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Working in groups of three, students analyze economiesofscale. Each student constructs an individual short-run ATC curve, then the three students collaborate to determine if there are economies or diseconomies ofscale and to create the long run ATC.
With the changing environment for medical practice, physician practice models will continue to evolve. These "supergoups'' create economiesofscale, but their advantage is not only in the traditional economic sense. Practices with enough size are able to better meet the challenges of medical practice with increasing regulatory demands, explosion of clinical knowledge, quality and information technology initiatives, and an increasingly tight labor market. Smaller practices can adapt some of these strategies selectively. Depending on the topic, smaller practices should think differently about how to approach the challenges of practice. PMID:19038641
This report has three primary goals: to describe sources of inefficiency in physician practice and review previous literature on these inefficiencies; to empirically estimate economiesofscale in physician practice; and to draw implications for Medicare ...
This paper analyzes the cost of state prisons as a function of state prison populations across U.S. states. Historically and intuitively, a given state's prison expenditures have risen as more inmates enter the prison system. Through panel regression analysis, a detailed understanding is obtained of how state prisons experience economiesofscale as inmate populations rise over time. Our model
Home care (HC) demonstration projects have assessed the results of an existing decentralized system rather than evaluate the consequences of changing the system. This paper examines the potential for improving HC cost performance through economiesofscale and how these economies can be introduced into HC operations with expansion and consolidation of the market. Theoretical, empirical and policy issues discussed include: (a) specification of the elements of structural redesign of HC service programs focusing on the creation of joint services; (b) a critique of the current method of estimating the size of the market for long term care; (c) empirical measures of uneven HC market size and density with implications for the opportunity to apply economiesofscale; (d) the major institutional obstacles to creating the requisite coordination for joint HC services and policy recommendations to overcome these obstacles; (e) housing settings for joint services; (f) HC practices embodying economiesofscale in Sweden. Joint services are especially applicable in older northern cities with a high density and a large number of elderly persons. This delivery mode provides a cost savings logic for expanding and consolidating home care services. PMID:10313359
In the next 50 yr, the world will need to develop hundreds of gigawatts of non-fossil-fuel energy sources for production of electricity and fuels. Nuclear fusion can probably provide much of the required energy economically, if large single-unit power plants are acceptable. Large power plants are more common than most people realize: There are already many multiple-unit power plants producing
The presence ofeconomiesofscale has been often taken for granted in the discussion of many eGovernment implementation issues. This paper discusses this assumption by showing that empirical evidence in favor ofeconomiesofscale may be considered context dependent. Although the analysis carried out does not lead to discard the presence ofeconomiesofscale in the provision
This study empirically estimates a multiple-product fixed total cost function and output relationship for liberal arts colleges in the United States. Statistical results based on data for 295 private liberal arts colleges suggest that there are both economiesofscale and economiesof scope in higher education. Furthermore, product-specific economiesof scope do exist for all output levels and activities.
The authors attempt to reanalyze the Harris-Todaro migration model in the presence ofeconomiesofscale in the manufacturing sector, focusing on economiesofscale that are external to a given firm but internal to the industry. PMID:12280768
The Food Stamp Act of 1977 requires that Food Stamp benefits be adjusted for household size and that the adjustment 'take into account economiesofscale.' The report reviews both the concepts and the substantial body of research on establishing economy o...
The study examines the multiproduct nature of water supply relative to economiesofscale and scope. The water utility is viewed as a multiproduct firm providing residential and nonresidential services with spatial variation. There are no significant econ...
There has been a perception that U.S. trunk airlines had an inherent cost advantage over smaller regional airlines because ofeconomiesofscale. We have formulated a general model of airline costs, which we estimate by using panel data on large and small airlines. Differences in scale are shown to have no role in explaining higher costs for small airlines.
Douglas W. Caves; Laurits R. Christensen; Michael W. Tretheway
|Economiesofscale are often cited in the higher education literature as being one of the drivers for the deployment of e-learning. They are variously used to support the notions that higher education is becoming more global, that national policy towards e-learning should promote scale efficiencies, that larger institutions will be better able to…
Hospitals consume a large share of health resources in developing countries, but little is known about the efficiency of their scale and scope. The Ministry of Health of Vietnam and World Bank collected data in 1996 from the largest sample ever surveyed in a developing country. The sample included 654 out of 815 public hospitals, six categories of hospitals and a broad range of sizes. These data were used to estimate total variable cost as a function of multiple products, such as admissions and outpatient visits. We report results for two specifications: (1) estimates with a single variable for beds and (2) estimates with interaction terms for beds and the category of hospital. The coefficient estimates were used to calculate marginal costs, short-run returns to the variable factor, economiesofscale, and economiesof scope for each category of hospital. There were important differences across categories of hospitals. The measure ofeconomiesofscale was 1.09 for central general and 1.05 for central specialty hospitals with a mean of 516 and 226 beds, respectively, indicating roughly constant returns to scale. The measure was well below one for both provincial general and specialty hospitals with a mean of 357 and 192 beds, respectively, indicating large diseconomies ofscale. The measure was 1.16 for district hospitals and 0.89 other ministry hospitals indicating modest economies and diseconomies ofscale, respectively. There were large economiesof scope for central and provincial general hospitals. We conclude that in a system of public hospitals in a developing country that followed an administrative structure, the variable cost function differed significantly across categories of hospitals. Economiesofscale and scope depended on the category of the hospital in addition to the number of beds and volume of output. PMID:15087154
Data envelopment analysis (DEA) techniques have been applied to the assessing efficiency and productivity among individual hospitals. In this article, we employ DEA to address whether economiesofscale exist among hospital markets by first assessing individual hospitals operating in 2005 in the State of Florida and then by comparing hospital markets' efficiency relative to each other. The interest in hospital markets stems from issues relating to mergers among hospitals or the reallocation of services (inputs) among hospitals in a market area, particularly as occupancy rates and reimbursements are tending to fall. Facing more competition and stringent financial conditions, hospitals would benefit from decreasing costs by exploiting economiesofscale. PMID:20973375
The measurement ofeconomiesofscale in the tourism industry has not been done to this point, as tourism is not a specific industry according to international statistical standards. Among many industries related to tourism, four sectors (accommodation, transport, retail trade and recreational services) across six states and two territories from 1997 to 2007 are studied as they contribute nearly
The measurement ofeconomiesofscale in the tourism industry has not been done to this point, as tourism is not a specific industry according to international statistical standards. Among many industries related to tourism, four sectors (accommodation, transport, retail trade and recreational services) across six states and two territories from 1997 to 2007 are studied as they contribute nearly
Using a modified hybrid short-term operating cost function and a national sample of nursing homes in 1994, the authors examined the scaleeconomiesof nursing home care. The results show that scaleeconomies exist for Medicare postacute care, with an elasticity of -0.15 and an optimal scaleof around 4,000 patient days annually. However, more than 68 percent of nursing homes in the analytic sample produced Medicare days at a level below the optimal scale. The financial pressures resulting from the implementation of a prospective payment system for Medicare skilled nursing facilities may further reduce the quantity of Medicare days served by nursing homes. In addition, the results show that chain-owned nursing homes do not have lower short-term operating costs than do independent facilities. This indicates that the rationale behind recent increasing horizontal integration among nursing homes may not be seeking greater cost efficiency but some other consideration. PMID:15035856
|This paper estimates economiesofscale and scope for 36 Australian universities using a multiple-input, multiple-output cost function over the period 1998-2006. The three inputs included in the analysis are full-time equivalent academic and non-academic staff and physical capital. The five outputs are undergraduate, postgraduate and PhD…
Two important issues in the economics of advertising are media substitutability in generating sales and scaleeconomies in advertising. If media are substitutes then partial bans, e.g., broadcast bans on cigarettes or alcoholic beverages, may be ineffective; and mergers among radio and TV firms, currently widespread in the U.S. and Mexico, are unlikely to result in market power in setting
Barry J. Seldon; R. Todd Jewell; Daniel M. O’Brien
The systems technology and cost particulars of using multipurpose platforms versus several sizes of bus type free flyer spacecraft to accomplish the same space experiment missions. Computer models of these spacecraft bus designs were created to obtain data relative to size, weight, power, performance, and cost. To answer the question of whether or not large scale does produce economy, the dominant cost factors were determined and the programmatic effect on individual experiment costs were evaluated.
Under the assumption of random number selection, higher moments of a lotto ticket payoff seem to exhibit a peculiar behaviour; variance (and probably skewness) rises up to some number of bets before approaching its limit from above. A close inspection of the ‘simplest’ expression obtained by means of a hypergeometric summation algorithm suggests that the payoff variance (and probably skewness)
|This paper traces the development of federal regulations of the broadcast industry aimed at controlling the industry's monopoly abuses within the United States, and describes the development of the industry's major network domination of the media markets and audiences throughout the world. Suggested reasons for this transnational domination…
Effective information management and other shared costs can reduce agencies' operating expenses as well as make new products available while providing opportunities to gain a competitive advantage. By taking a close look at ways of controlling documentation, such as the use of a management services organization for information system/computer-based management, agencies can prepare for the challenges of the next century. PMID:10185404
Both the theory and application ofeconomiesofscale in health care are reviewed. Major papers include Marketing and Research and Development; Shared Services -- Their Production and Coordination by Hospital Associations and their Effect on Economiesof ...
A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economyofscale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economyofscale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures. PMID:20595751
This study examines the issue ofeconomiesofscale for home health agencies. A quadratic cost function is estimated utilizing a 1982 national data set based on Medicare Cost Reports for 2000 home health agencies. This paper concludes that neither economiesofscale nor scope are substantial in the provision of home health services. PMID:10312164
The purpose of this study was to extract data from existing regulatory cost analyses in order to investigate the existence ofscaleeconomies in regulatory compliance for a representative sample of regulations.
The study is concerned with the existence ofeconomiesofscale in the production of data processing and other computing services, and the possible regulatory and public policy implications of such economies. An analysis was made of data on nearly 10,000 ...
The Health Care Financing Administration has demonstrated an interest in the economiesofscale phenomenon as it might apply to reimbursement methodologies. This paper provides a critical evaluation of the economiesofscale research methodology and a critical review of both the analytical (LRAC estimates) and the implied economiesofscale (spreading fixed costs) literature. Given that estimates of Minimum Optimum Scale are based on individual coefficients generated by a regression model, this work illustrates the danger inherent in this approach and examines the volatility of the coefficient values and their dependence upon model specification. The ambiguity present in the literature addressing the LRAC estimates is thereby explained. An evaluation of the implied economiesofscale literature reveals that average fixed costs decrease with increasing levels of output. This should not be a surprise to anyone. The notion ofeconomiesofscale is implied in this literature but never addressed. It is suggested in this work that the means to better standardize the output of the hospital industry, the sine qua non ofeconomiesofscale research, is now available in various methodologies of patient grouping. PMID:10311269
Long, M J; Ament, R P; Dreachslin, J L; Kobrinski, E J
The type of analysis which should be conducted in the selection of the most economical electricity generation capacity expansion plan is discussed. Major points are that scaleeconomies are probably no longer as substantial factor as they were once though...
The Cobb-Douglas production function was used to empirically estimate whether or not larger hospitals have lower long-run average costs per bed than smaller hospitals. The results indicate that economiesofscale have evolved recently for non-teaching and teaching hospitals. It is believed that the primary market forces that may be creating economiesofscale in the hospital industry are decreasing revenues due to lower reimbursement and lower occupancy rates. As reimbursement and occupancy continue to trend down in the future, hospitals may seek additional economies to survive in an increasingly competitive and shrinking industry. PMID:10961834
This paper uses semiparametric methods to estimate the magnitude ofeconomiesofscale in 14 non-revenue producing cost centers in hospitals. There are substantial economiesofscale in small hospitals, but economies are exhausted in hospitals with over 10,000 discharges annually. In recent hospital mergers challenged by federal antitrust agencies, one or both hospitals had over 10,000 discharges, suggesting that efficiency gains in non-revenue producing cost centers will be small, and could easily be offset by nominal price increases. PMID:10176316
In this paper we argue that European airports, on average, are inefficient. Airline inefficiency (low load factors) appears to contribute significantly to airport inefficiency in terms of air passenger movements. We find that the average airport in Europe operates under constant returns to scale in “producing” air transport movements and under increasing returns to scale in producing passenger movements. These
OAK B202 LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY. The ''Hydrogen Economy'' will reduce petroleum imports and greenhouse gas emissions. However, current commercial hydrogen production processes use fossil fuels and releases carbon dioxide. Hydrogen produced from nuclear energy could avoid these concerns. The authors have recently completed a three-year project for the US Department of Energy
K. R. SCHULTZ; L. C. BROWN; G. E. BESENBRUCH; C. J. HAMILTON
The call to enlarge or merge nursing homes in order to lower costs rests on the assumption that economiesofscale exist within the cost structure of these homes. Economiesofscale means that an increasing number of residents will reduce the costs per person needing care. However, the existence and the extent ofeconomiesofscale as such in nursing homes are the subject of controversy because studies of this issue performed in nursing homes up to now have yielded contradictory results. In this study, researchers demonstrated economiesofscale in Tyrolean, Austria, nursing homes and showed that the composition of the nursing home residents in respect to their care needs influences the development of the average costs. Changing the size of the facility and/or influencing the average care level can have a considerable influence on the progression of average costs in nursing homes. Cost reductions can be achieved by increasing the size of the facility or by improved distribution of the care levels of the persons in need of care. PMID:19331312
Hoess, Victoria; Bachler, Adi; Ostermann, Herwig; Staudinger, Roland
This paper analyzes the cost structure of the US airline industry after deregulation, finding that there exist economiesofscale at moderate levels of output but that they die off at high levels. The cost–share system is estimated using the Fourier functional form. The global approximation property of the Fourier form allows consistent inference throughout the range of the data.
The last decades have seen increased international attention paid to a number of features of artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM). The beneficial roles of ASM in society and the economy in many countries, however, are often overlooked, while its negative impacts dominate official press coverage and scholarly publications of the sector. Through a review of the available literature and statistics,
We amend the standard cost model to account for the role of financial capital in banking. The cost function is conditioned on the level of capital, but we model the demand for financial capital so that it can serve as a cushion against insolvency for potentially risk-averse managers and as a signal of risk for less informed outsiders. Scaleeconomies
This paper presents a new econometric framework that permits simultaneous estimation of price-cost margins, scaleeconomies and productivity from a panel of establishment data. The model contains only a few, economically interesting parameters to be estimated, but it is nevertheless consistent with a flexible (translog) underlying technology, quasi-fixed capital and the presence of persistent differences in productivity between establishments. The
Hall's (1988) approach to study price- cost margins is adapted to simultaneously estimate price- cost margins and scaleeconomies from a panel of plant level data. The paper shows how this methodology provides a very flexible framework with only a few, economically interesting parameters to be estimated. The econometric model is tested and estimated on different panels of plants, covering
After reviewing the literature on interaction in distance education\\/online learning contexts, I offer some suggestions for balancing students' and teachers' needs for greater interaction with the economiesofscale often achieved in such learning contexts. Specifically, I suggest that instructors' use of threaded online discussions and student small learning groups will maximize interaction while also enhancing learning. Additionally, I recommend
Based on panel data of China's provincial electronic information manufacturing industry since 2002, this paper discussed the Marshallian externalities, relatives industries convergence externalities and Jacobs externalities, found that at the provincial level, there are strong scaleeconomies and Jacobs externalities, however, there are Marshallian externalities and relatives industries convergence externalities which should be strong in high technology industries, that is
Subject\\/Research problem: Hospitals traditionally segregate resources into centralized functional departments such as diagnostic departments, ambulatory care centres, and nursing wards. In recent years this organizational model has been challenged by the idea that higher quality of care and efficiency in service delivery can be achieved when services are organized around patient groups. Examples are specialized clinics for breast cancer patients
Peter T. Vanberkel; Richard J. Boucherie; Erwin W. Hans; Johann L. Hurink; Nelly Litvak
In the field of industrial planning and planning for economic development, models for the preparation of consistent plans involving several sectors or industries have for some time been widely used. Examples of techniques used for consistency planning are methods based on national-income accounts, inputoutput models and material balance techniques. The construction of models for making efficient choices between the many
This paper tests for the existence and magnitude ofeconomiesofscale and scope as possible explanations for the recent observed trends in increasing health maintenance organization (HMO) scale (through merger and acquisition) and scope (through greater participation in public enrollee markets) using firm level data from a sample of California HMOs for the time period 1986-1992. The results suggest that economiesofscale provide a strong justification for mergers only in the case of relatively small HMOs (i.e. those with fewer than 115,000 enrollees), and economiesof scope do not explain the increasing HMO enrollment of public enrollees. PMID:10165264
Medical Group Management Association survey data from 1955 to 1999 was to assess fixed compared to variable cost and the existence ofeconomiesofscale among single- and multispecialty groups. During these intervening 44 years, physician operating costs were estimated to increase roughly three times the consumer price index. Among the multispecialty groups in 1999 at least 85% of total medical revenues were considered fixed costs when including a physician's compensation and fringe benefits. On the basis of relative value units (RVUs), 10 practitioners provided the maximum economiesofscale. However, for multispecialty groups, based on a physician's total compensation, optimal efficiency occurred between 26 and 50 doctors. Those multispecialty practices with 51 or more MDs are thought to be "less efficient" for several reasons: they deliver care on multisites, experience a higher percentage of managed care patients, and are less effective in controlling their peers' use of time and resources. PMID:12141021
While innovative trading tools have become an increasingly important aspect of the electricity business, the future of any firm in the industry boils down to a basic bread and butter issue of generating power at competitive costs. While buying electricity from power pools at spot prices instead of generating power to service load may be profitable for some firms in the short run, the need to efficiently utilize existing plants in the long run remains. These competitive forces will force the closure of many inefficient plants. As firms close plants and re-evaluate their generating asset portfolios, the basic structure of the industry will change. This article presents some quantitative analysis that sheds light on this unfolding transformation.
This paper examines two components of the hospital insurance market structure-market share and the absolute number of enrollees in Blue Cross plans-to ascertain whether market structure affects the willingness of Blue Cross plans to use cost control measure. Empirical estimates show that larger plans are more likely to use prospective reimbursement, pre-admission testing, and concurrent review. Market share, however, has a positive effect only on concurrent review. We suggest that there are economiesofscale to cost control efforts, but that high market share generally does not lead to increased cost-consciousness. PMID:7263273
This paper examines two components of the hospital insurance market structure-market share and the absolute number of enrollees in Blue Cross plans-to ascertain whether market structure affects the willingness of Blue Cross plans to use cost control measure. Empirical estimates show that larger plans are more likely to use prospective reimbursement, pre-admission testing, and concurrent review. Market share, however, has a positive effect only on concurrent review. We suggest that there are economiesofscale to cost control efforts, but that high market share generally does not lead to increased cost-consciousness.
|This empirical research examined scaleeconomiesof academic research libraries and developed a total cost function for estimating economiesofscale. Suggests that libraries in general, and academic research libraries in particular, are information provision organizations that provide multiproducts and multiservices. Findings indicate that…
This paper tests for scaleeconomies for police departments operating in Los Angeles County. Intergovernmental sharing in providing police services prevails within the county, suggesting that scaleeconomies exist in producing this public good. Empirical analysis here rejects the hypothesis that police output is produced under increasing returns, which would be an efficiency explanation for the large degree of consolidation
This book by the author of The Economyof the Roman Empire: Quantitative Studies considers important interlocking themes. Did the Roman Empire have a single 'national' economy, or was its economy localised and fragmented? Can coin and pottery survivals demonstrate the importance of long-distance trade? How fast did essential news travel by sea, and what does that imply about Mediterranean
This paper presents a statistical analysis of the hypothesis that there are economiesofscale in the collection of blood. Based on a national sample of Red Cross collection centers, an analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between total costs of obtaining blood as well as its recruitment and collection components, and explanatory factors such as local costs, mobile units used, and scaleof operations. Adjusting for other factors, our results indicate slight diseconomies ofscale at all levels of operation: that is, as scaleof operations increase, collection costs rise. Only the costs associated with the recruitment and collection functions are examined in this study. PMID:663995
This paper provides examples of both parametric and non-parametric tests for economiesofscale in the control of non-point pollution. Because field-level control costs and control effectiveness are uncertain from the regulator's perspective (due to the existence of asymmetric information), we test for economiesofscale in the correlations between control costs per unit abated (i.e., average control cost), on
Arthur J. Caplan; John Gilbert; Devalina Chatterjee
Following on from the work of Goldstein and Gronberg, it is argued that under certain conditions, internal economiesof scope form the bases for two types of agglomeration economy. These differ from two better known types, which are based on internal and external economiesofscale. A further two types of agglomeration economy are shown to derive from particular forms
The 'Hydrogen Economy' will reduce petroleum imports and greenhouse gas emissions. However, current commercial hydrogen production processes use fossil fuels and releases carbon dioxide. Hydrogen produced from nuclear energy could avoid these concerns. Th...
