Note: This page contains sample records for the topic economies of scale from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Economies of scale in networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A network's capacity can typically be increased in a variety of ways. For example, in a highway network, existing roads can be made wider or new roads added. This paper is concerned with the determination of the degree of local economies of scale in the cost function for the outputs of a congestible network when there are multiple margins for

Marvin Kraus

2008-01-01

2

Supergroups and economies of scale.  

PubMed

With the changing environment for medical practice, physician practice models will continue to evolve. These "supergoups'' create economies of scale, but their advantage is not only in the traditional economic sense. Practices with enough size are able to better meet the challenges of medical practice with increasing regulatory demands, explosion of clinical knowledge, quality and information technology initiatives, and an increasingly tight labor market. Smaller practices can adapt some of these strategies selectively. Depending on the topic, smaller practices should think differently about how to approach the challenges of practice. PMID:19038641

Schlossberg, Steven

2009-02-01

3

Economies of Scale within State Prisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the cost of state prisons as a function of state prison populations across U.S. states. Historically and intuitively, a given state's prison expenditures have risen as more inmates enter the prison system. Through panel regression analysis, a detailed understanding is obtained of how state prisons experience economies of scale as inmate populations rise over time. Our model

Nicholas William Irving; David Anthony King

2012-01-01

4

Economies of Scale and Scope in Japanese Private Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employs a fixed-cost quadratic function to estimate multiple-output cost functions for 94 private universities in Japan for 1991. Outputs were undergraduate teaching, graduate teaching, and research. Results indicate ray economies of scale and both global and product-specific economies of scope. Product-specific economies of scale are shown for…

Hashimoto, Keiji; Cohn, Elchanan

1997-01-01

5

Do Liberal Arts Colleges Exhibit Economies of Scale and Scope?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study empirically estimates a multiple-product fixed total cost function and output relationship for liberal arts colleges in the United States. Statistical results based on data for 295 private liberal arts colleges suggest that there are both economies of scale and economies of scope in higher education. Furthermore, product-specific economies of scope do exist for all output levels and activities.

Rajindar Koshal; Manjulika Koshal

2000-01-01

6

ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND SCOPE IN WATER SUPPLY  

EPA Science Inventory

This study examines the multiproduct nature of water supply relative to economies of scale and scope. he water utility is viewed as a multiproduct firm providing residential and nonresidential services with spatial variation. here are no significant economies of scale in the util...

7

Competition, economies of scale, and diversity of firm sizes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an empirical example in which small firms are able to compete by specializing, without monopolistic conduct, despite economies of scale. The viability of small commercial banks in Illinois is established both by casual observation and by a finding of constant returns to scale, not correcting for specialization. A second specification of the cost function, correcting for specialization,

Sherrill Shaffer

1985-01-01

8

Economies of Scale and Scope in E-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economies of scale are often cited in the higher education literature as being one of the drivers for the deployment of e-learning. They are variously used to support the notions that higher education is becoming more global, that national policy towards e-learning should promote scale efficiencies, that larger institutions will be better able to…

Morris, David

2008-01-01

9

Departmental productivity in American universities: Economies of scale and scope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study reported in this paper examines the departmental production and cost structures of a homogeneous sample of American public research universities in order to estimate their degrees of economies of scale and scope. Multiproduct cost functions are estimated for the departmental production of teaching and research in order to determine the most efficient level and product-mix for differing types

Halil Dundar; Darrell R. Lewis

1995-01-01

10

Departmental Productivity in American Universities: Economies of Scale and Scope.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines departmental production and cost structures of a homogeneous sample of 18 research universities to estimate relative economies of scale and scope. Examines three departmental clusters (social, physical, and engineering sciences), using a four-output quadratic cost function. Average incremental and marginal costs are highest for research…

Dundar, Halil; Lewis, Darrell R.

1995-01-01

11

Economies of Scale in U.S. Electric Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the estimations, cross-section data for 1955 and 1970 are analyzed using the translog cost function. It was found that in 1955 there were significant scale economies available to nearly all firms. By 1970, however, the bulk of U.S. electricity generation was by firms operating in the essentially flat area of the average cost curve. It is concluded that a

Laurits R. Christensen; William H. Greene

1976-01-01

12

Economies of Scale and Scope in Turkish Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines production and cost structures of 28 Turkish universities to estimate their economies of scale and scope. Estimates multiproduct cost functions for teaching and research, examining social, health, and engineering sciences departments across 186 college faculties. Average incremental and marginal costs are highest for graduate instruction…

Lewis, Darrell R.; Dundar, Halil

1995-01-01

13

Do Liberal Arts Colleges Exhibit Economies of Scale and Scope?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirically estimates a multiple-product fixed total cost function and output relationship for 295 U.S. private liberal-arts colleges. Statistical results suggest that there are economies of scale and scope in higher education. Research at such colleges is not cost-effective. (Contains 31 references.) (MLH)

Koshal, Rajindar K.; Koshal, Manjulika

2000-01-01

14

Economies of Scale and Scope in Australian Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper estimates economies of scale and scope for 36 Australian universities using a multiple-input, multiple-output cost function over the period 1998-2006. The three inputs included in the analysis are full-time equivalent academic and non-academic staff and physical capital. The five outputs are undergraduate, postgraduate and PhD…

Worthington, A. C.; Higgs, H.

2011-01-01

15

An economy of scale system's mensuration of large spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The systems technology and cost particulars of using multipurpose platforms versus several sizes of bus type free flyer spacecraft to accomplish the same space experiment missions. Computer models of these spacecraft bus designs were created to obtain data relative to size, weight, power, performance, and cost. To answer the question of whether or not large scale does produce economy, the dominant cost factors were determined and the programmatic effect on individual experiment costs were evaluated.

Deryder, L. J.

1981-01-01

16

Scale economies of lotto once more  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the assumption of random number selection, higher moments of a lotto ticket payoff seem to exhibit a peculiar behaviour; variance (and probably skewness) rises up to some number of bets before approaching its limit from above. A close inspection of the ‘simplest’ expression obtained by means of a hypergeometric summation algorithm suggests that the payoff variance (and probably skewness)

George Papachristou

2009-01-01

17

Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.  

PubMed

A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures. PMID:20595751

Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

2010-01-01

18

Economies of Scale and Cost-Quality Relationships in Elementary and Secondary Schools: A Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the context of declining enrollment, this paper considers the questions of economies of scale, cost-quality interrelationships, and rigidities in the Ontario school system. From a survey of the pertinent literature, the author concludes that economies of scale are linked to the level, size, and pupil/teacher ratio of a school and operate…

Dawson, D. A.

19

Power plant economy of scale and cost trends: further analyses and review of empirical studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple regression analyses were performed on capital cost data for nuclear and coal-fired power plants in an extension of an earlier study which indicated that nuclear units completed prior to the accident at Three-Mile Island (TMI) have no economy of scale, and that units completed after that event have a weak economy of scale (scaling exponent of about 0.81). The

C. F. Jr. Fisher; S. Paik; W. R. Schriver

1986-01-01

20

Inefficiencies and scale economies of European airport operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we argue that European airports, on average, are inefficient. Airline inefficiency (low load factors) appears to contribute significantly to airport inefficiency in terms of air passenger movements. We find that the average airport in Europe operates under constant returns to scale in “producing” air transport movements and under increasing returns to scale in producing passenger movements. These

Eric Pels; Peter Nijkamp; Piet Rietveld

2003-01-01

21

Bank mergers, banking efficiency, and economies of scale and scope: a review of the empirical literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against the background of past bank merger activities the present overview discusses the recent empirical literature on bank mergers, banking efficiency and the existence of scale and product mix economies for banks. Previous mainly US-based bank cost studies generally reveal that only minor cost reductions can be achieved by aiming at a scale efficient level. Considerably more promising are potential

M. C. J. van Rooij

1997-01-01

22

LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

OAK B202 LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY. The ''Hydrogen Economy'' will reduce petroleum imports and greenhouse gas emissions. However, current commercial hydrogen production processes use fossil fuels and releases carbon dioxide. Hydrogen produced from nuclear energy could avoid these concerns. The authors have recently completed a three-year project for the US Department of Energy

K. R. SCHULTZ; L. C. BROWN; G. E. BESENBRUCH; C. J. HAMILTON

2003-01-01

23

THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF SCALE AND EUROPEAN GOVERNANCE1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces some concepts for analysing scalar aspects of governance, governance failure, and meta-governance. There is now a significant corpus of work on multi-level governance in the European Union as well as an enormous literature on various modes of governance. Although the problem of scale is often posed directly for the EU case (notably in terms of the 'multi-level'

BOB JESSOP

2005-01-01

24

Multidimensional Scaling Analysis of the Dynamics of a Country Economy  

PubMed Central

This paper analyzes the Portuguese short-run business cycles over the last 150 years and presents the multidimensional scaling (MDS) for visualizing the results. The analytical and numerical assessment of this long-run perspective reveals periods with close connections between the macroeconomic variables related to government accounts equilibrium, balance of payments equilibrium, and economic growth. The MDS method is adopted for a quantitative statistical analysis. In this way, similarity clusters of several historical periods emerge in the MDS maps, namely, in identifying similarities and dissimilarities that identify periods of prosperity and crises, growth, and stagnation. Such features are major aspects of collective national achievement, to which can be associated the impact of international problems such as the World Wars, the Great Depression, or the current global financial crisis, as well as national events in the context of broad political blueprints for the Portuguese society in the rising globalization process.

Mata, Maria Eugenia

2013-01-01

25

Multidimensional scaling analysis of the dynamics of a country economy.  

PubMed

This paper analyzes the Portuguese short-run business cycles over the last 150 years and presents the multidimensional scaling (MDS) for visualizing the results. The analytical and numerical assessment of this long-run perspective reveals periods with close connections between the macroeconomic variables related to government accounts equilibrium, balance of payments equilibrium, and economic growth. The MDS method is adopted for a quantitative statistical analysis. In this way, similarity clusters of several historical periods emerge in the MDS maps, namely, in identifying similarities and dissimilarities that identify periods of prosperity and crises, growth, and stagnation. Such features are major aspects of collective national achievement, to which can be associated the impact of international problems such as the World Wars, the Great Depression, or the current global financial crisis, as well as national events in the context of broad political blueprints for the Portuguese society in the rising globalization process. PMID:24294132

Tenreiro Machado, J A; Mata, Maria Eugénia

2013-01-01

26

Issue in pollution control: interplant cost differences and economies of scale.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seeks evidence concerning the issues of the relative efficiencies of different institutional arrangements for pollution control and the implications of control requirements for economies of scale and barriers to entry. Data is derived from the estimation of a production function for 30 pulp and paper mills in Wisconsin and Michigan. Concludes that the systematic differences in marginal treatment costs for different mills are evidence of serious inefficiencies resulting from the current (US) system of pollution control regulation. The positive association of pollution control intensity with economies of scale suggests that any pollution control regime has some negative allocational effects in this industry (and presumably others). -K.Turner

Pittman, R. W.

1981-01-01

27

Cost control in nursing homes by means of economies of scale and care profile optimization.  

PubMed

The call to enlarge or merge nursing homes in order to lower costs rests on the assumption that economies of scale exist within the cost structure of these homes. Economies of scale means that an increasing number of residents will reduce the costs per person needing care. However, the existence and the extent of economies of scale as such in nursing homes are the subject of controversy because studies of this issue performed in nursing homes up to now have yielded contradictory results. In this study, researchers demonstrated economies of scale in Tyrolean, Austria, nursing homes and showed that the composition of the nursing home residents in respect to their care needs influences the development of the average costs. Changing the size of the facility and/or influencing the average care level can have a considerable influence on the progression of average costs in nursing homes. Cost reductions can be achieved by increasing the size of the facility or by improved distribution of the care levels of the persons in need of care. PMID:19331312

Hoess, Victoria; Bachler, Adi; Ostermann, Herwig; Staudinger, Roland

2009-01-01

28

Reexamining the Economies of Scale and the Viability of Small Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The decision on the most appropriate size for liberal arts colleges should not be made on economic grounds. Analysis of literature shows that economic benefits through economies of scale are too debatable to play an important role. Fixed costs may be offset by less institutional complexity in small colleges. (Author/MSE)

Dickmeyer, Nathan

1982-01-01

29

Some Strategies for Balancing Economies of Scale and Interaction in Online/Distance Education Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After reviewing the literature on interaction in distance education/online learning contexts, I offer some suggestions for balancing students' and teachers' needs for greater interaction with the economies of scale often achieved in such learning contexts. Specifically, I suggest that instructors' use of threaded online discussions and student…

Walls, Celeste M.

2005-01-01

30

Measuring the Informal Economy: A Validation Study of the Resource Generating Strategies Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This article reports on the reliability and validity of a new instrument called the Resource Generating Strategies (RGS) Scale, which was created to measure participation in the informal economy. Method: Researchers interviewed 285 adult women who had received domestic violence services, were currently incarcerated, or were residing in…

Pyles, Loretta

2007-01-01

31

Economies of Scale and Scope: The Case of Specialty Hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Objective: The recent growth of physician-owned hospitals specializing in cardiac, orthopedic, and surgical specialty services (specialty hospitals) in the U.S. has generated considerable controversy, yet there is little understanding of the economic logic of organizing hospital services around these single specialties. Because specialty hospitals are small relative to the general hospitals with which they compete, an important economic question

Kathleen Carey; James F. Burgess; Gary J. Young

2010-01-01

32

Potential Economies of Scale at the University of Bradford  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applies output budgeting techniques to the "production" of graduates at a British University. The cost per student graduated in 18 different disciplines is first divided among (1) capital and maintenance costs, (2) teaching costs, and (3) administrative and general expenditures. The potential cost savings from more efficient utilization and…

Dunworth, John; Bottomley, Anthony

1974-01-01

33

Scale Economies, Product Differentiation, and the Pattern of Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

For some time now there has been con- siderable skepticism about the ability of comparative cost theory to explain the ac- tual pattern of international trade. Neither the extensive trade among the industrial countries, nor the prevalence in this trade of two-way exchanges of differentiated prod- ucts, make much sense in terms of standard theory. As a result, many people

Paul Krugman

1980-01-01

34

Growth and economies of scale among timber haulage companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to help growth-oriented timber haulage entrepreneurs to recognise the problems of growth and understand its implications. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data from 30 companies were retrieved from their financial statements between 2001 and 2006. The relevant literature consists of the company growth theory, strategy analysis and definitions of entrepreneurship. In this empirical study a

Juho Soirinsuo; Pekka Mäkinen

2011-01-01

35

The economies of scale in the French power distribution utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to provide some empirical evidence in support of the ongoing re-structuring initiated in 2005, toward re-grouping certain activities across several distribution units, by exploring the cost structure of the electricity distribution units operating in France over the three year period between 2003 and 2005. The sample includes 279 observations from 93 distribution units operating

Mehdi Farsi; Massimo Filippini; Marie-Anne Plagnet; Roxana Saplacan

2010-01-01

36

Blue Cross market share, economies of scale, and cost containment effort.  

PubMed Central

This paper examines two components of the hospital insurance market structure-market share and the absolute number of enrollees in Blue Cross plans-to ascertain whether market structure affects the willingness of Blue Cross plans to use cost control measure. Empirical estimates show that larger plans are more likely to use prospective reimbursement, pre-admission testing, and concurrent review. Market share, however, has a positive effect only on concurrent review. We suggest that there are economies of scale to cost control efforts, but that high market share generally does not lead to increased cost-consciousness.

Feldman, R; Greenberg, W

1981-01-01

37

LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY  

SciTech Connect

OAK B202 LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY. The ''Hydrogen Economy'' will reduce petroleum imports and greenhouse gas emissions. However, current commercial hydrogen production processes use fossil fuels and releases carbon dioxide. Hydrogen produced from nuclear energy could avoid these concerns. The authors have recently completed a three-year project for the US Department of Energy whose objective was to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source''. Thermochemical water-splitting, a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, met this objective. The goal of the first phase of this study was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen and to select one for further detailed consideration. The authors selected the Sulfur-Iodine cycle, In the second phase, they reviewed all the basic reactor types for suitability to provide the high temperature heat needed by the selected thermochemical water splitting cycle and chose the helium gas-cooled reactor. In the third phase they designed the chemical flowsheet for the thermochemical process and estimated the efficiency and cost of the process and the projected cost of producing hydrogen. These results are summarized in this paper.

SCHULTZ,KR; BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; HAMILTON,CJ

2003-02-01

38

Power law distribution of the duration and magnitude of recessions in capitalist economies: breakdown of scaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power law distributions of macroscopic observables are ubiquitous in both the natural and social sciences. They are indicative of correlated, cooperative phenomena between groups of interacting agents at the microscopic level. In this paper, we argue that when one is considering aggregate macroeconomic data (annual growth rates in real per capita GDP in the seventeen leading capitalist economies from 1870 through to 1994) the magnitude and duration of recessions over the business cycle do indeed follow power law like behaviour for a significant proportion of the data (demonstrating the existence of cooperative phenomena amongst economic agents). Crucially, however, there are systematic deviations from this behaviour when one considers the frequency of occurrence of large recessions. Under these circumstances the power law scaling breaks down. It is argued that it is the adaptive behaviour of the agents (their ability to recognise the changing economic environment) which modifies their cooperative behaviour.

Ormerod, Paul; Mounfield, Craig

2001-04-01

39

Theory and evidence of economies of scale in the development of waste management systems  

SciTech Connect

Waste is a cost of doing business. This cost can be considered in terms of the potential adverse health and environmental impacts, or the waste management costs associated with avoiding, minimizing, and controlling those impacts. There is an anticipated increase in the cost of waste management as a result of the increasing requirements for regulatory compliance. To meet the total waste management capacity needs of the organization and the compliance requirements, low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste management will need demonstrated technologies strategically managed as a technology portfolio. The role of the decision maker is to select the optimum mix of technologies and facilities to provide the waste management capacity needed for the next twenty years. The waste management system resulting from this mix includes multiple small-scale fixed facilities, large-scale centralized facilities, and waste management subcontracts. This study was conducted to examine the theory and evidence of economies of scale in the development of waste management systems as as exploratory research on the economic considerations in the process of technology selection and implementation. 25 refs., 24 figs., 11 tabs.

Chang, Shoou-Yuh; Rivera, A.L. (North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-01-01

40

From Economies of Scale towards Economies of Customer Interaction: Value Creation in Mass Customization Based Electronic Commerce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass customization is seen more and more as an application of electronic commerce rather than a manufacturing approach. The paper sets a framework for value generation in mass customization based business models. Traditionally, mass customization was argued to be possible due to the capabilities of modern manufacturing technology. We argue that these capabilities are supplemented by a new set of

Kathrin Moeslein

2002-01-01

41

The economy of qualities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to highlight the main characteristics of what the authors call 'the economy of qualities'. The authors show that qualifying products and positioning goods are major concerns for agents evolving within the 'economy of qualities'. Competition in such an economy is structured through two basic mechanisms. The first is what the authors propose to call

Michel Callon; Cécile Méadel; Vololona Rabeharisoa

2002-01-01

42

Economies of scale in bus transit: A review of concepts and evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of returns of scale in bus transit continues to be a subject of debate among transportation analysts. From a public policy perspective, returns to scale are relevant to many policy areas such as transit service pricing, cost allocation, productivity and organization of the industry. Empirical studies conducted during the past decade have generated conflicting results. Constant, decreasing and

Joseph Berechman; Genevieve Giuliano

1985-01-01

43

Large-Scale Production of Hydrogen by Nuclear Energy for the Hydrogen Economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 'Hydrogen Economy' will reduce petroleum imports and greenhouse gas emissions. However, current commercial hydrogen production processes use fossil fuels and releases carbon dioxide. Hydrogen produced from nuclear energy could avoid these concerns. Th...

K. R. Schultz L. C. Brown G. E. Besenbruch C. J. Hamilton

2003-01-01

44

Regions of the Production Function, Returns, and Economies of Scale: Further Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the return-to-scale concept is important in explaining to more advanced students how production structures underlie costs. Reviews Christopher Ross Bell's graphical analysis, contending that its argument suggests a variable-returns-to-scale function rather than one exhibiting decreasing returns to scale. Explores classic views and the…

Truett, Lila J.; Truett, Dale B.

1990-01-01

45

Economies of scale and vertical integration in the investor-owed electric utility industry  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the nature of costs in a vertically integrated electric utility. Findings provide new insights into the operations of the vertically integrated electric utility and supports earlier research on economics of scale and density; results also provide insights for policy makers dealing with electric industry restructuring issues such as competitive structure and mergers. Overall, results indicate that for most firms in the industry, average costs would not be reduced through expansion of generation, numbers of customers, or the delivery system. Evidently, the combination of benefits from large-scale technologies, managerial experience, coordination, or load diversity have been exhausted by the larger firms in the industry; however many firms would benefit from reducing their generation-to-sales ratio and by increasing sales to their existing customer base. Three cost models were used in the analysis.

Thompson, H.G. [Christensen Associates, Madison, WI (United States); Islam, M.; Rose, K.

1996-01-01

46

Optimal Structural Reform in Australian Local Government: An Empirical Analysis of Economies of Scale by Council Function in New South Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amalgamation has always been the preferred means of improving the operational efficiency of Australian local government through structural reform. However, its implicit assumption that ‘bigger is better’ has scant empirical support, especially regarding the question of economies of scale. This article considers the results of a survey of general managers in New South Wales that sought to solicit opinion on

Brian Dollery; Joel Byrnes; Percy Allan

2007-01-01

47

Economies of scale in bus transit service in the USA: How does cost efficiency vary by agency size and level of contracting?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past studies of economies of scale in transit have tended to treat the transit industry as a set of similar agencies that have the same cost structure, and have conducted an analysis for the entire range of agency size using a single regression function. This may have caused problems in the interpretation of analysis results because agencies of different sizes

Hiroyuki Iseki

2008-01-01

48

Economies of scale in compliance with environmental regulation: The case of the 1972 Water Pollution Control Act amendments. The stock-price-behavior approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economies of scale in regulatory compliance cost of the 1972 amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are explored by examining the effects of regulation on the market returns of the affected firms in the pulp and paper, and the textile industries. Although the estimated market reaction may not reflect total effect of the new law on the individual

Moon

1989-01-01

49

The economies of synthesis†  

PubMed Central

In this tutorial review the economies of synthesis are analysed from both detailed and macroscopic perspectives, using case-studies from complex molecule synthesis. Atom, step, and redox economy are more than philosophical constructs, but rather guidelines, which enable the synthetic chemist to design and execute an efficient synthesis. Students entering the field of synthesis might find this tutorial helpful for understanding the subtle differences between these economic principles and also see real-world situations where such principles are put into practice.

Newhouse, Timothy

2010-01-01

50

Low-carbon economy — The trend of world economy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-carbon economy is the trend of world economy development. Developing low-carbon economy, each country not only has common needs, and common interests, but also its own special interests and needs. However, the world will inevitably enter a “low carbon” eco-economy. This paper firstly draws up a comparative study of the low-carbon economy through the development of practice to use for

Xie Dan

2010-01-01

51

Local public transportation firms: the relevance of scale and scope economies in the provision of urban and intercity bus transit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a panel of local public transport companies, four different cost specifications are compared. The standard translog and the generalized translog specifications give unreliable estimates with respect to scope economies because of the degenerate behaviour of such functions when outputs are set to zero. The separable quadratic and the composite models allow the direct handling of zero outputs and they

Marina Di Giacomo; Elisabetta Ottoz

52

Economy of a Windmill.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report the economics is given of a windmill installation for three family houses connected to the electrical grid. A status of the energy needs and financial economy is given for each house, all oil heated. Energy production from the windmill in r...

P. Hjuler Jensen

1982-01-01

53

Investing in Methane Digesters on Pennsylvania Dairy Farms: Implication of Scale Economies and Environmental Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stochastic capital budget was used to analyze the effect of net metering policies and carbon credits on profitability of anaerobic digesters on dairy farms in Pennsylvania. We analyzed three different farm sizes—500, 1,000, and 2,000 cows—and considered the addition of a solids separator to the project. Results indicate that net metering policies and carbon credits increase the expected net

Elizabeth R. Leuer; Jeffrey Hyde; Tom L. Richard

2008-01-01

54

Global Economies of Scale or Regional Customization in the European Union Food Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the European food industry's cross-border expansion and how that trend is affecting food tastes and consumption habits across the European Union. Through the examination of market dynamics, current food trends, consumer behavior, and the growth in private label products, the article attempts to explain the changing dynamics of the market. By highlighting these changing dynamics a potential

Kenneth Zenger

2006-01-01

55

Size Matters: Economies of Scale in Schools and Colleges. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report reviews the relationship in England between institutional size and the cost of Level 3 (mainly A-level) provision in three major settings: sixth form colleges (SFCs), general further education colleges (GFECs) and school sixth forms (SSFs). The study models how institutions might behave, given the funding regime and cost structures. It…

Owen, Glyn; Fletcher, Mick; Lester, Stan

2006-01-01

56

Political economy of oil  

SciTech Connect

A nontechnical discussion of the political economy of the world oil market is intended to inform the beginning student as well as serve as a reference book. Beginning with definitions and an explanation of units, the text covers the world economy, oil supply, oil prices, oil consumption and non-oil energy materials supplies, oil companies, macroeconomics, and the market in an effort to relate both macro- and microeconomic phenomena. Professor Banks feels that population is the most crucial factor in economics today, followed by nonfuel minerals and energy; the technical problems pertaining to energy, however, can be managed if the first two are faced and dealt with. He thinks the outlook is good for replacing oil with other energy sources. 143 references, 23 figures, 26 tables. (DKC)

Banks, F.E.

1980-01-01

57

Measuring Armenia's progress on the Tobacco Control Scale: an evaluation of tobacco control in an economy in transition, 2005-2009  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to measure the 5-year progress in the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Armenia by applying the Tobacco Control Scale, a rapid assessment tool developed to assess the strength of tobacco control policies in Europe. Setting Armenia, an economy in transition, has extreme smoking rates among men (62.5%) despite acceding to FCTC in 2004. However, little research has been carried out to evaluate Armenia's progress in tobacco control. Methods The Tobacco Control Scale total score was estimated for Armenia using the original methodology; however, a different source of data was used in estimating the subscores on tobacco price and tobacco control spending. Results Armenia's total score on Tobacco Control Scale has considerably improved from 2005 to 2009, mostly due to larger health warnings and advertising ban, and increased public spending on tobacco control. The scores for smoke-free public places, advertising ban, health warnings and treatment categories were below the European average in 2005 and 2007, while the price score was higher. Neither total tobacco control score nor any of its components showed a significant predictive value in a simple regression analysis using the total score and subscores as predictors for log-transformed per capita tobacco consumption. Conclusions Higher than the European average price score for Armenia cannot be explained by the concept of affordability alone and may reflect a measurement error due to peculiarities of transition economies. The applicability of the Tobacco Control Scale could be limited to countries with mature economies, but not to transition countries such as Armenia with different social, political and economic environment. The scale modification, such as an adjustment for the policy enforcement and the effectiveness of public tobacco control spending along with alternative measures of affordability would be warranted to enhance its applicability in low-income and middle-income countries.

Movsisyan, Narine K; Connolly, Gregory N

2014-01-01

58

49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9...9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a) Vehicle configuration fuel economy values. (1) For each vehicle...

2013-10-01

59

Research on Green Packaging of Circular Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circular economy is the resource recycling economy, is the economy of harmonious development between economy and environment, also a kind of ecological economy. Circular economy demands that enterprises' logistics activities be green logistics packaging. The green packaging aims at improving the packing materials reuse, reducing resource consumption and lowering packaging waste pollution to the environment. Implementing green logistics packaging,

Zhang Guirong; Li Dehua; Wang Zhiping; Ma Chenglin

2010-01-01

60

The Economics of Rural and Urban Small-Scale Industries in Sierra Leone. African Rural Economy Paper No. 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Small-scale industry in Sierra Leone, Africa was examined in terms of: labor intensity; output generated per unit of capital; generation of positive economic profits by small-scale industry groups/processes; and seasonal and locational variations. Key analytical issues were the nature of small-scale industry supply and demand processes. Data were…

Liedholm, Carl; Chuta, Enyinna

61

The Butterfly Effect of Small Open Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rational expectations equilibrium of a small open economy can be subject to indeterminacy if foreign monetary policy does not satisfy the Taylor principle. We study the implications of foreign-induced indeterminacy for the conduct of monetary policy in a small open economy. In the canonical sticky-price small open economy model, we find that indeterminacy arising in the large economy can

Jarkko Jääskelä; Mariano Kulish

2007-01-01

62

Local-scale systems input-output analysis of embodied water for the Beijing economy in 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the most detailed and recent statistics available for Beijing, a local-scale embodiment analysis on water use was conducted, employing a systems input-output analysis that integrates economic systems with natural resources data. Systems analysis for water research at the local scale is a crucial part of a systems oriented water accounting framework. To our knowledge, however, related works have not been thoroughly conducted. In this paper, a set of embodied water intensity inventory data is presented, which is applicable to both intermediate input and final demand. Also, detailed analyses of Beijing's embodied water use accounting are presented. The embodied water intensity of the Water Production and Supply Industry Sector turns out to be the highest among the 42 sectors. For water embodied in final demand, the total amount is 3.48 km3, of which the water embodied in urban household consumption makes up nearly a half proportion. As a net virtual water importer, Beijing's water embodied in commodity trade totals 5.84×108 m3. As a result, in addition to improvements in technology and water use efficiency, adjustments in industrial structure and trade policies are also of significant importance to water conservation efforts.

