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1

Economies of scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working in groups of three, students analyze economies of scale. Each student constructs an individual short-run ATC curve, then the three students collaborate to determine if there are economies or diseconomies of scale and to create the long run ATC.

Mark Maier

2

Scale and scope economies of international tourist hotels in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the survey data of Taiwan's international tourist hotels in 2000, this paper applies Zellner's seemingly unrelated regression technique to a simultaneous system of a translog multi-product cost function and its corresponding factor share equations to investigate the extents of scale and scope economies of Taiwan's international tourist hotels. The empirical results show that product-specific scale economies exist for

Chih-Chiang Weng; Kuo-Liang Wang

2004-01-01

3

Scale and scope economies of international tourist hotels in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the survey data of Taiwan's international tourist hotels in 2000, this paper applies Zellner's seemingly unrelated regression technique to a simultaneous system of a translog multi-product cost function and its corresponding factor share equations to investigate the extents of scale and scope economies of Taiwan's international tourist hotels. The empirical results show that product-specific scale economies exist for

Chih-Chiang Weng; Kuo-Liang Wang

2006-01-01

4

ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND SCOPE IN WATER SUPPLY  

EPA Science Inventory

This study examines the multiproduct nature of water supply relative to economies of scale and scope. he water utility is viewed as a multiproduct firm providing residential and nonresidential services with spatial variation. here are no significant economies of scale in the util...

5

The role of pecuniary external economies and economies of scale in the theory of increasing returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates some issues relating to the phenomenon of increasing returns: (1) What is the role of economies of scale in the theory of increasing returns? (2) Do pecuniary external economies lead to market failure and justify intervention in the market mechanism? (3) Are increasing returns sector-specific or generalised, and if they are sector specific, is it possible to

Ramesh Chandra; Roger Sandilands

2006-01-01

6

Pollution Control in a Transition Economy: Do Firms Face Economies and\\/or Diseconomies of Scale?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We empirically assess whether firms face economies and\\/or diseconomies of scale with respect to air pollution control by evaluating the effects of production on firmlevel air emission levels using a panel of Czech firms during the country’s transitional period of 1993 to 1998. By estimating a separate set of production-related coefficients for each individual sector, the analysis permits economies\\/diseconomies of

Dietrich Earnhart; Lubomir Lizal

2010-01-01

7

Economies of scale and market power in policing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to use a simultaneous equations method for estimating police production and demand to determine whether or not there are economies of scale in policing. In addition, the effect of market power on productivity, using the Herfindahl-Hirschmann Index, is to be measured. The estimation yields the result that there are diseconomies of scale with respect

Lawrence Southwick

2005-01-01

8

Economies of Scale and Scope in E-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economies of scale are often cited in the higher education literature as being one of the drivers for the deployment of e-learning. They are variously used to support the notions that higher education is becoming more global, that national policy towards e-learning should promote scale efficiencies, that larger institutions will be better able to…

Morris, David

2008-01-01

9

Departmental productivity in American universities: Economies of scale and scope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study reported in this paper examines the departmental production and cost structures of a homogeneous sample of American public research universities in order to estimate their degrees of economies of scale and scope. Multiproduct cost functions are estimated for the departmental production of teaching and research in order to determine the most efficient level and product-mix for differing types

Halil Dundar; Darrell R. Lewis

1995-01-01

10

Departmental Productivity in American Universities: Economies of Scale and Scope.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines departmental production and cost structures of a homogeneous sample of 18 research universities to estimate relative economies of scale and scope. Examines three departmental clusters (social, physical, and engineering sciences), using a four-output quadratic cost function. Average incremental and marginal costs are highest for research…

Dundar, Halil; Lewis, Darrell R.

1995-01-01

11

Economies of Scale and Scope in Turkish Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines production and cost structures of 28 Turkish universities to estimate their economies of scale and scope. Estimates multiproduct cost functions for teaching and research, examining social, health, and engineering sciences departments across 186 college faculties. Average incremental and marginal costs are highest for graduate instruction…

Lewis, Darrell R.; Dundar, Halil

1995-01-01

12

Economies of Scale in U.S. Electric Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the estimations, cross-section data for 1955 and 1970 are analyzed using the translog cost function. It was found that in 1955 there were significant scale economies available to nearly all firms. By 1970, however, the bulk of U.S. electricity generation was by firms operating in the essentially flat area of the average cost curve. It is concluded that a

Laurits R. Christensen; William H. Greene

1976-01-01

13

A Field Study of Scale Economies in Software Maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software maintenance is a major concern for organizations. Productivity gains in software maintenance can enable redeployment of Information Systems resources to other activities. Thus, it is important to understand how software maintenance productivity can be improved. In this study, we investigate the relationship between project size and software maintenance productivity. We explore scale economies in software maintenance by examining a

Rajiv D. Banker; Sandra A. Slaughter

1997-01-01

14

Economies of Scale and Scope in Australian Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper estimates economies of scale and scope for 36 Australian universities using a multiple-input, multiple-output cost function over the period 1998-2006. The three inputs included in the analysis are full-time equivalent academic and non-academic staff and physical capital. The five outputs are undergraduate, postgraduate and PhD…

Worthington, A. C.; Higgs, H.

2011-01-01

15

An economy of scale system's mensuration of large spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The systems technology and cost particulars of using multipurpose platforms versus several sizes of bus type free flyer spacecraft to accomplish the same space experiment missions. Computer models of these spacecraft bus designs were created to obtain data relative to size, weight, power, performance, and cost. To answer the question of whether or not large scale does produce economy, the dominant cost factors were determined and the programmatic effect on individual experiment costs were evaluated.

Deryder, L. J.

1981-01-01

16

Estimating unbiased economies of scale of HIV prevention projects: A case study of Avahan.  

PubMed

Governments and donors are investing considerable resources on HIV prevention in order to scale up these services rapidly. Given the current economic climate, providers of HIV prevention services increasingly need to demonstrate that these investments offer good 'value for money'. One of the primary routes to achieve efficiency is to take advantage of economies of scale (a reduction in the average cost of a health service as provision scales-up), yet empirical evidence on economies of scale is scarce. Methodologically, the estimation of economies of scale is hampered by several statistical issues preventing causal inference and thus making the estimation of economies of scale complex. In order to estimate unbiased economies of scale when scaling up HIV prevention services, we apply our analysis to one of the few HIV prevention programmes globally delivered at a large scale: the Indian Avahan initiative. We costed the project by collecting data from the 138 Avahan NGOs and the supporting partners in the first four years of its scale-up, between 2004 and 2007. We develop a parsimonious empirical model and apply a system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) and fixed-effects Instrumental Variable (IV) estimators to estimate unbiased economies of scale. At the programme level, we find that, after controlling for the endogeneity of scale, the scale-up of Avahan has generated high economies of scale. Our findings suggest that average cost reductions per person reached are achievable when scaling-up HIV prevention in low and middle income countries. PMID:25779621

Lépine, Aurélia; Vassall, Anna; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Blanc, Elodie; Le Nestour, Alexis

2015-04-01

17

Examining Economies of Scale in School Consolidation: Assessment of Indiana School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the potential for reducing costs through school district consolidation by employing economies of scale. Utilizing Indiana school district data primarily from 2004 through 2006, we find evidence for scale economies with optimal enrollment being 1,942 students, with a per pupil estimated cost at $9,414. The 95% confidence…

Zimmer, Timothy; DeBoer, Larry; Hirth, Marilyn

2009-01-01

18

Economies of scale in large containerships: optimal size and geographical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, liner shipping has experienced an explosion in containership size. This is explained by the economies of scale in utilising such ships. This paper presents a model which quantifies the economies of scale in operating large containerships. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to test the effect of various input scenarios and the results analysed to determine optimal containership

Kevin Cullinane; Mahim Khanna

2000-01-01

19

The Evolution of Economies of Scale Regarding Pollution Control: Cross-Sectional Evidence from a Transition Economy  

E-print Network

This paper assesses whether firms face economies and/or diseconomies of scale with respect to air pollution control by evaluating the effects of production on firm-level air emission levels. To achieve this objective, this paper uses an unbalanced...

Earnhart, Dietrich H.; Lizal, Lubomir

2011-01-01

20

LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

OAK B202 LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY. The ''Hydrogen Economy'' will reduce petroleum imports and greenhouse gas emissions. However, current commercial hydrogen production processes use fossil fuels and releases carbon dioxide. Hydrogen produced from nuclear energy could avoid these concerns. The authors have recently completed a three-year project for the US Department of Energy

K. R. SCHULTZ; L. C. BROWN; G. E. BESENBRUCH; C. J. HAMILTON

2003-01-01

21

Issue in pollution control: interplant cost differences and economies of scale.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seeks evidence concerning the issues of the relative efficiencies of different institutional arrangements for pollution control and the implications of control requirements for economies of scale and barriers to entry. Data is derived from the estimation of a production function for 30 pulp and paper mills in Wisconsin and Michigan. Concludes that the systematic differences in marginal treatment costs for different mills are evidence of serious inefficiencies resulting from the current (US) system of pollution control regulation. The positive association of pollution control intensity with economies of scale suggests that any pollution control regime has some negative allocational effects in this industry (and presumably others). -K.Turner

Pittman, R.W.

1981-01-01

22

Multidimensional Scaling Analysis of the Dynamics of a Country Economy  

PubMed Central

This paper analyzes the Portuguese short-run business cycles over the last 150 years and presents the multidimensional scaling (MDS) for visualizing the results. The analytical and numerical assessment of this long-run perspective reveals periods with close connections between the macroeconomic variables related to government accounts equilibrium, balance of payments equilibrium, and economic growth. The MDS method is adopted for a quantitative statistical analysis. In this way, similarity clusters of several historical periods emerge in the MDS maps, namely, in identifying similarities and dissimilarities that identify periods of prosperity and crises, growth, and stagnation. Such features are major aspects of collective national achievement, to which can be associated the impact of international problems such as the World Wars, the Great Depression, or the current global financial crisis, as well as national events in the context of broad political blueprints for the Portuguese society in the rising globalization process. PMID:24294132

Mata, Maria Eugénia

2013-01-01

23

Success in Pharmaceutical Research: The Changing Role of Scale and Scope Economies, Spillovers and Competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the determinants of success in the development of new drugs. In specific, it explores the factors of success in drug development programs at different stages of innovation process. We use economies of scale, scope, R&D competition and technological spillovers as explanatory variables and test whether the effect of these variables on the success of a project differs

Tatiana Plotnikova

2010-01-01

24

The role of artisanal and small-scale mining in China's economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decades have seen increased international attention paid to a number of features of artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM). The beneficial roles of ASM in society and the economy in many countries, however, are often overlooked, while its negative impacts dominate official press coverage and scholarly publications of the sector. Through a review of the available literature and statistics,

Lei Shen; Aaron James Gunson

2006-01-01

25

Economies of Scale and Scope in Turkish Universities. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the collegiate production and cost structures of the 28 universities in Turkey in order to estimate their degrees of economies of scale and scope. Multi-product cost functions were estimated for the collegiate production of teaching and research in order to determine the most efficient level and product-mix for differing types…

Lewis, Darrell R.; Dundar, Halil

26

Bank Capitalization And Cost: Evidence Of Scale Economies In Risk Management And Signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We amend the standard cost model to account for the role of financial capital in banking. The cost function is conditioned on the level of capital, but we model the demand for financial capital so that it can serve as a cushion against insolvency for potentially risk-averse managers and as a signal of risk for less informed outsiders. Scale economies

Joseph P. Hughes; Loretta J. Mester

1998-01-01

27

Measuring the Informal Economy: A Validation Study of the Resource Generating Strategies Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This article reports on the reliability and validity of a new instrument called the Resource Generating Strategies (RGS) Scale, which was created to measure participation in the informal economy. Method: Researchers interviewed 285 adult women who had received domestic violence services, were currently incarcerated, or were residing in…

Pyles, Loretta

2007-01-01

28

Economies of scale and scope as an explanation of merger and output diversification activities in the health maintenance organization industry.  

PubMed

This paper tests for the existence and magnitude of economies of scale and scope as possible explanations for the recent observed trends in increasing health maintenance organization (HMO) scale (through merger and acquisition) and scope (through greater participation in public enrollee markets) using firm level data from a sample of California HMOs for the time period 1986-1992. The results suggest that economies of scale provide a strong justification for mergers only in the case of relatively small HMOs (i.e. those with fewer than 115,000 enrollees), and economies of scope do not explain the increasing HMO enrollment of public enrollees. PMID:10165264

Given, R S

1996-12-01

29

Scale Economies, Product Differentiation, and the Pattern of Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

For some time now there has been con- siderable skepticism about the ability of comparative cost theory to explain the ac- tual pattern of international trade. Neither the extensive trade among the industrial countries, nor the prevalence in this trade of two-way exchanges of differentiated prod- ucts, make much sense in terms of standard theory. As a result, many people

Paul Krugman

1980-01-01

30

Costs and Economies of Scale in Turkey's Postsecondary Vocational Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study analyzed the institutional cost structures of Turkey's postsecondary vocational education system. Appropriate controls for institutional quality, discretionary allocation of staffing resources, degree of technical instruction in the curriculum, and regional variation are included. Average and marginal costs per institution are examined…

Dundar, Halil; Lewis, Darrell R.

1995-01-01

31

Economies of scale in the production of public health services: an analysis of local health districts in Florida.  

PubMed

Objectives. We examined the existence and the extent of scale and scope economies in the delivery of public health services. We also tested the strength of agency, population, and community characteristics that moderate scale and scope economies. Methods. We collected service count and cost data for all Florida local health districts for 2008 and 2010, complemented with data on agency, population, and community characteristics. Using translog cost functions, we built models of operating efficiencies for 5 core public health activities: communicable disease surveillance, chronic disease prevention, food hygiene, on-site sewage treatment, and vital records. Results. Economies of scale were found in most activities, with cost per unit decreasing as volume increased. The models did not, however, identify meaningful economies of scope. Conclusions. Consolidation or regionalization might lower cost per unit for select public health activities. This could free up resources for use in other areas, further improving the public's health. PMID:25689207

Bernet, Patrick M; Singh, Simone

2015-04-01

32

Structure and Scale in the Roman Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book by the author of The Economy of the Roman Empire: Quantitative Studies considers important interlocking themes. Did the Roman Empire have a single 'national' economy, or was its economy localised and fragmented? Can coin and pottery survivals demonstrate the importance of long-distance trade? How fast did essential news travel by sea, and what does that imply about Mediterranean

Richard Duncan-Jones

1990-01-01

33

Theory and evidence of economies of scale in the development of waste management systems  

SciTech Connect

Waste is a cost of doing business. This cost can be considered in terms of the potential adverse health and environmental impacts, or the waste management costs associated with avoiding, minimizing, and controlling those impacts. There is an anticipated increase in the cost of waste management as a result of the increasing requirements for regulatory compliance. To meet the total waste management capacity needs of the organization and the compliance requirements, low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste management will need demonstrated technologies strategically managed as a technology portfolio. The role of the decision maker is to select the optimum mix of technologies and facilities to provide the waste management capacity needed for the next twenty years. The waste management system resulting from this mix includes multiple small-scale fixed facilities, large-scale centralized facilities, and waste management subcontracts. This study was conducted to examine the theory and evidence of economies of scale in the development of waste management systems as as exploratory research on the economic considerations in the process of technology selection and implementation. 25 refs., 24 figs., 11 tabs.

Chang, Shoou-Yuh; Rivera, A.L. (North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-01-01

34

An Economical, Thorough, and Efficient School System: The West Virginia School Building Authority "Economy of Scale" Numbers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The West Virginia School Building Authority has arbitrarily emphasized economies of scale as a requirement for statewide facilities funding. This requirement has forced consolidation in sparsely populated areas with resultant "diseconomies of scale" related to transportation costs, increased dropout rates, and decreased parental and community…

Purdy, Deirdre H.

1997-01-01

35

Scaling analysis of time series of daily prices from stock markets of transitional economies in the Western Balkans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we have analyzed scaling properties of time series of stock market indices (SMIs) of developing economies of Western Balkans, and have compared the results we have obtained with the results from more developed economies. We have used three different techniques of data analysis to obtain and verify our findings: detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method, detrended moving average (DMA) method, and wavelet transformation (WT) analysis. We have found scaling behavior in all SMI data sets that we have analyzed. The scaling of our SMI series changes from long-range correlated to slightly anti-correlated behavior with the change in growth or maturity of the economy the stock market is embedded in. We also report the presence of effects of potential periodic-like influences on the SMI data that we have analyzed. One such influence is visible in all our SMI series, and appears at a period Tp ? 90 days. We propose that the existence of various periodic-like influences on SMI data may partially explain the observed difference in types of correlated behavior of corresponding scaling functions.

Sarvan, Darko; Stratimirovi?, Djordje; Blesi?, Suzana; Miljkovi?, Vladimir

2014-12-01

36

Spending Changes and Scale Economies When School Districts Consolidate Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational policy makers continue to promote non-instructional service consolidation as one method to reduce operating costs through "economies of scale". Unfortunately, there is essentially no empirical evidence on the size or source of cost savings associated with such measures. Using panel data from 2004-2010, this mixed methods…

DeLuca, Thomas Anthony

2012-01-01

37

Economies of scale and vertical integration in the investor-owed electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the nature of costs in a vertically integrated electric utility. Findings provide new insights into the operations of the vertically integrated electric utility and supports earlier research on economics of scale and density; results also provide insights for policy makers dealing with electric industry restructuring issues such as competitive structure and mergers. Overall, results indicate that for most firms in the industry, average costs would not be reduced through expansion of generation, numbers of customers, or the delivery system. Evidently, the combination of benefits from large-scale technologies, managerial experience, coordination, or load diversity have been exhausted by the larger firms in the industry; however many firms would benefit from reducing their generation-to-sales ratio and by increasing sales to their existing customer base. Three cost models were used in the analysis.

Thompson, H.G. [Christensen Associates, Madison, WI (United States); Islam, M.; Rose, K.

1996-01-01

38

Economies of scale in compliance with environmental regulation: The case of the 1972 Water Pollution Control Act amendments. The stock-price-behavior approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economies of scale in regulatory compliance cost of the 1972 amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are explored by examining the effects of regulation on the market returns of the affected firms in the pulp and paper, and the textile industries. Although the estimated market reaction may not reflect total effect of the new law on the individual

Moon

1989-01-01

39

Economy of Command  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation proposes a principle of "economy of command", arguing that it provides a simple and natural explanation for some well-known properties of human language syntax. The focus is on the abstract combinatorial system that constructs the hierarchical structure of linguistic expressions, with long-distance dependencies…

Medeiros, David Peter

2012-01-01

40

EXCLUSION OF SMALL-SCALE FARMERS FROM COORDINATED SUPPLY CHAINS Market failure, policy failure or just economies of scale?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coordinated supply chains are rapidly increasing in importance in global food markets. They are commercial tools for competitive strategies, assuring quality, food safety and better logistics. They serve high-end markets, especially in industrial countries, but increasingly also in developing countries in urban areas with relatively high incomes. However, the share of production in developing countries marketed through coordinated supply chains

41

The Political Economy of Inter-  

E-print Network

The Political Economy of Inter- national Relations Robert Gilpin After the end of World War II by the creative use of power in the support of an institutional framework that created a world economy. Gilpin's exposition of the influence of politics on the interna- tional economy was a model of clarity, making

Landweber, Laura

42

Adaptation of Economy Attitude Scale to Turkish Culture: Validity and Reliability Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economics affects us no matter what role we play in social life. Its foundation as a science was laid by the studies of Adam Smith, and since history it has become one of the disciplines accepted in university curriculums. Scarcity, opportunity costs and abandoning something in order to obtain another one are the core concepts of this discipline.…

Alagoz, Bullent

2015-01-01

43

Economies of Scale and Scope in Network Industries: Lessons for the UK water and sewerage sectors  

E-print Network

duopoly of vertically integrated firms with the entry of the privately owned company, Mercury Communications. In 1991 and 1993 the remaining publically owned shares were sold and 1991 saw the introduction of legislation allowing for the vertical... to be privatised (the government 2 March 2011 figures, source: http://www.offta.org.uk/charts.htm. Accessed 28th March 2011. 3 Quarter 4, 2010 figures for total lines, source: http://media.ofcom.org.uk/facts...

Pollitt, Michael G.; Steer, Stephen J.

44

Hydrogen Economy: The Role of Nano-scaled Support Material for Electrocatalysts Aimed for Water Electrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role and importance of support materials for electrocatalysts aimed for water electrolysis is given. Besides their superior support characteristics such as electroconductivity, a high developed surface area and chemical stability, support materials should be an active participant in the catalytic activity through strong metal-support interactions (SMSI) with the metallic catalytic phase. Subject of this paper are several support materials: (i) Vulcan XC-72, (ii) Vulcan XC-72 with TiO2, (iii) multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and (iv) Magneli phases, i.e. nonstoichiometric titanium oxides. A comparison of catalytic activity of Co-based electrocatalysts deposited on all support materials mentioned is given.

Paunovi?, Perica; Popovski, Orce; Dimitrov, Aleksandar T.

45

The importance of scale economies and geographic diversification in community bank mergers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mergers of community banks across economic market areas potentially reduce both idiosyncratic and local market risk. A merger may reduce idiosyncratic risk because the larger post-merger bank has a larger customer base. Negative credit and liquidity shocks from individual customers would have smaller effects on the portfolio of the merged entity than on the individual community banks involved in the

William R. Emmons; R. Alton Gilbert; Timothy J. Yeager

2001-01-01

46

The relationship between 19th century BMIs and family size: Economies of scale and positive externalities.  

PubMed

The use of body mass index values (BMI) to measure living standards is now a well-accepted method in economics. Nevertheless, a neglected area in historical studies is the relationship between 19th century BMI and family size, and this relationship is documented here to be positive. Material inequality and BMI are the subject of considerable debate, and there was a positive relationship between BMI and wealth and an inverse relationship with inequality. After controlling for family size and wealth, BMI values were related with occupations, and farmers and laborers had greater BMI values than workers in other occupations. PMID:25555643

Carson, Scott Alan

2015-04-01

47

An Economical, Thorough & Efficient School System & the West Virginia School Building Authority "Economy of Scale" Numbers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The West Virginia School Building Authority (SBA) was created by the state legislature in 1989 to carry out a mandate of the "Recht Decision," which found the state's school financing system to be largely unconstitutional. The SBA was created to sell bonds for educational facility financing and distribute the money to county school boards based on…

Purdy, Deirdre H.

48

Size Matters: Economies of Scale in Schools and Colleges. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report reviews the relationship in England between institutional size and the cost of Level 3 (mainly A-level) provision in three major settings: sixth form colleges (SFCs), general further education colleges (GFECs) and school sixth forms (SSFs). The study models how institutions might behave, given the funding regime and cost structures. It…

Owen, Glyn; Fletcher, Mick; Lester, Stan

2006-01-01

49

Measuring Armenia's progress on the Tobacco Control Scale: an evaluation of tobacco control in an economy in transition, 2005–2009  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to measure the 5-year progress in the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Armenia by applying the Tobacco Control Scale, a rapid assessment tool developed to assess the strength of tobacco control policies in Europe. Setting Armenia, an economy in transition, has extreme smoking rates among men (62.5%) despite acceding to FCTC in 2004. However, little research has been carried out to evaluate Armenia's progress in tobacco control. Methods The Tobacco Control Scale total score was estimated for Armenia using the original methodology; however, a different source of data was used in estimating the subscores on tobacco price and tobacco control spending. Results Armenia's total score on Tobacco Control Scale has considerably improved from 2005 to 2009, mostly due to larger health warnings and advertising ban, and increased public spending on tobacco control. The scores for smoke-free public places, advertising ban, health warnings and treatment categories were below the European average in 2005 and 2007, while the price score was higher. Neither total tobacco control score nor any of its components showed a significant predictive value in a simple regression analysis using the total score and subscores as predictors for log-transformed per capita tobacco consumption. Conclusions Higher than the European average price score for Armenia cannot be explained by the concept of affordability alone and may reflect a measurement error due to peculiarities of transition economies. The applicability of the Tobacco Control Scale could be limited to countries with mature economies, but not to transition countries such as Armenia with different social, political and economic environment. The scale modification, such as an adjustment for the policy enforcement and the effectiveness of public tobacco control spending along with alternative measures of affordability would be warranted to enhance its applicability in low-income and middle-income countries. PMID:24578541

Movsisyan, Narine K; Connolly, Gregory N

2014-01-01

50

The knowledge economy of Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For regional development specialists and those concerned with local economies, the world of the so-called knowledge economy is tremendously important. Specifically, the knowledge economy is meant to be those segments of the economy that include financial and business services, health care, and education. In Europe, the subject is debated a great deal, and this latest 23-page report by The Work Foundation will no doubt add to that ongoing debate. In their report examining the knowledge economy in Europe (and its recent growth) they note that while the Continent continues to experience some growth in this sector of the economy, future growth may be hindered by a lack of significant investment in its knowledge base. The report also includes an extended definition of this notion of a knowledge economy for those who remain puzzled.

Brinkley, Ian

2006-01-01

51

Research on Green Packaging of Circular Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circular economy is the resource recycling economy, is the economy of harmonious development between economy and environment, also a kind of ecological economy. Circular economy demands that enterprises' logistics activities be green logistics packaging. The green packaging aims at improving the packing materials reuse, reducing resource consumption and lowering packaging waste pollution to the environment. Implementing green logistics packaging,

Zhang Guirong; Li Dehua; Wang Zhiping; Ma Chenglin

2010-01-01

52

Perceptions of social climate among participants in token economy and non-token economy cottages in a juvenile correctional institution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A revised version of Moos' Social Climate Scale (SCS) was used to measure the effects of a token economy on social climate as perceived by staff and residents in a state training school for delinquents. Significant mean differences between token economy cottages and non-token economy cottages on most social climate variables were found among both staff and residents. Implications of

Leland Wilkinson; N. Dickon Reppucci

1973-01-01

53

Modeling of Economy Considering Crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss main modeling's problems of economy dynamic processes and the reason forecast's absence of economic crisis. We present a structure of complexity level of system and models and discuss expected results concerning crisis phenomena. We formulate the basic perspective directions of the mathematical modeling of economy, including possibility of the analysis of the pre crisis, crisis and post crisis phenomena in economic systems.