K. R. Schultz L. C. Brown G. E. Besenbruch C. J. Hamilton
Hematocrit (HCT), blood hemoglobin (HGB), and serum concentrations of 14 commonly measured serum con- stituents in mammals were extracted from 131 publications published within the last 35 years and then subjected to allo- metric study (Y = aWb, where Y is the characteristic studied, W is body mass, and b is the scaling exponent). HCT and HGB values decreased (b
Differences in labour productivity are dealt with for large French retail establishments. Influences ofscale, weekly opening rime, assortment composition, wage rate and share of counter service are considered. The relationship used is a result of analyses in the field of small retail establishments.
This paper investigates the scale and cost efficiency of the Swiss Post using an econometric approach. Our empirical analysis considers a sample of postal offices operating in the Italian-speaking part of Switzerland. The paper considers estimation of a log-log cost function employing a data set for the year 2001 with information on 47 small local post offices. The empirical evidence
This study finds that a sample of U.S.-based multinational corporations (MNCs) with heavy involvement in Europe is less frequently exposed to European currency risk than to non-European currency risk. Furthermore, 60% of the time, the MNCs without European exposure are found to have non-European exposure. These results are likely due to scaleeconomies in foreign exchange exposure hedging that recently
Using a two-sector–two-country model with aggregate scaleeconomies and unionisation, we show that optimal welfare state policy entails positive levels of unemployment benefits under free-trade and capital mobility. In this setting, economic integration does not reduce the revenue raising capacity of governments and thus does not lead to a race-to-the-bottom in social standards. Instead, trade and capital flows interact with
In practical environmental systems with the effects ofeconomies-of-scale (EOS), most relationships among different system components are nonlinear in nature, which can be described precisely only if a nonlinear model is employed. In this study, an interval nonlinear programming (INLP) model is developed and applied to the planning of a municipal solid waste (MSW) management system with EOS effects on
In this tutorial review the economiesof synthesis are analysed from both detailed and macroscopic perspectives, using case-studies from complex molecule synthesis. Atom, step, and redox economy are more than philosophical constructs, but rather guidelines, which enable the synthetic chemist to design and execute an efficient synthesis. Students entering the field of synthesis might find this tutorial helpful for understanding the subtle differences between these economic principles and also see real-world situations where such principles are put into practice.
Increasing energy efficiency is discussed as an effective way to protect the climate, even though this is frequently associated\\u000a with additional (investment) costs when compared to standard technologies. However, the investment costs of emerging energy-efficient\\u000a technologies can be reduced by economiesofscale and experience curve effects. This also brings about higher market penetration\\u000a by lowering market barriers. Experience curves
Daniela Jardot; Wolfgang Eichhammer; Tobias Fleiter
Coordinated supply chains are rapidly increasing in importance in global food markets. They are commercial tools for competitive strategies, assuring quality, food safety and better logistics. They serve high-end markets, especially in industrial countries, but increasingly also in developing countries in urban areas with relatively high incomes. However, the share of production in developing countries marketed through coordinated supply chains
In this paper I propose a series of hypotheses for further study that are related to potential negative impacts of non-traditional export agriculture (NTEA) on peasantfarmers in Central America. International lenders and donor agencies are promoting this diversification of agricultural exports as part of structural adjustment programs in the region, in order to increase foreign exchange earnings and raise the
There are M national markets each with a target demand known only to a probability distribution. If this target demand is not supplied, a penalty is imposed, quadratically increasing in the amount of shortage. Conversely product can be supplied in excess ...
Shrimp production in Thailand has historically been undertaken in the saline and brackish waters of coastal mangroves. In recent years rising demand and prices for shrimp and falling productivity of mangrove areas have motivated an expansion of shrimp production into the fresh-water margins of river estuaries that were previously used for rice cultivation. Generalised additive models, which offer a comprehensive
A stochastic capital budget was used to analyze the effect of net metering policies and carbon credits on profitability of anaerobic digesters on dairy farms in Pennsylvania. We analyzed three different farm sizesâ€”500, 1,000, and 2,000 cowsâ€”and considered the addition of a solids separator to the project. Results indicate that net metering policies and carbon credits increase the expected net
American hospitals face increasing constraints due to a variety of factors. Federal and state diagnostic-related group (DRG) prospective hospital pricing has caused tremendous fiscal pressure on hospitals; many face substantial financial deficits. We analyzed the volume of orthopedic surgical procedures performed by an individual orthopedic surgeon for all patients (N = 2,134) treated for a 3-year period at a large academic medical center; these surgeons were arbitrarily divided into low volume or high volume. Patients of low volume surgeons had a longer hospital length of stay and hospital cost (after correction for DRG case mix and severity of illness), greater financial risk under DRGs, and a poorer outcome, compared with patients of higher volume orthopedic surgeons. Pearson correlation showed an inverse relationship between cost per patient and physician volume for nonemergency patients -0.201 (P less than .0001), and emergency patients, -0.321 (P less than .0001). Although the reasons for these findings appeared multifactoral, they raise important issues related to orthopedic surgical hospital costs, access, and quality of care. In addition, they suggest that hospital cost for these patients (and perhaps outcome) may be related to orthopedic surgical volume, and that DRG hospital payment (on the margin) may affect future orthopedic surgical practice opportunities. PMID:2105484
Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) hospital payment has begun to squeeze hospitals financially and is likely to do so in the future. This study analyzed the relationship between the volume of urologic procedures by an individual urologist, hospital costs per patient, and outcome. We used a three-year DRG database of urology patients (N = 2,980) at an academic medical center to analyze these. Low-volume urologists (arbitrarily defined by us) had higher hospital costs per patient, financial losses versus profits under DRGs, and a poorer outcome when compared with high-volume urologists. Pearson correlation showed a positive relationship between cost per patient and physician volume for nonemergency patients (-0.129, p less than 0.0001) and emergency patients (-0.368, p less than 0.0001). This may have been explained (in part) by a greater severity of illness for patients of low-volume urologists. These findings suggest, however, that the volume of urologic procedures per urologist may be related to hospital resource consumption. The health care financing environment of the future should provide substantial interest in this finding for those involved in the consumption of urologic services. PMID:2122571
This study contributes new evidence on bank cost efficiency by computing efficiency measures from estimated cost functions. It overcomes deficiencies of previous studies by restricting the sample to homogeneous banks and by estimating Fourier flexible cost functions. A Fourier flexible cost function, which has the translog nested within it, can potentially approximate an arbitrary cost function well over the function's
The long-run cost curve is estimated from engineering data for ten ethanol plant sizes ranging from 2500 to 300,000 liters per day at May 1981 prices. Along with industrial costs, locational factors and transport costs are found to be important in minimizing total cost. Private costs of production are calculated for the Southeast and Northeast with and without government financing
As a result of successful domestic economic reforms combined wit h a fast-developing international market that is willing to purchase its labor-intense products, China's economy has grown approximately 10% per year over the past 28 years and the GDP per person has grown up to 10561RMB in 2004 1. This remarkable development has made China the second largest beneficiary of
Knowledge on the scaleeconomies drives the incentives of regulators, governments and individual utilities to scale-up or scale-down the scaleof operations. This paper considers the returns to scale (RTS) in non-convex frontier models. In particular, we evaluate RTS assumptions in a Free Disposal Hull model, which accounts for uncertainty and heterogeneity in the sample. Additionally, we provide a three-step
Knowledge on the scaleeconomies drives the incentives of regulators, governments and individual utilities to scale-up or\\u000a scale-down the scaleof operations. This paper considers the returns to scale (RTS) in non-convex frontier models. In particular,\\u000a we evaluate RTS assumptions in a Free Disposal Hull model, which accounts for uncertainty and heterogeneity in the sample.\\u000a Additionally, we provide a three-step
Investigation and study are made on influences of large-scale power service interruption over life, society and economy in the Tokyo metropolitan region. The area of service interruption covers Tokyo Metropolis and Prefectures of Kanagawa, Saitama and Chi...
The globalization of the world's economies has accelerated the breaking up of traditional habitats without providing new ones.\\u000a Even advanced industrial nations are experiencing de-industrialization without a clear sense of how to adapt to it. The uneven\\u000a levels of development among the world's nations and regions and the changing roles that define the interplay between the private\\u000a and public sector,
Economiesof size refer to the ability of a farm to lower costs of production by increasing production. Agriculture production displays an L-shaped average cost curve where costs are lower initially but reach a point where no further gains are achieved. Spreading fixed costs, bulk purchases, and marketing power are cited as reasons for economiesof size. Labor-reducing technologies may be the primary reason. Most studies do not include the external costs from prophylactic antibiotic use, impact on rural communities, and environmental damage associated with large-scale production. These can contribute to the economiesof size.
The Political Economyof Terrorism presents a widely accessible political economy approach to the study of terrorism. It applies economic methodology – theoretical and empirical – combined with political analysis and realities to the study of domestic and transnational terrorism. In so doing, the book provides both a qualitative and quantitative investigation of terrorism in a balanced up-to-date presentation that
We assess size and scope-related economies in the global advertising and marketing services business. A translog cost function is employed wherein a firm's costs vary according to its scale and two dimensions of the scope of its operations. Parameters of the model are estimated via three stage least squares using annual data for 1989-2001 for an unbalanced panel consisting of
A vast and continually expanding literature on economic globalization continues to generate a miasma of conflicting viewpoints and alternative discourses. This article argues that any understanding of the global economy must be sensitive to four considerations: (a) conceptual categories and labels carry with them the dis- cursive power to shape material processes; (b) multiple scalesof analysis must be incorporated
Peter Dicken; Philip F. Kelly; Kris Olds; Henry Wai-Chung Yeung
Today In New York, President Bush Delivered A Report On The State Of America's Economy. The President highlighted our strong and dynamic economy, and discussed the challenges we face in keeping the economy growing. The U.S. economy is resilient and respon...
This article analyses the differences and integration development of low carbon economy and industrial economy.? As an example of the method of dynamic alliance enterprises' cooperative competition,? combines the development characteristics and elements of low carbon economy, discusses and analyses the laws and characteristics of the development of low carbon industrial economy under the market economy condition .Besides,? it proposes
This paper revisits the definition of the knowledge economy (Beck, 1992) and investi- gates changes in knowledge-based industries between 1991 and 2001. Using the General Edu- cational Development Reasoning (GEDR) scale (1-6), non-farm industries were classified as higher knowledge-based industries (GEDR level ? 5). The 2001 U.S. national industry-specific occupational employment and wage estimates data were analyzed to identify knowledge-
Current developments in the field of comparative political economy have emphasised the role and influence of corporatist institutions in the determination of levels of economic and social performance. Without denying the importance of corporatism, the paper argues for the need to acknowledge and examine the impact of other institutions, such as central banks, on economic performance. Given the increasing role
Although much of the world still lives today, as always, under dictatorship, the behaviour of these regimes and of their leaders often appears irrational and mysterious. In The Political Economyof Dictatorship, Ronald Wintrobe uses rational choice theory to model dictatorships: their strategies for accumulating power, the constraints on their behavior, and why they are often more popular than is
The Political Economyof Terrorism, first published in 2006, presents a widely accessible approach to the study of terrorism that combines economic methods with political analysis and realities. It applies economic methodology - theoretical and empirical - with political analysis to the study of domestic and transnational terrorism. Included in the treatment are historical aspects of the phenomenon, a discussion
Drug abuse treatment has been pervasive in the US in the recent years, and the associated direct treatment costs approached $18 billion in 2001. However, there have been few published studies on scaleeconomies, and none on scope economies, for drug abuse treatment costs. We estimate a restricted cost function for 17 hospitals in Washington State that provided inpatient and\\/or
|The political economyof education treats education as a factor shaped by the power relations between different economic, political, and social groups. Specific topics discussed include the economic value of education, education as an allocator of economic roles, education and social class, education and income distribution, and education and…
This report is based on the findings of a mission to Colombia in September/October 1967, sponsored by the Tripartite Coffee Study. It provides a step-by-step summation and assessment of the coffee economyof Colombia, covering Colombia in world coffee tra...
This paper explores some of the reasons why the well-laid plans of the 1970's failed to be an effective bulwark against hunger. It is reflective rather than critical because we are faced with the certainty that just as surely as the famines of the 1980's followed the famines of the 1970's, the 1990's will again see drought, crop failure and, unless things change a great deal, famine as well. The analysis of the causes of hunger current in the 1970's can be summarized somewhat brutally as follows. Either there is not enough to eat, or what is available is poor in nutritional quality. Poor nutrition is synergistic with disease. Together they result in increasing debility and finally death. Famine is an unusual event, precipitated by this same triad of factors, on a catastrophic scale. The strategies which emerged from this analysis can be placed similarly under three broad headings. The first is that food production must be increased so that there is more available for everyone. The second is that national food security strategies should be developed and implemented. The third is that nutritional quality of people's diets should be improved. These are three major goals which have dominated international thinking for a decade. This paper argues that this analysis is at the very least incomplete and that the strategies based upon it have failed to make a marked impact on the risk vulnerable households face to famine. It goes on to suggest that, irrespective of the quantity and quality of food generally available, the households, poorer communities and poorer countries are able to lay claim to a share of what is available. These claims are mediated by a hierarchy of relationships--households within communities, communities within countries and countries in the world at large--and the nature of the relationships constitutes the 'political economy' within which famines arise and must be analysed. PMID:3737027
We revisit the determinants of price and quantity movements in the JEC (1880-1886) to incorporate weekly transportation prices of grain from the Great Lakes and Canals. The nature of pricing of the Great Lakes and Canals is shown to generate a clear deterministic demand cycle for the Railroad. Within a structural model of equilibrium pricing, as theoretically motivated in Haltiwanger
Formation of a unified European common market is one of the most exciting economic developments of the late twentieth century. But successful unification will depend crucially on financial integration, because both monetary and fiscal policy operate through the underlying financial structure. Yet financial institutions designed to perform specific social objectives in support of policy may not survive the competitive pressures
Most undergraduate and graduate business programs include a required introductory course in statistics with statistical inference as the primary focus. Developing the proper understanding of statistical inference tech- niques requires an ambitious ramp-up effort devoted to the study of probability theory, discrete and continuous probability distributions, and the central limit theorem. Mastering this large amount of demanding material in a
Hospitals face an increasingly competitive environment in the era of diagnostic related group (DRG) prospective pricing. Further reductions in Medicare outlays relative to hospital costs are likely, given the looming federal deficit. We analyzed the relationship of individual neurosurgical volume, hospital costs, and outcome. All neurosurgical patients (n = 1002) treated for a 3-year period at our large academic medical center were grouped into those treated by low-volume neurosurgeons versus those treated by high-volume neurosurgeons (arbitrarily defined by us); 95% of patients admitted for neurosurgical procedures fit into one of these two categories. Patients of low-volume neurosurgeons had higher hospital costs (even after correction for DRG case-mix and severity of illness) (P less than 0.01), a much worse financial position under DRGs (P less than 0.01), but a similar outcome for both emergency and nonemergency admissions when compared to patients of higher volume neurosurgeons. Pearson correlation showed an inverse relationship between declining cost per patient and increasing neurosurgical volume for both nonemergency patients -0.340 (P less than 0.0001), and emergency patients, -0.321 (P less than 0.0001). These findings suggest that the volume of neurosurgical procedures performed by an individual neurosurgeon is related to hospital resource utilization. This study also suggests that the DRG prospective payment system could provide incentives that may affect both neurosurgical practice and the access to neurosurgical care. PMID:2104669
We present empirical evidence that land values are scale free and introduce a network model that reproduces the observations. The network approach to urban modeling is based on the assumption that the market dynamics that generates land values can be represented as a growing scale-free network. Our results suggest that the network properties of trade between specialized activities cause land values, and likely also other observables such as population, to be power-law distributed. In addition to being an attractive avenue for further analytical inquiry, the network representation is also applicable to empirical data and is thereby attractive for predictive modeling.
Andersson, Claes; Hellervik, Alexander; Lindgren, Kristian; Hagson, Anders; Tornberg, Jonas
Revolutionary developments in technology and the deregulation of borders and economies have enhanced efficiency, stimulated growth, and expanded opportunities for four to five billion people around the world to join the market-oriented global economy over the last generation. But the global economy also has a seamy underside often neglected in academic discussions. This article offers a brief introduction to some
Globalization of trade and finance has gone a long way over the last half-century. But it is less impressive than most non-economists think, judged either by the standard of 100 years ago or by the hypothetical standard of perfect international integration. The paper documents the extent of globalization, and some reasons for the barriers that remains. It then briefly considers
Is it possible to reconcile the caution of most scientists about their results with the demands of the media for headlines and the growing emphasis placed by funding agencies on the economic impact of research? Richard Jones urges scientists to be careful in their claims.
The study of peacekeeping from an economics perspective is a fairly recent phenomenon. This chapter surveys three research areas pursued by economists in analyzing peacekeeping. The first research strand examines the theory and empirics of peacekeeping financing and burden sharing, while the second strand focuses on the efficacy of third-party intervention in reducing conflict. The last strand utilizes case studies
|Describes a study conducted at Purdue University Library to determine not only the costs of providing online information services to users, but the value of time saved by the end user in having a computer search run and user satisfaction with the results. Six references are listed. (RBF)|
We are in the midst of an era of plummeting pay lines at the NIH. History shows that when the federal deficit is high, NIH pay lines tend to fall, and the impact on biomedical research can be disastrous. Equally bad is the disincentive for the future generations of biomedical researchers who observe their mentors struggling to get adequate funding. How many bright young people will be turned away from careers in biomedical research? How much innovative science will be delayed or never initiated, how many new cures never realized? At a time of unprecedented challenges and remarkable technological advances that enable us to address those challenges, lack of funding is a threat to our society. PMID:15467820
This paper studies how financial stress, defined as periods of impaired financial intermediation, is transmitted from advanced to emerging economies using a new financial stress index for emerging economies. Previous financial crises in advanced economies passed through strongly and rapidly to emerging economies. The unprecedented spike in financial stress in advanced economies elevated stress across emerging economies above levels seen
Ravi Balakrishnan; Stephan Danninger; Selim Elekdag; Irina Tytell
Nursing homes vary widely between facilities with very few beds and facilities with several hundred beds. Previous studies, which estimate nursing home scale and scope economies, do not account for this heterogeneity and implicitly assume that all nursing homes face the same cost structure. To account for heterogeneity, this paper uses quantile regression to estimate cost functions for skilled and
The spread of free-market doctrine across the globe is a discouraging sign for the col lective well-being of humanity. Central to the problems posed by modern economy is its inability to rise above the simplistic assumptions of the Enlightenment and its idealistic purification of rationality. The following paper discusses the limitations of modem economy and its unfortunate tendency to ignore
Purpose – This article aims to provide a critical understanding of contextual issues surrounding international business from a political economyof communication perspective. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The approach is based in classical dialectics and proceeds from a Marxian perspective. It includes a literature review of major theorists in political economyof communication and an analysis of present institutional relationships that frame
The transition from an economy organized according to plan to a market economy must be viewed as a most complex, prolonged, and essentially contradictory socioeconomic process demanding qualitative changes in the productive forces and production relations and the formation of new forms of property that call a new structure of economic and management agents to life. There is a need
|Finds little evidence of a paradigm shift in capitalism or a trend toward a high-skills knowledge economy. Points out problems in demand-side proposals. Concludes that it is necessary to recognize the centrality of conflict, power, and exploitation in capitalism and outlines a radical political economyof skill. (Contains 104 references.) (SK)|
Generation and exploitation of knowledge became one of the most significant components in the new economy. This paper first investigates influence of information and communications technology on economy, with specific emphasis on Internet economy and electronic commerce. The paper then describes characteristics of the knowledge economy, discusses knowledge, presents main issues relevant for building of knowledge economy and gives an
In this chapter, we examine the issue of movement into and out of the cash economy. All indications are that the cash economy is on the increase worldwide and is posing a challenge for sovereign states aiming to control its growth. An increasing economic literature is addressing the factors that drive its development and map its effects on the official
Valerie Braithwaite; Friedrich Schneider; Monika Reinhart; Kristina Murphy
In developing and advanced economies job creation continues to be led by various services. A New Economy is being created, which is challenging the geography of the Old Economy. The Old Economy has been dominated by corporations headquartered disproportionately in the 'Global Cities' and large agglomerations. The New Economy is being built around smaller enterprises distributed in a much more
A description of economic deformations and the computation of equilibrium paths is the central theme of this study. A general mathematical framework for modeling economies under deformation is developed by expanding Herbert Scarf's original activity analy...