Han, Mengyao; Guo, Shan; Chen, Hui; Ji, Xi; Li, Jiashuo

2014-03-01

63

Alternatives for enhancement of transport economy in underwater gliders  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical flight survey was conducted of the net transport economy of the present generation of underwater gliders, referred to as legacy gliders. Net transport economy (NTE) is the total energy consumed. The analysis determined that legacy gliders operate in a scale regime equivalent to that of bats and small birds. Gliding performance of the legacy glider does not match

Scott A. Jenkins; Douglas E. Humphreys; Jeff Sherman; Jim Osse; Clayton Jones; Naomi Leonard; Joshua Graver; Ralf Bachmayer

2003-01-01

64

Study on the development of dynamic alliance enterprises' low-carbon economy on market economy condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the differences and integration development of low carbon economy and industrial economy.? As an example of the method of dynamic alliance enterprises' cooperative competition,? combines the development characteristics and elements of low carbon economy, discusses and analyses the laws and characteristics of the development of low carbon industrial economy under the market economy condition .Besides,? it proposes

Yue Yang; Shu-hui Wen

2011-01-01

65

The effectiveness of small scale Photovoltaic (PV) systems design and cost analysis simulation on Saudi Arabian Economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advantages of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) are much more than the disadvantages, RES such as solar, wind energy, biomass, and geothermal, which can be used for generating distributed power but cannot directly replace the existing electric energy grid technologies. The latter are far too well established to abandon, while the new RES technologies are not sufficiently developed to meet the total energy demand. Therefore, it is sensible to gradually infuse RES into existing grids and transform the system over time Saudi Arabia (SA) is a semi-developed nation with a population of over twenty nine million people. It is the largest country in western Asia with an area of 2.225MKm2. SA's largest export is oil, owning 1/5 of the world's supply, and producing twelve million barrels a day. However, SA is far behind in developing a smart grid and RES. A lot of this is to do with lack of participation by both the government and the private business sector. Currently SA spends over $13B a year on generating electricity from oil. SA is the largest consumer of petroleum in the Middle East, due to the high demand for transportation and electricity generation. According to the Saudi electrical company, the total amount of generated power in 2011 was 190.280GW. In addition, SA's electricity consumption is currently growing 8% a year. SA aims to generate 55GW of renewable energy by 2020, in order to free up fossil fuels for export. 41GW of the 55GW will be generated from solar energy. Smart grid technologies are also under consideration in SA; this will allow an efficient and reliable way to control the energy in the future. In addition, the potential for wind and geothermal energy is very high. In this thesis, there is a full exploration of RES components which are critical to manage carbon emission and the limitations of the current grid to the new RES technologies, which face barriers to full-scale deployment. A study in Dhahran, SA has been simulated on a installing a Dual-Tariff PV system using HOMER. The result of the simulation has been discussed, analyzed, and plotted. We also give evidence in the thesis how useful the small PV systems can be as oppose to the larger scale system that must deal with location issues.

Almansour, Faris Abdullah

66

Murphy's Moral Economy of Labor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral Economy of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize labor. (MJP)

Masters, Roger D.

1996-01-01

67

The Coffee Economy of Colombia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is based on the findings of a mission to Colombia in September/October 1967, sponsored by the Tripartite Coffee Study. It provides a step-by-step summation and assessment of the coffee economy of Colombia, covering Colombia in world coffee tra...

G. Kalmanoff

1968-01-01

68

Competitiveness Evaluation of Slovenian Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of competitiveness became an important instrument for balancing the development process of the economy. For Slovenia it is important tool for policy creation. Benchmarking with more developed countries shows us the right directions of development process. Competitiveness can be analysed from different sides. Existed studies have focused on several different analytical levels: product, firm, industry cluster, region and nation.

Art Kovacic

2007-01-01

69

TOWARD THE EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF THE DISCOMMODITY OF ANIMAL ODOR: A HEDONIC PRICE APPROACH TO ECONOMIES OF SCALE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy surrounding confined animal feeding operations (CAFO) is becoming more commonplace. In several regions of the country CAFOs and local residents have had disputes over odors emanating from these operations. Viewing the CAFO as jointly producing products with utility (e.g., meat) and disutility (e.g., foul odor), it is possible to determine an efficient level of production for both products that

Michael H. Thomas; Peter D. Goldsmith; Katherine Milla; Nicholas Stratis; Natasha Bruton

2001-01-01

70

Horizontal Differentiation and the survival of Train and Coach modes in medium range passenger transport, a welfare analysis comprising economies of scope and scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Portuguese transport system as a whole suffers from the dominance of personal transportation, this being generally less efficient. Coaches and trains struggle to stay in the business. This model explains the markets’ performance beyond price differentials, bundling the transport modes’ appeal in one index for each. The differentiated transport cost approach accounts for product differentiation, economies of scope accruing

Adelino Fortunato; Daniel Murta

2005-01-01

71

Assessment of the Funding Formula Used by the North Carolina Community College System: Economy of Scale Supplemental Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In its phase one report, MGT of America, Inc., a management research and consulting firm, recommended several improvements in the funding model used by the North Carolina State Board of Community Colleges. In addition to an overall call for a simplified approach to presenting the financial needs of the 58 colleges, the report identified several…

North Carolina Community Coll. System, Raleigh.

72

The Structure of the American Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the relationship between input-output accounts and the national revenue function. The generalized inverse of an economy’s technology matrix carries information relating changes in endowments with changes in outputs; its transpose relates output prices and factor prices. Our primary theoretical contribution is to derive an economy’s revenue function for an arbitrary Leontief technology. Our main empirical contribution is to

Eric O'N. Fisher; Kathryn G. Marshall

2008-01-01

73

Dynamics of an Information-Filtering Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our overall goal is to characterize and understand the dynamicbehavior of information economies: very large open economies ofautomated information agents that are likely to come into existence onthe Internet. Here we model a simple information-filtering economy inwhich broker agents sell selected articles to a subscribed set of consumers.

Jeffrey O. Kephart; James E. Hanson; David W. Levine; Benjamin N. Grosof; Jakka Sairamesh; Richard B. Segal; Steve R. White

1998-01-01

74

Economies of scale in the library world: the Dr Martin Luther King Jr Library in San Jose´, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the new Dr Martin Luther King Jr Library in San Jose´, California, which will house the collections of the San Jose´ Public Library’s main branch and the San Jose´ State University’s Library system in one new building. Outlines the conception of the project, the site selection and the planning process. Considers the communities served, usage patterns and services. Focuses

Paul Kauppila; Sharon Russell

2003-01-01

75

The economy of promises  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Is it possible to reconcile the caution of most scientists about their results with the demands of the media for headlines and the growing emphasis placed by funding agencies on the economic impact of research? Richard Jones urges scientists to be careful in their claims.

Jones, Richard

2008-02-01

76

Economy of middeck payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utilization of the middeck, designed as the crew quarters, for experiments is examined. The dimensions of the middeck's standard lockers, double lockers, adapter plates, and the galley, which are applicable for experiments, are described. The utilities available for middeck payloads include ac and dc electrical power supply, active and passive cooling, vacuum/vent line connections, and data handling, and four basic payload configurations are possible. The development of a middeck accommodations rack to make payload space more flexible and to enable an optimum number and variety of experiments to be flown is proposed. Diagrams of the orbiter's middeck and experimental designs are provided.

Michel, E. L.; Huffstetler, W. J.

1986-01-01

77

Urban economy as a scale-free network.  

PubMed

We present empirical evidence that land values are scale free and introduce a network model that reproduces the observations. The network approach to urban modeling is based on the assumption that the market dynamics that generates land values can be represented as a growing scale-free network. Our results suggest that the network properties of trade between specialized activities cause land values, and likely also other observables such as population, to be power-law distributed. In addition to being an attractive avenue for further analytical inquiry, the network representation is also applicable to empirical data and is thereby attractive for predictive modeling. PMID:14524849

Andersson, Claes; Hellervik, Alexander; Lindgren, Kristian; Hagson, Anders; Tornberg, Jonas

2003-09-01

78

Urban economy as a scale-free network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present empirical evidence that land values are scale free and introduce a network model that reproduces the observations. The network approach to urban modeling is based on the assumption that the market dynamics that generates land values can be represented as a growing scale-free network. Our results suggest that the network properties of trade between specialized activities cause land values, and likely also other observables such as population, to be power-law distributed. In addition to being an attractive avenue for further analytical inquiry, the network representation is also applicable to empirical data and is thereby attractive for predictive modeling.

Andersson, Claes; Hellervik, Alexander; Lindgren, Kristian; Hagson, Anders; Tornberg, Jonas

2003-09-01

79

The butterfly effect of small open economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rational expectations equilibrium of a small open economy can be subject to indeterminacy if foreign monetary policy does not satisfy the Taylor principle. We study the implications of foreign induced indeterminacy in the two-country version of the sticky-price small open economy model. Our main finding is that ‘smallness’ is a property of the unique rational expectations equilibrium of the

Jarkko P. Jääskelä; Mariano Kulish

2010-01-01

80

Towards the Political Economy of Pluriactivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores theoretical concerns of political economy approaches in agriculture and links these to farm pluriactivity. Focuses on relevance of debates concerning labor commoditization and uneven development, suggesting recognition of pluriactivity for broader understanding of political economy. Recommends broader approach for understanding economic…

Marsden, Terry

1990-01-01

81

Developing a Political Economy of Skill.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds little evidence of a paradigm shift in capitalism or a trend toward a high-skills knowledge economy. Points out problems in demand-side proposals. Concludes that it is necessary to recognize the centrality of conflict, power, and exploitation in capitalism and outlines a radical political economy of skill. (Contains 104 references.) (SK)

Lloyd, Caroline; Payne, Jonathan

2002-01-01

82

The financialization of the American economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents systematic empirical evidence for the financialization of the US economy in the post-1970s period. While numerous researchers have noted the increasing salience of finance, there have been few systematic attempts to consider what this shift means for the nature of the economy, considered broadly. In large part, this omission reflects the considerable methodological difficulties associated with using

Greta R. Krippner

2005-01-01

83

Revisiting Economies of Size in American Education: Are We Any Closer to a Consensus?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores whether state policies encouraging the consolidation of rural school districts to improve efficiency through economies of scale are substantiated in the research literature. Reviews three decades of research on education economies of scale involving cost and production-function studies. Finds little program-evaluation research on school…

Andrews, Matthew; Duncombe, William; Yinger, John

2002-01-01

84

Techno-economic analysis of co-fired biomass integrated gasification\\/combined cycle systems with inclusion of economies of scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on short-term application of biomass integrated gasification\\/combined cycle (BIG\\/CC) technology with co-firing of natural gas and biomass derived gas. Co-firing leads to higher efficiency and lower costs of BIG\\/CC technology. A full technical and economic analysis was carried out by integrating performance modeling from co-fired CC and scale effects over a wide range of capacities (20–300 MWe).

Monica Rodrigues; Arnaldo Walter

2003-01-01

85

Three Forms of the Knowledge Economy: Learning, Creativity and Openness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines and reviews three forms and associated discourses of the "knowledge economy": the "learning economy", based on the work of Bengt-Ake Lundvall; the "creative economy" based on the work of Charles Landry, John Howkins and Richard Florida; and the "open knowledge economy" based on the work of Yochai Benkler and others. Arguably,…

Peters, Michael A.

2010-01-01

86

Research on the Influence of the Investments Into the Fixed Assets in Scale-Over Industrial Enterprises to the Industry Economy Benefit in Wuhan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article has made an empirical study on the correlation between the fixed asset investment and the economic efficiency index based on the relative data of the scale-over industrial enterprises from 2002 to 2008 in Wuhan by using the regression and correlation analysis method. Then the paper proposes that a significant positive correlation exists between the fixed asset investment and

Gu Qiao; Liang Dong

2010-01-01

87

Global Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning module from the Association of American Geographer's Center for Global Geography Education looks into the geographic characteristics of the global economy and the processes linking economic activities at local, regional, and global scales. Four case studies are included in the learning unit, each focusing on a different region (New Zealand, Chile, Central and South America, East/Southeast Asia).

2011-01-21

88

Indigenous Economies, Theories of Subsistence, and Women: Exploring the Social Economy Model for Indigenous Governance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…

Kuokkanen, Rauna

2011-01-01

89

On the mathematical foundations of political economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political economy views economic issues through the lens of political organisation. In today's world, it must focus on the roles of markets and of democracy, two concepts which are driving revolutionary changes in the political organisation of both Europe and Asia. There are two main paradigms for the analysis of markets and democracy, both of which have been mathematically advanced

Graciela Chichilnisky

1990-01-01

90

Macroeconomic framework for the economy of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) provided support to the MOF to formulate a user-friendly and easily transferable computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to reflect the effect of changes in various public policies and forecast changes of fiscal policy on different sectors of the economy. However, given the difficulties posed by institutionalization of the CGE model and the priorities of the

Bazlul Haque Khondker; Selim Raihan

2008-01-01

91

The Political Economy of European Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues of European monetary union and international commercial policy share the centre stage of very current deliberations. This paper addresses the broader political economy perspective of monetary union rather than the specifics of this or that proposal, so as to abstract from the somewhat fluid nature of the discussions. I consider in turn, the background to the quest for monetary

A. R. Nobay

2011-01-01

92

The Political Economy of Kenya's Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using political economy analysis, this paper discusses three precipitating factors that were ignited by Kenya's 2007 election, which was too close to call beforehand and highly contested afterwards. These factors were: the gradual loss of the state's monopoly of legitimate force and the consequent diffusion of violence; the deliberate weakening of institutions outside the executive in favour of personalized presidential

Susanne D. Mueller

2008-01-01

93

Engendering the political economy of agrarian change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past thirty odd years, the analysis of agrarian social relations, institutions, and movements has benefited from the insights offered by feminist scholars whose intellectual project has been to bring into the political economy of agrarian change the pervasiveness of gender relations and their interconnections with broader processes of social change. The implications of this re-thinking are potentially radical.

Shahra Razavi

2009-01-01

94

Quantifying the Effects of the Demographic Transition in Developing Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates quantitatively the impact of the observed demographic transition on aggregate variables (factor prices, saving rate, output growth), and on inter-generational welfare in developing economies. It does so by developing a large-scale two-region equilibrium overlapping generations model calibrated to the North (more developed countries) and the South (less developed countries). The paper highlights that the effects of the

Orazio P. Attanasio; Sagiri Kitao; Giovanni L. Violante

2006-01-01

95

Evolution of the New Economy Business Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An earlier version of this paper is forthcoming in Eric Brousseau and Nicolas Curien, eds., The Economics of the Internet, Cambridge University Press. I am currently elaborating and detailing the arguments made here in a book for the W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, tentatively entitled, The New Economy Business Model and Sustainable Prosperity: The Future of High-Tech Employment

William Lazonick

2005-01-01

96

The Political Economy of North American Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents 12 papers that proceed from the idea that Native American history in the United States and Canada is best understood not as an Indian-European cultural conflict but as an economic conflict between communal and capitalist modes of production. Three chapters are of particular educational interest. "Political Economy in…

Moore, John H., Ed.

97

Fuel Economy of Heavy Duty Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the fuel economy data analysis performed on data from the report, A Study of Emissions from Heavy Duty Vehicles. The contract involved emission testing of 30 trucks. The truck stratification included two axle single unit trucks, 3 a...

C. J. France

1976-01-01

98

Toward a Theory of the Informal Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic activity taking place within the informal sector—traditionally defined as activity unregulated by law but governed by custom or personal ties—represents an emerging frontier for management researchers with interests from alleviating poverty at the bottom of the economic pyramid to entrepreneurship, innovation, or organizational functioning in advanced knowledge economies. A substantial portion of the world's economic activity takes place informally,

Paul C. Godfrey

2011-01-01

99

THE ETHICS OF ECONOMIC INTERACTIONS IN THE NETWORK ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rise of the network economy brought about the strong conviction that economic interactions in the network economy could be based on cooperative, informed and transparent communication, which would counteract the negative welfare effects of unequal bargaining power, the opacity of the intentions of the parties, opportunistic behaviors, monopolies and market failures. So the contracts of the network economy nowadays

László Fekete

2006-01-01

100

Globalisation, Knowledge and the Myth of the Magnet Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the dominant view of the changing relationship between education, jobs and rewards in the global knowledge economy. This asserts that the developed economies can resolve issues of individual aspirations, economic efficiency and social justice through the creation of a high-skills, high-wage "magnet" economy. Here the authors…

Brown, Phillip; Lauder, Hugh

2006-01-01

101

Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

2008-01-01

102

Political economy of tobacco control in Thailand  

PubMed Central

Thailand has some of the world's strongest anti-tobacco legislation. This paper examines the political economy of tobacco control in Thailand, emphasising the identification of forces which have supported and opposed the passage of strong anti-tobacco measures. It argues that while a powerful tobacco control coalition was created in the late 1980s, the gains won by this coalition are now under threat from systematic attempts by transnational tobacco companies to strengthen their share of the Thai cigarette market. The possible privatisation of the Thailand Tobacco Monopoly could threaten the tobacco control cause, but the pro-control alliance is fighting back with a proposed Health Promotion Act which would challenge the tobacco industry with a hypothecated excise tax dedicated to health awareness campaigns.???Keywords: anti-tobacco legislation; political economy; Thailand; transnational tobacco companies

Chantornvong, S.; McCargo, D.

2001-01-01

103

The Problems and Strategies of the Low Carbon Economy Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low carbon economy is the inevitable choice to tackle global warming and achieve the sustainable development. Based on describing the connotation, characteristics and development pattern of low carbon economy, this paper analyses the actuality and existing problems of low carbon economy, mainly including the unreasonable energy structure, irrational industrial structure, backward technology level, developed countries “lock-in effect” and imperfect carbon

Xing Xin; Wang Yuding; Wang Jianzhong

2011-01-01

104

An Artificial Economy of Post Production Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of how a computer program can learn, by interacting with an environment, to return an algorithm for solving\\u000a a class of problems. The two example domains studied in this paper are Blocks World stacking problems and Rubik’s Cube. Our\\u000a approach is to simulate the evolution of an artificial economy of computer programs called “agents”. Simple rules

Eric B. Baum; Igor Durdanovic

2000-01-01

105

The Geopolitical economy of ‘resource wars’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geopolitical concerns about so-called ‘resource wars’ have mostly focused on international resource competition, and the vulnerability of resource supply. This article presents an alternative view emphasizing the political and economic vulnerabilitites of resource-dependent states in relation to resource-linked armed conflicts. It then outlines how the geopolitics of resource competition, the history, identity formation, political economy, and characteristics of resource exploitation,

Philippe Le Billon

2004-01-01

106

A Glossary of Political Economy Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Paul M. Johnson, political scientist at Auburn University, this Website serves as an excellent online reference for students of political economy. There are over 200 definitions here of relevant terms, including capitalism, communism, market economy, tariff, supply side economics, law of supply and demand, macroeconomics, and many more. The entries feature hypertext links to related terms in the glossary. Definitions range from a concise sentence to a brief essay depending on the topic. Communism, for instance, receives well over a full frame; capitalism is defined in a few sentences. Nonetheless, the definitions seem to be without any definite political bias and more-than-adequate for students in high school and undergraduate courses as well as, of course, for the merely curious.

Johnson, Paul M.

2007-04-21

107

A Glossary of Political Economy Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Paul M. Johnson, political scientist at Auburn University, this Website serves as an excellent online reference for students of political economy. There are over 200 definitions here of relevant terms, including capitalism, communism, market economy, tariff, supply side economics, law of supply and demand, macroeconomics, and many more. The entries feature hypertext links to related terms in the glossary. Definitions range from a concise sentence to a brief essay depending on the topic. Communism, for instance, receives well over a full frame; capitalism is defined in a few sentences. Nonetheless, the definitions seem to be without any definite political bias and more-than-adequate for students in high school and undergraduate courses as well as, of course, for the merely curious.

Johnson, Paul M.

1994-01-01

108

Sustainable development of marine economy in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is a large marine country. Developing marine economy is an effective way to solve a series of problems with which man\\u000a is faced, such as the want of natural resource, space limitation, the environmental deterioration, etc. This article analyzes\\u000a the rich resources of marine biology, harbor, offshore oil and natural gas and coastal tourism resources in China and describes

Yao-guang Zhang; Li-jing Dong; Jun Yang; Sheng-yun Wang; Xin-ru Song

2004-01-01

109

The Role of Online Travel Agents in the Experience Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our society has evolved through the product economy and the service economy to the experience economy. Due to this fact the value of a travel product, nowadays, is far beyond the goods and services. Experiences are driving the travel industry and make the travel product more and more diverse. Moreover, not only the travel experience itself, but also an experience

Anton Bogdanovych; Marc Esteva; Simeon Simoff; Greg Smith

110

The Structure and Future of the Information Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the United States economy and reviews National Income Accounting concepts and evidence about future of an information economy. It is concluded that information economy growth will be in products, not services, and that it will not continue at same rate it has in past. Thirty-six references are cited. (EJS)

Cooper, Michael D.

1983-01-01

111

The Initiation of Homeless Youth into the Street Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…

Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C.; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S.

2009-01-01

112

The hydrogen economy of 2050: OTEC driven?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technical and economic model of numerous future Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plants serviced by shuttle tankers was compared with other future energy sources described by U.S. Dept of Energy's Hydrogen Economy documents. OTEC is more expensive than coal or nuclear power sources, but is comparable to land-based renewable energy sources. The system's high capacity factor, land-use avoidance and reasonable

Joe Van Ryzin; Patrick Grandelli; David Lipp; Richard Argall

2005-01-01

113

Economies of Scale and Utilization: An Analysis of the Multi-plant Generation Costs of the Electricity Commission of New South Wales, 1970\\/71-1984\\/85  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine the average costs of electricity generated in New South Wales at the site level, employing a new simultaneous-equations model approach. Further, they argue that costs depend principally on unit size and capacity utilization. They reinterpret capacity utilization as a compositional variable that is a continuous proxy for the (inverse of) the intensity of demand for electricity, thus

Jeff Bateson; PETER L. SWAN

1989-01-01

114

The political economy of conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A political economic purview of energy conservation in the United States was delineated. The concepts of substitution and elasticity are distinguished, and further distinctions are made between short run price elasticity, cross price elasticity, and available fund elasticity. An assessment of the role which cost factors can play in conservation is given. The structure of the petroleum industry and foreign petroleum resources is discussed. Also discussed is the role of government, industry and the consumer with the economic sphere.

1975-01-01

115

The political economy of targeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most widely used method of targeting is to reduce welfare benefits as income rises. Although the need for such\\u000a targeting is clear enough, it also entails two important difficulties. Firstly, the prospect for the recipients of losing\\u000a part of their benefits if they were to earn more can be a deterrent to work harder. Secondly, by reducing

Philippe De Donder; Jean Hindriks

1998-01-01

116

The Economy of Explicit Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The risk posed by explicit instruction in composition is that the reduction of writing to stock moves and effective devices may diminish the writer's agency and guarantee reproduction of the teacher's. The advantage of explicit instruction is power: overt and recursive attention to selected strategies can help students imagine the public agency…

Kraemer, Don J.

2007-01-01

117

Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Golden Age of postwar capitalism has been eclipsed, and with it seemingly also the possibility of harmonizing equality and welfare with efficiency and jobs. Most analyses believe the the emerging postindustrial society is overdetermined by massive, convergent forces, such as tertiarization, new technologies, or globalization, all conspiring to make welfare states unsustainable in the future. Social Foundations of Postindustrial

Gosta Esping-Andersen

1998-01-01

118

Political economy of hospital financing.  

PubMed

In this paper we tried to explain the recent reform in the law of financing German hospitals. We first described five basic types of hospital payment systems which were available as alternatives to the decision on the reform in the early 1980s. In the next step we identified five concerned interest groups whose actions certainly had a great influence on the legislative process. We proposed a simple theoretical model to examine how these groups of actors evaluated the different payment systems. After deriving a preference ranking for each actor, we confronted these rankings with the respective revealed preferences, which could be inferred from their official statements towards the reform. It could also be shown that quite often the actual statements deviated strongly from the theoretically expected preferences because all groups were engaged in a highly interactive lobbying game. In the last step we compared these preferences to the actual outcome of the legislation and found that all groups have at least partly realized their targets. So in contrast to the typical results of interest group theory, the differences in bargaining power do to appear to have led to a solution which unambiguously benefits some groups of actors at the expense of others. It has to be repeated that the empirical analysis was limited to statements from the interest groups in the pre-legislative stage of the whole process. From this point the most promising procedure would appear to be the step-by-step analysis of the statements of the groups during the legislative process as well. This would give the researcher a chance to evaluate whether or not the theoretical hypotheses can be confirmed, whether or not our simple theoretical model is an appropriate way to understand the behavior of the affected groups and what was finally responsible for the outcome of the legislation. Therefore this paper should be seen as a first attempt to apply the framework of public choice theory to the field of health care financing and to demonstrate that much more research is needed. PMID:10151750

Breyer, F; Schneider, F

1992-01-01

119

Professors of the New Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Profiles four professors who epitomize the increasing influence of academe on new technology-driven Internet business: a start-up maven, Steven Kaplan; a social psychologist, Michael Ray; a cyberlawyer, David Post; and an e-commerce expert, Andrew B. Whinston. (DB)

Wilson, Robin

2000-01-01

120

The narrow moving band, the Dutch disease, and the competitive consequences of Mrs. Thatcher : Notes on trade in the presence of dynamic scale economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model of trade in which comparative advantage, instead of being determined by underlying attributes of countries, evolves over time through learning-by-doing. In this model, arbitrary patterns of specialization, once established, tend to become entrenched over time. The model sheds light on three widely held views that do not make sense in more conventional models. First is

Paul Krugman

1987-01-01

121

Aspen: A microsimulation model of the economy  

SciTech Connect

This report presents, Aspen. Sandia National Laboratories is developing this new agent-based microeconomic simulation model of the U.S. economy. The model is notable because it allows a large number of individual economic agents to be modeled at a high level of detail and with a great degree of freedom. Some features of Aspen are (a) a sophisticated message-passing system that allows individual pairs of agents to communicate, (b) the use of genetic algorithms to simulate the learning of certain agents, and (c) a detailed financial sector that includes a banking system and a bond market. Results from runs of the model are also presented.

Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.; Quint, T.; Arnold, T.

1996-10-01

122

Policy Capacity for the Transition to a Biofuels Economy: A Comparative Study of the EU and USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scale of the ambition to decouple emissions growth from energy consumption in the economy runs counter to several decades of debates and literatures on the limits of government. Transport biofuels are an early and influential case of the policy capacity challenge in the transition to low-carbon economies. The case stands analytically for the policy-maker's dilemma of maintaining longer term

Adiran Kay; Robert Ackrill

2012-01-01

123

In-use fuel economy of 1980 passenger cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

An owner survey was conducted to determine the owner-measured in-use fuel economy of 1980 model passenger cars for a number of manufacturers. The in-use fuel economy is compared to the laboratory tested fuel economy ratings as established by the Environmental Protection Agency. An analysis of how this comparison has changed between 1975, 1976, 1978, and 1980 models is presented. Finally,

R. W. Schneider; B. W. Lipka; F. K. Miller

1981-01-01

124

The initiation of homeless youth into the street economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15–23) were recruited from four community-based organizations. All participated in structured interviews and 25% participated in

Marya Viorst Gwadz; Karla Gostnell; Carol Smolenski; Brian Willis; David Nish; Theresa C. Nolan; Maya Tharaken; Amanda S. Ritchie

2009-01-01

125

Pacific Institute Releases New Economy of Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Riveting reading, the Pacific Institute's report on The Economy of Water puts it all up front when it comes to the status and power of water as an issue of looming national and international significance. Looking at water from multiple perspectives, the report clearly details the impact and potential harm of current and pending zoning and privatization efforts on the part of utilities and other interested agencies, both public and private. In particular, the study focuses on the social and financial costs of water privatization efforts and their long term implications for specific countries and societies. Perhaps most compelling is the policy brief's emphasis on the competing forces of globalization and privatization and how they tend to play out and off of one another.

2002-01-01

126

Green Transport Management of Logistics Enterprises Based on Circular Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circular economy is a new concept of sustainable development model of economic development with the objective of making the most effective use of resources and protecting the environment. Green Logistics is the achievement of circular economy in the logistics field. From the demand perspective, green transportation should be environment-friendly transportation and resources-saved transportation. Besides, we should establish a scientific and

Zhang Guirong; Li Gengke; Zhao Zongjian; Mu Yuxin

2010-01-01

127

A feasibility study of implementing an Ammonia Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis reports the results of a feasibility study performed on the concept of an Ammonia Economy, which treats ammonia as an alternative fuel and energy storage mechanism. As part of the Ammonia Economy, costs for production, storage, and transportation of this alternative fuel are also presented. The cost of hydrogen, which is the main feedstock for ammonia production, was

Jeffrey Ralph Bartels

2008-01-01

128

Education, Globalisation and the Future of the Knowledge Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dominant view today is of a global knowledge-based economy, driven by the application of new technologies, accelerating the shift to high-skilled, high-waged European economies. This view is reflected in the expansion of higher education and the key role of higher education in national and European economic policy. The Lisbon agenda seeks to…

Brown, Phillip; Lauder, Hugh; Ashton, David

2008-01-01

129

The Changing Role of Tourism in China's Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to examine the features of China's tourism development after its rapid economic progress over the past few decades. Three main features were discovered. First, as China's economy continues to grow, the insignificant share of tourism in the economy indicates that tourism is not a growth engine. Second, instead of stimulating economic growth, tourism has been employed to

Min-Hua Chiang

2012-01-01

130

Review of the Economy Spelling Series, "Spelling Growth."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first four books of the Economy spelling series, "Spelling Growth," are reviewed in this paper in terms of content and, to a lesser degree, method. The Economy series is teacher-directed and emphasizes discrimination and identification of sounds. These two skills are clearly useful for spelling, but it is claimed that the series makes…

Cronnell, Bruce

131

Adjustment of Conventional PSE's Methodology for Economy in Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional PSE's methodology doesn't provide adequate estimation of agricultural support for the economy in transition. In this paper we attempt to adjust PSE's methodology for Russian economy, and also coefficients' analysis and interpretations are adapted for transitional conditions. Investigation showed that the level of agricultural support in Russia is much lower than conventional methodology estimates.

