replication for Peering Content Delivery Networks Al@mcs.vuw.ac.nz Abstract: Existing Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) exhibit the nature of closed delivery networks which do propose using market-based models by introducing an economy-based strategy for content replication. 1

  6. Regulating the cellular economy of supply and demand Jan-Hendrik S. HofmeyraY

    E-print Network

    Minireview Regulating the cellular economy of supply and demand Jan-Hendrik S. HofmeyraY *, Athel March 2000 Edited by Gunnar von Heijne Abstract Cellular metabolism is a molecular economy reaction network the only way to pro- ceed was to chop it up into manageable parts and study the parts

  7. The State of the Economy: Resources and Costs for Educational Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhead, Jesse

    It is most difficult to believe that the American economy can soon return to the stable growth rates that were enjoyed from 1958 to 1973. Factors that contribute to a slow-growth economy include changes in the age of the average citizen, pressures for larger expenditures for armaments, pricefixing by oligopolies, rising raw materials prices,…

  8. Page 1 of 13 Economy-based Content Replication for Peering Content Delivery Networks

    E-print Network

    Melbourne, University of

    Page 1 of 13 Economy-based Content Replication for Peering Content Delivery Networks Al, Wellington 6001, New Zealand kris@mcs.vuw.ac.nz Abstract: Existing Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) exhibit different CDN providers at global level, we propose using market-based models by introducing an economy

  9. 40 CFR 600.008-01 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year... Administrator for that model year; (iii) The fuel economy value of the test is higher than expected based on... value based on tolerances established by the Administrator for that model year; or (v) The fuel...

  10. Effects of Climatic Change on a Water Dependent Regional Economy: A Study of the Texas Edwards Aquifer

    E-print Network

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    on a Water Dependent Regional Economy: A Study of the Texas Edwards Aquifer Abstract Global climate change of Climatic Change on a Water Dependent Regional Economy: A Study of the Texas Edwards Aquifer Global climateEffects of Climatic Change on a Water Dependent Regional Economy: A Study of the Texas Edwards

  11. Carnegie Mellon University Economies of Scale in Information Dissemination

    E-print Network

    Chuang, John C.-I.

    would like to thank my committee members, Professors Marvin Sirbu, Granger Morgan, Alex Hills and Hui mom and dad, for their love and encouragement. I thank my wife, Melissa, for her love and her smile. I

  12. Does a robotic scrub nurse improve economy of movements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachs, Juan P.; Jacob, Mithun; Li, Yu-Ting; Akingba, George

    2012-02-01

    Objective: Robotic assistance during surgery has been shown to be a useful resource to both augment the surgical skills of the surgeon through tele-operation, and to assist the surgeon handling the surgical instruments to the surgeon, similar to a surgical tech. We evaluated the performance and effect of a gesture driven surgical robotic nurse in the context of economy of movements, during an abdominal incision and closure exercise with a simulator. Methods: A longitudinal midline incision (100 mm) was performed on the simulated abdominal wall to enter the peritoneal cavity without damaging the internal organs. The wound was then closed using a blunt needle ensuring that no tissue is caught up by the suture material. All the instruments required to complete this task were delivered by a robotic surgical manipulator directly to the surgeon. The instruments were requested through voice and gesture recognition. The robotic system used a low end range sensor camera to extract the hand poses and for recognizing the gestures. The instruments were delivered to the vicinity of the patient, at chest height and at a reachable distance to the surgeon. Task performance measures for each of three abdominal incision and closure exercises were measured and compared to a human scrub nurse instrument delivery action. Picking instrument position variance, completion time and trajectory of the hand were recorded for further analysis. Results: The variance of the position of the robotic tip when delivering the surgical instrument is compared to the same position when a human delivers the instrument. The variance was found to be 88.86% smaller compared to the human delivery group. The mean task completion time to complete the surgical exercise was 162.7+/- 10.1 secs for the human assistant and 191.6+/- 3.3 secs (P<.01) when using the robotic standard display group. Conclusion: Multimodal robotic scrub nurse assistant improves the surgical procedure by reducing the number of movements (lower variance in the picking position). The variance of the picking point is closely related to the concept of economy of movements in the operating room. Improving the effectiveness of the operating room can potentially enhance the safety of surgical interventions without affecting the performance time.

  13. Career and Training in the New Economy: A Study Focused to Small Scale Enterprises Located in OSTIM Organized Industrial Region in Ankara/Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksoy, Hasan Huseyin

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe training levels related to careers, employment, and influences of "new economy" in small and mid-sized firms. The organizational side of career development behaviors was also a focus of this study. Interviews related to company policies and practices were conducted with 26 employers or managers…

  14. Role of sugar cane in Brazil's history and economy

    SciTech Connect

    Nastari, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    The history and evolution of the sugar-cane culture in Brazil is reviewed. An econometric model is constructed to explain the economic relationships of supply and demand of sugar, hydrous ethanol (ethyl alcohol), and anhydrous ethanol in Brazil overtime. Estimates of the parameters in the model are obtained using the methods of ordinary least squares and three stages least squares. Because the number of exogenous variables is larger than the number of observations, principal components of the exogenous variables is used. The model estimated using three stages least squares with seven principal components has the best performance among the alternatives considered. Using the estimated model, the level of a number of policy variables is determined in consistency with the objectives of ethanol production established by the Brazilian government for 1985. It is estimated that in 1985 the proportion of anhydrous ethanol added to gasoline must be 16.5%. Analysis of the net income accrued by producers and the government since the creation of the National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) in 1975 reveals that producers of sugar have been able to triple their net annual income. Independent producers of ethanol have also been able to accrue positive net results during this period. It is concluded that the Proalcool has been beneficial to the Brazilian economy, largely because of the savings in oil imports and the internal creation of jobs, while at the same time it has contributed to a superavit in the government's budget.

  15. Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Science in International Political Economy The undergraduate degrees in international political

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    economy program offers an education focused on helping individuals succeed in the dynamic, global workBachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Science in International Political Economy The undergraduate degrees in international political economy prepare students to manage today's increasingly complex international

  16. The production of information in the attention economy

    PubMed Central

    Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Online traces of human activity offer novel opportunities to study the dynamics of complex knowledge exchange networks, in particular how emergent patterns of collective attention determine what new information is generated and consumed. Can we measure the relationship between demand and supply for new information about a topic? We propose a normalization method to compare attention bursts statistics across topics with heterogeneous distribution of attention. Through analysis of a massive dataset on traffic to Wikipedia, we find that the production of new knowledge is associated to significant shifts of collective attention, which we take as proxy for its demand. This is consistent with a scenario in which allocation of attention toward a topic stimulates the demand for information about it, and in turn the supply of further novel information. However, attention spikes only for a limited time span, during which new content has higher chances of receiving traffic, compared to content created later or earlier on. Our attempt to quantify demand and supply of information, and our finding about their temporal ordering, may lead to the development of the fundamental laws of the attention economy, and to a better understanding of social exchange of knowledge information networks. PMID:25989177

  17. 19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries...Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.408 Calculation of normal value of...

  18. 19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries...Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.408 Calculation of normal value of...

  19. 19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries...Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.408 Calculation of normal value of...

  20. 19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries...Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.408 Calculation of normal value of...

  1. 19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries...Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.408 Calculation of normal value of...

  2. Export quality: representing Fijian bodies and the economy of war.

    PubMed

    Bolatagici, Torika

    2011-01-01

    Fijian bodies have become a valuable commodity in the economy of war. Remittances from workers overseas are Fiji's largest income – exceeding that of tourism and sugar export. This essay examines historical and contemporary representations of the black male body that perpetuate the exploitation of Fijians by inscribing the Fijian male body as warrior, criminal and protector. Taking a multidisciplinary approach informed by sociology, cultural theory, Pacific studies, visual culture, feminist and post-colonial theory, my practice is the vehicle through which I address issues of neocolonial commodification of Fijian bodies. Through an analysis of my own staged photographs and vernacular images taken by Fijians working for private security military companies and British and US armies, I hope to challenge audiences to consider their own perceptions of Fijian agency and subjectivity. By theorising the politicisation of the black body and interrogating colonial representations of blackness, I argue that we can begin to create links between the historical and contemporary exploitation of Fijians and that at the essence of both is an underlying racial hierarchy and economic requirement for cheap and, arguably, expendable labour. PMID:21761619

  3. [From biodiversity to biodiversification: a new economy of nature?].

    PubMed

    Höhler, Sabine

    2014-03-01

    This paper explores the relations between economy and ecology in the last quarter of the 20th century with the example of biodiversity. From its definition in the 1980s, the concept of biodiversity responded not only to conservational concerns but also to hopes and demands of economic profitability. The paper argues that archival systems of inventorying and surveying nature, the biodiversity database and the biodiversity portfolio, changed the view on nature from a resource to an investment. The paper studies the alliances of ecologists and environmental economists in managing nature according to economic principles of successful asset management, "diversification", with the aim to distribute risk, minimize ecological loss and maximize overall ecosystem performance. Finally, the paper discusses the assumptions and the consequences of transferring principles from financial risk management to landscape management. How has the substitution of the existential values of nature by shareholder value affected the relations between ecology, environment, and ecosystem conservation? Who gains and who looses in exchanging natural capital and financial capital, yields, and profits? PMID:24988757

  4. Environmental impacts of the emerging digital economy: the e-for-environment e-commerce?

    PubMed

    Sui, Daniel Z; Rejeski, David W

    2002-02-01

    The Internet-led digital economy is changing both the production and consumption patterns at the global scale. Although great potential exists to harness information technology in general and the Internet in particular and improve the environment, possible negative impacts of e-commerce on the environment should also be considered and dealt with. In this forum, we discuss both the potential positive and negative impacts of e-commerce. Drawing from insights gained from the complexity theory, we also delineate some broad contours for environmental policies in the information age. Given the paradoxical nature of technological innovations, we want to caution the scientific community and policymakers not to treat the Internet as the Holy Grail for environmental salvation. PMID:11815820

  5. Isocost Lines Describe the Cellular Economy of Genetic Circuits.

    PubMed

    Gyorgy, Andras; Jiménez, José I; Yazbek, John; Huang, Hsin-Ho; Chung, Hattie; Weiss, Ron; Del Vecchio, Domitilla

    2015-08-01

    Genetic circuits in living cells share transcriptional and translational resources that are available in limited amounts. This leads to unexpected couplings among seemingly unconnected modules, which result in poorly predictable circuit behavior. In this study, we determine these interdependencies between products of different genes by characterizing the economy of how transcriptional and translational resources are allocated to the production of proteins in genetic circuits. We discover that, when expressed from the same plasmid, the combinations of attainable protein concentrations are constrained by a linear relationship, which can be interpreted as an isocost line, a concept used in microeconomics. We created a library of circuits with two reporter genes, one constitutive and the other inducible in the same plasmid, without a regulatory path between them. In agreement with the model predictions, experiments reveal that the isocost line rotates when changing the ribosome binding site strength of the inducible gene and shifts when modifying the plasmid copy number. These results demonstrate that isocost lines can be employed to predict how genetic circuits become coupled when sharing resources and provide design guidelines for minimizing the effects of such couplings. PMID:26244745

  6. An illicit economy: scavenging and recycling of medical waste.

    PubMed

    Patwary, Masum A; O'Hare, William Thomas; Sarker, M H

    2011-11-01

    This paper discusses a significant illicit economy, including black and grey aspects, associated with medical waste scavenging and recycling in a megacity, considering hazards to the specific group involved in scavenging as well as hazards to the general population of city dwellers. Data were collected in Dhaka, Bangladesh, using a variety of techniques based on formal representative sampling for fixed populations (such as recycling operatives) and adaptive sampling for roaming populations (such as scavengers). Extremely hazardous items (including date expired medicines, used syringes, knives, blades and saline bags) were scavenged, repackaged and resold to the community. Some HCE employees were also observed to sell hazardous items directly to scavengers, and both employees and scavengers were observed to supply contaminated items to an informal plastics recycling industry. This trade was made possible by the absence of segregation, secure storage and proper disposal of medical waste. Corruption, a lack of accountability and individual responsibility were also found to be contributors. In most cases the individuals involved with these activities did not understand the risks. Although motivation was often for personal gain or in support of substance abuse, participants sometimes felt that they were providing a useful service to the community. PMID:21820235

  7. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and...

  8. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and...

  9. 40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and...

  10. Are you sitting comfortably? The political economy of the body.

    PubMed

    Wilkin, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between the mass production of furniture in modern industrial societies and lower back pain (LBP). The latter has proven to be a major cost to health services and private industry throughout the industrialised world and now represents a global health issue as recent WHO reports on obesity and LBP reveal. Thus far there have been few co-ordinated attempts to deal with the causes of the problem through public policy. Drawing upon a range of sources in anthropology, health studies, politics and economics, the paper argues that this a modern social problem rooted in the contingent conjuncture of natural and social causal mechanisms. The key question it raises is: what are the appropriate mechanisms for addressing this problem? This paper develops an analysis rooted in libertarian social theory and argues that both the state and the capitalist market are flawed mechanisms for resolving this problem. There remains a fundamental dilemma for libertarians, however. Whilst the state and the market may well be flawed mechanisms, they are the dominant ones shaping global political economy. To what extent can libertarians work within these structures and remain committed to libertarian goals? PMID:19170972

  11. L'Economie des echanges linguistiques (The Economy of Linguistic Exchange)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourdieu, Pierre

    1977-01-01

    A sociological critique of language which substitutes the notion of acceptability for grammaticallity; the analogy of symbolic force for communication; the question of the value and power of discourse for meaning; and "symbolic capital," inseparable from the social position of the interlocuter, for purely linguistic competence. (Text is in…

  12. The water intensity of the plugged-in automotive economy.

    PubMed

    King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E

    2008-06-15

    Converting light-duty vehicles from full gasoline power to electric power, by using either hybrid electric vehicles or fully electric power vehicles, is likely to increase demand for water resources. In the United States in 2005, drivers of 234 million cars, lighttrucks, and SUVs drove approximately 2.7 trillion miles and consumed over 380 million gallons of gasoline per day. We compare figures from literature and government surveys to calculate the water usage, consumption, and withdrawal, in the United States during petroleum refining and electricity generation. In displacing gasoline miles with electric miles, approximately 2-3 [corrected] times more water is consumed (0.24 [corrected] versus 0.07--0.14 gallons/mile) and over 12 [corrected] times more water is withdrawn (7.8 [corrected] versus 0.6 gallons/mile) primarily due to increased water cooling of thermoelectric power plants to accommodate increased electricity generation. Overall, we conclude that the impact on water resources from a widespread shift to grid-based transportation would be substantial enough to warrant consideration for relevant public policy decision-making. That is not to say that the negative impacts on water resources make such a shift undesirable, but rather this increase in water usage presents a significant potential impact on regional water resources and should be considered when planning for a plugged-in automotive economy. PMID:18605548

  13. Interregional Competition in the Cattle Feeding Economy with Special Emphasis on Economies of Size. 

    E-print Network

    Dietrich, Raymond A.

    1971-01-01

    The use of experimental economics in valuation of market and non-market goods has grown considerably over the past few years. The ability of experimental auctions (EAs) to reveal consumer preferences and their malleability ...

  14. 40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  15. 40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  16. 40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  17. The influence of a token economy and methylphenidate on attentive and disruptive behavior during sports with ADHD-diagnosed children.

    PubMed

    Reitman, D; Hupp, S D; O'Callaghan, P M; Gulley, V; Northup, J

    2001-04-01

    Three children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated in a summer program designed to evaluate the influence of stimulant medication and a token economy on attentive and disruptive behavior during kickball games. Attentive and disruptive behavior were assessed using an interval coding system, and daily ratings on the ADHD Index of the Conners Teacher Rating Scale-Revised were also obtained. A multielement reversal design was used, and the results indicated that both interventions independently improved attentive behavior and decreased disruptive behavior for the participants. Contrary to other research, when the token economy and medication were compared in isolation, the token system appeared more effective in reducing disruptive behavior for 2 of the 3 participants. In addition, the token system generally enhanced the effects of stimulant medication. PMID:11317639

  18. The impact of climate change on the BRICS economies: The case of insurance demand.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranger, N.; Surminski, S.