The report summarizes findings and recommendations of a detailed study of the Soviet economy. It makes recommendations for its reform, and establishes the criteria under which Western economic assistance could effectively support such reforms. The deceler...
Four and a half years after freeing Iraqi citizens from a ruthless dictatorship, the country is still mired in poverty, corruption and insurgent violence. These conditions fuel a sprawling, decades-old shadow economy manipulated by elements of organized c...
On the basis of on-road energy consumption, fuel economy (FE) of hydrogen fuel cell light-duty vehicles is projected to be 2.5–2.7 times the fuel economyof the conventional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) on the same platforms. Even with a less efficient but higher power density 0.6V per cell than the base case 0.7V per cell at the rated
Energy is the lifeblood ofeconomy development. The coordinated development ofeconomy and energy is the initial mover of social development. The economy development, without the basis of energy, would be a river without sources, or a tree without roots. Therefore, only with the coordinated development ofeconomy and energy, can society achieve steady progress. Since the mid-eighties, the industry
This paper outlines and reviews three forms and associated discourses of the ‘knowledge economy’: the ‘learning economy’, based on the work of Bengt-Åke Lundvall; the ‘creative economy’ based on the work of Charles Landry, John Howkins and Richard Florida; and the ‘open knowledge economy’ based on the work of Yochai Benkler and others. Arguably, these three forms and discourses represent
This learning module from the Association of American Geographer's Center for Global Geography Education looks into the geographic characteristics of the global economy and the processes linking economic activities at local, regional, and global scales. Four case studies are included in the learning unit, each focusing on a different region (New Zealand, Chile, Central and South America, East/Southeast Asia).
This paper studies how financial stress is transmitted from advanced to emerging economies, using a new financial stress index for emerging economies. An episode of financial stress is defined as a period when the financial system's ability to intermediate may be impaired. Previous financial crises in advanced economies passed through strongly and rapidly to emerging economies. In line with this
Irina Tytell; Selim Elekdag; Ravi Balakrishnan; Stephan Danninger
In the background of China's rapid urbanization, the conflicts between urban population, economy, space, and environment are intensified and complicated. This article aims to establish a coordinate assessment method for studying urban population, economy, space, and environment interactions in city scale by principal component analysis and regression analysis. On the basis of the case study on Shenyang city, the results
In this paper we analyze national economy as a socioeconomic multi-agent system. For the purpose we investigate the centralized bird's eye view model of small national economy across the terms. We analyze the model by hybrid approach between machine agent model and human gaming simulation model. We investigate effective growth path by genetic algorithm in machine agent model. We can
This article explores conceptual ambiguities and contests involved in the movement from an ‘international’ to a ‘global’ economy. It argues that these contests involve, potentially, fundamental transformations in the concept of economic life. After offering an historical interpretation of the concept of the ‘economic’ in current International Political Economy, the article addresses three sets of conceptual contests raised by the
The fitness of an economy and its prospects for continued prosperity will be measured and determined by its robustness and its ability to adapt to changing circumstances. Some countries in transition are adapting much more easily than others to rapid changes in the orientation of their economy, the common objective of which is to achieve economic growth through the adoption
The Narver and Slater (Narver, J.C., and Slater, S.F.: The Effect of Marketing Orientation on Business Profitability. Journal of Marketing 54 (1990): 20–35.) market orientation scale is tested in the context of the transition economiesof central Europe and found to be both valid and reliable. Relationships between market orientation and both marketing strategy and performance broadly follow predictions from
Graham Hooley; Tony Cox; John Fahy; David Shipley; József Beracs; Krzysztof Fonfara; Boris Snoj
Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economiesof all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…
|The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…
A research center within the Institute of Economics and Statistics, University of Oxford, the Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE) applies macroeconomic and microeconomic methods to African sociological, demographic, and political contexts. Selected abstracts and working papers from 1993 to present are available on topics ranging from central bank policy to health, crop choice, wages, and unemployment (.pdf format). In addition, users may browse the abstracts and tables of contents of articles from the CSAE publication The Journal of African Economies from 1996 to present.
Virtually all studies of retrospective economic voting in the UK look at two sets of economic evaluations only, relating to respondents' perceptions of the national economic situation and their own households' financial position. We argue that a further scale should be added to these models, involving evaluations of each respondent's local area's prosperity - because economic development is spatially uneven.
This paper is concerned with the distinctiveness of entrepreneurship and small business development in countries that are at different stages of transformation to market based economies. Following a discussion of the potential relevance of selected conceptualisations of entrepreneurship to transition conditions, the authors present original empirical data referring to the characteristics of entrepreneurs and their businesses from countries at different
With the exception of Azzam and Skinner (2007), the economic literature on farm structure has largely neglected issues of vertical organization of the farm. In this article we estimate a multi-stage, multi-output cost function in order to measure vertical economiesof scope in organic and conventional dairy farms. In particular, we model the integration of production of grains and forages
Carlos D. Mayen; Joseph V. Balagtas; Corinne E. Alexander
This paper provides an overview of the historical development of the Cambodian political economy and the role of tourism in shaping it since the early 1990s when Cambodia opened its door to the world. The paper provides a general overview of tourism products and the government's policies in tourism development in Cambodia and then examines the perceived impacts of tourism
In The Political Economyof Japanese Monetary Policy, Cargill, Hutchison, and Takatoshi investigate the formulation and execution of monetary and financial policies in Japan within a broad technical, political, and institutional context. Their emphasis is on the period since the collapse of the Bretton Woods system of fixed exchange rates in the early 1970s, and on the effects of policies
In this paper we analyze the political economyof agricultural producer support in the OECD countries between 1986 and 2001. We review the variety of theories of agricultural protection created by economists to explain this apparent anomaly. Most of these theories give short shrift to institutional features of the political system by simply assuming that politics is determined by underlying
Using political economy analysis, this paper discusses three precipitating factors that were ignited by Kenya's 2007 election, which was too close to call beforehand and highly contested afterwards. These factors were: the gradual loss of the state's monopoly of legitimate force and the consequent diffusion of violence; the deliberate weakening of institutions outside the executive in favour of personalized presidential
Over the past thirty odd years, the analysis of agrarian social relations, institutions, and movements has benefited from the insights offered by feminist scholars whose intellectual project has been to bring into the political economyof agrarian change the pervasiveness of gender relations and their interconnections with broader processes of social change. The implications of this re-thinking are potentially radical.
In a closed-system economy, gross national product is regarded as a ``cost of the system''. The Leontiev model relating the components of society's demand to resource use has been extended to make possible quantitative estimates of ``social entropy'' (dereliction, pollution and waste). This kind of work can be further developed, using general activity analysis and programming or optimization methods, to
A natural resources economy consists in two basic elements. The first is the extraction of anomalous concentrations of raw materials at often more or less remote sites. The second involves the distribution of these commodities by transport and trade among consumers who in general do not settle in the vicinity of the deposits. These two elements were already present during
The presented models of the Russian economy can be utilized for making short-term macroeconomic forecasts (1–2 quarters forward) as well as for scenario calculations. The models focus on the investigation of the dependence of Russian macroeconomic performance on the world oil prices, Russian external debt payments, and Russia's government social transfers. The models are built as a system of simultaneous
S. A. Aivazian; S. V. Borisova; E. A. Lakalin; V. L. Makarov
After surveying some of the typical content of the informal economy, the authors argue that the most substantial amount of activity in this sector is based on family and community and may not involve an immediate expectation of financial return. It would include local barter, mutual aid and self-help networks as well as other activities such as light construction and
Many inhabitants of ancient Rome lived well. Tourists marvel at the temples, baths, roads and aqueducts that they built. Economists also want to understand the existence of a flourishing and apparently prosperous economy two millennia ago. Market institutions and a stable government appear to have been the combination that produced this remarkable result. This essay provides an economist's view of
The dramatic decline in oil and gas prices between 1982 and 1986 helped stimulate a national economic recovery from the worst economic slump since the 1930s. However, while many regions were enjoying the benefits of an expanding national economy, regions of the country with large concentrations of industries in the energy sector were extremely hard hit by the energy price
SummaryThis article analyzes the mass of the materials that flowed through the Italian economy during 1994 and compares the results with a similar analysis of Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, and the United States published by a collaboration headed by the World Resources Institute. In order to perform this comparison, we have evaluated the mass of the materials produced within the
Ottilia Marco; Giovanni Lagioia; Elsa Pizzoli Mazzacane
This paper explores the political economyof church-state relationships. We develop a model of a government's decision to establish or disestablish a state church; the model introduces a comprehensive approach to modeling religious markets that considers both supply- and demand- side factors. We then test the model's predictions with data from a 65-year panel of 31 predominantly Western countries, including
Energy conservation has become a major national commitment. An important element of this commitment is a national strategy to improve the fuel economyof the new car fleet through a regulatory program involving stringent fuel economy standards that each m...
Since 1978 the Federal government has mandated that new automobiles sold by major firms in the United States reach certain levels of average fuel efficiency. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards can generate implicit taxes and subsidies for various types of cars. They also can have an impact on market structure, creating regulatory economiesof scope. CAFE standards may also act to increase the profits of firms in the automobile industry, either by preventing competition among firms constrained by the standards or by creating profit opportunities for firms not constrained by the standards. CAFE standards are shown to have had a significant effect on the price of new cars in model years 1983 through 1986, raising the price of fuel inefficient cars and lowering the price of fuel efficient cars. The gasoline savings resulting from the imposition of higher standards are computed, as well as the welfare loss they generate. It is concluded that automobile fuel economy standards can save gasoline,but only at a large loss to the economy. An empirical model of the political support for CAFE standards is developed and tested. It is shown that support for the standards comes from the one major domestic automobile company that would benefit from higher standards, as well as from those who in general prefer regulatory solutions to the free market.
This report presents, Aspen. Sandia National Laboratories is developing this new agent-based microeconomic simulation model of the U.S. economy. The model is notable because it allows a large number of individual economic agents to be modeled at a high le...
|This book presents 12 papers that proceed from the idea that Native American history in the United States and Canada is best understood not as an Indian-European cultural conflict but as an economic conflict between communal and capitalist modes of production. Three chapters are of particular educational interest. "Political Economy in…
We show that an input-output matrix is a directed weighted network. We develop and apply a measure of betweenness centrality based on random walks. This notion of centrality has an analogy as a current flow in an electrical circuit. We apply this measure to recent data from the major industrial economies. Wholesale and Retail Trade is the most central sector
This book presents 12 papers that proceed from the idea that Native American history in the United States and Canada is best understood not as an Indian-European cultural conflict but as an economic conflict between communal and capitalist modes of production. Three chapters are of particular educational interest. "Political Economy in…
Economic activity taking place within the informal sector—traditionally defined as activity unregulated by law but governed by custom or personal ties—represents an emerging frontier for management researchers with interests from alleviating poverty at the bottom of the economic pyramid to entrepreneurship, innovation, or organizational functioning in advanced knowledge economies. A substantial portion of the world's economic activity takes place informally,
What is outsourcing and why India is being considered as BPO destination of the world? Why jobs are coming to India and why there is a downturn in the US economy and loss of jobs in that country. Even though these are two different things that happened simultaneously, they sadly managed to be mixed up. Academicians are groping to understand
...exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. 525...exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. ...this part or to amend an alternative average fuel economy standard...
|As college presidents face the challenges of a turbulent and uncertain economy, they are working to assess the impacts on their strategic financial positions and to develop response plans that reflect their institutional missions and values. How can college presidents navigate during these difficult economic times as they seek to hold on to the…
The key issues concerning oil exploitation are still open for discussion: there is no agreement about where we presently stand in the world oil extraction curve, what is its exact shape, and how far can oil price grow before it changes irreversibly the world economy and consumer behavior. The paper proposes an alternative scenario to the Hubbert's bell-shaped model of
As college presidents face the challenges of a turbulent and uncertain economy, they are working to assess the impacts on their strategic financial positions and to develop response plans that reflect their institutional missions and values. How can college presidents navigate during these difficult economic times as they seek to hold on to the…
This paper explores the growth effects of the enlargement of an integrated economy by making use of a many-country equilibrium growth model with heterogeneous labor. We prove that the impact of the number of member countries on the integrated economy''s growth rate is positive. In addition, we also analyze the growth effects of the individual countries after integration. We find
This paper examines the impact of increasing integration of the island economiesof the South Pacific into expanding international markets, particularly that of Fiji and the Solomon Islands. Since the 1980s, globalization of the world economy has altered dramatically the volume and character of international resource flow. This has provided small island economies financing for international transactions, competitiveness, and diffusion
In the past ten years behavior modification techniques have become widely used within the field of rehabilitation. Among these techniques is the token economy. Like all behavior modification techniques, the token economy is based on a system in which cert...
This article examines the dominant view of the changing relationship between education, jobs and rewards in the global knowledge economy. This asserts that the developed economies can resolve issues of individual aspirations, economic efficiency and social justice through the creation of a high?skills, high?wage ‘magnet’ economy. Here the authors examine four of the key dimensions of this account and argue
It is increasingly becoming clear that there is no separate new Economy. The new Economy is an integral part of the old Economy.\\u000a It does not operate with completely new rules. On the other hand, it is also widely accepted that there is another type of\\u000a Economy which is taking shape. The same happened in Art at the beginning of
Of the several classifications of services, each emphasizes different characteristics. The International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) is used for a comparative study on the transformation into service economiesof the U.S., Canada, Great Britain, France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Service economies are defined as national economies in which employment in services surpassed that in manufacturing. The pace of the
This paper seeks to develop a methodology for the comparative study of the political economyof skill formation with a particular focus on policies designed to develop routes to a high skills economy. It is argued that the advanced economies face a series of ‘pressure points’ in common which can only be addressed by making a series of policy trade?offs.
is not that long ago since the study of China's political economy could all ut ignore the external dynamic of the global political economy. But with China's insertion into that global political economy--particularly after Deng Xiaoping's nanxun in 1992--not only has China become embedded in the global, but the global is also increasingly embedding itself in China. One of the
Nowadays, the terms economics and political economy are translated in Korea, Japan, and China as Kyeongjaehak(which originally meant statecraft for the people's welfare) and Jeongchikyeongjaehak, respectively. However, the translation of Kyeongjaehak, in fact, originated in the very concept of political economy. The etymology of the translated terms for political economy in India and China actually accords with the original concept
Although China has been opening up its economy for more than twenty years, it is generally considered that its future accession to WTO will imply far-reaching consequences for its economy. In order to better understand what is at stake as China enters the WTO, this study is intended to investigate the degree of openness of China's economy at the end
Thailand has some of the world's strongest anti-tobacco legislation. This paper examines the political economyof tobacco control in Thailand, emphasising the identification of forces which have supported and opposed the passage of strong anti-tobacco measures. It argues that while a powerful tobacco control coalition was created in the late 1980s, the gains won by this coalition are now under threat from systematic attempts by transnational tobacco companies to strengthen their share of the Thai cigarette market. The possible privatisation of the Thailand Tobacco Monopoly could threaten the tobacco control cause, but the pro-control alliance is fighting back with a proposed Health Promotion Act which would challenge the tobacco industry with a hypothecated excise tax dedicated to health awareness campaigns.???Keywords: anti-tobacco legislation; political economy; Thailand; transnational tobacco companies
Thailand has some of the world's strongest anti-tobacco legislation. This paper examines the political economyof tobacco control in Thailand, emphasising the identification of forces which have supported and opposed the passage of strong anti-tobacco measures. It argues that while a powerful tobacco control coalition was created in the late 1980s, the gains won by this coalition are now under
The Boston Foundation has worked for over a century to improve the lives of Boston-area residents through its investigations into the housing market, economic development, and the future of public schools. This 56-page report on Boston's innovation economy was released in March 2012, and it looks into how Boston will remain competitive in a range of 21st century industries over the coming years. In the introduction to the work, Paul S. Grogan, CEO of The Boston Foundation, notes that "Macro-economic trends have not been kind to households on the low end of the economic ladder" and "Our second challenge is the degree to which rising health care costs have outpaced our investment in education." Moving on, curious readers will find chapters in the paper titled "A New Paradigm for Boston's Innovation Economy" and "Possible Scenarios for Boston in 2030." Public policy types and others will find this work to be quite interesting and thought-provoking.
With the strategy of sustainable development is generally accepted, developed countries are harmonious developing oil and gas and ecological environment by developing circular economy and building cyclic ecological society. Circular economy has a successful practice in the oil and gas industry in some developed countries and has formed the varied and practicable development modes. In this paper, circular economy strategies
Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…
This paper provides a theoretical model of an open economy credit channel including currency mismatch and financial fragility where exporting firms have access to international credit but non-exporting firms do not. It considers the post-crisis outcome which is predicted to be dramatically different for exporters\\/non-exporters. We examine firms’ access to external finance in four Asian economies after 1997 using a
In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It has been found that milk has the largest share of animal produce values consumed by the household, while particularly processed milk products are sold informally and that the consumption and sales values of animal produce processed in the households are required to be added to the unrecorded value calculation. Consumption of crops varies depending on the type of product. The own consumption ratio of crops is affected by the size of the enterprise, the number of individuals in the households and particularly the access to the markets of the enterprises in each region. An average informal value of 6,400.04 USD has been calculated per household, which is higher than the farm income, accounting for 4/5 of total household income. This can be attributed to the fact that the farms are generally small family enterprises with limited market-access opportunities.
This report reviews the fuel economy improvement potential of carburetor designs proposed for automotive spark ignition engines. In addition, information is presented pertaining to exhaust emissions and driveability effects, system applicability, and development status. The technical basis for the assessment is derived from data available in the open literature and information acquired through communication with carburetor manufacturers and automobile industry representatives. Carburetor concepts proposed for improved fuel economy generally rely on improved metering accuracy and on the mechanisms of improved atomization, vaporization, and cylinder-to-cylinder distribution, which in turn allow the use of leaner air-fuel mixtures to raise cycle thermodynamic efficiency. The devices evaluated are divided into six categories: sonic, atomizing, vaporizing, constant depression, unconventional fuel metering, and conventional designs.
The designers of innovative small and medium sized reactors pursue new design and deployment strategies making use of certain advantages provided by smaller reactor size and capacity to achieve reduced design complexity and simplified operation and maintenance requirements, and to provide for incremental capacity increase through multi-module plant clustering. Competitiveness of SMRs depends on the incorporated strategies to overcome loss
...average fuel economy. (a) Vehicle configuration fuel economy values. (1) For each vehicle configuration for which a fuel economy value...economy value. (2) For each vehicle configuration specified in paragraph...
...average fuel economy. (a) Vehicle configuration fuel economy values. (1) For each vehicle configuration for which a fuel economy value...economy value. (2) For each vehicle configuration specified in paragraph...
Using the bidding prices of participants in China's national wind project concession programs from 2003 to 2007, this paper built up a learning curve model to estimate the joint learning from learning-by-doing and learning-by-searching, with a novel knowledge stock metric based on technology adoption in China through both domestic technology development and international technology transfer. The paper describes, for the
... true Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type. 600.207-93...207-93 Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type. (a) Fuel economy...3) The city fuel economy values of the model type (calculated to...
... true Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type. 600.207-86...207-86 Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type. (a) Fuel economy...3) The city fuel economy values of the model type (calculated to...
...false Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type. 600.207-93...207-93 Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type. (a) Fuel economy...3) The city fuel economy values of the model type (calculated to...
...false Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type. 600.207-86...207-86 Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type. (a) Fuel economy...3) The city fuel economy values of the model type (calculated to...
The political constitutions of both the US and Europe provide no guidance on the role of organised sport in society. Without a proper set of rules politicians are finding sports issues increasingly hard to handle. In the US there is widespread concern at the commercial exploitation of major league sports, particularly through the relocation of franchises. In Europe there are
Some of the limitations of input-output models as they are currently used are summarized. They are static, i.e., a set of steady equilibrium interindustry flow patterns is assumed. The sectors are assumed to be homogeneous, which implies that every compon...