Olga Shick

2002-01-01

132

The Quantitative Evaluation Method of Low-carbon Economy Auditing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantified evaluation of the low-carbon economy auditing which is carried out by applying the low-carbon economic theory, financial accounting theory and economic analysis theory focuses on analysing the social benefits of project construction as well as the social costs. Due to the energy crisis, various countries are promoting a low carbon economy which is a comprehensive issue dealing with natural

Xin Jinguo; Wu Yanxia

2011-01-01

133

Universities' Entrepreneurial Performance: The Role of Agglomeration Economies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spite of the extensive research on universities' entrepreneurship, whether research strength fosters or dampens their entrepreneurial performance remains controversial. Much research claims an influential role of research universities in regional economy, however, little has been said about what a part that the agglomeration economies may play…

Chen, Ping Penny

2011-01-01

134

The Future of the Hydrogen Economy: Bright or Bleak?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, many have considered the production and use of hydrogen, assuming that it is just another gaseous fuel and can be handled much like natural gas in today's energy economy. With this study we present an analysis of the energy required to operate an elemental hydrogen economy, with particular reference to road transport. High-grade electricity from renewable or

Ulf Bossel; Baldur Eliasson; Gordon Taylor

2003-01-01

135

Regional clusters of the information economy in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matuschewski A. (2006) Regional clusters of the information economy in Germany, Regional Studies40, 409–422. In Germany, similar to other countries, enterprises that belong to the information economy (IE) tend to concentrate in a few regions. The paper takes a closer look at the reasons and driving forces for regional clustering within the IE. It is based on the analysis of

Anke Matuschewski

2006-01-01

136

Higher Skills and the Knowledge Economy: The Challenge of Offshoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent economics literature on offshoring highlights the trend towards the relocation of high-skill jobs to emerging economies. This evolution presents a challenge to the established knowledge economy discourse on which the relationship between higher education, higher skills, higher productivity and higher incomes has been based. This paper…

Craig, John; Gunn, Andrew

2010-01-01

137

A proposal to extend our understanding of the global economy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellites acquire information on a global and repetitive basis. They are thus ideal tools for use when global scale and analysis over time is required. Data from satellites comes in digital form which means that it is ideally suited for incorporation in digital data bases and that it can be evaluated using automated techniques. The development of a global multi-source data set which integrates digital information is proposed regarding some 15,000 major industrial sites worldwide with remotely sensed images of the sites. The resulting data set would provide the basis for a wide variety of studies of the global economy. The preliminary results give promise of a new class of global policy model which is far more detailed and helpful to local policy makers than its predecessors. The central thesis of this proposal is that major industrial sites can be identified and their utilization can be tracked with the aid of satellite images.

Hough, Robbin R.; Ehlers, Manfred

1991-01-01

138

The Political economy of world energy  

SciTech Connect

The continuous growth in global energy consumption has created international concern about the linkage between energy and socioeconomic development. Provoked by awareness of the potential effects of long-term growth in energy use on fuel availability, economics, geopolitics, and environmental quality, considerable scholarly attention has focused on assessing historical patterns as well as generating plausible estimates of alternative energy futures. While conservation projections to the middle of the next century suggest the existing developed countries will then be using about one-half of the world's energy with the US share declining to roughly one-sixth of the world's total, overall consumption is likely to increase due to population growth as well as economic modernization among the current set of developing countries. Not surprisingly, scenarios such as this raise the question of the social, political, and economic implications of varying energy supply systems. This book seeks to provide answers to that question by presenting a broad, historical analysis of the role played by changing energy management systems in the international political economy of this century. In the study, the author primarily concentrates on attempting to identify institutional factors and salient events shaping the politics and economics of global energy supply and utilization patterns from approximately 1900 to 1980. While the primary emphasis is on the Western industrialized countries and the less-developed countries (LDCs) which are energy-producing states, some attention also is devoted to the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and the energy-importing LDCs.

Clark, J.G.

1990-01-01

139

The Economic Impact of a Rural Higher Education Institution on the Local Economy and the Nonlocal Metropolitan Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study examines the impacts of South Plains College (SPC) (Levelland, Texas) on the local rural economy of Hockley County in which it is situated, as well as on the economy of neighboring, more metropolitan Lubbock County. The study addressed both business volume and employment impacts. Direct business volume impact was derived from four…

Johnson, Troy M.

140

76 FR 11196 - Antidumping Methodologies in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of Production...antidumping proceedings involving non-market economy (``NME'') countries. See Antidumping...in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of...

2011-03-01

141

40 CFR 600.510-08 - Calculation of average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-08 Section 600.510-08...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

2010-07-01

142

40 CFR 600.008-08 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

143

40 CFR 600.510-08 - Calculation of average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2007-07-01 true Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-08 Section 600.510-08 ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

2009-01-01

144

40 CFR 600.510-86 - Calculation of average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2007-07-01 true Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-86 Section 600.510-86 ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

2009-01-01

145

40 CFR 600.510-86 - Calculation of average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-86 Section 600.510-86...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

2010-07-01

146

40 CFR 600.510-93 - Calculation of average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2007-07-01 true Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-93 Section 600.510-93 ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

2009-01-01

147

40 CFR 600.510-93 - Calculation of average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-93 Section 600.510-93...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

2010-07-01

148

Child Care and the New Economy: Part I--Three Pillars of the New Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Late in 2008, when it was becoming apparent that the economic downturn was not a simple blip but a serious recession, Warren Buffet confidently predicted that the American economy would bounce back and be as strong as ever. However, he observed, "the economy that emerges will not be the same economy that entered the downturn." Since then, one…

Neugebauer, Roger

2009-01-01

149

40 CFR 600.008-01 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Review of fuel economy data, testing by the... ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977...three percent (or such lower percentage to be...

2010-07-01

150

40 CFR 600.207-86 - Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type... ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977...600.206(a) for low-altitude...

2010-07-01

151

76 FR 65694 - Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of...liquidate such entries at the non-market economy (``NME'')-wide rate. FOR FURTHER...non-reviewed exporters. See Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment...

2011-10-24

152

76 FR 34046 - Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of...administrative reviews involving non-market economy countries (``NME''), the Department...the investigation or review. In market economy (``ME'') proceedings, the...

2011-06-10

153

Privatejede vindmoellers oekonomi. (Economy of privately owned windmills).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Danish government ordered that an investigation of the economy of privately owned windmills be undertaken from 1991. Updating is a part of the follow-up of Danish energy policy designated ''Energi 2000'' (Energy 2000). The report contains descriptions...

1994-01-01

154

Economies of Traffic Density in the Deregulated Airline Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article estimates a structural model of competition among hub-and-spoke airlines in order to measure the strength of economies of traffic density on individual route segments. We find that economies of density were strong during the sample period (fourth quarter 1985), stronger than previous estimates by Douglas Caves, Laurits Christensen, and Michael Tretheway derived from traditional cost-function methods. We also

Jan K. Brueckner; Pablo T. Spiller

1994-01-01

155

State of Transportation in Illinois. Lifelines to the Economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An adequate transportation network is indispensable to a healthy economy. It is essential for the distribution of products and services to local, regional, state, national and international markets. It is essential for getting people to work and to the ot...

1994-01-01

156

Pirates, privateers and the political economy of private violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical accounts of private violence in international relations are often rather under-theorised and under-contextualised. Overall, private violence historically needs to be seen in the context of the relationship between state-building, political economy and violence, rather than through the narrative of states gradually monopolising violence. Pirates and privateers in late-seventeenth and early-eighteenth century Europe were embedded in a broader political economy

Bryan Mabee

2009-01-01

157

71 FR 77872 - Fuel Economy Labeling of Motor Vehicles: Revisions To Improve Calculation of Fuel Economy Estimates  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...manufacturers can request in writing EPA approval of alternative...emission and fuel economy results mathematically by including the cold...manufacturer of the rejection in writing. (e) If, based on a...notify the manufacturer, in writing, that the...

2006-12-27

158

Use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy. One of the important requirements for Gen. IV High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGR) is passive safety. Currently all the HTGR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. [1] The decay heat first is transferred to core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. Similar concepts have been widely used in sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) designs, advanced light water reactors like AP1000. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area. RVACS tends to be less expensive. However, it limits the largest achievable power level for modular HTGRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface). When the relative decay heat removal capability is reduced, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annual designs with internal reflector can mitigate this effect therefore further increase the power. Another way to increase power is to increase power density. However, it is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides safety, HTGRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor designs. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of HTGRs. Forsberg [2] pointed out other disadvantages of using RVACS such as conflicting functional requirements for the reactor vessel and scaling distortion for integral effect test of the system performance. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume based passive decay removal system, call Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS has been widely used in SFR designs and in liquid salt cooled high temperature reactors. The containment cooling system in BWR is another example of volume based decay removal systems. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one in reactor side and another is in environment side. DRACS has the benefits of increasing the power as needed (scalability) and modularity. This paper introduces the concept of using DRACS to enhance HTGRs passive safety and economy.

Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou

2011-06-01

159

Dynamic systems of regional economy management optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most actual problems of the Russian economic life is a regional economic systems formation. The hierarchy of economic and branch priorities should follow from the general idea of an industrial policy. The matter is that the concept of an industrial policy is defined by the system of priorities mainly incorporated in it. The problem of priorities is not solved yet neither on federal, nor at a regional level. It is necessary to recognize, that a substantiation of this or that variant of priorities - objectively a challenge. Such substantiation can be received with the help of dynamic structural modeling and management technology. At formation of the regional industrial policy program the special attention is given to creation of modern type commercial structures. In regions there are headquarters and branches of many largest corporations, holdings and banks. Besides it, many regional enterprises already became inter-regional or even the transnational companies. In this connection an assistance of transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups in vertically integrated companies and modern type holdings can become a prominent aspect of an industrial policy. Regional economic structures should be reconstructed gradually on the general model of the world class competitive companies. Assistance to creation of new corporational control systems, the organization of headquarters and the central services work - all this can be included into the sphere of regional administration industrial policy. The special attention should be turned on necessity of development of own system of the corporate structures, capable to provide to the region an independent participation in use of the natural resources and industrial-technological potential, at the stage of a regional industrial policy program formation. Transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups into modern type vertically-integrated companies and holdings can become one of the major directions of an industrial policy of region. The situational-analytical centers (SAC) of regional administration The major component of SAC is dynamic modeling, analysis, forecasting and optimization systems, based on modern intellectual information technologies. Spheres of SAC are not only financial streams management and investments optimization, but also strategic forecasting functions, which provide an optimum choice, "aiming", search of optimum ways of regional development and corresponding investments. It is expedient to consider an opportunity of formation of the uniform organizational-methodical center of an industrial policy of region. This organization can be directly connected to the scheduled-analytical services of the largest economic structures, local authorities, the ministries and departments. Such "direct communication" is capable to provide an effective regional development strategic management. Anyway, the output on foreign markets demands concentration of resources and support of authorities. Offered measures are capable to provide a necessary coordination of efforts of a various level economic structures. For maintenance of a regional industrial policy an attraction of all newest methods of strategic planning and management is necessary. Their activity should be constructed on the basis of modern approaches of economic systems management, cause the essence of an industrial policy is finally reduced to an effective regional and corporate economic activities control centers formation. Opportunities of optimum regional economy planning and management as uniform system Approaches to planning regional economic systems can be different. We will consider some most effective methods of planning and control over a regional facilities condition. All of them are compact and evident, that allows to put them into the group of average complexity technologies. At the decision of problems of a regional resource management is rather perspective the so-called "topographical" approach, which is used by intellectual information tec

Trofimov, S.; Kudzh, S.

160

The Impact of Credit on Village Economies.  

PubMed

This paper evaluates the short-term impact of Thailand's 'Million Baht Village Fund'program, among the largest scale government microfinance iniative in the world, using pre- and post-program panel data and quasi-experimental cross-village variation in credit-per-household. We find that the village funds have increased total short-term credit, consumption, agricultural investment, income growth (from business and labor), but decreased overall asset growth. We also find a positive impact on wages, an important general equilibrium effect. The findings are broadly consistent qualitatively with models of credit-constrained household behavior and models of intermediation and growth. PMID:22844546

Kaboski, Joseph P; Townsend, Robert M

2012-04-01

161

Relative economy of different methods of airplane construction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of the relative economy of airplane construction shows that monoplanes are cheaper than biplanes; that all-metal construction is much more expensive than mixed construction; that multi-engine airplanes are more expensive than single-engine types of the same carrying capacity and speed;that the cost of airplanes is materially reduced by increasing their size without increasing the number of engines. The greatest economy usually coincides with the best aerodynamic and static conditions and the cost is always increased by safety requirements.

Herrmann, H

1931-01-01

162

Relative Economy of Different Methods of Airplane Construction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of the relative economy of airplane construction shows that monoplanes are cheaper than biplanes; that all-metal construction is much more expensive than mixed construction; that multi-engine airplanes are more expensive than single-engine types of the same carrying capacity and speed;that the cost of airplanes is materially reduced by increasing their size without increasing the number of engines. The greatest economy usually coincides with the best aerodynamic and static conditions and the cost is always increased by safety requirements.

Herrmann, H

1931-01-01

163

The political economy of timber taxation: The case of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the political economy of timber taxation in Ghana. Our results show that politicians maintain control over allocation of timber rights, that taxation constitutes an insignificant share of the value of the timber resource, and that the distribution of timber revenues hardly contributes towards the official forest policy justifications. Our analysis suggests that politicians wield control over rent-seeking opportunities

Christian P. Hansen; Jens F. Lund

2011-01-01

164

Measuring flood footprint of a regional economy - A case study for the UK flooding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the urban economy and society is central to understanding the broad impacts of flooding and to identify cost-effective adaptation and mitigation measures. Assessments of the flooding impacts on cities have traditionally focused on the initial impact on people and assets. These initial estimates (so-called ';direct damage') are useful both in understanding the immediate implications of damage, and in marshalling the pools of capital and supplies required for re-building after an event. Since different economies as well as societies are coupled, especially under the current economic crisis, any small-scale damage may be multiplied and cascaded throughout wider economic systems and social networks. The direct and indirect damage is currently not evaluated well and could be captured by quantification of what we call the flood footprint. Flooding in one location can impact the whole UK economy. Neglecting these knock-on costs (i.e. the true footprint of the flood) means we might be ignoring the economic benefits and beneficiaries of flood risk management interventions. In 2007, for example, floods cost the economy about £3.2 bn directly, but the wider effect might actually add another 50% to 250% to that. Flood footprint is a measure of the exclusive total socioeconomic impact that is directly and indirectly caused by a flood event to the flooding region and wider economic systems and social networks. We adopt the UK 2012 flooding. An input-output basic dynamic inequalities (BDI) model is used to assess the impact of the floodings on the level of a Yorkshire economy, accounting for interactions between industries through demand and supply of intermediate consumption goods with a circular flow. After the disaster the economy will be unbalanced. The recovery process finishes when the economy is completely balance, i.e., when labour production capacity equals demands and production and all the variables reach pre-disaster levels. The analysis is carried out focusing on 42 sectors. Most regional data have been produced from the Multisectoral Dynamic Model of the UK economy. The flooding caused a 3.56% direct damage in the Yorkshire economy, while the indirect accounted for 14.58%.Utilities and transportation where the sectors that suffered the greatest direct impact. This impact indirectly transferred through business and supply chain to services, construction and primary industries.

Guan, D.

2013-12-01

165

Fuel economy rebound effect of U.S. household vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an econometric estimation of the rebound effect for household vehicle travel in the US based on analysis of survey data collected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) at approximately three-year intervals over a 15-year period. The rebound effect measures the tendency to take back potential energy savings from fuel economy improvements as increased travel. Vehicle use models were estimated for one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-vehicle households. The results confirm recent estimates based on national or state-level data: a long-run take back of about 20% of potential energy savings. Consumer responses to changes in fuel economy or fuel price per gallon appear to be equal and opposite in sign. Recognizing the interdependencies among miles of travel, fuel economy and price is key to obtaining meaningful results.

Greene, D.L.; Kahn, J.R.; Gibson, R.C.

1999-07-01

166

Mergers in the Presence of Economies of Scope  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the extensive economics literature on mergers, there is little theoretical work on whether economies of scope might explain mergers between …rms and, if so, what type of mergers will occur. Some recent applied literature on banking, insurance, electricity generation industry, airlines, urban transport, in the EU and the USA, as well as on the healthcare industry in the USA,

Duarte Brito

2002-01-01

167

The Valorization of Surveillance: Towards a Political Economy of Facebook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much excitement surrounds Facebook, the social networking site based on user-generated content that has attracted 64 million active users since its inception in 2004. This paper begins to out- line a political economy of Facebook in an attempt to draw atten- tion to the underlying economic relations that structure the web- site, and the way in which the site fits

Nicole S. Cohen

168

Stability of jurisdiction structures in economies with local public goods  

Microsoft Academic Search

utility of an individual may be affected by the composition and size of the jurisdiction of which he is a member. Jurisdiction formation is endogenous. Trade of private goods can occur within jurisdictions and within collections of jurisdictions. A stable partition of individuals is shown to exist for all sufficiently large economies. This stability depends, partially, upon the extent of

Myrna Holtz Wooders

1988-01-01

169

Role of Mining in the South African Economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object of the analyses presented in the various chapters of this study is to describe the economic significance of the mining industry in the economy of South Africa in terms of the available official statistical data. For purposes of the analyses, th...

J. A. Lombard J. J. Stadler

1984-01-01

170

The political economy of coffee, dictatorship, and genocide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a political economy analysis of the Habyarimana regime in Rwanda. The analysis shows how, through the producer price of coffee, the dictator buys political loyalty from the peasant population, and how, in periods of economic growth, the dictator increases his level of personal consumption as well as power over the population. The analysis of Habyarimana's policy decisions

Philip Verwimp

2003-01-01

171

Subsistence Economy of El Paraiso, an Early Peruvian Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of food remains from the Preceramic monumental site of El Paraiso, Peru (1800 to 1500 B.C.), have shed new light on a debate regarding the relative importance of seafood versus terrestrial resources and the role of cultigens in subsistence economies during the early development of Peruvian civilization. Fish was the primary animal food at the site whereas plant foods

Jeffrey Quilter; Bernardino Ojeda E; D. H. SANDWEISS; J. G. JONES; E. S. WING

1991-01-01

172

The importance of animal production to the national economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractFor a number of years now, New Zealand has staggered from one crisis to another in respect of her overseas balance of payments, and one has only to examine the make-up of exports to appreciate her vital dependence upon the sale of animal produce for the overseas exchanges she needs to support the economy. Last year, for instance, well over

L. R. Wallace

1966-01-01

173

Countermeasures on circular economy of small and medium enterprises development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of extensive production and management of resources of high energy consumption and pollution emissions caused by small and medium enterprises, SMEs for short, in China lead to an enormous waste of resources and environmental pollution. Developing recycling economy model is the strategic choice of Chinese SMEs In the sustainable development concept to guide the larger environment. We provide reliable

Liu Biao-weng

2010-01-01

174

Growing a market economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The ...

N. Basu R. J. Pryor

1997-01-01

175

15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300...FOREIGN TRADE BOARD REPORTS ON EXPORTS OF TECHNOLOGY § 1300.1 Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries....

2010-01-01

176

15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.  

...2014-01-01 false Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300...FOREIGN TRADE BOARD REPORTS ON EXPORTS OF TECHNOLOGY § 1300.1 Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries....

2014-01-01

177

15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300...FOREIGN TRADE BOARD REPORTS ON EXPORTS OF TECHNOLOGY § 1300.1 Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries....

2011-01-01

178

15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300...FOREIGN TRADE BOARD REPORTS ON EXPORTS OF TECHNOLOGY § 1300.1 Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries....

2012-01-01

179

The Political Economy of Networked Learning Communities in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses the example of the recent (ill-fated) experiment in the creation of a global education product--the UKeU--to explore how the concept of community in learning changes in this context. It uses a framework borrowed from the literature on changes in the welfare state to explain how the new economies of on line education distort the…

Greener, Ian; Perriton, Linda

2005-01-01

180

A Political Economy of University Funding: The English Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this paper is the coalition United Kingdom government policy on university funding in England as a political economy. It depicts higher education as a public and private good in the context of international trends in "cost sharing" and it addresses the centrality of economic drivers for the profile and orientation of higher education,…

Saunders, Murray

2012-01-01

181

Generic Skills for the New Economy. Review of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The generic skills needed for the new economy were identified through a review of research studies. First, the development of sets of key competencies/key skills in Great Britain, the United States, and Australia were examined. The U.S. model, which involves a broader, more flexible, and more holistic set of generic skills, was contrasted with the…

Kearns, Peter

182

Wage bargaining and shock sensitivity of a small open economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the effects of centralized bargaining over a nominal wage (indexation) rule on a small open economy with fixed exchange rates. It is shown that the relative bargaining power of the confederation of employers and the union, respectively, affects not only the level of the endogenous variables but also their reaction to exogenous disturbances. If the union's power

Ernst Fehr; Franz X. Hof

1994-01-01

183

EMISSIONS AND FUEL ECONOMY OF FEDERAL ALTERNATIVELY FUELED FLEET VEHICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents results from a study designed to investigate the effects of automobile fuels on emissions and fuel economy. The study is part of a larger program mandated by the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988 that requires the Department of Energy (DOE), in cooperation w...

184

Employment, migration and livelihoods in the Hill Economy of Uttaranchal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on primary survey data, the study begins with a brief overview of the theoretical and empirical evidence on employment and livelihoods for rural households in Chapter I. A macro picture of the economy of Uttaranchal is presented in Chapters II and III based on the secondary data. The former analyses the composition and trends in the growth of state

Rajendra P. Mamgain

2004-01-01

185

Regulating the cellular economy of supply and demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular metabolism is a molecular economy that is functionally organised into supply and demand blocks linked by metabolic products and cofactor cycles. Supply–demand analysis allows the behaviour, control and regulation of metabolism as a whole to be understood quantitatively in terms of the elasticities of supply and demand, which are experimentally measurable properties of the individual blocks. The kinetic and

Jan-Hendrik S. Hofmeyr; Athel Cornish-Bowden

2000-01-01

186

The Economic Impacts of the College on the Local Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This economic impact analysis presents the methods and findings of a study of the short-term effects of Broome Community College on the local economy. Chapter I provides an introduction to the purpose of the study, and its research antecedents. After discussing the general research approach used in the study, chapter II presents the mathematical…

Romano, R.; Herbert, N.

187

Accounting for the Euro:- Operationalisation of the Political Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Euro is commonly understood as an achievement of the political economy: management of the macroeconomy based on theoretical economics and political efforts. Yet, our knowledge is still limited as to how politics practically operationalised the theory of the Optimal Currency Areas (OCAs), once purely a theoretical achievement in the 1960s. This article examines unexplored functions of \\

Tomo Suzuki

188

Impacts of the BIS regulation on the Japanese economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japanese economy in the 1990s is a typical example of “pro-cyclical effect” of the BIS regulation. The regulatory authority tried to mitigate its negative impacts by enlarging the definition of Tier II category of the bank capital. Finally, the authority bailed out all major banks by providing the public money to maintain the BIS capital ratio. This unprecedented difficulty

Yoshinori Shimizu

2007-01-01

189

Impact of the Changing Farm Economy on Rural Communities. Evaluation of Interrelationships between Agriculture and the Economy of Rural Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A reduction in agricultural activity in a rural farming community will result in reduced activity in almost every sector of the local economy. The result may be measured in loss of employment and income. This report provides a method to estimate such economic impacts with a minimum of data collection and manipulation. Most of the input data…

Lansford, Notie H., Jr.; Jones, Lonnie L.

190

Political Economy Origins of Financial Markets in Europe and Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contributes to the finance-growth literature by examining the political economy origins of some of the most successful financial markets in Europe and Asia. It provides historical evidence from London, Amsterdam and Hong Kong that highlights the essential role played by the government sector in kick-starting financial development. We show that the emergence of financial systems did not occur

Svetlana Andrianova; Panicaos Demetriades; Chenggang Xu

2008-01-01

191

The Socialist System: The Political Economy of Communism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides a comprehensive account of the structure, conduct, and performance of the centrally planned economies of Eastern Europe, the USSR, Communist China and the Marxist LDCs, looking at 26 nations in all. The author focuses on reform, perhaps the most important issue facing countries such as the USSR, Poland, Hungary, and China. Bureaucracy, soft budget constraints, markets, and

Janos Kornai

1992-01-01

192

Assessment of Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Economies  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study is to examine the marginal lands in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies and evaluate their biomass productivity potential. Twelve categories of marginal lands are identified using the Global Agro-Ecological Zones system of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

2009-08-01

193

DRI Model of the U.S. Economy -- Model Documentation:  

EIA Publications

Provides documentation on Data Resources, Inc., DRI Model of the U.S. Economy and the DRI Personal Computer Input/Output Model. It also describes the theoretical basis, structure and functions of both DRI models; and contains brief descriptions of the models and their equations.

Information Center

1993-12-01

194

Safety aspects of a widespread hydrogen energy economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Profitability constraints on safety considerations in a widespread hydrogen energy economy are discussed. Hydrogen uses and possible human contact are examined with attention to the ignition and combustion characteristics of hydrogen. Three approaches to safety are urged - education, improvement of safety procedures, and passive means. For example, people should learn about the flammability of hydrogen, the need for ventilation

R. Schmucker

1977-01-01

195

Agglomeration and the Geography of Localization Economies in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baldwin J. R., Beckstead D., Brown W. M. and Rigby D. L. Agglomeration and the geography of localization economies in Canada, Regional Studies.?This paper maps the spatial variation in productivity levels across Canadian cities and models the underlying determinants of that variation. There are two main goals. The first is to confirm the existence, the nature and the size of

John R. Baldwin; Desmond Beckstead; W. Mark Brown; David L. Rigby

2008-01-01

196

The Moral Economy of Violence in the US Inner City  

PubMed Central

In an 8-week period, there were 16 shootings with three fatalities, three stabbings, and 14 additional “aggravated assaults” in the four square blocks surrounding our field site in the Puerto Rican corner of North Philadelphia. In the aftermath of the shoot-outs, the drug sellers operating on our block were forced to close down their operations by several mothers who repeatedly called the police. Drawing on the concept of moral economy (Thompson, Scott, Taussig), Mauss’s interpretation of gift exchange, and a political economy critique of hypercarceralization in the United States, we understand the high levels of US inner-city violence as operating within a moral logic framed by economic scarcity and hostile state relations. Residents seek security, self-respect, and profit in social networks that compel them to participate in solidary exchanges of assistive violence dynamized by kinship and gender obligations. A hierarchical, extractive drug economy fills the void left by deindustrialization, resulting in a dynamic of embodied primitive accumulation at the expense of addicted customers and chronically incarcerated just-in-time street sellers at high risk of assault. Nevertheless, the mobilization of violence organizing the illegal drug economy also follows ethical norms and obligations that are recognized as legitimate by many local residents.

Karandinos, George; Hart, Laurie Kain; Castrillo, Fernando Montero; Bourgois, Philippe

2014-01-01

197

Domination and evolution in agent based model of an economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce Agent Based Model of a pure exchange economy and a simple economy that includes production, consumption and distributions. Markets are described by Edgeworth Exchange in both models. Trades are binary bilateral trades at prices that are set in each trade. We found that the prices converge over time to a value that is not the standard Equilibrium value given by the Walrasian Tattonement fiction. The average price, and the distributions of Wealth, depends on the degree of Domination (persuasive power) we introduced based on differentials in trading "leverage" due to wealth differences. The full economy model is allowed to evolve by replacement of agents that do not survive with agents having random properties. We found that, depending upon the average productivity compared to the average consumption, very different kinds of behavior emerged. The Economy as a whole reaches a steady state by the population adapting to the conditions of productivity and consumption. Correlations develop in a population between what would be for each individual a random assignment of Productivity, Labor power, Wealth, and Preferences. The population adapts to the economic environment by development of these Correlations and without any learning process. We see signs of emerging social structure as a result of necessity of survival.

Kazmi, Syed S.

198

Harnessing the hidden enterprise culture of advanced economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In the majority (third) world, informal employment has been long viewed as an asset to be harnessed rather than a hindrance to development. The purpose of this paper is to show how a similar perspective is starting to be embraced in advanced economies and investigates the implications for public policy of this re-reading. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Documents the shifts

Colin C. Williams; Jan Windebank

2006-01-01

199

The Essential ways of China low-carbon economy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate problem has become the world's challenges, which most countries must confront. Under the background of carbon emissions growth and fossil energy's unsustainable development, low-carbon economy has become a global trend of economic and social development. Faced with the global emissions pressure and industrialization development energy, resources, with such multiple constraints, urgently need to speed up economic development in China.

JingWei Liu; Ying Wang

2011-01-01

200

Controlling for Economy of Expression in Creativity Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether lengthy responses to the blank card reflect a contaminating factor such as glibness in creativity research. Two groups of college students completed the Remote Associates Test, Thematic Apperception Test, or Hand Test. Results suggested that blank cards among ambiguous stimuli evoke not glibness but economy of expression. (JAC)

Wakefield, John F.

1983-01-01

201

Growth of the Japanese Economy: Challenges to American National Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As the Japanese economy has grown more powerful over the last two decades, there has been an increasing number of influential Americans who have voiced the fear that sharp economic competition from Japan is beginning to threaten the health of the US econo...