    2012-04-01

    Session ERE5.1 Climate change impact on economical and industrial activities The impact of climate change on the BRICS economies: The case of insurance demand. Over the past decade, growth in the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) economies has been a key driver of global economic growth. Current forecasts suggest that these markets will continue to be areas of significant growth for a large number of industries. We consider how climate change may influence these trends in the period to 2030, a time horizon that is long in terms of strategic planning in industry, but relatively short for climate change analysis, where the impacts are predicted to be most significant beyond around 2050. Based on current evidence, we expect climate change to affect the BRICS economies in four main ways: 1. The impact of physical climatic changes on the productivity of climate-sensitive economic activity, the local environment, human health and wellbeing, and damages from extreme weather. 2. Changing patterns of investment in climate risk management and adaptation 3. Changing patterns of investments in areas affected by greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policy, 4. The impacts of the above globally, including on international trade, growth, investment, policy, migration and commodity prices, and their impacts on the BRICS. We review the evidence on the impacts of climate change in the BRICS and then apply this to one particular industry sector: non-life insurance. We propose five potential pathways through which climate change could influence insurance demand: economic growth; willingness to pay for insurance; public policy and regulation; the insurability of natural catastrophe risks; and new opportunities associated with adaptation and greenhouse gas mitigation. We conclude that, with the exception of public policy and regulation, the influence of climate change on insurance demand to 2030 is likely to be small when compared with the expected growth due to rising incomes. The scale of the impacts and their direction depend to some extent on (re)insurer responses to the challenges of climate change. We outline five actions that could pave the way for future opportunities in the industry. Authors of the paper: Ranger, Nicola (Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy/ Grantham Research Institute, London School of Economics, London, UK) and Surminski, Swenja (Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy/ Grantham Research Institute, London School of Economics, London, UK)

  19. China and the GATT: Two Theories of Political Economy Explaining China's Desire for Membership in the GATT

    E-print Network

    Hsiao, Monica

    1994-01-01

    economy could guarantee that China's emergence will affect global trade,economy; and (3) that China desires to bring its trade underChina's economy has undergone major changes as a result of the program of economic reforms since 1978.126 China's foreign trade

  20. 40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08 Section 600.209-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values...

  1. 40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08 Section 600.209-08 Protection of Environment... MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.209-08 Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. (a) Base level....

  2. 40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08 Section 600.209-08 Protection of Environment... MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.209-08 Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. (a) Base level....

  3. Hidden Innovation: A Reconsideration of An 'Old Economy' Industry in a 'New Economy' Region

    E-print Network

    Chiang, Lifang

    2008-01-01

    statistics on machine shops and allied manufacturingstatistics on business and employment trends in machine shops and allied manufacturingMachine shops Fabricated metal product manufacturing All manufacturing TOTAL BAY AREA % of Regional Share All firms and employment Bureau of Labor Statistics

  4. Master of Science in International Political Economy In today's world, politics and the economy are

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    cultures and cultural contexts, rigorous research skills and the ability to communicate effectively · Baccalaureate degree · 3.0 undergraduate grade point average · GRE scores: 156 Verbal and 146 Quantitative@utdallas.edu The University of Texas at Dallas The School of Economic, Political and Policy Sciences 800 West Campbell Rd., GR

  5. Determinants of a merger in a publicly-funded health system: a political-economy perspective.

    PubMed

    Denis, J L; Champagne, F; Contandriopoulos, A P; Cazale, L

    1992-04-01

    This article reports the results of a case study, spanning a period of 10 years, of the merger of two hospitals in a publicly-funded health system. A political economy model was used to analyse the determinants of the merger. Results show that external political economy factors, mainly pressure from the state to rationalize health services and the organization's needs to acquire critical resources, significantly contributed to the merger decision. At the internal political economy level, groups and individual strategies also played a determinant role. Our study suggests that merger in the public sector may not necessarily result from efficiency motives. PMID:10122103

  6. An Assessment of the Technical Feasibility of Cogenerator Participation in the ERCOT Broker and Economy Programs 

    E-print Network

    Bracheen, L.

    1989-01-01

    Utilities in Texas have several methods to exchange economy and emergency power under rules established by the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The power exchanges permit utilities with temporary surplus energy to supply power...

  7. 78 FR 12787 - Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2; Institution of Investigation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ...Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 1, and the scheduling...the context of the broader economy; Examine U.S. and global...digital trade to the U.S economy, noting any challenges associated...services delivered over digital networks. Examples include...

  8. 78 FR 2690 - Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part I; Institution of Investigation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ...the context of the broader economy; Examine U.S. and global...digital trade to the U.S. economy, noting any challenges associated...services delivered over digital networks. Examples include software...digital trade to the U.S. economy; Present case studies...

  9. Department of World Economy, St. Petersburg State University offers a position at the global PhD partnership programme

    E-print Network

    Knobloch,Jürgen

    Department of World Economy, St. Petersburg State University offers a position at the global Ph and the global economy. The programme combines integrated training workshops and internship opportunities across: international relations, international political economy, area studies and new qualitative methods. Fluency

  10. 40 CFR 600.210-12 - Calculation of fuel economy and CO2 emission values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy and CO2 emission values for labeling...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  11. 40 CFR 600.210-12 - Calculation of fuel economy and CO2 emission values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy and CO2 emission values for labeling...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  12. 40 CFR 600.210-12 - Calculation of fuel economy and CO2 emission values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy and CO2 emission values for labeling...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  13. Poverty, inequality and a political economy of mental health.

    PubMed

    Burns, J K

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between poverty and mental health is indisputable. However, to have an influence on the next set of sustainable global development goals, we need to understand the causal relationships between social determinants such as poverty, inequality, lack of education and unemployment; thereby clarifying which aspects of poverty are the key drivers of mental illness. Some of the major challenges identified by Lund (2014) in understanding the poverty-mental health relationship are discussed including: the need for appropriate poverty indicators; extending this research agenda to a broader range of mental health outcomes; the need to engage with theoretical concepts such as Amartya Sen's capability framework; and the need to integrate the concept of income/economic inequality into studies of poverty and mental health. Although income inequality is a powerful driver of poor physical and mental health outcomes, it features rarely in research and discourse on social determinants of mental health. This paper interrogates in detail the relationships between poverty, income inequality and mental health, specifically: the role of income inequality as a mediator of the poverty-mental health relationship; the relative utility of commonly used income inequality metrics; and the likely mechanisms underlying the impact of inequality on mental health, including direct stress due to the setting up of social comparisons as well as the erosion of social capital leading to social fragmentation. Finally, we need to interrogate the upstream political, social and economic causes of inequality itself, since these should also become potential targets in efforts to promote sustainable development goals and improve population (mental) health. In particular, neoliberal (market-oriented) political doctrines lead to both increased income inequality and reduced social cohesion. In conclusion, understanding the relationships between politics, poverty, inequality and mental health outcomes requires us to develop a robust, evidence-based 'political economy of mental health.' PMID:25746820

  14. Perspectives on the Current State Of the Milwaukee Economy

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    market has become increasingly segmented (along racial and gender lines) and polarized, with projections-Growth Regional Economy: GDP Growth in Metro Milwaukee (p.3); · The Milwaukee "Jobs Gap" (p.5 (p. 25); · Poverty (p. 26); · Race, Gender, Age, Ethnicity and the Milwaukee Labor Market (p. 30

  15. Public health challenges in the political economy of conflict: the case of Syria.

    PubMed

    Sen, Kasturi; Faisal, Waleed Al

    2015-10-01

    Recent uprisings in the Arab world and a full-scale war in Syria are widely viewed as popular demand for political voice against repressive regimes. However, growing economic inequalities and serious economic dysfunction played a role as trigger for conflict than is commonly accepted. Tunisia, Egypt and Syria all implemented policies of liberalization over the past two decades, leading to the worsening of living standards for the majority. The various forms of liberalization played a significant role in embedding social division and discontent whose outcomes affected other countries of the region with the onset of market reforms in nascent welfare states. Egypt, for example, was viewed by the World Bank as an economic 'best performer', despite regular riots over food prices, job losses and land expropriation for tourism. Tunisia was praised by donors just prior to the uprising (in 2010), for 'weathering well' the global economic downturn through 'sound macroeconomic management'. In Syria, the market economy made its mark over the 90s, but macroeconomic adjustment policies were implemented in a bilateral agreement with the European Union and approved by the International Monetary Fund in 2003. The economic stabilization programme that followed had limited concern for social impacts such as jobs losses, price rises and national debt, which ultimately caused immense hardship for the population at large, acting as a trigger for the initial uprising in 2011, prior to its transformation into a fully blown conflict. This article focuses on reforms implemented in the health sector and sets these in the context of the current political economy of Syria. It suggests that a protective approach to public health services during and in the aftermath of conflict may increase the possibilities of reconstruction and reconciliation between warring sides. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26358960

  16. Modeling the effect of engine assembly mass on engine friction and vehicle fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    An, Feng; Stodolsky, F.

    1995-06-01

    In this paper, an analytical model is developed to estimate the impact of reducing engine assembly mass (the term engine assembly refers to the moving components of the engine system, including crankshafts, valve train, pistons, and connecting rods) on engine friction and vehicle fuel economy. The relative changes in frictional mean effective pressure and fuel economy are proportional to the relative change in assembly mass. These changes increase rapidly as engine speed increases. Based on the model, a 25% reduction in engine assembly mass results in a 2% fuel economy improvement for a typical mid-size passenger car over the EPA Urban and Highway Driving Cycles.

  17. Three Times a Woman: A Gendered Economy of Stem Cell Innovation

    E-print Network

    Kietzer, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Times a Woman A Gendered Economy of Stem Cell Innovation InWomen’s eggs are one of the raw materials needed for stemstem cells plus a gendered aesthetic toward youth UCLA Center for the Study of Women

  18. The architecture of dependence : a digital entertainment entrepreneurship laboratory in the network economy

    E-print Network

    Tsai, Allen L. (Allen Lun), 1972-

    1999-01-01

    The dual phenomena of the information revolution and the rise of the network economy presents an interesting challenge to the architect. Architecture must shift away from the design of singular buildings, and more towards ...

  19. The transformation of the Japanese commercial code and its impact on the Japanese economy

    E-print Network

    Yoshida, Toshihiro, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    The legal system is an essential basis of the society and economy of every country, and it changes continually in accordance with national social and economic situations. The Japanese Commercial Code is no exception. One ...

  20. Governing urban land : the political economy of the ULCRA in Mumbai

    E-print Network

    Siddiqi, Faizan Jawed

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, I look at the political economy of the Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation) Act (ULCRA) in Mumbai, India. Enacted in 1976, the stated aim of this legislation was to prevent speculation in the urban land ...

  1. 40 CFR 600.510-93 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meet the minimum driving range requirements established by the Secretary of Transportation (49 CFR part...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel...

  2. Thermodynamic accounting of ecosystem contribution to economic sectors with application to 1992 U.S. economy.

    PubMed

    Ukidwe, Nandan U; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2004-09-15

    Incorporation of ecological considerations in decision-making is essential for sustainable development, but is hindered by inadequate appreciation of the role of ecosystems, and lack of scientifically rigorous techniques for including their contribution. This paper develops a novel thermodynamic accounting framework for including the contribution of natural capital via thermodynamic input-output analysis. This framework is applied to the 1992 US economy comprising 91 industry sectors, resulting in delineation of the myriad ways in which sectors of the US economy rely on ecosystem products and services. The contribution of ecosystems is represented via the concept of ecological cumulative exergy consumption (ECEC), which is related to emergy analysis but avoids any of its controversial assumptions and claims. The use of thermodynamics permits representation of all kinds of inputs and outputs in consistent units, facilitating the definition of aggregate metrics. Total ECEC requirement indicates the extent to which each economic sector relies directly and indirectly on ecological inputs. The ECEC/money ratio indicates the relative monetary versus ecological throughputs in each sector, and indicates the relationship between the thermodynamic work needed to produce a product or service and the corresponding economic activity. This ratio is found to decrease along economic supply chains, indicating industries that are higher up in the economic food chain price ecosystem contribution more than the basic infrastructure industries such as mining and manufacturing. The ratio of CEC with and without inclusion of ecosystems indicates the extent to which conventional thermoeconomic analysis underestimates the contribution of ecosystems. Such ratios, made available for the first time, provide unique insight into the importance of natural capital, and are especially useful in hybrid thermodynamic life cycle analysis of industrial systems. The approach, data compiled in this work, and the resulting insight provide a more ecologically conscious tool for environmental decision-making, and has potential applications at micro as well as macro scales. PMID:15487791

  3. Vehicle fuel economy benefit and aftertreatment requirement of an HCCI-SI engine system

    E-print Network

    Hardy, AliciA Jillian Jackson, 1978-

    2007-01-01

    This body of work dimensions the HCCI fuel economy benefits and required aftertreatment performance for compliance with emissions regulations in North America and Europe. The following parameters were identified as key ...

  4. On the Allocative Efficiency of Competitive Prices in Economies with Incomplete Markets

    E-print Network

    Sabarwal, Tarun

    2003-09-01

    A new measure of constrained efficiency for application in economies with incomplete markets is presented. This measure --- termed Allais- Malinvaud efficiency --- can be viewed as adjusting for market incompleteness not fully captured in previous...

  5. 40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... including, but not limited to battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric... electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. ... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel...

  6. 40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... including, but not limited to battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric... electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. ... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures...

  7. 17.424 International Political Economy of Advanced Industrial Societies, Spring 2007

    E-print Network

    Singer, David Andrew

    This graduate class is designed as a PhD-level overview of international political economy (IPE), with an emphasis on the advanced industrial countries. The syllabus is divided into three sections: international trade; ...

  8. The political economy of rural-urban conflict : lessons from West Africa & India

    E-print Network

    McDougal, Topher L. (Topher Leinberger)

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation occupies the intersection between the fields of International Development, Political Economy, and Peace & Conflict Studies to examine how economic networks spanning the rural-urban divide condition conflict ...

  9. Urban Economies Resource Productivity and Decoupling: Metabolism Trends of 1996-2011 in Sweden, Stockholm, and Gothenburg.

    PubMed

    Kalmykova, Yuliya; Rosado, Leonardo; Patrício, João

    2015-07-21

    Resource productivity and evidence of economic decoupling were investigated on the basis of the time series in 1996-2011 of material flow analysis for Sweden, Stockholm, and Gothenburg. In the three cases, absolute reductions in CO2 emissions by about 20% were observed, energy consumption per capita decreased, while gross domestic product (GDP) per capita grew. The energy consumption of the residential and public sectors decreased drastically, while the transport energy consumption is still growing steadily. Decoupling of the economy as a whole (i.e., including materials) is not yet happening at any scale. The domestic material consumption (DMC) continues to increase, in parallel with the GDP. The rate of increase for DMC is slower than that for GDP in both Stockholm and Sweden as a whole (i.e., relative decoupling). The metabolism of the cities does not replicate the national metabolism, and the two cities each have their own distinct metabolism profiles. As a consequence, policy implications for each of the case studies were suggested. In general, because of the necessarily different roles of the two cities in the national economy, generic resource productivity benchmarks, such as CO2 per capita, should be avoided in favor of sectorial benchmarks, such as industry, transport, or residential CO2 per capita. In addition, the share of the city impacts caused by the provision of a service for the rest of the country, such as a port, could be allocated to the national economy. PMID:26065831

  10. Nitrogen use efficiency in the US economy: Towards mitigation of climate change impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlton, B. Z.; Boyer, E. W.; Finzi, A. C.; Galloway, J. N.; Leach, A.; Liptzin, D.; Melillo, J. M.; Rosenstock, T.; Sobota, D. J.; Townsend, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) interacts strongly with climate change in determining the severity and extent of many human health and environmental issues, such as eutrophication, poor air quality, and the maintenance of a secure food system. We were motivated by such N-climate interactions and their environmental impacts as part of a broader assessment of N in the continental United States. We here seek to identify and quantify inefficiencies associated with intentional N creation (i.e., creating synthetic N fertilizers and cultivating N-fixing legumes) among the major N-dependent sectors of the United States economy. We define efficiency of N use as the proportion N directly incorporated into food, fiber, biofuel, and industrial goods from the pool of intentionally created N. We are interested in whether reductions in N use could be achieved without changing the current functioning of the major N-dependent economic sectors. Our analysis points to substantial inefficiencies in N use at the national scale. A large percentage of the N applied as synthetic fertilizer and fixed by legumes annually fails to enter the United States food supply. Much of the unincorporated N enters air, land and water, where it can impact human health and ecosystems. The climate change forcing of N is uncertain, though it appears that the combined effects of intentionally and unintentionally created N on climate is roughly neutral in the United States (i.e., net effect of N-enhanced C storage, nitrous oxide emissions, N-based aerosols, and tropospheric ozone on climate forcing). Thus, it is reasonable to expect that improved efficiencies in N use would have minimal negative side effects on the United States economy, human health and the environment. We suggest that policies aimed at improving N-use efficiencies are an alternative to direct climate mitigation strategies in offsetting several impacts of climate change on human health and ecosystem functioning.

  11. The Role of Agriculture in Turkish Economy at the Beginning of the European Union Accession Negotiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanrivermis, Harun; Bulbul, Mehmet

    In this study, Turkish economy and importance of agriculture in the economy on the way of accession negotiations to the European Union (EU) are discussed. Compliance with EU norms based on macroeconomic indicators is evaluated. Turkish economy exhibits the characteristics of a developing economy based on per capita income, economic growth, employment, income distribution, foreign trade volume and economic structure. Long-term economic growth rate of Turkey is quite low and it is negatively affected by economic crises. Income distribution among the households and the regions (both of the geographical and rural-urban regions) is imbalanced. Income per capita is about ¼ of an average developed country and the economy is still characterized by a high degree of dualism in the economic sectors, regions as well as social segments. Economy suffers from trade deficit and the level of agricultural import has almost reached to agricultural export`s level in 2004. From the point of view of all socio-economic indicators, the contribution of agricultural production to domestic economy is essential in terms of employment, contributing to national income and export earnings. The enterprise size is relatively small, duality in socio-economic structure is common, population is high, productivity level is low, costs are high and competition power of some sub-sectors is low in Turkish agricultural sector. Small family farms are the main unit of crops and livestock production and household members provide most of the labor requirements of the farms. Turkey launched a radical change in agricultural policy instead of unsustainable and costly system of support policies including input subsidies and support prices and issued a policy paper for 2006-2010 in line with the Common Agricultural Policy of the EU. Reevaluation of the agricultural policies is needed in order to minimize the regional development differences and to control the migration from rural areas to cities.