Petrov, Lev F.

2009-09-01

54

The Political Economy of Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Political Economy of Terrorism presents a widely accessible political economy approach to the study of terrorism. It applies economic methodology – theoretical and empirical – combined with political analysis and realities to the study of domestic and transnational terrorism. In so doing, the book provides both a qualitative and quantitative investigation of terrorism in a balanced up-to-date presentation that

Walter Enders; Todd Sandler

55

Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To the horror of some and the surprise of nearly everyone, a new body of religious research roams our journals and conventions.\\u000a Born of neglected data and rejected theory, the body is variously known as economics of religion, the rational choice approach,\\u000a the religious economies model, and “the newparadigm.” By any name, however, it has animated research on secularization, pluralism,

Larry Iannaccone

56

Scale and Scope Economies in the Global Advertising and Marketing Services Business  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess size and scope-related economies in the global advertising and marketing services business. A translog cost function is employed wherein a firm's costs vary according to its scale and two dimensions of the scope of its operations. Parameters of the model are estimated via three stage least squares using annual data for 1989-2001 for an unbalanced panel consisting of

Alvin J. Silk; Ernst R. Berndt

2003-01-01

57

Chains and networks, territories and scales: towards a relational framework for analysing the global economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vast and continually expanding literature on economic globalization continues to generate a miasma of conflicting viewpoints and alternative discourses. This article argues that any understanding of the global economy must be sensitive to four considerations: (a) conceptual categories and labels carry with them the dis- cursive power to shape material processes; (b) multiple scales of analysis must be incorporated

Peter Dicken; Philip F. Kelly; Kris Olds; Henry Wai-Chung Yeung

2001-01-01

58

Local-scale systems input-output analysis of embodied water for the Beijing economy in 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the most detailed and recent statistics available for Beijing, a local-scale embodiment analysis on water use was conducted, employing a systems input-output analysis that integrates economic systems with natural resources data. Systems analysis for water research at the local scale is a crucial part of a systems oriented water accounting framework. To our knowledge, however, related works have not been thoroughly conducted. In this paper, a set of embodied water intensity inventory data is presented, which is applicable to both intermediate input and final demand. Also, detailed analyses of Beijing's embodied water use accounting are presented. The embodied water intensity of the Water Production and Supply Industry Sector turns out to be the highest among the 42 sectors. For water embodied in final demand, the total amount is 3.48 km3, of which the water embodied in urban household consumption makes up nearly a half proportion. As a net virtual water importer, Beijing's water embodied in commodity trade totals 5.84×108 m3. As a result, in addition to improvements in technology and water use efficiency, adjustments in industrial structure and trade policies are also of significant importance to water conservation efforts.

Han, Mengyao; Guo, Shan; Chen, Hui; Ji, Xi; Li, Jiashuo

2014-09-01

59

A comparison of a token economy with standard inpatient treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Used the Nurses Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation (NOSIE-30) to evaluate a token economy ward at a large psychiatric hospital in comparison with 3 nontoken wards in the same unit. The token economy appeared to be more effective in generating a broad range of behavior changes, including both an increase in positive behaviors and a decrease in negative behaviors.

Jeffrey Schwartz; Alan S. Bellack

1975-01-01

60

The effectiveness of small scale Photovoltaic (PV) systems design and cost analysis simulation on Saudi Arabian Economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advantages of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) are much more than the disadvantages, RES such as solar, wind energy, biomass, and geothermal, which can be used for generating distributed power but cannot directly replace the existing electric energy grid technologies. The latter are far too well established to abandon, while the new RES technologies are not sufficiently developed to meet the total energy demand. Therefore, it is sensible to gradually infuse RES into existing grids and transform the system over time Saudi Arabia (SA) is a semi-developed nation with a population of over twenty nine million people. It is the largest country in western Asia with an area of 2.225MKm2. SA's largest export is oil, owning 1/5 of the world's supply, and producing twelve million barrels a day. However, SA is far behind in developing a smart grid and RES. A lot of this is to do with lack of participation by both the government and the private business sector. Currently SA spends over $13B a year on generating electricity from oil. SA is the largest consumer of petroleum in the Middle East, due to the high demand for transportation and electricity generation. According to the Saudi electrical company, the total amount of generated power in 2011 was 190.280GW. In addition, SA's electricity consumption is currently growing 8% a year. SA aims to generate 55GW of renewable energy by 2020, in order to free up fossil fuels for export. 41GW of the 55GW will be generated from solar energy. Smart grid technologies are also under consideration in SA; this will allow an efficient and reliable way to control the energy in the future. In addition, the potential for wind and geothermal energy is very high. In this thesis, there is a full exploration of RES components which are critical to manage carbon emission and the limitations of the current grid to the new RES technologies, which face barriers to full-scale deployment. A study in Dhahran, SA has been simulated on a installing a Dual-Tariff PV system using HOMER. The result of the simulation has been discussed, analyzed, and plotted. We also give evidence in the thesis how useful the small PV systems can be as oppose to the larger scale system that must deal with location issues.

Almansour, Faris Abdullah

61

The Political Economy of Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Political Economy of Terrorism, first published in 2006, presents a widely accessible approach to the study of terrorism that combines economic methods with political analysis and realities. It applies economic methodology - theoretical and empirical - with political analysis to the study of domestic and transnational terrorism. Included in the treatment are historical aspects of the phenomenon, a discussion

Walter Enders; Todd Sandler

62

The Cultural Economy of Paris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultural economy is defined in terms of a set of sectors ranging from certain traditional artisanal industries like clothing or jewelry on the one side, to newer media industries like sound recording or television program production on the other. I provide an overview of the industrial dynamic of French society since the Second World War and I assess its

Allen J. Scott

2005-01-01

63

The Cultural Economy of Paris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultural economy is defined in terms of a set of sectors ranging from certain traditional artisanal industries like clothing or jewelry on the one side, to newer media industries like sound recording or television program production on the other. This article provides an overview of the industrial dynamic of French society since the second world war and assesses its

Allen J. Scott

2000-01-01

64

The Political Economy of Dictatorship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although much of the world still lives today, as always, under dictatorship, the behaviour of these regimes and of their leaders often appears irrational and mysterious. In The Political Economy of Dictatorship, Ronald Wintrobe uses rational choice theory to model dictatorships: their strategies for accumulating power, the constraints on their behavior, and why they are often more popular than is

Ronald Wintrobe

65

49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel...

2010-10-01

66

49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel...

2011-10-01

67

49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel...

2012-10-01

68

49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel...

2013-10-01

69

Murphy's Moral Economy of Labor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral Economy of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize labor. (MJP)

Masters, Roger D.

1996-01-01

70

49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination...

2014-10-01

71

78 FR 46799 - Use of Market Economy Input Prices in Nonmarket Economy Proceedings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...120424022-3616-02] RIN 0625-XC001 Use of Market Economy Input Prices in Nonmarket Economy Proceedings AGENCY: Import Administration...normally will use the price that a nonmarket economy (``NME'') producer pays to a market...

2013-08-02

72

The political economy of electricity market liberalization  

E-print Network

of governments and educational/professional background of leaders have played and will play a crucial role throughout the reform process. Adapting a political economy perspective, this paper attempts to discover the impact of political economy variables...

Erdogdu, Erkan

2012-05-17

73

The Political Economy of Transition Grard Roland  

E-print Network

1 The Political Economy of Transition Gérard Roland Gérard Roland is Professor of Economics on an earlier draft. He also thanks symposium participants in Prague, March 23 2001. #12;2 Political economy of reforms. The political economy argument in favor of gradualism was that an appropriate sequencing

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

74

Scotland's Creative Economy: the Role of Universities  

E-print Network

Scotland's Creative Economy: the Role of Universities #12;www.universities-scotland.ac.uk #12 sector can continue to grow to the benefit of Scotland's economy and society. Andrew Dixon, Chief. Universities play a major role in the creative economy in identifying and growing talent and skills as well

Hall, Christopher

75

Assessment of the Funding Formula Used by the North Carolina Community College System: Economy of Scale Supplemental Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In its phase one report, MGT of America, Inc., a management research and consulting firm, recommended several improvements in the funding model used by the North Carolina State Board of Community Colleges. In addition to an overall call for a simplified approach to presenting the financial needs of the 58 colleges, the report identified several…

North Carolina Community Coll. System, Raleigh.

76

X-efficiency and scale economies in policing: a comparative study using the distribution free approach and DEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses both parametric and nonparametric techniques to analyse scale economies and relative efficiency levels in policing in England and Wales. Both techniques suggest the presence of significant scale effects in policing and considerable divergence in relative efficiency levels across police forces.

Leigh Drake; Richard Simper

2002-01-01

77

Encyclopedia of the New Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Wired magazine, the Encyclopedia of the New Economy is a compendium of the key issues and terms that define the creation, buying, and selling of communication technology products. Terms are listed in alphabetical order and include both catch phrases and overviews. Wired Encyclopedia authors not only create a useful list of concepts, they also stimulate further thought on the controversies inherent in information technologies by leaving many definitions open-ended.

78

Economy of Yak Herders  

E-print Network

Chest 18 Intestine and stomach 12 Liver, kidney, heart, etc 10 Head 12 Total 206 The hide is usually stored for processing into leather and leather goods. It is also used as rug with the hair left intact and often as a substitute for meat after... pasture to the next on mutually agreed dates. Table 17: Category of herders according to type of pasture ownership Laya Lunana Category of Herders No. of Herders % of Herders No. of Herders % of Herders Owning sufficient private pastures...

Gyamtsho, Pema

2000-01-01

79

Economies of scale in the library world: the Dr Martin Luther King Jr Library in San Jose´, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the new Dr Martin Luther King Jr Library in San Jose´, California, which will house the collections of the San Jose´ Public Library’s main branch and the San Jose´ State University’s Library system in one new building. Outlines the conception of the project, the site selection and the planning process. Considers the communities served, usage patterns and services. Focuses

Paul Kauppila; Sharon Russell

2003-01-01

80

Economy of middeck payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utilization of the middeck, designed as the crew quarters, for experiments is examined. The dimensions of the middeck's standard lockers, double lockers, adapter plates, and the galley, which are applicable for experiments, are described. The utilities available for middeck payloads include ac and dc electrical power supply, active and passive cooling, vacuum/vent line connections, and data handling, and four basic payload configurations are possible. The development of a middeck accommodations rack to make payload space more flexible and to enable an optimum number and variety of experiments to be flown is proposed. Diagrams of the orbiter's middeck and experimental designs are provided.

Michel, E. L.; Huffstetler, W. J.

1986-01-01

81

Equilibrium analysis of an economy with innovations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model of an economy with innovations. Innovations are goods that are identified with a set of their qualities. This allows us to consider innovations as elements of a lattice. In a model of an economy with a lattice structure of goods, we study the existence and optimality of equilibria.

Vladimir I. Danilov; Gleb A. Koshevoy; Alexandr I. Sotskov

1997-01-01

82

The Political Economy of Lighthouses Laurent CARNIS  

E-print Network

1 The Political Economy of Lighthouses Laurent CARNIS Carnis Laurent (2003) "The Provision of Lighthouses Services: a Political Economy Perspective", Public Choice, Vol. 157(1): 51-56. http-012-9951-y #12;2 Introduction 2011 was the 200th anniversary of the establishment of the Lighthouse

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

83

Towards the Political Economy of Pluriactivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores theoretical concerns of political economy approaches in agriculture and links these to farm pluriactivity. Focuses on relevance of debates concerning labor commoditization and uneven development, suggesting recognition of pluriactivity for broader understanding of political economy. Recommends broader approach for understanding economic…

Marsden, Terry

1990-01-01

84

AGRICULTURE, 2005 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy  

E-print Network

STATUS OF WISCONSIN AGRICULTURE, 2005 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy Situation and Outlook: Farm Products, Farm Inputs and the General Economy Special Articles · Expansion, Modernization..............................................................................................................................v I. Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy

Radeloff, Volker C.

85

Wisconsin Agriculture Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy  

E-print Network

STATUS OF Wisconsin Agriculture 2010 · Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy · Current Outlook: Farm Products, Farm Inputs and the General Economy · Framing the Financial Crisis for Wisconsin Agriculture Farm Economy . . . . . . 1 II. Current Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Radeloff, Volker C.

86

A Caricature (Model) of the World Economy  

E-print Network

This paper provides a stylized model of the workings of a global economy where one of its key driving factors is economic agents’ continuous struggle to find assets in which to park financial resources. This struggle ...

Caballero, Ricardo

2010-11-23

87

Albanian: Basic Course. Development of Albanian Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is intended as a supplement to "Albanian: Basic Course." The development of the Albanian economy and its status at the time the document was published are discussed in terms of industry, agriculture, and foreign trade. (JB)

Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

88

A VECX* Model of the Swiss Economy  

E-print Network

A VECX? Model of the Swiss Economy? Katrin Assenmacher-Wesche Swiss National Bank M. Hashem Pesaran Cambridge University, CIMF, and USC February 21, 2008 Abstract This paper applies the modelling strategy of Garratt, Lee, Pesaran and Shin (2003... ) to the estimation of a structural cointegrated VAR model that relates the core macroeconomic variables of the Swiss economy to current and lagged values of a number of key foreign variables. We identify and test a long-run structure between the variables. Moreover...

Assenmacher-Wesche, Katrin; Pesaran, M Hashem

89

Fuel economy of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of on-road energy consumption, fuel economy (FE) of hydrogen fuel cell light-duty vehicles is projected to be 2.5–2.7 times the fuel economy of the conventional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) on the same platforms. Even with a less efficient but higher power density 0.6V per cell than the base case 0.7V per cell at the rated

Rajesh K Ahluwalia; X Wang; A Rousseau; R Kumar

2004-01-01

90

Three Forms of the Knowledge Economy: Learning, Creativity and Openness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines and reviews three forms and associated discourses of the "knowledge economy": the "learning economy", based on the work of Bengt-Ake Lundvall; the "creative economy" based on the work of Charles Landry, John Howkins and Richard Florida; and the "open knowledge economy" based on the work of Yochai Benkler and others. Arguably,…

Peters, Michael A.

2010-01-01

91

Demand-side issues of the service economy Paru dans : Review of Political Economy, Vol. 16, No. 4, Oct. 2004.  

E-print Network

Demand-side issues of the service economy Paru dans : Review of Political Economy, Vol. 16, No. 4 the relevance of the demand-side approach to the development of a service economy. Its starts by addressing some in "Review of Political Economy 16, 4 (2004) 473-483" #12;2 1. Introduction Since the 1980s, most

Boyer, Edmond

92

Fuel Economy With the price of gasoline at over $3.50 a gallon the fuel economy of  

E-print Network

Fuel Economy With the price of gasoline at over $3.50 a gallon the fuel economy of vehicles proposed raising the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFÃ?) standard for cars and trucks. In 2004, American cars needed to achieve an average fuel economy of 27.5 miles per gallon (MPG) while light trucks needed

Carriquiry, Alicia

93

Global Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning module from the Association of American Geographer's Center for Global Geography Education looks into the geographic characteristics of the global economy and the processes linking economic activities at local, regional, and global scales. Four case studies are included in the learning unit, each focusing on a different region (New Zealand, Chile, Central and South America, East/Southeast Asia).

94

Efficiency and scale economies in banking in new EU countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we provide empirical evidence on bank cost-efficiency in transition countries. Our estimates of the cost-efficiency using a distribution-free approach suggests that among the countries analysed, Estonia, Latvia and Slovenia display the highest X-efficiency while the Czech Republic and Poland show the lowest X-efficiency. Reported X-inefficiency is found to be lowest in the segment of foreign banks that

Roman Matousek

2008-01-01

95

Centre for the Study of African Economies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A research center within the Institute of Economics and Statistics, University of Oxford, the Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE) applies macroeconomic and microeconomic methods to African sociological, demographic, and political contexts. Selected abstracts and working papers from 1993 to present are available on topics ranging from central bank policy to health, crop choice, wages, and unemployment (.pdf format). In addition, users may browse the abstracts and tables of contents of articles from the CSAE publication The Journal of African Economies from 1996 to present.

96

Indigenous Economies, Theories of Subsistence, and Women: Exploring the Social Economy Model for Indigenous Governance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…

Kuokkanen, Rauna

2011-01-01

97

Charles Sanders Peirce's economy of research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charles Sanders Peirce has authored an extraordinary ‘Note on the Theory of the Economy of Research’ (1879). The Note presents an economic model of research project selection in science. A case can be made that the Note was the first piece of modern scientific research in all of economics. This claim is based on the novelty of the method of

James R. Wible

1994-01-01

98

The Distinctiveness of Entrepreneurship in Transition Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the distinctiveness of entrepreneurship and small business development in countries that are at different stages of transformation to market based economies. Following a discussion of the potential relevance of selected conceptualisations of entrepreneurship to transition conditions, the authors present original empirical data referring to the characteristics of entrepreneurs and their businesses from countries at different

David Smallbone; Friederike Welter

2001-01-01

99

The internal efficiency in higher education: An analysis based on economies of scope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the studies of the internal efficiency in higher education, most have focused on the scale of university (the economies\\u000a of scale), but little on internal operating efficiency in higher education, especially on the combined efficiency of outputs\\u000a (the economies of scope). There are few theoretical discussions or experimental research on whether teaching resources are\\u000a complementary with research resources, or

Gang Cheng; Keming Wu

2008-01-01

100

Aspects of the political economy of development and synthetic biology  

E-print Network

What implications might synthetic biology’s potential as a wholly new method of production have for the world economy, particularly developing countries? Theories of political economy predict that synthetic biology can ...

Wellhausen, Rachel

101

49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. 525...exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. ...this part or to amend an alternative average fuel economy standard...

2014-10-01

102

Engendering the political economy of agrarian change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past thirty odd years, the analysis of agrarian social relations, institutions, and movements has benefited from the insights offered by feminist scholars whose intellectual project has been to bring into the political economy of agrarian change the pervasiveness of gender relations and their interconnections with broader processes of social change. The implications of this re-thinking are potentially radical.

Shahra Razavi

2009-01-01

103

The metamorphosis of Lewis's dual economy model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that Arthur Lewis originally presented the problem of economic development in terms of an open system, in the sense that it focused on a number of possible pitfalls and socio?economic constraints in the process of capital accumulation and industrialization in a labour?surplus economy. In the hands of the neoclassical economists, who were predominantly interested in achieving deterministic

Dipak Ghosh

2007-01-01

104

The Political Economy of Kenya's Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using political economy analysis, this paper discusses three precipitating factors that were ignited by Kenya's 2007 election, which was too close to call beforehand and highly contested afterwards. These factors were: the gradual loss of the state's monopoly of legitimate force and the consequent diffusion of violence; the deliberate weakening of institutions outside the executive in favour of personalized presidential

Susanne D. Mueller

2008-01-01

105

Hydrodynamics from kinetic models of conservative economies  

E-print Network

two agents is considered to be an elastic or money conserving collision between two molecules. In particular, by identifying money in a closed economy with energy, the applica- tion of statistical physics, in fact, the knowledge of the large-wealth behavior of the steady state density is of primary importance

Düring, Bertram

106

Evolution of the New Economy Business Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An earlier version of this paper is forthcoming in Eric Brousseau and Nicolas Curien, eds., The Economics of the Internet, Cambridge University Press. I am currently elaborating and detailing the arguments made here in a book for the W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, tentatively entitled, The New Economy Business Model and Sustainable Prosperity: The Future of High-Tech Employment

William Lazonick

2005-01-01

107

A political economy of community policing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Places recent trends in policing in the USA into historical context, emphasizing the critical importance of political, economic, and social forces on the formation and development of police institutions and practices. Specifically, this paper describes four major developments in policing in relation to the US political economy: pre-industrial police, industrial police, modern police, and postmodern police. Each of these developments

David E. Barlow; Melissa Hickman Barlow

1999-01-01

108

The Economy of the Early Roman Empire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many inhabitants of ancient Rome lived well. Tourists marvel at the temples, baths, roads and aqueducts that they built. Economists also want to understand the existence of a flourishing and apparently prosperous economy two millennia ago. Market institutions and a stable government appear to have been the combination that produced this remarkable result. This essay provides an economist's view of

Peter Temin

2006-01-01

109

The Political Economy of Global Outsourcing  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is outsourcing and why India is being considered as BPO destination of the world? Why jobs are coming to India and why there is a downturn in the US economy and loss of jobs in that country. Even though these are two different things that happened simultaneously, they sadly managed to be mixed up. Academicians are groping to understand

Chanchal Kumar Sharma

2004-01-01

110

Theories of Political Economy Fall 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

Program. This course is an introduction to recent theories of political economy. We use game-theoretical models to study how economic policies (taxes, public spending, redistri- bution, etc.) are chosen. We analyze the behavior of voters (why do people vote and how they choose among several parties), politicians (how they select their positions), parties (how they reach a compromise among their

Dino Gerardi

111

The Political Economies of Immigration Law  

E-print Network

American immigration system is only poorly explained by simple depictions of the political economy attitudes, explicit presidential decisions, or general gridlock. Instead, the structure of immigration law not owned by that agency, and limited presidential power to change enforcement or implementation. And (3

Rose, Michael R.

112

Reconsidering an Economy of Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article has an overall aim as follows: to develop an alternative understanding to a narrow view of education, and in particular teacher training--preparatory and continuing--in terms of economy, as well as the competencies needed for the teaching profession. It takes the view that such an alternative is or could be found in the ideas put…

Takayanagi, Mitsutoshi

2014-01-01

113

Toward a Theory of the Informal Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic activity taking place within the informal sector—traditionally defined as activity unregulated by law but governed by custom or personal ties—represents an emerging frontier for management researchers with interests from alleviating poverty at the bottom of the economic pyramid to entrepreneurship, innovation, or organizational functioning in advanced knowledge economies. A substantial portion of the world's economic activity takes place informally,

Paul C. Godfrey

2011-01-01

114

Pakistan: The Political Economy of Lawlessness  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a unique multi-disciplinary work encompassing the disciplines of economics, criminology, sociology, public administration, and policing. It shows in concrete quantitative terms the connection between lawlessness and the economy of Pakistan. It presents a sound strategy for good governance and macro-economic stability and provides, a cost effective model for indigenous policing conducive to sustainable economic develpoment.

Azhar Hassan Nadeem

115

States economy consumes 25% of the  

E-print Network

. Electrically-powered chillers will gen- erate chilled water for air conditioning. The new plant will also useThe United States economy consumes 25% of the energy used worldwide each year to support the U.S. lifestyle. One- third of U.S. energy is provided by oil, and is used to power our cars, fuel the trucks

Baltisberger, Jay H.

116

The Knowledge Based Bio-Economy at work: from large scale experiences to instruments for rural and local development G. Henry and E.J. Trigo  

E-print Network

The Knowledge Based Bio-Economy at work: from large scale experiences to instruments for rural BIO-ECONOMY AT WORK: FROM LARGE SCALE EXPERIENCES TO INSTRUMENTS FOR RURAL AND LOCAL DEVELOPMENT Guy Email: ejtrigo@gmail.com Abstract - The new bio-economy is increasingly seen as a workable alternative

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

117

Imperialism, empire and the integration of the Roman economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the political economy of the Roman empire is well understood, the nature of the economy as a whole is a matter of fierce debate. A range of competing hypotheses about the nature of the Roman economy are presented, and then distributions of amphorae and certain other artefact categories are used to suggest some broad patterns which successful theories of

Greg Woolf

1992-01-01

118

Exact Measures of Income in a Hyperbolic Economy  

E-print Network

Exact Measures of Income in a Hyperbolic Economy JOHN PEZZEY EEN0203 #12;Exact Measures of Income in a Hyperbolic Economy John C. V. Pezzey Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies Australian National.K. Draft of 23 January 2002 Abstract. Exact optimal paths are calculated for a closed economy with human

Pezzey, Jack

119

State of the economy and the prospect for recovery  

E-print Network

State of the economy and the prospect for recovery According to Dr. Ira Kalish, the director of global economics at Deloitte Research, the global economy has "stabilized" somewhat in the first quarter policy in the economy. Although the impact of the federal government stimulus package was debated

Moore, Paul A.

120

THE ECONOMY OF MANATEE AND SARASOTA COUNTIES Effie Philippakos  

E-print Network

i THE ECONOMY OF MANATEE AND SARASOTA COUNTIES By Effie Philippakos Alan W. Hodges David Mulkey Charles M. Adams Abstract This report is intended to characterize the economies of Manatee and Sarasota-county region. The overall size and seasonal variations in the economies of Manatee and Sarasota Counties were

Florida, University of

121

Effects of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the Indian Economy  

E-print Network

1 Effects of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the Indian Economy Sourangsu Banerji Visiting study the effects of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) with respect to India and its economy. We try interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

122

FDI and the Opening Up of China's Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although China has been opening up its economy for more than twenty years, it is generally considered that its future accession to WTO will imply far-reaching consequences for its economy. In order to better understand what is at stake as China enters the WTO, this study is intended to investigate the degree of openness of China's economy at the end

Francoise Lemoine

2000-01-01

123

Open economy models of distribution and growth Robert A. Blecker*  

E-print Network

Chapter 9 Open economy models of distribution and growth Robert A. Blecker* To appear in: Eckhard-Keynesian macro models for closed economies, the present chapter focuses on extensions of these models the post-Keynesian framework to a global economy that has become much more integrated in the past few

Carlini, David

124

The Initiation of Homeless Youth into the Street Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…

Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C.; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S.