D. T. Frankenberger

1991-01-01

202

The Political Economy of Services in Regional Trade Agreements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do the services commitments that countries have made in their post-Uruguay Round regional trade agreements (RTAs) indicate the types of concessions that they would be willing to multilateralise in the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)? While there are important legal and economic dimensions to ponder in answering this question, considerations of political economy must also be taken into

Craig VanGrasstek

2011-01-01

203

THE TRANSITION TO A MARKET ECONOMY: PITFALLS OF PARTIAL REFORM  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a theory of a partial economic reform of a planned economy, similar to the one that took place in Russia since 1988 and in China earlier. In such a reform, some markets are liberalized in the sense that producers can sell output to whomever they want, including private firms, at free prices, but at the same time must

KEVIN M. MURPHY; ANDREI SHLEIFER; ROBERT W. VISHNY

1991-01-01

204

Estimating the E ects of Private School Vouchers in Multi-District Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper estimates a general equilibrium model of school quality and household residential and school choice for economies,with multiple public school districts and private (religious and non-sectarian) schools. The estimates, obtained through full-solution methods, are used to simulate two large-scale private school voucher ,programs ,in the ,Chicago metropolitan area: universal vouchers ,and vouchers restricted to non-sectarian schools. In the

M. Ferreyra

2003-01-01

205

Scitovsky's The Joyless Economy and the economics of happiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scitovsky's The Joyless Economy is especially well-known in recent economic studies on happiness. However, his insightful contributions have not been taken up as they deserve, mainly because they were, and still are, too original. By reconstructing Scitovsky's analysis on the basis of all his relevant writings, this article integrates his most original concepts, such as novelty, consumption skill, endogenous preferences,

Maurizio Pugno

2012-01-01

206

On sustainable development of population and national economy.  

PubMed

This article offers a strategy for achieving sustainable development of population and the national economy in China. It is argued that economic growth and population growth must be in balance and coordinated. In 1993 it was estimated that a national economic growth rate of 4.03-4.60% was needed in order to balance the natural population growth rate of 1.15% at the existing standard of living. When the national economy grows faster than population in the life expectancy time period, overpopulation can be checked. Population must be balanced with sufficient means for subsistence. The key measure of sustainable development is the ratio between the size of the working-age population and the means of production. The number of people in the labor force is positively related to fixed assets and negatively related to the labor force's technical equipment. China's problems include weak industrial fixed assets, a surplus labor force, and slow growth in industrial and agricultural productivity. Potential solutions are to shift employment from a cultivation-oriented rural economy to a diversified rural economy, to increase the pace of change to an industrial and commercial economy, and to increase the pace of change to nonmaterial production and to raising employment efficiency. Solutions are dependent upon improvement in the quality of population, which means increased levels of education. China still has 181,610,00 people who are illiterate or semi-illiterate among the working-age population. Sustainable development also relies on active promotion of social support for the elderly by a pension system, family support, and reemployment of the elderly. Surplus labor should be absorbed by the service industry. Population structure and economic development are more advanced in coastal areas that have 41% of total population. Inland areas should develop labor-intensive, technology-intensive, and investment-intensive industries. Northwest areas need an educated population, improved transportation, and a stronger economic base. PMID:12290856

Tian, X

1995-01-01

207

19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...labor, the Secretary will use regression-based wage rates reflective of the observed relationship between wages and national income in market economy countries. The Secretary will calculate the wage rate to be applied in nonmarket economy...

2010-04-01

208

19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...labor, the Secretary will use regression-based wage rates reflective of the observed relationship between wages and national income in market economy countries. The Secretary will calculate the wage rate to be applied in nonmarket economy...

2009-04-01

209

Matlab code for Discrete State-Space Methods for the Study of Dynamic Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

These are the Matlab programs discussed in Craig Burnside, Discrete State-Space Methods for the Study of Dynamic Economies, in Ramon Marimon and Andrew Scott, eds. Computational Methods for the Study of Dynamic Economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Craig Burnside

1999-01-01

210

Fuel Economy Through Teamwork. Energy Savings in School Transportation Publication Series. 1. Pupil Transportation and Energy Conservation. 2. Purchasing for Fuel Economy. 3. Driving for Fuel Economy. 4. Operating for Fuel Economy. 5. The Science of Saving Fuel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication series of five booklets presents a summary of tips for saving energy in pupil transportation. The first booklet offers guidelines and suggestions to assist school transportation administration in achieving better fuel economy and cost management goals. The second presents purchasing tips and shows ways to use benefit cost analysis…

BRI Systems, Inc., Phoenix, AZ.

211

Constructing green supply chain based on the mode of circulation economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circulation economy is a form of economic organization through the integration of industrial chains,to achieve re-use, multiple use, and recycling. The green supply chain is a kind of modern green logistic model that through minimum resource input to reach the highest efficiency and maximum recycling, to realize the coordinated development of economy and ecology at the idea of circular economy

Jian Li; Jiao Lan

2010-01-01

212

The Research of SME Development's Model in Low-carbon Economy Era  

Microsoft Academic Search

On account of the problems appearing in the model of SMEs 's development in China, reseach the inevitably of SMEs development model changes in low-carbon economy paradigm, according to the low carbon economy in the current and future development trends, proposed that SMEs must change ideas of the development, achieve innovation of the development mode, and create a recycling economy

Dai Fashan; Sun Bo

2011-01-01

213

Research for strategic transformation of auto manufacturers based on the Low Carbon Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research is aiming to explore the low carbon road for auto manufacturing enterprise. It introduced the concept of low carbon economy, and analyzed China automobile manufacturing enterprise developing low carbon economy status using the method of SWOT. Constructed the conceptual model of strategic transformation of auto manufacturing enterprise from the perspective of low carbon economy: taking low carbon strategic

Lu Ma; Jun-guo Qiao

2011-01-01

214

POTENTIAL FOR REDUCING COST OF ENERGY BY SCALING UP A LOW-MASS WIND TURBINE DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost of wind energy is a function of turbine size. Economies of scale are offset by a fundamental mass-driven diseconomy, resulting in an optimum point. The diseconomy is very dependent on turbine design, while the economies of scale are relatively independent. As a result a low-mass design will reach its optimum at a larger scale than a heavier design.

Geoff Henderson

215

A Study on the Development Path of China's Low-Carbon Economy under the Global Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming has been a serious threat to the sustainable development of human society. Reducing the large-scale emissions of greenhouse gases in the process of economic development and developing low-carbon economy have become necessary requirements for the national economic and social sustainable development. In this paper, combining the status quo of China's economic development with the example of a city

H. Y. Duan; D. F. Wang; J. Zhang; H. Q. Liu; X. E. Wang

2010-01-01

216

The game theory based on government guide the development of western low-carbon economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of low-carbon economy in western region of China will help the western develop from traditional extensive economy to resource-saving and environment-friendy economy. In this paper, symmetrical evolutionary game model is applied to calculate the extent cost for the adopted low-carbon economy, the penalties for enterprise environmental pollution ,the courage and reward for the enterprise using low-carbon technology, all

Shengshun Peng; Jing Liu

2010-01-01

217

Evolutionary Game of Labor Division in a Perfectly Competitive Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. This paper inspects the coordination of individuals’ decisions on specialization and the determination,of labor division in a large competitive economy,from a perspective of evolutionary game,theory. It is shown,that the equilibrium structure of labor division defined by new classical economics,is in fact an evolutionarily stable state. In anevolutionary economic environment where the law of “survival of the fittest” prevails, individuals’

Haiou Zhou

218

40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600.311-08 Section 600.311-08...Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine...economy values for each class of comparable automobiles comprising the maximum and...

2013-07-01

219

Challenges and Developments in the Financial Systems of the Southeast Asian Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the economies and financial systems of Southeast Asia (SEA) and focuses on challenges and developments in the region. Despite the diversity of SEA economies and some important exceptions, most of them are relatively small but growing strongly. Financial deepening differs among SEA economies. Yet in general, equity markets have grown rapidly and bond markets slowly. The main

Toshiyuki Shimada; Ting Yang

2010-01-01

220

Effects of land fragmentation and returns to scale in the Chinese farming sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using household survey data from rural China, economies of scale as measured by returns to scale and the effects of land fragmentation on crop outputs are examined. While these effects are found to be detrimental, statistically significant and substantial, existing economies of scale appear to be too small to suggest radical land policy changes in China.

Guang Wan; Enjiang Cheng

2001-01-01

221

A schumpeterian model of growth in the world economy: Some notes on a new paradigm in international economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

T~he traditional theory of international economics explaining trade by comparative advantage and differences in endowment in the Heckscher-Ohlin approach experienced a major innovation in the seventies when imperfect competition was explicitly introduced into the models of international specialization. Imperfect competition is due to two factors: economies of scale in production and product variety in the preference function of consumers implying

Horst Siebert

1991-01-01

222

Spontaneous Specialization in a FreeMarket Economy of Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a free-market economy of software agents, informationis produced, traded, and consumed by vast numbers of autonomous,self-motivated agents. An essential task in thiseconomy is the retailing or brokering of information, wherebyinformation is gathered from the right producers and distributedto the right consumers. This paper investigates onecrucial aspect of a broker's dynamical behavior, its abilityto specialize---i.e., to carve out a market

James E. Hanson; Jeffrey O. Kephart

1998-01-01

223

On the baseline evolution of automobile fuel economy in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Business as usual’ scenarios in long-term energy forecasts are crucial for scenario-based policy analyses. This article focuses on fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks, a long-disputed issue with serious implications for worldwide energy use and CO2 emissions. The current status in Europe is explained and future developments are analysed with the aid of historical data of the last

Theodoros Zachariadis

2006-01-01

224

On a pilot linear programming model for assessing physical impact on the economy of a changing energy picture. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a dynamic linear programming model on a pilot scale that attempts to describe in physical terms many of the technological interactions within and across the sections of the American economy, including a detailed energy sector. The general aim of the model is to provide information on what the country would achieve over the long run in

G. B. Dantzig; S. C. Parikh

1975-01-01

225

Wealth condensation in a simple model of economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a simple model of economy, where the time evolution is described by an equation capturing both exchange between individuals and random speculative trading, in such a way that the fundamental symmetry of the economy under an arbitrary change of monetary units is insured. We investigate a mean-field limit of this equation and show that the distribution of wealth is of the Pareto (power-law) type. The Pareto behaviour of the tails of this distribution appears to be robust for finite range models, as shown using both a mapping to the random ‘directed polymer’ problem, as well as numerical simulations. In this context, a phase transition between an economy dominated by a few individuals and a situation where the wealth is more evenly spread out, is found. An interesting outcome is that the distribution of wealth tends to be very broadly distributed when exchanges are limited, either in amplitude or topologically. Favouring exchanges (and, less surprisingly, increasing taxes) seems to be an efficient way to reduce inequalities.

Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Mézard, Marc

2000-07-01

226

The Influence of a Token Economy and Methylphenidate on Attentive and Disruptive Behavior during Sports with Adhd-Diagnosed Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated in a summer program designed to evaluate the influence of stimulant medication and a token economy on attentive and disruptive behavior during kickball games. Attentive and disruptive behavior were assessed using an interval coding system, and daily ratings on the ADHD Index of the Conners Teacher Rating Scale-Revised were also

David Reitman; Stephen D. A. Hupp; Patrick M. O’Callaghan; Veronica Gulley; John Northup

2001-01-01

227

Effective force and economy of triathletes and cyclists.  

PubMed

The effective force applied on the crank, the index of pedalling effectiveness, and the economy of movement at 60, 75, 90, and 105 rev/min cadences were examined in nine cyclists and eight triathletes. Tests were performed on two days. Maximal oxygen uptake was measured and the second ventilatory threshold was estimated on day 1 using a stationary bicycle. On day 2, the four different cadences were tested at about 5% below the second ventilatory threshold. A strain gauge instrumented clip-less pedal mounted on the bicycle enabled us to measure the normal and tangential forces exerted on the pedal, while the pedal and crank angles were monitored with the aid of a video system. Based on this information, the effective force and the index of pedalling effectiveness were calculated. Cyclists produced significantly more effective force and a higher index of pedalling effectiveness at 60 and 75 rev/min and were significantly more economic at all cadences than triathletes. The significant and positive correlation between effective force and economy at all cadences suggests that improvement of the effective force would reflect on economy. PMID:17542176

Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô; Ribeiro, Jerri; Soares, Denise Paschoal; De Oliveira, Alvaro Reischak; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes; Guimarães, Antônio Carlos S

2007-01-01

228

The Political Economy of Water Abstraction Charges  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important economic instrument in the management of a river catchment's water resources is the charges made by government for the abstraction of water from ground and surface sources. Abstraction charges are a form of rent. However, the classical theory of differential rent has limited application to abstraction prices because that theory's assumption of competition in the supply of the

Stephen Merrett

1999-01-01

229

The Political Economy of Environmental Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a review and assessment of the extensive literature on the political determination of environmental regulation. A promising theoretical literature has emerged relatively recently that provides models of the political interaction of government with various interest groups in the setting of environmental standards and the choice of regulatory instruments. A large empirical literature supports such models, finding evidence

Paul Portney; Wallace Oates

2001-01-01

230

THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF RESOURCE RENT DISTRIBUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: I model,the link between,political regime,and,level of diversification following,a windfall,of natural resource revenues. The explanatory,variables I make use of are the political support functions embedded within each type of regime and the disparate levels of discretion, openness, transparency, and accountability of government. I show that a democratic govern- ment seeks to maximize the long-term consumption path of the representative consumer,

Nikitas Konstantinidis

231

The Political Economy of Urban Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work was intended as a contribution to the theory of the nonprofit organization, local public finance, and human resources. There is a discussion of approaches to evaluating school systems, the validity of any of which depends upon prior knowledge of the resource-performance relationship, or the educational production function. A case study…

Katzman, Martin T.

232

The Political Economy of Social Pacts: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most significant achievements of the postwar era has been the reconciliation of economic growth with varying degrees of social justice within western European welfare states. Yet the capacity for achieving this compromise has been thrown into question by a number of major challenges. Pressures for retrenchment including \\

MARTIN RHODES

2001-01-01

233

The Political Economy of Modern Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Until the end of the 19th century there were basically two traditions in American universities, all of which, for practical purposes, were private, nonprofit institutions. The first and unquestionably more important of these traditions was that of the church-related college. The second great tradition was the notion of elitist, liberal education.…

Manne, Henry G.

1971-01-01

234

Integration of Biogas Plants in Farm Economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study deals with the optimising of dimensions and most practical designing of biogas plants not yet planned, and the organisational integration of such plants into individual agricultural businesses. The essay is addressed mainly to building experts,...

R. Kaufmann

1984-01-01

235

Cultural Aspects of Secrecy in Global Economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this paper is to provide greater understanding of the nature of secrecy in firms. It presents an effort to develop some links between management of the secrecy and its relationship with culture. Using measures from Hofstede's work, we have linked some dimensions of national culture with CIS 3 UE survey database. The results show that some attributes of the culture as Masculinity and Uncertainty Avoidance have impact on the tendency of the firms for not to patent and maintain secrecy of their innovations.

Serradell-Lopez, Enric; Cavaller, Victor

236

Overall Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that they provide. So, to project employment, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) starts by projecting the gross domestic product (GDP) for 2018. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the…

Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

2010-01-01

237

Overall Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that these workers provide. So, to project employment, BLS starts by estimating the components of gross domestic product (GDP) for 2020. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the size--in…

Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

2012-01-01

238

Fuel economy screening study of advanced automotive gas turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel economy potentials were calculated and compared among ten turbomachinery configurations. All gas turbine engines were evaluated with a continuously variable transmission in a 1978 compact car. A reference fuel economy was calculated for the car with its conventional spark ignition piston engine and three speed automatic transmission. Two promising engine/transmission combinations, using gasoline, had 55 to 60 percent gains over the reference fuel economy. Fuel economy sensitivities to engine design parameter changes were also calculated for these two combinations.

Klann, J. L.

1980-01-01

239

Economy of flight at supersonic speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prandtl's theory is used to determine the airflow over bodies and wings adapted to supersonic flight. By making use of these results, and by incorporating in them an allowance for the probable skin friction, some estimates of expected lift-drag ratios are made for various flight speeds with the best configuration. At each speed a slender body and wings having the best angle of sweepback are considered. For the range of supersonic speeds shown an airplane of normal density and loading would be required to operate at an altitude of the order of 60,000 feet. The limiting value of 1-1/2 times the speed of sound corresponds to a flight speed of 1000 miles per hour. At this speed about 1.5 miles per gallon of fuel are expected. It is interesting to note that this value corresponds to a value of more than 15 miles per gallon when the weight is reduced to correspond to that of an ordinary automobile.

Jones, R. T.

1976-01-01

240

A thermal model of the economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motivation for this work came from an interest in Economics (particularly since the 2008 economic downturn) and a desire to use the tools of physics in a field that has not been the subject of great exploration. We propose a model of economics in analogy to thermodynamics and introduce the concept of the Value Multiplier as a fundamental addition to any such model. Firstly, we attempt to make analogies between some economic concepts and fundamental concepts of thermal physics. Then we introduce the value multiplier and justify its existence in our system; the value multiplier allows us to account for some intangible, psychological elements of the value of goods and services. We finally bring all the elements together in a qualitative system. In particular, we attempt to make an analogy with the Keynesian Multiplier that justifies the usefulness of fiscal stimulus in severe economic downturns. ii

Arroyo Colon, Luis Balbino

241

Taxonomy of digital economy business models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Availability of high speed Internet connections, micropayment and credit card infrastructure has introduced new business models for vendors and enabled average consumers to use the Internet for shopping. Today it is possible to buy anything on the web with just a few clicks of a mouse, from groceries and gadgets to music and software. Penetration of smartphones and similar devices

Marko Jurisic; Dragutin Kermek

2011-01-01

242

Econometric Model of the World Rubber Economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rubber began to emerge as an important raw material during the 19th century. Production of natural rubber is concentrated in a few developing countries. Three of them, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand, account for over 80 percent of world production; anot...

E. Grilli R. Helterline P. Pollak

1979-01-01

243

The political economy of European federalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the clear objective assigned to the integration process in the 1950s, the institutional status of the European Union remains ambiguous and uneasy to define. The argument that we present in this article is that Europe has always hesitated between two forms of federalism. We use an agency framework and demonstrate that before the landmark cases Van Gend

Jean Michel Josselin; Alain Marciano

2006-01-01

244

Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The site informs visitors about Japan's current economic policies. Reports available include the plans to reform the economic structure, trade issues, and the 1997 White Paper on International Trade which looks at trends in world trade and long-term issues concerning Japanese trade and industry. A collection of chronologically sorted press releases, transcripts of press conferences, statistics on industrial production, and a summary of industrial economic trends can be found at this site. A collection of trade-related reports and Japanese submissions to the World Trade Organization (WTO) are also available.

1997-01-01

245

Economy of a retrofit solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The The use of 8 flate plate collectors each 10 sq ft for the solar water system retrofitted on a 20 year old house is presented. A 50\\/50 glycol\\/water fluid was circulated through the collector circuit. A 120 gal galvanized water tank was used for storage. An economic analysis of the hot-water system is presented.

J. M. Schreyer

1979-01-01

246

Taking the Pulse of the Economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At a first glance, there seems to be very little linking human heart rate and the stock index level, unless of course one is a trader or has invested a considerable amount of money. There may, however, be a much closer and physically/fundamentally more me...

Z. R. Struzik

2003-01-01

247

The political economy of International Accounting Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 1 January 2005, all stock exchange listed companies in the European Union (EU) began using International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) written by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). This article argues that the IASB's introduction of fair value accounting reflects and reinforces changed relations of production in which the financial sector increasingly dominates the productive sector, nationally institutionalized economic

James Perry; Andreas Nölke

2006-01-01

248

Economy of the Arab Maghrib Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On 17 February 1989, the Arab Maghrib Union (A.M.U.) was founded in Marrakech, Morocco. This organization brought together the five countries of North Africa: Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia. Although the Maghribi countries had long sought...

C. Khedimi

1991-01-01

249

Basic Data on the Economy of Surinam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents basic, authoritative information for exporters, importers, investors, manufacturers, researchers, and those concerned with international trade and economic conditions in Surinam. The contents of the report include general information o...

D. R. Regan

1971-01-01

250

Global environmental impacts of the hydrogen economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen-based energy systems appear to be an attractive proposition in providing a future replacement for the current fossil-fuel based energy systems. Hydrogen is an important, though little studied, trace component of the atmosphere. It is present at the mixing ratio of about 510 ppb currently and has important man-made and natural sources. Because hydrogen reacts with tropospheric hydroxyl radicals, emissions

Richard Derwent; Peter Simmonds; Simon O'Doherty; Alistair Manning; William Collins; David Stevenson

2006-01-01

251

Documenting the birth of a financial economy  

PubMed Central

The birth and explosive growth of mobile money in Kenya has provided economists with an opportunity to study the evolution and impact of a new financial system. Mobile money is an innovation that allows individuals to store, send, and receive money on their mobile phone via text message. This system has opened up basic financial services to many who were previously excluded, and has had real and measurable impacts on the ability of households to protect themselves against health risks. Using a unique survey instrument covering nearly 2,300 households over 2008–2010, we first document the lightning-fast adoption of mobile money in Kenya, which was faster than most documented modern technologies in the United States. We then present evidence on how this innovation allows households to respond better to unexpected adverse health events. We find that in the face of these events, users of mobile money are better able to tap into remittances to finance additional health care costs without having to forego necessary expenditures on education, food, and other consumption needs.

Suri, Tavneet; Jack, William; Stoker, Thomas M.

2012-01-01

252

The Political Economy of Educational Innovation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout North America and the world, educators are awash in urgings and suggestions about how to change what they do and how they do it. "Challenges" and "crises" are identified and elaborated. Teachers are made to feel embarrassed if they are unaware of "cutting-edge technologies" and uniformed about profound demographic and attitudinal shifts…

Doughty, Howard A.; Meaghan, Diane E.; Barrett, Ralph V.

2009-01-01

253

Sources of Slow Growth in African Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers some econometric evidence on the sources of slow growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. The evidence suggests that the continent's slow growth can be explained in an international cross-country framework, without the need to invoke a special explanation unique to Sub-Saharan Africa. We find that poor economic policies have played an especially important role in the slow growth, most

Jeffrey D. Sachs; Andrew M. Warner

1997-01-01

254

Measuring the Green Economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This administration is committed to fostering the development of a clean and energy-efficient economy; that is, a 'green' economy. This means encouraging the development of green businesses and green products amd services, which in turn will create 'green...

2010-01-01

255

Understanding the New Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that while the Nasdaq bubble did burst, the new economy is real and that failure to understand the rules of the digital economy can lead to substandard investment portfolio performance. Offers guidelines for higher education institutional investors. (EV)

Morrell, Louis R.

2001-01-01

256

GLOBALIZATION AND NEW ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 90's two trends dominates the evolution of the world economy: globalization and the rising of the new economy based in information and communication technologies. Both phenomena are closely related. I examine the connection of their advent with the enduring expansion of American economy in the 90's and the subsequent recession which starts in 2001. The recession of the

2003-01-01

257

Carbohydrate Economy Clearinghouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A creation of the Institute for Local Self-Reliance (ILSR), the Carbohydrate Economy Clearinghouse (CEC) provides up-to-date information on "all facets of the plant matter-based industrial economy" from paints and inks to fuels and construction materials made from plants. In addition to the latest "new materials economy" news, the CEC site hosts a directory of carbohydrate economy companies as well as ILSR reports on plant matter-based products and technologies (in English, French, and Spanish).

258

Weight of Nations: Material Outflows from Industrial Economies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

World Resources Institute (WRI) has recently released this publication on resource and materials use, entitled "Weight of Nations: Material Outflows from Industrial Economies." The report examines material flows in Austria, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, and the US, and develops "model accounts of the complete 'material cycle' or the flow of raw materials through the processes of extraction, production, use, and disposal." In addition, the report documents the annual quantity of materials that are recycled and those that rapidly become pollution or potentially harmful waste. The Website offers author descriptions and sections of the report, in addition to the full (.pdf) report.

Amann, Christof.; Bringezu, Stefan.; Fischer-Kowalski, Marina, 1946-.; Huttler, Walter.; Kleijn, Stef.; Matthews, Emily.

2000-01-01

259

The small-world of economy: a speculative proposal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the small-world approach we suggest a network model for the economy. Our basic assumption is that the economic agents prefer to make business with the big business. This assumption makes the preferential attachment the main mechanism for the evolution of the economic network. We hypothesize that the connectivity of the economic network should reflect the wealth distribution of the society which is considered to be an exponential truncated power law. The objective of this paper is to model qualitatively the wealth distribution of a society using concepts based on evolving network. Several alternatives of evolving networks are discussed in an economic context.

Corso, G.; Lucena, L. S.; Thomé, Z. D.

2003-06-01

260

Towards a political economy of urbanizaton in Third World countries  

SciTech Connect

Urbanization has emerged as one of the major issues confronting contemporary developing countries. The essays in this volume bring a new perspective to bear on the urbanization problem in the Third World, particularly on the survival mechanisms of the poor. The authors, who include anthropologists, geographers, economists and sociologists, examine the impact of colonialism on the economies of the Third World countries, their dependence on advanced industrial societies for capital and technology, their urban class structures, and the role of their governments in shaping the urban process.

Safa H.I. (ed.)

1981-01-01

261

Performance effects of information asymmetry and economies of scope in diversified service firms.  

PubMed

This study examined the performance effects of information asymmetry and economies of scope in diversified service firms. Tests using both accounting- and stock-market-based measures of performance revealed that information asymmetry improved performance more than economies of scope. As hypothesized, the benefits of information asymmetry were greater for firms offering services whose quality cannot be determined until after their purchase (experience services), and the benefits of economies of scope were greater for firms offering services whose quality can be determined prior to purchase (search services). However, without considering the interactive effects of service characteristics, economies of scope were negatively associated with performance for diversified service firms overall. PMID:10123744

Nayyar, P R

1993-02-01

262

Subsistence economy of el paraiso, an early peruvian site.  

PubMed

Studies of food remains from the Preceramic monumental site of E1 Paraíso, Peru (1800 to 1500 B.C.), have shed new light on a debate regarding the relative importance of seafood versus terrestrial resources and the role of cultigens in subsistence economies during the early development of Peruvian civilization. Fish was the primary animal food at the site whereas plant foods consisted of a mixture of cultivated resources (squashes, beans, peppers, and jicama) with an additional reliance on fruits (guava, lucuma, and pacae). Wild plants, especially the roots of sedges and cat-tail, also may have accounted for a substantial part of the diet. Cotton was a chief crop, used in making fishing tackle and the textiles that served as clothing and items of high value and status. As an example of the beginnings of civilization, El Paraíso is a case in which impressive architecture was built on a relatively simple subsistence economy and energy was expended in the production of resources useful in local and regional exchange systems. PMID:17733284

Quilter, J; E, B O; Pearsall, D M; Sandweiss, D H; Jones, J G; Wing, E S

1991-01-18

263

Spark-timing control based on correlation of maximum-economy spark timing, flame-front travel, and cylinder-pressure rise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted on a full-scale air-cooled cylinder in order to establish an effective means of maintaining maximum-economy spark timing with varying engine operating conditions. Variable fuel-air-ratio runs were conducted in which relations were determined between the spark travel, and cylinder-pressure rise. An instrument for controlling spark timing was developed that automatically maintained maximum-economy spark timing with varying engine operating conditions. The instrument also indicated the occurrence of preignition.

Cook, Harvey A; Heinicke, Orville H; Haynie, William H

1947-01-01

264

The Impact of Climate Change on the United States Economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the impacts of climate change on economic behaviour is an important aspect of deciding when to take policy actions to prevent or mitigate its consequences. This book applies advanced new economics methodologies to assess impacts on potentially vulnerable aspects of the US economy: agriculture, timber, coastal resources, energy expenditure, fishing, outdoor recreation. It is intended to provide improved understanding of key issues raised in the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports. It concludes that some climate change may produce economic gains in the agriculture and forestry sectors, whereas energy, coastal structures, and water sectors may be harmed. The book will serve as an important reference for the scientific, economic, and policy community, and will also be of interest to natural resource/environmental economists as an example of economic valuation techniques. The volume will clearly be of main importance to researchers and policymakers in the US, but will also be influential as a model for assessment of impacts on economies worldwide.

Mendelsohn, Robert; Neumann, James E.

2004-08-01

265

E-conomy Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A joint effort of the Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy (BRIE), the College of Engineering, the Haas School of Business, and the School of Information Management and Systems (SIMS), E-conomy Project creates "an intellectual resource to focus on the profound transformation being wrought by new digital technologies." Along with describing the focuses of the project, this Website also includes course descriptions and syllabi, news articles on the E-conomy Project, and papers and presentations from the E-conomy Project-sponsored conference, The Digital Economy in International Perspective: Common Construction or Regional Rivalry.

266

Effect of cold acclimatization on exercise economy in the cold.  