  12. Increasing the Fuel Economy and Safety of New Light-DutyVehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Tom; Ross, Marc

    2006-09-18

    One impediment to increasing the fuel economy standards forlight-duty vehicles is the long-standing argument that reducing vehiclemass to improve fuel economy will inherently make vehicles less safe.This technical paper summarizes and examines the research that is citedin support of this argument, and presents more recent research thatchallenges it. We conclude that the research claiming that lightervehicles are inherently less safe than heavier vehicles is flawed, andthat other aspects of vehicle design are more important to the on-roadsafety record of vehicles. This paper was prepared for a workshop onexperts in vehicle safety and fuel economy, organized by the William andFlora Hewlett Foundation, to discuss technologies and designs that can betaken to simultaneously improve vehicle safety and fuel economy; theworkshop was held in Washington DC on October 3, 2006.

  13. Energy economy of salmon aquaculture in the Baltic sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folke, Carl

    1988-07-01

    Resource utilization in Atlantic salmon aquaculture in the Baltic Sea was investigated by means of an energy analysis. A comparison was made between cage farming and sea ranching enterprises each with yearly yields of 40 t of Atlantic salmon. A variety of sea ranching options were evaluated, including (a) conventional ranching, (b) ranching employing a delayed release to the sea of young smolts, (c) harvesting salmon both by offshore fishing fleets and as they return to coastal areas, and (d) when offshore fishing is banned, harvesting salmon only as they return to coastal areas where released. Inputs both from natural ecosystems (i.e., fish consumed by ranched salmon while in the sea and raw materials used for producing dry food pellets) and from the economy (i.e., fossil fuels and energy embodied in economic goods and services) were quantified in tonnes for food energy and as direct plus indirect energy cost (embodied energy). The fixed solar energy (estimated as primary production) and the direct and indirect auxiliary energy requirements per unit of fish output were expressed in similar units. Similar quantities of living resources in tonnes per unit of salmon biomass output are required whether the salmon are feeding in the sea or are caged farmed. Cage farming is about 10 times more dependent on auxiliary energies than sea ranching. Sea ranching applying delayed release of smolts is 35 45% more efficient in the use of auxiliary energies than conventional sea ranching and cage farming. Restriction of offshore fishing would make sea ranching 3 to 6.5 times more efficient than cage farming. The fixed solar energy input to Atlantic salmon aquaculture is 4 to 63 times larger than the inputs of auxiliary energy. Thus, cage farming and sea ranching are both heavily dependent on the productivity of natural ecosystems. It is concluded that sustainable development of the aquaculture industry must be founded on ecologically integrated technologies which utilize the free production in marine ecosystems without exhausting or damaging the marine environment.

  14. New Perspectives on the Rural Economy. Hearing on New Perspectives on the Rural Economy before the Subcommittee on Rural Economy and Family Farming of the Committee on Small Business. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Small Business.

    Testimony and prepared statements presented at a hearing before the Senate Subcommittee on Rural Economy and Family Farming focused on the concerns of rural small business. Witnesses included Senators from Montana, Illinois, New York, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa, and nine representatives of business, state government,…

  15. Scaling Behavior of Firm Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Michael H. R.; Nunes Amaral, Luis A.; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Havlin, Shlomo; Leschhorn, Heiko; Maass, Philipp; Salinger, Michael A.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    1996-03-01

    The theory of the firm is of considerable interest in economics. The standard microeconomic theory of the firm is largely a static model and has thus proved unsatisfactory for addressing inherently dynamic issues such as the growth of economies. In recent years, many have attempted to develop richer models that provide a more accurate representation of firm dynamics due to learning, innovative effort, and the development of organizational infrastructure. The validity of these new, inherently dynamic theories depends on their consistency with the statistical properties of firm growth, e.g. the relationship between growth rates and firm size. Using the Compustat database over the time period 1975-1991, we find: (i) the distribution of annual growth rates for firms with approximately the same sales displays an exponential form with the logarithm of growth rate, and (ii) the fluctuations in the growth rates --- measured by the width of this distribution --- scale as a power law with the firm sales. We place these findings of scaling behavior in the context of conventional economics by considering firm growth dynamics with temporal correlations and also, by considering a hierarchical organization of the departments of a firm.

  16. A Sense of Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tretter, Thomas R.; Jones, M. Gail

    2003-01-01

    Points out the importance of an understanding of a sense of scale and presents an activity that uses distance or time as a measure. The activity illustrates for students what the universe would look like at various scales. (DDR)

  17. Popular Education in Solidarity Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Melo Neto, José Francisco; da Costa, Francisco Xavier Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to show the relation between popular education and solidarity economy in experiences of solidarity economy enterprises in Brazil. It is based on diverse experiences which have occurred in various sectors of this economy, highlighting those experiences which took place in João Pessoa with the creation of a Cooperative of Workers…

  18. America and the New Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony Patrick

    This monograph explains the new economy from the point of view of people at work. It begins by providing an overview of the new economy and places the United States in it. Separate aspects of the new economy are elaborated in five parts. Part I presents the competitive standards that provide the cornerstone for the new economic reality: robust…

  19. The Uncontrolled Economic Engine of the Developing Economies, Speeding up the Climate Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, K. M.; Khan, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    As we progress into the 21st century, the world faces challenges of truly global nature bearing implications on the whole world in one way or another. The global economic engine has shifted from the western world (Developed Economies) to the eastern world (Developing Economies) which has brought about tremendous change in the climate related variables in this part of the world. As uncontrolled carbon emissions grow in the developing economies, the phenomenon of global warming and climate shifts become more and more prevalent. While this economic activity provides income for millions of households, it is contributing generously to the rapid degradation of the environment. Developing economies as it has been seen do not employ or abide by stringent regulations regarding emissions which result in uncontrolled emissions. In this particular scenario, it is a tedious task to convince governments in the developing economies to implement regulations regarding emissions because businesses in these economies deem such regulations to be economically unviable. The other side of the problem is that these uncontrolled emission are causing evident climate shifts which has had adverse impacts on the agricultural societies where shifting climates are leading to reduced agricultural output and productivity. Consequently the lives of millions associated directly or indirectly with agriculture are affected and on a more global level, the agricultural produce is decreasing which increases the chances of famine in parts of the world. The situation could have devastating impacts on the global economy and environmental standards and therefore needs to be addressed on emergency basis. The first step towards betterment could be the introduction of the carbon trading economy in the developing economies which would incentivize emission reduction and become more attractive and in the process sustaining minimum possible damage to the environment. Though carbon trading is a formidable first step in the right direction, it is in no way the only step and many other steps need to be taken. Agricultural economies have to study climate changes in detail and inculcate findings into their agricultural practices in order to keep the productivity from reducing.

  20. Knowledge Economy and Research Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastalich, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The "knowledge economy" has been received with considerable scepticism by scholars within the fields of political economy, social and political philosophy, and higher education. Key arguments within this literature are reviewed in this article to suggest that, despite policy claims, "knowledge economy" does not describe a "new" mode of economic…

  1. Scaling analysis of stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Luping; Shang, Pengjian

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we apply the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), local scaling detrended fluctuation analysis (LSDFA), and detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) to investigate correlations of several stock markets. DFA method is for the detection of long-range correlations used in time series. LSDFA method is to show more local properties by using local scale exponents. DCCA method is a developed method to quantify the cross-correlation of two non-stationary time series. We report the results of auto-correlation and cross-correlation behaviors in three western countries and three Chinese stock markets in periods 2004-2006 (before the global financial crisis), 2007-2009 (during the global financial crisis), and 2010-2012 (after the global financial crisis) by using DFA, LSDFA, and DCCA method. The findings are that correlations of stocks are influenced by the economic systems of different countries and the financial crisis. The results indicate that there are stronger auto-correlations in Chinese stocks than western stocks in any period and stronger auto-correlations after the global financial crisis for every stock except Shen Cheng; The LSDFA shows more comprehensive and detailed features than traditional DFA method and the integration of China and the world in economy after the global financial crisis; When it turns to cross-correlations, it shows different properties for six stock markets, while for three Chinese stocks, it reaches the weakest cross-correlations during the global financial crisis.

  2. Education and Training for Development in East Asia: The Political Economy of Skill Formation in East Asian Newly Industrialised Economies. ESRC Pacific Asia Programme [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, David; Green, Francis; James, Donna; Sung, Johnny

    This book provides a detailed analysis of the development of education and training systems in Asia and the relationship with the process of economic growth. Focus is on four impoverished agrarian economies--Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan--that were transformed in little more than a generation into East Asian "tigers":…

  3. The Knowledge Economy and Higher Education: Rankings and Classifications, Research Metrics and Learning Outcomes Measures as a System for Regulating the Value of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the global knowledge economy (the k-economy), comprised by (1) open source knowledge flows and (2) commercial markets in intellectual property and knowledge-intensive goods. Like all economy the global knowledge economy is a site of production. It is also social and cultural, taking the form of a one-world community mediated…

  4. 40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.207-08 Section 600.207-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON...-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. (a) Fuel economy values...

  5. From a Failed-Growth Economy to a Steady-State Economy

    E-print Network

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    From a Failed-Growth Economy to a Steady-State Economy By Herman Daly A steady-state economy of negative growth, a depression such as we are entering now, is a failed-growth economy, not a steady-state-growing or steady-state economy as the only long-run alternative. The level of physical wealth that the biosphere

  6. Predicting Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy as a Function of Highway Speed

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John F; Hwang, Ho-Ling; West, Brian H; Huff, Shean P

    2013-01-01

    The www.fueleconomy.gov website offers information such as window label fuel economy for city, highway, and combined driving for all U.S.-legal light-duty vehicles from 1984 to the present. The site is jointly maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and also offers a considerable amount of consumer information and advice pertaining to vehicle fuel economy and energy related issues. Included with advice pertaining to driving styles and habits is information concerning the trend that as highway cruising speed is increased, fuel economy will degrade. An effort was undertaken to quantify this conventional wisdom through analysis of dynamometer testing results for 74 vehicles at steady state speeds from 50 to 80 mph. Using this experimental data, several simple models were developed to predict individual vehicle fuel economy and its rate of change over the 50-80 mph speed range interval. The models presented require a minimal number of vehicle attributes. The simplest model requires only the EPA window label highway mpg value (based on the EPA specified estimation method for 2008 and beyond). The most complex of these simple model uses vehicle coast-down test coefficients (from testing prescribed by SAE Standard J2263) known as the vehicle Target Coefficients, and the raw fuel economy result from the federal highway test. Statistical comparisons of these models and discussions of their expected usefulness and limitations are offered.

  7. Manual of Scaling Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Thomas H. (Technical Monitor); Anderson, David N.

    2004-01-01

    This manual reviews the derivation of the similitude relationships believed to be important to ice accretion and examines ice-accretion data to evaluate their importance. Both size scaling and test-condition scaling methods employing the resulting similarity parameters are described, and experimental icing tests performed to evaluate scaling methods are reviewed with results. The material included applies primarily to unprotected, unswept geometries, but some discussion of how to approach other situations is included as well. The studies given here and scaling methods considered are applicable only to Appendix-C icing conditions. Nearly all of the experimental results presented have been obtained in sea-level tunnels. Recommendations are given regarding which scaling methods to use for both size scaling and test-condition scaling, and icing test results are described to support those recommendations. Facility limitations and size-scaling restrictions are discussed. Finally, appendices summarize the air, water and ice properties used in NASA scaling studies, give expressions for each of the similarity parameters used and provide sample calculations for the size-scaling and test-condition scaling methods advocated.

  8. Antimatter Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Norm

    2004-05-01

    The Antimatter Economy will bring every country into the 21st century without destroying our environment and turn the Star Trek dream into reality by using antimatter from comets. At the April 2002 joint meeting of the American Physical Society and American Astronomical Society, I announced that comets were composed of antimatter, there were 109 antimatter elements, and the Periodic Table of Elements had been updated to include the antimatter elements. When matter and antimatter come together, energy is produce according to Einstein's equation of mass times the speed of light squared or E = mc2. Antimatter energy creates incredible opportunities for humanity. People in spacecraft will travel to the moon in hours, planets in days, and stars in weeks. Antimatter power will replace fossil plants and produce hydrogen from off-peak electrical power. Hydrogen will supplant gas in cars, trucks, and other vehicles. The billions of ton of coal, billions of barrels of oil, and trillions of cubic feet of natural gas will be used to make trillions of dollars of products to bring countries into the 21st century. Within this millennium, the Worlds Gross National Product will increase from 30 trillion to 3,000 trillion plus 1,500 trillion from space commercialization bringing the Total Gross National Product to 4,500 trillion. Millions of businesses and billions of jobs will be created. However, the real benefits will come from taking billions of people out of poverty and empowering them to pursue their dreams of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. Please visit www.AntimatterEnergy.com.

  9. A Moral Economy of Patents: Case of Finnish Research Universities' Patent Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the concept of moral economy for higher education studies through a study of Finnish research universities' patent policies. Patent policies not only stimulate the commercialization of research, they also set norms for behavior and aim to clarify how to distribute rights…

  10. The "Economy of Memory": Publications, Citations, and the Paradox of Effective Research Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woelert, Peter

    2013-01-01

    More recent advancements in digital technologies have significantly alleviated the dissemination of new scientific ideas as well as the storing, searching and retrieval of large amounts of published research findings. While not denying the benefits of this novel "economy of memory," this paper endeavors to shed light on the ways in which…

  11. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Duleep, K.G.

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer`s surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer`s surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  12. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L. ); Duleep, K.G. )

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer's surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer's surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  13. Economies of Scope in Distance Education: The Case of Chinese Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Fengliang; Chen, Xinlei

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of information technologies, distance education has become "another form of product differentiation in the output mix produced by the multi-product university or college" (Cohn & Cooper, 2004, p. 607). This article aims at analyzing the economies of scope of distance education (as an educational output) in Chinese…

  14. The Political Economy of Post-Secondary Education: A Comparison of British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Donald; Rubenson, Kjell; Jones, Glen; Shanahan, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    A policy sociology approach is taken to examine the connections between neo-liberalism, post-secondary provincial education (PSE) policy in Canada and the impact of those policies. Our thesis regarding the broad political economy of PSE is that over the last two decades the adoption of this ideology has been a major cause of some dramatic changes…

  15. 15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the export control regulations of the Department of Commerce (15 CFR 368.1 through 399.2) issued... control regulations of the Department of Commerce (15 CFR Part 370 (Supplement 1)). (Sec. 411, Pub. L. 93... nonmarket economy countries. 1300.1 Section 1300.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating...

  16. Multiple-baseline analysis of a token economy for psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, G L; Cone, J D

    1979-01-01

    Twelve behaviors selected for reinforcement among 16 chronic psychiatric inpatients were divided into four classes: (a) personal hygiene, (b) personal management, (c) ward work, and (d) social skills. A token economy program was introduced for each class in a sequential, cumulative, multiple-baseline format. Corrections were included for methodological deficiencies frequently enountered in past studies. Treatment variables were systematically monitored, and target behavior rates, levels of global individual functioning, general ward behavior, and off-ward behavior were assessed during baseline, implementation, and probe periods. Results indicated abrupt and substantial increases in performance of most target behaviors, significant improvements in global individual functioning (p less than .025), positive changes in general ward behavior, and increases in social interaction during off-ward activities. The findings provide strong evidence for the efficacy of a token economy and indicate that the multiple-baseline design can be a useful method for evaluating token economy programs. PMID:489481

  17. GENOME SYNTHESIS AND DESIGN FUTURES: IMPLICATIONS FOR SELECTED SECTORS OF THE US ECONOMY

    SciTech Connect

    James Newcomb; Robert Carlson; Todd Harrington; Stephen Aldrich

    2006-12-12

    "Genome Synthesis and Design Futures: Implications for the US Economy" presents the results of a two year bio-era research project analyzing the recent and future impacts of rapid advances in enabling technologies and frameworks for biological engineering. The report includes historical analysis of how technology revolutions unfold, analysis of recent progress in fundamental technologies used for understanding and engineering biological systems; and formal scenarios regarding how these technologies might be expected to develop in the future, and the implications for three significant sectors of the US economy -- energy, chemicals, and vaccines.