2009-01-01

125

The Upside of a Down Economy: Buying Locally  

E-print Network

The Upside of a Down Economy: Buying Locally Wednesday, April 3, 2013 12:00 ­ 1:30 p.m. Wrigley and Executive Director, Local First Arizona Small Business Owner The economy isn't something far away purchasing habits can improve the local economy, create jobs, and contribute recirculating dollars

Hall, Sharon J.

126

Political economy of tobacco control in Thailand  

PubMed Central

Thailand has some of the world's strongest anti-tobacco legislation. This paper examines the political economy of tobacco control in Thailand, emphasising the identification of forces which have supported and opposed the passage of strong anti-tobacco measures. It argues that while a powerful tobacco control coalition was created in the late 1980s, the gains won by this coalition are now under threat from systematic attempts by transnational tobacco companies to strengthen their share of the Thai cigarette market. The possible privatisation of the Thailand Tobacco Monopoly could threaten the tobacco control cause, but the pro-control alliance is fighting back with a proposed Health Promotion Act which would challenge the tobacco industry with a hypothecated excise tax dedicated to health awareness campaigns.???Keywords: anti-tobacco legislation; political economy; Thailand; transnational tobacco companies PMID:11226361

Chantornvong, S.; McCargo, D.

2001-01-01

127

City of Ideas: Reinventing Boston's Innovation Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Boston Foundation has worked for over a century to improve the lives of Boston-area residents through its investigations into the housing market, economic development, and the future of public schools. This 56-page report on Boston's innovation economy was released in March 2012, and it looks into how Boston will remain competitive in a range of 21st century industries over the coming years. In the introduction to the work, Paul S. Grogan, CEO of The Boston Foundation, notes that "Macro-economic trends have not been kind to households on the low end of the economic ladder" and "Our second challenge is the degree to which rising health care costs have outpaced our investment in education." Moving on, curious readers will find chapters in the paper titled "A New Paradigm for Boston's Innovation Economy" and "Possible Scenarios for Boston in 2030." Public policy types and others will find this work to be quite interesting and thought-provoking.

2012-03-14

128

A Glossary of Political Economy Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Paul M. Johnson, political scientist at Auburn University, this Website serves as an excellent online reference for students of political economy. There are over 200 definitions here of relevant terms, including capitalism, communism, market economy, tariff, supply side economics, law of supply and demand, macroeconomics, and many more. The entries feature hypertext links to related terms in the glossary. Definitions range from a concise sentence to a brief essay depending on the topic. Communism, for instance, receives well over a full frame; capitalism is defined in a few sentences. Nonetheless, the definitions seem to be without any definite political bias and more-than-adequate for students in high school and undergraduate courses as well as, of course, for the merely curious.

Johnson, Paul M.

129

Individual diversity of functional brain network economy.  

PubMed

On average, brain network economy represents a trade-off between communication efficiency, robustness, and connection cost, although an analogous understanding on an individual level is largely missing. Evaluating resting-state networks of 42 healthy participants with seven Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph theory revealed that not even half of all possible connections were common across subjects. The strongest similarities among individuals were observed for interhemispheric and/or short-range connections, which may relate to the essential feature of the human brain to develop specialized systems within each hemisphere. Despite this marked variability in individual network architecture, all subjects exhibited equal small-world properties. Furthermore, interdependency between four major network economy metrics was observed across healthy individuals. The characteristic path length was associated with the clustering coefficient (peak correlation r=0.93), the response to network attacks (r=-0.97), and the physical connection cost in three-dimensional space (r=-0.62). On the other hand, clustering was negatively related to attack response (r=-0.75) and connection cost (r=-0.59). Finally, increased connection cost was associated with better response to attacks (r=0.65). This indicates that functional brain networks with high global information transfer also exhibit strong network resilience. However, it seems that these advantages come at the cost of decreased local communication efficiency and increased physical connection cost. Except for wiring length, the results were replicated on a subsample at three Tesla (n=20). These findings highlight the finely tuned interrelationships between different parameters of brain network economy. Moreover, the understanding of the individual diversity of functional brain network economy may provide further insights in the vulnerability to mental and neurological disorders. PMID:25411715

Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Ganger, Sebastian; Windischberger, Christian; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

2015-04-01

130

The emotional economy of housing   

E-print Network

This paper offers an interpretation of the role of emotions in animating housing markets which complements more traditional economic and behavioural studies of locally based house-price inflation. Looking to debates within ...

Christie, H.; Smith, S.J.; Munro, M.

2008-10-01

131

The Political Economy of Corruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corruption occurs at the interface of the public and private sectors. When- ever a public official has discretionary power over distribution to the private sector of a benefit or cost, incentives for bribery are created. Thus corruption depends upon the magnitude of the benefits and costs under the control of public officials. Private individuals and firms are willing to pay

SUSAN ROSE-ACKERMAN

132

The political economy of conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A political economic purview of energy conservation in the United States was delineated. The concepts of substitution and elasticity are distinguished, and further distinctions are made between short run price elasticity, cross price elasticity, and available fund elasticity. An assessment of the role which cost factors can play in conservation is given. The structure of the petroleum industry and foreign petroleum resources is discussed. Also discussed is the role of government, industry and the consumer with the economic sphere.

1975-01-01

133

Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Golden Age of postwar capitalism has been eclipsed, and with it seemingly also the possibility of harmonizing equality and welfare with efficiency and jobs. Most analyses believe the the emerging postindustrial society is overdetermined by massive, convergent forces, such as tertiarization, new technologies, or globalization, all conspiring to make welfare states unsustainable in the future. Social Foundations of Postindustrial

Gosta Esping-Andersen

1998-01-01

134

The market economy of trips  

E-print Network

Mobility on Demand (MOD) systems allow users to pick-up and drop-off vehicles (bikes, automobiles) ubiquitously in a network of parking stations. Asymmetric demand patterns cause unbalanced fleet allocation decreasing level ...

Papanikolaou, Dimitrios, M.S. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

135

Political economy of Ramsey taxation  

E-print Network

We study the dynamic taxation of capital and labor in the Ramsey model under the assumption that taxes and public good provision are decided by a self-interested politician who cannot commit to policies. We show that, as ...

Acemoglu, Daron

136

The Political Economy of Downzoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Substantial downzoning†is defined as the exercise of police power to significantly reduce the legally permitted density on undeveloped land in a community. This contentious practice is typically challenged by those who perceive the action to limit their market opportunities (e.g., farmers and developers), their sympathizers, and others who prefer the status quo. Supporters tend to be those who perceive

Adesoji O. Adelaja; Paul D. Gottlieb

2009-01-01

137

Professors of the New Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Profiles four professors who epitomize the increasing influence of academe on new technology-driven Internet business: a start-up maven, Steven Kaplan; a social psychologist, Michael Ray; a cyberlawyer, David Post; and an e-commerce expert, Andrew B. Whinston. (DB)

Wilson, Robin

2000-01-01

138

The Political Economy of Seigniorage  

Microsoft Academic Search

While most economists agree that seigniorage is one way governments finance deficits, there is less agreement about the political, institutional, and economic reasons for relying on it. This paper investigates the main determinants of seigniorage using panel data on about 100 countries, for the period 1960-1999. Estimates show that greater political instability leads to higher seigniorage, especially in developing, less

Ari Aisen

2005-01-01

139

The Political Economy of Financial Repression in Transition Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

December 1998Why are governments drawn to regulate financial markets to the point of financial repression? It appears that post-Communist governments may have inhibited the development of financial institutions to ensure adequate flows of external capital to favored enterprises rather than to finance deficits.Financial systems in developing countries tend to be \\

Raj Desai; Cevdet Denizer; Nikolay Gueorguiev

1999-01-01

140

Aspen: A microsimulation model of the economy  

SciTech Connect

This report presents, Aspen. Sandia National Laboratories is developing this new agent-based microeconomic simulation model of the U.S. economy. The model is notable because it allows a large number of individual economic agents to be modeled at a high level of detail and with a great degree of freedom. Some features of Aspen are (a) a sophisticated message-passing system that allows individual pairs of agents to communicate, (b) the use of genetic algorithms to simulate the learning of certain agents, and (c) a detailed financial sector that includes a banking system and a bond market. Results from runs of the model are also presented.

Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.; Quint, T.; Arnold, T.

1996-10-01

141

Policy Capacity for the Transition to a Biofuels Economy: A Comparative Study of the EU and USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scale of the ambition to decouple emissions growth from energy consumption in the economy runs counter to several decades of debates and literatures on the limits of government. Transport biofuels are an early and influential case of the policy capacity challenge in the transition to low-carbon economies. The case stands analytically for the policy-maker's dilemma of maintaining longer term

Adiran Kay; Robert Ackrill

2012-01-01

142

Reterritorialisation of economies and institutions: The rise of the Sydney basin economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an account of institutional and spatial shifts in the Sydney basin economy that coalesce around Australia's current, long period of prosperity. The paper briefly sources this prosperity, noting the key shifts towards the financial and professional services sectors that accompany it. This material is then used to make the argument that two reterritorialisation processes underpin Australia's—and Sydney's—contemporary

Phillip Oneill; Pauline McGuirk

2005-01-01

143

Efficiency and economy of wood-fired biomass energy systems in relation to scale regarding heat and power generation using combustion and gasification technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy objectives to increase biomass’ contribution to the energy supply in industrialised countries are quite ambitious, but biomass resources are rather limited and expensive in many situations. Therefore, an optimal utilisation of resources producing a maximum of energy at minimal costs is desirable. A wide variety of biomass conversion options with different performance characteristics exists. Also, the economic and energetic

Veronika Dornburg

2001-01-01

144

A demonstration of a token economy for the real world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Token economies are rarely used in real-world psychiatric settings because of barriers to their implementation, such an institutional constraints and insufficient collegial support. The line-level treatment team at Elgin Mental Health Center was able to overcome these contraints and develop a user-friendly token economy. This article describes Elgin's simple yet effective token economy and the process used to develop it.

Randy Silverman; Patrick Corrigan; L HESS

1996-01-01

145

Pacific Institute Releases New Economy of Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Riveting reading, the Pacific Institute's report on The Economy of Water puts it all up front when it comes to the status and power of water as an issue of looming national and international significance. Looking at water from multiple perspectives, the report clearly details the impact and potential harm of current and pending zoning and privatization efforts on the part of utilities and other interested agencies, both public and private. In particular, the study focuses on the social and financial costs of water privatization efforts and their long term implications for specific countries and societies. Perhaps most compelling is the policy brief's emphasis on the competing forces of globalization and privatization and how they tend to play out and off of one another.

2002-01-01

146

15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300.1 Section 1300...Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. (a) For purposes of...the export of technology to a nonmarket economy country, exporters of such...

2014-01-01

147

15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300.1 Section 1300...Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. (a) For purposes of...the export of technology to a nonmarket economy country, exporters of such...

2013-01-01

148

15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300.1 Section 1300...Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. (a) For purposes of...the export of technology to a nonmarket economy country, exporters of such...

2010-01-01

149

15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300.1 Section 1300...Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. (a) For purposes of...the export of technology to a nonmarket economy country, exporters of such...

2011-01-01

150

15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300.1 Section 1300...Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. (a) For purposes of...the export of technology to a nonmarket economy country, exporters of such...

2012-01-01

151

Beyond political economy: actor networks and the globalization of agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a critical assessment of the traditional political economy approaches in analysis of agricultural globalization. The use of the actor network perspective is suggested to enhance our understanding of the globalization process. To illustrate the applicability of actor network theory to political economy studies, the globalization of the Canadian rapeseed (Brassica rapa and B. napus) industry is analyzed.

Lawrence Busch; Arunas Juska

1997-01-01

152

Introduction: Notes on political economies of displacement in southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue considers how contemporary forms of displacement in southern Africa may be approached and analysed in terms of multiple ‘political economies of displacement’. Drawing insight from classic concepts of political economy, but without adhering to the more rigid aspects of these frameworks, the five studies that comprise this collection explore how certain values related to identity, violence, movement

Amanda Hammar; Graeme Rodgers

2008-01-01

153

A Stay-Rich View of the New Global Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major demographic changes around the world. Disproportionate sovereign debt. A shift from North America, Western Europe, and Japan to emerging economies as centers of growth. Unprecedented levels of market risk and volatility. The structure of the global economy is undergoing significant changes. Michael Oyster, managing principal of Fund…

Trusteeship, 2011

2011-01-01

154

The Importance of Governance to a Stable and Developed Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the assumption that proficient governance is essential in securing a stable economy. It studies and analyzes many relevant variables that one would find controlled by the government in its economy. My results show that these established nations all have differences in terms of debt and balance of trades but all seem to agree on the importance of

Peter Litvinenko

155

Use of the Systems Approach for Successful Token Economies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three basic steps of the systems approach are described: the mission profile, the functional analysis, and the method-means. The advantageous use of these steps in planning a token economy is illustrated by a systematic evaluation of a token economy implemented in a sixth-grade setting. (Author)

Nagle, Catherine C.; And Others

1978-01-01

156

The Upside of a Down Economy: Buying Locally  

E-print Network

The Upside of a Down Economy: Buying Locally Wednesday, September 26, 2012 5:00 ­ 6:30 p is available off Third Street, north of the building. Kimber Lanning Founder and Executive Director, Local improve the local economy, create jobs, and contribute recirculating dollars for community establishments

Hall, Sharon J.

157

19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. 351.408 Section...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. (a) Introduction...identifying dumping from a nonmarket economy country, the Secretary...

2014-04-01

158

49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525...TRANSPORTATION EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption...

2011-10-01

159

49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525...TRANSPORTATION EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption...

2013-10-01

160

19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. 351.408 Section...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. (a) Introduction...identifying dumping from a nonmarket economy country, the Secretary...

2012-04-01

161

19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. 351.408 Section...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. (a) Introduction...identifying dumping from a nonmarket economy country, the Secretary...

2010-04-01

162

19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. 351.408 Section...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. (a) Introduction...identifying dumping from a nonmarket economy country, the Secretary...

2011-04-01

163

49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525...TRANSPORTATION EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption...

2012-10-01

164

19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. 351.408 Section...value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries. (a) Introduction...identifying dumping from a nonmarket economy country, the Secretary...

2013-04-01

165

49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525...TRANSPORTATION EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption...

2010-10-01

166

The role of networks in political economy  

E-print Network

This dissertation investigates the different roles that networks play in political economy. In the first chapter, I study how a political party uses electoral data to monitor and incentivize the political brokers who control ...

Larreguy Arbesú, Horacio Alejandro

2013-01-01

167

Higher Skills and the Knowledge Economy: The Challenge of Offshoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent economics literature on offshoring highlights the trend towards the relocation of high-skill jobs to emerging economies. This evolution presents a challenge to the established knowledge economy discourse on which the relationship between higher education, higher skills, higher productivity and higher incomes has been based. This paper…

Craig, John; Gunn, Andrew

2010-01-01

168

A proposal to extend our understanding of the global economy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellites acquire information on a global and repetitive basis. They are thus ideal tools for use when global scale and analysis over time is required. Data from satellites comes in digital form which means that it is ideally suited for incorporation in digital data bases and that it can be evaluated using automated techniques. The development of a global multi-source data set which integrates digital information is proposed regarding some 15,000 major industrial sites worldwide with remotely sensed images of the sites. The resulting data set would provide the basis for a wide variety of studies of the global economy. The preliminary results give promise of a new class of global policy model which is far more detailed and helpful to local policy makers than its predecessors. The central thesis of this proposal is that major industrial sites can be identified and their utilization can be tracked with the aid of satellite images.

Hough, Robbin R.; Ehlers, Manfred

1991-01-01

169

76 FR 36092 - Antidumping Methodologies in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of Production...value the cost of labor in non- market economy (``NME'') countries. After reviewing...the value of such factors in a market economy (``ME'') country or countries...

2011-06-21

170

76 FR 9544 - Antidumping Methodologies in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of Production...antidumping proceedings involving non-market economy (``NME'') countries. As part of...the value of such factors in a market economy (``ME'') country or countries...

2011-02-18

171

The impact of health on Kentucky's economy.  

PubMed

All states are strongly committed to economic development policies and activities as participants in national and global competition. However, a sometimes overlooked and perhaps under appreciated influence on economic development is the health of a state's citizens. This study focuses on how the health status of Kentucky profoundly influences its economy, workforce, productivity, and general quality of life. If Kentucky's economy is to improve significantly, as compared to other states, significant improvements in the health status of its citizens must be achieved in the near future and sustained over time. In an era of growing concern about rising health insurance costs and maintaining a reliable and productive workforce, employers are increasingly likely to locate in communities where measures of health status are strongly positive. The latest report from the United Health Foundation indicates that in 2007 Kentucky had the 8th worst health status in the nation based on a set of risk factors and outcomes. These risk factors include personal behaviors, community and environment, and public health policies that culminate in key health outcomes related to quality of life and longevity. While it is a serious challenge, our research demonstrates that many of these risk factors can be lowered through relatively low cost and effective interventions that produce substantial improvements in health and Kentucky's rank. Health education is very effective when it begins early in life and continues to emphasize the importance of healthy behaviors, such as not smoking, healthy diets and exercise, and weight control. Preventive health services that identify and treat diseases and conditions that lead to premature death increase both longevity and economic growth through lower treatment costs for chronic diseases and an increase in human capital. Policy changes, such as primary enforcement of motor vehicle seat belt use and encouragement of the use of safety equipment at work, also saves lives and contributes to economic development. Kentucky has already implemented many programs to begin the necessary transformation to a healthier Commonwealth. Creation of additional programs and expansion of those successful ones in place are keys to producing both significant health change and economic growth. PMID:18777698

Anderson, Danielle; Asher, Linda M; Whitler, Elmer; Wilson, Emery A

2008-07-01

172

Economy-wide and distributional impacts of an oil price shock on the south African economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

As crude oil prices reach new highs, there is renewed concern about how external shocks will affect growth and poverty in developing countries. This paper describes a macro-micro framework for examining the structural and distributional consequences of a significant external shock-an increase in the world price of oil-on the South African economy. The authors merge results from a highly disaggregative

B. Essama-Nssah; Delfin S. Go; Marna Kearney; Vijdan Korman; Sherman Robinson; Karen Thierfelder

2007-01-01

173

The Political Economy of Livestock Policy: The Case of Djibouti  

E-print Network

IGAD Livestock Policy Initiative The Political Economy of Livestock Policy: The Case of Djibouti .................................................................................................vi Introduction: Djibouti, Livestock, Policy, and the Role of this Paper .............................................................................................. 3 Poverty in Djibouti

Craft, Christopher B.

174

40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.311-08 Range...

2013-07-01

175

3 CFR 13494 - Executive Order 13494 of January 30, 2009. Economy in Government Contracting  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Executive Order 13494 of January 30, 2009. Economy in Government Contracting 13494 Order...13494 of January 30, 2009 EO 13494 Economy in Government Contracting By the...ordered that: Section 1. To promote economy and efficiency in Government...

2010-01-01

176

40 CFR 600.008-01 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

177

40 CFR 600.510-08 - Calculation of average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-08 Section 600.510-08...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

2010-07-01

178

40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.311-08 Range...

2012-07-01

179

40 CFR 600.311-12 - Determination of values for fuel economy labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Determination of values for fuel economy labels. 600.311-12 Section 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.311-12...

2013-07-01

180

40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.210-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2013-07-01

181

40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.210-08...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

182

40 CFR 600.008-77 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

183

40 CFR 600.311-12 - Determination of values for fuel economy labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Determination of values for fuel economy labels. 600.311-12 Section 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.311-12...

2012-07-01

184

40 CFR 600.207-86 - Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type. 600.207-86...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

185

40 CFR 600.311-12 - Determination of values for fuel economy labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Determination of values for fuel economy labels. 600.311-12 Section 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.311-12...

2014-07-01

186

40 CFR 600.510-08 - Calculation of average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-08 Section 600.510-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

2013-07-01

187

40 CFR 600.510-93 - Calculation of average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-93 Section 600.510-93...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

2010-07-01

188

40 CFR 600.510-86 - Calculation of average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-86 Section 600.510-86...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

2011-07-01

189

40 CFR 600.209-95 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.209-95...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

190

40 CFR 600.211-08 - Sample calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Sample calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.211-08...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

191

40 CFR 600.510-08 - Calculation of average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-08 Section 600.510-08...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

2011-07-01

192

40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2011-07-01

193

40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

194

40 CFR 600.008-77 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

195

40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

196

40 CFR 600.209-85 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.209-85...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

197

40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2011-07-01

198

40 CFR 600.207-93 - Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type. 600.207-93...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

199

40 CFR 600.008-08 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

200

76 FR 11196 - Antidumping Methodologies in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of Production...antidumping proceedings involving non-market economy (``NME'') countries. See Antidumping...in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of...

2011-03-01

201

40 CFR 600.510-08 - Calculation of average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-08 Section 600.510-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

2012-07-01

202

40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.210-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2012-07-01

203

40 CFR 600.510-93 - Calculation of average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-93 Section 600.510-93...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

2011-07-01

204

40 CFR 600.008-01 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

205

40 CFR 600.510-86 - Calculation of average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-86 Section 600.510-86...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

2010-07-01

206

The Impact of Credit on Village Economies  

E-print Network

This paper evaluates the short- and longer term impact of Thailand's "Million Baht Village Fund" program, among the largest scale government microfinance iniatives in the world, using pre- and post-program panel data and ...

Townsend, Robert

207

77 FR 38553 - Proposed Modification to Regulation Concerning the Use of Market Economy Input Prices in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Modification to Regulation Concerning the Use of Market Economy Input Prices in Nonmarket Economy Proceedings AGENCY: Import Administration...normally will use the price that a nonmarket economy (``NME'') producer pays to a market...

2012-06-28

208

76 FR 65694 - Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...International Trade Administration Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of...liquidate such entries at the non-market economy (``NME'')-wide rate. FOR FURTHER...non-reviewed exporters. See Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment...

2011-10-24

209

TEXTUAL ECONOMY THROUGH CLOSE COUPLING OF SYNTAX AND SEMANTICS Matthew Stone Bonnie Webber  

E-print Network

TEXTUAL ECONOMY THROUGH CLOSE COUPLING OF SYNTAX AND SEMANTICS Matthew Stone Bonnie Webber Dept, thatexploitsthe hearer's recognitionof inferentiallinkstomaterial elsewhere withina sentence. Textual economy argue that achieving textual economy imposes strong requirements on the representation and reasoning

Stone, Matthew

210

40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.210-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

211

40 CFR 600.209-85 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.209-85...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

212

40 CFR 600.209-95 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.209-95...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

213

The Economic Impact of a Rural Higher Education Institution on the Local Economy and the Nonlocal Metropolitan Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study examines the impacts of South Plains College (SPC) (Levelland, Texas) on the local rural economy of Hockley County in which it is situated, as well as on the economy of neighboring, more metropolitan Lubbock County. The study addressed both business volume and employment impacts. Direct business volume impact was derived from four…

Johnson, Troy M.

214

The Philosophical Roots of Ernst Mach's Economy of Thought  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full appreciation for Ernst Mach's doctrine of the economy of thought must takeaccount of his direct realism about particulars (elements) and his anti-realism aboutspace-time laws as economical constructions. After a review of thought economy,its critics and some contemporary forms, the paper turns to the philosophical rootsof Mach's doctrine. Mach claimed that the simplest, most parsimonious theorieseconomized memory and effort

E. C. Banks

2004-01-01

215

University of Michigan Institute for Research on Labor, Employment and the Economy  

E-print Network

University of Michigan Institute for Research on Labor, Employment and the Economy (IRLEE) Mission innovation, increasing entrepreneurship, and improving the economy; (5) Foster a core of interdisciplinary

Shyy, Wei

216

Child Care and the New Economy: Part I--Three Pillars of the New Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Late in 2008, when it was becoming apparent that the economic downturn was not a simple blip but a serious recession, Warren Buffet confidently predicted that the American economy would bounce back and be as strong as ever. However, he observed, "the economy that emerges will not be the same economy that entered the downturn." Since then, one…

Neugebauer, Roger

2009-01-01

217

Method of predicting a change in an economy  

DOEpatents

An economy whose activity is to be predicted comprises a plurality of decision makers. Decision makers include, for example, households, government, industry, and banks. The decision makers are represented by agents, where an agent can represent one or more decision makers. Each agent has decision rules that determine the agent's actions. Each agent can affect the economy by affecting variable conditions characteristic of the economy or the internal state of other agents. Agents can communicate actions through messages. On a multiprocessor computer, the agents can be assigned to processing elements.

Pryor, Richard J (Albuquerque, NM); Basu, Nipa (Albany, NY)

2006-01-10

218

Supply chain practices in the context of an emerging economy  

E-print Network

The emergence of the BRIC economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China as a formidable economic powerhouse is turning into a reality. The center of the world's economic gravity is slowly shifting towards these emerging ...

Bhaumik, Vijan

2010-01-01

219

THE SUBSTANTIVE ECONOMY OF MONEY --KARL POLANYI IN THE TRADITION OF "OLD" INSTITUTIONALISM--  

E-print Network

THE SUBSTANTIVE ECONOMY OF MONEY --KARL POLANYI IN THE TRADITION OF "OLD" INSTITUTIONALISM-- Introduction First Part - The Purpose of a Substantive Economy §1/ Karl Polanyi's Method : a point of view §2 / Substantive Economy and the Question of Value §3 / Institutions and forms of integration : economy

Boyer, Edmond

220

The material basis of the global economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Material flow accounting and analysis (MFA) has been established as an influential framework for quantifying the use of natural resources by modern societies. So far, however, no reference data for overall scale and trends of global extraction of natural resources and their distribution between different world regions has been available. This paper presents the first comprehensive quantification of the material

Arno Behrens; Stefan Giljum; Jan Kovanda; Samuel Niza

2007-01-01

221

Toward a political economy of post-Fordist punishment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article suggests some new lines of research in the field of the political economy of punishment and some possible new\\u000a directions for a critical approach to contemporary social control strategies. The starting point is the transition from a\\u000a Fordist economy to what can be defined as a post-Fordist system of production. I outline some tendencies in the actual capitalist

Alessandro De Giorgi

2007-01-01

222

Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy  

SciTech Connect

Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CAROB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4 %, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6 %. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CAROB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

Aceves, S.; Glaser, R.; Richardson, J.