PubMed

We sought to determine if cold acclimatized men display higher economy (i.e. lower oxygen consumption at a given workload) during graded cycle ergometry in the cold (5°C). After completing a familiarization trial 1 week prior, five cold weather athletes (CWA) and eight physically active men (NON) underwent graded exercise tests to volitional fatigue in 5°C. The protocol always started at 60 W and increased by 20 W each minute. Oxygen consumption (VO(2)), respiration rate (RR), tidal volume (TV), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were determined via open circuit spirometry. Individuals were matched for body size and minutes of weekly physical activity. Repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted across time (workload) and cold acclimatization was entered as a between subjects factor. VO(2) peak was not different between groups but CWA had lower VO(2) at 60 and 240 W. CWA also had lower RR at 180 and 260 W as well as lower RER at 240 and 260 W. At submaximal workloads, cold acclimatized men have higher exercise economy than non-acclimatized men. This could have implications for those who work in this context. PMID:21671101

Muller, Matthew D; Kim, Chul-Ho; Bellar, David M; Ryan, Edward J; Seo, Yongsuk; Muller, Sarah M; Glickman, Ellen L

2012-02-01

267

The Impact of Energy Prices on Growth and Welfare in a Developing Open Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the impact of an increase in the price of energy (oil) on the growth and welfare of a small developing\\u000a economy. We consider the extent to which the impacts of energy price shocks depend upon the economy’s internal production\\u000a structure and its access to the world financial market. We find that the effect on the long-run growth

Stefan F. Schubert; Stephen J. Turnovsky

2011-01-01

268

Evaluation of Enterprise Technology Innovation Project Based on Low-carbon Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-carbon economy has become the main mode of development that the whole world countries have been promoting. The evaluation of enterprises' technology innovation project should be considered low-carbon economy requirements. This paper firstly analyses the relationship between low-carbon economy and technology innovation and technology innovation project. It follows that technology innovation is the way of promoting enterprise development mode transformation

Qin Xuanzi

2010-01-01

269

The Political Economy of War and Peace in Afghanistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 20-year old Afghan conflict has created an open war economy, affecting Afghanistan and surrounding areas. Not only has Afghanistan become the world’s largest opium producer and a center for arms dealing, but it supports a multibillion dollar trade in goods smuggled from Dubai to Pakistan. This criminalized economy funds both the Taliban and their adversaries. It has transformed social

Barnett R. Rubin

2000-01-01

270

Thought on sustainable development strategies of airlines under the low-carbon economy background  

Microsoft Academic Search

With greenhouse gas emission, its effect has become more and more serious. Low-carbon economy model should become human being's option for sustainable development. This paper analyses the necessity of airline's sustainable development strategy under low-carbon economy background, and the basic characteristics of low-carbon economy and its influences on airline in China. It indicates that, in order to sustainable development, Chinese

Long Jilin

2011-01-01

271

Immigration and informalization of the economy: Enrichment or atomization of community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The informal economy consists of those enterprises or individual workers which escape government regulation of wages, hours, labor safety and health, taxation, zoning or immigration. Estimates of the size of the informal economy loosely cluster around 6% to 12% of the GNP. Indicators of informalization are the proliferation of micro-enterprises, and heavy increases in self-employment and unpaid family workers. These

David E. Simcox

1997-01-01

272

Efforts for the Development and Stabilization of the Economy during the Period of the Marshall Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the destruction of World War II, Marshall Plan aid contributed to the reconstruction and development of the Greek economy. Greece was a special case in the implementation of the Marshall Plan in Europe because of the shortcomings of its backward economy. The problems of corruption and inefficiency in the state administration and coalition governments influenced political and social issues,

Apostolos Vetsopoulos

2009-01-01

273

News, Noise, and Estimates of the 'True' Unobserved State of the Economy (September 15, 2009).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For analysts of economic fluctuations, estimating the true state of the economy from imperfectly measured official statistics is an ever-present problem. Since no one statistic is a perfect gauge of the state of the economy, taking some type of weighted a...

D. J. Fixler J. J. Nalewaik

2009-01-01

274

News, Noise, and Estimates of the 'True' Unobserved State of the Economy, June 5, 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Which provides a better estimate of the true state of the U.S. economy, gross domestic product (GDP) or gross domestic income (GDI). Past work has assumed the difference between each estimate and the true state of the economy is pure noise, taking greater...

D. J. Fixler J. J. Nalewaik

2007-01-01

275

Accumulation of reserves and keeping up with the Joneses: The case of LATAM economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore the ‘Mrs. Machlup's Wardrobe’ hypothesis to understand the growing trend of Latin American economies amassing large stocks of international reserves. Using annual data from 1980 to 2007, we examine the relevance of the argument that economies continue to add to their existing reserves stock in order to keep up with the Joneses. We find strong

Yin-Wong Cheung; Rajeswari Sengupta

2011-01-01

276

Accumulation of Reserves and Keeping Up with the Joneses: The Case of LATAM Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore the 'Mrs.Machlup's Wardrobe' hypothesis to understand the growing trend of Latin American economies amassing large stocks of international reserves. Using annual data from 1980 to 2007, we examine the relevance of the argument that economies continue to add to their existing reserves stock in order to keep up with the Joneses. We find strong evidence

Yin-Wong Cheung; Rajeswari Sengupta

2010-01-01

277

Accumulation of reserves and keeping up with the Joneses: the case of LATAM economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore the ‘Mrs. Machlup's Wardrobe’ hypothesis to understand the growing trend of Latin American economies amassing large stocks of international reserves. Using annual data from 1980 to 2007, we examine the relevance of the argument that economies continue to add to their existing reserves stock in order to keep up with the Joneses. We ?nd strong

Yin-Wong Cheung; Rajeswari Sengupta

2010-01-01

278

Stability of money: phase transitions in an Ising economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of money value is an important requisite for a functioning economy, yet it critically depends on the actions of participants in the market themselves. Here we model the value of money as a dynamical variable that results from trading between agents. The basic trading scenario can be recast into an Ising-type spin model and is studied on the hierarchical network structure of a Cayley tree. We solve this model analytically and observe a phase transition between a one-state phase, always allowing for a stable money value, and a two-state phase, where an unstable (inflationary) phase occurs. The onset of inflation is discontinuous and follows a first-order phase transition. The stable phase provides a parameter region where money value is robust and can be stabilized without fine tuning.

Bornholdt, Stefan; Wagner, Friedrich

2002-12-01

279

Evaluation of risks of metal flows and accumulation in economy and environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contrast between, on the one hand, decreasing emissions of the metals cadmium, copper, lead and zinc and, on the other, their continuously increasing input into the economy is analysed for three case studies: The Netherlands as a whole, the Dutch housing sector and the Dutch agricultural sector. Flows of these metals through and their accumulation within the economy and

J. B. Guinee; J. Boelens; P. J. Fraanje; G. Huppes; P. P. A. A. H. Kandelaars; Th. M. Lexmond; S. W. Moolenaar; A. A. Olsthoorn; H. A. Udo de Haes; E. Verkuijlen; E van der Voet

1999-01-01

280

Effect of Water-Alcohol Injection and Maximum Economy Spark Advance on Knock-Limited Performance and Fuel Economy of a Large Air-Cooled Cylinder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a coolant solution of 25 percent ethyl alcohol, 25 percent methyl alcohol, and 50 percent water by volume and maximum-economy spark advance on knock-limited performance and fuel economy of a large air-cooled cylinder. The knock-limited performance of the cylinder at engine speeds of 2100 and 2500 rpm was determined for coolant-fuel ratios of 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4. The effect of water-alcohol injection on fuel economy was determined in constant charge-air flow tests. The tests were conducted at a spark advance of 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark advance.

Heinicke, Orville H.; Vandeman, Jack E.

1945-01-01

281

Light-duty vehicle fuel economy improvements, 1979--1998: A consumer purchase model of corporate average fuel economy, fuel price, and income effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, which created fuel economy standards for automobiles and light trucks, was passed by Congress in response to the rapid rise in world oil prices as a result of the 1973 oil crisis. The standards were first implemented in 1978 for automobiles and 1979 for light trucks, and began with initial standards of 18 MPG for automobiles and 17.2 MPG for light trucks. The current fuel economy standards for 1998 have been held constant at 27.5 MPG for automobiles and 20.5 MPG for light trucks since 1990--1991. While actual new automobile fuel economy has almost doubled from 14 MPG in 1974 to 27.2 MPG in 1994, it is reasonable to ask if the CAFE standards are still needed. Each year Congress attempts to pass another increase in the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standard and fails. Many have called for the abolition of CAFE standards citing the ineffectiveness of the standards in the past. In order to determine whether CAFE standards should be increased, held constant, or repealed, an evaluation of the effectiveness of the CAFE standards to date must be established. Because fuel prices were rising concurrently with the CAFE standards, many authors have attributed the rapid rise in new car fuel economy solely to fuel prices. The purpose of this dissertation is to re-examine the determinants of new car fuel economy via three effects: CAFE regulations, fuel price, and income effects. By measuring the marginal effects of the three fuel economy determinants upon consumers and manufacturers choices, for fuel economy, an estimate was made of the influence of each upon new fuel economy. The conclusions of this dissertation present some clear signals to policymakers: CAFE standards have been very effective in increasing fuel economy from 1979 to 1998. Furthermore, they have been the main cause of fuel economy improvement, with income being a much smaller component. Furthermore, this dissertation has suggested that fuel prices have very limited effects upon fuel economy, ranging from no primary effect on certain size classes to a minimal secondary effect through higher performance or horsepower demanded.

Chien, David Michael

2000-10-01

282

Pluralist methodology for development economics: the example of moral economy of Indian labour markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper adds a moral angle to the pluralist approach to development economics, exploring the normative assumptions found in all the five main schools of thought that have analysed India's rural labour markets (neoclassical, new institutionalist, Marxist political economy, formalized political economy and feminist). The theorizations that are used by each have normative overtones, which are distinguished here from normative

Wendy Olsen

2007-01-01

283

Integrating Uneven Partners: the Destabilizing Effects of Financial Liberalization and Internationalization of Latin American Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last two decades financial integration between Latin American economies and mature economies has been significant and traumatic, as it has been highly associated with macroeconomic instability, poor growth performance and often with domestic financial crises. Some analysts have blamed the volatility of capital flows for such perverse association, while others (mainly mainstream economists) center their criticisms on the

Rogério Studart

2001-01-01

284

Utilization of waste heat in trucks for increased fuel economy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improvements in fuel economy for a broad spectrum of truck engines and waste heat utilization concepts are evaluated and compared. The engines considered are the diesel, spark ignition, gas turbine, and Stirling. The waste heat utilization concepts include preheating, regeneration, turbocharging, turbocompounding, and Rankine engine compounding. Predictions were based on fuel-air cycle analyses, computer simulation, and engine test data. The results reveal that diesel driving cycle performance can be increased by 20% through increased turbocharging, turbocompounding, and Rankine engine compounding. The Rankine engine compounding provides about three times as much improvement as turbocompounding but also costs about three times as much. Performance for either is approximately doubled if applied to an adiabatic diesel.

Leising, C. J.; Purohit, G. P.; Degrey, S. P.; Finegold, J. G.

1978-01-01

285

Low Carbon Economy and the Priority of Environmental Tort liability in Bankrupt Enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the important subject of developing low carbon economy, enterprises should implement the development idea of low carbon economy in the normal operations or at the stage of bankruptcy liquidation. The arrangement of repaying order of environmental claims in China's Enterprise Bankruptcy Law is not conductive to protect environmental creditor's interests and also doesn’t meet the target of low carbon

Qu Dongmei

2011-01-01

286

International Integration, Varieties of Capitalism and Resilience to Crisis in Transition Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers a comprehensive analysis of the different effects of the economic crisis from 2008, across all transition economies with a testable framework, that relates vulnerability to specific forms of development since 1989. The key to the framework is the identification of forms of integration into the international economy, with distinctions between different export structures and dependence on other

Martin Myant; Jan Drahokoupil

2012-01-01

287

Vicious and virtuous circles — The political economy of unemployment in interwar UK and USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a political economy model of multiple unemployment equilibria to provide a theory of an endogenous natural rate of unemployment for the UK and the US interwar period. The theory here sees the natural rate and the associated path of unemployment as a reaction to mainly demand shocks and the institutional structure of the economy. The channel through

Kent Matthews; Patrick Minford; Ruthira Naraidoo

2008-01-01

288

Price-War Dynamics in a FreeMarket Economy of Software Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

One scenario of the future of computation populates the Internet with vast numbers of software agents providing, trading, and using a rich variety of information goods and services in an open, free-market economy. An essential task in such an economy is the retailing or brokering of information: gathering it from the right producers and distributing it to the right consumers.

Jeffrey O. Kephart; James E. Hanson; Jakka Sairamesh

1998-01-01

289

Introduction Introduction to paradoxes of creativity: managerial and organizational challenges in the cultural economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This special issue explores the paradoxes caused by the challenge of managing and organizing creativity in the cultural economy. Conventional views of the individual creative artist are replaced by a view of creativity as a social process embedded within organizational and institutional contexts. The cultural economy is broadly defined in terms of breadth of industries included and depth elements

GERNOT GRABHER; CANDACE JONES

290

Common Frameworks for Regional Competitiveness - Insights from a Number of Local Knowledge Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Aims of the paper: in this paper we analysed a number of European regions that in the last ten to fifteen years experienced a process of industrial reconversion moving from traditional sectors-based economies to knowledge economies. With the aim of shaping the transformation paths driving their competitiveness recovery, the analysis was conducted on two levels. First, we tried to

Maria Sole Brioschi Brioschi; Lucio Cassia; Alessandra Colombelli

2005-01-01

291

The European House of Education: Education and Economy--A New Partnership. Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five areas essential to developing partnerships between the education systems and economies of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe were analyzed: (1) state and social partner roles in supporting links between education/training and the economy; (2) contribution of the world of work to education and training; (3) education/training to…

European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

292

It Is Time to Reexamine the Role of Stock Markets in Developing Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the many perceived benefits of a stock market may have led to their rapid formation and development aspirations across economies, emerging findings that stock markets may not be as useful as previously thought, even a detraction in the case of some developing economies, raises the question of how practical stock markets may be in different situations. In light of

Parmendra Sharma; Eduardo Roca

2012-01-01

293

Chapter 4 The Agronomy and Economy of Some Important Industrial Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of perennial tropical crops represent the industrial crops of great economic value to the developing world. Among these, arecanut, cardamom, cashew, cinchona, cocoa, coconut, coffee, oil palm, palmyra, rubber, tea, and wattle are the most important ones with much commercial value to the economy of the third world. This chapter describes the agronomy and economy of the most

K. P. Prabhakaran Nair

2009-01-01

294

Study on the development of urban low-carbon economy based on unascertained measure model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on unascertained theory, the paper introduced the modeling process of unascertained measure evaluation. According to the development of urban low-carbon economy, the paper constructs the model of development of urban low-carbon economy applying the unascertained measure model. The model verified its scientific, feasibility and practicality by applying the actual case.

Ma Ji-bin; Pang Na

2010-01-01

295

Countermeasures on Low-carbon Economy Development in the West District of Panzhihua City  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, economy development in the West District of Panzhihua City has the triple pressure in shortage of resources, environment constraints and the coordinated development of economy and society. The imperative task that the West District faces is how to make good use of resources, transform the mode in economic increase, optimize the industrial structure and achieve the sustained development

Shen Xilin; Zhang Zhixiang

2011-01-01

296

Research of university science and technology innovation system based on low-carbon economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-carbon economy is an economic development model based on low energy consumption and low pollution and low emission, the development of low-carbon economy has caused extensive concern of the international community. Higher school undertakes the talent training, technology innovation and social service function of importance. Facing the requirement of the low carbon economic development, universities must strengthen technical innovation system

Qiu Kai

2011-01-01

297

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE ARTS ON THE OKLAHOMA CITY AREA ECONOMY FOR 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the type and magnitude of economic impacts on the Oklahoma City economy by 34 arts agencies, organizations, festivals, shows, programs, and other events. The direct and secondary impacts on the Oklahoma City economy in terms of spending and employment were significant. Further analysis indicated that the industry was in need of state,

James V. Pinto

1980-01-01

298

INFRASTRUCTURAL v. SUPERSTRUCTURAL EFFECTS OF INSTITUTIONS ON INCOME DETERMINATION ACROSS U.S. NATIVE AMERICAN ECONOMIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Institutions either promote or constrain economic performance, but which part of institutions does so, and why do economies sharing similar institutions sometimes perform differently? This paper applies a novel model that is capable of separating infrastructural and superstructural effects of institutions on aggregate and average income using a cross- section of 84 U.S. Native American economies (USNAEs). It finds that

Voxi Heinrich S Amavilah

2005-01-01

299

Distributional Effects of Adjustment Policies: Simulations for Archetype Economies in Africa and Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

For developing countries the 1980s was a decade of external shocks whose adverse effects were compounded by domestic macroeconomic imbalances and structural inefficiencies. The performance of developing countries during this decade, however, was not uniform. The effects of terms of trade and interest rate shocks are simulated for two model economies, one representing an average Latin American economy and the

Françcois Bourguignon; Jaime de Melo; Akiko Suwa

1991-01-01

300

Update on the Fuel Economy Benefits of Inspection and Maintenance Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to present an updated assessment of the fuel economy benefits of Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) programs, in terms of individual vehicle and fleetwide savings, using the latest EPA test data. The fuel economy benefits which...

R. B. Michael

1981-01-01

301

The American political economy and monopoly capital: A reinterpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, the American political economy is presented as a negation of the two-stage theory of capitalist development advanced by theorists like Hilferding, Steindl and Baran and Sweezy. Various cases from the American economy are presented to contradict the argument that with the emergence of large-scale industry competition among capitals is eliminated or highly restricted. The experience of the

L.-A Perez-Feliciano

2004-01-01

302

Input-Output Analysis as a Tool in Assessing the Impacts of Climatic Variations on Regional Economies: with Prototype Applications to the Oklahoma Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Input-output analysis techniques are developed to relate climate impacts affecting specific economic sectors to overall economic impacts in a regional economy. The types of applied problems covered include: (1) Estimates of impacts from \\

William S. Cooter

1984-01-01

303

Comprehensive Evaluation of Urban Low-Carbon Economy Based on Fuzzy Rough Set  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to cope with climate change and global warming, cities and many international organizations actively promote the construction of low-carbon city, which needs evaluation mechanism to support related policies. Based on the theory of fuzzy rough set, this paper constructs the evaluation model and index system of urban low-carbon economy comprehensive evaluation from five aspects include economy, technology, energy

Xie Chuansheng; Xu Xin; Hou Wentian

2010-01-01

304

The policy system innovation for the development of low-carbon economy in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of low-carbon economy is an inevitable choice for China to realize the sustainable development. In order to achieve this purpose, the government must strengthen the regulation and control of macroeconomic economy. The policies should be changed to move the rules and the organizational structure of economic society in China. The current policies are mainly associated with some administrative

Jun Shi; Jie Yin

2010-01-01

305

Knowledge for What? Wales, Militarisation and the Endless Promotion of the Knowledge Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "knowledge economy" has become the buzzword of development policy in the early twenty-first century. Nations and regions around the world are all told that they must transform themselves into knowledge economies to survive and prosper. This article uses the example of Wales and its recent embrace of a massive military privatisation project in…

Tannock, Stuart

2009-01-01

306

A Study of Youth Services Networks from a Political-Economy Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the political-economy perspective, an analysis of three youth services networks was conducted. The internal political economies of the nehvorks were investigated. The dimensions of domain, ideology, coordination and evaluation were examined. The findings suggested the networks were vehicles for sharing new ideas and technologies. Advocacy activities were important in improving interagency cooperation and in obtaining community support for youth

Maria Roberts-DeGennaro

1988-01-01

307

Prisoners of Globalization: Marginality, Community and the New Informal Economy in Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

The so-called informal economy dominates everyday life in contemporary Morocco. An overwhelming majority of the urban population operates outside the ‘formalized national economy’ in which it is either unable to participate or can participate only under unequal and demeaning terms. The aim of the present article is two-fold. First, it seeks to interrogate the very notion of ’informality’. As a

Jaafar Aksikas

2007-01-01

308

Paying Attention to Attention: New Economies for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Challenging formal education's traditional monopoly over the mass-scale acculturation of youth, the technological infrastructure of the new economy brings in its wake a new attentional economy in which any connected adult or child owns and controls a full economic share of her or his own attention. For youth who have never known the text-bound…

de Castell, Suzanne; Jenson, Jennifer

2004-01-01

309

Growing a market economy  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

1997-09-01

310

Modeling the effect of engine assembly mass on engine friction and vehicle fuel economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical model is developed to estimate the impact of reducing engine assembly mass (the term engine assembly refers to the moving components of the engine system, including crankshafts, valve train, pistons, and connecting rods) on engine friction and vehicle fuel economy. The relative changes in frictional mean effective pressure and fuel economy are proportional to the relative change in

Feng An; Frank Stodolsky

1995-01-01

311

Locational Characteristics of Dry Ports in Developing Economies: Some Lessons from Northern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ng A. K. Y. and Cetin I. B. Locational characteristics of dry ports in developing economies: some lessons from Northern India, Regional Studies. Contemporary economic development has triggered the importance of establishing distribution centres at appropriate locations in developing economies. However, so far, academic studies addressing this issue are rather scarce. Hence, by investigating dry ports within two industrial clusters

Adolf K. Y. Ng; Ismail B. Cetin

2012-01-01

312

Locational Characteristics of Dry Ports in Developing Economies: Some Lessons from Northern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ng A. K. Y. and Cetin I. B. Locational characteristics of dry ports in developing economies: some lessons from Northern India, Regional Studies. Contemporary economic development has triggered the importance of establishing distribution centres at appropriate locations in developing economies. However, so far, academic studies addressing this issue are rather scarce. Hence, by investigating dry ports within two industrial clusters

Adolf K. Y. Ng; Ismail B. Cetin

2011-01-01

313

Supply and Demand Side Limitations Affecting the Structure of Agriculture and the Rural Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper criticises the neo-classical assumptions of perfect factor markets and of complete information, which constitute central elements in labour market theory. Based on a literature review and on economic reports from transition economies, as well as developing countries and more advanced economies, this deliverable focuses on the structural impediments and imperfections that often characterise rural labour markets and that

Barbara Tocco; Sophia Davidova

314

Exchange Rate Regimes and the Stability of Trade Policy in Transition Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the interplay between exchange rate regimes and commercial policy in six transition economies. In all these economies, the rate of protection afforded domestic industry by the exchange rate has been eroded by high rates of inflation and insufficient growth in productivity. As a result, there has been pressure on governments to increase trade barriers. Each country examined

Zdenek Drabek; Josef C. Brada

1998-01-01

315

The Role of Craft Industry in Germany's Social Market Economy. Social Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social market economy success in the Federal Republic of Germany is due to free competition, enterprise in the business community, and employees' social security. Craft industries play a major role in Germany's market economy. The craft industry is second only to the manufacturing industry, comprising 23 percent of German firms. There are seven…

Schroder, Karsten

1992-01-01

316

Foreign Reserves Accumulation in Emerging Economies: Determinants and Sustainability Case of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign reserves have been growing rapidly since the mid 1990s in emerging economies hit by Sudden Stops (SS). For policy makers and researchers, this large buildup of reserves re?ects a new policy that emerging economies have taken to insure against the risk of future SS. In this paper we have argue that the observed increase in foreign exchange holdings in

Huw Lloyd-Ellis; Salem Nechiy

2008-01-01

317

Innovation Measurement Tracking the State of the Innovation in the American Economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Advisory Committee on Measuring Innovation in the 21st Century Economy was established by the Secretary of Commerce in September 2006 to recommend ways to improve the measurement of innovation in the economy. In its report, the Advisory Committee outl...

2008-01-01

318

ISOKINETIC ECCENTRIC EXERCISE OF QUADRICEPS FEMORIS DOES NOT AFFECT RUNNING ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vassilis, P, Vassilios, B, Vassilis, M, Athanasios, JZ, Vassilis, T, Christina, K, and Yiannis, K. Isokinetic eccentric exercise of quadriceps femoris does not affect running economy. JS trength Cond Res 22: 1222-1227, 2008—The purpose of this study was to investigate whether running economy is affected by isokinetic eccentric exercise designed to cause muscle damage. Twenty- four young healthy men performed

PASCHALIS VASSILIS; BALTZOPOULOS VASSILIOS; MOUGIOS VASSILIS; JAMURTAS Z. ATHANASIOS; THEOHARIS VASSILIS; KARATZAFERI CHRISTINA; KOUTEDAKIS YIANNIS

319

On Steady Distributions of Kinetic Models of Conservative Economies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the large-time behavior of various kinetic models for the redistribution of wealth in simple market economies introduced in the pertinent literature in recent years. As specific examples, we study models with fixed saving propensity introduced by Chakraborti and Chakrabarti (Eur. Phys. J. B 17:167-170, 2000), as well as models involving both exchange between agents and speculative trading as considered by Cordier et al. (J. Stat. Phys. 120:253-277, 2005) We derive a sufficient criterion under which a unique non-trivial stationary state exists, and provide criteria under which these steady states do or do not possess a Pareto tail. In particular, we prove the absence of Pareto tails in pointwise conservative models, like the one in (Eur. Phys. J. B 17:167-170, 2000), while models with speculative trades introduced in (J. Stat. Phys. 120:253-277, 2005) develop fat tails if the market is "risky enough". The results are derived by a Fourier-based technique first developed for the Maxwell-Boltzmann equation (Gabetta et al. in J. Stat. Phys. 81:901-934, 1995; Bisi et al. in J. Stat. Phys. 118(1-2):301-331, 2005; Pareschi and Toscani in J. Stat. Phys. 124(2-4):747-779, 2006) and from a recursive relation which allows to calculate arbitrary moments of the stationary state.

Matthes, Daniel; Toscani, Giuseppe

2008-03-01

320

Economies in Transition: An Assessment of Trends Relevant to Management of the Tongass National Forest. Conservation and Resource Assessments for the Tongass Land Management Plan Management Plan Revision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This assessment focuses on the regional and community economies of southeast Alaska. A mixed economy composed of subsistence harvest and cash income characterizes the economies of most of the region's rural communities. Although the share of natural resou...

S. D. Allen G. Robertson J. Schaefers

1998-01-01

321

Effects of concurrent endurance and strength training on running economy and &OV0312;O2 kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

MILLET, G. P., B. JAOUEN, F. BORRANI, and R. CANDAU. Effects of concurrent endurance and strength training on running economy and VO2 kinetics. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 34, No. 8, pp. 1351-1359, 2002. Purpose: It has been suggested that endurance training influences the running economy (CR) and the oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics in heavy exercise by accelerating the primary

GREGOIRE P. MILLET; BERNARD JAOUEN; FABIO BORRANI; ROBIN CANDAU

2002-01-01

322

Why Capital Income Taxes Survive in Open Economies: The Role of Multinational Firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the role of multinational firms and double taxation treaties for corporate income taxation in open economies. We show that it is optimal for a small open economy to levy positive corporate income taxes if multinational firms are taxed according to the full taxation after deduction system or the foreign tax credit system. Positive corporate taxes also occur

Clemens Fuest; Bernd Huber

2002-01-01

323

Study of a Russian University's Organisational Culture in Transition from Planned to Market Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transition from a planned centralist economy to a market economy over the last decade of the 20th century has presented Russian universities with many profound challenges. These challenges require universities to review and consider their organisational culture and deserve careful study. This paper describes the changes that have taken place…

Pushnykh, Victor; Chemeris, Valeriy

2006-01-01

324

Social inclusion in the information economy: the context of university-industry collaborations for regional innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land grant universities in the 21st century must broaden their scope by facilitating economic growth through innovation in the new information economy. Doing so also broadens the social inclusion goal beyond labor force diversity to include legacy industrial era firms that are vulnerable to exclusion in the new economy that is based on knowledge and innovation. An exploration of barriers

Eileen M. Trauth; Lee B. Erickson

2011-01-01

325

A research on service economy to promote the upgrading of public technical innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service economy acts an important role in new industry and introducing service economy into public service domain helps enhance scientific service and accelerate self- innovation. Based on this conception, this paper illustrates feasible and concrete measures to promote the upgrading of public technical innovation through improving Shanghai new energy vehicles innovation service platform.

Jie Lin; Xiaoli Wang; Jingwen Sun

2011-01-01

326

New Economy Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New Economy Index is a series of indicators that are "gathered from existing public and private data, to illustrate fundamental structural changes in the US economy, to show what those changes mean in the lives of working Americans, and to measure the nation's progress in several key foundation areas for future economic growth." The data in this excellent resource are divided into three sections. What's New About the New Economy includes thirteen indications that show the uniqueness and structure of the new technology-based and innovation-based economy. The second section considers the ways in which the New Economy will affect the lives of American workers. Finally, the third section, Foundations for Future Growth, projects the future growth of technology in the US. The site also includes information about the data sources, endnotes, and several side articles. Although the New Economy Index was created in 1998, the information is still valid and useful.

327

A Preliminary Analysis of Adaptive Responding under Open and Closed Economies  

PubMed Central

In the current investigation, we evaluated the effects of open and closed economies on the adaptive behavior of 2 individuals with developmental disabilities. Across both types of economy, progressive-ratio (PR) schedules were used in which the number of responses required to obtain reinforcement increased as the session progressed. In closed-economy sessions, participants were able to obtain reinforcement only through interaction with the PR schedule requirements (i.e., more work resulted in more reinforcer access). In open-economy sessions, participants obtained reinforcers by responding on the PR schedule and were given supplemental (free) access to the reinforcers after completion of the session. In general, more responding was associated with the closed economy.

2005-01-01

328

Environmental Economy and Special Ecology as Subjects of a Philosophical 'Aufhebung' on an 'Economy of Nature'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thesis is an approach towards the phenomenon of ecology. The almost inexhaustible transport capacity for so-called 'alternative' topics has made 'ecology' a concept of integration of a social movement. According to the author ecology contains the mean...

D. Hassenpflug

1980-01-01

329

Investigation of vehicle and driver aggressivity and relation to fuel economy testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As vehicle technologies continue to improve it is becoming more evident one of the last major factors impacting fuel economy left today is the driver. In this study the driver is defined as the operator of a vehicle and the difference between driving styles of the driver and vehicle is defined as aggressivity. Driver aggressivity is proven to have a substantial impact on fuel economy in many studies. Many fuel economy tests have been created, all to measure the fuel efficiency of today's vehicles and their related technologies. These tests typically require that the drivers be trained or experienced in fuel economy testing unless the impact of the driver on fuel economy is the variable being tested. It is also recommended, for certain tests, that the driver stay with the same vehicle for the tests entirety. Although these are the requirements, having the same trained drivers for the entirety of a fuel economy test may not always be a viable option. This leads to the question of, what impact can a set of drivers, who are asked to drive the same, have on fuel consumption during a fuel consumption test? The SAE J1321 Type II Fuel Consumption Test Procedure was followed on two identical trucks with two drivers that were untrained in fuel economy testing in order to answer this question. It was found in this particular study that the driver variability can impose up to a 10% fuel economy difference on shorter distance routes where the driver is kept the same. By increasing the distance of the route and swapping drivers variability in fuel economy reduced to 5%. It was shown by this particular test that the impact of the driver when asked to drive the same is minimal compared to real world results of up to 30%. A larger data set and more testing is still necessary to completely understand and validate the impact of the driver on fuel economy testing.