  18. The Effect of Social and Token Economy Reinforcements on Academic Achievement of Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Ashoori, Mohammad; Sereshki, Narges Adib

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the effect of social and token economy reinforcements on academic achievement of 9th grade boy students with intellectual disabilities in an experimental science class in Tehran Province. Method The method used for this study was experimental by pre-test, post- test with a control group. The boy students with intellectual disabilities from three junior high schools participated in this study. The sample consisted of thirty, 9th grade boy students with intellectual disabilities in the selected schools; the schools were chosen by the multi-stage cluster method. To measure the progress of students in the science class, a teacher made test and the Wechsler intelligence test for matching the groups for IQ were used. To ensure validity, the content validity criteria depended tests calculated by the Lashe method and teachers' perspective were used. The reliability coefficient was obtained by the reliability coefficient of related tests; the percent agreement method and the obtained data were analyzed using one-way variance analysis and Shefe prosecution test. Results The results showed that there was a significant increase in academic achievement of students with intellectual disabilities when using token economy than using social reinforcements compared with the control group. Also, when using social reinforcements, the academic achievement of students was more than the control group. Conclusion Token economy and social reinforcements increased the academic achievement of students with intellectual disabilities in the science class; and also the effect of token economy reinforcements was more than social reinforcements on the subjects. PMID:22952517

  19. The Role of the Nasal Passages in the Water Economy of Crested Larks and Desert Larks

    E-print Network

    Williams, Jos. B.

    219 The Role of the Nasal Passages in the Water Economy of Crested Larks and Desert Larks B. Irene Neil Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210; 3 Mitrani Center for Desert Ecology, Blaustein Institute for Desert, es- pecially those species occupying desert habitats. However, this hypothesis was originally based

  20. In-use fuel economy of hybrid-electric school buses in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Hallmark, Shauna; Sperry, Bob; Mudgal, Abhisek

    2011-05-01

    Although it is much safer and more fuel-efficient to transport children to school in buses than in private vehicles, school buses in the United States still consume 822 million gal of diesel fuel annually, and school transportation costs can account for a significant portion of resource-constrained school district budgets. Additionally, children in diesel-powered school buses may be exposed to higher levels of particulates and other pollutants than children in cars. One solution to emission and fuel concerns is use of hybrid-electric school buses, which have the potential to reduce emissions and overall lifecycle costs compared with conventional diesel buses. Hybrid-electric technologies are available in the passenger vehicle market as well as the transit bus market and have a track record indicating fuel economy and emissions benefits. This paper summarizes the results of an in-use fuel economy evaluation for two plug-in hybrid school buses deployed in two different school districts in Iowa. Each school district selected a control bus with a route similar to that of the hybrid bus. Odometer readings, fuel consumption, and maintenance needs were recorded for each bus. The buses were deployed in 2008 and data were collected through May 2010. Fuel consumption was calculated for each school district. In Nevada, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.23 mpg for the hybrid and 6.35 mpg for the control bus. In Sigourney, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.94 mpg for the hybrid and 6.42 mpg for the control bus. The fuel consumption data were compared for the hybrid and control buses using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results indicate that fuel economy for the Nevada hybrid bus was 29.6% better than for the Nevada control bus, and fuel economy for the Sigourney hybrid bus was 39.2% higher than for the Sigourney control bus. Both differences were statistically significant. PMID:21608490

  1. The economic impact of shale gas development on state and local economies: benefits, costs, and uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Barth, Jannette M

    2013-01-01

    It is often assumed that natural gas exploration and development in the Marcellus Shale will bring great economic prosperity to state and local economies. Policymakers need accurate economic information on which to base decisions regarding permitting and regulation of shale gas extraction. This paper provides a summary review of research findings on the economic impacts of extractive industries, with an emphasis on peer-reviewed studies. The conclusions from the studies are varied and imply that further research, on a case-by-case basis, is necessary before definitive conclusions can be made regarding both short- and long-term implications for state and local economies. PMID:23552649

  2. Predictors of "New Economy" Career Orientation in an Australian Sample of Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter; Macpherson, Jennifer; Hood, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The authors surveyed 207 late adolescents on measures of new economy career orientation (protean and boundaryless career orientation), career adaptability (planning, self-exploration, environmental exploration, decision making, and self-regulation), disposition (proactive disposition), and environmental support (social support) and hypothesized…

  3. Contribution of the Ethanol Industry to the Economy of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Urbanchuk, John M.

    2008-02-20

    Despite the challenges to profitability the ethanol industry continues to expand. Total ethanol production for 2007 is estimated at nearly 6.5 billion gallons, 33 percent more than 2006. This study estimates the contribution of the ethanol industry to the American economy in 2007.

  4. Role of University-Industry-Government Linkages in the Innovation Processes of a Small Catching-Up Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varblane, Urmas; Mets, Tonis; Ukrainski, Kadri

    2008-01-01

    During the transformation process from a command economy, the extraordinary statist university-industry-government (UIG) linkages model was replaced by an extreme version of laissez-faire relationships. A more modern interaction-based UIG model could be implemented only by changing the whole national innovation system of catching-up economies. The…

  5. Comparison between response dynamics in transition economies and developed economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenenbaum, Joel; Horvati?, Davor; Baji?, Slavica Cosovi?; Pehlivanovi?, Be?o; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-10-01

    In developed economies, the sign of the price increment influences the volatility in an asymmetric fashion—negative increments tend to result in larger volatility (increments with larger magnitudes), while positive increments result in smaller volatility. We explore whether this asymmetry extends from developed economies to European transition economies and, if so, how such asymmetry changes over time as these transition economies develop and mature. We analyze eleven European transition economies and compare the results with those obtained by analyzing U.S. market indices. Specifically, we calculate parameters that quantify both the volatility asymmetry and the strength of its dependence on prior increments. We find that, like their developed economy counterparts, almost all transition economy indices exhibit a significant volatility asymmetry, and the parameter ? characterizing asymmetry fluctuates more over time for transition economies. We also investigate how the association between volatility and volatility asymmetry varies by type of market. We test the hypothesis of a negative correlation between volatility and volatility asymmetry. We find that, for developed economies, ? experiences local minima during (i) “Black Monday” on October 19, 1987, (ii) the dot-com bubble crash in 2002, and (iii) the 2007-2009 global crisis while for transition economies, ? experiences local maxima during times of economic crisis.

  6. My Morning Coffee: The Effect of Climate Change on the Economies of Coffee-Producing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shilling, K.; Brauman, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Through its effect on export crops, climate change will have important effects on economic systems and government capacity in sub-Saharan Africa. We show that climate change effects on three important export crops - coffee, cocoa and cotton - will undermine large portions of the economy, not just the rural farmers who grow these crops. Our analysis is based high-resolution data on crop location, temperature, and water requirements in conjunction with new projections for temperature increases and precipitation changes in sub-Saharan Africa. Our focus on export crops is distinct from most work on the effects of climate change on agriculture, which often focuses on subsistence and food crops. We posit that substantial and important effects on the economy and political systems will come from negative impacts on cash crops, which underpin many economies in sub-Saharan Africa. For instance, 3% of cropland in Uganda (and 2% in Ethiopia) is used for coffee production and over 3.5 million households are involved in the sector; by contrast, 7% of cropland in Uganda (and 11% in Ethiopia) is used for maize, which contributes much less to the formal economy. The relationship between the value of coffee exported and government revenue illustrates the importance of coffee to political and economic stability. A drop in the export value of coffee by 10% in Uganda will drive government revenue down by 20%, and while there is uncertainty around the exact impact of climate change, it is likely that production will take a turn for the worse. We use these factors to assess reliance of select country's economy on these crops, from the farmer to the exporter; the sensitivity of the crops to variation in the climate; and the subsequent impact on government capacity. Our research illustrates how strongly the impacts of climate change are linked to economic and political structures.

  7. The Role of High-Technology Services in the Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matouskova, Zdenka; Czesana, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this paper is to test the ways in which the role of high-technology services (HTS) in the economy of European Union (EU) member countries changes and the extent to which the development of HTS depends on the quality of human resources. Design/methodology/approach: The paper adopts comparative and cluster analysis of

  8. Effects of a transition to a hydrogen economy on employment in the United States Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-07-01

    DOE's Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States Report to Congress estimates the employment effects of a transformation of the U.S. economy to the use of hydrogen in the 2020 to 2050 timeframe. This report fulfills requirements of section 1820 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  9. The Economic Impact of Queen's University Belfast on the Northern Ireland Economy. Higher Education in Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ursula; McNicoll, Iain; White, James

    2015-01-01

    This study provides an analysis of the economic impact of Queen's University Belfast and its students on the Northern Ireland economy. Based in the City of Belfast, the university has over 22,500 students. Its turnover of nearly £290 million makes it Northern Ireland's largest university in terms of its financial standing. With origins going back…

  10. "The Bell Curve": Another Chapter in the Continuing Political Economy of Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Robert G.; Newby, Diane E.

    1995-01-01

    Criticizes Charles Murray's "The Bell Curve" and attempts a more cogent analysis of the respective roles of blacks and the U.S. political economy. Utilizes a sociology of knowledge framework to discuss the evolving nature of blacks in the nation's workforce. Briefly discusses eugenics and the history of racist social theories. (MJP)

  11. Philosophical Education and Cultural Relevance: Discipline-Affirmation in the Context of the Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, David Edward

    2013-01-01

    The following paper proposes a discipline-affirming response to the challenge facing higher education in the context of the knowledge economy. It resists the drive to reduce the value of a humanities based education to the mere production of skills and instead affirms the substantial body of knowledge of specific disciplines. It uses as its model…

  12. "Creative Destruction": Knowledge Economy Policy and the Future of the Arts and Humanities in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullen, Elizabeth; Robb, Simon; Kenway, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Policy conceptualizations of the global knowledge economy have led to the channelling of much Higher Education and Research and Development funding into the priority areas of science and technology. Among other things, this diversion of funding calls into question the future of traditional humanities and creative arts faculties. How these…

  13. Challenges of Engineering Higher Education in a Transitional Economy: A Russian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matveev, Alexei; Matveev, Olga; Zhukov, Vassily

    2005-01-01

    Education and training serve as critical elements of advancement of a nation's economy in transition. The restructuring of the power engineering industry in Russia has called for a fast implementation of new management system in electric power engineering and radical training of professional managers at different levels in organizations.…

  14. The Economic Effect of Education in an Information Technology-Penetrating Economy: Evidence from Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Chi Wai

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the economic effect of education in terms of its impact on the earnings of workers in an information technology (IT)-diffusing economy, based on data from Hong Kong's 2006 by-census and survey on the usage and penetration of IT in industries. Education enhances the productivity of workers and increases their lifetime incomes.…

  15. Book Reviews Local Constraints vs. Economy

    E-print Network

    , the authors summarize the Chomsky 1995 version of global economy in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, they discuss two to replace global economy by local economy, a move that could help alleviate the computational problemBook Reviews Local Constraints vs. Economy David E. Johnson and Shalom Lappin (IBM Thomas J. Watson

  16. Foreign Direct Investment and Trade Openness: The Case of Developing Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liargovas, Panagiotis G.; Skandalis, Konstantinos S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of trade openness for attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows, using a sample of 36 developing economies for the period 1990-2008. It provides a direct test of causality between FDI inflows, trade openness and other key variables in developing regions of the world: Latin America, Asia, Africa, CIS…

  17. Alberta's 2002 Teacher Strike: The Political Economy of Labor Relations in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnetson, Bob

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, approximately two thirds of school teachers in the Canadian province of Alberta went on strike. Drawing on media, government and union documents, this case study reveals some contours of the political economy of labor relations in education that are normally hidden from view. Among these features are that the state can react to worker…

  18. Funding Strategies for Qualitative University Education in Developing Economies: The Case of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinyemi, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    The problem of funding universities in developing economies has become a reoccurring problem often resulting in calamitous effect on teaching and research, and intellectual capital flight of academics. The inadequate funding of universities in developing countries especially West Africa is a prime cause of other problems that have undermined…

  19. 40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-86 Section 600.311-86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-86 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of city and the range of highway...

  20. Advancing the National and Global Knowledge Economy: The Role of Research Universities in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2013-01-01

    Research universities are a central part of all academic systems. They are the key points of international contact and involvement. Research is produced, disseminated and in many cases imported. For developing countries, the mechanisms for the involvement of research universities in the global knowledge economy is complex, and includes issues of

  1. Priorities in Teaching Economic Geography: "Placing" the Economy, Sense of Geograph"ies", Intellectual Bridging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettlinger, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    This paper identifies some personal priorities in teaching economic geography. The author places the economy relationally regarding social, cultural and political dimensions of life; she clarifies different modes of geographic inquiry-geographies; and she taps the breadth of economic geography by including a wide range of substantive topics. She…

  2. The Political Economy of Work in the 21st Century: Implications for an Aging American Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicker, Martin

    The prospective place of the aging worker in the employment environment of the 21st century is examined. The following are among the specific topics discussed: (1) the real world of work and retirement; (2) the changing employment environment; (3) the restructuring of business in the United States; (4) globalization and the economy; (5) downsizing…

  3. The Impact of the Revolution upon Georgia's Economy, 1775-1789.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ready, Milton

    One of a series of pamphlets about effects of the American Revolution in Georgia, this document reviews Georgia's economy during the years 1775-1789. It can be used as supplementary reading or a two-week unit for junior or senior high school students. A brief teacher's guide is included. The main part of the pamphlet relates the political and…

  4. Men's and Women's Quality of Work in the New Canadian Economy. Work Network Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Karen; Lowe, Graham S.; Schellenberg, Grant

    Men's and women's quality of work in the new Canadian economy was examined. The two data sources used were the 2000 Changing Employment Relationships Survey (CERS), which consisted of telephone interviews of 2,500 currently employed Canadian residents aged 18 or older, and the 2000 General Social Survey (GSS), which examined access to and use of

  5. The Use of a Token Economy to Improve Patient Responsibility in an Outpatient Methadone Maintenance Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, John S.; Gambatese, Richard J.

    Previous studies have shown that the use of behavior modification techniques, specifically the use of token reinforcement systems, can produce positive changes in the behavior of heroin addicts within a hospital setting. A token economy program was assessed to determine the effectiveness of such a program with patients in an outpatient methadone…

  6. Immigrants as Refugees of the Global Economy: Learning to Teach (about) Today's Migrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of migration as it is known today must be understood in the larger context of the globalized economy and the "race to the bottom" that characterizes the multinational corporate relationship with the global South. A deeper understanding of the ways in which migration today is rooted in the machinations of the globalized…

  7. Three essays on the effects of oil prices on state economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Wei

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation consists of three chapters that examine the effects of oil prices on state economies. The first chapter, "Asymmetric Effects of Oil Prices on State Economies," examines the impact of oil price changes on state-level income growth. I find strong evidence of asymmetry in the impacts of oil prices and that states vary considerably in terms of sensitivity to oil price shocks. Further analysis shows that states with a higher prevalence of manufacturing and higher coal production are more likely to be negatively affected by positive oil price shocks, while states with a high prevalence of petroleum and natural gas production tend to benefit from positive oil price shocks. The second chapter, "Regime-Switching Analysis of a State Economy's Response to An Oil Price Shock," analyzes the effects of oil price changes on state economies using a smooth transition autoregressive (STAR) approach. States are shown to present differences in both the tolerance and speed of response to an oil price shock. The differences are further explained by state-specific economic characteristics. The third chapter, "Multivariate Unobserved Component Analysis of State Employment with Oil Price Volatility," investigates whether and how oil price volatility affects state employment, with a focus on regional similarities and differences. Results show that oil price volatility has significant negative impacts on most states. Further, states with a higher prevalence of motor vehicle production are likely to experience larger job losses during periods of high oil price volatility.

  8. The Economic Impact of Ulster University on the Northern Ireland Economy. Higher Education in Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ursula; McNicoll, Iain; White, James

    2015-01-01

    This study provides an analysis of the economic impact of Ulster University and its students on the Northern Ireland economy. With over 26,000 students, Ulster University is Northern Ireland's largest university in terms of student numbers. With its headquarters based at the Coleraine Campus, it has three more campuses in Northern Ireland: the…

  9. The Political Economy of Congestion Charges and Settlements in Packet Networks

    E-print Network

    The Political Economy of Congestion Charges and Settlements in Packet Networks William H. Lehr-based pricing in a single network to the case of multiple, competing carriers, and examine the problem to interconnect and invest in network capacity. The tumultuous history of the settlements process for local access

  10. Perfect Competition in Asymmetric Information Economies: Compatibility of Efficiency and Incentives

    E-print Network

    Stephan, Frank

    Perfect Competition in Asymmetric Information Economies: Compatibility of Efficiency and Incentives Yeneng Sun and Nicholas C. Yannelis October 22, 2005 Abstract The idea of perfect competition. The existence of incentive compatible, ex post Walrasian allocations is shown for such a perfectly competitive

  11. Avoiding the Mistakes of the Past: Rejecting Protectionism and Embracing the Global Economy 

    E-print Network

    Gawande, Kishore; LeClere, David

    2014-01-01

    . The plunge in trade that occurred between the second quarter of 2008 and the third quarter of 2009 was the steepest fall of world trade in recorded history. By rejecting protectionism, and by embracing the global economy through initiatives like NAFTA...