1997-01-01

223

The political economy of government interventions in financial crises  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 examines how political economy considerations affect the desirability of banking unions. It presents a model in which bank recapitalizations are carried out by rent-seeking policymakers. These policymakers face ...

Foar??, Octavia Daniela

2014-01-01

224

Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy  

SciTech Connect

Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CARB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4%, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6%. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CARB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

Aceves, S., LLNL

1997-01-01

225

Variables Affecting the Efficacy of a Token Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated in a longitudinal study were the variables affecting the efficacy of a token economy used with 16 institutionalized severely and profoundly mentally retarded males (16-24 years old) exhibiting disruptive behaviors. (Author/CL)

Westphal, Carl R.

1975-01-01

226

Vocational Preparation of The Hardcore Unemployed: The Token Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a demonstration project designed to assist in the upgrading of job skills among hardcore, inner-city, underemployed clients. The token economy procedure is described and its use in the present study is detailed. (Author)

Sandler, Jack; Turner, Walter L.

1973-01-01

227

The Role of Agriculture in Turkish Economy at the Beginning of the European Union Accession Negotiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, Turkish economy and importance of agriculture in the economy on the way of accession negotiations to the European Union (EU) are discussed. Compliance with EU norms based on macroeconomic indicators is evaluated. Turkish economy exhibits the characteristics of a developing economy based on per capita income, economic growth, employment, income distribution, foreign trade volume and economic structure.

Harun Tanrivermis; Mehmet Bulbul

2007-01-01

228

Diffusion and Effects of Cyber-Crime in Developing Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyber-crime's footprints across the developing world are getting bigger. The aim of this article is to examine the structure of cyber-crimes in developing economies. Its central idea is that economic and institutional factors facing cyber-criminals and potential victims in the developing world are different from those in the developed world. In economies characterised by low internet penetration rates and few

Nir Kshetri

2010-01-01

229

Use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy. One of the important requirements for Gen. IV High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGR) is passive safety. Currently all the HTGR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. [1] The decay heat first is transferred to core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. Similar concepts have been widely used in sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) designs, advanced light water reactors like AP1000. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area. RVACS tends to be less expensive. However, it limits the largest achievable power level for modular HTGRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface). When the relative decay heat removal capability is reduced, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annual designs with internal reflector can mitigate this effect therefore further increase the power. Another way to increase power is to increase power density. However, it is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides safety, HTGRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor designs. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of HTGRs. Forsberg [2] pointed out other disadvantages of using RVACS such as conflicting functional requirements for the reactor vessel and scaling distortion for integral effect test of the system performance. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume based passive decay removal system, call Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS has been widely used in SFR designs and in liquid salt cooled high temperature reactors. The containment cooling system in BWR is another example of volume based decay removal systems. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one in reactor side and another is in environment side. DRACS has the benefits of increasing the power as needed (scalability) and modularity. This paper introduces the concept of using DRACS to enhance HTGRs passive safety and economy.

Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou

2011-06-01

230

Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in fuel economy with increasing restriction. However, the level of restriction required to cause a substantial (10-15%) decrease in fuel economy (such as that cited in the literature) was so severe that the vehicle was almost undrivable. Acceleration performance on all vehicles was improved with a clean air filter. Once it was determined how severe the restriction had to be to affect the carbureted vehicle fuel economy, the 2007 Buick Lucerne was retested in a similar manner. We were not able to achieve the level of restriction that was achieved with the 1972 Pontiac with the Lucerne. The Lucerne's air filter box would not hold the filter in place under such severe conditions. (It is believed that this testing exceeded the design limits of the air box.) Tests were conducted at a lower restriction level (although still considerably more severe than the initial clogged filter testing), allowing the air filter to stay seated in the air box, and no significant change was observed in the Lucerne's fuel economy or the AFR over the HFET cycle. Closed-loop control in modern fuel injected vehicle applications is sophisticated enough to keep a clogged air filter from affecting the vehicle fuel economy. However for older, open-loop, carbureted vehicles, a clogged air filter can affect the fuel economy. For the vehicle tested, the fuel economy with a new air filter improved as much as 14% over that with a severely clogged filter (in which the filter was so clogged that drivability was impacted). Under a more typical state of clog, the improvement with a new filter ranged from 2 to 6%.

Norman, Kevin M [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

2009-02-01

231

California's Green Economy  

E-print Network

California's Green Economy California Green Workforce Coalition July 9, 2010 Bonnie Graybill Employment Development Department Labor Market Information Division #12;Understanding the Green Economy What's green economy Demand leads to pressure for additional supply of products and services Survey covers

232

Diaspora Power: network contributions to peacebuilding and the transformation of war economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

How economies of countries at war (war economies) transform in 'peace' is a critical new area of research in political economy and war and peace studies. The dynamics that affect the way war economies perpetuate or mutate after a peace agreement is signed is the context for this examination of non-state actor roles - normally attention is on state and

Gregory Kent

2005-01-01

233

On Optimal Monetary Policy Rules and the Role of MCIs in the Open Economy.  

E-print Network

On Optimal Monetary Policy Rules and the Role of MCIs in the Open Economy. By Alfred V. Guender consequences for the conduct of optimal monetary policy in the forward-looking open economy framework. As opposed to the closed economy framework optimal monetary policy in the open economy depends on both demand

Hickman, Mark

234

Dynamic systems of regional economy management optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most actual problems of the Russian economic life is a regional economic systems formation. The hierarchy of economic and branch priorities should follow from the general idea of an industrial policy. The matter is that the concept of an industrial policy is defined by the system of priorities mainly incorporated in it. The problem of priorities is not solved yet neither on federal, nor at a regional level. It is necessary to recognize, that a substantiation of this or that variant of priorities - objectively a challenge. Such substantiation can be received with the help of dynamic structural modeling and management technology. At formation of the regional industrial policy program the special attention is given to creation of modern type commercial structures. In regions there are headquarters and branches of many largest corporations, holdings and banks. Besides it, many regional enterprises already became inter-regional or even the transnational companies. In this connection an assistance of transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups in vertically integrated companies and modern type holdings can become a prominent aspect of an industrial policy. Regional economic structures should be reconstructed gradually on the general model of the world class competitive companies. Assistance to creation of new corporational control systems, the organization of headquarters and the central services work - all this can be included into the sphere of regional administration industrial policy. The special attention should be turned on necessity of development of own system of the corporate structures, capable to provide to the region an independent participation in use of the natural resources and industrial-technological potential, at the stage of a regional industrial policy program formation. Transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups into modern type vertically-integrated companies and holdings can become one of the major directions of an industrial policy of region. The situational-analytical centers (SAC) of regional administration The major component of SAC is dynamic modeling, analysis, forecasting and optimization systems, based on modern intellectual information technologies. Spheres of SAC are not only financial streams management and investments optimization, but also strategic forecasting functions, which provide an optimum choice, "aiming", search of optimum ways of regional development and corresponding investments. It is expedient to consider an opportunity of formation of the uniform organizational-methodical center of an industrial policy of region. This organization can be directly connected to the scheduled-analytical services of the largest economic structures, local authorities, the ministries and departments. Such "direct communication" is capable to provide an effective regional development strategic management. Anyway, the output on foreign markets demands concentration of resources and support of authorities. Offered measures are capable to provide a necessary coordination of efforts of a various level economic structures. For maintenance of a regional industrial policy an attraction of all newest methods of strategic planning and management is necessary. Their activity should be constructed on the basis of modern approaches of economic systems management, cause the essence of an industrial policy is finally reduced to an effective regional and corporate economic activities control centers formation. Opportunities of optimum regional economy planning and management as uniform system Approaches to planning regional economic systems can be different. We will consider some most effective methods of planning and control over a regional facilities condition. All of them are compact and evident, that allows to put them into the group of average complexity technologies. At the decision of problems of a regional resource management is rather perspective the so-called "topographical" approach, which is used by intellectual information tec

Trofimov, S.; Kudzh, S.

235

Nuclides Economy  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally the subject of discussion about the nuclear technology development is focused on the conditions that facilitate the nuclear power deployment. The main objective of this work is seeking of methodological basis for analysis of the coupling consequences of nuclear development. Nuclide economy is the term, which defines a new kind of society relations, dependent on nuclear technology development. It is rather closed to the setting of problems then to the solving of them. Last year Dr. Jonathan Tennenbaum published in Executive Intelligence Review Vol. 33 no 40 the article entitled as 'The Isotope Economy' where main interconnections for nuclear energy technologies and their infrastructure had been explained on the popular level. There he has given several answers and, therefore, just here we will try to expand this concept. We were interested by this publication because of similarity of our vision of resource base of technologies development. The main paradigm of 'Isotope economy' was expresses by Lyndon H. LaRouche: 'Instead of viewing the relevant resources of the planet as if they were a fixed totality, we must now assume responsibility of man's creating the new resources which will be more than adequate to sustain a growing world population at a constantly improved standard of physical per-capita output, and personal consumption'. We also consider the needed resources as a dynamic category. Nuclide economy and nuclide logistics both are needed for identifying of the future development of nuclear power as far we follow the holistic analysis approach 'from cave to grave'. Thus here we try to reasoning of decision making procedures and factors required for it in frame of innovative proposals development and deployment. The nuclear power development is needed in humanitarian scientific support with maximally deep consideration of all inter-disciplinary aspects of the nuclear power and nuclear technologies implementation. The main objectives for such consideration should be prognosis of all political, social, environmental and infra-structural consequences. Understanding of this necessity turned us to use the formalism of so called techno-dynamics and represent of resources needed for nuclear technology development as dynamic categories. The basic ideas of the methodology of innovative project assessment have been applied for holistic analysis of the development of the nuclear systems. This methodology has been developed for innovative proposals analysis in frame of IAEA INPRO project and it was a consensus product of the wide international expert's society discussions. All aspects of application of radioactivity in the industry and medicine had not been presented because the main ideas are quite evident but scale factor of their using has too big uncertainties. But cyclic character of organizing fuel management for the future development of nuclear technologies was added by cycles of structure materials as well. It has obtained that asymptotically the nuclear technology generates their specific compositions of structure materials. Thus wide scale using of the nuclear power will make new kind of metals that will be materials of nuclear quality. Development of new technologies and their penetration on the market will be accompanied by the several kinds of critical events. Crisis of resource's supplying is only most well known of them. But it is not both the single and not the most important. The model of corporation development made on Marshall's theory unambiguously demonstrates that transition from one technology to another can be made only in conditions of falling of the market. This result does not allow us to predict of time of the optimal transition from one technology basis onto the nets generation but it gives an indicator of readiness for changing of the mainstream. For the analysis of new innovative initiative it has been used the scale factor. Thus it shows that required installed capacity of G.N.E.P. systems will not be less then two hundred GW. Therefore the burner segment of the projected syste ms s

Ivanov, Evgeny; Subbotin, Stanislav [RRC 'Kurchatov institute', Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01

236

Montana Economy at a Glance September 2012 Montana Department of Labor & Industry Research & Analysis Bureau  

E-print Network

Montana Economy at a Glance September 2012 Montana Department of Labor & Industry Research to the economy over the last decade and helping to stabilize the Montana economy during the 2007-2010 recession The healthcare industry plays a positive and inte- gral role in the state's economy.Figure one shows the percent

Lawrence, Rick L.

237

Practical Token Economies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article discusses special considerations in applying standard token economy techniques to behavior change with the head injured with examples of token economies at three rehabilitation facilities. (DB)

Blackerby, W. F.

1988-01-01

238

Relative Economy of Different Methods of Airplane Construction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of the relative economy of airplane construction shows that monoplanes are cheaper than biplanes; that all-metal construction is much more expensive than mixed construction; that multi-engine airplanes are more expensive than single-engine types of the same carrying capacity and speed;that the cost of airplanes is materially reduced by increasing their size without increasing the number of engines. The greatest economy usually coincides with the best aerodynamic and static conditions and the cost is always increased by safety requirements.

Herrmann, H

1931-01-01

239

The Impact of Credit on Village Economies  

PubMed Central

This paper evaluates the short-term impact of Thailand’s ‘Million Baht Village Fund’program, among the largest scale government microfinance iniative in the world, using pre- and post-program panel data and quasi-experimental cross-village variation in credit-per-household. We find that the village funds have increased total short-term credit, consumption, agricultural investment, income growth (from business and labor), but decreased overall asset growth. We also find a positive impact on wages, an important general equilibrium effect. The findings are broadly consistent qualitatively with models of credit-constrained household behavior and models of intermediation and growth. PMID:22844546

Kaboski, Joseph P.; Townsend, Robert M.

2011-01-01

240

Cost analysis of proposed changes to 40 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) Part 600 to improve fuel economy labeling and the fuel economy data base. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analysis has been written to estimate the economic impact on the automotive industry of the various rule changes proposed in the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) entitled 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 600 Fuel Economy of Motor Vehicles-Revisions to Improve Fuel Economy Labeling and Fuel Economy Data Base.

Tyree

1982-01-01

241

Cost analysis of proposed changes to 40 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) Part 600 to improve fuel economy labeling and the fuel economy data base. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This analysis has been written to estimate the economic impact on the automotive industry of the various rule changes proposed in the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) entitled 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 600 Fuel Economy of Motor Vehicles-Revisions to Improve Fuel Economy Labeling and Fuel Economy Data Base.

Tyree, C.D.

1982-09-01

242

Measuring flood footprint of a regional economy - A case study for the UK flooding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the urban economy and society is central to understanding the broad impacts of flooding and to identify cost-effective adaptation and mitigation measures. Assessments of the flooding impacts on cities have traditionally focused on the initial impact on people and assets. These initial estimates (so-called ';direct damage') are useful both in understanding the immediate implications of damage, and in marshalling the pools of capital and supplies required for re-building after an event. Since different economies as well as societies are coupled, especially under the current economic crisis, any small-scale damage may be multiplied and cascaded throughout wider economic systems and social networks. The direct and indirect damage is currently not evaluated well and could be captured by quantification of what we call the flood footprint. Flooding in one location can impact the whole UK economy. Neglecting these knock-on costs (i.e. the true footprint of the flood) means we might be ignoring the economic benefits and beneficiaries of flood risk management interventions. In 2007, for example, floods cost the economy about £3.2 bn directly, but the wider effect might actually add another 50% to 250% to that. Flood footprint is a measure of the exclusive total socioeconomic impact that is directly and indirectly caused by a flood event to the flooding region and wider economic systems and social networks. We adopt the UK 2012 flooding. An input-output basic dynamic inequalities (BDI) model is used to assess the impact of the floodings on the level of a Yorkshire economy, accounting for interactions between industries through demand and supply of intermediate consumption goods with a circular flow. After the disaster the economy will be unbalanced. The recovery process finishes when the economy is completely balance, i.e., when labour production capacity equals demands and production and all the variables reach pre-disaster levels. The analysis is carried out focusing on 42 sectors. Most regional data have been produced from the Multisectoral Dynamic Model of the UK economy. The flooding caused a 3.56% direct damage in the Yorkshire economy, while the indirect accounted for 14.58%.Utilities and transportation where the sectors that suffered the greatest direct impact. This impact indirectly transferred through business and supply chain to services, construction and primary industries.

Guan, D.

2013-12-01

243

Optimization of the fuel economy of a hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a simulation study of the potential improvement in fuel economy that is available by optimizing the usage of the high voltage battery in a hybrid electric vehicle with the configuration of the Toyota Prius. A mathematical model of the vehicle system is proposed, and used with an optimizer to find the battery usage over a

J. G. Supina; S. Awad

2003-01-01

244

17.100J / 14.781J / 15.678J Political Economy I: Theories of the State and the Economy, Fall 2005  

E-print Network

Political Economy I explores the major social science paradigms for analyzing relations among state, economy, and society. Through readings, lectures and discussion of original texts in political liberalism and individualism, ...

Piore, Michael

245

Fuel economy rebound effect of U.S. household vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an econometric estimation of the rebound effect for household vehicle travel in the US based on analysis of survey data collected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) at approximately three-year intervals over a 15-year period. The rebound effect measures the tendency to take back potential energy savings from fuel economy improvements as increased travel. Vehicle use models were estimated for one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-vehicle households. The results confirm recent estimates based on national or state-level data: a long-run take back of about 20% of potential energy savings. Consumer responses to changes in fuel economy or fuel price per gallon appear to be equal and opposite in sign. Recognizing the interdependencies among miles of travel, fuel economy and price is key to obtaining meaningful results.

Greene, D.L.; Kahn, J.R.; Gibson, R.C.

1999-07-01

246

The Resilience of the Indian Economy to Rising Oil Prices as a Validation Test for a Global Energy-Environment-Economy CGE Model  

E-print Network

1 The Resilience of the Indian Economy to Rising Oil Prices as a Validation Test for a Global., 2009, `The resilience of the Indian economy to rising oil prices as a validation test for a global so, it compares the modeled and observed responses of the Indian economy to the rise of oil price

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

247

Since 1975, the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks has been regulated by the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards,  

E-print Network

Since 1975, the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks has been regulated by the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, established during the energy crises of the 1970s. Calls to increase fuel economy are usually met by a fierce debate on the effectiveness of the CAFE standards

248

Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several new and forthcoming books published by the National Academies Press (NAP) can now be read online through NAP's OpenBook feature, that allows readers to view full text of books (.html). The first listed here, "Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards", is an unedited pre-print. It gives the results of a the National Academies Transportation Research Board's recent investigation into the impacts of the CAFE program, which was passed in 1975 in response to oil shortages and required that auto manufacturers increase the sales-weighted average fuel economy for passenger cars and light-duty trucks.

2001-01-01

249

Recovery of the World Economy, Decline of Unemployment in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outlook for the world economy has brightened noticeably. The situation in Asia, Russia and Latin America remains unstable, but economic growth continues at a high level, at least for the time being, in the USA, and the economic recovery is gaining momentum in Europe. If the forces stimulating domestic demand gain further strength, a clear improvement of the labour

Markus Marterbauer

1999-01-01

250

The Valorization of Surveillance: Towards a Political Economy of Facebook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much excitement surrounds Facebook, the social networking site based on user-generated content that has attracted 64 million active users since its inception in 2004. This paper begins to out- line a political economy of Facebook in an attempt to draw atten- tion to the underlying economic relations that structure the web- site, and the way in which the site fits

Nicole S. Cohen

251

The Rural Economy in a New Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technological change, globalization, and localization have changed rural economies. They have increased labor productivity, reducing the importance of labor costs in location decisions; decreased the importance of distance; increased the importance of economies of scale; and increased the role of local conditions and choices in determining…

Johnson, Thomas G.

252

Restore the Economy with Loans to All Taxpayers The mess on Wall Street spilled over into the rest of the economy when it induced a crisis in  

E-print Network

Restore the Economy with Loans to All Taxpayers The mess on Wall Street spilled over into the rest of the economy when it induced a crisis in confidence. People felt insecure and sought to increase their cash is to put enough money into the economy that people will be willing to spend at the level needed to keep

Buehrer, R. Michael

253

Wisconsin Agriculture Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy  

E-print Network

STATUS OF Wisconsin Agriculture 2011 · Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy · Current Outlook: Farm of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural and Life Sciences University of Wisconsin-Madison Cooperative Extension University of Wisconsin-Extension #12;Status of Wisconsin Agriculture, 2011 An annual

Radeloff, Volker C.

254

Legal Regulation on Logistics Management from Aspects of Global Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper firstly focuses on the research background of the thesis, and point out the adjustment of relation between the government and the market during the process of the globalization of economy, which is called the change and movement of main stream in the social realm during the period of reform in China. With the impact of this very social

Shudi Zhu; Lina Huang

2008-01-01

255

Energy and the Wealth of Nations Understanding the Biophysical Economy  

E-print Network

Economy Charles A.S. Hall, SUNY, Environmental Science & Forestry Kent Klitgaard been treated as a social science in which economies are modeled sheets that drive our "petroleum economy." Hall and Klitgaard explore the relation

Hall, Charles A.S.

256

The Learning Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern economies can be characterised as ‘learning economies’ in which knowledge is the crucial resource and learning is the most important process. Different kinds of learning and economically relevant types of knowledge can likewise be identified. It is argued that pure market economies, if such existed, would have severe problems in terms of learning and innovation. The ‘learning economy’ is

Bengt-äke Lundvall; Björn Johnson

1994-01-01

257

AGRICULTURE, 2008 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy  

E-print Network

STATUS OF WISCONSIN AGRICULTURE, 2008 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy Situation and Outlook of Working Lands in Wisconsin · Hired Labor on Wisconsin Dairy Farms Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural and Life Sciences University of Wisconsin-Madison Cooperative Extension

Radeloff, Volker C.

258

DEVELOPMENT OF REINSURANCE MARKETS IN THE ECONOMIES IN TRANSITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The present survey deals with the general development of the insurance markets of economies in transition with special emphasis on reinsurance. While it has not been possible to collect data for all countries of the region, which are of widely varying state of development, it is clear that the early stages of contraction in insurance activity are over and

Peter Falush

259

AGRICULTURE, 2004 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy  

E-print Network

STATUS OF WISCONSIN AGRICULTURE, 2004 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy Situation and Outlook Situation: Implications for U.S. Agriculture · The Evolution and Current Status of Livestock Production and Meat Processing in Wisconsin Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural

Radeloff, Volker C.

260

AGRICULTURE, 2006 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy  

E-print Network

STATUS OF WISCONSIN AGRICULTURE, 2006 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy Situation and Outlook-Added Agriculture · Organic Farming in Wisconsin · A New Wisconsin Cooperative Law Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural and Life Sciences University of Wisconsin-Madison Cooperative

Radeloff, Volker C.

261

AGRICULTURE, 2007 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy  

E-print Network

STATUS OF WISCONSIN AGRICULTURE, 2007 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy Situation and Outlook and Challenges · Current Prospects for the 2007 Farm Bill Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural and Life Sciences University of Wisconsin-Madison Cooperative Extension University

Radeloff, Volker C.

262

Art and Creativity in the Global Economies of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creativity: what might this mean for art and art educators in the creative economies of globalisation? The task of this discussion is to look at the state of creativity and its role in education, in particular art education, and to seek some understanding of the register of creativity, how it is shaped, and how legitimated in the globalised world…

Grierson, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

263

Countermeasures on circular economy of small and medium enterprises development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of extensive production and management of resources of high energy consumption and pollution emissions caused by small and medium enterprises, SMEs for short, in China lead to an enormous waste of resources and environmental pollution. Developing recycling economy model is the strategic choice of Chinese SMEs In the sustainable development concept to guide the larger environment. We provide reliable

Liu Biao-weng

2010-01-01

264

Marx in Hell: The Critique of Political Economy as Katabasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines one of the many Judeo-Christian allusions in Marx's corpus, his citations of Dante in the “1859 Preface” and the preface to the first edition of Capital. It demonstrates that Marx borrowed key features of Dante's Inferno for his own critique of political economy, and that Marx thereby situated his critical journey through economics as the heir to

William Clare Roberts

2005-01-01

265

The political economy of coffee, dictatorship, and genocide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a political economy analysis of the Habyarimana regime in Rwanda. The analysis shows how, through the producer price of coffee, the dictator buys political loyalty from the peasant population, and how, in periods of economic growth, the dictator increases his level of personal consumption as well as power over the population. The analysis of Habyarimana's policy decisions

Philip Verwimp

2003-01-01

266

Measuring the Size of the Informal Economy: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a burgeoning number of studies attempting to measure the size of the ‘black’ economy. These are based on a variety of methodologies and provide a range of estimates, not just across countries but also within the same countries and often by the same author(s). This raises a number of issues: What is meant by the term ‘black’

George M. Georgiou

2007-01-01

267

MINORITY LANGUAGES AND THE ECONOMY: THE CASE OF GAELIC  

E-print Network

MINORITY LANGUAGES AND THE ECONOMY: THE CASE OF GAELIC A CCPR seminar in the Basque Fellowship of the Basque Country) 9:55 The Economic Impact of Gaelic Language and Culture Presenter Douglas Chalmers of Minority Language Media & Cultural Industries: the Berria case Presenters Helena Franco, Enekoitz

Glasgow, University of

268

The Management of Managers: Challenges in a Small Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the findings of a study of the management of senior managers. The aim is to describe the ways in which firms in a small economy, such as New Zealand, manage their managers and analyse how they deal with the strategic challenges that are involved. Design/methodology/approach: The study applies the…

Gilbert, John; Boxall, Peter

2009-01-01

269

Voting in Open EconomiesThe Electoral Consequences of Globalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the electoral consequences of global market integration? Although recent discussions of politics and markets have much to say on globalization’s implications for policy outcomes, the impact of market integration on representative democracy has received scant attention. This article addresses this omission. We extend the globalization literature to develop two competing hypotheses regarding the influence of open economies on

Timothy Hellwig; David Samuels

2007-01-01

270

Shanghai' Industry orientation and development of zone economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industry orientation of Zhejiang Province, Jiangsu Province and Shanghai is explored based on comprehensive productivity, productivity of financial service and industry, And wage rate. The conclusion is drawn that it is essential to get rid of administrative barrier and to set free key productive elemnets to fulfill development of zone economy in coordination. This presents important significance to Zhujiang Delta

Xuangong Zhu

2010-01-01

271

Operating cost and water economy of mixed air steam turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work an economic evaluation of the operating cost and the water economy of the various commercial MAST (mixed air steam turbines) technologies is carried out. For the water requirements the analysis takes into account either the use of a reverse osmosis desalination plant or the use of a water recovery condenser. The two simulation tools used are the

Andreas Poullikkas

2005-01-01

272

The Sustainability of Budget Deficits in a Stochastic Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transversality condition on government debt requires a zero limit of discounted future debt. The paper shows that, in a stochastic economy, the relevant discount rate depends on the probability distribution of future debt over states of nature. Discount rates on future government debt, spending, and taxes are generally not related to the rates of return on government debt. The

Henning Bohn

1995-01-01

273

EMISSIONS AND FUEL ECONOMY OF FEDERAL ALTERNATIVELY FUELED FLEET VEHICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents results from a study designed to investigate the effects of automobile fuels on emissions and fuel economy. The study is part of a larger program mandated by the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988 that requires the Department of Energy (DOE), in cooperation w...