Stichter, Jonathan Seth

330

The relationships of anxiety and self-attention to running economy in competitive male distance runners.  

PubMed

Although running economy (RE) is an important physiological characteristic associated with superior distance running performance, little is known about the potential psychological correlates of RE. Therefore, the current study examined the relationship of anxiety and self-attention to RE. Anxiety was measured with the Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT; Martens, 1977) and the Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI; Spielberger et al., 1970). Self-attention was assessed with the Private Self-Consciousness (PSC) subscale of the Self-Consciousness Scale Revised (SCSR; Scheier and Carver, 1985). Running economy was determined by the oxygen cost of running at a submaximal velocity of 4.13 m s-1 (< 80% of maximal aerobic capacity). The subjects were 18 competitive male distance runners (mean 10-km race time 34.17 min). No relationship was found between anxiety (SCAT: r = -0.18, N.S.; TAI: r = -0.17, N.S.) and RE. However, PSC and RE were related (r = 0.50, P < 0.05), suggesting that runners who habitually directed attention inwards were also the most economical. Runners high in PSC may have been more economical because they were sensitive to muscle tension interfering with performance and subsequently employed relaxation techniques to reduce tension. Additionally, they may have employed cognitive techniques aimed at increasing RE such as positive self-talk and associative strategies. Despite the tenability of these explanations, the association between PSC and RE should be interpreted cautiously due to the small sample size. PMID:8558623

Martin, J J; Craib, M; Mitchell, V

1995-10-01

331

Lower-body determinants of running economy in male and female distance runners.  

PubMed

Barnes, KR, Mcguigan, MR, and Kilding, AE. Lower-body determinants of running economy in male and female distance runners. J Strength Cond Res 28(5): 1289-1297, 2014-A variety of training approaches have been shown to improve running economy in well-trained athletes. However, there is a paucity of data exploring lower-body determinants that may affect running economy and account for differences that may exist between genders. Sixty-three male and female distance runners were assessed in the laboratory for a range of metabolic, biomechanical, and neuromuscular measures potentially related to running economy (ml·kg·min) at a range of running speeds. At all common test velocities, women were more economical than men (effect size [ES] = 0.40); however, when compared in terms of relative intensity, men had better running economy (ES = 2.41). Leg stiffness (r = -0.80) and moment arm length (r = 0.90) were large-extremely largely correlated with running economy and each other (r = -0.82). Correlations between running economy and kinetic measures (peak force, peak power, and time to peak force) for both genders were unclear. The relationship in stride rate (r = -0.27 to -0.31) was in the opposite direction to that of stride length (r = 0.32-0.49), and the relationship in contact time (r = -0.21 to -0.54) was opposite of that of flight time (r = 0.06-0.74). Although both leg stiffness and moment arm length are highly related to running economy, it seems that no single lower-body measure can completely explain differences in running economy between individuals or genders. Running economy is therefore likely determined from the sum of influences from multiple lower-body attributes. PMID:24126900

Barnes, Kyle R; McGuigan, Michael R; Kilding, Andrew E

2014-05-01

332

Does a robotic scrub nurse improve economy of movements?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective: Robotic assistance during surgery has been shown to be a useful resource to both augment the surgical skills of the surgeon through tele-operation, and to assist the surgeon handling the surgical instruments to the surgeon, similar to a surgical tech. We evaluated the performance and effect of a gesture driven surgical robotic nurse in the context of economy of movements, during an abdominal incision and closure exercise with a simulator. Methods: A longitudinal midline incision (100 mm) was performed on the simulated abdominal wall to enter the peritoneal cavity without damaging the internal organs. The wound was then closed using a blunt needle ensuring that no tissue is caught up by the suture material. All the instruments required to complete this task were delivered by a robotic surgical manipulator directly to the surgeon. The instruments were requested through voice and gesture recognition. The robotic system used a low end range sensor camera to extract the hand poses and for recognizing the gestures. The instruments were delivered to the vicinity of the patient, at chest height and at a reachable distance to the surgeon. Task performance measures for each of three abdominal incision and closure exercises were measured and compared to a human scrub nurse instrument delivery action. Picking instrument position variance, completion time and trajectory of the hand were recorded for further analysis. Results: The variance of the position of the robotic tip when delivering the surgical instrument is compared to the same position when a human delivers the instrument. The variance was found to be 88.86% smaller compared to the human delivery group. The mean task completion time to complete the surgical exercise was 162.7+/- 10.1 secs for the human assistant and 191.6+/- 3.3 secs (P<.01) when using the robotic standard display group. Conclusion: Multimodal robotic scrub nurse assistant improves the surgical procedure by reducing the number of movements (lower variance in the picking position). The variance of the picking point is closely related to the concept of economy of movements in the operating room. Improving the effectiveness of the operating room can potentially enhance the safety of surgical interventions without affecting the performance time.

Wachs, Juan P.; Jacob, Mithun; Li, Yu-Ting; Akingba, George

2012-02-01

333

Analysis of the holistic impact of the Hydrogen Economy on the coal industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As gas prices soar and energy demand continues to grow amidst increasingly stringent environmental regulations and an assortment of global pressures, implementing alternative energy sources while considering their linked economic, environmental and societal impacts becomes a more pressing matter. The Hydrogen Economy has been proposed as an answer to meeting the increasing energy demand for electric power generation and transportation in an environmentally benign way. Based on current hydrogen technology development, the most practical feedstock to fuel the Hydrogen Economy may prove to be coal via hydrogen production at FutureGen plants. The planned growth of the currently conceived Hydrogen Economy will cause dramatic impacts, some good and some bad, on the economy, the environment, and society, which are interlinked. The goal of this research is to provide tools to inform public policy makers in sorting out policy options related to coal and the Hydrogen Economy. This study examines the impact of a transition to a Hydrogen Economy on the coal industry by creating FutureGen penetration models, forecasting coal MFA's which clearly provide the impact on coal production and associated environmental impacts, and finally formulating a goal programming model that seeks the maximum benefit to society while analyzing the trade-offs between environmental, social, and economical concerns related to coal and the Hydrogen Economy.

Lusk, Shannon Perry

334

Export quality: representing Fijian bodies and the economy of war.  

PubMed

Fijian bodies have become a valuable commodity in the economy of war. Remittances from workers overseas are Fiji's largest income – exceeding that of tourism and sugar export. This essay examines historical and contemporary representations of the black male body that perpetuate the exploitation of Fijians by inscribing the Fijian male body as warrior, criminal and protector. Taking a multidisciplinary approach informed by sociology, cultural theory, Pacific studies, visual culture, feminist and post-colonial theory, my practice is the vehicle through which I address issues of neocolonial commodification of Fijian bodies. Through an analysis of my own staged photographs and vernacular images taken by Fijians working for private security military companies and British and US armies, I hope to challenge audiences to consider their own perceptions of Fijian agency and subjectivity. By theorising the politicisation of the black body and interrogating colonial representations of blackness, I argue that we can begin to create links between the historical and contemporary exploitation of Fijians and that at the essence of both is an underlying racial hierarchy and economic requirement for cheap and, arguably, expendable labour. PMID:21761619

Bolatagici, Torika

2011-01-01

335

Planned oil pipeline vital to economy of Kazakhstan  

SciTech Connect

The West Kazakhstan-Kumkol pipeline project is extremely vital to the economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan`s ultimate goal of transporting crude oil produced from the western part of the country eastward to Kumkol, from where it is further transported through existing pipelines to refineries in Chimkent in the south and Pavoldar in the northeast. The two refineries are now mainly supplied with west Siberian crudes imported through a pipeline that approaches Kazakhstan via Omsk. The planned pipeline will allow increased use of local crudes, thereby considerably improving a secure supply for the consumers while also increasing the flexibility of the nation`s overall import/export situation. The importance of this project is stressed by the Kazakh government which has officially classified it as a national priority project. The technical feasibility study of the project was prepared by ILF Consulting Engineers of Germany and Price Waterhouse Financial Consultants is conducting a study to determine the economical viability of the project. The overall cost is estimated at $1.1 billion, with the cost of Phase 1 placed at $600 million.

NONE

1996-08-01

336

[From biodiversity to biodiversification: a new economy of nature?].  

PubMed

This paper explores the relations between economy and ecology in the last quarter of the 20th century with the example of biodiversity. From its definition in the 1980s, the concept of biodiversity responded not only to conservational concerns but also to hopes and demands of economic profitability. The paper argues that archival systems of inventorying and surveying nature, the biodiversity database and the biodiversity portfolio, changed the view on nature from a resource to an investment. The paper studies the alliances of ecologists and environmental economists in managing nature according to economic principles of successful asset management, "diversification", with the aim to distribute risk, minimize ecological loss and maximize overall ecosystem performance. Finally, the paper discusses the assumptions and the consequences of transferring principles from financial risk management to landscape management. How has the substitution of the existential values of nature by shareholder value affected the relations between ecology, environment, and ecosystem conservation? Who gains and who looses in exchanging natural capital and financial capital, yields, and profits? PMID:24988757

Höhler, Sabine

2014-03-01

337

Encouraging the use of generic medicines: implications for transition economies.  

PubMed

Generic drugs have a key role to play in the efficient allocation of financial resources for pharmaceutical medicines. Policies implemented in the countries with a high rate of generic drug use, such as Canada, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States, are reviewed, with consideration of the market structures that facilitate strong competition. Savings in these countries are realized through increases in the volume of generic drugs used and the frequently significant differences in the price between generic medicines and branded originator medicines. Their policy tools include the mix of supply-side measures and demand-side measures that are relevant for generic promotion and higher generic use. On the supply-side, key policy measures include generic drug marketing regulation that facilitates market entry soon after patent expiration, reference pricing, the pricing of branded originator products, and the degree of price competition in pharmaceutical markets. On the demand-side, measures typically encompass influencing prescribing and dispensing patterns as well as introducing a co-payment structure for consumers/patients that takes into consideration the difference in cost between branded and generic medicines. Quality of generic medicines is a pre-condition for all other measures discussed to take effect. The paper concludes by offering a list of policy options for decision-makers in Central and Eastern European economies in transition. PMID:12187525

King, Derek R; Kanavos, Panos

2002-08-01

338

The international political economy of food: a global crisis.  

PubMed

The largest gap between national regulation and transnational economic organization is in the agro-food sector. This gap is the legacy of the post-World War II food regime, whose implicit rules gave priority to national farm programs (including import controls and export subsidies); placed the United States at the center; generated chronic surpluses; and allowed international power to take the unusual form of subsidized exports of surplus commodities, particularly wheat. The author analyzes the emergence and contradictions of the postwar food regime as a tension between replication and integration of national agro-food sectors, often interpreted as "export of the U.S. model." By the early 1970s, replication led to international economic conflict, while transnational corporations found national regulatory frameworks to be obstacles to further integration of a potentially global agro-food sector. A new axis between Asian import countries and new agricultural countries, such as Brazil, has destabilized the Atlantic-centered food regime, without creating a new regime. Alternative future regime are identified, based on the shift from agriculture to food, employment, and land use as political issues: private global regulation or democratic regulation of nested, regional agro-food economies, federated at the international level. PMID:7591379

Friedmann, H

1995-01-01

339

An illicit economy: scavenging and recycling of medical waste.  

PubMed

This paper discusses a significant illicit economy, including black and grey aspects, associated with medical waste scavenging and recycling in a megacity, considering hazards to the specific group involved in scavenging as well as hazards to the general population of city dwellers. Data were collected in Dhaka, Bangladesh, using a variety of techniques based on formal representative sampling for fixed populations (such as recycling operatives) and adaptive sampling for roaming populations (such as scavengers). Extremely hazardous items (including date expired medicines, used syringes, knives, blades and saline bags) were scavenged, repackaged and resold to the community. Some HCE employees were also observed to sell hazardous items directly to scavengers, and both employees and scavengers were observed to supply contaminated items to an informal plastics recycling industry. This trade was made possible by the absence of segregation, secure storage and proper disposal of medical waste. Corruption, a lack of accountability and individual responsibility were also found to be contributors. In most cases the individuals involved with these activities did not understand the risks. Although motivation was often for personal gain or in support of substance abuse, participants sometimes felt that they were providing a useful service to the community. PMID:21820235

Patwary, Masum A; O'Hare, William Thomas; Sarker, M H

2011-11-01

340

Are you sitting comfortably? The political economy of the body.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between the mass production of furniture in modern industrial societies and lower back pain (LBP). The latter has proven to be a major cost to health services and private industry throughout the industrialised world and now represents a global health issue as recent WHO reports on obesity and LBP reveal. Thus far there have been few co-ordinated attempts to deal with the causes of the problem through public policy. Drawing upon a range of sources in anthropology, health studies, politics and economics, the paper argues that this a modern social problem rooted in the contingent conjuncture of natural and social causal mechanisms. The key question it raises is: what are the appropriate mechanisms for addressing this problem? This paper develops an analysis rooted in libertarian social theory and argues that both the state and the capitalist market are flawed mechanisms for resolving this problem. There remains a fundamental dilemma for libertarians, however. Whilst the state and the market may well be flawed mechanisms, they are the dominant ones shaping global political economy. To what extent can libertarians work within these structures and remain committed to libertarian goals? PMID:19170972

Wilkin, Peter

2009-01-01

341

The Restructuring of China's Higher Education: An Experience for Market Economy and Knowledge Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1990s, China's higher education has been under a profound process of restructuring, which involves not only higher education institutions but also the government at both the central and local levels as well as the whole of society. The restructuring is arguably the continuation of the adjustments that have been made since the founding of

Zhao, Jushan; Guo, Junying

2002-01-01

342

Low carbon economy - A study on the emergency strategy of industrial system and consumption system transformation in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facing the great challenge of global warming, major developed country and regions have achieved social consensus of developing low-carbon economy. Low-carbon economy will not only be the direction of the future world economic development structure, but also one of the new pillars of the world economy. To take a commanding point in the global economic competition, China needs to understand

Yu-mei Chen; Yu-ming Lin

2011-01-01

343

The water intensity of the plugged-in automotive economy.  

PubMed

Converting light-duty vehicles from full gasoline power to electric power, by using either hybrid electric vehicles or fully electric power vehicles, is likely to increase demand for water resources. In the United States in 2005, drivers of 234 million cars, lighttrucks, and SUVs drove approximately 2.7 trillion miles and consumed over 380 million gallons of gasoline per day. We compare figures from literature and government surveys to calculate the water usage, consumption, and withdrawal, in the United States during petroleum refining and electricity generation. In displacing gasoline miles with electric miles, approximately 2-3 [corrected] times more water is consumed (0.24 [corrected] versus 0.07--0.14 gallons/mile) and over 12 [corrected] times more water is withdrawn (7.8 [corrected] versus 0.6 gallons/mile) primarily due to increased water cooling of thermoelectric power plants to accommodate increased electricity generation. Overall, we conclude that the impact on water resources from a widespread shift to grid-based transportation would be substantial enough to warrant consideration for relevant public policy decision-making. That is not to say that the negative impacts on water resources make such a shift undesirable, but rather this increase in water usage presents a significant potential impact on regional water resources and should be considered when planning for a plugged-in automotive economy. PMID:18605548

King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E

2008-06-15

344

Research on the concept system and construction pattern of low carbon tourism based on low carbon economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low carbon economy is a new economic mode of low energy consumption, low pollution and low emission. It is a great progress of human society after the agriculture civilization and industrial civilization. As a form of low carbon economy, low carbon tourism represents the trend of the world's tourist industry. Low carbon economy mainly includes three factors: macroscopical low carbon

Ming Zhang; Xiang Huang

2011-01-01

345

Environmental impacts of the emerging digital economy: the e-for-environment e-commerce?  

PubMed

The Internet-led digital economy is changing both the production and consumption patterns at the global scale. Although great potential exists to harness information technology in general and the Internet in particular and improve the environment, possible negative impacts of e-commerce on the environment should also be considered and dealt with. In this forum, we discuss both the potential positive and negative impacts of e-commerce. Drawing from insights gained from the complexity theory, we also delineate some broad contours for environmental policies in the information age. Given the paradoxical nature of technological innovations, we want to caution the scientific community and policymakers not to treat the Internet as the Holy Grail for environmental salvation. PMID:11815820

Sui, Daniel Z; Rejeski, David W

2002-02-01

346

Commerce and Arms: The Federal Government, Native Americans, and the Economy of the Old Northwest, 1783 1807  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation argues that the federal government played an essential role in the shaping of the western economy. American expansion necessitated not only that land be opened up, but also that the regional economy be reorganized. Specifically, the federal government did so in three ways. First, the military wrested control of the western economy from the tribes of the Northwest

WILLIAM H. BERGMANN

2006-01-01

347

Experiences and Enlightments of Low Carbon Economy Development of Leading Developed Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of global climate warming, developed countries have launched their strategies and policies into developing low carbon economy.Low carbon economy developments in developed countries have characteristics of setting precise environmental protection targets,establishing complete management systems, leading by a variety of means, and attaching great importance on international cooperation &research and development of advanced technologies.Thus,taking China's real conditions into consideration, hard

You Wu; Huiming Zhang

2011-01-01

348

Lessons from the UK Know How Funds Initiative: Development of Peer Education for Business in Emergent Market Economies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship that has existed historically between industry and higher education in Western economies is currently being mirrored in the transforming economies of the former Soviet Union. These emerging market economies have been encouraged by their association with a now obsolete British Council awards scheme to study historical and current…

Morrison, A.

2003-01-01

349

The impact of climate change on the BRICS economies: The case of insurance demand.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Session ERE5.1 Climate change impact on economical and industrial activities The impact of climate change on the BRICS economies: The case of insurance demand. Over the past decade, growth in the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) economies has been a key driver of global economic growth. Current forecasts suggest that these markets will continue to be areas of significant growth for a large number of industries. We consider how climate change may influence these trends in the period to 2030, a time horizon that is long in terms of strategic planning in industry, but relatively short for climate change analysis, where the impacts are predicted to be most significant beyond around 2050. Based on current evidence, we expect climate change to affect the BRICS economies in four main ways: 1. The impact of physical climatic changes on the productivity of climate-sensitive economic activity, the local environment, human health and wellbeing, and damages from extreme weather. 2. Changing patterns of investment in climate risk management and adaptation 3. Changing patterns of investments in areas affected by greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policy, 4. The impacts of the above globally, including on international trade, growth, investment, policy, migration and commodity prices, and their impacts on the BRICS. We review the evidence on the impacts of climate change in the BRICS and then apply this to one particular industry sector: non-life insurance. We propose five potential pathways through which climate change could influence insurance demand: economic growth; willingness to pay for insurance; public policy and regulation; the insurability of natural catastrophe risks; and new opportunities associated with adaptation and greenhouse gas mitigation. We conclude that, with the exception of public policy and regulation, the influence of climate change on insurance demand to 2030 is likely to be small when compared with the expected growth due to rising incomes. The scale of the impacts and their direction depend to some extent on (re)insurer responses to the challenges of climate change. We outline five actions that could pave the way for future opportunities in the industry. Authors of the paper: Ranger, Nicola (Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy/ Grantham Research Institute, London School of Economics, London, UK) and Surminski, Swenja (Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy/ Grantham Research Institute, London School of Economics, London, UK)

Ranger, N.; Surminski, S.

2012-04-01

350

Real economy causes of the Great Deprivation of early 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American economy has undergone a dramatic structural change in the first decade of the 21st Century. The real-economy causes of this transformation, and their expression via the real estate market and its financial derivatives’ market, and their final manifestation in world financial markets, is explained using traditional economic theory. A three-sector Walrasian general equilibrium model, and a non-Walrasian temporary

Nadeem Naqvi

2008-01-01

351

Quantitative Analysis of a Hybrid Electric HMMWV for Fuel Economy Improvement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a quantitative analysis and comparison of fuel economy and performance of a series hybrid electric HMMWV (High Mobility Multi- purpose Wheeled Vehicle) military vehicle with a conventional HMMWV of equivalent size. Hybrid vehicle power...

A. Masrur A. Nedungadi R. Smith

2012-01-01

352

Availability of Primary Lead and Zinc in Market Economy Countries: A Minerals Availability Appraisal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines estimated the potential availability of lead and zinc from 205 mines and deposits in Market Economy Countries (MECs), by performing detailed geologic, engineering, and cost evaluations. These evaluated properties had demonstrated resou...

C. A. DiFrancesco J. L. Cornellisson G. R. Peterson

1993-01-01

353

CBO STUDY: The Economic Costs of Fuel Economy Standards Versus a Gasoline Tax.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some Members of Congress and public interest groups have recently proposed raising the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for automobiles. Proponents of CAFE standards see them as a way to decrease the United States' dependence on oil and its...

2003-01-01

354

Corporate Governance in Transitional Economies: Insider Control and the Role of Banks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book presents the results of a research project on corporate governance issues in transitional economies from a new perspective based on comparative institutional analysis. The project grew out of a concern about three issues: the emerging phenomenon ...

M. Aoki H. K. Kim

1995-01-01

355

Construction of Low-carbon Tourist Attractions Based on Low-carbon Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of a low-carbon economy, the concept of low-carbon tourism is also increasingly popular. The implementation of low-carbon tourism responds to society's collective call for energy conservation and emission reduction. This is also the inevitable choice for sustainable development of tourism. This paper begins by explaining the concepts of low-carbon economy and low-carbon tourism; summarizes the content of

Shi Changbo; Peng Jingjing

2011-01-01

356

Performance, Internationalization, and Firm-specific Advantages of SMEs in a Newly-Industrialized Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of the lack of empirical evidence regarding issues of internationalization as they affect small and medium-sized\\u000a enterprises (SMEs) from newly-industrialized economies (NIEs), this study aims to expand the applicability of existent internationalization\\u000a theories. So far, such theories have largely been developed with MNCs from industrialized economies in mind. In examining\\u000a a 1996 sample of 1,419 Taiwanese SMEs, we

Yu-Ching Chiao; Kuo-Pin Yang; Chwo-Ming Joseph Yu

2006-01-01

357

Techno economic systems and excessive consumption: a political economy of 'pathological' gambling.  

PubMed

This article argues that gambling is a paradigmatic form of consumption that captures the intensified logic at the heart of late modern capitalist societies. As well as a site of intensified consumption, it claims that gambling has also become the location of what has been described as a new form of 'social pathology' related to excess play. Drawing on Castells' (1996) notion of techno-economic systems, it explores the ways that intersections between technology, capital and states have generated the conditions for this situation, and critiques the unequal distribution of gambling environments that result. It argues that, while the products of these systems are consumed on a global scale, the risks associated with them tend to be articulated in bio-psychological discourses of 'pathology' which are typical of certain types of knowledge that have salience in neo-liberal societies, and which work to conceal wider structural relationships. We argue that a deeper understanding of the political and cultural economy of gambling environments is necessary, and provide a synoptic overview of the conditions upon which gambling expansion is based. This perspective highlights parallels with the wider global economy of finance capital, as well as the significance of intensified consumption, of which gambling is an exemplary instance. It also reveals the existence of a geo-political dispersal of 'harms', conceived as deteriorations of financial, temporal and social relationships, which disproportionately affect vulnerable social groups. From this, we urge an understanding of commercial gambling based on a critique of the wider social body of gambling environments within techno economic systems, rather than the (flawed) individual bodies within them. PMID:24320073

Reith, Gerda

2013-12-01

358

Emissions and fuel economy of the Dresser Economizer, a retrofit device. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of testing the Dresser Economizer as part of an evaluation under section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. This device is a gasket which is installed between the intake manifold and the cylinder head. The device is claimed to improve fuel economy and driveability. The results of EPA testing show the Dresser Economizer device does not have any significant effect on regulated exhaust emissions or fuel economy.

Syria, S.L.

1981-12-01

359

Carbon Finance Development Status and Development Strategy of Our Country under Low-Carbon Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of low-carbon economy has become the mainstream strategic choice of international society, and the low-carbon economy development has promoted the financial innovation enormously. The carbon finance is the financial innovation product in the low-carbon economic development process. This article, from the two aspects of low-carbon carbon investment and financing as well as the low-carbon project trades, has analyzed finance

Zhongmin Li; Luzi Zhang

2011-01-01

360

Demonstration of the fuel economy potential associated with M85-fueled vehicles  

SciTech Connect

A gasoline-fueled 1988 Chevrolet Corsica was converted to operate on M85 to demonstrate that the characteristics of methanol fuels can be exploited to emphasize vehicle fuel economy rather than vehicle performance. The results of the tests performed indicated fuel economy improvements of up to 21% at steady highway speeds, and almost 20% on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s federal test procedure city and highway cycles.

Hodgson, J.W.; Huff, S.P. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)] [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1993-12-01

361

Thermodynamic accounting of ecosystem contribution to economic sectors with application to 1992 U.S. economy.  

PubMed

Incorporation of ecological considerations in decision-making is essential for sustainable development, but is hindered by inadequate appreciation of the role of ecosystems, and lack of scientifically rigorous techniques for including their contribution. This paper develops a novel thermodynamic accounting framework for including the contribution of natural capital via thermodynamic input-output analysis. This framework is applied to the 1992 US economy comprising 91 industry sectors, resulting in delineation of the myriad ways in which sectors of the US economy rely on ecosystem products and services. The contribution of ecosystems is represented via the concept of ecological cumulative exergy consumption (ECEC), which is related to emergy analysis but avoids any of its controversial assumptions and claims. The use of thermodynamics permits representation of all kinds of inputs and outputs in consistent units, facilitating the definition of aggregate metrics. Total ECEC requirement indicates the extent to which each economic sector relies directly and indirectly on ecological inputs. The ECEC/money ratio indicates the relative monetary versus ecological throughputs in each sector, and indicates the relationship between the thermodynamic work needed to produce a product or service and the corresponding economic activity. This ratio is found to decrease along economic supply chains, indicating industries that are higher up in the economic food chain price ecosystem contribution more than the basic infrastructure industries such as mining and manufacturing. The ratio of CEC with and without inclusion of ecosystems indicates the extent to which conventional thermoeconomic analysis underestimates the contribution of ecosystems. Such ratios, made available for the first time, provide unique insight into the importance of natural capital, and are especially useful in hybrid thermodynamic life cycle analysis of industrial systems. The approach, data compiled in this work, and the resulting insight provide a more ecologically conscious tool for environmental decision-making, and has potential applications at micro as well as macro scales. PMID:15487791

Ukidwe, Nandan U; Bakshi, Bhavik R

2004-09-15

362

Increasing the Fuel Economy and Safety of New Light-DutyVehicles  

SciTech Connect

One impediment to increasing the fuel economy standards forlight-duty vehicles is the long-standing argument that reducing vehiclemass to improve fuel economy will inherently make vehicles less safe.This technical paper summarizes and examines the research that is citedin support of this argument, and presents more recent research thatchallenges it. We conclude that the research claiming that lightervehicles are inherently less safe than heavier vehicles is flawed, andthat other aspects of vehicle design are more important to the on-roadsafety record of vehicles. This paper was prepared for a workshop onexperts in vehicle safety and fuel economy, organized by the William andFlora Hewlett Foundation, to discuss technologies and designs that can betaken to simultaneously improve vehicle safety and fuel economy; theworkshop was held in Washington DC on October 3, 2006.

Wenzel, Tom; Ross, Marc

2006-09-18

363

International Economy: Functions and Organizations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main purpose of this report is to identify those organizations which facilitate trade and development in the international economy, and to discuss the current integration of these organizations into the overall international economy. The identificatio...

K. O. Morse

1984-01-01

364

Study on Low-Carbon Economy Model and Method of Chinese Tourism Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years saw the global wave of new low-carbon economy which is a strategic measure to cope with global warming, and it has gained concerns from many governments. As the representatives of developing countries, China is responsible for “common but distinguishing duty for global climate change.†Many policies have been made to develop low-carbon economy with the hope to advocate

Zhang Mu; Luo Jing; Zhang Xiaohong; Tang Lei; Feng Xiao-na; Chen Shan

2011-01-01

365

Thoughts on quality management of manufacturing enterprise under low-carbon economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The important significance of low-carbon economy to ecological environmental protection and social, economic development has drawn more and more attention by the public. In the low-carbon economy, what role it should play and how should it be improved for quality management, is one of the major issues in manufacturing enterprise. This paper analyzed the relationships between quality management and low-carbon

Ning-ning Jing; Li-li Liu

2011-01-01

366

Incentives for Hunting: The Role of Bushmeat in the Household Economy in Rural Equatorial Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bushmeat is an important component of the informal economy throughout West and Central Africa. In order to formulate effective\\u000a policy to ensure the sustainability of bushmeat hunting for both development and conservation reasons, there is a need to\\u000a understand its position within the wider rural economy. We conducted interviews with households and hunters over a 15-month\\u000a period in a village

Noëlle F. Kümpel; E. J. Milner-Gulland; Guy Cowlishaw; J. Marcus Rowcliffe

2010-01-01

367

The Role of Agriculture in Turkish Economy at the Beginning of the European Union Accession Negotiations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, Turkish economy and importance of agriculture in the economy on the way of accession negotiations to the European Union (EU) are discussed. Compliance with EU norms based on macroeconomic indicators is evaluated. Turkish economy exhibits the characteristics of a developing economy based on per capita income, economic growth, employment, income distribution, foreign trade volume and economic structure. Long-term economic growth rate of Turkey is quite low and it is negatively affected by economic crises. Income distribution among the households and the regions (both of the geographical and rural-urban regions) is imbalanced. Income per capita is about ¼ of an average developed country and the economy is still characterized by a high degree of dualism in the economic sectors, regions as well as social segments. Economy suffers from trade deficit and the level of agricultural import has almost reached to agricultural export`s level in 2004. From the point of view of all socio-economic indicators, the contribution of agricultural production to domestic economy is essential in terms of employment, contributing to national income and export earnings. The enterprise size is relatively small, duality in socio-economic structure is common, population is high, productivity level is low, costs are high and competition power of some sub-sectors is low in Turkish agricultural sector. Small family farms are the main unit of crops and livestock production and household members provide most of the labor requirements of the farms. Turkey launched a radical change in agricultural policy instead of unsustainable and costly system of support policies including input subsidies and support prices and issued a policy paper for 2006-2010 in line with the Common Agricultural Policy of the EU. Reevaluation of the agricultural policies is needed in order to minimize the regional development differences and to control the migration from rural areas to cities.