  12. Intergovernmental Conference on Education and the Economy in a Changing Society: Conclusions of the Chairman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, John

    This document summarizes the findings reported at the Intergovernmental Conference on Education and the Economy in a Changing Society, which was held in Paris, France in March, 1988. Provided is the text of the concluding remarks of John Dawkins, the Australian Minister for Employment, Education, and Training, who is also the Chairman of the…

  13. The Knowledge Economy, the Techno-Preneur and the Problematic Future of the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth; Robb, Simon

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge economy policies are currently very powerful drivers of change in contemporary university approaches to research. They typically orientate universities to a national innovation system which both positions knowledge as the key factor of economic growth and sees the main purpose of knowledge as contributing to such growth. In this article,…

  14. The Meaning of Foreign Investment in the Chinese Economy. Training Discussion Paper No. 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Claudio de Moura

    As the Chinese economy opens up to the outside world, the decision to engage in joint ventures with foreign capital is among the most important national policies. Significant direct consequences of joint ventures are the influx of foreign capital, expanding exports, and employment creation. However, the great importance of joint ventures lies in…

  15. Community Service and University Roles: An Action Research Based on the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuangchalerm, Prasart; Chansirisira, Pacharawit

    2012-01-01

    This study employs action research to develop community service through university roles by applying the philosophy of sufficiency economy of His Majesty the King Bhumibol Adulyadej to fulfill villagers' way of life. Participatory learning, seminar, field trip and supervision were employed for strategic plan. Data were collected by participatory…

  16. The New Economies of the Redwood Region in the 21st

    E-print Network

    activity associated with redwood parks. The recreational and tourism economy of the region has been and environmental trends is the increase in rural residential land use in redwood forests. Most of the redwood. Key words: economics, land use, parks, timber, tourism Introduction The redwood region of California

  17. The Westernization of Arab Pedagogies: Abu Dhabi Attempts to Move towards a Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrystall, Steve

    2014-01-01

    As the oil reserves in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are forecast to become depleted over the next 50 to 150 years, the emirate of Abu Dhabi has set a vision to develop a knowledge economy in order to develop alternative sources of revenue in areas such as tourism, alternative energy and innovative business enterprises. Reformation of its…

  18. The Economy of Literacy: How the Supreme Court Stalled the Civil Rights Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prendergast, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes three landmark Supreme Court cases in which the value of literacy and the reality of racial discrimination were contested. Concludes that there is an ideology in which the economy of literacy is regarded as white property and argues that these court decisions have stalled the civil rights movement. (Contains 59 references.) (SK)

  19. The political economy of oil in post-Soviet Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omarova, Saule Tarikhovna

    This dissertation examines the way in which the Kazakhstani state redefined its role in managing oil and gas resources between 1992 and 1998. The governments of hydrocarbon-rich post-Soviet republics such as Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan faced the common challenge of restructuring their petroleum industries to boost the export of oil and gas. This study argues that by 1998 three patterns have emerged, ranging from a more radical state retrenchment in Russia, to reinforced state monopoly in Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, to a "mixed" pattern of state participation in Kazakhstan, consisting of both large-scale privatization of oil assets and the formation of a fully state-owned national oil company, Kazakhoil. This dissertation analyzes the process of restructuring Kazakhstan's oil sector through comparison with the Russian petroleum industry. In Russia, several private, vertically integrated oil companies (VICs) were formed on the basis of existing oil-producing units and soon emerged as essential players in the Russian oil sector. By contrast, Kazakhstan's marginalized status within the Soviet system of oil production resulted in the absence of organizationally strong sectoral interests capable of claiming control over the industry after the independence. Privatization of Kazakhstan's oil enterprises, conducted by the government in spite of the resistance from local oil managers, transferred controlling stakes to foreign investors and further weakened domestic oil interests. Unencumbered state autonomy allowed the increasingly authoritarian Kazakhstani government to adopt relatively modern and investor-friendly petroleum legislation by decree. In Russia, the government's efforts to reform oil-related legislation were blocked by the leftist-dominated Duma, the democratically elected lower chamber of the Russian parliament. On the basis of these findings, this dissertation concludes that the dynamics of state withdrawal from the oil sector in post-Soviet context are determined primarily by structural organization of domestic oil industry inherited from the Soviet era, resulting balance of power between the state and private sectoral actors, and general mode of state-society relations in each country.

  20. [Health and the green economy: challenges for sustainable development and the eradication of poverty].

    PubMed

    Gallo, Edmundo; Setti, Andréia Faraoni Freitas; Magalhães, Danielly de Paiva; Machado, Jorge Mesquita Huet; Buss, Daniel Forsin; Franco Netto, Francisco de Abreu; Buss, Paulo Marchiori

    2012-06-01

    In a scenario where ecosystemic services are being eroded and there is high social inequity, a new model of development is necessary, namely one capable of promoting social development with a reduction of its ecological footprint. The 'Green Economy' model is one of the proposed models. This paper seeks to analyze the environmental, social and individual impacts on human health in the context of a 'brown economy', and discusses the contributions of a green economy on the promotion of equity and health. The assumption is that economic development and environmental sustainability are not incompatible and both contribute to the eradication of poverty. The transition to a sustainable economy depends on political decisions, and transcends technological developments. Above all, it should instigate new models of production, consumption and social organization, which promote socio-environmental justice, encouraging social participation and democratic forms of governance to define a solid agenda for the implementation of sustainable development and mechanisms to implement them at all levels. PMID:22699637

  1. Mass impacts on fuel economies of conventional vs. hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    An, F.; Santini, D. J.; Energy Systems

    2004-01-01

    The strong correlation between vehicle weight and fuel economy for conventional vehicles (CVs) is considered common knowledge, and the relationship of mass reduction to fuel consumption reduction for conventional vehicles (CVs) is often cited without separating effects of powertrain vs. vehicle body (glider), nor on the ground of equivalent vehicle performance level. This paper challenges the assumption that this relationship is easily summarized. Further, for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) the relationship between mass, performance and fuel consumption is not the same as for CVs, and vary with hybrid types. For fully functioning (all wheel regeneration) hybrid vehicles, where battery pack and motor(s) have enough power and energy storage, a very large fraction of kinetic energy is recovered and engine idling is effectively eliminated. This paper assesses two important impacts of shifting from conventional to hybrid vehicles in terms of the mass vs. fuel economy relationship - (1) significant improvements in fuel economy with little or no change in mass, and (2) once a switch to hybrid powertrains has been made, the effectiveness of mass reduction in improving fuel economy will be diminished relative to conventional vehicles. In this paper, we discuss vehicle tractive load breakdowns and impacts of hybridization on vehicle efficiency, discuss capture of kinetic energy by conversion to electrical energy via regenerative braking, assess benefits of shutting off the engine when the vehicle does not require power, and investigate energy losses associated with vehicle mass.

  2. 78 FR 77489 - Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy Submission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy Submission of... the U.S. Economy. The investigation was instituted under section 332(g) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19... United States in industries particularly affected by Indian trade, investment, or industrial policies....

  3. 78 FR 2690 - Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part I; Institution of Investigation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part I; Institution of Investigation and Scheduling of... investigation No. 332-531, Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part I, for the purpose of preparing... will deliver two reports to the Committee. The first report, Digital Trade in the U.S and...

  4. 76 FR 65694 - Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ...After consideration of public comments, the Department of Commerce (``the Department'') is hereby adopting a refinement in its practice with respect to the rate at which it instructs U.S. Customs and Border Protection (``CBP'') to liquidate certain non-reviewed entries. Specifically, the Department is refining its practice to instruct CBP to liquidate such entries at the non-market economy......

  5. Creating Prosperity: The Role of Higher Education in Driving the UK's Creative Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of research commissioned by Universities UK into the role and contribution of higher education in the UK's creative economy. The research gathered evidence from existing data and research as well as case study analysis and contributions from industry, higher education and public sector partners. The findings…

  6. Sulfur Economy and Cell Wall Biosynthesis during Sulfur Limitation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1

    E-print Network

    Sulfur Economy and Cell Wall Biosynthesis during Sulfur Limitation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1 that specifically accumulate during sulfur limitation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. These polypeptides, present at high levels in the extracellular polypeptide fraction from a sulfur-deprived, cell wall-minus C

  7. Neopoints, and Neo Economies: Emergent Regimes of Value in Kids Peer-to-Peer Networks

    E-print Network

    Ito, Mimi

    Neopoints, and Neo Economies: Emergent Regimes of Value in Kids Peer-to-Peer Networks Mimi Ito' of childhood in such contexts involves kids gradually and receptively absorbing the culture and values, and one that we expect is shared by many people who spend time with kids is that they have never been

  8. Economy on the Minds of For Profit CEOs: Annual Status Report on For Profit Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Considering how bad the economy was in 2009, North America's 50 largest for profit child care chains fared pretty well. In fact, about half of these organizations actually expanded their capacity in 2009--although the expansion was not spectacular, averaging just under 3%. About one-fourth of the organizations maintained their capacity and a…

  9. Widening the Gap: Pre-University Gap Years and the "Economy of Experience"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Sue

    2007-01-01

    Embarking upon a pre-university gap year is an increasingly popular option among British students. Drawing on Brown et al.'s work on positional conflict theory and the increased importance of the "economy of experience", this paper seeks to explore this growing popularity and argues that the gap year's enhanced profile raises important questions…

  10. The Global Economy and Changes in the Determinants of Cross-National Income Inequality

    E-print Network

    Morris, Theresa M.

    1999-04-01

    economic changes,stemming from the collapse of the Bretton Woods system in 1971 and the OPEC oil crisis in 1973 and 1974, occurred in the global economy. Data from two cohorts of countries are used to test these theories. The first cohort contains thirty...

  11. 40 CFR 600.510-86 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for Model Year 1978 Passenger Automobiles and for 1979 and Later Model Year Automobiles (Light... category of light trucks which is defined in § 600.511(e)(1) and has two-wheel drive. (4) An average fuel... has four-wheel drive. (5) An average fuel economy calculation will be made for the category of...

  12. HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE OWNERSHIP AND FUEL ECONOMY ACROSS TEXAS: AN APPLICATION OF SPATIAL MODELS

    E-print Network

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE OWNERSHIP AND FUEL ECONOMY ACROSS TEXAS: AN APPLICATION OF SPATIAL MODELS of automobiles, and fuel-efficient hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are achieving some marketplace success (Keith-efficient vehicles, including #12;hybrid EVs, are also more inclined to purchase plug-in EVs, these findings can

  13. The Status and Contributions of American Women in the Economy, 1950-1953.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyserling, Mary Dublin

    Although the role of women in the American economy has come a long way in the years since 1950, women have made relatively little progress in quite a number of areas. In the years during and after World War II, women's employment has increased significantly, with married women being the ones who have entered the work force most rapidly. Despite…

  14. Concentrates, lubricant compositions and methods for improving fuel economy of internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlin, W.B.

    1982-04-27

    Fuel economy of internal combustion engines, especially gasoline engines, is improved by lubricating such engines with specific lubricant compositions in which the essential ingredients are a specific sulfurized composition and a basic alkali metal sulfonate. Additional ingredients may include at least one oildispersible detergent or dispersant, a viscosity improving agent, and a specific salt of a phosphorus acid.

  15. 78 FR 12787 - Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2; Institution of Investigation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... Federal Register of January 14, 2013 (78 FR 2690). The Commission will transmit its report to the... COMMISSION Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2; Institution of Investigation and..., Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2. The Commission's report in this investigation...

  16. Universities and Education in the Post-Recession Economy: Report of a Seminar Organised by Universities UK. Seminar Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Conor

    2010-01-01

    Universities UK organised a seminar in Brighton in April 2010, bringing together vice-chancellors, researchers and policymakers to take a close look at the implications of the global and national economic crisis for both the UK economy and higher education. It also examined the changing nature of student demand in a post-recession economy. This…

  17. Estimating the Economic Impact of a College or University on a Nonlocal Economy. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Troy

    This study presents an expanded methodology for economic impact analysis to measure the impact of a community college, South Plains College (SPC), Texas, on a specified nonlocal economy. The research had four parts. First an economic impact study was conducted for SPC and its impact on the local economy of Hockley County, where the college is…

  18. Intra-Sectoral Diversity: A Political Economy of Thai Private Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praphamontripong, Prachayani

    2010-01-01

    Private higher education (PHE) worldwide has been a rapid development in the last several decades. The private sector will continue to grow, diversify and undoubtedly play a significant role in the political economy of higher education. Nevertheless, systematically empirical studies on the trio relationships among PHE, institutional diversity and…

  19. Determining Value in Higher Education: The Future of Instructional Technology in a Wal-Mart Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Wilfred

    1992-01-01

    Discusses value and the economy and examines the changing definition of educational value regarding higher education. Trends in instructional technology resulting from changes in expected educational value are described, including resource sharing, specialization, market expansion, privatization, easier human-machine interfaces, feedback systems,…

  20. Explaining Long-Run Changes in the Energy Intensity of the U.S. Economy

    E-print Network

    Sue Wing, Ian.

    Recent events have revived interest in explaining the long-run changes in the energy intensity of the U.S. economy. We use a KLEM dataset for 35 industries over 39 years to decompose changes in the aggregate energy-GDP ...

  1. The Global Impact of the Systemic Economies and MENA Business Cycles

    E-print Network

    Cashin, Paul; Mohaddes, Kamiar; Raissi, Mehdi

    2012-11-01

    Council (GCC) countries and MENA oil exporters to the rest of the world. This analysis is based on a Global Vector Autoregression (GVAR) model, estimated for 38 countries/regions over the period 1979Q2 to 2011Q2. Spillovers are transmitted across economies...

  2. The New Kids on the Block: The Entry of Private Business Schools in Transition Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Evan; Vodopoviec, Milan

    2003-01-01

    When the transition to market economy began, there was an unsatisfied demand for business education. A supply response has occurred, but business education is still developing. The authors argue that private schools can help mobilize resources and increase the quality and accessibility of business education. Drawing on surveys covering 15…

  3. The Economic Impact of Mississippi Valley State University on the Local Economy, 1992-93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Debra; And Others

    This study used an American Council on Education model to determine the economic impact of Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU) on the local economy. Data were gathered from university fiscal records and questionnaires disseminated among three university constituent groups: faculty and staff, students, and alumni. Each group was asked to…

  4. Fuel Economy Comparisons of Series, Parallel and HMT Hydraulic Hybrid Architectures

    E-print Network

    Li, Perry Y.

    designs and the engine/energy management. Physical design variables include pump/motor sizes and gear economies are compared for the "optimal" design for each architecture which considers both the physical ratios. The effect of pump/motors efficiencies, extra gears and different engine efficiency maps are also

  5. The Potential of Singapore's Ability Driven Education to Prepare Students for a Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the attempt by the Singapore government to introduce a new education paradigm to prepare students for success in a knowledge economy. The paper highlights the policy statements and changes for a new paradigm known as an Ability Driven Education (ADE) in Singapore. The ADE, launched as part of the Thinking Schools, Learning…

  6. The Knowledge Economy in the Context of European Union Policy on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zantout, Hind; Dabir-Alai, Parviz

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, EU policy-makers have acknowledged the role of universities in supporting the knowledge economy and a common approach on higher education has been evolving. The problem faced is one single market with widely varying higher education systems. The ongoing drive to examine, assess and change the existing status quo began with the…

  7. An Agent-Based Model of a Minimal Economy Christopher K. Chan and Ken Steiglitz

    E-print Network

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    in the completely closed economic system. 1 Introduction The market economy can be viewed as a complex adaptive The term "complex adaptive system" was coined by Gell-Mann (1994) and Holland (1995). Tesfatsion (2006) details how the agent-based methodology ties into the study of complex adaptive systems

  8. The American Economy: A Fuse About to Blow? Fundamentals of Free Enterprise, No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Fletcher National Bank and Trust Co., Indianapolis, IN.

    Designed for high school economics students as a public service project of the American Fletcher National Bank, the booklet examines the heavy burdens placed on our political-economic system and compares our economy to an overloaded electrical system about to "blow a fuse." In the last two decades, America has become a self-indulgent society which…

  9. The Political Economy of the Mexican Farm Labor Program, 1942-64

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Joon

    2004-01-01

    The Mexican Farm Labor Program brought in an unprecedented number of Mexican workers to perform harvesting jobs in U.S. agriculture between 1942 and 1964. A political economy perspective is used to examine the process by which U.S. agriculture has come to depend on Mexican workers.

  10. Political Economy Graduate Certificate c/o Department of Political Science

    E-print Network

    Political Economy Graduate Certificate c/o Department of Political Science Clark C346 Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO 80523-1782 Phone: 970-491-5157 Fax: 970-491-2490 Email: dimitris: ______________________ Student Phone: _____________________ Committee Chair (**): ________________ Certificate Advisor

  11. The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Teachers, Parents and the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MetLife, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    "The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Teachers, Parents and the Economy" (2011) examines the teaching profession and parent-school engagement at a time when there has been a prolonged economic downturn. The survey explores how teachers, parents and schools are working together to promote student learning and healthy development in the…

  12. 40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and vehicles equipped with hydrogen... the all electric driving range for battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. (f... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR......

  13. 40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and vehicles equipped with hydrogen... the all electric driving range for battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. (f... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR......

  14. Rural Pennsylvania in the New Economy: Identifying the Causes of Growth and Developing New Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Martin; Vivanco, Carolina

    2004-01-01

    Pennsylvania, like the United States, experienced a remarkable economic expansion through the late 1990s. The significant growth and change of this decade, however, did not equally touch all regions and all industries. Traditional sectors continued to decline, while growth in what has been dubbed the "new economy," considered to be the emerging…

  15. 78 FR 54677 - Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy; Institution of... India: Effects on the U.S. Economy. DATES: January 21, 2014: Deadline for filing requests to appear at... Commission conduct an investigation regarding Indian industrial policies that discriminate against...