274

Benefit-cost analysis of a token economy program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performed a benefit-cost analysis of a token economy program with adult psychiatric patients. Costs of the program included the extra in-hospital expenses incurred by the patients and staff. Benefits consisted of the hospital costs foregone by getting and keeping patients out of the hospital minus the extra costs to the public incurred by the patients once they had been released

John P Foreyt

1975-01-01

275

The political economy of job protection and income redistribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model allowing to analyze voting, welfare institutions and economic performance. We consider a political economy framework with three classes of agents: entrepreneurs, employed workers and unemployed workers. Agents vote on alternative institutional options: the degree of labour market flexibility and the intensity of redistribution. We show that the welfare state configuration depends on the nature of

Bruno Amable; Donatella Gatti

2005-01-01

276

THE INFLUENCE OF LOWER BODY COMPRESSION CLOTHING ON MARKERS OF RUNNING ECONOMY DURING SUBMAXIMAL  

E-print Network

THE INFLUENCE OF LOWER BODY COMPRESSION CLOTHING ON MARKERS OF RUNNING ECONOMY DURING SUBMAXIMAL ........................................................................................................................ 24 Research Design

Dyer, Bill

277

Assessment of Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Economies  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study is to examine the marginal lands in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies and evaluate their biomass productivity potential. Twelve categories of marginal lands are identified using the Global Agro-Ecological Zones system of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

2009-08-01

278

The Socialist System: The Political Economy of Communism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides a comprehensive account of the structure, conduct, and performance of the centrally planned economies of Eastern Europe, the USSR, Communist China and the Marxist LDCs, looking at 26 nations in all. The author focuses on reform, perhaps the most important issue facing countries such as the USSR, Poland, Hungary, and China. Bureaucracy, soft budget constraints, markets, and

Janos Kornai

1992-01-01

279

The Pitfalls of Local Economies When Attracting Foreign Investment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China, foreign investment is usually thought of as an important means to promote the local economy. In this paper a model is set up to demonstrate the interaction between the firms and governments, as well as the games among governments themselves. This paper suggests that in depressed areas, where the system of promotion and a low level of supervision

Hu Xiangting

280

Political economy of social security with endogenous preferences  

E-print Network

Political economy of social security with endogenous preferences Pascal Belan1 Bertrand Wigniolle2 focuses on a particular economic policy: the nancing of the social security system. Moreover, it considers in relation to the size of the social security system, which in turn results from the preferences

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

281

On the political economy of income redistribution and crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider a general equilibrium model where heterogeneous agents specialize either in legitimate market activities or in criminal activities and majority rule determines the share of income redistributed and the expenditures devoted to the apprehension of criminals. We calibrate our model to the U.S. economy in 1990, and we conduct simulation exercises to evaluate the effectiveness of

Ayse Imrohoroglu; Antonio Merlo; Peter Rupert

1996-01-01

282

November 22, 2004 The Structure of St. Croix County Economy  

E-print Network

Tom Mews, First National Bank of New Richmond Barbara Nemecek, School of Business & Economics, UW close proximity to the Twin Cities. The County has experienced significant changes, both economicNovember 22, 2004 The Structure of St. Croix County Economy: A Study for Economic Opportunity

Radeloff, Volker C.

283

Evaluation of patient improvement in a token economy treatment program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated various indices of improvement in 20 female chronic mental patients (mean age = 36 yrs) who were randomly assigned to a token economy treatment ward as compared with 20 control patients who received typical custodial treatment. All Ss were given standardized interviews consisting of 5 experimental tasks. Segments of the interviews were video-recorded and rated by naive raters on

Roger F. Maley; Garry L. Feldman; Robert S. Ruskin

1973-01-01

284

The Moral Economy of Violence in the US Inner City  

PubMed Central

In an 8-week period, there were 16 shootings with three fatalities, three stabbings, and 14 additional “aggravated assaults” in the four square blocks surrounding our field site in the Puerto Rican corner of North Philadelphia. In the aftermath of the shoot-outs, the drug sellers operating on our block were forced to close down their operations by several mothers who repeatedly called the police. Drawing on the concept of moral economy (Thompson, Scott, Taussig), Mauss’s interpretation of gift exchange, and a political economy critique of hypercarceralization in the United States, we understand the high levels of US inner-city violence as operating within a moral logic framed by economic scarcity and hostile state relations. Residents seek security, self-respect, and profit in social networks that compel them to participate in solidary exchanges of assistive violence dynamized by kinship and gender obligations. A hierarchical, extractive drug economy fills the void left by deindustrialization, resulting in a dynamic of embodied primitive accumulation at the expense of addicted customers and chronically incarcerated just-in-time street sellers at high risk of assault. Nevertheless, the mobilization of violence organizing the illegal drug economy also follows ethical norms and obligations that are recognized as legitimate by many local residents. PMID:25067849

Karandinos, George; Hart, Laurie Kain; Castrillo, Fernando Montero; Bourgois, Philippe

2014-01-01

285

HUMAN CAPITAL AND THE FUTURE OF TRANSITION ECONOMIES* Michael Spagat  

E-print Network

HUMAN CAPITAL AND THE FUTURE OF TRANSITION ECONOMIES* By Michael Spagat Royal Holloway, University advantage of their family backgrounds and invest substantially in their own human capital. At a bad, Development, Human Capital, Education, Growth, Multiple Equilibria Address for Correspondence: Department

Royal Holloway, University of London

286

Executive Masters Degree in the Political Economy of  

E-print Network

. Kenneth has previously held posts at UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies, Birkbeck College: Costa-i-Font, Joan. 'Fiscal Federalism and European Health System Decentralization: A Perspective' LEQSExecutive Masters Degree in the Political Economy of Europe The European Institute is pleased

Fryzlewicz, Piotr

287

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place  

E-print Network

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place - Mt Albert - Simon Milne is essential, tourism must sustain and enhance local quality of life ­ "Communities will work for tourism if tourism works for communities" #12;Source: areeweb.polito.it/didattica/chimica/images #12;#12;A

288

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place  

E-print Network

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place - Sandringham - Simon Milne" Community support and engagement is essential, tourism must sustain and enhance local quality of life ­ "Communities will work for tourism if tourism works for communities" `Slow travel' ­ Enhance opportunities

289

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place  

E-print Network

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place - Eden Valley - Simon Milne, tourism must sustain and enhance local quality of life ­ "Communities will work for tourism if tourism and regional marketing and development (top-down) need to be supported by local content, information

290

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place  

E-print Network

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place - Mt Eden Village - Simon, tourism must sustain and enhance local quality of life ­ "Communities will work for tourism if tourism and regional marketing and development (top-down) need to be supported by local content, information

291

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place  

E-print Network

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place - Kingsland - Simon Milne is essential, tourism must sustain and enhance local quality of life ­ "Communities will work for tourism if tourism works for communities" #12;Source: areeweb.polito.it/didattica/chimica/images #12;#12;A

292

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place  

E-print Network

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place - Greenwoods Corner - Simon, tourism must sustain and enhance local quality of life ­ "Communities will work for tourism if tourism and regional marketing and development (top-down) need to be supported by local content, information

293

ANALYSIS OF NETWORK ECONOMY BY ANP\\/DNP1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The network economy is a term for today's global relationship among economic subjects characterized by massive connectivity. The central act of the new era is to connect everything to everything in deep web networks at many levels of mutually interdependent relations, where resources and activities are shared, markets are enlarged and costs and risk are reduced. Network systems contain

Petr Fiala

2005-01-01

294

The political economy of social security: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the literature on the political economy of social security. We review models that address the following questions: (i) Why do social security programs that transfer resources from young and middle-aged workers to the elderly exist? (ii) What are the economic and political interactions between social security systems and other redistributive programs of the welfare state? (iii) How

Vincenzo Galasso; Paola Profeta

2002-01-01

295

Colleges Are Wary of Global Economy's Effect on Foreign Enrollments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economists in both India and China see signs of slackening economic activity, from currency fluctuations in India to a falloff in imports, electricity consumption, and real-estate sales in China. A weakening of the economies in the two countries could be worrisome news for American colleges, for which an uptick in full-paying foreign students has…

Fischer, Karin

2012-01-01

296

The Essential ways of China low-carbon economy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate problem has become the world's challenges, which most countries must confront. Under the background of carbon emissions growth and fossil energy's unsustainable development, low-carbon economy has become a global trend of economic and social development. Faced with the global emissions pressure and industrialization development energy, resources, with such multiple constraints, urgently need to speed up economic development in China.

JingWei Liu; Ying Wang

2011-01-01

297

Utilization of token economy within a chronic dialysis unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asked 10 volunteer male hemodialysis patients to participate in a study to evaluate the efficacy of a token economy on promoting dietary adherence as measured by weight and potassium levels. Results indicate that such a behavior modification program may have elicited some degree of patient behavior change, but further research is needed to verify this outcome. Suggestions for subsequent research

Ronald R. Hart

1979-01-01

298

TRADE PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF THE TRANSITION ECONOMIES OF CENTRAL ASIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper inquires into the role that international trade plays in the development process of the transition economies of the Central Asian region. These economies - which used to be an integral part of the command economy of the Former Soviet Union - were confronted with a dramatic contraction of both output and trade levels upon gaining their independence in

Eldar Madumarov

2006-01-01

299

Fuel Economy of Vehicles Made in 2004 Description of the sample  

E-print Network

Fuel Economy of Vehicles Made in 2004 Description of the sample: A random sample of 36 cars and light trucks was obtained from all the vehicle models made in 2004. The combined fuel economy estimate the vehicles got 22 MPG or less. There was a good deal of variability in the fuel economy of the 36 cars

Carriquiry, Alicia

300

Utilization of waste heat in trucks for increased fuel economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvements in fuel economy for a broad spectrum of truck engines and waste heat utilization concepts are evaluated and compared. The engines considered are the diesel, spark ignition, gas turbine, and Stirling. The waste heat utilization concepts include preheating, regeneration, turbocharging, turbocompounding, and Rankine engine compounding. Predictions were based on fuel-air cycle analyses, computer simulation, and engine test data. The

C. J. Leising; G. P. Purohit; S. P. Degrey; J. G. Finegold

1978-01-01

301

The Political Economy of Environmental Policy with Overlapping Generations  

E-print Network

The Political Economy of Environmental Policy with Overlapping Generations Larry Karp Armon Rezai to future tax-induced environmental improvements, benefiting the current asset owners, the old generation. Absent a transfer, the tax harms the young genera- tion by decreasing their real wage. Future generations

Kammen, Daniel M.

302

Stable Development of Austrian Economy Despite Persistent Debt Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overall, the latest data on the state of the global economy suggest that the upswing will continue; they are somewhat mixed, however. Growth remains robust in the USA, Latin America and South East Asia. Developments in the euro area, by contrast, continue to be characterised by the debt crisis. Irrespective thereof, the outlook for economic activity in Austria remains stable.

Christian Glocker

2012-01-01

303

Beyond the Token Economy: A Comparison of Two Contingency Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine whether the addition of milieu principles to a contingency program increases its effectiveness, the investigators compared two treatment programs in a mental hospital: (a) a social learning or token economy approach and (b) a combined social learning and milieu approach. (Author)

Greenberg, David J.; And Others

1975-01-01

304

Beyond the token economy: A comparison of two contingency programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether the addition of milieu principles to a contingency program increases its effectiveness, 2 treatment programs in a mental hospital were compared: (a) a social learning or token economy approach and (b) a combined social learning and milieu approach in which patients were given increased decision-making responsibilities, group pressures were used, and both were integrated with response-contingent management.

David J. Greenberg; Steven B. Scott; Anthony Pisa; Deloss D. Friesen

1975-01-01

305

The Effects of a Token Economy on First Grade Students Inappropriate Social Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies the effectiveness of a token economy on specific inappropriate social behaviors of three first grade students. Suggests that token economy systems can be very effective in decreasing disruptive behaviors of primary aged students. (MG)

Shook, Suzan C.; And Others

1990-01-01

306

Interindustry analysis of the economy of Northeast Texas emphasizing agriculture  

E-print Network

Review of Literature The basic input-output technique as used in ccntemporary regional analysis was developed by Wassily W. Leontief in 1951. In his renowned study, The Structure of the American Econo , 1919-1929, (16) Leontief divided the United... States economy into 44 sectors and formulated a model to measure and evaluate the interdependence among these sectors. Since Leontief's study, a number of similar studies have been conducted for the United States, areas within the United States...

Lippke, Lawrence Arnold

1971-01-01

307

40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

2013-07-01

308

40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

309

40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

2012-07-01

310

40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

2010-07-01

311

40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

2011-07-01

312

Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment Capabilities in APEC Economies  

SciTech Connect

This survey of biomass resource assessments and assessment capabilities in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies considered various sources: academic and government publications, media reports, and personal communication with contacts in member economies.

Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P

2008-11-01

313

Political Economy Graduate Certificate c/o Department of Political Science  

E-print Network

Political Economy Graduate Certificate c/o Department of Political Science Clark C346 Colorado.stevis@colostate.edu Political Economy Graduate Interdisciplinary Studies Program Enrollment Form (*) (03/01/05) Name

314

Research for strategic transformation of auto manufacturers based on the Low Carbon Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research is aiming to explore the low carbon road for auto manufacturing enterprise. It introduced the concept of low carbon economy, and analyzed China automobile manufacturing enterprise developing low carbon economy status using the method of SWOT. Constructed the conceptual model of strategic transformation of auto manufacturing enterprise from the perspective of low carbon economy: taking low carbon strategic

Lu Ma; Jun-guo Qiao

2011-01-01

315

Economic Contributions of the Florida Craft Brewing Industry to the Florida Economy  

E-print Network

Economic Contributions of the Florida Craft Brewing Industry to the Florida Economy Timothy G.....................................................................................................34 #12;i Economic Contributions of the Florida Craft Brewing Industry to the Florida Economy of the Florida craft brewing industry on the state's economy, which was conducted using the University of Florida

Florida, University of

316

THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF LABOUR MARKET POLICIES IN WESTERN AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES  

E-print Network

THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF LABOUR MARKET POLICIES IN WESTERN AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES OLAF VAN, which is a key element of the flexicurity model. Building on the political economy literature, we test in the political economy literature, but hardly for Eastern European countries, because of a lack of data. We

Galis, Frietson

317

On Optimal Monetary Policy Rules and the Construction of MCIs in the Open Economy  

E-print Network

On Optimal Monetary Policy Rules and the Construction of MCIs in the Open Economy By Alfred V open-economy forward-looking model to underscore the important role of the real exchange rate channel in the conduct of optimal monetary policy. As opposed to the closed economy, optimal monetary policy in the open

Hickman, Mark

318

Economic Contributions of the Florida Craft Brewing Industry to the Florida Economy  

E-print Network

Economic Contributions of the Florida Craft Brewing Industry to the Florida Economy Timothy G Contributions of the Florida Craft Brewing Industry to the Florida Economy Executive Summary The Florida Brewers on the state's economy, which was conducted using the University of Florida's Food and Resource Economics

Florida, University of

319

The value of the high Aswan Dam to the Egyptian economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The High Aswan Dam converted a variable and uncertain flow of Nile river water into a predictable and controllable water supply stored in Lake Nasser. We use a computable general equilibrium model of the Egyptian economy to estimate the economic impact of the High Aswan Dam. We compare the actual 1997 economy to the 1997 economy as it would have

Kenneth M. Strzepek; Gary W. Yohe; Richard S. J. Tol; Mark W. Rosegrant

2008-01-01

320

Fuel Economy Improvement Potential of a Heavy Duty Truck using V2x Communication  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we introduce an intelligent driver assistance system to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty vehicles irrespective of the driving style of the driver. We specifically study the potential of V2I and V2V communications to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty trucks. Most ITS communications today are oriented towards vehicle safety, with communications strategies and hardware that tend to focus on low latency. This has resulted in technologies emerging with a relatively limited range for the communications. For fuel economy, it is expected that most benefits will be derived with greater communications distances, at the scale of many hundred meters or several kilometers, due to the large inertia of heavy duty vehicles. It may therefore be necessary to employ different communications strategies for ITS applications aimed at fuel economy and other environmental benefits than what is used for safety applications in order to achieve the greatest benefits.

LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Verma, Rajeev [Eaton Corporation; Norris, Sarah [Eaton Corporation; Cochran, Robert [Eaton Corporation

2014-01-01

321

Political economy of the energy-groundwater nexus in India: exploring issues and assessing policy options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indian agriculture is trapped in a complex nexus of groundwater depletion and energy subsidies. This nexus is the product of past public policy choices that initially offered opportunities to India's small-holder-based irrigation economy but has now generated in its wake myriad economic, social, and environmental distortions. Conventional `getting-the-price-right' solutions to reduce these distortions have consistently been undermined by the invidious political economy that the nexus has created. The historical evolution of the nexus is outlined, the nature and scale of the distortions it has created are explored, and alternative approaches which Indian policy makers can use to limit, if not eliminate, the damaging impacts of the distortions, are analysed.

Shah, Tushaar; Giordano, Mark; Mukherji, Aditi

2012-08-01

322

The Influence of a Token Economy and Methylphenidate on Attentive and Disruptive Behavior during Sports with Adhd-Diagnosed Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated in a summer program designed to evaluate the influence of stimulant medication and a token economy on attentive and disruptive behavior during kickball games. Attentive and disruptive behavior were assessed using an interval coding system, and daily ratings on the ADHD Index of the Conners Teacher Rating Scale-Revised were also

David Reitman; Stephen D. A. Hupp; Patrick M. O’Callaghan; Veronica Gulley; John Northup

2001-01-01

323

Estimating the Economic Impact for the Commercial Hard Clam Culture Industry on the Economy of  

E-print Network

1 Estimating the Economic Impact for the Commercial Hard Clam Culture Industry on the Economy that the economic impact of the cultured hard clam industry on the economy of Florida was approximately $34 million communities and the statewide economy Florida. A follow-up study to the 2000 study was recently funded

Florida, University of

324

Allais's Trading Process And The Dynamic Evolution of an OLG Markets Economy  

E-print Network

Allais's Trading Process And The Dynamic Evolution of an OLG Markets Economy Jean-Michel Courtault Bertrand Crettez Naila Hayek November 2003 Abstract We study a trading process for a pure exchange economy the second fundamental conver- gence theorem of Allais [1967] to a pure exchange economy with overlapping

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

325

25 CFR 142.8 - Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...ALASKA RESUPPLY OPERATION § 142.8 Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...Whenever possible joint arrangements for economy will be entered into with other...

2014-04-01

326

Contribution, Linkages and Impacts of the Fisheries Sector to Hawaii's Economy  

E-print Network

#12;Contribution, Linkages and Impacts of the Fisheries Sector to Hawaii's Economy: A Social Contribution 11-373 #12;#12;1 Contribution, Linkages and Impacts of the Fisheries Sector to Hawaii's Economy economy. For example, a key factor concerning recent regulations over longline fishing in Hawaii

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

327

25 CFR 142.8 - Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...ALASKA RESUPPLY OPERATION § 142.8 Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...Whenever possible joint arrangements for economy will be entered into with other...

2011-04-01

328

25 CFR 142.8 - Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...ALASKA RESUPPLY OPERATION § 142.8 Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...Whenever possible joint arrangements for economy will be entered into with other...

2010-04-01

329

25 CFR 142.8 - Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...ALASKA RESUPPLY OPERATION § 142.8 Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...Whenever possible joint arrangements for economy will be entered into with other...

2013-04-01

330

25 CFR 142.8 - Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...ALASKA RESUPPLY OPERATION § 142.8 Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska...Whenever possible joint arrangements for economy will be entered into with other...

2012-04-01

331

Underdeveloping Appalachia: Toward an environmental sociology of extractive economies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation uses mixed methods to examine the role of the coal industry in the reproduction of Central Appalachia as an internal periphery within the United States and the economic, ecological, and human inequalities this entails. It also analyzes the related political economy and power structure of coal in a national context. Particularly important for analysis of the region's underdevelopment are the class relations involved in unequal ecological exchange and the establishment of successive "modes of extraction." I employ a historical comparative analysis of Appalachia to evaluate Bunker's thesis that resource dependent peripheries often become locked into a "mode of extraction" (with aspects parallel to Marxist concepts of mode of production) triggering economic and ecological path dependencies leading to underdevelopment. This historical comparative analysis establishes the background for a closer examination of the political economy of the modern US coal industry. After sketching the changes in the structure of monopoly and competition in the coal industry I employ network analysis of the directorate interlocks of the top twenty coal firms in the US within the larger energy policy-planning network to examine their connections with key institutions of the policy formation network of think tanks and business groups. My findings show the importance of the capacities of fossil fuel fractions of the capitalist class in formulating energy policy around issues such as the 2009 climate legislation. As a contribution to the growing literature applying the concept of metabolism as link between contemporary and classical theory, I examine the conflict at Coal River Mountain from the vantage points of ecology, political economy, and human development in dialectical rotation. Utilizing Marx's method of successive abstractions, the mountain is presented as a nexus of metabolic rifts in the human relationship to the earth's natural systems and an impediment to genuine human development. Finally, I conclude with some implications of this analysis for building a critical environmental sociology of extractive economies. This dissertation includes previously published materials.

Wishart, William Ryan

332

40 CFR 600.207-86 - Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type. 600.207-86...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

333

40 CFR 600.207-93 - Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type. 600.207-93...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

334

Knowledge economy, Learning society and Lifelong Learning A review of the French literature  

E-print Network

1 Knowledge economy, Learning society and Lifelong Learning A review of the French literature savoir" or more often "économie de la connaissance" (knowledge economy-KE-). Similar difficulties arise economy (or society) and the initial and further education systems. But it also could explain why some

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

335

40 CFR 600.211-08 - Sample calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Sample calculation of fuel economy values for labeling. 600.211-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

336

Fuel Economy Comparisons of Series, Parallel and HMT Hydraulic Hybrid Architectures  

E-print Network

Fuel Economy Comparisons of Series, Parallel and HMT Hydraulic Hybrid Architectures Zhekang Du, Kai and do not require costly batteries, they have the potential to achieve high fuel economy and performance and effectiveness in engine management. This paper compares the fuel economies and performance

Li, Perry Y.

337

An Evaluation of Economy-based Resource Trading and Scheduling on Computational Power Grids for  

E-print Network

1 An Evaluation of Economy-based Resource Trading and Scheduling on Computational Power Grids, Computational Economy, Resource Trading, Nimrod/G Resource Broker, Scheduling, and Parameter Sweep Applications, resource allocation or co-allocation, online control, scalability, transparency, and "economy

Buyya, Rajkumar

338

Quantum Mechanics and the Principle of Least Radix Economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new variational method, the principle of least radix economy, is formulated. The mathematical and physical relevance of the radix economy, also called digit capacity, is established, showing how physical laws can be derived from this concept in a unified way. The principle reinterprets and generalizes the principle of least action yielding two classes of physical solutions: least action paths and quantum wavefunctions. A new physical foundation of the Hilbert space of quantum mechanics is then accomplished and it is used to derive the Schrödinger and Dirac equations and the breaking of the commutativity of spacetime geometry. The formulation provides an explanation of how determinism and random statistical behavior coexist in spacetime and a framework is developed that allows dynamical processes to be formulated in terms of chains of digits. These methods lead to a new (pre-geometrical) foundation for Lorentz transformations and special relativity. The Parker-Rhodes combinatorial hierarchy is encompassed within our approach and this leads to an estimate of the interaction strength of the electromagnetic and gravitational forces that agrees with the experimental values to an error of less than one thousandth. Finally, it is shown how the principle of least-radix economy naturally gives rise to Boltzmann's principle of classical statistical thermodynamics. A new expression for a general (path-dependent) nonequilibrium entropy is proposed satisfying the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

Garcia-Morales, Vladimir

2015-03-01

339

Quantum Mechanics and the Principle of Least Radix Economy  

E-print Network

A new variational method, the principle of least radix economy, is formulated. The mathematical and physical relevance of the radix economy, also called digit capacity, is established, showing how physical laws can be derived from this concept in a unified way. The principle reinterprets and generalizes the principle of least action yielding two classes of physical solutions: least action paths and quantum wavefunctions. A new physical foundation of the Hilbert space of quantum mechanics is then accomplished and it is used to derive the Schr\\"odinger and Dirac equations and the breaking of the commutativity of spacetime geometry. The formulation provides an explanation of how determinism and random statistical behavior coexist in spacetime and a framework is developed that allows dynamical processes to be formulated in terms of chains of digits. These methods lead to a new (pre-geometrical) foundation for Lorentz transformations and special relativity. The Parker-Rhodes combinatorial hierarchy is encompassed within our approach and this leads to an estimate of the interaction strength of the electromagnetic and gravitational forces that agrees with the experimental values to an error of less than one thousandth. Finally, it is shown how the principle of least-radix economy naturally gives rise to Boltzmann's principle of classical statistical thermodynamics. A new expression for a general (path-dependent) nonequilibrium entropy is proposed satisfying the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

Vladimir Garcia-Morales

2015-01-08

340

The Political Economy of the Sino-Middle Eastern Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to understand the Sino-Mideast relations in terms of energy cooperation and the subsequent cooperation\\u000a in the areas of trade and arms sales. It also examines the political economy of China’s energy policy toward the Middle East.\\u000a The paper argues that the objective of China’s engagement in the Middle East is energy security rather than undermining the\\u000a United

Muhamad S. Olimat

2010-01-01

341

Documentation of the DRI Model of the US economy, December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) uses models of the US economy developed by Data Resources, Inc. (DRI) for conducting policy analyses, preparing forecasts for the Annual Energy Outlook, the Short-Term Energy Outlook, and related analyses in conjunction with EIA`s National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and its other energy market models. Both the DRI Model of the US Economy and the DRI Personal Computer Input-Output Model (PC-IO){sup 2} were developed and are maintained by DRI as proprietary models. This report provides documentation, as required by EIA standards for the use of proprietary models; describes the theoretical basis, structure and functions of both DRI models; and contains brief descriptions of the models and their equations. Appendix A describes how the two large-scale models documented here are used to support the macroeconomic and interindustry modeling associated with the National Energy Modeling System. Appendix B is an article by Stephen McNees of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston on ``How Large are Economic Forecast Errors.`` This article assesses the forecast accuracy of a number of economic forecasting models (groups) and is attached as an independent assessment of the forecast accuracy of the DRI Model of the US Economy.