Tanrivermis, Harun; Bulbul, Mehmet

368

Energy economy of salmon aquaculture in the Baltic sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resource utilization in Atlantic salmon aquaculture in the Baltic Sea was investigated by means of an energy analysis. A comparison was made between cage farming and sea ranching enterprises each with yearly yields of 40 t of Atlantic salmon. A variety of sea ranching options were evaluated, including (a) conventional ranching, (b) ranching employing a delayed release to the sea of young smolts, (c) harvesting salmon both by offshore fishing fleets and as they return to coastal areas, and (d) when offshore fishing is banned, harvesting salmon only as they return to coastal areas where released. Inputs both from natural ecosystems (i.e., fish consumed by ranched salmon while in the sea and raw materials used for producing dry food pellets) and from the economy (i.e., fossil fuels and energy embodied in economic goods and services) were quantified in tonnes for food energy and as direct plus indirect energy cost (embodied energy). The fixed solar energy (estimated as primary production) and the direct and indirect auxiliary energy requirements per unit of fish output were expressed in similar units. Similar quantities of living resources in tonnes per unit of salmon biomass output are required whether the salmon are feeding in the sea or are caged farmed. Cage farming is about 10 times more dependent on auxiliary energies than sea ranching. Sea ranching applying delayed release of smolts is 35 45% more efficient in the use of auxiliary energies than conventional sea ranching and cage farming. Restriction of offshore fishing would make sea ranching 3 to 6.5 times more efficient than cage farming. The fixed solar energy input to Atlantic salmon aquaculture is 4 to 63 times larger than the inputs of auxiliary energy. Thus, cage farming and sea ranching are both heavily dependent on the productivity of natural ecosystems. It is concluded that sustainable development of the aquaculture industry must be founded on ecologically integrated technologies which utilize the free production in marine ecosystems without exhausting or damaging the marine environment.

Folke, Carl

1988-07-01

369

America and the New Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph explains the new economy from the point of view of people at work. It begins by providing an overview of the new economy and places the United States in it. Separate aspects of the new economy are elaborated in five parts. Part I presents the competitive standards that provide the cornerstone for the new economic reality: robust…

Carnevale, Anthony Patrick

370

Dynamic (S,s) Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we provide a framework to study the aggregate dynamic behavior of an economy where individual units follow (S,s) policies. We characterize structural and stochastic heterogeneities that ensure convergence of the economy's aggregate to that of its frictionless counterpart, determine the speed at which convergence takes place, and describe the transitional dynamics of this economy. In particular, we

Ricardo J. Caballero; Eduardo M. R. A. Engel

1991-01-01

371

Knowledge Economy and Research Innovation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "knowledge economy" has been received with considerable scepticism by scholars within the fields of political economy, social and political philosophy, and higher education. Key arguments within this literature are reviewed in this article to suggest that, despite policy claims, "knowledge economy" does not describe a "new" mode of economic…

Bastalich, Wendy

2010-01-01

372

Emergent Behavior in Information Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the dynamic behavior of information economies: verylarge open economies of automated information agents that will exist onthe Internet. Such large interacting systems are likely to exhibit emergentphenomena not straightforward to anticipate. We model a simpleinformation economy that revolves around economically-aware newsfilteringbrokers to whom consumers choose to subscribe. Our analysesand simulations reveal interesting emergent phenomena. One negativephenomenon we observe...

Jeffrey O. Kephart; James E. Hanson; Deffrey O. Levine; Benjamin N. Grosof; Jakka Sairamesh; Richard Segal; Steve R. White

1998-01-01

373

The Scale of Things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about size and scale. Learners will create and walk through a distance scale model of the size of the Solar System. This activity requires a straight line distance of approximately 295 meters (300 yards).

374

Education and Training for Development in East Asia: The Political Economy of Skill Formation in East Asian Newly Industrialised Economies. ESRC Pacific Asia Programme [Series].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a detailed analysis of the development of education and training systems in Asia and the relationship with the process of economic growth. Focus is on four impoverished agrarian economies--Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan--that were transformed in little more than a generation into East Asian "tigers":…

Ashton, David; Green, Francis; James, Donna; Sung, Johnny

375

Scaling analysis of stock markets.  

PubMed

In this paper, we apply the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), local scaling detrended fluctuation analysis (LSDFA), and detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) to investigate correlations of several stock markets. DFA method is for the detection of long-range correlations used in time series. LSDFA method is to show more local properties by using local scale exponents. DCCA method is a developed method to quantify the cross-correlation of two non-stationary time series. We report the results of auto-correlation and cross-correlation behaviors in three western countries and three Chinese stock markets in periods 2004-2006 (before the global financial crisis), 2007-2009 (during the global financial crisis), and 2010-2012 (after the global financial crisis) by using DFA, LSDFA, and DCCA method. The findings are that correlations of stocks are influenced by the economic systems of different countries and the financial crisis. The results indicate that there are stronger auto-correlations in Chinese stocks than western stocks in any period and stronger auto-correlations after the global financial crisis for every stock except Shen Cheng; The LSDFA shows more comprehensive and detailed features than traditional DFA method and the integration of China and the world in economy after the global financial crisis; When it turns to cross-correlations, it shows different properties for six stock markets, while for three Chinese stocks, it reaches the weakest cross-correlations during the global financial crisis. PMID:24985421

Bu, Luping; Shang, Pengjian

2014-06-01

376

The Knowledge Economy and Higher Education: Rankings and Classifications, Research Metrics and Learning Outcomes Measures as a System for Regulating the Value of Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the global knowledge economy (the k-economy), comprised by (1) open source knowledge flows and (2) commercial markets in intellectual property and knowledge-intensive goods. Like all economy the global knowledge economy is a site of production. It is also social and cultural, taking the form of a one-world community mediated…

Marginson, Simon

2009-01-01

377

Prospects of Development of the Economy of the United States (Methodology and Practice of Economic Forecasting) (Part II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first article the basic principles and methods of economic forecasting were considered. We pass on now to concrete forecasts of the prospects of development of the American economy which are derived from these methodological principles. Let us begin with the estimates given by American economists of the condition of the United States economy in 5 to 15 years.

A. Shapiro; O. Bogdanov

1968-01-01

378

Virtual Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Launched February 26, 1999, Virtual Economy (VE) is an Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS), Biz/ed, and Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC-UK) learning tool based on the UK governmental model for economic forecasting and planning. This elaborate site contains a "floor plan" for constructing a functional budget and is complete with teacher and student guides, case studies, and model details.

1999-01-01

379

Evaluation System and Empirical Research on the Development of Low Carbon Economy-Taking Daqing as an Example  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies the method of factor analysis to construct the indicator system of low carbon economy and evaluates the performance of development of low carbon economy of 15 resource-based cities. The paper documents that the development performance of low carbon economy of Daqing ranks No. 3 among 15 cities, performance of inter-industry adjustment ranks No.14, energy efficiency ranks No.3,

Wang Binbin; Sun Yifang

2011-01-01

380

Predicting Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy as a Function of Highway Speed  

SciTech Connect

The www.fueleconomy.gov website offers information such as window label fuel economy for city, highway, and combined driving for all U.S.-legal light-duty vehicles from 1984 to the present. The site is jointly maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and also offers a considerable amount of consumer information and advice pertaining to vehicle fuel economy and energy related issues. Included with advice pertaining to driving styles and habits is information concerning the trend that as highway cruising speed is increased, fuel economy will degrade. An effort was undertaken to quantify this conventional wisdom through analysis of dynamometer testing results for 74 vehicles at steady state speeds from 50 to 80 mph. Using this experimental data, several simple models were developed to predict individual vehicle fuel economy and its rate of change over the 50-80 mph speed range interval. The models presented require a minimal number of vehicle attributes. The simplest model requires only the EPA window label highway mpg value (based on the EPA specified estimation method for 2008 and beyond). The most complex of these simple model uses vehicle coast-down test coefficients (from testing prescribed by SAE Standard J2263) known as the vehicle Target Coefficients, and the raw fuel economy result from the federal highway test. Statistical comparisons of these models and discussions of their expected usefulness and limitations are offered.

Thomas, John F [ORNL; Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL

2013-01-01

381

Effects of Legislation about Financial Management of Enterprises: Evidence of the Restructuring in the Slovene Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Article deals with the inability to pay and inadequate financial discipline in Slovene economy. Main provisions of the new Law about Financial Management of Enterprises dealing with the issues, became fully effective in January 2000. The law should besides decreasing the number of enterprises which were unable to meet their financial liabilities and had blocked accounts, have motivated members

Ales Berk

2003-01-01

382

Economy of Planning of Single Family Houses in the Housing of Fair Tornio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economy of a small house depends on many things. One of the most interesting is how the quality of internal walls, roofs and floors and furniture, fittings and equipment affect the building costs. The other thing which has a still more larger signific...

M. Hekkanen T. Kestilae

1988-01-01

383

Vertex centralities in input-output networks reveal the structure of modern economies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Input-output tables describe the flows of goods and services between the sectors of an economy. These tables can be interpreted as weighted directed networks. At the usual level of aggregation, they contain nodes with strong self-loops and are almost completely connected. We derive two measures of node centrality that are well suited for such networks. Both are based on random walks and have interpretations as the propagation of supply shocks through the economy. Random walk centrality reveals the vertices most immediately affected by a shock. Counting betweenness identifies the nodes where a shock lingers longest. The two measures differ in how they treat self-loops. We apply both to data from a wide set of countries and uncover salient characteristics of the structures of these national economies. We further validate our indices by clustering according to sectors’ centralities. This analysis reveals geographical proximity and similar developmental status.

Blöchl, Florian; Theis, Fabian J.; Vega-Redondo, Fernando; Fisher, Eric O.'N.

2011-04-01

384

Human resource development of professionals in an emerging economy: the case of the Tanzanian construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issues pertaining to human resource development (HRD) of professionals1 in emerging\\/developing economies have not received sufficient attention in the literature. This is in spite of the strategic importance of the role of competent professionals in economic development. Using the construction industry in Tanzania as a case study, this study provides a review of the extent of the neglect of

Yaw A. Debrah; George Ofori

2006-01-01

385

Use of modern information technologies for making budgetary sectors of the economy more energy-efficient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A strategy of administrative management and technological control of heat consumption and energy conservation processes in budgetary sectors of the economy is described together with a system of integrated indicators for estimating the efficiency of these processes and the main results obtained from putting the strategy in use in the system of the Russian Federal Agency for Education are presented.

Klimenko, A. V.; Bobryakov, A. V.

2010-12-01

386

Construction of Cloud Platform of Knowledge Services Database: A Case Study of New Energy and Low-Carbon Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document aims at the new energy and low-carbon economy studied by scholars as the main line, and describes the cloud concept in the application of such knowledge service through constructions of the database and the collections of network resources. New energy and low-carbon economy are the knowledge cluster widely covered. Many relative literatures have been published, so have many

Du Pingping; Li Yuke; Zhao Gongqun

2010-01-01

387

The impact of tourism on the economy and population of small islands : The case of Aruba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many small islands in the Caribbean depend on tourism as the dominant sector of their economy. This dependence leads to economic vulnerability, in particular if the sector is dominated by international hotel chains that cater for the North American market. Reliance on a single geographical market implies seasonality in the tourist arrivals linked to the holiday season in the home

R. H. Croes

2007-01-01

388

Endogenous Indoctrination: Occupational Choice, the Evolution of Beliefs, and the Political Economy of Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the political economy analysis of reform focuses on the conflict of interest between groups that stand to gain or lose from the competing policy proposals. In reality, there is also a lot of disagreement about the working of the policy: in addition to conflicting interests, conflicting views play an important role. Those views are shaped in part by

Gilles Saint-Paul

2009-01-01

389

Empirical study of the relations between the knowledge base and innovation performance of an economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – There are many literatures on the factors that affect innovation performance, but few on the effects of knowledge base of an economy on innovation performance. One of the reason is that knowledge base is difficult to measure. Leydesdorff put forward a new method called the triple-helix model of “technology, organization, and territory” to measure knowledge base of an

Panqiang Niu; Fuji Xie; Tchuta Leonard

2010-01-01

390

Exploring the Limits of Fair Trade: Towards a Critical Political Economy of the Local Food Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I explore the limitations of the fair trade movement in the context of the global political economy. I argue that local food systems, based on regimes of trust and reciprocity, may be able to transcend the spatial and theoretical limits of the fair trade movement by re-embedding production in the local context. Drawing on the works of

Noah Zerbe

391

The Political Economy of ‘Trauma’ in Haiti in the Democratic Era of Insecurity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the challenges that emerge at the intersection of economies of compassion and terror: local, national, and international forms of humanitarian assistance; security practices in insecure social and institutional environments; questions of victimization and global reparations; and quests for justice, as revealed through an analysis of political violence and humanitarian interventions in Haiti during and after the 1991–94

Erica Caple James

2004-01-01

392

Effects of price manipulations on consumer behavior in sheltered workshop token economy.  

PubMed

The consumer behavior of institutionalized retarded clients in a sheltered workshop token economy were evaluated by changing prices in the workshop store. In the first experiment we found that clients displayed elasticity of demand in that raising the prices of frequently purchased goods reduced the frequency and amount spent on more expendable items. Results from the second experiment showed that this change in spending pattern was not due to the relative modal unit price of item classes. The regulation of demand for consumer goods is a potentially useful way to maintain economic balance and effectiveness of a token economy. PMID:970416

Schroeder, S R; Barrera, F J

1976-09-01

393

An Assessment of Integrated Climate Change Impacts on the Agricultural Economy of Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used a quadratic programming sector model to assess the integrated impacts of climate change on the agricultural economy of Egypt. Results from a dynamic global food trade model were used to update the Egyptian sector model and included socio-economic trends and world market prices of agricultural goods. In addition, the impacts of climate change from three bio-physical sectors

David N. Yates; Kenneth M. Strzepek

1998-01-01

394

Economies of Scope in Distance Education: The Case of Chinese Research Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the rapid development of information technologies, distance education has become "another form of product differentiation in the output mix produced by the multi-product university or college" (Cohn & Cooper, 2004, p. 607). This article aims at analyzing the economies of scope of distance education (as an educational output) in Chinese…

Li, Fengliang; Chen, Xinlei

2012-01-01

395

The Evolving Economics of Schooling. ESA845, The Economy of Schooling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume, part of a series of monographs that explores the relationship between the economy and schooling, is intended to show how economists have sought to cast light on the economic nature of education, on resource allocation problems within the education sector, and on policy implications of such analyses. The first part describes the basic…

Harrold, Ross

396

The Political Economy of Post-Secondary Education: A Comparison of British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A policy sociology approach is taken to examine the connections between neo-liberalism, post-secondary provincial education (PSE) policy in Canada and the impact of those policies. Our thesis regarding the broad political economy of PSE is that over the last two decades the adoption of this ideology has been a major cause of some dramatic changes…

Fisher, Donald; Rubenson, Kjell; Jones, Glen; Shanahan, Theresa

2009-01-01

397

Statistical Analysis of Inflationary Processes in Manufacturing Sectors of American Economy, 1959-1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of annual price rates of 459 manufacturing sectors of the American economy from 1959 to 1996 are studied in the paper. There is a small but stable negative correlation between the sector price rates and the growth ones. At the same time there exists a substantial positive correlation between the yearly average level of sector inflation and the

Lev Slutskin

2009-01-01

398

Impact of Basel convention on secondary-lead industry in economies in transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substantial trade in scrap and waste is not merely an exercise in waste management, but more importantly an element in efficient materials utilization, that has significant impact on the economy. In fact, it is an environmentally desirable and friendly activity and economically worthwhile pursuing for developing countries. Secondary recycling of materials and re-integrating them into the economy is crucial in reducing the overall demand for virgin materials for the developing economies. Scrap, ash and residues generated indigenously need to be recycled. Otherwise their disposal/dispersal will undoubtedly pose greater hazard in the future. Further, recycling of scraps and residues avoids degradation of the environment. Environmental control and monitoring in lead operations will require assiduous implementation to ensure that transportation, handling and processing are managed with greater care and the entire operation is environmental friendly.

Subramanian, V. R.

399

A Study of the Impact of Aid on Nepal’s Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign aid has been one of the most controversial subjects of economics and international relations in recent years. It has been attacked by both radicals and conservatives alike for the failure in fulfilling the development and foreign policy objectives. The impact of aid on the economy has also been critically examined by economists but without any commonly agreed results. The

Narayan Khadka

1996-01-01

400

Heinrich von Storch’s concept of the use of mathematics in political economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heinrich von Storch (1766-1835) can claim a very specific position in the history of political economy. Clearly steeped in Camaralist thought, due to his upbringing and later scholarly work in Russia, he was primarily interested in the nature and the causes of the wealth of a nation that he considered to be richly endowed with natural resources yet badly lagging

Jürgen G. Backhaus

2000-01-01

401

The commercialisation of the indigenous economy and its impact on the environment of Modhupur Garh, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of destruction of the natural sal (shorea robusta) forest of Modhupur Garh in Bangladesh has pushed the forest-dwelling indigenous Garo community into cash crop production, forcing them to move away from their traditional subsistence economy. Cash crop production started in Modhupur region with pineapple cultivation which, in recent years, has been superceded by Banana monoculture. Environmentalists have identified

Soma Dey

2007-01-01

402

Political economy of eastern enlargement of the European Union: Budgetary costs and reforms in voting rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern European countries are likely to be major recipients of European Union (EU) funds after membership, which has created serious concern among incumbent members. The EU has devised reforms of budgetary rules to limit the funds that will flow to the East. Using a political economy model and drawing on the experience of previous enlargements, this paper argues that such

Yener Kandogan

2000-01-01

403

Impact of the Current Rise of World Oil Prices on the International Economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The destabilization of the oil market brought about by the events in the Gulf is a vigorous reminder that the oil of the Middle East is of strategic importance and will continue to be a major stake among the key players in the world economy for many years...

B. Hocine

1991-01-01

404

The Choice of Privatization Method and the Financial Performance of Newly Privatized Firms in Transition Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a gap between the theoretical literature which almost unanimously advocates the privatization of enterprises, as part of the solution to the commitment problem in economies in transition, and the empirical evidence regarding the best way to design a privatization program in order to secure an efficient use of resources. This paper contributes to this debate by focusing on

Ranko M. Jelic; Richard Briston; Wolfgang Aussenegg

2003-01-01

405

Comparison between response dynamics in transition economies and developed economies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In developed economies, the sign of the price increment influences the volatility in an asymmetric fashion—negative increments tend to result in larger volatility (increments with larger magnitudes), while positive increments result in smaller volatility. We explore whether this asymmetry extends from developed economies to European transition economies and, if so, how such asymmetry changes over time as these transition economies develop and mature. We analyze eleven European transition economies and compare the results with those obtained by analyzing U.S. market indices. Specifically, we calculate parameters that quantify both the volatility asymmetry and the strength of its dependence on prior increments. We find that, like their developed economy counterparts, almost all transition economy indices exhibit a significant volatility asymmetry, and the parameter ? characterizing asymmetry fluctuates more over time for transition economies. We also investigate how the association between volatility and volatility asymmetry varies by type of market. We test the hypothesis of a negative correlation between volatility and volatility asymmetry. We find that, for developed economies, ? experiences local minima during (i) “Black Monday” on October 19, 1987, (ii) the dot-com bubble crash in 2002, and (iii) the 2007-2009 global crisis while for transition economies, ? experiences local maxima during times of economic crisis.

Tenenbaum, Joel; Horvati?, Davor; Baji?, Slavica Cosovi?; Pehlivanovi?, Be?o; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

2010-10-01

406

The economic impact of shale gas development on state and local economies: benefits, costs, and uncertainties.  

PubMed

It is often assumed that natural gas exploration and development in the Marcellus Shale will bring great economic prosperity to state and local economies. Policymakers need accurate economic information on which to base decisions regarding permitting and regulation of shale gas extraction. This paper provides a summary review of research findings on the economic impacts of extractive industries, with an emphasis on peer-reviewed studies. The conclusions from the studies are varied and imply that further research, on a case-by-case basis, is necessary before definitive conclusions can be made regarding both short- and long-term implications for state and local economies. PMID:23552649

Barth, Jannette M

2013-01-01

407

Energy Market and Economic Impacts of S.1766, the Low Carbon Economy Act of 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report responds to a request from Senators Bingaman and Specter for an analysis of S. 1766, the Low Carbon Economy Act of 2007. S. 1766 establishes a mandatory greenhouse gas (GHG) allowance program to maintain covered emissions at approximately 2006...

2008-01-01

408

DEVELOPMENT OF THE ACCOUNTING PROFESSION IN ALBANIA IN THE NEW ERA OF MARKET ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we give an overview of the most important developments that the accounting profession has experienced ever since Albania switched from a closed economy to an open market one. We put forth a discussion about the factors that recently seem to represent major challenges for the accountants. We identify as two of the most important and emergent challenges

Rezarta Shkurti; Brikena Leka

2010-01-01

409

The Economic Impact of Ten Cultural Institutions on the Economy of the Salt Lake SMSA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of 10 cultural institutions on the Salt Lake City economy was determined by measuring their 1978 direct and indirect financial effects. The institutions are Ballet West, Pioneer Memorial Theatre, Repertory Dance Theatre, Salt Lake City Art Center, Theatre 138, Tiffany's Attic, Utah Museum of Fine Arts, Utah Symphony, Utah Opera Company,…

Cwi, David

410

Monetary policy games and international migration of labor in interdependent economies.  

PubMed

"In this paper we incorporate the possibility of international migration into a monetary policy game played by governments in unionized interdependent economies. We show that contrary to usual presumptions, established by earlier studies that ignore the possibility of international migration, inter-government cooperation in the monetary field may well turn out to be advantageous. This has important implications for the European economies, since it suggests that measures taken towards encouraging international migration within EU [the European Union] will not only harmonize the European labor markets but will also make monetary policy cooperation within Europe, as required by the Maastrict Treaty, more advantageous." PMID:12294515

Agiomirgianakis, G M

1998-01-01

411

Stem cell science in India: emerging economies and the politics of globalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The globalization of stem cell science is increasingly being shaped by the emerging economies of the Asia\\/Pacific region. Undaunted and unhampered by the more established views of the commercialization of science, countries such as India are constructing models of innovation, policies and patterns of investment that challenge such orthodoxies. This report examines the position of India within the globalization of

Brian Salter; Melinda Cooper; Amanda Dickins; Valentina Cardo

2007-01-01

412

Predictors of "New Economy" Career Orientation in an Australian Sample of Late Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors surveyed 207 late adolescents on measures of new economy career orientation (protean and boundaryless career orientation), career adaptability (planning, self-exploration, environmental exploration, decision making, and self-regulation), disposition (proactive disposition), and environmental support (social support) and hypothesized…

Creed, Peter; Macpherson, Jennifer; Hood, Michelle

2011-01-01

413

Effects of drivetrain hybridization on fuel economy and dynamic performance of parallel hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles have proved to be the most practical solution in reaching very high fuel economy as well as very low emissions. However, there is no standard solution for the optimal size or ratio of the internal combustion engine and the electric system. The optimum choice includes complex tradeoffs between the heat engine and electric propulsion system on one

Srdjan M. Lukic; Ali Emadi

2004-01-01

414

CONTRIBUTION OF THE ETHANOL INDUSTRY TO THE ECONOMY OF THE UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

By all accounts, 2009 was a volatile year for the American economy, and the ethanol industry was no exception. The combination of unstable commodity prices and weak motor fuel demand caused by the worst recession in decades presented a significant challenge for ethanol producers. Commodity prices retreated from the record levels set during the 2008 commodity price bubble, but the

John M. Urbanchuk; LECG LLC

415

Role of University-Industry-Government Linkages in the Innovation Processes of a Small Catching-Up Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the transformation process from a command economy, the extraordinary statist university-industry-government (UIG) linkages model was replaced by an extreme version of laissez-faire relationships. A more modern interaction-based UIG model could be implemented only by changing the whole national innovation system of catching-up economies. The…

Varblane, Urmas; Mets, Tonis; Ukrainski, Kadri

2008-01-01

416

TOWARDS A COMPETITIVE LOW-CARBON ECONOMY: ON FIRMS’ INCENTIVES AND THE ROLE OF PUBLIC RESEARCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the prerequisites for implementing a competitive low-carbon economy in the European Union from the point of view of firms’ incentives, the role of policy and the contribution of public research. It suggests that the reduction of the environmental impact of energy can be a new competitiveness factor. Rather than being treated as a constraint and cost-aggravating factor,

Annette Bongardt; Isabel Cabrita

2007-01-01

417

The Spread of Contingent Work in the Knowledge-Based Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Permanent employment, typical of industrial societies and bolstered by numerous social guaranties, has been declining in the past 2 decades. There has been a steady expansion of various forms of contingent work. The decomposition of traditional work is a logical consequence of the characteristic patterns of the knowledge-based economy. According…

Szabo, Katalin; Negyesi, Aron

2005-01-01

418

Economy-Wide and Sector Effects of Russia's Accession to the WTO  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we employ a computable general equilibrium model of the Russian economy to assess the impact of accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). We assess the impact of improved market access for Russia in the markets of its partners and the impact of Russia's market access commitments to foreigners in both goods and services. The model incorporates

Jesper Jensen

419

The game expression of product design in low-carbon economy era  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper explores and analyzes the game expression problem of Chinese future product design under the background of the low-carbon economic development in current times of globalization. In low-carbon economy era, as the primary focus of consumers gradually shifts from material to spiritual, the concept of product design will shift from function to game. The paper explains the cultural functions

Cui Tianjian; Xu Bijun; Shen Zheng

2010-01-01

420

Philosophical Education and Cultural Relevance: Discipline-Affirmation in the Context of the Knowledge Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following paper proposes a discipline-affirming response to the challenge facing higher education in the context of the knowledge economy. It resists the drive to reduce the value of a humanities based education to the mere production of skills and instead affirms the substantial body of knowledge of specific disciplines. It uses as its model…

Rose, David Edward

2013-01-01

421

Price and Niche Wars in a FreeMarket Economy of Software Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

One scenario of the future of computation populates the Internet with vast numbers of softwareagents providing, trading, and using a rich variety of information goods and services in an open, freemarketeconomy. An essential task in such an economy is the retailing or brokering of information:gathering it from the right producers and distributing it to the right consumers. This paper investigatesone

Jeffrey O. Kephart; James E. Hanson; Jakka Sairamesh

1998-01-01

422

Challenges of Engineering Higher Education in a Transitional Economy: A Russian Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education and training serve as critical elements of advancement of a nation's economy in transition. The restructuring of the power engineering industry in Russia has called for a fast implementation of new management system in electric power engineering and radical training of professional managers at different levels in organizations.…

Matveev, Alexei; Matveev, Olga; Zhukov, Vassily

2005-01-01

423

The Economic Impact of a Technical College on Its Local Economy: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the economic impact of Walker Technical Institute (WTI) in Georgia on its local economy. In 1994, the annual report by Georgia's Department of Technical and Adult Education found a 77% increase from 1985 in the number of students participating in classes. State financial support for the Department of Technical and Adult…

Brooks, L. Rayburn; Miller, Michael T.

424

New opportunity of developing nuclear power under the low carbonized economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facing the low carbonized economy's development model, the electric power profession became a row of new force of reducing, this article has analyzed the low carbonized characteristic of the nuclear power, the international nuclear power development situation and the present situation of our country's nuclear power, proposed that the nuclear power will become the focal point which the 21st century

Zou Yiqin

2010-01-01

425

Child Labour and Schooling in the Context of a Subsistence Rural Economy: Can They Be Compatible?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a household survey from rural Ethiopia indicate that rural children commonly participated in household and agricultural work from a very early age, and more than half of working children had never attended school. In the context of subsistence economies such as these, initial policy interventions should aim to make the combination of

Admassie, A.

2003-01-01

426

Alberta's 2002 Teacher Strike: The Political Economy of Labor Relations in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2002, approximately two thirds of school teachers in the Canadian province of Alberta went on strike. Drawing on media, government and union documents, this case study reveals some contours of the political economy of labor relations in education that are normally hidden from view. Among these features are that the state can react to worker…

Barnetson, Bob

2010-01-01

427

The Use of a Token Economy to Improve Patient Responsibility in an Outpatient Methadone Maintenance Clinic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have shown that the use of behavior modification techniques, specifically the use of token reinforcement systems, can produce positive changes in the behavior of heroin addicts within a hospital setting. A token economy program was assessed to determine the effectiveness of such a program with patients in an outpatient methadone…

Kelly, John S.; Gambatese, Richard J.

428

Men's and Women's Quality of Work in the New Canadian Economy. Work Network Research Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Men's and women's quality of work in the new Canadian economy was examined. The two data sources used were the 2000 Changing Employment Relationships Survey (CERS), which consisted of telephone interviews of 2,500 currently employed Canadian residents aged 18 or older, and the 2000 General Social Survey (GSS), which examined access to and use of

Hughes, Karen; Lowe, Graham S.; Schellenberg, Grant

429

Mobilizing Support for Social Control in a Declining Economy: Exploring Ideologies of Crime within Crime News.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extends exploration of ideologies of crime in the news by examining reports about the causes of crime and commands of what to do about crime in "Time" magazine. Argues that criminal justice policy and ideology have played an important role in developments within the postwar political economy in the United States. (LKS)

Barlow, Melissa Hickman; And Others

1995-01-01

430

Advancing the National and Global Knowledge Economy: The Role of Research Universities in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research universities are a central part of all academic systems. They are the key points of international contact and involvement. Research is produced, disseminated and in many cases imported. For developing countries, the mechanisms for the involvement of research universities in the global knowledge economy is complex, and includes issues of

Altbach, Philip G.