  16. An empirical study on the spatial distribution of the population, economy and water resources in Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Conglin; Liu, Yu; Qiao, Haijuan

    The relationship among the population, economy and water resources is complex, and the contradictions and conflicts will appear and aggravate with the rapid development of economy and society in Northeast China. Based on the statistical analysis of the available data, this paper depicted the static distribution characteristics of the population, economy and water resources of Northeast China in 2011. It was found that the spatial distribution of the population, economy and water resources was unbalanced in Northeast China. The water resources mismatched with the population and economy. The population and economy were relatively dense and developed in the southwestern part of Northeast China respectively, while the water resources was relatively scarce. However, the situations in the northern part of Northeast China were opposite to those in the southwestern part. The population-economy inconsistence indexes of the cities in northern part of Northeast China showed a significant trend of spatial aggregation and heterogeneity. The cities with lower (<1.5) and higher (>1) inconsistence indexes all faced the problem of water resources shortage. Applying geometric gravity center method and grey correlation model, the result indicated that there was relatively high spatial relevance and the relative deviation among the spatial dynamic distributions of the population, economy and water resources was large. The gravity centers of economy and per capita average annual total water resources moved westward, while the gravity center of population gravity center moved eastward in the period of 1997-2011 in Northeast China. It must be noted that, the migration trend of the economy gravity center was more significant than those of the population and water resources.

  17. Beyond interdependence: The meshing of the world`s economy and the earth`s ecology

    SciTech Connect

    MacNeill, J.; Winsemius, P.; Yakushiji, T.

    1991-12-31

    Many fine books were written in preparation for the Earth Summit in Rio de Janiero in June 1992. Among the best of them is Beyond Interdependence, prepared under the sponsorship of the trilateral commission and principally authored by Jim MacNeill. The book is solid, factual, and clear in structure and format. As most readers would now expect, a central thesis is the imperative of sustainable development. The authors happily avoid any detailed discussion of the range of alternative meanings of sustainability or sustainable development, but that is no loss since the broader that umbrella term is, the more effective it will be in recruiting an advocacy base. The authors advocate changes that are primarily institutional. Another key point is that environmental issues often arise or are first detected locally and tend to be seen at first as small-scale pollution problems. Another of the authors` interesting conclusions is that the concept of national security needs to be broadened to include environmental degradation, resource depletion, and access to reserves of energy and other raw materials. There are weaknesses in the report, however. It is fundamentally an institutional report to other institutions, and therefore it offers nothing by way of radical solutions. They are inattentive to the core problem underlying all global economic and ecological issues, and that is population. The authors treat it as almost incidental rather than as core to a troubled future. Nevertheless, these shortcomings are by no means crippling. This outstandingly well-written and illustrated book should inform many people about the broad outlines and in some engaging detail of the emerging crises that we face should we fail to bring the economy and ecology into symbiosis.

  18. The effects of carbon tax on the Oregon economy and state greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, A. L.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Renfro, J.; Liu, J.

    2014-12-01

    Of the numerous mechanisms to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions on statewide, regional or national scales in the United States, a tax on carbon is perhaps one of the simplest. By taxing emissions directly, the costs of carbon emissions are incorporated into decision-making processes of market actors including consumers, energy suppliers and policy makers. A carbon tax also internalizes the social costs of climate impacts. In structuring carbon tax revenues to reduce corporate and personal income taxes, the negative incentives created by distortionary income taxes can be reduced or offset entirely. In 2008, the first carbon tax in North America across economic sectors was implemented in British Columbia through such a revenue-neutral program. In this work, we investigate the economic and environmental effects of a carbon tax in the state of Oregon with the goal of informing the state legislature, stakeholders and the public. The study investigates 70 different economic sectors in the Oregon economy and six geographical regions of the state. The economic model is built upon the Carbon Tax Analysis Model (C-TAM) to provide price changes in fuel with data from: the Energy Information Agency National Energy Modeling System (EIA-NEMS) Pacific Region Module which provides Oregon-specific energy forecasts; and fuel price increases imposed at different carbon fees based on fuel-specific carbon content and current and projected regional-specific electricity fuel mixes. CTAM output is incorporated into the Regional Economic Model (REMI) which is used to dynamically forecast economic impacts by region and industry sector including: economic output, employment, wages, fiscal effects and equity. Based on changes in economic output and fuel demand, we further project changes in greenhouse gas emissions resulting from economic activity and calculate revenue generated through a carbon fee. Here, we present results of this modeling effort under different scenarios of carbon fee and avenues for revenue repatriation.

  19. Market study for direct utilization of geothermal resources by selected sectors of economy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    A comprehensive analysis is presented of industrial markets potential for direct use of geothermal energy by a total of six industry sectors: food and kindred products; tobacco manufactures; textile mill products; lumber and wood products (except furniture); chemicals and allied products; and leather and leather products. A brief statement is presented regarding sectors of the economy and major manufacturing processes which can readily utilize direct geothermal energy. Previous studies on plant location determinants are summarized and appropriate empirical data provided on plant locations. Location determinants and potential for direct use of geothermal resources are presented. The data was gathered through interviews with 30 senior executives in the six sectors of economy selected for study. Probable locations of plants in geothermal resource areas and recommendations for geothermal resource marketing are presented. Appendix A presents factors which impact on industry location decisions. Appendix B presents industry executives interviewed during the course of this study. (MHR)

  20. Production of biofuels and biomolecules in the framework of circular economy: A regional case study.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Nicolas; Haubruge, Eric; Richel, Aurore

    2015-12-01

    Faced to the economic and energetic context of our society, it is widely recognised that an alternative to fossil fuels and oil-based products will be needed in the nearest future. In this way, development of urban biorefinery could bring many solutions to this problem. Study of the implementation of urban biorefinery highlights two sustainable configurations that provide solutions to the Walloon context by promoting niche markets, developing circular economy and reducing transport of supply feedstock. First, autonomous urban biorefineries are proposed, which use biological waste for the production of added value molecules and/or finished products and are energetically self-sufficient. Second, integrated urban biorefineries, which benefit from an energy supply from a nearby industrial activity. In the Walloon economic context, these types of urban biorefineries could provide solutions by promoting niche markets, developing a circular economy model, optimise the transport of supply feedstock and contribute to the sustainable development. PMID:26574581

  1. [ Journal of Political Economy, 2006, vol. 114, no. 4] 2006 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved. 0022-3808/2006/11404-0007$10.00

    E-print Network

    Kotchen, Matthew J.

    and biodiversity conservation. More generally, green markets are expanding in many sectors of the economy816 [ Journal of Political Economy, 2006, vol. 114, no. 4] 2006 by The University of Chicago. All public goods in the economy. The distinguishing feature of these markets--hereafter referred to as "green

  2. Long-run evolution of the global economy - Part 2: Hindcasts of innovation and growth

    E-print Network

    Garrett, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Long-range climate forecasts use integrated assessment models to link the global economy to greenhouse gas emissions. This paper evaluates an alternative economic framework outlined in part 1 of this study (Garrett, 2014) that approaches the global economy using purely physical principles rather than explicitly resolved societal dynamics. If this model is initialized with economic data from the 1950s, it yields hindcasts for how fast global economic production and energy consumption grew between 2000 and 2010 with skill scores > 90 % relative to a model of persistence in trends. The model appears to attain high skill partly because there was a strong impulse of discovery of fossil fuel energy reserves in the mid-twentieth century that helped civilization to grow rapidly as a deterministic physical response. Forecasting the coming century may prove more of a challenge because the effect of the energy impulse appears to have nearly run its course. Nonetheless, an understanding of the external forces that drive ...

  3. Transient fluctuation of the prosperity of firms in a network economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeno, Yoshiharu

    2013-08-01

    The transient fluctuation of the prosperity of firms in a network economy is investigated with an abstract stochastic model. The model describes the profit which firms make when they sell materials to a firm which produces a product and the fixed cost expense to the firms to produce those materials and product. The formulas for this model are parallel to those for population dynamics. The swinging changes in the fluctuation in the transient state from the initial growth to the final steady state are the consequence of a topology-dependent time trial competition between the profitable interactions and expense. The firm in a sparse random network economy is more likely to go bankrupt than expected from the value of the limit of the fluctuation in the steady state, and there is a risk of failing to reach by far the less fluctuating steady state.

  4. Rubber tappers of the Upper Juruá River, Brazil: the making of a forest peasant economy

    E-print Network

    Barbosa de Almeida, Mauro William

    1993-03-16

    regional exports in value (£7,000), followed by sarsaparilla. Rubber occupied a modest fifth place, with a total value of less than a thousand pounds sterling, less significant than tobacco, copaiba oil, Brazil nuts and mixira (turtle wax) (Tavares... , BRAZIL The Making of a Forest Peasant Economy Mauro William Barbosa de Almeida Darwin College A dissertation submitted by a candidate to the Ph.D. degree at the University of Cambridge 1992 RUBBER TAPPERS OF THE UPPER JURUA RIVER, BRAZIL...

  5. Playing the Scales: Regional Transformations and the Differentiation of Rural Space in the Chilean Wine Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, John; Murray, Warwick E.

    2011-01-01

    Globalization and industrial restructuring transform rural places in complex and often contradictory ways. These involve both quantitative changes, increasing the size and scope of operation to achieve economies of scale, and qualitative shifts, sometimes leading to a shift up the quality/price scale, towards finer spatial resolution and…

  6. Political economy of natural resources: water scarcity in the High Plains region of the US

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    This dissertation demonstrates the inadequacy of conventional neoclassical economic theories to explain natural resource depletion in a market economy. That theoretical perspective claims that the worry over depletion and scarcity of natural resources results from treating them as unique inputs in the production process. Accordingly, it finds that special controls designed to ration natural resources often lead to erroneous and unintended impacts. An alternative view presented in this dissertation provides a political economic explanation for natural resource scarcity. Importantly, natural resource scarcity and exhaustion result from specific historical developments which define the limits of economic activity. There are conditions unique to a particular nonrenewable resource that determines whether it will be exhausted. A political economic assessment of natural resource depletion utilizing a case study of the High Plains and the declining groundwater in the Ogallala Aquifer finds that exhaustion results from the conflicts and contradictions inherent in a market economy and the structural impediments preventing the state from instituting resource conservation policies.

  7. Space benefits: The secondary application of aerospace technology in other sectors of the economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A benefits briefing notebook is presented for the NASA Technology Utilization Office in which 515 applications of NASA aerospace technology to other sections of the economy are described. An overview of technology transfer is given. Benefit cases are cited in 19 categories along with pertinent information, such as communication link, DRI transfer example file, and individual case number. General, organization, geographic, and field center indexes are provided.

  8. Development of Aspen: A microanalytic simulation model of the US economy

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, R.J.; Basu, N.; Quint, T.

    1996-02-01

    This report describes the development of an agent-based microanalytic simulation model of the US economy. The microsimulation model capitalizes on recent technological advances in evolutionary learning and parallel computing. Results are reported for a test problem that was run using the model. The test results demonstrate the model`s ability to predict business-like cycles in an economy where prices and inventories are allowed to vary. Since most economic forecasting models have difficulty predicting any kind of cyclic behavior. These results show the potential of microanalytic simulation models to improve economic policy analysis and to provide new insights into underlying economic principles. Work already has begun on a more detailed model.

  9. Macroeconomics in an open economy.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R N

    1986-09-12

    The customary treatment of national economies as closed and self-contained must be substantially modified to allow for those economies that typically trade goods, services, and securities with other countries in increasing volume. Open economy macroeconomics is essential to understanding the major events of the U.S. economy over the past half dozen years. Both the sharp rise in the dollar and the unprecedentedly large U.S. trade deficit are linked to the U.S. budget deficit, as is the drop in the rate of inflation. PMID:17756868

  10. False optimism for the hydrogen economy and the potential of biofuels and advanced energy storage to reduce domestic greenhouse gas emissions

    E-print Network

    Foster, Rory, 1982-

    2004-01-01

    Discussion of the general domestic energy situation addresses the motivations which underlie the push for an hydrogen energy economy. The validity of claims about such a hydrogen economy and the official DOE position ...

  11. Some evidence on determinants of fuel economy as a function of driving cycle and test type

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.

    1993-08-01

    Statistical methods are used with 107 vehicles whose fuel economy was presented and reported for five test types in a single publication by Consumers Union (CU) for 1986--1988 vehicles. Standard loglinear statistical formulations (i.e., multiplicative models of interactions) are used with data from this and supplementary sources to develop coefficients estimating the percent fuel economy gain per percent change in engine/vehicle design characteristic. The coefficients are developed for the five different test conditions evaluated by CU and are compared with each other on the basis of attributes of the tests. The insights of engineering models are used to develop expectations regarding the shift in size of coefficients as driving cycles change. In both the engineering models and the statistical model, the effect of weight is estimated to be higher in urban driving than in highway driving. For two test categories -- field tests and dynamometer tests -- the benefits of weight reduction are statistically estimated to be greatest in urban driving conditions. The effect on idle fuel flow rate of designing vehicles to hold performance roughly constant by maintaining power per kilogram and/or displacement per kilogram is examined, and its implication for the size of the weight effect is simply approximated from Sovran`s 1983 engineering model results. The fuel-economy-decreasing effect of the desire for performance is estimated to be somewhat larger in the statistical analysis than in the NAS study, when engine technology is held constant.

  12. Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; LaClair, Tim J; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E; Franzese, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    We present simulated fuel economy and emissions city transit buses powered by conventional diesel engines and diesel-hybrid electric powertrains of varying size. Six representative city drive cycles were included in the study. In addition, we included previously published aftertreatment device models for control of CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Our results reveal that bus hybridization can significantly enhance fuel economy by reducing engine idling time, reducing demands for accessory loads, exploiting regenerative braking, and shifting engine operation to speeds and loads with higher fuel efficiency. Increased hybridization also tends to monotonically reduce engine-out emissions, but trends in the tailpipe (post-aftertreatment) emissions involve more complex interactions that significantly depend on motor size and drive cycle details.

  13. The Effect of Training in Minimalist Running Shoes on Running Economy

    PubMed Central

    Ridge, Sarah T.; Standifird, Tyler; Rivera, Jessica; Johnson, A. Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike; Hunter, Iain

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of minimalist running shoes on oxygen uptake during running before and after a 10-week transition from traditional to minimalist running shoes. Twenty-five recreational runners (no previous experience in minimalist running shoes) participated in submaximal VO2 testing at a self-selected pace while wearing traditional and minimalist running shoes. Ten of the 25 runners gradually transitioned to minimalist running shoes over 10 weeks (experimental group), while the other 15 maintained their typical training regimen (control group). All participants repeated submaximal VO2 testing at the end of 10 weeks. Testing included a 3 minute warm-up, 3 minutes of running in the first pair of shoes, and 3 minutes of running in the second pair of shoes. Shoe order was randomized. Average oxygen uptake was calculated during the last minute of running in each condition. The average change from pre- to post-training for the control group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 3.1 ± 15.2% and 2.8 ± 16.2%, respectively. The average change from pre- to post-training for the experimental group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 8.4 ± 7.2% and 10.4 ± 6.9%, respectively. Data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant interaction effects, but the overall improvement in running economy across time (6.15%) was significant (p = 0.015). Running in minimalist running shoes improves running economy in experienced, traditionally shod runners, but not significantly more than when running in traditional running shoes. Improvement in running economy in both groups, regardless of shoe type, may have been due to compliance with training over the 10-week study period and/or familiarity with testing procedures. Key points Running in minimalist footwear did not result in a change in running economy compared to running in traditional footwear prior to 10 weeks of training. Both groups (control and experimental) showed an improvement in running economy in both types of shoes after 10 weeks of training. After transitioning to minimalist running shoes, running economy was not significantly different while running in traditional or minimalist footwear. PMID:26336352

  14. The Effect of Training in Minimalist Running Shoes on Running Economy.

    PubMed

    Ridge, Sarah T; Standifird, Tyler; Rivera, Jessica; Johnson, A Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike; Hunter, Iain

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of minimalist running shoes on oxygen uptake during running before and after a 10-week transition from traditional to minimalist running shoes. Twenty-five recreational runners (no previous experience in minimalist running shoes) participated in submaximal VO2 testing at a self-selected pace while wearing traditional and minimalist running shoes. Ten of the 25 runners gradually transitioned to minimalist running shoes over 10 weeks (experimental group), while the other 15 maintained their typical training regimen (control group). All participants repeated submaximal VO2 testing at the end of 10 weeks. Testing included a 3 minute warm-up, 3 minutes of running in the first pair of shoes, and 3 minutes of running in the second pair of shoes. Shoe order was randomized. Average oxygen uptake was calculated during the last minute of running in each condition. The average change from pre- to post-training for the control group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 3.1 ± 15.2% and 2.8 ± 16.2%, respectively. The average change from pre- to post-training for the experimental group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 8.4 ± 7.2% and 10.4 ± 6.9%, respectively. Data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant interaction effects, but the overall improvement in running economy across time (6.15%) was significant (p = 0.015). Running in minimalist running shoes improves running economy in experienced, traditionally shod runners, but not significantly more than when running in traditional running shoes. Improvement in running economy in both groups, regardless of shoe type, may have been due to compliance with training over the 10-week study period and/or familiarity with testing procedures. Key pointsRunning in minimalist footwear did not result in a change in running economy compared to running in traditional footwear prior to 10 weeks of training.Both groups (control and experimental) showed an improvement in running economy in both types of shoes after 10 weeks of training.After transitioning to minimalist running shoes, running economy was not significantly different while running in traditional or minimalist footwear. PMID:26336352

  15. The economy of the United States is increasingly globalized and knowledge driven, resulting in a higher demand for college credentials. However, many citizens have not completed postsecondary certificates

    E-print Network

    Chen, Deming

    The economy of the United States is increasingly globalized and knowledge driven, resulting for the nation to compete in the knowledge-based, global economy; from a sociocultural perspective, an educated

  16. 40 CFR 600.314-08 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST...