Not Available

1994-02-28

342

Inequality in developing economies: the role of institutional development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the distributive impact of institutional change in developing countries. In such economies, property rights\\u000a systems may preserve the interests of an influential minority, who can control key-markets, access to assets and investment\\u000a opportunities, especially if they enjoy disproportionate political power. We test this hypothesis using cross-section and\\u000a panel data methods on a sample of low- and middle-income

Adalgiso Amendola; Joshy Easaw; Antonio Savoia

2011-01-01

343

A Political Economy Model of Public Health Care Provision  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a political economy model to provide a theoretical foundation for the provision of public health-care in democratic societies. Anecdotal evidence indicates that, as income inequalities within countries increase globally, a substantial anti-egalitarian trend in the provision of public health-care, and consequent health-care disparities, is evident in the majority of societies. More equal societies are more distributive in terms

Kakoli Roy; Carol Gotway Crawford

2010-01-01

344

The new open economy macroeconomics of government debt  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce an overlapping generations structure of the Blanchard (J. Polit. Econ. 93 (1985) 121) type in a New Open Economy Macroeconomics (NOEM) model. This allows us to study a wider range of fiscal shocks compared to the traditional Mundell–Fleming (MF) and to the baseline Redux models. We show that a debt-financed tax cut appreciates the short-run

Giovanni Ganelli

2005-01-01

345

Fuel economy screening study of advanced automotive gas turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel economy potentials were calculated and compared among ten turbomachinery configurations. All gas turbine engines were evaluated with a continuously variable transmission in a 1978 compact car. A reference fuel economy was calculated for the car with its conventional spark ignition piston engine and three speed automatic transmission. Two promising engine/transmission combinations, using gasoline, had 55 to 60 percent gains over the reference fuel economy. Fuel economy sensitivities to engine design parameter changes were also calculated for these two combinations.

Klann, J. L.

1980-01-01

346

Dynamic systems of regional economy management optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most actual problems of the Russian economic life is a regional economic systems formation. The hierarchy of economic and branch priorities should follow from the general idea of an industrial policy. The matter is that the concept of an industrial policy is defined by the system of priorities mainly incorporated in it. The problem of priorities is

S. Trofimov; S. Kudzh

2004-01-01

347

THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF RESOURCE RENT DISTRIBUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: I model,the link between,political regime,and,level of diversification following,a windfall,of natural resource revenues. The explanatory,variables I make use of are the political support functions embedded within each type of regime and the disparate levels of discretion, openness, transparency, and accountability of government. I show that a democratic govern- ment seeks to maximize the long-term consumption path of the representative consumer,

Nikitas Konstantinidis

348

Overall Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that these workers provide. So, to project employment, BLS starts by estimating the components of gross domestic product (GDP) for 2020. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the size--in…

Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

2012-01-01

349

Overall Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that they provide. So, to project employment, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) starts by projecting the gross domestic product (GDP) for 2018. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the…

Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

2010-01-01

350

Cultural Aspects of Secrecy in Global Economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this paper is to provide greater understanding of the nature of secrecy in firms. It presents an effort to develop some links between management of the secrecy and its relationship with culture. Using measures from Hofstede's work, we have linked some dimensions of national culture with CIS 3 UE survey database. The results show that some attributes of the culture as Masculinity and Uncertainty Avoidance have impact on the tendency of the firms for not to patent and maintain secrecy of their innovations.

Serradell-Lopez, Enric; Cavaller, Victor

351

Political economy of the oil import quota  

Microsoft Academic Search

A step toward integrating conflicting views of businessmen and economists regarding the economic role played by each is presented. The book demonstrates one flaw in the standard economic model and gives an insight into the theory of regulation and the nature of entrepreneurial behavior. In short, the authors analyze the real world of the domestic petroleum industry under the oil

Y. Barzel; C. D. Hall

1977-01-01

352

Mechanisms and economy of molecular machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cells contain millions of biomolecules that function as molecular machines. This paper reviews aspects of the mechanisms of these machines (alternative pathways and cooperativity) as well as the economic principles of their use in cells. The focus is on the machines that process the genetic information, in particular RNA polymerases.

Klumpp, Stefan

2012-11-01

353

Economy of flight at supersonic speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prandtl's theory is used to determine the airflow over bodies and wings adapted to supersonic flight. By making use of these results, and by incorporating in them an allowance for the probable skin friction, some estimates of expected lift-drag ratios are made for various flight speeds with the best configuration. At each speed a slender body and wings having the best angle of sweepback are considered. For the range of supersonic speeds shown an airplane of normal density and loading would be required to operate at an altitude of the order of 60,000 feet. The limiting value of 1-1/2 times the speed of sound corresponds to a flight speed of 1000 miles per hour. At this speed about 1.5 miles per gallon of fuel are expected. It is interesting to note that this value corresponds to a value of more than 15 miles per gallon when the weight is reduced to correspond to that of an ordinary automobile.

Jones, R. T.

1976-01-01

354

Documenting the Birth of a Financial Economy  

E-print Network

The birth and explosive growth of mobile money in Kenya has provided economists with an opportunity to study the evolution and impact of a new financial system. Mobile money is an innovation that allows individuals to ...

Suri, Tavneet

355

Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The site informs visitors about Japan's current economic policies. Reports available include the plans to reform the economic structure, trade issues, and the 1997 White Paper on International Trade which looks at trends in world trade and long-term issues concerning Japanese trade and industry. A collection of chronologically sorted press releases, transcripts of press conferences, statistics on industrial production, and a summary of industrial economic trends can be found at this site. A collection of trade-related reports and Japanese submissions to the World Trade Organization (WTO) are also available.

356

Physical principles for economies of skilled movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some elementary principles regarding constraints on movements, which may be useful in modeling and interpreting motor control strategies for skilled movements. Movements which are optimum with respect to various objectives, or “costs”, are analyzed and compared. The specific costs considered are related to movement time, distance, peak velocity, energy, peak acceleration, and rate of change of acceleration

W. L. Nelson

1983-01-01

357

The political economy of bail reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bail is an old Common Law institution concerned with the granting of freedom to someone charged with a crime, before, during and after the trial. Put more bluntly, it allows state officials to imprison a person before being convicted of a crime and\\/or sentenced to imprisonment by a court. In Britain the first-line officials in such a decision are normally

Paul Robertshaw

1983-01-01

358

Political Economy of the Kyoto Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kyoto Protocol, negotiated in December 1997, is the first international treaty to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. But Kyoto does not mark the conclusion to international cooperation on climate change. It is really just a beginning. This paper shows that, in the aggregate, the benefits of undertaking the Kyoto reductions should exceed the corresponding costs-provided these are achieved cost-effectively.

Scott Barrett

1998-01-01

359

Political economy of the US oil industry  

SciTech Connect

The political struggles over oil policy in the 1950s were contests between narrow economic interest groups to collect economic rents, as would be expected if government is considered to be just another forum for rent seeking behavior, with government intervention accepted as a norm. Conversely, the attempt to obtain decontrol of natural gas production during this period, during which consumer interests and pro-market ideology were important factors, presaged the oil politics of the 1970s. The significant impact of consumer interests on oil policy contradicts the expectations of public choice theorists that consumers will be disadvantaged in contests with well organized and wealthy interest groups. The ability of latent interest groups to influence policy when represented by politicians and private actors acting as political entrepreneurs was demonstrated during the 1970s as they dominated oil politics. Substantial economic rents, generated by the OPEC price increases, were transferred to consumers and refiners, while tax break were eliminated despite the economic resources available to producers. The pattern of distribution of those economic rents, as well as various tax breaks and exemptions from controls, was skewed toward small producers and refiners, reflecting a traditional ideological prejudice against big business. Econometric analysis revealed that ideology, party and oil production by constituents were the most important influences on congressional voting.

Isser, S.N.

1989-01-01

360

Future of Liquid Biofuels for APEC Economies  

SciTech Connect

This project was initiated by APEC Energy Working Group (EWG) to maximize the energy sector's contribution to the region's economic and social well-being through activities in five areas of strategic importance including liquid biofuels production and development.

Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

2008-05-01

361

Documenting the birth of a financial economy.  

PubMed

The birth and explosive growth of mobile money in Kenya has provided economists with an opportunity to study the evolution and impact of a new financial system. Mobile money is an innovation that allows individuals to store, send, and receive money on their mobile phone via text message. This system has opened up basic financial services to many who were previously excluded, and has had real and measurable impacts on the ability of households to protect themselves against health risks. Using a unique survey instrument covering nearly 2,300 households over 2008-2010, we first document the lightning-fast adoption of mobile money in Kenya, which was faster than most documented modern technologies in the United States. We then present evidence on how this innovation allows households to respond better to unexpected adverse health events. We find that in the face of these events, users of mobile money are better able to tap into remittances to finance additional health care costs without having to forego necessary expenditures on education, food, and other consumption needs. PMID:22689945

Suri, Tavneet; Jack, William; Stoker, Thomas M

2012-06-26

362

Diversified Business Groups in Emerging Economies Emerging Economies Emerging Economies Emerging Economies Emerging Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Diversified business groups dominate the organizational landscape of many emerging and transition economies. Are these diversified groups good or bad for these economies? How can we explain their emergence and persistence? Why are they so visible and dominant in developing countries but not in devel- oped ones? How should regulatory authorities view them? In this paper

MAITREESH GHATAK; RAJA KALI

363

The effects of trypanosomiasis on rural economy*  

PubMed Central

Trypanosomiasis, both of humans and of livestock, is one of the most important factors restricting economic development in Africa today. The present paper outlines how this disease is limiting agricultural, veterinary and forestry development in the Sudan, Bechuanaland and West Africa. The present tsetse-fly distribution is reviewed. Glossina palpalis and G. morsitans occur in the south Sudan and G. morsitans in the Ngamiland district of Bechuanaland; G. morsitans, G. palpalis and G. tachinoides are the most important species in West Africa. These tsetse flies have altered the cattle distribution in all three regions and, in addition to causing widespread disease, have created local overstocking problems in the tsetse-free grazing areas, and have enforced nomadism on breeding herds and economic loss in slaughter cattle along the trade cattle routes in West Africa. Human trypanosomiasis is not now such an urgent problem and public health measures have led to its control in all three areas. Increased agricultural development, which can be a successful and economic method of reclaiming land from tsetse flies, must be intensified in all three areas. Forest conservation policy comes into conflict with tsetse control measures only in West Africa. Detailed tsetse-fly surveys and research, on which future plans can be firmly based, are now urgently required. ImagesFIG. 6 PMID:14001093

Wilson, S. G.; Morris, K. R. S.; Lewis, I. J.; Krog, E.

1963-01-01

364

The Physical Economy of the United States of America  

PubMed Central

The United States is not only the world's largest economy, but it is also one of the world's largest consumers of natural resources. The country, which is inhabited by some 5% of the world's population, uses roughly one-fifth of the global primary energy supply and 15% of all extracted materials. This article explores long-term trends and patterns of material use in the United States. Based on a material flow account (MFA) that is fully consistent with current standards of economy-wide MFAs and covers domestic extraction, imports, and exports of materials for a 135-year period, we investigated the evolution of the U.S. industrial metabolism. This process was characterized by an 18-fold increase in material consumption, a multiplication of material use per capita, and a shift from renewable biomass toward mineral and fossil resources. In spite of considerable improvements in material intensity, no dematerialization has happened so far; in contrast to other high-income countries, material use has not stabilized since the 1970s, but has continued to grow. This article compares patterns and trends of material use in the United States with those in Japan and the United Kingdom and discusses the factors underlying the disproportionately high level of U.S. per capita resource consumption. PMID:24436632

Gierlinger, Sylvia; Krausmann, Fridolin

2012-01-01

365

Sources of Slow Growth in African Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers some econometric evidence on the sources of slow growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. The evidence suggests that the continent's slow growth can be explained in an international cross-country framework, without the need to invoke a special explanation unique to Sub-Saharan Africa. We find that poor economic policies have played an especially important role in the slow growth, most

Jeffrey D. Sachs; Andrew M. Warner

1997-01-01

366

The political economy of social security  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a two-period overlapping generations model in which individual voters differ not only according to age but also productivity. In such a setting, a (redistributive) Pay-As-You-Go system is politically sustainable, even when the interest rate is larger than the rate of population growth. The medium wages workers (not the lowest) join the retirees to form a majority and vote

Georges CASAMATTA; Helmuth CREMER; Pierre PESTIEAU

1999-01-01

367

The Political Economy of Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a two-period overlapping generations model in which individual voters differ by age and by productivity. In such a setting, a redistributive pay-as-you-go system is politically sustainable, even when the interest rate is higher than the rate of population growth. The workers with medium wages (not those with the lowest wages) and the retirees form a majority which votes

Georges Casamatta; Helmuth Cremer; Pierre Pestieau

2000-01-01

368

The economy of the nuclear fuel cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat extracted from nuclear fuel costs by a factor of 3 to 7 less than heat from conventional fossile fuel. So, nuclear fuel per se has an economical advantage, decreased however partly by higher nuclear plant investment costs. The standard LWR design does not allow all the fission energy stored in the fuel during one cycle to be used. It is therefore the most natural approach to separate fissionable species from fission products and consume them by fissioning. Whether this is economically justified as opposed by storing them indefinitely with spent fuel has widely been debated. The paper outlines the different approaches taken by nuclear communities worldwide and their perceived or proven rational arguments. It will balance economic and other factors for the near and distant future including advanced reactor concepts. The specific solution within the German nuclear programme will be explained, including foreseeable future trends.

Stoll, W.

1989-07-01

369

Carbohydrate Economy Clearinghouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A creation of the Institute for Local Self-Reliance (ILSR), the Carbohydrate Economy Clearinghouse (CEC) provides up-to-date information on "all facets of the plant matter-based industrial economy" from paints and inks to fuels and construction materials made from plants. In addition to the latest "new materials economy" news, the CEC site hosts a directory of carbohydrate economy companies as well as ILSR reports on plant matter-based products and technologies (in English, French, and Spanish).

370

Measurable Indicators of Low-Carbon Economy for Air Transportation -A Case Study of Shenzhen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of climate change and the popularity of air travel, the issue of low-carbon economy of air transportation industry is no longer ignorable. However, there is no standard measurable indicator to evaluate low-carbon economy, especially for air transportation industry. To fill in the blank of this area, this paper firstly discusses general indicators of low-carbon economy for air transportation industry.

Li Jialong

2011-01-01

371

Spark-Timing Control Based on Correlation of Maximum-Economy Spark Timing, Flame-front Travel, and Cylinder-Pressure Rise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted on a full-scale air-cooled cylinder in order to establish an effective means of maintaining maximum-economy spark timing with varying engine operating conditions. Variable fuel-air-ratio runs were conducted in which relations were determined between the spark travel, and cylinder-pressure rise. An instrument for controlling spark timing was developed that automatically maintained maximum-economy spark timing with varying engine operating conditions. The instrument also indicated the occurrence of preignition.

Cook, Harvey A; Heinicke, Orville H; Haynie, William H

1947-01-01

372

Weight of Nations: Material Outflows from Industrial Economies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

World Resources Institute (WRI) has recently released this publication on resource and materials use, entitled "Weight of Nations: Material Outflows from Industrial Economies." The report examines material flows in Austria, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, and the US, and develops "model accounts of the complete 'material cycle' or the flow of raw materials through the processes of extraction, production, use, and disposal." In addition, the report documents the annual quantity of materials that are recycled and those that rapidly become pollution or potentially harmful waste. The Website offers author descriptions and sections of the report, in addition to the full (.pdf) report.

Amann, Christof.

2000-01-01

373

Towards a political economy of urbanizaton in Third World countries  

SciTech Connect

Urbanization has emerged as one of the major issues confronting contemporary developing countries. The essays in this volume bring a new perspective to bear on the urbanization problem in the Third World, particularly on the survival mechanisms of the poor. The authors, who include anthropologists, geographers, economists and sociologists, examine the impact of colonialism on the economies of the Third World countries, their dependence on advanced industrial societies for capital and technology, their urban class structures, and the role of their governments in shaping the urban process.

Safa H.I. (ed.)

1981-01-01

374

Remuneration differences in the emerging economies of China and India.  

PubMed

Emerging economies by definition tend to be less dependent on expatriate skills and labour than lower-income countries, yet remuneration (pay plus benefits) differences between expatriate and local workers persist in them to some degree. According to relative deprivation theory, economic development paradoxically elevates the salience of relatively small gaps in remuneration. We therefore expected workers to report injustice and demotivation regarding relative remuneration, despite the closing of remuneration gaps between expatriate and local workers due to the economic development of recent years. To explore that possibility, 482 skilled professionals from a variety of sectors and organizations in two emerging economies, India (n = 233, response rate = 54%) and China (n = 249, response rate = 58%), participated in the research. International salaries were greater than local salaries by a factor of 2.73:1 in India and 1.90:1 in China; these mean ratios bordered on intolerable in the India sample and were largely tolerable among the sample from China. In both countries, differently remunerated workers differed in their justice cognitions and their demotivation, with lowered motivation and fewer justice cognitions in the locally salaried, local workers. These differences were however more statistically significant between people working in India than in China. Insofar as the motivational and justice gaps persisted, the findings support relative deprivation theory. Insofar as the same gaps appear to be sharper in the country with the higher-not lower-mean remuneration differential, they do not. An in-country workshop with local experts who interpreted the findings (in India), and content analysis of the participants' recommendations (in China) jointly recommended linking remuneration to (i) workplace performance instead of (ii) economy-of-origin, to help promote (iii) fairness. PMID:22044057

Zhou, Erhua Iris; Lu, Zhao; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Tian; Papola, T S; Pais, Jesim; Sahu, Partha Pratim

2010-10-01

375

Law as Economy: Convention, Corporation, Currency  

E-print Network

1015 Law as Economy: Convention, Corporation, Currency Ritu Birla* I. Law as Economy: Nomos. Law Inside/Outside Economy of an orthodox faith in economy as universal law, that is, in the free market as the law of the universe

Barrett, Jeffrey A.

376

The effects of the fluctuations in oil prices on the performance of the Libyan economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya is a small oil-producing developing economy in North Africa. Its economy depends heavily on oil revenue. Oil exports accounted for 92-97 percent of annual total Libyan exports and contributed 40-60 percent of annual GDP during the period 1963-2006. The Libyan economy, like other Middle Eastern oil producers, has been subject to several strong external

Abdusalam F Yahia

2008-01-01

377

Scale economies and geographic diversification as forces driving community bank mergers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mergers of community banks across economic market areas potentially reduce both idiosyncratic and local market risk. Idiosyncratic risk may be reduced because the larger post merger bank has a larger customer base. Negative credit and liquidity shocks from individual customers would have smaller effects on the portfolio of the merged entity than on the individual community banks involved in the

William R. Emmons; R. Alton Gilbert; Timothy J. Yeager

2002-01-01

378

Vertical and Horizontal Economies in the Electric Utility Industry: An Integrated Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The empirical literature on the cost structure of the electric utility industry traditionally focused on the measurement of specific technological properties: i) scale economies in generation or distribution; ii) multi- product (or horizontal) economies of scope at the downstream stage; iii) multi-stage (or vertical) economies of scope between generation, transmission and distribution. This paper extends the results of previous studies

MASSIMILIANO PIACENZA; DAVIDE VANNONI

2005-01-01

379

16 CFR 502.102 - “Economy size.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.102 “Economy size.” (a) The term economy size means any printed matter consisting of the words “economy size,” “economy pack,” “budget pack,” “bargain...

2013-01-01

380

16 CFR 502.102 - “Economy size.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.102 “Economy size.” (a) The term economy size means any printed matter consisting of the words “economy size,” “economy pack,” “budget pack,” “bargain...

2012-01-01

381

16 CFR 502.102 - “Economy size.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.102 “Economy size.” (a) The term economy size means any printed matter consisting of the words “economy size,” “economy pack,” “budget pack,” “bargain...

2010-01-01

382

16 CFR 502.102 - “Economy size.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.102 “Economy size.” (a) The term economy size means any printed matter consisting of the words “economy size,” “economy pack,” “budget pack,” “bargain...

2011-01-01

383

16 CFR 502.102 - “Economy size.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.102 “Economy size.” (a) The term economy size means any printed matter consisting of the words “economy size,” “economy pack,” “budget pack,” “bargain...

2014-01-01

384

The effect of standards and fuel prices on automobile fuel economy: An international analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an intense debate over whether fuel economy standards or fuel taxation is the more efficient policy instrument to raise fuel economy and reduce CO2 emissions of cars. The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of standards and fuel prices on new-car fuel economy with the aid of cross-section time series analysis of data from 18

Sofronis Clerides; Theodoros Zachariadis

2008-01-01

385

Direct Foreign Investment and Welfare in the Transforming Economies: The Case of Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the welfare effects of foreign investment into an economy with a trade regime of export taxes and\\/or import subsidies. This regime is characteristic of the Central Asian economies but has received no consideration in previous literature. We show that in many circumstances, foreign investment into an economy with a Central-Asian-type trade regime reduces welfare. In particular, we

John Devereux; Bryan Roberts

1997-01-01

386

On the Concept and Dimensions of Human Capital in a Knowledge-Based Economy Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological changes along with the globalization of markets are transforming industrial countries into knowledge-driven economies. This shift away from resource-based toward knowledge-based economies has made human capital (and its main component, education) one of the leading public policy themes. Given the policy relevance of human capital in a knowledge-based economy, it is essential that its definition, measurement and specification in

Mireille Laroche; Marcel Mérette; G. C. Ruggeri

387

Thought on sustainable development strategies of airlines under the low-carbon economy background  

Microsoft Academic Search

With greenhouse gas emission, its effect has become more and more serious. Low-carbon economy model should become human being's option for sustainable development. This paper analyses the necessity of airline's sustainable development strategy under low-carbon economy background, and the basic characteristics of low-carbon economy and its influences on airline in China. It indicates that, in order to sustainable development, Chinese

Long Jilin

2011-01-01

388

Towards a "Critical Cultural Political Economy" Account of the Globalising of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines the basis of an alternative theoretical approach to the study of the globalisation of "education"--a Critical, Cultural Political Economy of Education (CCPEE) approach. Our purpose here is to bring this body of concepts--critical, cultural, political, economy--into our interrogation of globalising projects and…

Robertson, Susan L.; Dale, Roger

2015-01-01

389

Marketing and advertising practices of Turkish entrepreneurs in transition economies: Evidence from Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a transition economy, Georgia has an uncertain, complex, and immature business environment, typical of transition economies\\u000a in the Eurasian region. In an effort to provide insights into marketing and advertising practices in the Eurasian transition\\u000a economies, this study empirically examines the marketing and advertising practices in Georgia through two surveys conducted\\u000a with Turkish entrepreneurs in Georgia and Georgian consumers.

Erdener Kaynak; Ali Riza Apil; Serkan Yalcin

2009-01-01

390

CLIMATE CHANGE GLOBAL ECONOMY How to decarbonise the global economy  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE · GLOBAL ECONOMY How to decarbonise the global economy Today's report on deep efforts of independent experts from 15 countries to find national pathways to making economies based-zero emissions sometime in the second half of this century. This deep cut should occur in a growing world economy

391

The Effects of a Token Economy System on the Inappropriate Verbalizations of Emotional Support Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the application of a token economy approach to increase on-task behavior and decrease inappropriate "call-outs" of nine seventh and eighth grade Caucasian male students in a self-containted emotional support classroom. The program included a behavioral contract, token economy "bucks" kept in a classroom bank, and a list of 12…

Stover, Karen

392

The political economy of oil and the Niger Delta crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is about the burgeoning crisis in Nigeria's Oil Producing Niger Delta region. Discerning the intersecting contributive factors to the crisis, this dissertation suggests that the Niger Delta crisis is symptomatic of challenges to development in Nigeria. Due to the insidious colonial/neo-colonial practices of subjugation, and exploitation of the host communities, it is suggested that the extractive, super-profit motive of Shell, the concomitant environmental degradation, corruption of a bellicose state, ethnic conflict and suffering of the masses are outcomes of a long historically debilitating relationship with international capital which causes irreparable retardation to the host communities. From cash crop economy to a mono-oil economy resources are removed from the communities and used to enhance the colonial state and their post-colonial harbingers of misery. Hence, the indigenous people claim that the Niger Delta is in a crisis, and they are willing to confront the triple alliance of multinational oil companies like Shell, the Nigerian State and the local elite so long as these allies of subjugation continue to neglect the goose that lays the proverbial golden egg (oil that is). Theoretically, a hybrid Political Economy approach was adopted as the over-aching framework for the study, while Dependency theory, modified by what I have called African Transformative scholarly perspective, served as the conceptual tool. Primary and secondary sources of data, including personal observation, interviews, official government documents and other publications were utilized for this analysis. In view of recommendations, it is suggested that first, the Nigerian state should assume decisive and unflinching leadership in holding oil companies responsible for their activities in the host communities; second, oil companies (like Shell) should see themselves as an integral part of the host communities; invest in their development by providing employment opportunities and adhering to humane environmental practices. Finally, I suggest that the ownership and control of all resources, including oil should be vested in those communities in which they are found. The revenues accruing to the constitutive states of Nigeria will be accordingly taxed with the revenues from the taxes utilized for the general good of the polity especially the less endowed communities.