The dramatic decline in oil and gas prices between 1982 and 1986 helped stimulate a national economic recovery from the worst economic slump since the 1930s. However, while many regions were enjoying the benefits of an expanding national economy, regions of the country with large concentrations of industries in the energy sector were extremely hard hit by the energy price declines. The research reported here traces the plights of several of these oil dependent regions: Houston, Denver, Tulsa, New Orleans, Midland-Odessa, Alaska, and Wyoming.
The paper examines the relevance of international scaleeconomies and international market efficiency of trade based on the firm-level data of Taiwanese manufacturing industries. The author first constructs a simple analytical framework to measure the extent ofscaleeconomies and total factor productivity for each firm. The measurements ofscaleeconomies and total factor productivity are then used to investigate
\\u000a Aerospace is a leading, high-technology sector which is believed to be central to Europe’s future international competitiveness.\\u000a It is research and development (R&D) intensive, requiring substantial inputs of human capital (e.g. scientific manpower),\\u000a with potential technical’ spin-off’ for the rest of the economy. It is also involved in the newly-emerging market in space.\\u000a Traditionally, it is an industry which has
We have reviewed the Central Intelligence Agency's (CIA) methods for estimating the size of the Soviet Union's economy. In this report, we discuss how well the Agency has calculated Soviet gross national product, both in rubles and as a percent of U.S. gr...
This paper is an account of institutional and spatial shifts in the Sydney basin economy that coalesce around Australia's current, long period of prosperity. The paper briefly sources this prosperity, noting the key shifts towards the financial and professional services sectors that accompany it. This material is then used to make the argument that two reterritorialisation processes underpin Australia's—and Sydney's—contemporary
The US economy is facing, as are many other economies across the globe, the challenge of overcoming the current recession\\u000a while having no single satisfactory solution to follow. A result of globalisation is that countries are increasingly interconnected,\\u000a especially in terms of their economies; consequently, decisions taken in the US will have an effect overseas. After assessing\\u000a the Obama administration’s
We extend the theoretical framework of an independent economy developed by Tao [Phys. Rev. E 82 (2010) 036118] so as to include multiple economies. Since the starting point of our framework is on the basis of the theory of the competitive markets of traditional economics, this framework shall be suitable for any free market. Our study shows that integration of world economies can decrease trade friction among economic systems, but may also cause a global economic crisis whenever economy disequilibrium occurs in any one of these economic systems.
This short essay is a reflection on the relationship between the economy and women’s hair. I suggest that examining women’s spending on hair care products during uncertain financial conditions provides insight into the gendered aspects of the economy. As the economy has declined, sales of home hair-care products targeted toward white women have increased. Major news outlets report on salon
This paper derives criteria for worthwhile public investment in an overlapping generations model of an “almost small” open\\u000a economy- an economy with access to external funding at a given interest rate, but with some influence over its temporal terms of trade. If the economy is dynamically efficient (i.e. the interest rate exceeds the growth rate), committed to free\\u000a trade, public
The present paper discusses ways of adjusting the imbalances of the global economy and its impact on China's economy. The analysis in the paper shows that the cut of US fiscal deficits and the appreciation of the currencies of East Asia, including China's RMB, are necessary for a smooth adjustment of the global imbalances. The adjustments will have a positive
Urbanization economies ? the effects on productivity and utility created endogenously by larger cities ? are a fundamental component of both the economic geography of modern societies and the perpetuation of innovation and economic growth at a national level. Cities account for vast majorities of population ? and even larger proportions of production and innovation ? in all advanced economies.
This thesis reports the results of a feasibility study performed on the concept of an Ammonia Economy, which treats ammonia as an alternative fuel and energy storage mechanism. As part of the Ammonia Economy, costs for production, storage, and transportation of this alternative fuel are also presented. The cost of hydrogen, which is the main feedstock for ammonia production, was
The advances in Internet, information and communication technologies have become the catalyst for the creation of the knowledge economy. The knowledge economy has brought about a whole range of opportunities and excitement and the changing roles of information professionals has been a result of these inevitable forces. In this study, we examine the changing roles of paraprofessionals in the knowledge
This special issue considers how contemporary forms of displacement in southern Africa may be approached and analysed in terms of multiple ‘political economiesof displacement’. Drawing insight from classic concepts of political economy, but without adhering to the more rigid aspects of these frameworks, the five studies that comprise this collection explore how certain values related to identity, violence, movement
Purpose – The increasing engagement in corporate social responsibility (CSR) potentially indicates an attempt to “re-embed” the economy in a wider societal context, following a period of neoliberal market exposure, deregulation, and separation of commercial and societal concerns. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between this new social embedding of the economy and older traditions of
This article attempts to build a bridge between contemporary studies of global firms from emerging economies and existing theories in comparative political economy. It argues that given the primacy of the state as an economic actor in developing countries, the variety of capitalism literature could provide a theoretical foundation for firm-level analyses of emerging market multinationals. For example, the authors
|The dominant view today is of a global knowledge-based economy, driven by the application of new technologies, accelerating the shift to high-skilled, high-waged European economies. This view is reflected in the expansion of higher education and the key role of higher education in national and European economic policy. The Lisbon agenda seeks to…
Since 1978 the Federal government has regulated the fuel economyof new cars sold in the United States. The purpose of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards is to lessen the national dependence on foreign oil. Through the use of theoretical and empirical models this paper examines the impact of CAFE standards on the automobile industry and on energy consumption.
In a simple two-sector open economy model with non-shiftable capital, which is akin to the new free market economiesof east European countries, this paper shows that, for a certain configuration of capital stocks, a temporary price intervention results in a better allocation of investment. It is also established that the level of intervention shouldbe declining during the period in
In transition economies, there may be a significant mismatch between the types of skills that workers possess and the types of skills that the new economy demands. We consider this problem of human capital mismatch along the dimensions of training type (holding the level) and occupation. We document that in the Czech Republic and Poland the wage rate grew faster
Viliam Druska; Byeong ju Jeong; Michal Kejak; Viatcheslav Vinogradov
|Major demographic changes around the world. Disproportionate sovereign debt. A shift from North America, Western Europe, and Japan to emerging economies as centers of growth. Unprecedented levels of market risk and volatility. The structure of the global economy is undergoing significant changes. Michael Oyster, managing principal of Fund…
|The three basic steps of the systems approach are described: the mission profile, the functional analysis, and the method-means. The advantageous use of these steps in planning a token economy is illustrated by a systematic evaluation of a token economy implemented in a sixth-grade setting. (Author)|
The choice of exchange rate regime has become one of the most important issues one more time in many economies after the financial crises in recent years. In the wake of the financial crises, many countries, especially emerging market economies, opted for floating exchange rate regimes by forsaking the pegged regimes. Consequently, an old debate on the choice and determinants
At the present stage of full-scale communist construction in the USSR and successful construction of socialism in the people's democracies, the economy is the main battlefield for communism and socialism. The rate of economic growth in the socialist countries is much higher than in the capitalist countries. In contrast to the less than 200% increase of industrial production in all
The sub-prime crisis that started in 2007 and limited to the US economy has created systemic problem throughout the global financial system following the collapse of a big investment bank. The real economic impact of this financial turmoil is expected to be very large. It has been officially stated that developed economies such as the US and the European Union
The euro crisis has been extensively discussed in terms of economics, finance, political intrigues, and European institutions, but a key aspect—the political economyof the crisis—has received little attention. Politicians and social scientists from emerging economies, especially Eastern Europe, look with amazement at this oversight.
There is no denying the fact that the recent global economic crisis has profound implications for the developing countries like Bangladesh. This paper has explored the impacts of global economic crisis on the economyof Bangladesh in a general equilibrium framework. The CGE model for Bangladesh economy is developed with a Social Accounting Matrix for the year 2007 as the
In the past, many have considered the production and use of hydrogen, assuming that it is just another gaseous fuel and can be handled much like natural gas in today's energy economy. With this study we present an analysis of the energy required to operate an elemental hydrogen economy, with particular reference to road transport. High-grade electricity from renewable or
|In spite of the extensive research on universities' entrepreneurship, whether research strength fosters or dampens their entrepreneurial performance remains controversial. Much research claims an influential role of research universities in regional economy, however, little has been said about what a part that the agglomeration economies may play…
In an X-efficient mixed economy, the benefits of benign competition would be striven for in the public sector. Adapting the classical theory of trade to the contemporary British economy, where manufacturing industry does not flourish, Britain would have a large comparative advantage in higher education and many other services. Graduation data provide a satisfactory output measure for higher education. When
We examine changes in bank credit across a wide range of emerging market economies during the last decade. The rich time-series and cross-section information allows us to draw broader lessons compared to many existing researches, which focus on a specific set of emerging market economies or on shorter time periods. Our results show that domestic and foreign funding contribute positively
The Narver and Slater market orientation scale is tested in the context of service firms in the transition economiesof central Europe and found to be both valid and reliable. The survey examined levels of market orientation in 205 business to business services companies and 141 consumer services companies in Hungary, Poland and Slovenia. As predicted by the predominantly western
Graham Hooley; John Fahy; Gordon Greenley; József Beracs; Krzysztof Fonfara; Boris Snoj
From a study of three large design firms in Italy, the UK and the USA, we derive a distinct model of how large knowledge?intensive business services (KIBS) firms organize to manage growth and realize economies in ways that differ from the organizational techniques that are familiar from scale and scope studies of large manufacturing enterprises. Case studies were compiled from
Marcela Miozzo; Mark Lehrer; Robert DeFillippi; Damian Grimshaw; Andrea Ordanini
A fuel economy driver interface (FEDI) gives a driver an indication of fuel usage or efficiency. Many passenger vehicles in recent model years have FEDIs and they have been included in some vehicle models for decades. FEDIs present fuel economy informatio...
|Recent economics literature on offshoring highlights the trend towards the relocation of high-skill jobs to emerging economies. This evolution presents a challenge to the established knowledge economy discourse on which the relationship between higher education, higher skills, higher productivity and higher incomes has been based. This paper…
Provides cross-country estimates on private rates of return to higher-education qualifications across various transitional economies spanning Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, and the former Soviet Union. Rates tend to rise in most transitional economies over the period considered. Rate variabilities help explain variabilities in wage…
...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525... EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS Â§ 525.11 Termination...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any...
...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525... EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS Â§ 525.11 Termination...amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any...
Most prices in the information economy (scientific information) are based on length of information, duration of online time, actuality etc., but most of these price concepts give little satisfaction to the customer because they are irrational and not comprehensible. Till today there exist no price concepts in the information economy concidering the attention or understanding of information. Therefore the theory
We use input–output techniques to analyse the impacts of gold, coal, and other mining activities upon the South African economy between 1971 and 1993. Our results suggest that the premise upon which the South African government's proposed minerals policy is based, i.e. that “the mining industries have the capacity to generate wealth and employment on a large scale” (Republic of
L. C. Stilwell; R. C. A. Minnitt; T. D. Monson; G. Kuhn
All states are strongly committed to economic development policies and activities as participants in national and global competition. However, a sometimes overlooked and perhaps under appreciated influence on economic development is the health of a state's citizens. This study focuses on how the health status of Kentucky profoundly influences its economy, workforce, productivity, and general quality of life. If Kentucky's economy is to improve significantly, as compared to other states, significant improvements in the health status of its citizens must be achieved in the near future and sustained over time. In an era of growing concern about rising health insurance costs and maintaining a reliable and productive workforce, employers are increasingly likely to locate in communities where measures of health status are strongly positive. The latest report from the United Health Foundation indicates that in 2007 Kentucky had the 8th worst health status in the nation based on a set of risk factors and outcomes. These risk factors include personal behaviors, community and environment, and public health policies that culminate in key health outcomes related to quality of life and longevity. While it is a serious challenge, our research demonstrates that many of these risk factors can be lowered through relatively low cost and effective interventions that produce substantial improvements in health and Kentucky's rank. Health education is very effective when it begins early in life and continues to emphasize the importance of healthy behaviors, such as not smoking, healthy diets and exercise, and weight control. Preventive health services that identify and treat diseases and conditions that lead to premature death increase both longevity and economic growth through lower treatment costs for chronic diseases and an increase in human capital. Policy changes, such as primary enforcement of motor vehicle seat belt use and encouragement of the use of safety equipment at work, also saves lives and contributes to economic development. Kentucky has already implemented many programs to begin the necessary transformation to a healthier Commonwealth. Creation of additional programs and expansion of those successful ones in place are keys to producing both significant health change and economic growth. PMID:18777698
Anderson, Danielle; Asher, Linda M; Whitler, Elmer; Wilson, Emery A
As crude oil prices reach new highs, there is renewed concern about how external shocks will affect growth and poverty in developing countries. This paper describes a macro-micro framework for examining the structural and distributional consequences of a significant external shock-an increase in the world price of oil-on the South African economy. The authors merge results from a highly disaggregative
B. Essama-Nssah; Delfin S. Go; Marna Kearney; Vijdan Korman; Sherman Robinson; Karen Thierfelder
Two substantive bodies of research have developed in recent years, both of which have a focus upon local and regional scales. First, there has been the development of work on changing forms of local and regional governance. This has drawn on a range of theoretical perspectives, including notions of institutional capacity, urban regime theory and neo-regulationalist accounts. Second, a body
...13494 of January 30, 2009. Economy in Government Contracting...January 30, 2009 EO 13494 Economy in Government Contracting...laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Property... Section 1. To promote economy and efficiency in...
...2007-07-01 true Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-08 Section 600.510-08 ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMYOF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...
...2007-07-01 true Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-86 Section 600.510-86 ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMYOF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...
... false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-93 Section 600.510-93...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...
...2007-07-01 true Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-93 Section 600.510-93 ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMYOF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...
... false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-86 Section 600.510-86...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...
This article summarizes a presentation given at 'Health and Well-being: the 21st Century Agenda', which focused on the potential to make progress by making appropriate connections between activity to promote health and respond to the threat of climate change. It argues that a transition to a low carbon economy would bring together two of our greatest public health challenges, supporting action to improve public health within resource constraints and action to avert climate change as far as possible. Deep cuts in emissions are needed to prevent dangerous consequences arising from climate change. In addition, many of the policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions will, in themselves, have beneficial effects on public health. This article provides an overview of several modelling studies which demonstrate that well-designed initiatives that curb greenhouse gas emissions in energy, residential construction, urban transport and agricultural systems can enhance global public health, including improving health among poor populations. Some of these health co-benefits can be achieved in a relatively short time frame, and they can help offset the costs of climate change mitigation policies. PMID:22784582
An economy whose activity is to be predicted comprises a plurality of decision makers. Decision makers include, for example, households, government, industry, and banks. The decision makers are represented by agents, where an agent can represent one or more decision makers. Each agent has decision rules that determine the agent's actions. Each agent can affect the economy by affecting variable conditions characteristic of the economy or the internal state of other agents. Agents can communicate actions through messages. On a multiprocessor computer, the agents can be assigned to processing elements.
Pryor, Richard J (Albuquerque, NM); Basu, Nipa (Albany, NY)
The world financial crisis is affecting the real economy to a considerable degree, with serious consequences on credit flows and investment. Its negative impact has spread faster than it had been estimated at the beginning, leading to an adjustment in global aggregate demand, which already affects world trade development and, consequently, employment levels. The restlessness that originated in developed countries
Material flow accounting and analysis (MFA) has been established as an influential framework for quantifying the use of natural resources by modern societies. So far, however, no reference data for overall scale and trends of global extraction of natural resources and their distribution between different world regions has been available. This paper presents the first comprehensive quantification of the material
Arno Behrens; Stefan Giljum; Jan Kovanda; Samuel Niza
Drawing attention to the numerous aspects of gender inequality that limit womens full participation in productive activities, this paper investigates the unique position of women within the economy. It explores why the inclusion of gender issues is not on...
In this paper we estimate a variable cost function to analyze cost economies and technical change in the English water only sector over the 1995–2005 period. We jointly model the impact on costs of output, customer numbers and area size which allows us to consider both the vertical and horizontal (spatial) dimensions of water utilities' operations. Estimates suggest the existence
This article estimates a structural model of competition among hub-and-spoke airlines in order to measure the strength ofeconomiesof traffic density on individual route segments. We find that economiesof density were strong during the sample period (fourth quarter 1985), stronger than previous estimates by Douglas Caves, Laurits Christensen, and Michael Tretheway derived from traditional cost-function methods. We also
The present work assess the effects of MAR and Jacobâ€™s type agglomeration economies on a sample of firms in the machineries and textiles industries in Greece for the periods 1989-91 and 1999-01. The analysis employs a stochastic production frontier function and allows agglomeration economies to enter as inputs and\\/or as factors reducing inefficiency. Results re-confirm that the effects of agglomeration
China's progressive integration into the global economy has strengthened its position as a ‘magnet’ for foreign direct investment. The inevitably increased competition in the Chinese economy has led firms to adopt more market-oriented approaches to human resource management (HRM). Based on a survey of 618 managers in state-owned enterprises, domestic\\/private- and foreign-invested firms operating in the Jiangsu Province of China,
Cherrie Jiuhua Zhu; Brian Cooper; Helen De Cieri; S. Bruce Thomson; Shuming Zhao
Cyber-crime's footprints across the developing world are getting bigger. The aim of this article is to examine the structure of cyber-crimes in developing economies. Its central idea is that economic and institutional factors facing cyber-criminals and potential victims in the developing world are different from those in the developed world. In economies characterised by low internet penetration rates and few
This paper discusses the use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy. One of the important requirements for Gen. IV High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGR) is passive safety. Currently all the HTGR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal.  The decay heat first is transferred to core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. Similar concepts have been widely used in sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) designs, advanced light water reactors like AP1000. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area. RVACS tends to be less expensive. However, it limits the largest achievable power level for modular HTGRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface). When the relative decay heat removal capability is reduced, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annual designs with internal reflector can mitigate this effect therefore further increase the power. Another way to increase power is to increase power density. However, it is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides safety, HTGRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor designs. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economyof HTGRs. Forsberg  pointed out other disadvantages of using RVACS such as conflicting functional requirements for the reactor vessel and scaling distortion for integral effect test of the system performance. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume based passive decay removal system, call Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS has been widely used in SFR designs and in liquid salt cooled high temperature reactors. The containment cooling system in BWR is another example of volume based decay removal systems. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one in reactor side and another is in environment side. DRACS has the benefits of increasing the power as needed (scalability) and modularity. This paper introduces the concept of using DRACS to enhance HTGRs passive safety and economy.
In this study, Turkish economy and importance of agriculture in the economy on the way of accession negotiations to the European Union (EU) are discussed. Compliance with EU norms based on macroeconomic indicators is evaluated. Turkish economy exhibits the characteristics of a developing economy based on per capita income, economic growth, employment, income distribution, foreign trade volume and economic structure.
China's transition from a plannedeconomy to a market economy beganatthe endof 1978.When Chinastartedtheprocess,thegovern- ment did nothaveawell-designedblueprint. Theapproach to reform can be characterized as piecemeal, partial, incremental, and often experimental. Someeconomists regard thisapproach as self-defeating (Murphy, Schleifer, and Vishny 1992). China's average annualrate of GDP growthhasbeen miraculoussincethe beginningofthe transition (Liiietal. 1996) andis the most successfulofthetransition economies. Nevertheless, the Chinese economyhas beentroubledby
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economyof vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economyof the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in fuel economy with increasing restriction. However, the level of restriction required to cause a substantial (10-15%) decrease in fuel economy (such as that cited in the literature) was so severe that the vehicle was almost undrivable. Acceleration performance on all vehicles was improved with a clean air filter. Once it was determined how severe the restriction had to be to affect the carbureted vehicle fuel economy, the 2007 Buick Lucerne was retested in a similar manner. We were not able to achieve the level of restriction that was achieved with the 1972 Pontiac with the Lucerne. The Lucerne's air filter box would not hold the filter in place under such severe conditions. (It is believed that this testing exceeded the design limits of the air box.) Tests were conducted at a lower restriction level (although still considerably more severe than the initial clogged filter testing), allowing the air filter to stay seated in the air box, and no significant change was observed in the Lucerne's fuel economy or the AFR over the HFET cycle. Closed-loop control in modern fuel injected vehicle applications is sophisticated enough to keep a clogged air filter from affecting the vehicle fuel economy. However for older, open-loop, carbureted vehicles, a clogged air filter can affect the fuel economy. For the vehicle tested, the fuel economy with a new air filter improved as much as 14% over that with a severely clogged filter (in which the filter was so clogged that drivability was impacted). Under a more typical state of clog, the improvement with a new filter ranged from 2 to 6%.