  17. European economies in crisis: A multifractal analysis of disruptive economic events and the effects of financial assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siokis, Fotios M.

    2014-02-01

    We analyze the complexity of rare economic events in troubled European economies. The economic crisis initiated at the end of 2009, forced a number of European economies to request financial assistance from world organizations. By employing the stock market index as a leading indicator of the economic activity, we test whether the financial assistance programs altered the statistical properties of the index. The effects of major financial program agreements on the economies can be best illustrated by the comparison of the multifractal spectra of the time series before and after the agreement. We reveal that the returns of the time series exhibit strong multifractal properties for all periods under investigation. In two of the three investigated economies, financial assistance along with governments’ initiatives appear to have altered the statistical properties of the stock market indexes increasing the width of the multifractal spectra and thus the complexity of the market.

  18. System for indicating optimum operating economy of internal combustion engines in boats

    SciTech Connect

    Albertsson, N.

    1983-05-24

    A system for indicating economy of operation in internal combustion engines in boats so that a specific number of revolutions for fuel economy may be set. Two measuring devices are utilized, the output signal of one being proportional to the number of revolutions of the boat engine, whereas the output signal of the other is proportional to the flow of fuel to the engine. These two signals are compared in an indicator device, which as a result exhibits at least one extreme value in the operational range, whereby it becomes possible to find a favorable number of revolutions for operation with a high degree of efficiency and to avoid numbers of revolutions with a low degree of efficiency in simple manner.

  19. The distribution of the major economies’ effort in the Durban platform scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Tavoni, Massimo; Kriegler, Elmar; Aboumahboub, Tino; Calvin, Katherine V.; DeMaere, Gauthier; Wise, Marshall A.; Klein, David; Jewell, Jessica; Kober, Tom; Lucas, Paul; Luderer, Gunnar; McCollum, David; Marangoni, Giacomo; Riahi, Keywan; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2013-11-01

    The feasibility of achieving climate stabilization consistent with the objective of 2C is heavily influenced by how the effort in terms of mitigation and economic resources will be distributed among the major economies. This paper provides a multi-model quantifications of the mitigation commitment in ten major regions of the world for a diversity of allocation schemes. Our results indicate that a stylized policy with uniform carbon pricing and no transfer payments would yield an uneven distribution of policy costs, which would be lower, higher and significantly higher than the average for the OECD, developing economies and energy exporters respectively. We show that resource sharing burden sharing schemes would not resolve the issue of cost distribution. An effort sharing scheme which equalizes policy costs would yield an allocation of allowances in line with the aspirational targets of the OECD countries, and which would peak before 2030 for China. In all cases, a large international carbon market would emerge.

  20. 78 FR 51744 - Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2; Scheduling of an Additional Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... COMMISSION Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2; Scheduling of an Additional Public Hearing..., Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2 at the NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field... role of digital trade in the U.S. and global economies at the request of the U.S. Senate Committee...

  1. 40 CFR 600.209-12 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for a model type. 600.209-12 Section 600.209-12 Protection of... EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.209-12 Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for...

  2. 40 CFR 600.209-12 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for a model type. 600.209-12 Section 600.209-12 Protection of... EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.209-12 Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for...

  3. 40 CFR 600.209-12 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for a model type. 600.209-12 Section 600.209-12 Protection of... EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.209-12 Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for...

  4. 'Kind of Blue' and the Economy of Modal Jazz

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Samuel

    2006-05-09

    /EXsus at the second, BXmajor7/Fsus at the third and Dmajor/ EXmajor at the fourth. 17. Eric Clapton’s recordings of ‘Layla’, ‘Old Love’, ‘Bad Love’, ‘Miss You’ and ‘Cocaine’, for example, all feature Aeolian sequences using chords built on XVII and XVI... Edition) Kahn, A. 2000. Kind of Blue: The Making of the Miles Davis Masterpiece (New York, Da Capo Press) Katz, I.J. 2004. ‘Flamenco’, Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed 13/08/04), Khttp:// www.grovemusic.comL Keil, C. 1991. Urban Blues (Chicago...

  5. Ways of improving economy and reliability of mine ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    N.N. Petrov; N.A. Popov

    2004-09-01

    It is established that mine ventilation by main fans operating at maximum capacity results in higher power consumption. The ways are proposed for reduction in the effective power consumption by ventilation and improvement of mining operation safety.

  6. Omnis fibra ex fibra: fibre economies in Bonnet's and Diderot's models of organic order.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    In a long-term transformation, that begins in Antiquity but takes a crucial turn in the Renaissance anatomies, the "fibre" becomes from around 1750 the operative building block and at the same time the first unifying principle of function-structure-complexes of organic bodies. It occupies the role that the cell takes up in the cell economies of the second third of the nineteenth century. In this paper, I will first discuss some key notions, technical analogies, and images that are related to "fibre"-concepts from Andreas Vesalius to Albrecht von Haller and then focus on Charles Bonnet's and Denis Diderot's fibre ceconomies. In Bonnet's and Diderot's fibre economies, the self-active, regulating properties of fibre-agents and their material structures, that reach from fibre bundles, tissues and membranes to apparati of organs, are united within the concrete whole of individual organized "systems" or "networks." PMID:20499615

  7. The Economy of Virtue and the Primacy of Prudence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Thomas F.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes the process by which people become moral beings. An economic argument shows that the costs of both virtue and evil are small. There must be some incentive to practice prudence. Prudence is learned prior to morality and must be fostered in order to create moral beings. (VM)

  8. On steady distributions of kinetic models of conservative economies

    E-print Network

    .toscani@unipv.it 1 #12;More than a hundred years ago, the Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto [40] first quantified states do or do not possess a Pareto tail. In particu- lar, we prove the absence of Pareto tails, wealth and income distributions, Pareto dis- tribution. 1 Introduction In recent years, various kinetic

  9. conomy,society,environment,economy,society,en nment,economy,society,environme,society,environme,socie

    E-print Network

    Delaware, University of

    Tela conomy,society,environment,economy,society,en viro nment,economy e n t ,e c o n o m y ,s o c ie t y ,e n v iro n ty,environment,economy,society,environment,economy Glover University of Delaware October 2000 Jointly sponsored by: The Australian Conservation Foundation

  10. 40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.207-08 Section 600.207-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and...

  11. 40 CFR 600.008 - Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...General Provisions § 600.008 Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and...

  12. 40 CFR 600.008-08 - Review of fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Review of fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related...

  13. 40 CFR 600.008 - Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...General Provisions § 600.008 Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and...

  14. 40 CFR 600.008 - Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...General Provisions § 600.008 Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and...

  15. Impacts on U.S. Energy Markets and the Economy of Reducing Oil Imports

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    This study was undertaken at the request of the General Accounting Office (GAO). Its purpose is to evaluate the impacts on U.S. energy markets and the economy of reducing oil imports. The approach and assumptions underlying this report were specified by GAO and are attached as an Appendix. The study focuses on two approaches: (1) a set of cases with alternative world crude oil price trajectories and (2) two cases which investigate the use of an oil import tariff to achieve a target reduction in the oil imports. The analysis presented uses the National Energy Modeling System, which is maintained by the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting within the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and the DRI/McGraw Hill Macroeconomic Model of the U.S. Economy, a proprietary model maintained by DRI and subscribed to by EIA.

  16. FuelEconomy.gov What is Fuel Economy.gov?

    E-print Network

    for plug-in electric-drive vehicles, hybrids, and alterna ve fuel vehicles · Driving and vehicle economy possible from the cars they own. FuelEconomy.gov is maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's CARS ("Cash for Clunkers") program. What Kind of Information Does the Site Provide? Fuel

  17. Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Tolley, George S.; Jones, Donald W. Mintz, Marianne M.; Smith, Barton A.; Carlson, Eric; Unnasch, Stefan; Lawrence, Michael; Chmelynski, Harry

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy report, Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States Report to Congress, estimates the effects on employment of a U.S. economy transformation to hydrogen between 2020 and 2050. The report includes study results on employment impacts from hydrogen market expansion in the transportation, stationary, and portable power sectors and highlights possible skill and education needs. This study is in response to Section 1820 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-58) (EPACT). Section 1820, “Overall Employment in a Hydrogen Economy,” requires the Secretary of Energy to carry out a study of the effects of a transition to a hydrogen economy on several employment [types] in the United States. As required by Section 1820, the present report considers: • Replacement effects of new goods and services • International competition • Workforce training requirements • Multiple possible fuel cycles, including usage of raw materials • Rates of market penetration of technologies • Regional variations based on geography • Specific recommendations of the study Both the Administration’s National Energy Policy and the Department’s Strategic Plan call for reducing U.S. reliance on imported oil and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The National Energy Policy also acknowledges the need to increase energy supplies and use more energy-efficient technologies and practices. President Bush proposed in his January 2003 State of the Union Address to advance research on hydrogen so that it has the potential to play a major role in America’s future energy system. Consistent with these aims, EPACT 2005 authorizes a research, development, and demonstration program for hydrogen and fuel cell technology. Projected results for the national employment impacts, projections of the job creation and job replacement underlying the total employment changes, training implications, regional employment impacts and the employment impacts of a hydrogen transformation on international competitiveness are investigated and reported.

  18. The political economy of military spending, freedom, conflicts, and economic growth in developing countries 

    E-print Network

    Attar, Riad A

    2006-08-16

    of industrialized nations. 14 economic growth for the whole sample of countries and for the subgroups, except for the Mediterranean countries. Frederiksen and Looney (1983, 1985, and 1986) argue that critical determinant in the relationship between defense spending... and the economy to expand. 18 Later, Keynes closely examined the problem of prolonged depression in his major work, The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money (1935). Keynes (ibid) provides a theoretical defense for programs that were already tried...

  19. Fundamentals of Zoological Scaling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Herbert

    1982-01-01

    The following animal characteristics are considered to determine how properties and characteristics of various systems change with system size (scaling): skeletal weight, speed of running, height and range of jumping, food consumption, heart rate, lifetime, locomotive efficiency, frequency of wing-flapping, and maximum sizes of flying and hovering…

  20. A national vision of America's transition to a hydrogen economy - To 2030 and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-02-01

    On November 15-16, 2001, in response to recommendations within the National Energy Policy, DOE organized a meeting of 50 visionary business leaders and policy makers to formulate a National Hydrogen Vision. This document was published in February 2002 following the meeting and summarizes the potential role for hydrogen systems in America’s energy future and outlines the common vision of the hydrogen economy. (U.S. Dept. of Energy, February 2002)

  1. Nobody Sells Gold for the Price of Silver: Dishonesty, Uncertainty and the Underground Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herley, Cormac; Florêncio, Dinei

    The underground economy has attracted a lot of attention recently as a key component of cybercrime. In particular the IRC markets for stolen identities, phishing kits, botnets, and cybercrime related services have been extensively studied. It is suggested that sophisticated underground markets show great specialization and maturity. There are complex divisions of labor and service offerings for every need. Stolen credentials are traded in bulk for pennies on the dollar. It is suggested that large sums move on these markets.

  2. The importance of air transportation to the U.S. economy : analysis of industry use and proximity to airports

    E-print Network

    Stilwell, Justin Daniel Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates broader impacts of air transportation on U.S. economic productivity, as well as market access and business location, in order to help identify how aviation supports the national economy. More ...

  3. The Importance of Air Transportation to the U.S. Economy: Analysis of Industry Use and Proximity to Airports

    E-print Network

    Stilwell, Justin

    2013-05-16

    This thesis investigates broader impacts of air transportation on U.S. economic productivity, as well as market access and business location, in order to help identify how aviation supports the national economy. More ...

  4. Evidence of fueling of the 2000 new economy bubble by foreign capital inflow: implications for the future of the US economy and its stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, Didier; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2004-02-01

    Previous analyses of a large ensemble of stock markets have demonstrated that a log-periodic power law (LPPL) behavior of the prices constitutes a qualifying signature of speculative bubbles that often land with a crash. We detect such a LPPL signature in the foreign capital inflow during the bubble on the US markets culminating in March 2000. We detect a weak synchronization and lag with the NASDAQ LPPL pattern. We propose to rationalize these observations by the existence of positive feedback loops between market-appreciation/increased-spending/increased-deficit-of-balance-of-payment/larger-foreign-surplus/increased-foreign-capital-inflows and so on. Our analysis suggests that foreign capital inflow has been following rather than causing the bubble. We then combine a macroeconomic analysis of feedback processes occurring between the economy and the stock market with a technical analysis of more than 200 years of the DJIA to investigate possible scenarios for the future, three years after the end of the bubble and deep into a bearish regime. We conclude that the low interest rates and depreciating dollar are the indispensable ingredients for a lower sustainable burden of the global US debt structure and for allowing the slow rebuilding of an internationally competitive economy. This will probably be accompanied by a weak stock market on the medium term as the growing Federal deficit is consuming a large part of the foreign surplus dollars and the stock market is remaining a very risky and unattractive investment. Notwithstanding strong surge of liquidity in recent months orchestrated by the Federal Reserve, this macroeconomic analysis which incorporates an element of collective behavior is in line with our recent analyses of the bearish market that started in 2000 in terms of a LPPL “anti-bubble”. We project this LPPL anti-bubble to continue at least for another year. On the short term, increased availability of liquidity (M1) and self-fulfilling bullish anticipations may hold the stock market for a while.

  5. 40 CFR 600.207-12 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for vehicle...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  6. 40 CFR 600.207-12 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for vehicle...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  7. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  8. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  9. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  10. 40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  11. 40 CFR 600.209-12 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for a model...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  12. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  13. 40 CFR 600.209-12 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for a model...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  14. 40 CFR 600.209-12 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for a model...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  15. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  16. 40 CFR 600.208-08 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for a model type. 600...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  17. 40 CFR 600.207-12 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for vehicle...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  18. 40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  19. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  20. 40 CFR 600.208-08 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for a model type. 600...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  1. 40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  2. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  3. From oil shortage to oil glut: simulation of growth prospects in the Nigerian economy

    SciTech Connect

    Olofin, S.; Iyaniwura, J.O.

    1983-11-01

    During the 1970s, the economy of Nigeria provided one of the most interesting cases of development financed through oil revenue. Between 1970 and 1980, the country's GNP grew at an outstanding rate, but after the transition from oil shortage to oil glut, the economy of Nigeria ran into dramatic financial difficulties, which are now placing major constraints to its development. To investigate the transition from an oil-based economy to a stage characterized by greater diversification of exports and more balanced sectoral growth, a model has been built by the University of Ibadan in Nigeria. The model was developed in association with Project LINK staffing for the future inclusion in the Project. According to the finding presented in the study, the annual growth rate of GDP of Nigeria between 1980 and 1988 will be around 2.5%. To compensate the drop of the foreign-exchange earnings caused by the contraction of oil prices and demand, a vigorous export drive of agricultural products is simulated. 8 references, 7 figures, 4 tables.

  4. Effects of cigarette tax on cigarette consumption and the Chinese economy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, T; Mao, Z

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To analyse a policy dilemma in China on public health versus the tobacco economy through additional cigarette tax. Methods: Using published statistics from 1980 through 1997 to estimate the impact of tobacco production and consumption on government revenue and the entire economy. These estimates relied on the results of estimated price elasticities of the demand for cigarettes in China. Results: Given the estimated price elasticities (-0.54), by introducing an additional 10% increase in cigarette tax per pack (from the current 40% to 50% tax rate), the central government tax revenue would twice exceed total losses in industry revenue, tobacco farmers' income, and local tax revenue. In addition, between 1.44 and 2.16 million lives would be saved by this tax increase. Conclusions: Additional taxation on cigarettes in China would be a desirable public policy for the Chinese government to consider. PMID:12035000

  5. The financial impact of hospitals on the local economy--2 new factors.

    PubMed

    Rotarius, Timothy; Liberman, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    This research effort presents a descriptive analysis of the financial impact that several hospitals have on their local economy. An earlier study published by the authors included 3 distinct, yet overlapping components of financial impact: (1) the hospital system as a major health care provider, (2) the hospital system as a large employer, and (3) the hospital system as an entity whose employees contribute greatly to their local community. This new study added additional financial impact factors: (4) the hospital system as an organization committed to major construction projects in pursuit of its health services mission, and (5) the hospital system as an entity that pays taxes to government agencies. The inextricable relationship of these 5 categories both increases and enhances the impact of the hospital system on the local region. The results of this updated and expanded analysis suggest strongly that the hospital system represents 1 of the primary contributors to the economy of the region. The hospital system adds $3 billion to the $28 billion local economy, which means that the hospital system and its employees are responsible for 10.7% of the total economic prowess of the region. PMID:25350018

  6. US Department of Energy Hybrid Vehicle Battery and Fuel Economy Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Karner; J.E. Francfort

    2005-09-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, has conducted testing of advanced technology vehicles since August, 1995 in support of the AVTA goal to provide benchmark data for technology modeling, and research and development programs. The AVTA has tested over 200 advanced technology vehicles including full size electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, and hydrogen internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Currently, the AVTA is conducting significant tests of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This testing has included all HEVs produced by major automotive manufacturers and spans over 1.3 million miles. The results of all testing are posted on the AVTA web page maintained by the Idaho National Laboratory. Through the course of this testing, the fuel economy of HEV fleets has been monitored and analyzed to determine the "real world" performance of their hybrid energy systems, particularly the battery. While the initial "real world" fuel economy of these vehicles has typically been less than that evaluated by the manufacturer and varies significantly with environmental conditions, the fuel economy and, therefore, battery performance, has remained stable over vehicle life (160,000 miles).