Ighodaro, Osaro O.

393

Behavior Change and Perceptions of Change: Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Token Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Token economies often reduce problematic classroom behavior in preschool settings. In the present study, direct observation and teacher ratings of child behavior and treatment acceptability were utilized to evaluate the effectiveness of a token economy in a Head Start classroom. Because many teachers express concerns about the effort required to implement and maintain token systems, this study compared the relative

David Reitman; Molly A. Murphy; Stephen D. A. Hupp; Patrick M. OCallaghan

2004-01-01

394

Behavior Change and Perceptions of Change: Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Token Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Token economies often reduce problematic classroom behavior in preschool settings. In the present study, direct observation and teacher ratings of child behavior and treatment acceptability were utilized to evaluate the effectiveness of a token economy in a Head Start classroom. Because many teachers express concerns about the effort required to…

Reitman, David, Ph.D.

2004-01-01

395

Opportunities and challenges of nanotechnology in the green economy.  

PubMed

In a world of finite resources and ecosystem capacity, the prevailing model of economic growth, founded on ever-increasing consumption of resources and emission pollutants, cannot be sustained any longer. In this context, the "green economy" concept has offered the opportunity to change the way that society manages the interaction of the environmental and economic domains. To enable society to build and sustain a green economy, the associated concept of "green nanotechnology" aims to exploit nano-innovations in materials science and engineering to generate products and processes that are energy efficient as well as economically and environmentally sustainable. These applications are expected to impact a large range of economic sectors, such as energy production and storage, clean up-technologies, as well as construction and related infrastructure industries. These solutions may offer the opportunities to reduce pressure on raw materials trading on renewable energy, to improve power delivery systems to be more reliable, efficient and safe as well as to use unconventional water sources or nano-enabled construction products therefore providing better ecosystem and livelihood conditions.However, the benefits of incorporating nanomaterials in green products and processes may bring challenges with them for environmental, health and safety risks, ethical and social issues, as well as uncertainty concerning market and consumer acceptance. Therefore, our aim is to examine the relationships among guiding principles for a green economy and opportunities for introducing nano-applications in this field as well as to critically analyze their practical challenges, especially related to the impact that they may have on the health and safety of workers involved in this innovative sector. These are principally due to the not fully known nanomaterial hazardous properties, as well as to the difficulties in characterizing exposure and defining emerging risks for the workforce. Interestingly, this review proposes action strategies for the assessment, management and communication of risks aimed to precautionary adopt preventive measures including formation and training of employees, collective and personal protective equipment, health surveillance programs to protect the health and safety of nano-workers. It finally underlines the importance that occupational health considerations will have on achieving an effectively sustainable development of nanotechnology. PMID:25294341

Iavicoli, Ivo; Leso, Veruscka; Ricciardi, Walter; Hodson, Laura L; Hoover, Mark D

2014-01-01

396

Integration of laser processing in machine tools and their economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The demand of machine users towards the complete processing of a workpiece in one setting requires the use of different processing technologies in one machine. In the past years lasers have found new applications in production engineering as a tool for surface modification, cutting, welding and marking. By combination of conventional metal cutting technologies with laser processes in one machine, the complete processing of a workpiece with different technologies in one setting can be realized. The advantages are the processing in one setting and the reduction of material flow between the production machines. The possibility of integrating lasers for material processing in a cutting machine are examined. Processing technology as well as different constructive solutions depending on the type of machine used and integration method are evaluated. Parallel to this approach, examinations of the economy of these systems are carried out.

Krastel, Klaus; Drechsel, Jan

1999-05-01

397

Integration of laser processing in machine tools and their economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The demand of machine users towards the complete processing of a workpiece in one setting requires the use of different processing technologies in one machine. In the past years lasers have found new applications in production engineering as a tool for surface modification, cutting, welding and marking. By combination of conventional metal cutting technologies with laser processes in one machine, the complete processing of a workpiece with different technologies in one setting can be realized. The advantages are the processing in one setting and the reduction of material flow between the production machines. The possibility of integrating lasers for material processing in a cutting machine are examined. Processing technology as well as different constructive solutions depending on the type of machine used and integration method are evaluated. Parallel to this approach, examinations of the economy of these systems are carried out.

Krastel, Klaus; Drechsel, Jan

1997-09-01

398

Effect of Water-Alcohol Injection and Maximum Economy Spark Advance on Knock-Limited Performance and Fuel Economy of a Large Air-Cooled Cylinder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a coolant solution of 25 percent ethyl alcohol, 25 percent methyl alcohol, and 50 percent water by volume and maximum-economy spark advance on knock-limited performance and fuel economy of a large air-cooled cylinder. The knock-limited performance of the cylinder at engine speeds of 2100 and 2500 rpm was determined for coolant-fuel ratios of 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4. The effect of water-alcohol injection on fuel economy was determined in constant charge-air flow tests. The tests were conducted at a spark advance of 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark advance.

Heinicke, Orville H.; Vandeman, Jack E.

1945-01-01

399

BA Political Economy Political Economy caters for students who wish to understand the  

E-print Network

BA Political Economy Political Economy caters for students who wish to understand the political, philosophical and social underpinnings of modern economies,andwhomayfeeluncomfortablewiththehighly mathematical to International Relations; Introduction to Political Economy; Problems of World History/End of Empire

Miall, Chris

400

Introduction Introduction to paradoxes of creativity: managerial and organizational challenges in the cultural economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This special issue explores the paradoxes caused by the challenge of managing and organizing creativity in the cultural economy. Conventional views of the individual creative artist are replaced by a view of creativity as a social process embedded within organizational and institutional contexts. The cultural economy is broadly defined in terms of breadth of industries included and depth elements

GERNOT GRABHER; CANDACE JONES

401

Long-Term Effects of a Token Economy on Target and Off-Task Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the effects of a token economy on off-task behavior occurring concurrently with the reinforcement of target behavior. Results indicated that while the token economy maintained effectiveness in terms of increasing the frequency of target behaviors, the frequency of off-task or inappropriate behaviors also increased as the year progressed.…

Wasserman, Theodore H.; Vogrin, Daniel J.

1979-01-01

402

The token economy for schizophrenia: review of the literature and recommendations for future research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The token economy is a treatment intervention based on principles of operant conditioning and social learning. Developed in the 1950s and 1960s for long-stay hospital patients, the token economy has fallen out of favor since that time. The current review was undertaken as part of the 2003 update of the schizophrenia treatment recommendations of the Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT).

Faith B. Dickerson; Wendy N. Tenhula; Lisa D. Green-Paden

2005-01-01

403

Applications of Complex Systems in Business and Economy  

E-print Network

In this paper the complex systems are discussed from the business and economics point of view. It will be showed and motivated that social systems are typically chaotic and/or non-linear and therefore non-equilibrium or complex systems. It is discussed that the rapid change global consumer behaviour is underway, that further increases the complexity in the business and management. For successful management under complexity, a following principles are offered: openness and international competition, tolerance and variety of the ideas, self-reliability and low dependence on external help. The paper discusses the opportunities and challenges in management under complexity from macro and micro economic perspective. It is motivated that small economies have good prospects to gain from the global processes underway, if they can demonstrate flexible production, reliable business ethics and good risk management. In this environment, the challenges for corporate managements are being also permanently changed: the bala...

Kitt, Robert

2012-01-01

404

Infinite-horizon dynamic programming and application to management of economies effected by random natural hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a version of the dynamic programming method, applicable to infinite-horizon discrete-time stochastic processes, and use this technique to solve a stylized problem of management of an economy effected by random natural hazards. Also, we characterize the equilibrium points in a game, in which two economies invest in common prevention measures to mitigate the future impact of natural hazards.

A. Kryazhimskiy; M. Obersteiner; A. Smirnov

2008-01-01

405

The Impact of Community Colleges on Oregon's 1980-81 Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A statewide study was conducted in 1982 to describe the impact of Oregon's 15 community colleges on the state's economy as well as the impact of each college on the economy of its district. Economic impact was defined for the study as the money in circulation within the state or college district due to the existence of the college; i.e.,…

Stevenson, Mike

406

Trade Liberalization in Agriculture in Developed Nations and Incidence of Child Labour in a Developing Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an attempt to analyze the consequence of trade liberalization in agriculture in the developed countries on the incidence of child labour in a developing economy in terms of a three- sector general equilibrium model with informal sectors. Adult labour and child labour are substitutes to each other in the two informal sectors of the economy and are

Sarbajit Chaudhuri; Jayanta Kumar Dwibedi

2005-01-01

407

Powered Ankle-Foot Prosthesis for the Improvement of Amputee Walking Economy  

E-print Network

Powered Ankle-Foot Prosthesis for the Improvement of Amputee Walking Economy by Samuel Kwok-Wai Au LIBRARIES #12;#12;Powered Ankle-Foot Prosthesis for the Improvement of Amputee Walking Economy by Samuel The human ankle provides a significant amount of net positive work during the stance period of walking

Herr, Hugh

408

Aggregation, Determinacy, and Informational Efficiency for a Class of Economies with Asymmetric Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identify and analyze a class of economies with asymmetric information that we call quasi-complete. For quasi-complete economies we determine equilibrium trades, show that the set of fully informative equilibria is a singleton, and give necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of partially informative equilibria. Besides unifying some familiar settings, such as those of Grossman (1976) and Milgrom and

Peter DeMarzo; Costis Skiadas

1998-01-01

409

Utilization of waste heat in trucks for increased fuel economy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improvements in fuel economy for a broad spectrum of truck engines and waste heat utilization concepts are evaluated and compared. The engines considered are the diesel, spark ignition, gas turbine, and Stirling. The waste heat utilization concepts include preheating, regeneration, turbocharging, turbocompounding, and Rankine engine compounding. Predictions were based on fuel-air cycle analyses, computer simulation, and engine test data. The results reveal that diesel driving cycle performance can be increased by 20% through increased turbocharging, turbocompounding, and Rankine engine compounding. The Rankine engine compounding provides about three times as much improvement as turbocompounding but also costs about three times as much. Performance for either is approximately doubled if applied to an adiabatic diesel.

Leising, C. J.; Purohit, G. P.; Degrey, S. P.; Finegold, J. G.

1978-01-01

410

A Study of Youth Services Networks from a Political-Economy Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the political-economy perspective, an analysis of three youth services networks was conducted. The internal political economies of the nehvorks were investigated. The dimensions of domain, ideology, coordination and evaluation were examined. The findings suggested the networks were vehicles for sharing new ideas and technologies. Advocacy activities were important in improving interagency cooperation and in obtaining community support for youth

Maria Roberts-DeGennaro

1988-01-01

411

Knowledge for What? Wales, Militarisation and the Endless Promotion of the Knowledge Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "knowledge economy" has become the buzzword of development policy in the early twenty-first century. Nations and regions around the world are all told that they must transform themselves into knowledge economies to survive and prosper. This article uses the example of Wales and its recent embrace of a massive military privatisation project in…

Tannock, Stuart

2009-01-01

412

Central Business District Development in a Transition Economy - Case Studies of Guangzhou and Shenzhen, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its implementation of economic reforms and open door policy, China has rapidly transformed itself from a socialist planned economy to socialist market economy. Guangzhou and Shanzhen are earmarked as the pioneering and experimental cities within the network of cities in Pearl River Delta Region in implementing various market reform measures. Taking advantage of its close proximity with Hong Kong

Bo B. S. TANG; Stanley Chi-Wai YEUNG

413

The policy system innovation for the development of low-carbon economy in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of low-carbon economy is an inevitable choice for China to realize the sustainable development. In order to achieve this purpose, the government must strengthen the regulation and control of macroeconomic economy. The policies should be changed to move the rules and the organizational structure of economic society in China. The current policies are mainly associated with some administrative

Jun Shi; Jie Yin

2010-01-01

414

The Information Content of Magazine Advertising in Market and Transition Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines differences in the information content of magazine advertisements across market and transition economies in Europe. Content analyses are performed on 396 advertisements that appeared in women's magazines in the Russian Federation, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Results of statistical analyses reveal marked differences between economies with respect to the information content of advertisements.

Erica van Herpen; Rik Pieters; Jana Fidrmucova; Peter Roosenboom

2000-01-01

415

What Is Hampering the Development of Our Education? The New Economy and the New Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the turn of the twenty-first century a paradigm shift in economic development is taking place in the world. This is reflected in the transition to what goes by the name of the new economy. Given birth by the information and communications revolution, this economy is developing under the conditions of globalization and competition while…

Maksakovskii, V. P.

2006-01-01

416

A systematic evaluation of token economies as a classroom management tool for students with challenging behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-part systematic review was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of token economies in increasing rates of appropriate classroom behavior for students demonstrating behavioral difficulties. The first part of the review utilized the recently published What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) standards for evaluating single-subject research to determine the extent to which eligible studies demonstrated sufficient evidence to classify the token economy

Daniel M. Maggin; Sandra M. Chafouleas; Katelyn M. Goddard; Austin H. Johnson

2011-01-01

417

PRODUCTIVITY CHANGES OF ASIAN ECONOMIES BY TAKING INTO ACCOUNT SOFTWARE PIRACY  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past two decades, the fast-developing Asia has emerged as one of the most important economic regions. However, its economic growth is accompanied with severe software piracy. This paper analyzes productivity changes of 11 Asian economies and 4 non-Asian industrialized economies by taking into account software piracy using the Malmquist productivity index and its two components, efficiency change and

CHERNG G. DING; NA-TING LIU

2009-01-01

418

2004-01-1153 Multi-Objective Optimization of HEV Fuel Economy and  

E-print Network

expect to improve its fuel economy and lower its emissions including Hydrocarbons (HC), Carbon Monoxide2004-01-1153 Multi-Objective Optimization of HEV Fuel Economy and Emissions using Evolutionary of energy output systems, the fuel converter (engine or fuel cell) and the energy storage system (battery

Coello, Carlos A. Coello

419

Locational Characteristics of Dry Ports in Developing Economies: Some Lessons from Northern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ng A. K. Y. and Cetin I. B. Locational characteristics of dry ports in developing economies: some lessons from Northern India, Regional Studies. Contemporary economic development has triggered the importance of establishing distribution centres at appropriate locations in developing economies. However, so far, academic studies addressing this issue are rather scarce. Hence, by investigating dry ports within two industrial clusters

Adolf K. Y. Ng; Ismail B. Cetin

2011-01-01

420

Locational Characteristics of Dry Ports in Developing Economies: Some Lessons from Northern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ng A. K. Y. and Cetin I. B. Locational characteristics of dry ports in developing economies: some lessons from Northern India, Regional Studies. Contemporary economic development has triggered the importance of establishing distribution centres at appropriate locations in developing economies. However, so far, academic studies addressing this issue are rather scarce. Hence, by investigating dry ports within two industrial clusters

Adolf K. Y. Ng; Ismail B. Cetin

2012-01-01

421

System-of-Systems Framework for the Future Hydrogen-Based Transportation Economy: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

From a supply chain view, this paper traces the flow of transportation fuels through required systems and addresses the current petroleum-based economy, DOE's vision for a future hydrogen-based transportation economy, and the challenges of a massive market and infrastructure transformation.

Duffy, M.; Sandor, D.

2008-06-01

422

Research on Total Contributions of Power Industry to the Economy in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power industry is the foundation of national economy. Its contributions to the economy are reflected not only in the value added of its own, but more reflected in the drawing and impetus functions on other sectors. Based on input-output (I-O) method and the comparable PO tables from 1981 to 1992 in China, the paper quantifies the drawing and impetus functions

He Yong-xiu; Gong Li-ping

2007-01-01

423

Multiscaling behavior of transition economies before and after 1998 Russian financial crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the1998 Russian financial crisis on the statistical properties of currencies in transition economies has been studied. Essential changes before and after crisis were discovered. All effects are essentially nonlinear and differ from the ones in advanced economies.

Litvin, Vladimir A.

2004-12-01

424

China's Energy Economy: A Survey of the Literature by Hengyun Ma and Les Oxley  

E-print Network

1 China's Energy Economy: A Survey of the Literature by Hengyun Ma and Les Oxley No: 2/2009 #12;2 WORKING PAPER No. 2/2009 China's Energy Economy: A Survey of the Literature Hengyun Ma1,2 and Les Oxley1 February 16 2009 Abstract This paper reviews literature on China's energy economics, focusing especially on

Hickman, Mark

425

Communication and Knowledge: How is the knowledge base of an economy constructed?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The competitive advantages in a knowledge-based economy can no longer be attributed to single nodes in the network. Political economies are increasingly reshaped by knowledge-based developments that upset market equilibria and institutional arrangements. The network coordinates the subdynamics of (i) wealth production, (ii) organized novelty production, and (iii) private appropriation versus public control. The interaction terms generate a complex dynamics

Loet Leydesdorff

2009-01-01

426

Beyond Oil and Radical Islam: From Classifications to Links of Economy and Religion in Central Asia  

E-print Network

Beyond Oil and Radical Islam: From Classifications to Links of Economy and Religion in Central Asia Tuesday, October 18th, 2011, 5 pm, ZMO Political Islam and Economy in Central Asia: Islamic Movements Commanding Right and Forbidding Wrong? Islamic Elites, Business and the State in Tajikistan Lecture by Tim

Peters, Achim

427

Towards a low carbon economy in the Amazon: the role of land-use policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change, rising oil prices and the global financial crisis has put sustainability and ‘green growth’ of the economy on the political agenda. While the transition towards a “low carbon” economy in developed countries like in the European Union should mainly be found in renewable energy production, developing countries like Brazil face with high land use emissions which will further

R. W. Verburg; D. Lindoso; N. Debortolli; S. Rodrigues Filho

2011-01-01

428

Effects of concurrent endurance and strength training on running economy and &OV0312;O2 kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

MILLET, G. P., B. JAOUEN, F. BORRANI, and R. CANDAU. Effects of concurrent endurance and strength training on running economy and VO2 kinetics. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 34, No. 8, pp. 1351-1359, 2002. Purpose: It has been suggested that endurance training influences the running economy (CR) and the oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics in heavy exercise by accelerating the primary

GREGOIRE P. MILLET; BERNARD JAOUEN; FABIO BORRANI; ROBIN CANDAU

2002-01-01

429

Study of a Russian University's Organisational Culture in Transition from Planned to Market Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transition from a planned centralist economy to a market economy over the last decade of the 20th century has presented Russian universities with many profound challenges. These challenges require universities to review and consider their organisational culture and deserve careful study. This paper describes the changes that have taken place…

Pushnykh, Victor; Chemeris, Valeriy

2006-01-01

430

The rehabilitation of the chronic psychiatric patient: Beyond the hospital-based token economy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Token economy programmes have offered a promise in the rehabilitation and community resettlement of the chronic psychiatric patient. However, most studies have concentrated on the behavioural gains while the patient is still in hospital with little or no follow-up on the subsequent community adjustment. This paper describes a comparative evaluative study between a token economy programme and a generic programme

R. Shedletsky; G. Voineskos

1976-01-01

431

A Preliminary Analysis of Adaptive Responding under Open and Closed Economies  

PubMed Central

In the current investigation, we evaluated the effects of open and closed economies on the adaptive behavior of 2 individuals with developmental disabilities. Across both types of economy, progressive-ratio (PR) schedules were used in which the number of responses required to obtain reinforcement increased as the session progressed. In closed-economy sessions, participants were able to obtain reinforcement only through interaction with the PR schedule requirements (i.e., more work resulted in more reinforcer access). In open-economy sessions, participants obtained reinforcers by responding on the PR schedule and were given supplemental (free) access to the reinforcers after completion of the session. In general, more responding was associated with the closed economy. PMID:16270843

2005-01-01

432

Emerging Digital Economy II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An update of the 1998 US Department of Commerce document Emerging Digital Economy (reviewed in the April 17, 1998 Scout Report), the second volume of this annual report shows that, although ecommerce remains less than one percent of the retail share of the economy, it continues to grow, "outpacing last year's most optimistic projections." New chapters and analyses include "Contribution of Information Technology to Gross Product Originating Per Worker" and "Labor Markets in the Digital Economy."

Buckley, Patricia.

433

Investigation of vehicle and driver aggressivity and relation to fuel economy testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As vehicle technologies continue to improve it is becoming more evident one of the last major factors impacting fuel economy left today is the driver. In this study the driver is defined as the operator of a vehicle and the difference between driving styles of the driver and vehicle is defined as aggressivity. Driver aggressivity is proven to have a substantial impact on fuel economy in many studies. Many fuel economy tests have been created, all to measure the fuel efficiency of today's vehicles and their related technologies. These tests typically require that the drivers be trained or experienced in fuel economy testing unless the impact of the driver on fuel economy is the variable being tested. It is also recommended, for certain tests, that the driver stay with the same vehicle for the tests entirety. Although these are the requirements, having the same trained drivers for the entirety of a fuel economy test may not always be a viable option. This leads to the question of, what impact can a set of drivers, who are asked to drive the same, have on fuel consumption during a fuel consumption test? The SAE J1321 Type II Fuel Consumption Test Procedure was followed on two identical trucks with two drivers that were untrained in fuel economy testing in order to answer this question. It was found in this particular study that the driver variability can impose up to a 10% fuel economy difference on shorter distance routes where the driver is kept the same. By increasing the distance of the route and swapping drivers variability in fuel economy reduced to 5%. It was shown by this particular test that the impact of the driver when asked to drive the same is minimal compared to real world results of up to 30%. A larger data set and more testing is still necessary to completely understand and validate the impact of the driver on fuel economy testing.

Stichter, Jonathan Seth

434

Career and Training in the New Economy: A Study Focused to Small Scale Enterprises Located in OSTIM Organized Industrial Region in Ankara/Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore and describe training levels related to careers, employment, and influences of "new economy" in small and mid-sized firms. The organizational side of career development behaviors was also a focus of this study. Interviews related to company policies and practices were conducted with 26 employers or managers…

Aksoy, Hasan Huseyin

2007-01-01

435

New Economy Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New Economy Index is a series of indicators that are "gathered from existing public and private data, to illustrate fundamental structural changes in the US economy, to show what those changes mean in the lives of working Americans, and to measure the nation's progress in several key foundation areas for future economic growth." The data in this excellent resource are divided into three sections. What's New About the New Economy includes thirteen indications that show the uniqueness and structure of the new technology-based and innovation-based economy. The second section considers the ways in which the New Economy will affect the lives of American workers. Finally, the third section, Foundations for Future Growth, projects the future growth of technology in the US. The site also includes information about the data sources, endnotes, and several side articles. Although the New Economy Index was created in 1998, the information is still valid and useful.

436

Hydrogen Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 48 minute radio broadcast discusses how a switch between using fossil fuels - oil, coal, natural gas - with cleaner burning hydrogen might occur, thereby lowering production of the greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide) and stopping global warming. The show also considers a report published in the journal, Science, that says no new technology is needed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. There is discussion about what national policies could make a hydrogen economy a reality; which renewable energy technologies should be developed and invested in; how hydrogen will be generated and stored; and how best to build the infrastructure needed for a sustainable energy future.

437

An Assessment of the Economic Importance of the San Carlos Island Shrimp Processing Industry to the Lee County Economy  

E-print Network

to the Lee County Economy Chuck Adams, David Mulkey, and Alan Hodges Food and Resource Economics Department the shrimp processing industry on San Carlos Island contributes to the Lee County economy. Most of the shrimp of the revenues earned on a trip are spent within the Lee County economy. During seasons when shrimp landings

Florida, University of

438

Analysis of the holistic impact of the Hydrogen Economy on the coal industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As gas prices soar and energy demand continues to grow amidst increasingly stringent environmental regulations and an assortment of global pressures, implementing alternative energy sources while considering their linked economic, environmental and societal impacts becomes a more pressing matter. The Hydrogen Economy has been proposed as an answer to meeting the increasing energy demand for electric power generation and transportation in an environmentally benign way. Based on current hydrogen technology development, the most practical feedstock to fuel the Hydrogen Economy may prove to be coal via hydrogen production at FutureGen plants. The planned growth of the currently conceived Hydrogen Economy will cause dramatic impacts, some good and some bad, on the economy, the environment, and society, which are interlinked. The goal of this research is to provide tools to inform public policy makers in sorting out policy options related to coal and the Hydrogen Economy. This study examines the impact of a transition to a Hydrogen Economy on the coal industry by creating FutureGen penetration models, forecasting coal MFA's which clearly provide the impact on coal production and associated environmental impacts, and finally formulating a goal programming model that seeks the maximum benefit to society while analyzing the trade-offs between environmental, social, and economical concerns related to coal and the Hydrogen Economy.