Norman, Kevin M [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL
One of the most actual problems of the Russian economic life is a regional economic systems formation. The hierarchy of economic and branch priorities should follow from the general idea of an industrial policy. The matter is that the concept of an industrial policy is defined by the system of priorities mainly incorporated in it. The problem of priorities is not solved yet neither on federal, nor at a regional level. It is necessary to recognize, that a substantiation of this or that variant of priorities - objectively a challenge. Such substantiation can be received with the help of dynamic structural modeling and management technology. At formation of the regional industrial policy program the special attention is given to creation of modern type commercial structures. In regions there are headquarters and branches of many largest corporations, holdings and banks. Besides it, many regional enterprises already became inter-regional or even the transnational companies. In this connection an assistance of transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups in vertically integrated companies and modern type holdings can become a prominent aspect of an industrial policy. Regional economic structures should be reconstructed gradually on the general model of the world class competitive companies. Assistance to creation of new corporational control systems, the organization of headquarters and the central services work - all this can be included into the sphere of regional administration industrial policy. The special attention should be turned on necessity of development of own system of the corporate structures, capable to provide to the region an independent participation in use of the natural resources and industrial-technological potential, at the stage of a regional industrial policy program formation. Transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups into modern type vertically-integrated companies and holdings can become one of the major directions of an industrial policy of region. The situational-analytical centers (SAC) of regional administration The major component of SAC is dynamic modeling, analysis, forecasting and optimization systems, based on modern intellectual information technologies. Spheres of SAC are not only financial streams management and investments optimization, but also strategic forecasting functions, which provide an optimum choice, "aiming", search of optimum ways of regional development and corresponding investments. It is expedient to consider an opportunity of formation of the uniform organizational-methodical center of an industrial policy of region. This organization can be directly connected to the scheduled-analytical services of the largest economic structures, local authorities, the ministries and departments. Such "direct communication" is capable to provide an effective regional development strategic management. Anyway, the output on foreign markets demands concentration of resources and support of authorities. Offered measures are capable to provide a necessary coordination of efforts of a various level economic structures. For maintenance of a regional industrial policy an attraction of all newest methods of strategic planning and management is necessary. Their activity should be constructed on the basis of modern approaches of economic systems management, cause the essence of an industrial policy is finally reduced to an effective regional and corporate economic activities control centers formation. Opportunities of optimum regional economy planning and management as uniform system Approaches to planning regional economic systems can be different. We will consider some most effective methods of planning and control over a regional facilities condition. All of them are compact and evident, that allows to put them into the group of average complexity technologies. At the decision of problems of a regional resource management is rather perspective the so-called "topographical" approach, which is used by intellectual information tec
How economiesof countries at war (war economies) transform in 'peace' is a critical new area of research in political economy and war and peace studies. The dynamics that affect the way war economies perpetuate or mutate after a peace agreement is signed is the context for this examination of non-state actor roles - normally attention is on state and
This paper evaluates the short-term impact of Thailand's 'Million Baht Village Fund'program, among the largest scale government microfinance iniative in the world, using pre- and post-program panel data and quasi-experimental cross-village variation in credit-per-household. We find that the village funds have increased total short-term credit, consumption, agricultural investment, income growth (from business and labor), but decreased overall asset growth. We also find a positive impact on wages, an important general equilibrium effect. The findings are broadly consistent qualitatively with models of credit-constrained household behavior and models of intermediation and growth. PMID:22844546
This paper evaluates the short-term impact of Thailand’s ‘Million Baht Village Fund’program, among the largest scale government microfinance iniative in the world, using pre- and post-program panel data and quasi-experimental cross-village variation in credit-per-household. We find that the village funds have increased total short-term credit, consumption, agricultural investment, income growth (from business and labor), but decreased overall asset growth. We also find a positive impact on wages, an important general equilibrium effect. The findings are broadly consistent qualitatively with models of credit-constrained household behavior and models of intermediation and growth.
The public good nature of bulk grid electricity leads to a twist on the economic debate about oligopoly and economiesofscale and scope. In contestability theory, the introduction of 'competitive conditions' aims to reduce oligopoly rents; in the case of Ontario, it seems that the attempt to create a 'competitive market' has created new opportunities for rent accrual. That suggests that a return to a more integrated system might be the best course of action.
Political economy has a career; after its invention in the eighteenth century it kept changing. The intellectual history of its theory and practice reveals contestation more than certainty. We will try to capture changing discourse about political economy by \\
Transport has always been and remained one of the main driving forces in the economical development of any country including Lithuania. The paper assesses a positive impact of transport on Lithuanian economy in the light of the analysis of the main indicators measuring the success of the transport sector: the share of transport and warehousing sectors to national GDP (%)
The United States is not only the world's largest economy, but it is also one of the world's largest consumers of natural resources. The country, which is inhabited by some 5% of the world's population, uses roughly one?fifth of the global primary energy supply and 15% of all extracted materials. This article explores long?term trends and patterns of material use
This paper presents an econometric estimation of the rebound effect for household vehicle travel in the US based on analysis of survey data collected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) at approximately three-year intervals over a 15-year period. The rebound effect measures the tendency to take back potential energy savings from fuel economy improvements as increased travel. Vehicle use models were estimated for one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-vehicle households. The results confirm recent estimates based on national or state-level data: a long-run take back of about 20% of potential energy savings. Consumer responses to changes in fuel economy or fuel price per gallon appear to be equal and opposite in sign. Recognizing the interdependencies among miles of travel, fuel economy and price is key to obtaining meaningful results.
This study investigates the lasting health effects of leaving school in a bad economy. Three empirical patterns motivate this study: Leaving school in a bad economy has persistent and negative career effects, career and health outcomes are correlated, and fluctuations in contemporaneous economic conditions affect health in the short-run. I draw data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Age 40 Health Supplement. Members of my sample left school between 1976 and 1992. I find that men who left school when the school-leaving state unemployment rate was high have worse health at age 40 than otherwise similar men, while leaving school in a bad economy lowers depressive symptoms at age 40 among women. A 1 percentage point increase in the school-leaving state unemployment rate leads to a 0.5% to 18% reduction in the measured health outcomes among men and a 6% improvement in depressive symptoms among women. PMID:23994070
Individuals exchange contracts for the delivery of commodities in competitive markets and, simultaneously, act strategically; actions affect utilities across individuals directly or through the payoffs of contracts. This encompasses economies with asymmetric information. Nash-Walras equilibria exist for large economies, even if utility functions are not quasi-concave and choice sets are not convex, which is the case in standard settings; the separation of the purchase from the sale of contracts and the pooling of the deliveries on contracts guarantee that the markets for commodities clear. PMID:10805818
The Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics and East European Economies (SITE/Ãstekonomiska Institutet) is an independent research institute at the Stockholm School of Economics. SITE is concerned with the transition from planned to market economies in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Academic research on-site includes a bibliography of recent working papers (1990-present), with most papers from 1998 available for download [.pdf]. Monthly updates of key indicators discussed in the quarterly SITE publication Russian Economic Trends (RET) are also available [.pdf] in addition to RET subscription information and other discussion channels.
Animal husbandry industry in Jilin Province is developing rapidly toward the one in large-scale, standardization and industrialization.\\u000a It is upgrading to a higher level. This lays the foundation for the industry to practice ecological industry. Following the\\u000a policies of Chinese Government, more and more enterprises are being engaged in seeking the effective ways of circular-economy.\\u000a This paper does some researches
Much excitement surrounds Facebook, the social networking site based on user-generated content that has attracted 64 million active users since its inception in 2004. This paper begins to out- line a political economyof Facebook in an attempt to draw atten- tion to the underlying economic relations that structure the web- site, and the way in which the site fits
The outlook for the world economy has brightened noticeably. The situation in Asia, Russia and Latin America remains unstable, but economic growth continues at a high level, at least for the time being, in the USA, and the economic recovery is gaining momentum in Europe. If the forces stimulating domestic demand gain further strength, a clear improvement of the labour
Hydrogen has been proposed as an alternative transportation fuel that could reduce energy consumption and eliminate tailpipe emissions when used in fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). To investigate the potential effects of hydrogen vehicles on California’s economy over the next two decades, we employed the modified Costs for Advanced Vehicles and Energy (CAVE) model and a California-specific computable general equilibrium model.
This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at
Brazil owns an economy directed towards the free market and the export and nowadays it is on the 9th place in the world and on the 1sr place in frame of the countries in Latin America. Internal economy: The service sector has the biggest weight of 67.7% in PIB frame followed by the industrial one with a share of 25.8%.
This paper firstly focuses on the research background of the thesis, and point out the adjustment of relation between the government and the market during the process of the globalization ofeconomy, which is called the change and movement of main stream in the social realm during the period of reform in China. With the impact of this very social
This paper is a first attempt to garner the theory and evidence on the political economyof the first wave of financial liberalisation during the nineteenth and early twentieth century, and of its demise after World War I. Not everyone gained from the process of globalisation (of trade, labour, and finance), which brought about important changes in the structure of
This paper analyses the impact of natural disasters in the Caribbean. The economic impact of natural disasters in the region has been significant, resulting in widespread destruction of the productive economy. This paper presents the main macroeconomic impact of disasters, e.g., a deteriorating fiscal balance, a collapse of growth and a worsening external balance, as a consequence of damage resulting
The article uses Israel's invasion of Lebanon in 1982 as a case study in the historical and cultural construction of the legitimacy of armed force. The discussion develops the concept of a ‘moral economyof violence’ which suggests that the legitimacy that state leaders and their publics take for granted in the use of military force is dependent on a
The object of the analyses presented in the various chapters of this study is to describe the economic significance of the mining industry in the economyof South Africa in terms of the available official statistical data. For purposes of the analyses, th...
...2013-01-01 false Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. 1300...FOREIGN TRADE BOARD REPORTS ON EXPORTS OF TECHNOLOGY Â§ 1300.1 Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries....
By putting the vocabulary of aspiration in the mouths of criminals, and by situating them in the suburbs, Underbelly suggests that ruthless, murderous competition may not be incompatible with the Australian Dream. Exposing a generation's denial of the criminal elements behind ecstasy's fetishized status, it problematizes celebratory accounts of club culture, and suggests dark externalities for the ‘night-time economy’ of
Based on ecological footprint and material flow analysis indicators, a model has been developed to reflect the aggregate environmental pressure and the carrying capacity of a regional economy. The model was applied to calculate the environmental pressure and carrying capacity of Shenyang in the period of 1991-2005. Results show that, of the total ecological footprint of Shenyang, 66%-80% came from
Gu Xiaowei; Wang Fengbo; Wang Qing; Wang Pengfei; Wang Xiaoxu; Chen Bin
Cyclical performance ofeconomies in a turbulent environment is forcing researchers to search for early signals of turning points between the phases of slowdowns and accelerations. The most appropriate tool to solve this problem is the composite leading indicator (CLI), which is an aggregate index of several individual indicators proved to be statistical relevant for analyzing and forecasting of significant
Coordinated development of resources, environment, economy and society in Henan province during the years of 1990-2007 as an example is made by empirical research. Conclusions such as physical capital investment and energy are important input factors, the utilization of number of employed persons is low, and inputs of resources and the environment made inadequate contribution to the social system performance
The paper presents a political economy analysis of the Habyarimana regime in Rwanda. The analysis shows how, through the producer price of coffee, the dictator buys political loyalty from the peasant population, and how, in periods of economic growth, the dictator increases his level of personal consumption as well as power over the population. The analysis of Habyarimana's policy decisions
Raw material prices have been dramatically raised in last quarter of 2001. It has been argued that growth of world economy and expansion of foreign trade are major effective factors on increase of raw materials. On the other hand, from last quarter of 2001, the growing political instability and regional battles have been pressured the raw materials prices. Actually, the
There has been a burgeoning number of studies attempting to measure the size of the ‘black’ economy. These are based on a variety of methodologies and provide a range of estimates, not just across countries but also within the same countries and often by the same author(s). This raises a number of issues: What is meant by the term ‘black’
The purpose of this paper is to analyze climate change and ecological destruction through the prism of the core general principles of political economy. The paper starts with the principle of historical specificity, and the various waves of climate change through successive cooler and warmer periods on planet Earth, including the most recent climate change escalation through the open circuit
Studies of food remains from the Preceramic monumental site of El Paraiso, Peru (1800 to 1500 B.C.), have shed new light on a debate regarding the relative importance of seafood versus terrestrial resources and the role of cultigens in subsistence economies during the early development of Peruvian civilization. Fish was the primary animal food at the site whereas plant foods
Jeffrey Quilter; Bernardino Ojeda E; D. H. SANDWEISS; J. G. JONES; E. S. WING
The purpose of this report is to present the results of a review of the Clark County visitor economy and the Clark County visitor. The review, undertaken in support of NWPO's two objectives mentioned above, addressed a number of topics including performan...
Most households have most of their wealth in the form of housing. We analyze how this distributional feature shapes the political economyof housing taxation. We build a simple dynamic general equilibrium model where households vote over the tax treatment of housing and business capital. The model is calibrated so as to match the joint distribution of financial wealth and
This paper introduces a volume of collected papers on the political economyof environmental regulation: economic analyses of the processes through which political decisions regarding environmental regulation are made, principally in the institutional context found in the United States. Despite this geographic focus, many of the papers contain analytical models that are methodologically of interest and\\/or have lessons that are
Industry orientation of Zhejiang Province, Jiangsu Province and Shanghai is explored based on comprehensive productivity, productivity of financial service and industry, And wage rate. The conclusion is drawn that it is essential to get rid of administrative barrier and to set free key productive elemnets to fulfill development of zone economy in coordination. This presents important significance to Zhujiang Delta
This article has examined the changes that have occurred in India, triggered by the liberalization and globalization of the country's economy, through which India has become an inseparable part of the world capitalist system.43 The cultural costs of the rise of the middle class, blatant consumerism, escalation in corruption, burgeoning cities with associated problems, rising contradictions between cities and villages,
The Political Economyof the World Trading System is a comprehensive textbook account of the economics, institutional mechanics and politics of the world trading system. This third edition has been expanded and updated to cover developments in the World Trade Organisation (WTO) since its formation, including the Doha Round, presenting the essentials of trade negotiations and the WTO's rules and
|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the findings of a study of the management of senior managers. The aim is to describe the ways in which firms in a small economy, such as New Zealand, manage their managers and analyse how they deal with the strategic challenges that are involved. Design/methodology/approach: The study applies the…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the findings of a study of the management of senior managers. The aim is to describe the ways in which firms in a small economy, such as New Zealand, manage their managers and analyse how they deal with the strategic challenges that are involved. Design/methodology/approach: The study applies the…
Theories of political economy offer rich intellectual resources for scholars today who hope to explain some of the most striking real-world changes of contemporary American politics, including the dramatic widening of economic inequality since the 1970s, the financial and economic breakdowns since 2008, and the government policies that contributed to these developments. Yet few scholars in American politics have been
Given that the discussion in Section 2 focuses on but two potential sources of norms and on only a pair of variables affecting the activities of these sources, it may appear premature to attempt to generalize about the supply of NETN norms in a market economy. However, based on the above discussion, it is nevertheless quite reasonable to hypothesize that
Productivity and costs of health care services provided by solo medical practice are compared with those provided by group practice. The framework in which productivity and economiesofscale are defined is established. Solo and group medical practices ar...
|A reduction in agricultural activity in a rural farming community will result in reduced activity in almost every sector of the local economy. The result may be measured in loss of employment and income. This report provides a method to estimate such economic impacts with a minimum of data collection and manipulation. Most of the input data…
This paper is concerned with the advanced economies. It begins with a discussion of the demographic issues that have played such a large role in the debate on immigration. This is followed by a section on the main problems involved in estimating the fiscal impact of immigration and then a summary of the international evidence on this topic, mostly from
Purpose – To analyse the European Union (EU) economies in the economic-cultural context using a combination of soft variables and hard economic indicators in different time periods. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The theoretical frame was used as a foundation for the empirical analysis. The process of cultural convergence was empirically based on 16 cultural variables of 22 European countries, longitudinal data was
|This paper describes a rationale for the construction and use of a simple consistency model of the Zimbabwean economy that incorporates an input-output matrix. The model is designed to investigate alternative industrial strategies and their consequences for the balance of payments, consumption, and overall gross domestic product growth for a…
This paper examines China's emergence as a global economic power over the last few decades. It provides an overview of China's economic growth and its impact on East Asian Region (South Korea and Japan). There exits both competitive and complementary linkages relationships among EAR economies. It also explains the flow of capital in the form of FDI.
The objective of the paper is to simulate the corporate value of Champagne makers by taking into account the Champagne market evolution. These measurements are conducted by linking financial debt, performance and valuation to a vertical coordination model of production-consumption within a cobweb economy. The overall model uses the dynamic structure that underlies the strategic interactions amongst grape producers and
Materials play a key role in whether a hydrogen-based energy economy, with its promise of clean, sustainable energy, will\\u000a become a reality. Materials will be crucial in the production, distribution, storage, and utilization of hydrogen with the\\u000a number of materials interacting with hydrogen being a key challenge.
Through studying joint ventures during the early (1993) and late phases (2001) of Hungary's economic transition to market economy, we demonstrate how institutional and economic transformation alters foreign parents' roles in the success of joint ventures. Foreign parent decision influence and resource provision affected market performance and knowledge acquisition differently in the two phases. We conjecture that the value of
H. KEVIN STEENSMA; LASZLO TIHANYI; MARJORIE A. LYLES; CHARLES DHANARAJ
Understanding the impacts of climate change on economic behaviour is an important aspect of deciding when to take policy actions to prevent or mitigate its consequences. This book applies advanced new economics methodologies to assess impacts on potentially vulnerable aspects of the US economy: agriculture, timber, coastal resources, energy expenditure, fishing, outdoor recreation. It is intended to provide improved understanding
A methodology is developed to divide an economy into regions, then is applied to the United States. These regions represent a departure from the ones currently used by the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Bureau of the Census, both of which are criticized for being derived in anad hoc fashion. The methodology uses a multiregional input-output model, which is
This dissertation seeks to explain the pattern of nuclear power development in the United States, treating the subject as a case study of how major infrastructural development choices are made in a modern capitalist economy. The main concept adduced in the thesis to organize nuclear history is that of an Official Technology (OT). The latter enjoys strong state support, the
Baldwin J. R., Beckstead D., Brown W. M. and Rigby D. L. Agglomeration and the geography of localization economies in Canada, Regional Studies.?This paper maps the spatial variation in productivity levels across Canadian cities and models the underlying determinants of that variation. There are two main goals. The first is to confirm the existence, the nature and the size of
John R. Baldwin; Desmond Beckstead; W. Mark Brown; David L. Rigby
The study reviews the approach to trade policy in early development research and evolution of thoughts integrating the economic and structural reforms in transitional economies. The discussion in the paper is focused in reference to the member countries of Central and Eastern European countries, emerging Asian countries, Mercosur and prospecting countries of Latin America to join the trade bloc. The
Presented here is the mathematical model of business fluctuations, which can be observed in the Economy described by the Input-Output Model of Wassily Leontief. These fluctuations are obtained as a solution of the corresponding matrix differential equations, which interrelate commodities' demand, production, and prices.
Since the Olympic Games will be held in Beijing at 2008, the urban development plan of Beijing deserves special attention. The essence of regional sustainable development is that population (P), resources (R), environment (E) and economy (E) could develop with sustenance, order and coordination during a certain period, which forms a complex system called the PREE complex system. For this
This paper surveys the literature on the political economyof social security. We review models that address the following questions: (i) Why do social security programs that transfer resources from young and middle-aged workers to the elderly exist? (ii) What are the economic and political interactions between social security systems and other redistributive programs of the welfare state? (iii) How
We present a theory of a partial economic reform of a planned economy, similar to the one that took place in Russia since 1988 and in China earlier. In such a reform, some markets are liberalized in the sense that producers can sell output to whomever they want, including private firms, at free prices, but at the same time must
KEVIN M. MURPHY; ANDREI SHLEIFER; ROBERT W. VISHNY
|The document includes five papers on the implications and applications of regeneration by the Regeneration Project, based in Emmaus, Pa. The first paper, "Regenerating America: Meeting the Challenge of Building Local Economies," (Medard Gabel) defines regeneration as economic recovery and growth, fostered by diversification within a local…
This paper develops the concept of tax rights to analyze the impact of fiscal institutions on economic development in transition economies. A government’s tax rights are poorly defined when it and other governments and agencies can unilaterally levy taxes on the same tax base. Existing evidence suggests that Chinese local governments have gained more clearly defined tax rights than their
|Economists in both India and China see signs of slackening economic activity, from currency fluctuations in India to a falloff in imports, electricity consumption, and real-estate sales in China. A weakening of the economies in the two countries could be worrisome news for American colleges, for which an uptick in full-paying foreign students has…
We report the effects of using a token economy to treat noncompliant behavior in a 10-year-old male hemodialysis patient. The results of an ABAB design indicated that the intervention increased compliant behavior during both treatment phases and that compliance was maintained at 3- and 6-month follow-up observations.