  7. Economies of size in municipal water treatment technologies: Texas lower Rio Grande Valley 

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Christopher Neil

    2008-10-10

    -osmosis (RO) desalination of brackish-groundwater as a potable water source. Brackish-groundwater may be an alternative water source that provides municipalities an opportunity to hedge against droughts, political shortfalls, and protection from potential... surface-water contamination. This research specifically focuses on investigating economies of size for conventional surface-water treatment and brackish-groundwater desalination by using results from four water treatment facilities in the Texas Lower Rio...

  8. Analysis of regenerated single-shaft ceramic gas-turbine engines and resulting fuel economy in a compact car

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klann, J. L.; Tew, R. C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Ranges in design and off-design operating conditions of an advanced gas turbine and their effects on fuel economy were analyzed. The assumed engine incorporated a single stage radial flow turbine and compressor with fixed geometry. Fuel economies were calculated over the composite driving cycle with gasoline as the fuel. At a constant turbine-inlet temperature, with a regenerator sized for a full power effectiveness the best fuel economies ranged from 11.1 to 10.2 km/liter (26.2 to 22.5 mpg) for full power turbine tip speeds of 770 to 488m/sec (2530 to 1600ft/sec), respectively.

  9. Alaska's Economy: What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…

  10. Equality and Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The two big events in higher education during 2010 were the implementation of the Equality Act, and the introduction of a new dispensation on fees and funding. The former is intended to promote equality, the latter is premised on the need for economy. In this article, the author focuses on the effect of the latter on the former. He considers this…

  11. The Methanol Economy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Olah, George; Prakash, G.K.

    2013-12-31

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO{sub 2} capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO{sub 2} and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields. ? Direct electrophilic bromination of methane to methyl bromide followed by hydrolysis to yield methanol was investigated on a wide variety of catalyst systems, but hydrolysis proved impractical for large-scale industrial application. ? Bireforming the correct ratio of methane, CO{sub 2}, and water on a NiO / MgO catalyst yielded the right proportion of H{sub 2}:CO (2:1) and proved to be stable for at least 250 hours of operation at 400 psi (28 atm). ? CO{sub 2} capture utilizing supported polyethyleneimines yielded a system capable of adsorbing CO{sub 2} from the air and release at nominal temperatures with negligible amine leaching. ? CO{sub 2} electrolysis to formate and syngas showed considerable increases in rate and selectivity by performing the reaction in a high pressure flow electrolyzer. ? Formic acid was shown to decompose selectively to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} using either Ru or Ir based homogeneous catalysts. ? Direct formic acid fuel cells were also investigated and showed higher than 40% voltage efficiency using reduced loadings of precious metals. A technoeconomic analysis was conducted to assess the viability of taking each of these processes to the industrial scale by applying the data gathered during the experiments to approximations based on currently used industrial processes. Several of these processes show significant promise for industrial scale up and use towards improving our nation’s energy independence.

  12. The College Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.

    2012-01-01

    As the United States grinds its way through a halting economic recovery, one thing has become abundantly clear: The recession of 2007 continues to reshape the economy in significant and permanent ways. Perhaps the most profound change is the accelerating disappearance of good-paying jobs that require only a high-school education or less. That…

  13. Education and the Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, Kevin M.

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between education and the United States (U.S.) economy was explored to identify research needed to inform employment policy in the future. Special attention was paid to the following topics: the state of education in the U.S.; key problems in grades K-12 that must be addressed; student achievement; inequity; costs of special…

  14. Can Education Save the Economy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noy, Michelle; Zeidenberg, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The recent global economic downturn is causing U.S. workers and employers to look to the educational system for skills that will allow them to thrive when the economy recovers. Education alone cannot save the economy. Much larger forces are at work, such as international equity and debt markets, the banking crisis, and the deflation of consumer …

  15. Energy and the Wealth of Nations Understanding the Biophysical Economy

    E-print Network

    Hall, Charles A.S.

    of the age of oil, and as energy supplies and the environmental impacts of energy on Reverse 442 pages 124 illus., 82 in color Hardcover Revolution I: The first half of the age of oil Part II. Energy, Economics

  16. Managing growth In The knowledge economy : lessons from the bust and boom of San Francisco's technology industry

    E-print Network

    Donaldson, Laurel G. (Laurel Gabrielle)

    2014-01-01

    Municipal policy-makers have embraced the promise of the innovation-based "Next Economy" as the latest policy prescription for growth. However, recent evidence suggests that the agglomeration of high-skill, high-wage ...

  17. Studies in the Structure of the Urban Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Edwin S.

    Consisting of a set of closely related studies of urban spatial structure, this monograph focuses on the decentralization of metropolitan areas. Foremost is the belief that decentralization, or suburbanization, lies at the root of most of the social problems that plague urban areas. Therefore, an understanding of the process is basic to policies…

  18. The economy of inflammation: when is less more?

    E-print Network

    Allen, Judith

    to host mitiga- tion of the fitness costs of an infection. This concept of parasite tolerance contrasts parasites that do infect, and/or (ii) tolerance, whereby hosts mitigate the deleterious effects of a particular burden of parasites that have infected. Whereas resistance reduces the cost of an infection

  19. Higher Education and the Structure of the Russian Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleksandrova, O.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of education, which is accorded lofty significance from time to time, has become topical and relevant again. Education is the focus of one of the national projects and a topic of discussion at this year's first meeting of the State Council, and Russia has finally proposed that it be placed at the top of the agenda for the upcoming G8…

  20. Policy Paper 29: The Political Economy of International Environmental Cooperation

    E-print Network

    1997-01-01

    of Syria’s and Iraq’s opposition to Turkish dams and thoseand Iraq over use of Euphrates River water revolved primarily around temporary water shortages which accompanied the filling of Ataturk Dam.and Iraq’s Euphrates River water uses remains low because of the perceived ex- tremism of the latter countries’ anti-dam

  1. THE STRATEGY AND POLITICAL ECONOMY OF THE WAR AGAINST POVERTY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ORNATI, OSCAR

    SUGGESTIONS FOR STRATEGIES TO WIN THE WAR ON POVERTY ARE BASED ON AN UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT POVERTY IS, HOW IT IS TO BE FOUGHT, AND THE MEANING OF LOSING THE WAR. THERE HAVE BEEN MANY DEFINITIONS OF POVERTY, FOR INDIVIDUALS DIFFER IN THEIR VALUES AND THEIR IDEAS OF NEED. SUBJECTIVE ESTIMATES OF NEED DEPEND ON WHETHER THE ESTIMATOR IS RICH OR POOR,…

  2. Fueling the Green Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, James

    2009-01-01

    The Obama administration, along with many others, has placed a high priority on accelerating the nation's transition to a cleaner, greener economy. Transforming the nation's economic, energy, and environmental systems to become more sustainable will require a level of expertise, innovation, and cooperation unseen since the 1940s war effort. Public…

  3. Essays on the Political Economy of Social Government Programs

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez Chamussy, Maria de Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    status of the locality include potential changes in publicchange in variables measuring community participation for the group of localitieschanges in perceptions and political attitudes for the group of localities

  4. International migration and the "moral" economy of the "Barani" peasantry.

    PubMed

    Khan, A F

    1991-01-01

    International migration and the "barani" peasantry are explained in terms of a subsistence ethic in rainfed agricultural areas of northern Pakistan. It is postulated that economic decisions of the "barani" are rational and are part of a willed order which reflects the economic, political, social and cultural aspects of a deliberately organized style of living. This functional structure is discussed in terms of the motivational concerns of the "biraderi" and the kinship and worksharing patterns and the household structure. There is selectivity in the migration pattern and the decision is made with the collective welfare of the household in mind. The migrant profile is one of single, young males about 24-35 years; most fall in the 26-32 age group. 67% are unmarried, but there is motivation to marry in order to make claims on fathers' lands and fulfill dowry payments and become more marriageable. Also, villagers desire to expand the number of "biraderi" which strengthens the socioeconomic foundation. Marriage is also related to earning potential. The migration impact is felt in terms of the absence, which results in a loss of labor, but usually households cope effectively. Another impact was one of remittances, which make a considerable difference in household income. From a sample of households taken in 1980-1984, over 65% of migrant households received over 75% of their income from migrant labor. Only 1 household received 50% of their income from migrant labor. It is estimated that 64% of annual migrant's earnings and 87% of migrant's savings were remitted. The impact was also felt in the use of remittances, which in order to importance, satisfied the needs of the households, their aspirations, and access to investment opportunities. A significant portion of income was spent on basic needs: food, clothing/footwear, and other related items, and health. A portion also went to savings. This occurred in order to achieve security and a measure of control over their lives. In poorer households, satisfaction of basic needs and a threshold of savings took precedence over housing improvements. Priorities were established. Security is achieved eventually in the investment in housing since most poor households lived in mud and straw ("kutcha") or bricks and cement ("pukka") prior to migration. These structures needed repair after the monsoons. Respectability is attained through purchase of land, and most desire this end. Access is limited however due to unavailability and high prices. Social standing is also attained through spending on marriages, hospitality, deaths, pilgrimages, and cultural feasts. Acquisition of consumer durables is associated with a higher socioeconomic profile and occurs mostly among the better off. Poor migrants purchase these items for resale. Land investments were made for development of rent yielding commercial plots. PMID:12285302

  5. Mathematical Appendix to Open Economy Models of Distribution and Growth

    E-print Network

    Carlini, David

    Steady State Values of Endogenous Variables in the Medium-Run Model of Income Distrtibution and the Real Exchange Rate In order to determine the steady state values of the wage share, and real exchange rate, q-share on the steady-state wage share is definitely positive: d dw = (µ + ) |J| > 0 (A.4) The effect of an increase

  6. Method for improving fuel economy of internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Liston, T.V.

    1986-12-16

    A lubricating oil composition is described comprising a major amount of an oil of lubricating viscosity and 0.1 to 4 weight percent of a borated alkyl catechol and an effective amount of an alkenyl succinimide to stabilize the borated alkyl catechol against hydrolysis.

  7. Essays in the Political Economy of Higher Education Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Benjamin Hasty

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the consequences of political influence on state higher education funding at the committee level. The State of South Carolina has a long history of using a formula to determine the appropriate amount of funding that is to be allocated to its colleges and universities. I use the funding level implied by the South…

  8. Vietnam: The Political Economy of Education in a "Socialist" Periphery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Jonathan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article I examine historic changes in the goals, conduct and outcomes of education policies in Vietnam from the 1940s to the present, under the Communist Party of Vietnam. Recent studies of Vietnam's education system centre on econometric and demographic analysis of education data dating back to the early 1990s, when Vietnam began an…

  9. Breaking Radical Monopolies: Towards Political Economy of Digital Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaden, Tere; Suoranta, Juha

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue for a leap from a "weak" digital literacy (skills of interpretation and strategies of reception) to strong digital literacy (authorship and autonomous skills and capacities). Strong digital literacy implies politico-structural analysis of the information societies to come. Given the current forms of economic…

  10. The Costs and Economies of Open and Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumble, Greville

    This book is designed to give planners of open and distance learning programs the technical information needed to determine the cost of programs and analyze the behavior of costs. The following are among the topics discussed: budgets; classification of resources (human resources, premises and accommodation, and equipment and furniture); a basic…

  11. Quantity vs quality of oil: Implications for the future economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, C.

    2012-12-01

    There has considerable interest recently in various indications of important changes in the technology of oil production and its impact on US oil production. The data indicate a clear increase in oil production for the US after 40 years of year by year decline. This has led some commentators to predict that the US will become a net oil exporter before long. Maps showing the enormous extent of e.g. the Bakken formation in North Dakota and Montana, and our ability to now exploit this oil using the new techniques of horizontal drilling and fracking, gives the impression that there are enormous new oil reserves that can satisfy our wants indefinitely. Other assessments indicate that the amount of oil still available globally is 3, 4 or more times the usual assessments of about 1 trillion barrels. But "oil" is not a single substance, but rather a suite of materials of widely varying qualities and hence utility. One important index is the energy return on investment (EROI), the ratio of energy returned from energy used to get it. EROI reflects the balance of the countervailing impacts of depletion and technology and ultimately determines the price of a fuel. This ratio is declining all around the world, and gives a practical limit to how much oil we can exploit at an energy and economic profit. Bringing quality of oil into the equation gives a much more restrictive estimate of how much oil we are likely to be able to exploit for fuel.

  12. Hyperincursion and the Globalization of the Knowledge-Based Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2006-06-01

    In biological systems, the capacity of anticipation—that is, entertaining a model of the system within the system—can be considered as naturally given. Human languages enable psychological systems to construct and exchange mental models of themselves and their environments reflexively, that is, provide meaning to the events. At the level of the social system expectations can further be codified. When these codifications are functionally differentiated—like between market mechanisms and scientific research programs—the potential asynchronicity in the update among the subsystems provides room for a second anticipatory mechanism at the level of the transversal information exchange among differently codified meaning-processing subsystems. Interactions between the two different anticipatory mechanisms (the transversal one and the one along the time axis in each subsystem) may lead to co-evolutions and stabilization of expectations along trajectories. The wider horizon of knowledgeable expectations can be expected to meta-stabilize and also globalize a previously stabilized configuration of expectations against the axis of time. While stabilization can be considered as consequences of interaction and aggregation among incursive formulations of the logistic equation, globalization can be modeled using the hyperincursive formulation of this equation. The knowledge-based subdynamic at the global level which thus emerges, enables historical agents to inform the reconstruction of previous states and to co-construct future states of the social system, for example, in a techno-economic co-evolution.

  13. Economy of thermal energy when vulcanizing tires in multistation vulcanizers

    SciTech Connect

    Tsyrul'nikov, I.M.; Nadzharov, O.E.; Fedorov, A.V.

    1987-07-01

    The authors examine the possibility of reducing steam consumption for vulcanizing tires in the multistation tire vulcanizer (MTV) lines by improving the thermal insulation of the steam chamber. The layout of the experimental unit is shown. Several types of chamber designs were studied. Test results show that when using shells and replacing metallic by glass textolite hoods, the temperature on the inner and outer surfaces of the chamber vary insignificantly. When using the shell, the temperature of the bayonet ring increases and promotes reduced thermal stresses in the system bayonet-ring-chamber, improving operating conditions.

  14. Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations. PMID:22702421

  15. The Political Economy of Deforestation in the Tropics

    E-print Network

    Burgess, Robin

    Tropical deforestation accounts for almost one-fifth of greenhouse gas emissions and threatens the world’s most diverse ecosystems. Much of this deforestation is driven by illegal logging. We use novel satellite data that ...

  16. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  17. Poultry Markets: On the Underground Economy of Twitter Followers

    E-print Network

    Kruegel, Christopher

    of reaching people, companies started using it to advertise their products. However, creating a functional into following them. A number of websites have emerged to help Twitter users create a large network of followers for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page

  18. The Academy in Crisis: The Political Economy of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, John W., Ed.

    This volume of 10 chapters written by various analysts explores the politicization of higher education since World War II, the tensions and conflicts that trend has created, and arguments regarding the reasons why institutions of higher education need and should have government aid. The foreword by Nathan Glazer addresses these issues. An…

  19. For a Political Economy of Massive Open Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In understanding the changes that are impacting the global higher education sector, developing a critique of the relationships between technology and technological innovation, new managerialism and financialisation, and the impact of the secular crisis of global capitalism is critical. Moreover, it is important to critique these changes…

  20. Tracking the ecological overshoot of the human economy

    PubMed Central

    Wackernagel, Mathis; Schulz, Niels B.; Deumling, Diana; Linares, Alejandro Callejas; Jenkins, Martin; Kapos, Valerie; Monfreda, Chad; Loh, Jonathan; Myers, Norman; Norgaard, Richard; Randers, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Sustainability requires living within the regenerative capacity of the biosphere. In an attempt to measure the extent to which humanity satisfies this requirement, we use existing data to translate human demand on the environment into the area required for the production of food and other goods, together with the absorption of wastes. Our accounts indicate that human demand may well have exceeded the biosphere's regenerative capacity since the 1980s. According to this preliminary and exploratory assessment, humanity's load corresponded to 70% of the capacity of the global biosphere in 1961, and grew to 120% in 1999. PMID:12089326