2013-01-01

431

Economic Performance in a Cross-Section of U.S. Native American Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Institutions either promote or constrain economic performance, but which parts of institutions advance or restrict performance, and why do economies sharing similar institutions sometimes perform differently? This paper is a modest attempt at addressing a small part of these questions. It applies a novel model that is capable of separating infrastructural and superstructural effects of institutions on aggregate and average

Voxi Heinrich S Amavilah

2004-01-01

432

Higher Education and Manpower Planning: A Comparative Study of Planned and Market Economies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experiences of seven European countries in the application of various manpower planning approaches and techniques to educational planning are compared. The countries are the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania, and Sweden. In four of the countries that have planned economies,…

Fulton, O.; And Others

433

Three essays on the effects of oil prices on state economies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation consists of three chapters that examine the effects of oil prices on state economies. The first chapter, "Asymmetric Effects of Oil Prices on State Economies," examines the impact of oil price changes on state-level income growth. I find strong evidence of asymmetry in the impacts of oil prices and that states vary considerably in terms of sensitivity to oil price shocks. Further analysis shows that states with a higher prevalence of manufacturing and higher coal production are more likely to be negatively affected by positive oil price shocks, while states with a high prevalence of petroleum and natural gas production tend to benefit from positive oil price shocks. The second chapter, "Regime-Switching Analysis of a State Economy's Response to An Oil Price Shock," analyzes the effects of oil price changes on state economies using a smooth transition autoregressive (STAR) approach. States are shown to present differences in both the tolerance and speed of response to an oil price shock. The differences are further explained by state-specific economic characteristics. The third chapter, "Multivariate Unobserved Component Analysis of State Employment with Oil Price Volatility," investigates whether and how oil price volatility affects state employment, with a focus on regional similarities and differences. Results show that oil price volatility has significant negative impacts on most states. Further, states with a higher prevalence of motor vehicle production are likely to experience larger job losses during periods of high oil price volatility.

Kang, Wei

434

Professional Adhocracy, an Appropriate Design for Knowledge Economy in the Light of Mintzberg's Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Success in the economy of digital age requires special capabilities. These capacities would be able to make the limited economical resources into valuable products. Among future limitations, limitation of super-specialized and expert human resources is very important and determining. Super-specialized human resources are considered as strategic factors and the structure of future organizations should be designed in a way to

Ali Asghar Pourezzat; Ghazaleh Taheri Attar

2009-01-01

435

Removal of farm subsidies in a regional economy: a computable general equilibrium analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to analyse the importance of farm subsidies for the Extremadura economy. To this end, a computable general equilibrium model for this region is presented, with which we analyse the economic effects caused by a simulated removal of these subsidies. Different scenarios involving the labour market rigidities and tax compensation are considered. Model parameters are

Francisco Javier de Miguel; Antonio Manresa

2008-01-01

436

Violence and National Development in Nigeria: The Political Economy of Youth Restiveness in the Niger Delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

One element in the contradictions underpinning Nigeria's development crisis is the marginalisation of the youth. This article examines the factors that influence youth restiveness in Nigeria's Niger Delta region. It discusses the impact of conservative elite politics and the oil-centric political economy characterised by the impoverishment, neglect and the repression of the oil-producing communities on the youth in the region.

Jeremiah O. Arowosegbe

2009-01-01

437

Online banking in transition economies: the implementation and development of online banking systems in Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet banking is one of the newest Internet technology applications, which promises multiple benefits both for the financial institutions and for clients. In the last five years a large number of banks have launched Web sites, offering online banking services. While the implementation and the functioning of these digital systems seem to be relatively smooth in the developed economies, the

Ca?lin Gura?u

2002-01-01

438

What Are the Major Aspects of Jordan's Economy? (A Learning Activity Package).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arguing that learning activity packages (LAPs) should be implemented in the Arab world schools, the author discusses why LAPs are important, examines their components, and, in the bulk of the document, provides an example of a learning package dealing with the economy of Jordan. LAPs are important because they provide options for student learning…

Sa'adeh, Jawdat A.

439

The Political Economy of Adult Education and Development. Global Perspectives on Adult Education and Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, which is based on a broad concept of adult education that embraces all forms of organized learning undertaken by adults, draws on empirical information and case studies to provide a theory of applied political economy to explain the interface between society and adult education in developing countries. The following are among the topics…

Youngman, Frank

440

Homo Economicus Goes to War: Methodological Individualism, Rational Choice and the Political Economy of War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neoclassical economic theories of violent conflict have proliferated in recent years and, with their application to contemporary wars, have influenced donors and policy makers. This paper reviews the intellectual foundations and empirical substance of such theories and offers a critique drawing on a political economy perspective. There are strong grounds for arguing that orthodox economic theories of war are reductionist,

C. Cramer

2002-01-01

441

The Analysis of Ecological Ethics in the Low-carbon Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-carbon economy, a major advance in human history, is required by the environment in which human beings inhabit. This economic development model, which centers on energy technology innovation, system innovation and the fundamental change of human survival concept, has an obvious orientation of ecological ethics and is in accordance with the requirements of ecological harmony in China's scientific development

QIAN Tongzhou

2011-01-01

442

Fostering the Common Good: The Portrayal of the Social Economy in Secondary Business and Economics Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this research study, we undertook a content analysis of thirteen economics and business textbooks, which were examined for their coverage of the social economy, which encompasses a range of nonprofit and social enterprise organizations that put "people before profits." The goal was to understand the ways that these textbooks represent official…

Myers, John P.; Stocks, Jessica L.

2010-01-01

443

A Systematic Evaluation of Token Economies as a Classroom Management Tool for Students with Challenging Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-part systematic review was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of token economies in increasing rates of appropriate classroom behavior for students demonstrating behavioral difficulties. The first part of the review utilized the recently published What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) standards for evaluating single-subject research to…

Maggin, Daniel M.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Goddard, Katelyn M.; Johnson, Austin H.

2011-01-01

444

Community Service and University Roles: An Action Research Based on the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study employs action research to develop community service through university roles by applying the philosophy of sufficiency economy of His Majesty the King Bhumibol Adulyadej to fulfill villagers' way of life. Participatory learning, seminar, field trip and supervision were employed for strategic plan. Data were collected by participatory…

Nuangchalerm, Prasart; Chansirisira, Pacharawit

2012-01-01

445

TMEASURING INDIRECT ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF TOURISM TO AUSTRALIAN ECONOMY USING INPUT-OUTPUT APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tourism makes a significant contribution to the Australian economy through export earnings and employment. This contribution, which is directly attributable to tourist consumption, is measured in the Australian Tourism Satellite Account produced by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. However, a more complete measure of economic contribution counts the flow-on, or indirect effects of tourism in other industries. In 2005-06 tourism

Jai Kookana; Andrew Maurer; Cathy Hales

446

Patenting propensity across sectors: Analysis of its variance in the advanced economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this investigation is to analyze the relationship between the variance of patenting propensity across different industrial sectors and the possible determinants of that variance in 10 economies (US, Canada, Japan, France, Italy, Germany, UK, Finland, Netherlands and Denmark). Until recently such analysis would not be possible. Patent statistics have been organized according to a technological classification, while

Manuel Mira Godinho; Guilherme Rebelo

447

Trends in the Development of Technology and Engineering Education in Emerging Economies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the nature of technology and engineering education provision in developing economies, focusing on Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on recent developments in the shake up and implementation of new measures to call for quality technology and engineering education in the country,…

Adegbuyi, P. A. O.; Uhomoibhi, J. O.

2008-01-01

448

Estimating the Size and Structure of the Underground Commercial Sex Economy in Eight Major US Cities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2010, the National Institute of Justice funded the Urban Institutes Justice Policy Center to measure the size and structure of the underground commercial sex economy in eight major US cities. The goals of this study were to: (1) derive a more rigorous ...

B. Kahn C. Kotonias D. Mayer M. Dank P. M. Downey

2014-01-01

449

Research of the coordinated development on the economy and ecological environment in northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainable development in northwest China is paid a great attention to because of its frangible ecological environment and the laggard economic development. Sustainable development is mainly the coordination between regional economic development and the ecological environment improvement. Based on building the economy-environment index system of northwest China, in this paper the weights of all the economic and environmental index

Cuiyun Wang; Bo Shao; Wenyong Feng; Gang Li; Chunhui Zhang

2007-01-01

450

The Role of the Economy Structure in the U.S. - China Bilateral Trade Deficit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effect of the economy structure on the U.S. - China bilateral trade deficit as alternative to the influence of the exchange rate fluctuation. The revealed comparative advantage indices are proposed as the measure of the relative structural differences between two countries due to factor endowments and technology. A Bayesian Stochastic Search Variable Selection method is applied

Oleksiy Tokovenko; Won W. Koo

2011-01-01

451

New perspective on product design in the period of low carbon economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, the author presents more reasonable and more comprehensive location on product design by analyzing the characteristics of low carbon economy time, she puts forward Four-dimensional product design standards consisting of practical, aesthetic, emotional and ecological standards which accord with the economic development model and she also proposes “from Pregnancy to the afterlife” ecological view of product

Guo Xiya; Meng Xiang

2010-01-01

452

Adventure Travel and Sustainable Tourism in the Peripheral Economy of Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adventure travel is one of the fastest growing but least understood forms of international tourism. Its role in the economic development of remote world places and its impact on local society, economy, and the environment are not fully comprehended, even though adventure tourism has been adopted enthusiastically by many Third World nations. The paper analyzes adventure travel in Nepal and

David N. Zurick

1992-01-01

453

Some Evidence on Demand Fluctuations and the Increased Stability of the Post-war American Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the implications of a sticky-wage contracting model that can explain both the decline in wage and price flexibility and the increased stability of the postwar American economy. The reduction in the size of demand shocks in the postwar period has increased agents' incentives to write longer contracts. Though longer contracts have rendered real activity more responsive to

Magda Kandil

1992-01-01

454

Real-time forecasts of economic activity for Latin American economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macroeconomic policy decisions in real-time are based on the assessment of current and future economic conditions. Crucially, these assessments are made difficult by the presence of incomplete and noisy data. The problem is more acute for emerging market economies, where most economic data are released infrequently with a (sometimes substantial) lag. This paper evaluates nowcasts and forecasts of real GDP

Philip Liu; Troy Matheson; Rafael Romeu

2012-01-01

455

Sowing strategic alliances in the Americas : The sinicization of Latin American economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of increasing trade and investment relations between China and Latin American economies. The paper focuses on the threats and opportunities that permeate this relationship. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper surveys existing literature and secondary data in Spanish, Portuguese, and in English to investigate the different ramifications of this dynamic

Raul Gouvea; Sul Kassicieh

2009-01-01

456

The Role of Community Colleges in the New Economy. Spotlight on Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the changes in the American economy during the past century, highlighting its evolution from an industrial economic base to a system of high-performance work organizations. Describes the increased importance of postsecondary education and the role of community colleges in providing both academic and applied skills training. (21…

Carnevale, Anthony P.; Desrochers, Donna M.

1997-01-01

457

Predictive and analytical investigation of the intersectoral ratios dynamics in the Russian economy real sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A balance-based econometric model is presented that has been developed for the analysis of the dynamics and structure of the\\u000a intersectoral relations in the domestic economy; the methodology and results of its use in applied economic calculations are\\u000a described.

N. V. Suvorov; E. E. Balashova

2010-01-01

458

Other Transitions: Multiple Economies of Moscow Households in the 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines survival strategies of urban households in post-socialist cities during the transition from the Soviet system to a market economy. The article links the outcomes of systemic transformation to the daily lives of households and connects urban change induced by mass privatization to class and gender processes inside the households. These “other transitions” in everyday class and gender

Marianna Pavlovskaya

2004-01-01

459

New insights into the internationalization of producer services: organizational strategies and spatial economies for global headhunting firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses the exemplar of global headhunting firms to provide new insights into the intricacies of internationalization and related ‘spatial economiesof producer services in the world economy. In particular, we unpack the complex relationships between the organizational rationale for, the selected mode of, and future benefits gained by internationalization, as headhunting firms seek and create new geographical markets.

James R Faulconbridge; Sarah J E Hall; Jonathan V Beaverstock

2008-01-01

460

Influence and Countermeasure of Green Barrier to Chinese Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Now environment protection and resources conservation is rising on a global scale and carried out a green wave protection. The green rampart that formed on foreign trade was exerted a tremendous influences for product export in China. Therefore, the development countermeasure is urgent to be studied in order to help the industries in China placidly pass through the crisis. Based

Li Zheng-yue; Deng He-ping; Peng Wan-xi; Zhang Xu; Li Kai-fu; Fan Zhi-cai; Peng Wen-li

2009-01-01

461

Coke formation and carbon atom economy of methanol-to-olefins reaction.  

PubMed

The methanol-to-olefins (MTO) process is becoming the most important non-petrochemical route for the production of light olefins from coal or natural gas. Maximizing the generation of the target products, ethene and propene, and minimizing the production of byproducts and coke, are major considerations in the efficient utilization of the carbon resource of methanol. In the present work, the heterogeneous catalytic conversion of methanol was evaluated by performing simultaneous measurements of the volatile products generated in the gas phase and the confined coke deposition in the catalyst phase. Real-time and complete reaction profiles were plotted to allow the comparison of carbon atom economy of methanol conversion over the catalyst SAPO-34 at varied reaction temperatures. The difference in carbon atom economy was closely related with the coke formation in the SAPO-34 catalyst. The confined coke compounds were determined. A new type of confined organics was found, and these accounted for the quick deactivation and low carbon atom economy under low-reaction-temperature conditions. Based on the carbon atom economy evaluation and coke species determination, optimized operating conditions for the MTO process are suggested; these conditions guarantee high conversion efficiency of methanol. PMID:22359363

Wei, Yingxu; Yuan, Cuiyu; Li, Jinzhe; Xu, Shutao; Zhou, You; Chen, Jingrun; Wang, Quanyi; Xu, Lei; Qi, Yue; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Zhongmin

2012-05-01

462

Air cargo services in Asian industrialising economies: Electronics manufacturers and the strategic use of advanced producer services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of advanced producer services is critical to manufacturing firms in industrialising economies, but most research on such services has been situated in wealthy post-industrial economies. We examine the use of one class of advanced producer services - those provided by the air cargo industry - by manufacturers in Southeast Asia. The air cargo industry has grown rapidly in

John T. Bowen Jr.; Thomas R. Leinbach

2003-01-01

463

The role of support programmes and policies in improving SMEs environmental performance in developed and transition economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) form a strong basis of the economy in developed countries and are of growing importance in the transition economies. At the same time, SMEs significantly contribute to environmental degradation. This paper draws on a pilot survey of SMEs in the London area, examining their environmental concerns, constraints to environmental performance improvements, key incentives to

Polina Pimenova; Rita van der Vorst

2004-01-01

464

The Impact of the College on the Local Economy. Research Report No. 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant aspects of the economic relationships between the Harrisburg (Pennsylvania) Area Community College and the local community were studied, and quantitative information regarding such relationships is presented. The impact on business was measured in terms of increased cash flows in the local economy. Both an inclusive and a conservative…

Selgas, James W.; And Others

465

The Political Economy of Government Responsiveness: Theory and Evidence from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determinants of government responsiveness to its citizens is a key issue in political economy. Here we develop a model based on the solution of political agency problems. Having a more informed and politically active electorate strengthens incentives for governments to be responsive. This suggests that there is a role both for democratic institutions and the mass media in ensuring

Timothy J. Besley; Robin Burgess

2001-01-01

466

The Political Economy Of Government Responsiveness: Theory And Evidence From India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determinants of government responsiveness to its citizens are a key issue in political economy. Here, we develop a model based on the solution of political agency problems. Having a more informed and politically active electorate strengthens incentives for governments to be responsive. This suggests that there is a role for both democratic institutions and mass media in ensuring that

Timothy J. Besley; Robin Burgess

2002-01-01

467

The Simple Geometry of Transmission and Stabilization in Closed and Open Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an introduction to the recent literature on macroeconomic stabilization in closed and open economies. We present a stylized theoretical framework, and illustrate its main properties with the help of an intuitive graphical apparatus. Among the issues we discuss: optimal monetary policy and the welfare gains from macroeconomic stabilization; international transmission of real and monetary shocks and the

Giancarlo Corsetti; Paolo Pesenti

2009-01-01

468

Economy on the Minds of For Profit CEOs: Annual Status Report on For Profit Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considering how bad the economy was in 2009, North America's 50 largest for profit child care chains fared pretty well. In fact, about half of these organizations actually expanded their capacity in 2009--although the expansion was not spectacular, averaging just under 3%. About one-fourth of the organizations maintained their capacity and a…

Neugebauer, Roger

2010-01-01

469

The Doha Round of the World Trade Organization and Agricultural Markets Liberalization: Impacts on Developing Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the impacts of multilateral removal of all border taxes and farm programs and their distortions on developing economies, using a world agriculture partial equilibrium model. We quantify changes in prices, trade flows, and production locations. Border measures and farm programs both affect world trade, but trade barriers have the largest impact. Following removal, trade expansion is substantial for

Jay Fabiosa; John Beghin; Stéphane de Cara; Amani Elobeid; Cheng Fang; Murat Isik; Holger Matthey; Alexander Saak; Pat Westhoff; D. Scott Brown; Brian Willott; Daniel Madison; Seth Meyer; John Kruse

2005-01-01

470

Doha Round of the World Trade Organization and Agricultural Markets Liberalization: Impacts on Developing Economies, The  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the impacts of multilateral removal of all border taxes and farm programs and their distortions on developing economies, using a world agriculture partial equilibrium model. We quantify changes in prices, trade flows, and production locations. Border measures and farm programs both affect world trade, but trade barriers have the largest impact. Following removal, trade expansion is substantial for

Jacinto F. Fabiosa; John C. Beghin; Stephane DeCara; Amani Elobeid; Cheng Fang; Murat Isik; Holger Matthey; Alexander Saak

2002-01-01

471

From a fossil-fuel to a biobased economy: the politics of industrial biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial biotechnology involves the replacement of petrochemical processes and inputs with more energy-efficient and renewable biological ones. It is already being used in the production of biofuels and bioplastics and has been touted as a means by which modern economies can be shifted toward a more competitive, low-carbon growth model. This paper does two things. First, it outlines the policy

Ben Richardson

2012-01-01

472

Creating Prosperity: The Role of Higher Education in Driving the UK's Creative Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarises the findings of research commissioned by Universities UK into the role and contribution of higher education in the UK's creative economy. The research gathered evidence from existing data and research as well as case study analysis and contributions from industry, higher education and public sector partners. The findings…

Universities UK, 2010

2010-01-01

473

Widening the Gap: Pre-University Gap Years and the "Economy of Experience"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Embarking upon a pre-university gap year is an increasingly popular option among British students. Drawing on Brown et al.'s work on positional conflict theory and the increased importance of the "economy of experience", this paper seeks to explore this growing popularity and argues that the gap year's enhanced profile raises important questions…

Heath, Sue

2007-01-01

474

Climate change and the new world economy: Implications for the nature and timing of policy responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world has recently moved to a new economic growth path, driven by the rapid growth of developing country economies. How this new path affects the vulnerability of key biophysical systems and its resulting policy implications are assessed using a risk-based approach. Greenhouse gas emissions based on current policies are projected to 2030, with aggressive reductions from 2030 to 2100.

Peter Sheehan; Roger N. Jones; Ainsley Jolley; Benjamin L. Preston; Matthew Clarke; Paul J. Durack; Sardar M. N. Islam; Penny H. Whetton

2008-01-01

475

15073 PS - The Political Economy of European Neighbourhood Relations Course Outline and Readings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This course analyses the development and implementation of the European Union's Neighbourhood Policy from a political economy perspective. While the course deals principally with EU foreign policy, the aim is to identify the core interests of actors inside and outside the EU and to assess how these interact in the institutional settings created to manage neighbourhood relations. Themes include the

Jean Monnet; Michael Bolle; Mark Furness

476

Pass-Through of Exchange Rates and Import Prices to Domestic Inflation in Some Industrialized Economies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines the impact of exchange rates and import prices on the domestic PPI and CPI in selected industrialized economies. The empirical model is a VAR incorporating a distribution chain of pricing. Estimating the model over the post- Bretton Wo...

J. McCarthy

2000-01-01

477

The Impact of Community Colleges on Michigan and Its Economy: Preliminary Technical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1981, a study was conducted to determine the collective impact of Michigan's 29 public community colleges on the state's economy. Differing from other economic impact studies in its emphasis on human capital as an economic resource, rather than on institutional spending and investment, the study involved the examination of existing statewide…

Packwood, Gene; And Others

478

Real-time Forecasts of Economic Activity for Latin American Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macroeconomic policy decisions in real-time are based the assessment of current and future economic conditions. These assessments are made difficult by the presence of incomplete and noisy data. The problem is more acute for emerging market economies, where most economic data are released infrequently with a (sometimes substantial) lag. This paper evaluates \\

Rafael Romeu; Troy Matheson; Philip Liu

2011-01-01

479

Growth, Welfare, and Public Infrastructure: A General Equilibrium Analysis of Latin American Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical studies have found infrastructure investment important for a country¡¯s economic performance, but have not provided clear guidelines for infrastructure policy or its effects on other macroeconomic variables. This paper develops a general equilibrium model of a small open economy to study the effects of public infrastructure on output, private investment and welfare. The model is parameterized and solved for

Felix K. Rioja

2001-01-01

480

Public procurement and regional development: The impact of local authority expenditure on local economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial patterns of public expenditure and government procurement have a significant impact on economic and social development in localities and regions across the EU. In the UK, there has been particular attention given to variations in government spending across regions and the effects of competitive tendering processes and EU State Aid rules on regional economies (Bennet 2006; Pinch and Patterson,

Frank Peck; Ignazio Cabras

2008-01-01

481

The pattern of government expenditure and the real exchange rate in a small open economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1974, the variance of the real exchange rate in both developing and developed countries has increased substantially. Recently, this phenomenon has received considerable attention in the literature due to its relevance for stabilization policy. This dissertation examines the relationship between fiscal policy and the real exchange rate in the context of a small open economy. Two models are developed,

Iman Bulbul Ammus

1990-01-01

482

Submicron scaling of HBTs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation of heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) bandwidth with scaling is reviewed. High bandwidths are obtained by thinning the base and collector layers, increasing emitter current density, decreasing emitter contact resistivity, and reducing the emitter and collector junction widths. In mesa HBTs, minimum dimensions required for the base contact impose a minimum width for the collector junction, frustrating device scaling.

Mark J. W. Rodwell; Miguel Urteaga; Thomas Mathew; Dennis Scott; Dino Mensa; Q. Lee; James Guthrie; Y. Betser; Suzanne C. Martin; R. P. Smith; S. Jaganathan; Sundararajan Krishnan; Stephen I. Long; R. Pullela; Bipul Agarwal; Uddalak Bhattacharya; Lorene Samoska; Mattias Dahlstrom

2001-01-01

483

Estimating the Economic Impact of a College or University on a Nonlocal Economy. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents an expanded methodology for economic impact analysis to measure the impact of a community college, South Plains College (SPC), Texas, on a specified nonlocal economy. The research had four parts. First an economic impact study was conducted for SPC and its impact on the local economy of Hockley County, where the college is…

Johnson, Troy

484

Universities and Education in the Post-Recession Economy: Report of a Seminar Organised by Universities UK. Seminar Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Universities UK organised a seminar in Brighton in April 2010, bringing together vice-chancellors, researchers and policymakers to take a close look at the implications of the global and national economic crisis for both the UK economy and higher education. It also examined the changing nature of student demand in a post-recession economy. This…

Ryan, Conor

2010-01-01

485

Control options for exhaust gas aftertreatment and fuel economy of GDI engine systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have superiority over port fuel injection (PFI) engines on fuel economy at the expense of extra emissions, especially NOx. In lean operations, the traditional three-way-catalyst (TWC) is no longer effective for NOx aftertreatment. As a result, lean NOx trap (LNT) is introduced for the extensive NOx aftertreatment. In homogeneous operations, the HC and CO emission

Zhengmao Ye; Liguang Li

2003-01-01

486

The American Economy: A Fuse About to Blow? Fundamentals of Free Enterprise, No. 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for high school economics students as a public service project of the American Fletcher National Bank, the booklet examines the heavy burdens placed on our political-economic system and compares our economy to an overloaded electrical system about to "blow a fuse." In the last two decades, America has become a self-indulgent society which…

American Fletcher National Bank and Trust Co., Indianapolis, IN.

487

Linking infrastructure and urban economy: simulation of water-disruption impacts in earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a simulation approach to modeling the linkages between physical infrastructure systems and the urban economy is developed. A simulation approach based on probabilistically specifying the key model relationships is effective for situations that involve substantial uncertainty, and is particularly suited to assessing risk from natural hazards. In this paper, a model of economic losses from earthquakes is

Stephanie E Chang; Walter D Svekla; Masanobu Shinozuka

2002-01-01

488

Female Entrepreneurs in Transitional Economies: a comparative study of Businesswomen in Nigeria and China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the theme of women entrepreneurs, business and gender in two transitional economies, namely Nigeria and China. As the OECD Conferences on Women Entrepreneurs in Small and Medium Enterprises held in Paris in 1997 and 2000 pointed out, a situation where women are discriminated against in business has negative economic, social and political consequences for any country

Beverley M. Kitching

489

Paths to a Green World: The Political Economy of the Global Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This comprehensive and accessible book fills the need for a political economy view of global environmental politics, focusing on the ways international economic processes affect environmental outcomes. It examines the main actors and forces shaping global environmental management, particularly in the developing world. Moving beyond the usual emphasis on international agreements and institutions, it strives to capture not only academic

Jennifer Clapp; Peter Dauvergne

490

Paths to a Green World: The Political Economy of the Global Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This comprehensive and accessible text fills the need for a political economy view of global environmental politics, focusing on the ways key economic processes affect environmental outcomes. It examines the main actors and forces shaping global environmental management, particularly in the developing world. Moving beyond the usual academic emphasis on international agreements and institutions, it strives to integrate debates within

Jennifer Clapp; Peter Dauvergne

491

Intra-Sectoral Diversity: A Political Economy of Thai Private Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Private higher education (PHE) worldwide has been a rapid development in the last several decades. The private sector will continue to grow, diversify and undoubtedly play a significant role in the political economy of higher education. Nevertheless, systematically empirical studies on the trio relationships among PHE, institutional diversity and…

Praphamontripong, Prachayani

2010-01-01

492

Bollywood and the Indian Premier League (IPL): the political economy of Bollywood's new blockbuster  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper interrogates the interrelationships between sports and popular culture to facilitate an understanding of the converging areas between political and economic forces and cultural practices operative in the global marketplace. Using a critical political economy approach, it examines the innovatively formatted and media-friendly Indian Premier League (IPL) cricket tournament and the Bollywood stars who are involved as owners and

Azmat Rasul; Jennifer M. Proffitt

2011-01-01

493

Determining Value in Higher Education: The Future of Instructional Technology in a Wal-Mart Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses value and the economy and examines the changing definition of educational value regarding higher education. Trends in instructional technology resulting from changes in expected educational value are described, including resource sharing, specialization, market expansion, privatization, easier human-machine interfaces, feedback systems,…

Tremblay, Wilfred

1992-01-01

494

Revised Projections of Fuel Economy and Technology for Highway Vehicles. Task 22. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Both the methodology used to forecast fuel economy and the technological and tooling plan data central to the derivation of the forecast for all those vehicle classes are updated here. Forecasts were prepared for a scenario where oil prices stay flat thro...

1983-01-01

495

The Political Economy of the Mexican Farm Labor Program, 1942-64  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mexican Farm Labor Program brought in an unprecedented number of Mexican workers to perform harvesting jobs in U.S. agriculture between 1942 and 1964. A political economy perspective is used to examine the process by which U.S. agriculture has come to depend on Mexican workers.

Kim, Joon

2004-01-01

496

The Knowledge Economy in the Context of European Union Policy on Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, EU policy-makers have acknowledged the role of universities in supporting the knowledge economy and a common approach on higher education has been evolving. The problem faced is one single market with widely varying higher education systems. The ongoing drive to examine, assess and change the existing status quo began with the…

Zantout, Hind; Dabir-Alai, Parviz

2007-01-01

497

The Effect of Taxes on Labor Supply in the Underground Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses micro data from a randomized survey carried out in the metropolitan area of Quebec City, Canada, to analyze the decision to evade taxes and work in the 'underground' economy. The results indicate that taxes distort labor-market activities away from the regular sector to the underground sector but the distortion is small for the average worker. The distortion

Thomas Lemieux; Bernard Fortin; Pierre Frechette

1994-01-01

498

Inflation, Asset Prices, and the Term Structure of Interest Rates in Monetary Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers a tractable monetary asset pricing model. In monetary economies, the price level, inflation, asset prices, and the real and nominal interest rates have to be determined simultaneously and in relation to each other. This link allows us to relate in closed form each of the dependent entities to the underlying real and monetary variables. Among other features

Gurdip S Bakshi; Zhiwu Chen

1996-01-01

499

Inflation, Asset Prices and the Term Structure of Interest Rates in Monetary Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers a tractable monetary asset pricing model. In monetary economies, the price level, inflation, asset prices, and the real and nominal interest rates have to be determined simultaneously and in relation to each other. This link allows us to relate in closed form each of the dependent entities to the underlying real and monetary variables. Among other features

Gurdip S. Bakshi; Zhiwu Chen

1998-01-01

500

Programming for Efficiency: The Effects of Motion Economy on Vocational Tasks for Adults with Severe and Profound Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Principles of motion economy were assessed with two vocational tasks for two adults with severe to profound mental retardation. The motion economy-based task analysis was not superior in acquisition, but once each task was mastered, it enhanced fluency across both tasks for both participants. (Author/DB)

Belfiore, Phillip J.; Toro-Zambrana, Wanda

1995-01-01