From 2002 the Norwegian hospital sector is to be transferred from county to state ownership, organised through regional semiautonomous companies. A major motivation for the reform is to allow for more specialised hospital production. If there are economies or diseconomies of scope, the production of hospital services in a region could become more efficient by exploiting any cost savings that
A significant autocorrelation of returns, also called predictability, may indicate market inefficiency. To test whether market efficiency has improved in transition economies, we develop a methodology based on a time-varying parameter model. We apply this methodology to a set of recently established stock markets over the period April 1994 through June 1999. We find that the Hungarian market always satisfies
In the Walrasian model of a market economy, every agent is assumed to be a price-taker and hence there is no agent who can change prices. In the same model, it is also assumed that if the excess demand for some commodity is positive (resp. negative) the p...
Circular economy (CE) focuses on resource-productivity and eco-efficiency improvement in a comprehensive way, especially on the industrial structure optimization of new technology development and application, equipment renewal and management renovation. The leather industry on the one side boosts the local economic development, on the other side however leads to the tremendous environment pollution and biological chains destruction. The CE model
This paper reviews the literature on China's energy economy, focusing particularly on: (i) the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth; (ii) China's changing energy intensity; (iii) energy demand and energy-non-energy substitution; (iv) the emergence of energy markets in China; and (v) economic reforms in the energy industry. After reviewing the literature, the paper presents the main findings that some
During the last two decades, China's food supply and demand has been a hot topic for both politicians and academics given China's rapid economic development and its sheer market size. Accordingly, researchers are trying to project the future development of China's food economy. This article reviews several influential projection models and compares their model structure, major assumptions and projection results.
|Summarizes United States Environmental Protection Agency data about the fuel economyof 1973 and 1974 model year light-duty motor vehicles in a form which is suitable for use in constructing examples or problems for physics or physical science courses. (CC)|
We develop an 11-variable structural VAR for the Australian economy over the period 1980 to 1998. The VAR methodology has only relatively recently been applied in the Australian context, despite its popularity in quantitative macroeconomics internationally. Our model includes an overseas sector which distinguishes between goods and asset markets so as to disentangle the effects of shocks emanating from each
J. Kenneth Benson's political economy model for interlibrary cooperation identifies linkages and describes interactions between the environment, the interlibrary organization, and member libraries. A tentative general model for interlibrary organizations based on the Benson model was developed, and the fit of this adjusted model to the realities…
Governments worldwide have focused attention on improving educational attainment in order to meet the labour demands of the knowledge economy. I explore decisions taken concerning further and higher education among seventy-one students from a highly successful comprehensive school in North East England, and argue that the postulated links between attainment, higher education, and secure well-paid employment are more complicated than
|J. Kenneth Benson's political economy model for interlibrary cooperation identifies linkages and describes interactions between the environment, the interlibrary organization, and member libraries. A tentative general model for interlibrary organizations based on the Benson model was developed, and the fit of this adjusted model to the realities…
‘Market’ and ‘market economy’ exercise a powerful, even magnetic grip on our collective imagination. But what do we mean by ‘market economy’? Does it make sense to speak of a ‘nonmarket economy’, and if so, what does it mean? How are the ideas of ‘market economy’ and ‘nonmarket economy’ related? Focusing on EC anti-dumping law, this article seeks to answer
In this study we make an attempt to visualize the structure of the economyof Udalguri Subdivision of Assam, India. The structure of an economy comprises the characteristic features of and the interrelationships among its constituent parts and subsystems. These characteristic features and interrelationships typify the economy and give to it a style, an appearance and individuality of its own.
The transition of Eastern Europe to Western-type liberal capitalism has by many observers been interpreted as an important step towards a more ecologically sustainable Europe. The main argument has been that the energy efficiency of the West-European economy will be imported to Eastern Europe and lead to lower energy consumption and lower pollution. This line of argumentation seems sound as
In 1885 John Kells Ingram published a lengthy article on the history of political economy in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and in 1888 he republished this same article, with only minor changes, as a book entitled The History of Political Economy. Ingram unashamedly interpreted the historical development of political economy from a Comtean variant of the historicist perspective, and, for this
Increasing the share of renewable energy in the national energy mix remains one of the major energy policy goals across many economies. This paper assesses the roles and potentials of renewable energy sources in less-developed economies while citing Nepal as an example. Renewable energy has a significant role to play in the electrification of rural areas in developing economies and
Economiesof war underpinned by greed and opportunities have been posited to underlie causality, dynamics and the sustenance of conflicts and particularly Africa's resource wars. The study examines the economyof conflict in the resource conflicts in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. It was found that a conflict economy comprising an intensive and violent struggle for resource opportunities, inter
We compare banking in economic systems of different type, namely X-type (redistributive economy) and Y-type (market economy). In an X-type economic system banking has a peculiar institutional design and is organized “top-down”, whereas in a Y-type market economy we see a “bottom-up model” of banking system. We suggest that in countries where X-type economy prevails the private banking activity is
...economyof operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation? 142.8 Section...THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES ALASKA RESUPPLY OPERATION Â§ 142.8 Is economyof operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation? Yes....
...Administrator determines that automobiles intended for sale in California are likely to exhibit significant differences in fuel economy...ranges of fuel economy values for each class of automobiles for California and for the other states. (d) For high altitude...
...economyof operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation? 142.8 Section...THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES ALASKA RESUPPLY OPERATION Â§ 142.8 Is economyof operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation? Yes....
Globalization has entailed a reorganisation of spatial development processes on the global, European, national and regional scales. New forms of hierarchical and network development and functional differentiation between cities can be observed. In this context, the knowledge economy has been highlighted as a central issue in economic geography and innovation studies over the past decade. With the aim of identifying
Uddevalla Symposium; Stefan Lüthi; Alain Thierstein
Since the early 1980s, a vast number of jobs have been created in the affluent economiesof the industrialized world. Many workers are doing more skilled and fulfilling jobs, and getting paid more for their trouble. Yet it is often alleged that the quality of work life has deteriorated, with a substantial and rising proportion of jobs providing low wages
The re-articulation of China into the global economy since December 1978 has led to a tremendous influx of foreign capital during the past two decades. Constrained by the limited domestic market and encouraged by home-country government, transnational corporations from Singapore are regionalising increasingly into the Asia Pacific region. To date, a significant amount of Singaporean investments abroad has gone to
Three children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated in a summer program designed to evaluate the influence of stimulant medication and a token economy on attentive and disruptive behavior during kickball games. Attentive and disruptive behavior were assessed using an interval coding system, and daily ratings on the ADHD Index of the Conners Teacher Rating Scale-Revised were also
David Reitman; Stephen D. A. Hupp; Patrick M. O’Callaghan; Veronica Gulley; John Northup
Indian agriculture is trapped in a complex nexus of groundwater depletion and energy subsidies. This nexus is the product of past public policy choices that initially offered opportunities to India's small-holder-based irrigation economy but has now generated in its wake myriad economic, social, and environmental distortions. Conventional `getting-the-price-right' solutions to reduce these distortions have consistently been undermined by the invidious political economy that the nexus has created. The historical evolution of the nexus is outlined, the nature and scaleof the distortions it has created are explored, and alternative approaches which Indian policy makers can use to limit, if not eliminate, the damaging impacts of the distortions, are analysed.
The need to shift from a fossil fuel based economy towards a more bio-based economy has received a lot of attention in public debates and policy making in recent years. However, there seems to be some inconsistency in how a bio-based economy is defined as well as how to estimate the size of this bio-based economy. The current article shows,
V. Vandermeulen; W. Prins; S. Nolte; G. Van Huylenbroeck
Russia's experience of financial crisis has been novel: crisis was followed by growth rather than depression, and did not lead to any increased role for foreign economic agencies or actors in Russia's economy. This novel experience resulted from the structure of Russia's economy in the 1990s, the limited role of financial intermediation in the Russian economy and rising oil prices.
Increasing the renewable energy share in national energy mix remains one of the major energy policy goals across many economies. This paper assesses the roles and potentials of renewable energy sources in less-developed economies while citing Nepal as an example. Renewable energy has a significant role to play in the electrification of rural areas in developing economies and contribute towards
...Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600.311-08 Section 600.311-08...Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine...economy values for each class of comparable automobiles comprising the maximum and...
Potter A. and Watts H. D. Revisiting Marshall's agglomeration economies: technological relatedness and the evolution of the Sheffield metals cluster, Regional Studies. According to Alfred Marshall, firms receive increasing returns from a trinity of agglomeration economies: a local pool of skilled labour, local supplier linkages and local knowledge spillovers. This article re-examines the mechanisms underlying Marshall's agglomeration economies in the
The relationship between the size of government, economic growth, and volatility in a small open economy is analyzed. First, we characterize the stochastic equilibrium for a centrally planned economy, contrasting it with a closed economy. The role of government consumption expenditure both as a stabilizing and a destabilizing factor is discussed. The optimal size of government is derived and we
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the economyof Persian Gulf countries following a post-oil economy. This is accompanied with a futurology study and planning of certain scenarios that can be applied to these countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study applies a futurology approach by investigating various scenarios to explore the Arab economy after oil. As such,
The last two decades of the twentieth century witnessed a series of financial reforms in emerging economics of Asia, Africa and Latin America. The seminal works of R.I. McKinnon and E.S. Shaw, which attribute the slow growth of these economies to financial repression, inspired many of these reforms. The McKinnon-Shaw thesis demonstrates how government regulations cause low savings and investment,
The main characteristic of the Chinese economy is economic transition from a planned to a market economy. During this process, market competition has been introduced and the competition mechanism has undergone changes. The function of the government has been changed by limiting excess interference in the economy, while the dual price system remains in some industries and public ownership plays
After systematic attempts to increase a teacher's positive responding to her first-grade students, a token-economy system was implemented as a “last resort”. On-task student behavior and relative frequency of positive and negative teacher comments were systematically observed. Data indicated that institution of the token system was associated with a relatively higher percentage of positive than negative comments. Termination and re-implementation of the token system caused reversals of the teacher's behavior.
Background: American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS) survey data showed a 16.7% decrease in the total number of aesthetic surgical procedures from 2008 to 2009, whereas plastic surgeons have seen an increase of 0.6% in their nonsurgical cosmetic procedures.Objective: The authors describe the results of two surveys—one administered to potential patients, one to physicians—assessing the impact of the economy
T. Jonathan Kurkjian; Jeffrey M. Kenkel; Jonathan M. Sykes; Stephen C. Duffy
This article shows how contracts are the institutional foundation of a market economy. Contracts create wealth, allocate risk\\u000a and are based on consent. There is no perfect competition and the markets are characterised by a number of failures; therefore,\\u000a contracts are not perfect. However, the existence of these failures does not undermine the importance of contract and consent.\\u000a A common
The contribution of the 'new economy' to economic growth in developing countries has so far been minimal. Despite the recent hype, the 'old economy' will for long be the fundamental force behind economic growth in transition economies. Nonetheless, in the longer run the 'new economy' offers great potential for faster economic growth in postsocialist economies. Realizing this potential is however
Modern vehicles have sophisticated electronic control units, particularly to control engine operation with respect to a balance between fuel economy, emissions, and power. These control units are designed for specific driving conditions and testing. However, each individual driving style is different and rarely meets those driving conditions. In the research reported here we investigate those driving style factors that have a major impact on fuel economy. An optimization framework is proposed with the aim of optimizing driving styles with respect to these driving factors. A set of polynomial metamodels are constructed to reflect the responses produced by changes of the driving factors. Then we compare the optimized driving styles to the original ones and evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the optimization formulation.
Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL; Aguilar, Juan P. [Georgia Institute of Technology
This paper studies the distributive impact of institutional change in developing countries. In such economies, property rights\\u000a systems may preserve the interests of an influential minority, who can control key-markets, access to assets and investment\\u000a opportunities, especially if they enjoy disproportionate political power. We test this hypothesis using cross-section and\\u000a panel data methods on a sample of low- and middle-income
This is a review and comparison of seven books dealing with income distribution and economic development focusing on the countries of East Asia. The books reviewed are:\\u000aIrma Adelman and Sherman Robinson, Income Distribution Policy in Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.\\u000aEdward K. Y. Chen, Hyper-Growth in Asian Economies: A Comparative Study of Hong Kong, Japan, Korea,
Following the global trend of sustainable development, development of green economy is the best way of slowing the negative\\u000a ecological and environmental impact. This research establishes the Taiwan’s green economic indicators based on the ecological\\u000a footprint and energy analysis. The results are as follows: Taiwan’s ecological footprint in 2008 intensity index was at 4.364;\\u000a ecological overshoot index was at 3.364,
China has made great strides in family planning and in developing her national economy during the period of the 6th 5-year plan. In 1980, China's tasks were to develop the national economy and to provide her people with enough to eat and wear. By 1986, these needs had been met. The average annual growth rate for the national gross output value of industry and agriculture may reach 10% during the 6th 5-year plan and should be approximately 7% in the 7th 5-year plan. China's future goal is for all her people to be well off at the turn of the century. Controlling population growth is one of the most important steps in reaching this goal China's population growth rates were 23.33 per 1000 in 1971 and dropped to 10.81 per 1000 in 1984. Although China's family planning program advocates one child per couple, 70% of the total married women of childbearing age have 2 or 3 children. Continued publicity and education and improved medical care should gradually decrease the birth rate even more. The author cites Engels in arguing that it is one of the superiorities of the socialist system to make population growth consciously fit for the development of material production. He refutes an American view that China's population would automatically decrease with the development of a free economy and offers the US's 12 million unemployed in 1982 and 2 million homeless in 1985 as evidence that a free economy also results in overpopulation. He concludes that further demographic research should be conducted and should implement China's family planning program with different measures suited to local conditions at different stages. PMID:12268821
This paper takes an initial step in integrating insights from two sets of literature which have focused on central aspects\\u000a of development with unfortunate independence. It highlights politically valuable resources, which are identified in the political\\u000a economy literature, and shows that the informal sector literature provides ample evidence that these resources in general\\u000a are (i) scarcely available to informal entities, (ii) poorly
Through human history, wealth has been measured in grain, gold, and, now, dollars. Though counterfeiting of coins and notes\\u000a goes back a long way, it is only with electronic financial accounting in a global economy tainted by toxic loans and imaginary\\u000a funds that there is an urgency to search for a realistic objective way to monitor and regulate what we
This study investigated whether downhill (DH) running (10-min @ 214.4 m·min and –10% grade) would elicit acute and delayed effects on running economy (RE) upon completion of DH running (RE2) and daily over 72 h (RE3, RE4, RE5). Fifteen runners (8 female, 7 male) completed the protocol. RE was measured during level running performed at 70% VO2peak. A baseline RE
In this essay I engage the moralizing ofeconomy by bringing it into an encounter with political perspectives that displace moralizing with critical, philosophically-oriented thinking. Taking as the initiating provocation, the U.S. government's bailout of the American auto industry during the recent financial crisis, my analysis focuses on the ontological depth of automobile culture in the U. S. and proceeds
The Antimatter Economy will bring every country into the 21st century without destroying our environment and turn the Star Trek dream into reality by using antimatter from comets. At the April 2002 joint meeting of the American Physical Society and American Astronomical Society, I announced that comets were composed of antimatter, there were 109 antimatter elements, and the Periodic Table
One of the most actual problems of the Russian economic life is a regional economic systems formation. The hierarchy of economic and branch priorities should follow from the general idea of an industrial policy. The matter is that the concept of an industrial policy is defined by the system of priorities mainly incorporated in it. The problem of priorities is
Theories of economic development have focused exclusively on the improvement of production forces and have disregarded questions of social and ecological relations of production. Among geographers, the exclusive focus on production forces can be seen in their work on the spatial diffusion of technological innovation. The costly errors of Green Revolution agriculture in the Third World illustrate the hazards of
This article proposes a reading of the armed conflict from an evolutionary design that takes into account the concept of private protection agencies in the works of Schelling. Their aim is to assess the dynamics of conflict and changes from its author's scientific output. A context of conflicts that includes new expressions of violence and the relative failure of the
This paper provides a review and assessment of the extensive literature on the political determination of environmental regulation. A promising theoretical literature has emerged relatively recently that provides models of the political interaction of government with various interest groups in the setting of environmental standards and the choice of regulatory instruments. A large empirical literature supports such models, finding evidence
Abstract: I model,the link between,political regime,and,level of diversification following,a windfall,of natural resource revenues. The explanatory,variables I make use of are the political support functions embedded within each type of regime and the disparate levels of discretion, openness, transparency, and accountability of government. I show that a democratic govern- ment seeks to maximize the long-term consumption path of the representative consumer,
This work was intended as a contribution to the theory of the nonprofit organization, local public finance, and human resources. There is a discussion of approaches to evaluating school systems, the validity of any of which depends upon prior knowledge of the resource-performance relationship, or the educational production function. A case study…
The thesis of this article is that world capitalism is moving into a phase of development marked by an intensified regionalization of production overlaid by—and rooted in—a global division of labour. In this process, a significant reallocation of economic coordination and steering functions is occurring, away from the sovereign state, up to the international and down to the regional levels.