Lusk, Shannon Perry

439

Scale, scope and spillovers: the determinants of research productivityin drug discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the relationship between firm size and research productivity in the pharmaceutical industry. Using detailed internal firm data, we find that larger research efforts are more productive, not only because they enjoy economies of scale, but also because they realize economies of scope by sustaining diverse portfolios of research projects that capture internal and external knowledge spillovers. In pharmaceuticals,

Rebecca Henderson; Iain Cockburn

1996-01-01

440

The token economy: a decade later.  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, the token economy has been extended widely across populations and behaviors in treatment, rehabilitation, educational, and community settings. Outcome research has expanded as well to include large-scale program evaluations and comparative and combined treatment studies of the token economy. In a previous review (Kazdin & Bootzin, 1972), several obstacles were identified for the effective application of the token economy. These included identifying procedures to enhance program efficacy, to train staff, to overcome client resistance, and to promote long-term maintenance and transfer of training. The present paper discusses recent advances in research and reviews progress on the major issues identified previously. New issues have become salient in the last decade that pertain to the extension of the token economy to institutional settings. The demands for maintaining the integrity of treatment, the ability to integrate token economies within existing institutional constraints, and the disseminability of the procedures on a large scale are major issues that may dictate the future of the token economy. PMID:6754677

Kazdin, A E

1982-01-01

441

40 CFR 600.314-01 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2011-07-01

442

40 CFR 600.314-01 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

443

40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

444

40 CFR 600.314-08 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.314-08...

2013-07-01

445

40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

446

40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

447

40 CFR 600.314-86 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

448

40 CFR 600.314-08 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

449

40 CFR 600.314-08 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.314-08...

2014-07-01

450

40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2012-07-01

451

40 CFR 600.314-86 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2011-07-01

452

40 CFR 600.314-08 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2011-07-01

453

40 CFR 600.314-08 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.314-08...

2012-07-01

454

40 CFR 600.206-93 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled, electric, alcohol...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

455

40 CFR 600.206-86 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel, and electric vehicle...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

456

40 CFR 600.008-08 - Review of fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the Administrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Review of fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

457

40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2013-07-01

458

78 FR 77489 - Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy Submission of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy Submission of Questionnaire for OMB Review AGENCY: United...and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy. The investigation was instituted under section...

2013-12-23

459

Southwest Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dallas Federal Reserve Bank publishes Southwest Economy bimonthly; it covers "agriculture, banking, energy, high technology, manufacturing and international trade" in the Texas- New Mexico- Louisiana region.

460

A low-carbon scenario creation method for a local-scale economy and its application in Kyoto city  

Microsoft Academic Search

On May 2008, Kyoto city government set up a low-carbon target of a 50% GHG reduction by 2030 compared to the 1990 level. To contribute to these discussions, we developed a local (city-scale) low-carbon scenario creation method. An estimation model was developed to show a quantitative and consistent future snapshot. The model can explicitly treat the uncertainty of future socio-economic

Kei Gomi; Kouji Shimada; Yuzuru Matsuoka

2010-01-01

461

The political economy of sexism in industrial health.  

PubMed

In the last several years, increasing numbers of American women have lost their industrial jobs or have been refused jobs because they are of child-bearing age. Industrial physicians and management in manufacturing plants using various chemicals have decided that the risk their women workers take of having deformed children as a result of workplace hazards is such that the women must be 'protected'. An alternative 'choice' given to many of these women is proof of sterilization in order to maintain or attain jobs. In choosing to approach the growing problem of workplace contamination in this fashion, management and industrial physicians ignore the effects of chemical toxins on male employees' reproductive systems, and obscure the larger problem of hazards to all employees' total body systems. This paper explores the political economy of the interactions between Society, the Medical System and Women in a Capitalist State, in order to uncover the flow of forces operating in this conflict. Using an historical perspective, a feminist analysis is made of the social order, and a model is presented which demonstrates the articulations between the domains mentioned above, particularly the historical control by the medical system as an agent of the state. PMID:7048546

Felker, M

1982-01-01

462

[Preliminary achievements of China's national economy development and family planning].  

PubMed

A preliminary view of the population control policies of the People's Republic of China is the subject of this report. The report maintains that population control policies are closely linked to economic growth and indicates that criticism by the West of these policies is unfounded. According to an investigation of 1000 married women of child-bearing age carried out in 1981, 19.1% of them have 1 child, 21.4% of them have 2, 49.5% have 3 and only 9.9% of them have no children. This would seem to refute the West's idea of the "1 child only" policy as strict and clear-cut. The report maintains that economic growth and family planning are functions of one another. Although China has made marked progress in population control, its population problem is still far from being resolved as population growth is still relatively high compared to productivity. The marriageable population is extremely high and increase in population create a burden on education, employment, transportation, welfare, housing and medicine each year. The trend in rural areas (which make up 80% of China's population) to have larger families to produce more labor must be reversed in order to make population control objectives feasible. Thus, the need for China to continue its efforts to promote rural economy and family planning must continue. The needs for improvement in promotion and family planning education as well as for improved medical conditions are also evident. PMID:12159290

Xu, D

1986-01-29

463

Export quality: representing Fijian bodies and the economy of war.  

PubMed

Fijian bodies have become a valuable commodity in the economy of war. Remittances from workers overseas are Fiji's largest income – exceeding that of tourism and sugar export. This essay examines historical and contemporary representations of the black male body that perpetuate the exploitation of Fijians by inscribing the Fijian male body as warrior, criminal and protector. Taking a multidisciplinary approach informed by sociology, cultural theory, Pacific studies, visual culture, feminist and post-colonial theory, my practice is the vehicle through which I address issues of neocolonial commodification of Fijian bodies. Through an analysis of my own staged photographs and vernacular images taken by Fijians working for private security military companies and British and US armies, I hope to challenge audiences to consider their own perceptions of Fijian agency and subjectivity. By theorising the politicisation of the black body and interrogating colonial representations of blackness, I argue that we can begin to create links between the historical and contemporary exploitation of Fijians and that at the essence of both is an underlying racial hierarchy and economic requirement for cheap and, arguably, expendable labour. PMID:21761619

Bolatagici, Torika

2011-01-01

464

Environmental impacts of the emerging digital economy: the e-for-environment e-commerce?  

PubMed

The Internet-led digital economy is changing both the production and consumption patterns at the global scale. Although great potential exists to harness information technology in general and the Internet in particular and improve the environment, possible negative impacts of e-commerce on the environment should also be considered and dealt with. In this forum, we discuss both the potential positive and negative impacts of e-commerce. Drawing from insights gained from the complexity theory, we also delineate some broad contours for environmental policies in the information age. Given the paradoxical nature of technological innovations, we want to caution the scientific community and policymakers not to treat the Internet as the Holy Grail for environmental salvation. PMID:11815820

Sui, Daniel Z; Rejeski, David W

2002-02-01

465

Research on the concept system and construction pattern of low carbon tourism based on low carbon economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low carbon economy is a new economic mode of low energy consumption, low pollution and low emission. It is a great progress of human society after the agriculture civilization and industrial civilization. As a form of low carbon economy, low carbon tourism represents the trend of the world's tourist industry. Low carbon economy mainly includes three factors: macroscopical low carbon

Ming Zhang; Xiang Huang

2011-01-01

466

40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

467

40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

468

40 CFR 600.206-86 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel, and electric vehicle...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

469

40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2012-07-01

470

40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2013-07-01

471

40 CFR 600.206-93 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled, electric, alcohol...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

472

Encouraging the use of generic medicines: implications for transition economies.  

PubMed

Generic drugs have a key role to play in the efficient allocation of financial resources for pharmaceutical medicines. Policies implemented in the countries with a high rate of generic drug use, such as Canada, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States, are reviewed, with consideration of the market structures that facilitate strong competition. Savings in these countries are realized through increases in the volume of generic drugs used and the frequently significant differences in the price between generic medicines and branded originator medicines. Their policy tools include the mix of supply-side measures and demand-side measures that are relevant for generic promotion and higher generic use. On the supply-side, key policy measures include generic drug marketing regulation that facilitates market entry soon after patent expiration, reference pricing, the pricing of branded originator products, and the degree of price competition in pharmaceutical markets. On the demand-side, measures typically encompass influencing prescribing and dispensing patterns as well as introducing a co-payment structure for consumers/patients that takes into consideration the difference in cost between branded and generic medicines. Quality of generic medicines is a pre-condition for all other measures discussed to take effect. The paper concludes by offering a list of policy options for decision-makers in Central and Eastern European economies in transition. PMID:12187525

King, Derek R; Kanavos, Panos

2002-08-01

473

Jobless Recovery: The New Economy? The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) Business Cycle Dating Committee called  

E-print Network

Jobless Recovery: The New Economy? The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) Business Cycle in the economy have seen few signs of recovery, until the recent October employment release. The October figure months. So, what changes in the economy have altered the pattern of employment and real GDP movements

Ahmad, Sajjad

474

EXTREME EVENTS: OBSERVATIONS, MODELING AND ECONOMICS, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Impacts of natural disasters on a dynamic economy  

E-print Network

of natural disasters on a dynamic economy Andreas Groth,1,2 Patrice Dumas,3,1 Michael Ghil,1,2,4 and St.S. economy, based on multivariate singular spectrum analysis. We analyze a total of nine aggregate indicators in a 52-year interval (1954­2005) and demonstrate that the be- havior of the U.S. economy changes

Ghil, Michael

475

Table of Contents Page 2National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and Its Forecasted Impact on the Florida Economy  

E-print Network

Impact on the Florida Economy History and Evaluation of the Economic Impact of the Magnet Lab Forecasted Impact on the Florida Economy The National Science Foundation (NSF) awarded the National High generated by Magnet Lab activities across the broader statewide economy. Since 1990, the Magnet Lab has

Weston, Ken

476

40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2012-07-01

477

78 FR 2690 - Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part I; Institution of Investigation and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part I; Institution of Investigation...Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part I, for the purpose of preparing...Digital Trade in the U.S and Global Economies, Part I, will: Describe...

2013-01-14

478

40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2013-07-01

479

Are you sitting comfortably? The political economy of the body.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between the mass production of furniture in modern industrial societies and lower back pain (LBP). The latter has proven to be a major cost to health services and private industry throughout the industrialised world and now represents a global health issue as recent WHO reports on obesity and LBP reveal. Thus far there have been few co-ordinated attempts to deal with the causes of the problem through public policy. Drawing upon a range of sources in anthropology, health studies, politics and economics, the paper argues that this a modern social problem rooted in the contingent conjuncture of natural and social causal mechanisms. The key question it raises is: what are the appropriate mechanisms for addressing this problem? This paper develops an analysis rooted in libertarian social theory and argues that both the state and the capitalist market are flawed mechanisms for resolving this problem. There remains a fundamental dilemma for libertarians, however. Whilst the state and the market may well be flawed mechanisms, they are the dominant ones shaping global political economy. To what extent can libertarians work within these structures and remain committed to libertarian goals? PMID:19170972

Wilkin, Peter

2009-01-01

480

The water intensity of the plugged-in automotive economy.  

PubMed

Converting light-duty vehicles from full gasoline power to electric power, by using either hybrid electric vehicles or fully electric power vehicles, is likely to increase demand for water resources. In the United States in 2005, drivers of 234 million cars, lighttrucks, and SUVs drove approximately 2.7 trillion miles and consumed over 380 million gallons of gasoline per day. We compare figures from literature and government surveys to calculate the water usage, consumption, and withdrawal, in the United States during petroleum refining and electricity generation. In displacing gasoline miles with electric miles, approximately 2-3 [corrected] times more water is consumed (0.24 [corrected] versus 0.07--0.14 gallons/mile) and over 12 [corrected] times more water is withdrawn (7.8 [corrected] versus 0.6 gallons/mile) primarily due to increased water cooling of thermoelectric power plants to accommodate increased electricity generation. Overall, we conclude that the impact on water resources from a widespread shift to grid-based transportation would be substantial enough to warrant consideration for relevant public policy decision-making. That is not to say that the negative impacts on water resources make such a shift undesirable, but rather this increase in water usage presents a significant potential impact on regional water resources and should be considered when planning for a plugged-in automotive economy. PMID:18605548

King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E

2008-06-15

481

The effects of a downhill running bout on running economy.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether downhill (DH) running (10-min @ 214.4 m·min(-1) and -10% grade) would elicit acute and delayed effects on running economy (RE) upon completion of DH running (RE2) and daily over 72 h (RE3, RE4, RE5). Fifteen runners (8 female, 7 male) completed the protocol. RE was measured during level running performed at 70% VO2peak. A baseline RE test (RE1) was used for comparison. Muscle soreness was significantly elevated at RE3 and RE4 vs. RE1. Oxygen uptake was significantly elevated at RE2 relative to RE3, RE4 and RE5 but was not different from RE1. Heart rate was similarly elevated at RE2. Measures of ankle, knee and hip joint angles at heel strike and toe off were not affected at any time-point in a subset of subjects (N = 6). A short DH running bout did not elicit significant delayed adverse effects on oxygen uptake or gait parameters relative to baseline. PMID:22742080

Braun, William A; Paulson, Sally

2012-07-01

482

The impact of climate change on the BRICS economies: The case of insurance demand.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Session ERE5.1 Climate change impact on economical and industrial activities The impact of climate change on the BRICS economies: The case of insurance demand. Over the past decade, growth in the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) economies has been a key driver of global economic growth. Current forecasts suggest that these markets will continue to be areas of significant growth for a large number of industries. We consider how climate change may influence these trends in the period to 2030, a time horizon that is long in terms of strategic planning in industry, but relatively short for climate change analysis, where the impacts are predicted to be most significant beyond around 2050. Based on current evidence, we expect climate change to affect the BRICS economies in four main ways: 1. The impact of physical climatic changes on the productivity of climate-sensitive economic activity, the local environment, human health and wellbeing, and damages from extreme weather. 2. Changing patterns of investment in climate risk management and adaptation 3. Changing patterns of investments in areas affected by greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policy, 4. The impacts of the above globally, including on international trade, growth, investment, policy, migration and commodity prices, and their impacts on the BRICS. We review the evidence on the impacts of climate change in the BRICS and then apply this to one particular industry sector: non-life insurance. We propose five potential pathways through which climate change could influence insurance demand: economic growth; willingness to pay for insurance; public policy and regulation; the insurability of natural catastrophe risks; and new opportunities associated with adaptation and greenhouse gas mitigation. We conclude that, with the exception of public policy and regulation, the influence of climate change on insurance demand to 2030 is likely to be small when compared with the expected growth due to rising incomes. The scale of the impacts and their direction depend to some extent on (re)insurer responses to the challenges of climate change. We outline five actions that could pave the way for future opportunities in the industry. Authors of the paper: Ranger, Nicola (Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy/ Grantham Research Institute, London School of Economics, London, UK) and Surminski, Swenja (Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy/ Grantham Research Institute, London School of Economics, London, UK)

Ranger, N.; Surminski, S.

2012-04-01

483

An Assessment of the Technical Feasibility of Cogenerator Participation in the ERCOT Broker and Economy Programs  

E-print Network

Utilities in Texas have several methods to exchange economy and emergency power under rules established by the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The power exchanges permit utilities with temporary surplus energy to supply power...

Bracheen, L.

484

78 FR 54677 - Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy; Institution of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy; Institution of Investigation and Scheduling...Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy. DATES: January 21, 2014: Deadline...that those barriers have on the U.S. economy and U.S. jobs. As requested by...

2013-09-05

485

78 FR 12787 - Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2; Institution of Investigation and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2; Institution of Investigation...Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2. The Commission's report...Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 1, which is scheduled to be...

2013-02-25

486

40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

487

Lessons from the UK Know How Funds Initiative: Development of Peer Education for Business in Emergent Market Economies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship that has existed historically between industry and higher education in Western economies is currently being mirrored in the transforming economies of the former Soviet Union. These emerging market economies have been encouraged by their association with a now obsolete British Council awards scheme to study historical and current…

Morrison, A.

2003-01-01

488

Wealth distribution in life-cycle economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares the age-wealth distribution produced in life-cycle economies to the corresponding distribution in the US economy. The idea is to calibrate the model economies to match features of the US earnings distribution and then examine the wealth distribution implications of the model economies. The findings are that the calibrated model economies with earnings and lifetime uncertainty can replicate

Mark Huggett

1996-01-01

489

The Restructuring of China's Higher Education: An Experience for Market Economy and Knowledge Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1990s, China's higher education has been under a profound process of restructuring, which involves not only higher education institutions but also the government at both the central and local levels as well as the whole of society. The restructuring is arguably the continuation of the adjustments that have been made since the founding of

Zhao, Jushan; Guo, Junying

2002-01-01

490

Modeling the effect of engine assembly mass on engine friction and vehicle fuel economy  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, an analytical model is developed to estimate the impact of reducing engine assembly mass (the term engine assembly refers to the moving components of the engine system, including crankshafts, valve train, pistons, and connecting rods) on engine friction and vehicle fuel economy. The relative changes in frictional mean effective pressure and fuel economy are proportional to the relative change in assembly mass. These changes increase rapidly as engine speed increases. Based on the model, a 25% reduction in engine assembly mass results in a 2% fuel economy improvement for a typical mid-size passenger car over the EPA Urban and Highway Driving Cycles.

An, Feng [University of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-06-01

491

Implications of plutonium utilization strategies on the transition from a LWR economy to a breeder economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plutonium interface between the LWR and LMFBR fuel cycles is examined for typical nuclear growth projections both with and without plutonium recycle in LWRs. In order to guarantee a fuel supply for projected LMFBR growth rates, significant multiple Pu recycle in LWRs will not be possible. However, about 78% of the benefit of multiple plutonium recycle between now and

D. F. Newman; R. M. Fleischman; M. K. White

1977-01-01

492

Bifurcation Analysis of Open Economy New Keynesian Models  

E-print Network

. To detect possible Period Doubling bifurcations in the open economy functional structure, we use the algorithm developed by Yuri A. Kuznetsov et al., which is known as CL_MatContM. Assuming that certain conditions are satisfied, a Hopf (Neimark...

Eryilmaz, Unal

2011-03-09

493

Managerial ownership and the role of privatization in transition economies: The case of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within transition economies, a popular tactic for revitalizing large and inefficient stateowned enterprises (SOEs) is to privatize\\u000a them. Unfortunately, the empirical evidence related to this issue is equivocal. This study, therefore, explores more deeply\\u000a what the relationship may be between privatization efforts of SOEs and their financial performance in transition economies.\\u000a Specifically, we seek to better understand whether privatization reforms

Liu Wang; William Q. Judge

2012-01-01

494

Poverty, inequality and a political economy of mental health.  

PubMed

The relationship between poverty and mental health is indisputable. However, to have an influence on the next set of sustainable global development goals, we need to understand the causal relationships between social determinants such as poverty, inequality, lack of education and unemployment; thereby clarifying which aspects of poverty are the key drivers of mental illness. Some of the major challenges identified by Lund (2014) in understanding the poverty-mental health relationship are discussed including: the need for appropriate poverty indicators; extending this research agenda to a broader range of mental health outcomes; the need to engage with theoretical concepts such as Amartya Sen's capability framework; and the need to integrate the concept of income/economic inequality into studies of poverty and mental health. Although income inequality is a powerful driver of poor physical and mental health outcomes, it features rarely in research and discourse on social determinants of mental health. This paper interrogates in detail the relationships between poverty, income inequality and mental health, specifically: the role of income inequality as a mediator of the poverty-mental health relationship; the relative utility of commonly used income inequality metrics; and the likely mechanisms underlying the impact of inequality on mental health, including direct stress due to the setting up of social comparisons as well as the erosion of social capital leading to social fragmentation. Finally, we need to interrogate the upstream political, social and economic causes of inequality itself, since these should also become potential targets in efforts to promote sustainable development goals and improve population (mental) health. In particular, neoliberal (market-oriented) political doctrines lead to both increased income inequality and reduced social cohesion. In conclusion, understanding the relationships between politics, poverty, inequality and mental health outcomes requires us to develop a robust, evidence-based 'political economy of mental health.' PMID:25746820

Burns, J K

2015-04-01

495

Interregional Competition in the Cattle Feeding Economy with Special Emphasis on Economies of Size.  

E-print Network

, MASSACHUSETTS, RHOOE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT, NEW Y~K, NEW JERSEY, AND PENNSYLVANIA. 21 OHIO, INDIANA, ILLINOIS, MICHIGAN AND WISCONSIN. 31 MINNESOTA, IOWA, MISSOURI, NORTH DAKOTA, SOUTH DAKOTA, NEBRASKA AND KANSAS. "DELAWARE, MARYLANO, VIRGINIA, WEST VIRGINIA..., NORTH CAROLINA, SOUTH CAROLINA, GEORGIA AND FLORIDA. INDIANA, ILLINOIS, MICHIGAN, WISCONSIN, MINNESOTA, IOWA, ;ti DAKOTA, SOUTH DAKOTA, NEBRASKA AND KANSAS. HOWEVER, CENTRAL STATES REPORTED PRODUCTION FOR EACH OF THESE CROPS. I.'. ILL ~~ORTH INA...

Dietrich, Raymond A.

1971-01-01

496

Impact of Vehicle Weight Reduction on a Class 8 Truck for Fuel Economy Benefits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this study funded by The Aluminum Association, Ricardo evaluates class 8 truck and trailer fuel economy improvements through the implementation of lightweight materials. All tests were performed in simulations utilizing published and Ricardo proprietary data within three drive cycles. It’s concluded when comparing an aluminum intensive truck to a steel intensive truck, that the aluminum truck has a 1%-6% increase in fuel economy with an unloaded trailer and 2%-5% increase in fuel economy with a half loaded trailer (40,000 lbs. GVW).

The Aluminum Association

497

The real new economy.  

PubMed

During the soar-and-swoon days of the late 1990s, many people believed that information technology, and the Internet in particular, were "changing everything" in business. A fundamental change did happen in the 1990s, but it was less about technology than about competition. Under director Diana Farrell, the McKinsey Global Institute has conducted an extensive study of productivity and its connection to corporate IT spending and use during that period. The study revealed that information technology is important--but not central--to the fate of industries and individual companies. So if information technology was not the primary factor in the productivity surge, what was? The study points to competition and innovation. In those industries that saw increases in competitive intensity, managers were forced to innovate aggressively to protect their revenues and profits. Those innovations--in products, business practices, and technology--led to the gains in productivity. In fact, a critical dynamic of the new economy--the real new economy--is the virtuous cycle of competition, innovation, and productivity growth. Managers can innovate in many ways, but during the 1990s, information technology was a particularly powerful tool, for three reasons: First, IT enabled the development of attractive new products and efficient new business processes. Second, it facilitated the rapid industrywide diffusion of innovations. And third, it exhibited strong scale economies--its benefits multiplied rapidly as its use expanded. This article reveals surprising data on how various industries in the United States and Europe were affected by competition, innovation, and information technology in the 1990s and offers insights about how managers can get more from their IT investments. PMID:14521102

Farrell, Diana

2003-10-01

498

The architecture of dependence : a digital entertainment entrepreneurship laboratory in the network economy  

E-print Network

The dual phenomena of the information revolution and the rise of the network economy presents an interesting challenge to the architect. Architecture must shift away from the design of singular buildings, and more towards ...

Tsai, Allen L. (Allen Lun), 1972-

1999-01-01

499

The deregulated global economy: women workers and strategies of resistance.  

PubMed

This article discusses the lack of input from women in international debates about the global economy. Women in the South are the most vulnerable to exploitation and most ignored in international discussions of how to protect fair labor standards. Restructuring has led to loss of secure jobs in the public sector and the expansion of female employment in low-paid, insecure, unskilled jobs. Businesses desire a cheap and flexible workforce. Declines in social services, the elimination of subsidies on basic goods, and the introduction of user fees puts pressure on women to supplement family income. A parallel outcome is reduced employment rights, neglect of health and safety standards, and increased disregard among women for their domestic responsibilities. There is a need for alternative models of development. The Self-Employed Women's Organization in India serves as a model for resisting exploitation among self-employed and home-based employees. Female industrial strikers are demanding attention to excessive hours of work, enforced overtime, bullying, and lack of sanitary and medical facilities. There is always fear that organized resistance will lead to industrial relocation or loss of jobs. The International Labor Organization has had a code for 20 years, but the threat of exposure to the press is sometimes more effective. There must be regulation throughout subcontracting chains of transnational companies. International alliances should revolve around issues/strategies identified by workers. International alliances are needed for influencing multinational companies and national governments and lobbying global economic and financial institutions. Standards that are included in social clause discussions are minimum requirements that do not address gender-specific issues. Women Working Worldwide is developing a position statement of social clauses that incorporates a women's perspective. PMID:12347718

Hale, A

1996-10-01

500

Exploration of sustainable development by applying green economy indicators.  

PubMed

Following the global trend of sustainable development, development of green economy is the best way of slowing the negative ecological and environmental impact. This research establishes the Taiwan's green economic indicators based on the ecological footprint and energy analysis. The results are as follows: Taiwan's ecological footprint in 2008 intensity index was at 4.364; ecological overshoot index was at 3.364, showing that Taiwan's ecological system is in overload state. Moreover, this study utilizes energy analysis model to study the sustainable development of Taiwan. Findings showed that total energy use in 2008 was 3.14 × 10(23) sej (solar energy joule, sej), energy of renewable resources was 1.30 × 10(22) sej, energy of nonrenewable resources was 2.26 × 10(23) sej, energy of products from renewable resources was 1.30 × 10(22)sej, energy of currency flow was 8.02 × 10(22) sej and energy of wastes flow was 6.55 × 10(22) sej. Taiwan's energy per capita and the utilization rate of energy is lower while the environmental loading rate is significantly higher comparing to some other countries. The foregoing findings indicate that Taiwan currently belongs to an economic development pattern based on high resource consumption. The economic development is mainly established on the exploitation and utilization of nonrenewable resources. Therefore, Taiwan should change the development pattern, regulate the industrial structure, promote the utilization rate of resources, develop green pollution-free products, and enhance the sustainable development of ecological economic system. PMID:21336490

Chen, Yungkun; Chen, Chia-Yon; Hsieh, Tsuifang

2011-11-01