Bulimia Nervosa constitutes a major social problem. There have, however, been few, if any, attempts to understand the distinctive features of this disorder from within the social sciences. Rather, the increasing prevalence of all forms of eating disorders are understood as a product of how the concepts of ‘femininity’ and the ‘controlled body’ are constructed within contemporary society. Bulimia and
In the first part of this paper we provide an overview and comparative assessment of the UK's foreign aid performance over the past 15 years. In the second part, we provide an empirical investigation of the allocation of the UK bilateral aid budget over the period 1970–81. It is concluded that UK political interests were the major determinant of aid
Diamonds feature in many recent analyses of the financial underpinnings of Angola's long-running civil war. Both lawful and illicit exports of diamonds gain attention for their significant roles in bolstering the finances of the Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (MPLA) regime and their União Nacional para a Indepêndencia Total de Angola (UNITA) opponents. Much of this attention focus- es
The present article tackles with the process of the decade of transformation of the CIS-member countries, their external economic links, the present social and economic situation and national security, including the matters of non-traditional threats of international terrorism. It also investigates the rise and evolution of the CIS sub-regional institutions such as The Belarus and Russia Union State, Euro-Asian Economic
The paper examines a model in which the number of immigrants allowed into a country is the outcome of a costly political lobbying contest between a firm and a union. The union and the firm bargain over the wage of natives after the number of immigrants that will be permitted is known. I assume that the lobbying contest is an
|Emphasizes the greater power of producers over consumers, those controlling distribution of valued goods beyond the family having most power. Describes how, historically, population replacement requirements have interacted with modes of subsistence technology to shape the differential distribution of power and prestige by sex, citing evidence…
This article is a follow-up of a short essay that appeared in Nature 455, 1181 (2008) [arXiv:0810.5306]. It has become increasingly clear that the erratic dynamics of markets is mostly endogenous and not due to the rational processing of exogenous news. I elaborate on the idea that spin-glass type of problems, where the combination of competition and heterogeneities generically leads
How does the presence of government-controlled media affect polit- ical outcomes? What happens when the state monopoly is broken by the introduction of commercial television? We develop a retrospective voting model in which voters are risk-averse and they are uncertain about the ability of politicians. In equilibrium the amount of effort that the incumbent exerts in favor of aparticular socio-economic
We have developed a new series of environmentally extended multi-region input-output (MRIO) tables with applications in carbon, water, and ecological footprinting, and Life-Cycle Assessment, as well as trend and key driver analyses. Such applications have recently been at the forefront of global policy debates, such as about assigning responsibility for emissions embodied in internationally traded products. The new time series was constructed using advanced parallelized supercomputing resources, and significantly advances the previous state of art because of four innovations. First, it is available as a continuous 20-year time series of MRIO tables. Second, it distinguishes 187 individual countries comprising more than 15,000 industry sectors, and hence offers unsurpassed detail. Third, it provides information just 1-3 years delayed therefore significantly improving timeliness. Fourth, it presents MRIO elements with accompanying standard deviations in order to allow users to understand the reliability of data. These advances will lead to material improvements in the capability of applications that rely on input-output tables. The timeliness of information means that analyses are more relevant to current policy questions. The continuity of the time series enables the robust identification of key trends and drivers of global environmental change. The high country and sector detail drastically improves the resolution of Life-Cycle Assessments. Finally, the availability of information on uncertainty allows policy-makers to quantitatively judge the level of confidence that can be placed in the results of analyses. PMID:22794089
Lenzen, Manfred; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Moran, Daniel; Geschke, Arne
Among the East Asian crisis economies, Indonesia has been by far the worst affected. Its economic contraction has been about twice as great as the next most affected economy, Thailand. It is the only crisis economy to experience serious inflation. Its political turmoil and social tension have also obviously been much deeper than elsewhere. Finally, unlike Thailand, the early warning
Even as the biotechnological and genomic revolutions have promised spectacular life-saving and life-extending drugs and therapies, social and cultural critics have highlighted injustices associated with contemporary systems of biocommerce, often drawing on concepts of \\
Sri Lanka is one of the spectacular Third World failures, a tragedy of epic proportions. The roots and symptoms of failure pre-date the explosion of violent ethnic conflict in 1983: they reach back at least to the 1950s. Ceylon was in many ways Britain's model colony, well prepared for independence and starting the post-colonial era with high hopes and great
Many observers have noted a recent proliferation of regional trade agreements primarily centred in or on Europe. The paper analyses the causes and consequences of EC regionalism. It begins by examining the development and importance of the phenomenon. It finds that although the EC maintains preferential trade arrangements with virtually all countries, preferential trade accounts for no more than 25%
We analyze a newly available dataset of migration policy decisions reported by governments to the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs between 1976 and 2007. We find evidence indicating that most governments have policies aimed at either maintaining the status quo or at lowering the level of migration. We also document variation in migration policy over time and
Rubber began to emerge as an important raw material during the 19th century. Production of natural rubber is concentrated in a few developing countries. Three of them, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand, account for over 80 percent of world production; anot...
|Intended to give college economics students insights into the problems of demand management, this game involves students in manipulating government expenditure, with incomes policy and devaluation options, to try to secure the objectives of full employment, low inflation, and an acceptable balance of payments position. (RM)|
For many experts the true motivation behind the introduction of a single currency in Europe is political rather than economic. This view is based on the fact that the euro area does not constitute an optimal currency area and, therefore, the costs of monetary integration are likely to outweigh the benefits. In particular, the loss of control over monetary policy
The funds being allocated for the technical retooling of all sectors of the economyâindustry, transport, agriculture, construction and the building industry, and many services spheresâhave been decreasing year by year since the first years of restructuring. Some sectors (for example, light industry) have long since dropped to the zero level for this indicator. This means that the lag in technical
The study of peacekeeping from an economics perspective is a fairly recent phenomenon. This chapter surveys three research areas pursued by economists in analyzing peacekeeping. The first research strand examines the theory and empirics of peacekeeping financing and burden sharing, while the second strand focuses on the efficacy of third-party intervention in reducing conflict. The last strand utilizes case studies
It is argued, using a single-sector general equilibrium model, that the economic interests of citizens of a host country in relation to immigration depend on their factor ownership. Using the median voter model, it is argued that whether a country admits further immigration depends on the country's factor ownership distributions, the generosity of its transfer programs, as well as on
SUMMARY Many countries are implementing the use of oxygenates in gasoline for economic and environmental reasons. Ethanol in particular is gaining ground as the oxygenate of choice as it presents a renewable and environmentally friendly alternative to other octane boosters such as tetraethyl lead and MTBE. However, given the relative energy content compared to gasoline, the use of ethanol\\/gasoline (10\\/90)
This essay argues that market failure analysis provides an unsubstantial basis for assessing the kinds of things governments should be doing if they could do them well, and modern public choice theory an inadequate guide to obstacles to effective governmental action. The argument is supported by analysis of political rhetoric and actual policy in two arenas: support of R&D, and
We analyze the political determinants of investor and employment protection. Our model predicts that proportional electoral systems are conducive to weaker investor protection and stronger employment protection than majoritarian systems. This predic- tion is consistent with international panel data evidence. The proportionality of the voting system is significantly and negatively correlated with shareholder protection in a panel of 45 countries,
\\u000a This paper explains the process of restoring property rights in Bulgarian agriculture as the result of the fight between reformers\\u000a and ex-Communists over the future political constellation of the rural electorate. The prolonged hold on power by the former\\u000a Communists, and the stalemate in parliament radicalized the opposition and the electorate. Land reform was designed to break\\u000a up existing production
Welcome to the XXII Nordic-Baltic Congress of Cardiology. This year, for the first time, the National Societies of the five Nordic and the three Baltic countries have joined forces to create a new and stronger Nordic-Baltic forum for cardiovascular science. The stage is international and the participants are attracted not only from all corners of the Nordic-Baltic region, but also
The site informs visitors about Japan's current economic policies. Reports available include the plans to reform the economic structure, trade issues, and the 1997 White Paper on International Trade which looks at trends in world trade and long-term issues concerning Japanese trade and industry. A collection of chronologically sorted press releases, transcripts of press conferences, statistics on industrial production, and a summary of industrial economic trends can be found at this site. A collection of trade-related reports and Japanese submissions to the World Trade Organization (WTO) are also available.
This paper examines the situated play aesthetics of Japanese digital games with reference to what Takashi Murakami calls Japan's superflat visual culture. According to Murakami, superflat visuality is born out of imbricated cultural, political, and historical contexts concerning the relationships between high art and subculture, between Japan and the United States, between history and contemporaneity. In this paper, I examine
International economic sanctions have become increasingly important as alternatives to military conflict since the end of the Cold War. This chapter surveys various approaches to the study of economic sanctions in both the economics and international relations literatures. Sanctions may be imposed not to bring about maximum economic damage to the target, but for expressive or demonstrative purposes. Moreover, the
On 1 January 2005, all stock exchange listed companies in the European Union (EU) began using International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) written by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). This article argues that the IASB's introduction of fair value accounting reflects and reinforces changed relations of production in which the financial sector increasingly dominates the productive sector, nationally institutionalized economic
Although world growth is continuous throughout history, the balance of power is constantly shifting from one nation to another. From Egypt to Ancient Greece and Rome, all the way through modern western civilization, different nations struggle for power through various ways such as: war, science and technology, arts, commerce, economical transactions, and other forms of interaction.In this article we use
The political struggles over oil policy in the 1950s were contests between narrow economic interest groups to collect economic rents, as would be expected if government is considered to be just another forum for rent seeking behavior, with government intervention accepted as a norm. Conversely, the attempt to obtain decontrol of natural gas production during this period, during which consumer interests and pro-market ideology were important factors, presaged the oil politics of the 1970s. The significant impact of consumer interests on oil policy contradicts the expectations of public choice theorists that consumers will be disadvantaged in contests with well organized and wealthy interest groups. The ability of latent interest groups to influence policy when represented by politicians and private actors acting as political entrepreneurs was demonstrated during the 1970s as they dominated oil politics. Substantial economic rents, generated by the OPEC price increases, were transferred to consumers and refiners, while tax break were eliminated despite the economic resources available to producers. The pattern of distribution of those economic rents, as well as various tax breaks and exemptions from controls, was skewed toward small producers and refiners, reflecting a traditional ideological prejudice against big business. Econometric analysis revealed that ideology, party and oil production by constituents were the most important influences on congressional voting.
This project was initiated by APEC Energy Working Group (EWG) to maximize the energy sector's contribution to the region's economic and social well-being through activities in five areas of strategic importance including liquid biofuels production and development.
We ask what redistributions of income and assets are feasible in a democracy, given the initial assets and their distribution. The question is motivated by the possibility that if redistribution is insufficient for the poor or excessive for the rich, they may turn against democracy. In turn, if no redistribution simultaneously satisfies the poor and the wealthy, democracy cannot be
|Throughout North America and the world, educators are awash in urgings and suggestions about how to change what they do and how they do it. "Challenges" and "crises" are identified and elaborated. Teachers are made to feel embarrassed if they are unaware of "cutting-edge technologies" and uniformed about profound demographic and attitudinal…
Doughty, Howard A.; Meaghan, Diane E.; Barrett, Ralph V.
Oil is so vital that its importance cannot be overstated, says the author. Current world reserves are estimated at 1,000 billion barrels - a 43-year supply at current rates of consumption, he reports. The ultimate supply, however, is much greater, he adds, a fact that casts the world's economic outlook in a positive light. The challenge for the US is
This chapter argues that, by promoting audience pleasures based in the pursuit of individual and materialistic goals, most television formats are consonant with a dominant orthodoxy which sees markets as the only way to organise society . This elective affinity between format pleasures and free market ideology, however, does not come about through deliberate design. Rather it is an unintended
We consider a two-period overlapping generations model in which individual voters differ not only according to age but also productivity. In such a setting, a (redistributive) Pay-As-You-Go system is politically sustainable, even when the interest rate is larger than the rate of population growth. The medium wages workers (not the lowest) join the retirees to form a majority and vote
Georges CASAMATTA; Helmuth CREMER; Pierre PESTIEAU
We consider a two-period overlapping generations model in which individual voters differ by age and by productivity. In such a setting, a redistributive pay-as-you-go system is politically sustainable, even when the interest rate is higher than the rate of population growth. The workers with medium wages (not those with the lowest wages) and the retirees form a majority which votes
Georges Casamatta; Helmuth Cremer; Pierre Pestieau
Abstract This paper considers redistributive as well as political consequences,of tax avoidance. When tax avoidance is possible, the o¢ cial tax rate does not nec- essarily correspond,to what,individuals actually pay. This a¤ects both redis- tributive outcomes,as well as political attitudes towards,taxation. Depending on the avoidance,technology,di¤erent political equilibria emerge. When,the avoidance possibilities are limited, the classical con‡ict between rich and poor
‘Gher’ farming is a unique system that incorporates the joint operation of three enterprises: freshwater prawn, fish and HYV\\u000a rice and is expanding rapidly in the coastal regions of Bangladesh. In this paper we evaluate the performance of this unique\\u000a system in terms of the existence of diversification economies (amongst the three integrated enterprises), scaleeconomies\\u000a and technical efficiency using
|This paper, one of a series from the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education's project "Higher Education and the Economyof the West," describes 31 programs in 16 western states that illustrates higher education's contribution to the economy. Four school-university partnerships are described: the Pueblo School District 60/University of…
Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO.
Olympic's influence on economy is generally divided into 3 phases: the phase of Olympic's preparation and construction (2003-2007), the phase of holding Olympics (2008) and the post-phase of Olympics (2009-2010). During the phase of Olympic's preparation and construction, the influence on China's economy by Olympic economy is mainly through Olympic investment that is composed of direct and indirect investment. During
A creation of the Institute for Local Self-Reliance (ILSR), the Carbohydrate Economy Clearinghouse (CEC) provides up-to-date information on "all facets of the plant matter-based industrial economy" from paints and inks to fuels and construction materials made from plants. In addition to the latest "new materials economy" news, the CEC site hosts a directory of carbohydrate economy companies as well as ILSR reports on plant matter-based products and technologies (in English, French, and Spanish).
Development of Chinese food economy and Chinese agricultural policies. Simulations of future developments in China and in global trade with a model for the Chinese food economy and a model for global trade analysis. Simulation of developments in a 'business as usual' scenario. Assessment of impacts of WTO accession and phasing out of multi fiber agreement. Simulation of possible impacts
World Resources Institute (WRI) has recently released this publication on resource and materials use, entitled "Weight of Nations: Material Outflows from Industrial Economies." The report examines material flows in Austria, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, and the US, and develops "model accounts of the complete 'material cycle' or the flow of raw materials through the processes of extraction, production, use, and disposal." In addition, the report documents the annual quantity of materials that are recycled and those that rapidly become pollution or potentially harmful waste. The Website offers author descriptions and sections of the report, in addition to the full (.pdf) report.
Bringezu, Stefan.; Amann, Christof.; Matthews, Emily.; Schandl, Heinz.; Schã¼tz, Helmut.; Van Der Voet, Ester.
Using a modified version of the dependent economy framework, this paper analyzes a stylized small economy that is significantly open to trade and investment flows. The analysis, which is inspired by the structure of Cambodia's economy and ongoing efforts by international organizations to raise labor standards in that country, initially classifies the economy into three sectors: a manufacturing sector that
Thermal economy on-line analysis system (TEOAS) of nuclear power unit can real-timely calculate heat economy index online and analyze thermal economyof full operating nuclear power unit, which provide decision-making basis and relevant technical data for operators and administrators in time. Therefore, the system is of practical significance for energy conservation and improving the management and operation level of nuclear
This paper proposes to test the global hybrid computable general equilibrium model Imaclim-R against macroeconomic data. To do so, it compares the modeled and observed responses of the Indian economy to the rise of oil price during the 2003–2006 period. The objective is twofold: first, to disentangle the various mechanisms and policies at play in India's economy response to rising
This paper proposes to test the global hybrid compu table general equilibrium model IMACLIM -R against macroeconomic data. To do so, it compares the modeled and observed responses of the Indian economy to the rise of oil price during the 2003-2006 period. The objective is twofold: first, to disentangle the var ious mechanisms and policies at play in India's economy
Fuel economy and emission characteristics of two light-duty diesel-powered vehicles, representing 3,500-lb and 5,500-lb passenger cars, were determined and compared to those of similar 1975 model year gasoline-powered vehicles. The diesel-powered and gasoline-powered vehicles were designed to have comparable acceleration performance. The 3,500-lb vehicle with a 247 cubic-inch-displacement (CID) diesel engine and the 5,500-lb vehicle with a 636-CID diesel engine
The Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya is a small oil-producing developing economy in North Africa. Its economy depends heavily on oil revenue. Oil exports accounted for 92-97 percent of annual total Libyan exports and contributed 40-60 percent of annual GDP during the period 1963-2006. The Libyan economy, like other Middle Eastern oil producers, has been subject to several strong external
This paper analyzes the impact of an increase in the price of energy (oil) on the growth and welfare of a small developing\\u000a economy. We consider the extent to which the impacts of energy price shocks depend upon the economy’s internal production\\u000a structure and its access to the world financial market. We find that the effect on the long-run growth
There are two types of local industrial agglomeration of economic activity. One is the clustering of like-kind businesses—small and medium-sized companies, plants, and other types of establishments belonging to the same industrial group—in a specific geographic area. The other is the agglomeration of individuals, typically, employees of a large-scale company. The former type of agglomeration relates to localization economies, whereas
We sought to determine if cold acclimatized men display higher economy (i.e. lower oxygen consumption at a given workload) during graded cycle ergometry in the cold (5°C). After completing a familiarization trial 1 week prior, five cold weather athletes (CWA) and eight physically active men (NON) underwent graded exercise tests to volitional fatigue in 5°C. The protocol always started at 60 W and increased by 20 W each minute. Oxygen consumption (VO(2)), respiration rate (RR), tidal volume (TV), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were determined via open circuit spirometry. Individuals were matched for body size and minutes of weekly physical activity. Repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted across time (workload) and cold acclimatization was entered as a between subjects factor. VO(2) peak was not different between groups but CWA had lower VO(2) at 60 and 240 W. CWA also had lower RR at 180 and 260 W as well as lower RER at 240 and 260 W. At submaximal workloads, cold acclimatized men have higher exercise economy than non-acclimatized men. This could have implications for those who work in this context. PMID:21671101
Muller, Matthew D; Kim, Chul-Ho; Bellar, David M; Ryan, Edward J; Seo, Yongsuk; Muller, Sarah M; Glickman, Ellen L
This study contributes to the understanding of the regional structure of the Chilean economy utilizing the fundamental economic structure (FES) approach. The regional FES construct implies that selected characteristics of an economy will vary predictably with economic size, as measured by regional: domestic product, population, total value added, and total sector output. The overarching problem addressed in this research is
\\u000a A significant development within ecological thought and activism during the last 10 years or so is the emergence of the de-growth\\u000a project, arguing for transcending the contemporary world economy through a ‘radical’ reform within the market economy institutional\\u000a framework, which involves reframing the present institutions according to different principles with the aim of downscaling\\u000a the economy. However, as this chapter
This paper first considers the dilemma facing the ECB itself in managing the eurozone economy. It then turns to the issues facing individual governments in managing their own regional economies within the euro zone - in particular the issues facing the Irish government. We first consider the extent to which individual governments should be concerned about deviations in domestic inflation
AbstractFuelled by high domestic investment and rapid export expansion, China's economy grew by 11.4 percent in 2007, the highest increase since 1994 and the fifth consecutive year of double-digit growth. Such spectacular growth performance is unprecedented in the world s economic history. However, the Chinese Government is again worried about a possible “hard landing” for the economy, as no economy
As a transition economy, Georgia has an uncertain, complex, and immature business environment, typical of transition economies\\u000a in the Eurasian region. In an effort to provide insights into marketing and advertising practices in the Eurasian transition\\u000a economies, this study empirically examines the marketing and advertising practices in Georgia through two surveys conducted\\u000a with Turkish entrepreneurs in Georgia and Georgian consumers.
Brunei is one of those tiny economiesof Southeast Asia with abundant reserves of oil. It is this oil and natural gas that have contributed to the wealth of this Islamic kingdom. However, with the reserves of oil and natural gas projected to run out in two or three decades, there have been efforts to diversify and develop the economy
Iraq's economy has undergone a number of profound changes over the last several dec- ades, many of which have had significant implications for the manner in which the coun- try's informal economy has evolved. The statist, heavy-handed economic policies of the Ba'athist government concentrated much of Iraq's productive capacity in nationalized fac- tors, which degraded under the sanctions regime of
For analysts of economic fluctuations, estimating the true state of the economy from imperfectly measured official statistics is an ever-present problem. Since no one statistic is a perfect gauge of the state of the economy, taking some type of weighted a...
This study is about the burgeoning crisis in Nigeria's Oil Producing Niger Delta region. Discerning the intersecting contributive factors to the crisis, this dissertation suggests that the Niger Delta crisis is symptomatic of challenges to development in Nigeria. Due to the insidious colonial/neo-colonial practices of subjugation, and exploitation of the host communities, it is suggested that the extractive, super-profit motive of Shell, the concomitant environmental degradation, corruption of a bellicose state, ethnic conflict and suffering of the masses are outcomes of a long historically debilitating relationship with international capital which causes irreparable retardation to the host communities. From cash crop economy to a mono-oil economy resources are removed from the communities and used to enhance the colonial state and their post-colonial harbingers of misery. Hence, the indigenous people claim that the Niger Delta is in a crisis, and they are willing to confront the triple alliance of multinational oil companies like Shell, the Nigerian State and the local elite so long as these allies of subjugation continue to neglect the goose that lays the proverbial golden egg (oil that is). Theoretically, a hybrid Political Economy approach was adopted as the over-aching framework for the study, while Dependency theory, modified by what I have called African Transformative scholarly perspective, served as the conceptual tool. Primary and secondary sources of data, including personal observation, interviews, official government documents and other publications were utilized for this analysis. In view of recommendations, it is suggested that first, the Nigerian state should assume decisive and unflinching leadership in holding oil companies responsible for their activities in the host communities; second, oil companies (like Shell) should see themselves as an integral part of the host communities; invest in their development by providing employment opportunities and adhering to humane environmental practices. Finally, I suggest that the ownership and control of all resources, including oil should be vested in those communities in which they are found. The revenues accruing to the constitutive states of Nigeria will be accordingly taxed with the revenues from the taxes utilized for the general good of the polity especially the less endowed communities.
The GFC involved the collapse of the largest asset market bubble in history and a massive consequent deleveraging of firms and consumers. This event has highlighted defects of 'capitalism' and suggested an enhanced case for more government control ofeconomies. This view needs refinement. While market regulation has failed, 'capitalism' as a whole has not. Modern economies are, for the
The impacts on China's economyof 2008 Beijing Olympic Games are mainly manifested in both tangible and intangible aspects. The tangible impacts mean the pull of China's consumption demand, investment demand, export demand, as well as employment expanding, which is mainly reflected in the change of total economy and its structure of host country. The intangible impacts refer to impacts
Recent work on entry deterrence has emphasized the distinction between a monopolist’s reversible and irreversible preentry\\u000a strategic moves (e.g., limit pricing) will not credible deter a rational potential entrant. Dixit (1980) and other have demonstrated,\\u000a however, that irreversible preentry capacity investments can result in credible deterrence. In this paper, we examine preentry\\u000a advertising investments which irreversibly alter postentry demand conditions.
The city of Portland, Oregon has recently been experiencing a transformation from an economyof large-scale mass production to a post-modern economy. While current theory maintains that economic development requires expansion of specialized industrial goods and services being traded to other regions, Portland is challenging this notion through its unique characteristics of local production. In what is becoming known as
In this thesis, the American political economy is presented as a negation of the two-stage theory of capitalist development advanced by theorists like Hilferding, Steindl and Baran and Sweezy. Various cases from the American economy are presented to contradict the argument that with the emergence of large-scale industry competition among capitals is eliminated or highly restricted. The experience of the
Free-climbing is used as a privileged way of studying the positioning generated by the meeting of the symbolic economyof sport and a market that is trying to extend its hold on it. In order to understand why money has become an internal problem to the free-climbing space, the article analyses how its symbolic economy and its market are organized.
The traditional GDP calculation system neglects the cost of natural resources and environment. It can't effectively embodies the correlation between the economic development and the environment and resources. Practice of the Green National Economic Accounting, measuring and guiding the national economy with the index sign of Green GDP, not only can reflect the economy growth level, but also the diapason
Purpose – Against the backcloth of a growing geopolitical and economic importance of emerging economies, this paper seeks to ask whether emerging economy firms are willing to match their increased economic weight with greater social responsibility. Given a relative scarcity of research into CSR in Russia, particular attention is to be given to firms from that country. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The
Which provides a better estimate of the true state of the U.S. economy, gross domestic product (GDP) or gross domestic income (GDI). Past work has assumed the difference between each estimate and the true state of the economy is pure noise, taking greater...
This paper provides a framework of analysis of economic markets in stateless Somalia. It argues that the informal market that sustained private sector activities under the repressive policies of Siad Barré's government has provided a functioning system to the economy. In small communities that achieved internal law and order, their economy boomed in an unprecedented free-market environment, and the no-government
The economy-wide implications of sea level rise in 2050 are estimated using a static computable general equilibrium model. Overall, general equilibrium effects increase the costs of sea level rise, but not necessarily in every sector or region. In the absence of coastal protection, economies that rely most on agriculture are hit hardest. Although energy is substituted for land, overall energy
Francesco Bosello; Marco Lazzarin; Richard S.J. Tol
Studies on the substitution thesis in advanced economies show scattered results: the impact of immigration on the wages and unemployment of lower-educated natives and immigrants varies strongly. In both studies on the substitution thesis itself, as well as studies on the unequal development of urban economies in post-industrialism, there are suggestions that this is because the substitution thesis is conditional
|The purpose of this study was to explore and describe training levels related to careers, employment, and influences of "new economy" in small and mid-sized firms. The organizational side of career development behaviors was also a focus of this study. Interviews related to company policies and practices were conducted with 26 employers or…
|Challenging formal education's traditional monopoly over the mass-scale acculturation of youth, the technological infrastructure of the new economy brings in its wake a new attentional economy in which any connected adult or child owns and controls a full economic share of her or his own attention. For youth who have never known the text-bound…
...dumping from a nonmarket economy country, the Secretary normally will...production in a market economy country. (See section 773(c... In determining whether a country is at a level of economic...primary emphasis on per capita GDP as the measure of economic...
...dumping from a nonmarket economy country, the Secretary normally will...production in a market economy country. (See section 773(c... In determining whether a country is at a level of economic...primary emphasis on per capita GDP as the measure of economic...
The commercialization of salmon in southeast Alaska has affected the traditional subsistence economiesof the Tlingit Indians. Over the past hundred years, a mixed subsistence?market economy that combines subsistence and market sectors has developed in Tlingit communities. Contemporary fishing households in two Tlingit communities are shown to participate in both subsistence and commercial fisheries using various strategies. In the 1980s,
The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, which created fuel economy standards for automobiles and light trucks, was passed by Congress in response to the rapid rise in world oil prices as a result of the 1973 oil crisis. The standards were first implemented in 1978 for automobiles and 1979 for light trucks, and began with initial standards of 18 MPG for automobiles and 17.2 MPG for light trucks. The current fuel economy standards for 1998 have been held constant at 27.5 MPG for automobiles and 20.5 MPG for light trucks since 1990--1991. While actual new automobile fuel economy has almost doubled from 14 MPG in 1974 to 27.2 MPG in 1994, it is reasonable to ask if the CAFE standards are still needed. Each year Congress attempts to pass another increase in the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standard and fails. Many have called for the abolition of CAFE standards citing the ineffectiveness of the standards in the past. In order to determine whether CAFE standards should be increased, held constant, or repealed, an evaluation of the effectiveness of the CAFE standards to date must be established. Because fuel prices were rising concurrently with the CAFE standards, many authors have attributed the rapid rise in new car fuel economy solely to fuel prices. The purpose of this dissertation is to re-examine the determinants of new car fuel economy via three effects: CAFE regulations, fuel price, and income effects. By measuring the marginal effects of the three fuel economy determinants upon consumers and manufacturers choices, for fuel economy, an estimate was made of the influence of each upon new fuel economy. The conclusions of this dissertation present some clear signals to policymakers: CAFE standards have been very effective in increasing fuel economy from 1979 to 1998. Furthermore, they have been the main cause of fuel economy improvement, with income being a much smaller component. Furthermore, this dissertation has suggested that fuel prices have very limited effects upon fuel economy, ranging from no primary effect on certain size classes to a minimal secondary effect through higher performance or horsepower demanded.
Global cooperation is crucial to tackle climate change. However, cooperation on such a scale has proven to be difficult given the public good nature of the problem. Abatement of greenhouse gases (GHGs) results in benefits at a global scale. This translates into strong free-rider incentives that threaten the success of an international agreement. However, even if current policy approaches are
Emerging evidence shows a strong correlation between institutions and economic growth, and explains the recent research shift from focus on resources and resource productivity to institutions as determinants of economic growth. The positive correlation is read by some as indication that economies with similar institutions should perform approximately the same, and by extension embedded economies should perform like their host(s).
This paper adds a moral angle to the pluralist approach to development economics, exploring the normative assumptions found in all the five main schools of thought that have analysed India's rural labour markets (neoclassical, new institutionalist, Marxist political economy, formalized political economy and feminist). The theorizations that are used by each have normative overtones, which are distinguished here from normative
As the important subject of developing low carbon economy, enterprises should implement the development idea of low carbon economy in the normal operations or at the stage of bankruptcy liquidation. The arrangement of repaying order of environmental claims in China's Enterprise Bankruptcy Law is not conductive to protect environmental creditor's interests and also doesn’t meet the target of low carbon
Many developing economiesof the world today have been building up massive foreign exchange reserves of industrialized economies. A clear example of this is China. In February of 2005, China surpassed Japan as the world's largest holder of foreign exchange reserves. After the Asian Contagion period of the late 1990's, this buildup as a whole could be seen as a
Jannett Highfill; Raymond Wojcikewych; Joshua Lewer
This article reviews the contributions of three important books that analyze, respectively, the sources and patterns of institutional inertial, adjustment, and change of Japanese economy in response to the country's prolonged economic stagnation. Drawing on their scholarship, the article highlights the dual character of Japanese capitalism – the persistence of core elements of a coordinated market economy on the one
A brief characterization of the cultural economyof landscape is provided, with special reference to the English Lake District. The early development of tourism in the region in relation to its natural, literary, and artistic assets is described. I examine the cultural economyof landscape in relation to three critical social groups, namely, producers of local goods and services, residents,
Summary This special issue explores the paradoxes caused by the challenge of managing and organizing creativity in the cultural economy. Conventional views of the individual creative artist are replaced by a view of creativity as a social process embedded within organizational and institutional contexts. The cultural economy is broadly defined in terms of breadth of industries included and depth elements
This book evaluates the financial system of Thailand, a proto-typical developing economy in Asia. Specifically the manuscript evaluates the impact of financial institutions, markets, and policies on growth, inequality, poverty, and the welfare of households and businesses. A repeated theme is the description of the Thai economy as an integrated micro\\/macro, general equilibrium system, with the choice of diverse individual
We build a CGE model of an archetype African economy to simulate the welfare effects of trade liberalization specifically on poverty. The economy is modeled following a dual-dual framework (Thorbecke, 1993, 1994, 1997) that is characteristic of the structure of a developing country in its middle development phase. This provides the basis for analyzing the distribution of modern and informal
We examine consumer value priorities in Africa's most important transitional economy, viz., The Republic of South Africa. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first extensive study of value priorities with a large, representative sample of consumers in a transitional economy. We study the structure of the value priorities, their antecedents, and their relations with optimum stimulation level,
This paper shows how wuwei (effortless action) and associated concepts drawn from Daoist thought are applied in analyses of the Chinese market economy and state-economy relations published in recent issues of social science and Communist Party journals in the People's Republic of China. Such use of traditional concepts partially displaces Marxist terminology from “diagnostic economics”. In discussing the use of
This study seeks to explain the institutional basis of the political economyof South Korea and its integration into the global order. Through an investigation of the rise of technological (especially energy), corporate and urban networks under military\\/state direction, the analysis documents and explains why and how the contemporary South Korean political economy was formed and demonstrates that recent material
|The Governor's Commission on Higher Education and the Economy's assessment of the Connecticut system and ways that the educational needs of the economy and the state can be met during a period of declining enrollments and fiscal constraints is presented. Working committees of the commission studied governance and management; business, labor, and…
Governor's Blue Ribbon Commission on Higher Education and the Economy of Connecticut, Inc., Hartford.
Contemporary bioscience is seeing the emergence of a new data economy: with data as its fundamental unit of exchange. While sharing data within this new ‘economy’ provides many potential advantages, the sharing of individual data raises important social and ethical concerns. We examine ongoing development of one technology, DataSHIELD, which appears to elide privacy concerns about sharing data by enabling
M. J. Murtagh; I. Demir; K. N. Jenkings; S. E. Wallace; B. Murtagh; M. Boniol; M. Bota; P. Laflamme; P. Boffetta; V. Ferretti; P. R. Burton
A growing body of social-scientific literature drawing on the experience of village-based northern bush economies demonstrates that adaptation to industrial economy entrepreneurial opportunities is both difficult and problematic. An analysis of the basic social and administrative structures of the bush, industrial and \\
Globalists and former students of the Asian developmental state maintain that the latter has succumbed to the forces of globalization. They believe that the global knowledge economy involves the thorough integration of the global economy, continuous innovation and networks rather than hierarchies and that these factors are foreign to the operational logic of the developmental state and thus render it
The paper examines the impact of terms of trade shocks on private savings in the transition economies after accounting for the effect of other determinants. Economic agents in the transition economies are subject to tight credit constraints which are more pronounced during bad state of nature. Thus, adverse shocks to commodity prices in the world market can force them to
The purpose of this study was to determine the type and magnitude of economic impacts on the Oklahoma City economy by 34 arts agencies, organizations, festivals, shows, programs, and other events. The direct and secondary impacts on the Oklahoma City economy in terms of spending and employment were significant. Further analysis indicated that the industry was in need of state,
A linear programming input-output model of the U.S. economy is described. The elasticity of demand for various commodities is included in the model. The model is greatly simplified by aggregating to 20 economic sectors and by assuming that the final demand for each sector output is a linear function of its own price. An equilibrium state of model economy is
The paradigm of the enchanted global economy and the moral perils of involvement with foreign commodities suggests that anxieties about the generally immoral powers believed to exist within foreign objects result from an imperfect understanding of the global marketplace. However, urban Pentecostalists in Accra, Ghana, who are deeply engaged in the global economy, do not fear the moral dangers of
Poland is the leading economy in eastern Europe as measured by its rapid economic growth, inward direct investment and pace of market changes since 1989, when it first moved towards a free market economy. An advertising industry has been one by-product of this process, an important institution in the creation of a market orientation. Examines one related aspect of the
The United States ocean and Great Lakes economy is an integral part of the overall U.S. economy. A significant amount of economic activity occurs in the coastal states and counties of the U.S. and a substantial portion of that economic activity is driven ...
This paper examines the domestic political economyof so-called ‘land-grabbing’ in Ethiopia, assessing the motivations of the Ethiopian government, which has strongly promoted foreign agricultural investment. The paper draws on a unique set of federal and regional databases detailing foreign and domestic investments in Ethiopia to analyse the likely role investment will play in the Ethiopian economy and the areas
In the context of a severe contraction of ‘development space’ for Latin American and Caribbean economies in the global political economy, we are witnessing a novel and increasingly explicit articulation of migration as a national development strategy by governments in the region. This is particularly pronounced in the Caribbean basin (defined to include Mexico). In response to the shifting shape
|At the turn of the twenty-first century a paradigm shift in economic development is taking place in the world. This is reflected in the transition to what goes by the name of the new economy. Given birth by the information and communications revolution, this economy is developing under the conditions of globalization and competition while…
The U.S. Department of Energy report, Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States Report to Congress, estimates the effects on employment of a U.S. economy transformation to hydrogen between 2020 and 2050. The report includes study results on employment impacts from hydrogen market expansion in the transportation, stationary, and portable power sectors and
George S. Tolley; Donald W. Mintz; Marianne M; Barton A. Smith; Eric Carlson; Stefan Unnasch; Michael Lawrence; Harry Chmelynski
Politics and economics are inextricably linked. Government establishes and enforces the rules of the game for the economy, thereby determining not only how much wealth is created, but also how wealth is distributed across society. The primary question of political economy is easily stated: for whose benefit does government set the rules? This paper examines the fundamental conflict of interest
Drawing on and contributing to materialist state theory, the regulation approach and institutional economics for more than three decades, Bob Jessop can certainly be considered one of the foremost Marxist political economists of our time. Recently, he has taken on board the cultural turn in social analysis by developing a highly original cultural political economyof the knowledge-based economy. As
In many emerging economies such as Brazil, pension programs of public sector workers are more generous than pension programs of private sector workers. The opportunity costs of running generous public pension schemes for civil servants are potentially large in emerging economies that often suffer from low public investments in education and infrastructure. In this paper, we develop a two-sector dynamic
Gerhard Glomm; Juergen Jung; Changmin Lee; Chung Tran
In this paper we discuss issues related to the longer-run growth prospects of the Austrian economy. We briefly survey methods commonly applied to estimate the growth potential of an economy. According to currently available estimates, the growth rate of Austrian potential output is roughly 2%.We observe that potential growth has slowed down slightly over the past two decades. Turning to
Juergen Janger; Johann Scharler; Alfred Stiglbauer
By use of bibliometric analysis, 2383 articles published in national core journals on network economy between 1985–2009 from database: China Academic Journals Full-text Database, are studied and categorized with the help of a reference software called NoteExpress. It could be concluded from the results that: (1) Overall, the amount of published documents concerning network economy follows a “ ? ”-based
We argue about the application of methods of statistical mechanics to free economy (Kusmartsev F. V., Phys. Lett. A, 375 (2011) 966) and find that the most general distribution of money or income in a free-market economy has a general Bose-Einstein distribution form. Therewith the market is described by three parameters: temperature, chemical potential and the space dimensionality. Numerical simulations
Under the current economic situation, the major economiesof the world are experiencing a significant downturn. Simultaneously, the automotive industries of certain prominent economies are experiencing comparable downturns. This study seeks to examine the commonalities between these downturns through the prism of Schumpeterian Business Cycle theory. The study look s to macroeconomic indicators from the US, Japan, Germany and the
Medium- and heavy-duty truck fuel economy and use characteristics as reported in the 1977 Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS) are examined. The study focuses on in-use fuel economy, the use of fuel conservation equipment and annual miles per truck for three vehicle weight categories as functions of engine fuel type and area of operation. The TIUS data show that
A two-part systematic review was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of token economies in increasing rates of appropriate classroom behavior for students demonstrating behavioral difficulties. The first part of the review utilized the recently published What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) standards for evaluating single-subject research to determine the extent to which eligible studies demonstrated sufficient evidence to classify the token economy
Daniel M. Maggin; Sandra M. Chafouleas; Katelyn M. Goddard; Austin H. Johnson
This paper examines the New Economy phenomenon as a culturally embedded discourse through an analysis of 133 print advertisements collected from the UK edition of the Financial Times between February and December 2000. It maps the various interpretative struggles as companies tried to align themselves with a rapidly changing business environment during this period. We conceive of New Economy advertising
Christina Volkmann; James A. Fitchett; Christian De Cock
This study examines differences in the information content of magazine advertisements across market and transition economies in Europe. Content analyses are performed on 396 advertisements that appeared in women's magazines in the Russian Federation, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Results of statistical analyses reveal marked differences between economies with respect to the information content of advertisements.
Erica van Herpen; Rik Pieters; Jana Fidrmucova; Peter Roosenboom
China is undergoing a unique experience. Its strategy to move the country to a market economy is based on “marketization” instead of “privatization.” The state-owned enterprises (SOEs) are intended to continue to be the mainstay of the economy. The recent accounting reform, a 16-point economic stabilization policy, and the decision to maintain the dominance of the SOEs were all promulgated
In this paper, we present an analysis of the self-similar characteristics of the temporal series describing the daily exchange rate of the Romanian currency unit “Leu” (ROL) with respect to the US Dollar (USD). The relevance of this investigation consists in the exchange rate being a proper indicator for the dynamics of an economy in transition from a command-type structure towards an open market one. The time series is exhibiting self-similar cells of dimensions obeying a definite power law scaling rule that is related to different categories of economic agents. By using a crossing-type analysis based on the Hurst exponent and the frequency spectrum, five categories were detected. A simple model based on active filters with prevailing feedforward loops working close to the unstable regime, each one describing an economic agent under the stress of a hostile economic environment, is proposed for the dynamics of the fragmentation defragmentation process. The model qualitatively reproduces the self-similarity characteristics of the currency exchange rate of an economy in transition, subjected to deep structural changes. We observe that the “in-phase evolution” of the economic agents causes the statistical self-similarity to resemble a theoretical self-similarity.
Factors that effect on domestic hot water production were studied in laboratory conditions in various heating systems. Whether over dimensioning or ready-to-operate loss have influence on the energy economy in these systems was also researched. The effect...
This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.
Summary Proponents of the so-called New Economy claim that it entails a structural change of the economy. Such a change, in turn, would require the central bank to rethink its monetary policy to the extent that traditional relationships between inflation and economic growth are no longer valid. But such a rethinking presupposes that prospective advances in information technology and other
The Internet has revolutionized the business environment, enabling the conception of the e-economy. Irrespective of the technology divide between developed and developing countries, it is imperative for multinational corporations, their affiliates, and local businesses operating in these economies to use the Internet to sustain their competitive edge in a global market. Hence, this paper provides theoretical insights into Internet usage
Uzoamaka P. Anakwe; Claire Simmers; Murugan Anandarajan
The recent literature on stock markets has used modern time series techniques such as cointegration and causality to identify macroeconomic variables that cause stock index movements. But this type of investigation has to a large extent remained confined to markets belonging to well developed and diversified economies. Motivated by the lack of set-ups involving stock markets from economies with different
Ng A. K. Y. and Cetin I. B. Locational characteristics of dry ports in developing economies: some lessons from Northern India, Regional Studies. Contemporary economic development has triggered the importance of establishing distribution centres at appropriate locations in developing economies. However, so far, academic studies addressing this issue are rather scarce. Hence, by investigating dry ports within two industrial clusters
Ng A. K. Y. and Cetin I. B. Locational characteristics of dry ports in developing economies: some lessons from Northern India, Regional Studies. Contemporary economic development has triggered the importance of establishing distribution centres at appropriate locations in developing economies. However, so far, academic studies addressing this issue are rather scarce. Hence, by investigating dry ports within two industrial clusters
The former Soviet Bloc countries have been faced with the challenge of switching from a command economy to a free market-oriented economy. The extent to which people have managed to cope with the resulting turbulent period of change largely depended on whether they were able to break from their old attitudes and behaviour. Naturally, the knowledge and skills related to
|Social market economy success in the Federal Republic of Germany is due to free competition, enterprise in the business community, and employees' social security. Craft industries play a major role in Germany's market economy. The craft industry is second only to the manufacturing industry, comprising 23 percent of German firms. There are seven…