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1

Airline Safety and Economy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This video documents efforts at NASA Langley Research Center to improve safety and economy in aircraft. Featured are the cockpit weather information needs computer system, which relays real time weather information to the pilot, and efforts to improve techniques to detect structural flaws and corrosion, such as the thermal bond inspection system.

1993-01-01

2

Safety aspects of a widespread hydrogen energy economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Profitability constraints on safety considerations in a widespread hydrogen energy economy are discussed. Hydrogen uses and possible human contact are examined with attention to the ignition and combustion characteristics of hydrogen. Three approaches to safety are urged - education, improvement of safety procedures, and passive means. For example, people should learn about the flammability of hydrogen, the need for ventilation

R. Schmucker

1977-01-01

3

Use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy. One of the important requirements for Gen. IV High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGR) is passive safety. Currently all the HTGR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. [1] The decay heat first is transferred to core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. Similar concepts have been widely used in sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) designs, advanced light water reactors like AP1000. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area. RVACS tends to be less expensive. However, it limits the largest achievable power level for modular HTGRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface). When the relative decay heat removal capability is reduced, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annual designs with internal reflector can mitigate this effect therefore further increase the power. Another way to increase power is to increase power density. However, it is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides safety, HTGRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor designs. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of HTGRs. Forsberg [2] pointed out other disadvantages of using RVACS such as conflicting functional requirements for the reactor vessel and scaling distortion for integral effect test of the system performance. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume based passive decay removal system, call Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS has been widely used in SFR designs and in liquid salt cooled high temperature reactors. The containment cooling system in BWR is another example of volume based decay removal systems. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one in reactor side and another is in environment side. DRACS has the benefits of increasing the power as needed (scalability) and modularity. This paper introduces the concept of using DRACS to enhance HTGRs passive safety and economy.

Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou

2011-06-01

4

Long range program plan for safety and fuel economy  

SciTech Connect

An analysis was made to determine which potential highway and motor vehicle safety activies were most deserving of further pursuit so as to obtain the greatest improvement in safety at the least cost. Criteria were established to guide in the rating and ranking of potential safety projects. The most significant national safety problems were identified and a description and schedule of the chosen safety projects to address those problems were prepared.

Feirice, B.

1983-11-01

5

Increasing the Fuel Economy and Safety of New Light-DutyVehicles  

SciTech Connect

One impediment to increasing the fuel economy standards forlight-duty vehicles is the long-standing argument that reducing vehiclemass to improve fuel economy will inherently make vehicles less safe.This technical paper summarizes and examines the research that is citedin support of this argument, and presents more recent research thatchallenges it. We conclude that the research claiming that lightervehicles are inherently less safe than heavier vehicles is flawed, andthat other aspects of vehicle design are more important to the on-roadsafety record of vehicles. This paper was prepared for a workshop onexperts in vehicle safety and fuel economy, organized by the William andFlora Hewlett Foundation, to discuss technologies and designs that can betaken to simultaneously improve vehicle safety and fuel economy; theworkshop was held in Washington DC on October 3, 2006.

Wenzel, Tom; Ross, Marc

2006-09-18

6

The long-term effects of a token economy on safety performance in open-pit mining.  

PubMed Central

A token economy that used trading stamps as tokens was instituted at two dangerous open-pit mines. Employees earned stamps for working without lost-time injuries, for being in work groups in which all other workers had no lost-time injuries, for not being involved in equipment-damaging accidents, for making adopted safety suggestions, and for unusual behavior which prevented an injury or accident. They lost stamp awards if they or other workers in their group were injured, caused equipment damage, or failed to report accidents or injuries. The stamps could be exchanged for a selection of thousands of items at redemption stores. Implementation of the token economy was followed by large reductions in the number of days lost from work because of injuries, the number of lost-time injuries, and the costs of accidents and injuries. The reductions in costs far exceeded the costs of operating the token economy. All improvements were maintained over several years.

Fox, D K; Hopkins, B L; Anger, W K

1987-01-01

7

Model predictive control for adaptive cruise control with multi-objectives: comfort, fuel-economy, safety and car-following  

Microsoft Academic Search

For automated vehicles, comfortable driving will improve passengers’ satisfaction. Reducing fuel consumption brings economic\\u000a profits for car owners, decreases the impact on the environment and increases energy sustainability. In addition to comfort\\u000a and fuel-economy, automated vehicles also have the basic requirements of safety and car-following. For this purpose, an adaptive\\u000a cruise control (ACC) algorithm with multi-objectives is proposed based on

Li-hua Luo; Hong Liu; Ping Li; Hui Wang

2010-01-01

8

Enhancing VHTR Passive Safety and Economy with Thermal Radiation Based Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

One of the most important requirements for Gen. IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is passive safety. Currently all the gas cooled version of VHTR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. The decay heat first is transferred to the core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to the reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area to volume ratio. However, RVACS limits the maximum achievable power level for modular VHTRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface area). When the relative decay heat removal capability decreases, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annular core designs with inner graphite reflector can mitigate this effect; therefore can further increase the reactor power. Another way to increase the reactor power is to increase power density. However, the reactor power is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides the safety considerations, VHTRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor concepts and other types of energy sources. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of VHTRs. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume-based passive decay heat removal system, called Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one on the reactor side and another on the environment side. For the reactor side, cooling pipes will be inserted into holes made in the outer or inner graphite reflector blocks. There will be gaps between these cooling pipes and their corresponding surrounding graphite surfaces. Graphite has an excellent heat conduction property. By taking advantage of this feature, we can have a volume-based method to remove decay heat. The scalability can be achieved, if needed, by employing more rows of cooling pipes to accommodate higher decay heat rates. Since heat can easily conduct through the graphite regions between the holes made for the cooling pipes, those cooling pipes located further away from the active core region can still be very effective in removing decay heat. By removing the limit on the decay heat removal capability due to the limited available surface area as in a RVACS, the reactor power and power density can be significantly increased, without losing the passive heat removal feature. This paper will introduce the concept of using DRACS to enhance VHTR passive safety and economics. Three design options will be discussed, depending on the cooling pipe locations. Analysis results from a lumped volume based model and CFD simulations will be presented.

Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou; Xiaodong Sun

2012-06-01

9

The long-term effects of a token economy on safety performance in open-pit mining.  

PubMed

A token economy that used trading stamps as tokens was instituted at two dangerous open-pit mines. Employees earned stamps for working without lost-time injuries, for being in work groups in which all other workers had no lost-time injuries, for not being involved in equipment-damaging accidents, for making adopted safety suggestions, and for unusual behavior which prevented an injury or accident. They lost stamp awards if they or other workers in their group were injured, caused equipment damage, or failed to report accidents or injuries. The stamps could be exchanged for a selection of thousands of items at redemption stores. Implementation of the token economy was followed by large reductions in the number of days lost from work because of injuries, the number of lost-time injuries, and the costs of accidents and injuries. The reductions in costs far exceeded the costs of operating the token economy. All improvements were maintained over several years. PMID:3667473

Fox, D K; Hopkins, B L; Anger, W K

1987-01-01

10

Revaluing donor and recipient bodies in the globalised blood economy: Transitions in public policy on blood safety in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

The clinical use of blood has a long history, but its apparent stability belies the complexity of contemporary practices in this field. In this article, we explore how the production, supply and deployment of blood products are socially mediated, drawing on theoretical perspectives from recent work on ‘tissue economies’. We highlight the ways in which safety threats in the form of infections that might be transmitted through blood and plasma impact on this tissue economy and how these have led to a revaluation of donor bodies and restructuring of blood economies. Specifically, we consider these themes in relation to the management of recent threats to blood safety in the United Kingdom. We show that the tension between securing the supply of blood and its products and ensuring its safety may give rise to ethical concerns and reshape relations between donor and recipient bodies.

Kent, Julie; Farrell, Anne-Maree

2014-01-01

11

Workers' participation and their health and safety protection in China's transitional industrial economy.  

PubMed

Chinese workers have inherited from the Maoist era two institutions through which they may participate in workplace management--the trade union and the Staff and Workers' Representative Congress. This paper analyzes how workers have participated in the protection of their health and safety through these institutions, describing their functions, on paper, as stipulated by laws and regulations, and in practice, in a printing-machinery shareholding company, based on an in-depth case study. The impacts of these two institutions have declined with industrial economic reform, and the power of the enterprise is shifting toward management. China is confronted with serious occupational health and safety problems. It is imperative to strengthen the mechanisms that engage workers in the prevention of these problems. PMID:14664491

Chen, Meei-Shia

2003-01-01

12

Balancing Safety and Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administrators looking for budget relief might look for cost savings in pupil transportation. The basic school bus that meets federal standards, with no optional equipment, is the safest vehicle on the road. The best investment in a transportation program is driver training. Route and schedule changes might lead to an increase in efficiency…

Leeds, Robin L.

1999-01-01

13

Political economy of coal-mine safety and its contribution to the theory of the welfare state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservative, liberal, and marxist explanations of the origins and function of social welfare benefits are identified. The conservatives see defined right benefits as error in the system, resulting from excesses of political democracy and functioning to interfere with the market, and functioning to reduce the viability of the economy. Individual action alone produces real benefit. Liberals disconnect social welfare and

1987-01-01

14

Health Safety and Life Protection Coverage in The Social Economy Sector in Greece: Analysis of Empirical Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade, there has been a growing interest in reinforcing the role of social economy in Greece, due to significant changes in the labor market, the economic recession and the public sector failure to cover social needs. Given the fact that there is limited research literature on this topic, the aim of this paper is to determine the

Mary Geitona; Lorena Androutsou

2009-01-01

15

From Fishery to Fork: Food Safety and Sustainability in the ‘Virtual’ Knowledge-Based Bio-Economy (KBBE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In scientific and policy circles, the ‘Knowledge-Based Bio-Economy’ (KBBE) is seen as the way forward to increase productivity and competitiveness and to improve quality of life in the EU. The critical literature, however, sees KBBE as a self-fulfilling prophecy, a dominant master narrative that marginalizes other interpretations and policy options. In other words, the literature argues that KBBE is performative—it

Stefano Ponte

2009-01-01

16

Worker health is good for the economy: union density and psychosocial safety climate as determinants of country differences in worker health and productivity in 31 European countries.  

PubMed

Work stress is recognized globally as a social determinant of worker health. Therefore we explored whether work stress related factors explained national differences in health and productivity (gross domestic product (GDP)). We proposed a national worker health productivity model whereby macro market power factors (i.e. union density), influence national worker health and GDP via work psychosocial factors and income inequality. We combined five different data sets canvasing 31 wealthy European countries. Aggregated worker self-reported health accounted for 13 per cent of the variance in national life expectancy and in national gross domestic product (GDP). The most important factors explaining worker self-reported health and GDP between nations were two levels of labor protection, macro-level (union density), and organizational-level (psychosocial safety climate, PSC, i.e. the extent of management concern for worker psychological health). The majority of countries with the highest levels of union density and PSC (i.e., workplace protections) were Social Democratic in nature (i.e., Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway). Results support a type of society explanation that social and economic factors (e.g., welfare regimes, work related policies) in concert with political power agents at a national level explain in part national differences in workplace protection (PSC) that are important for worker health and productivity. Attention should be given across all countries, to national policies to improve worker health, by bolstering national and local democratic processes and representation to address and implement policies for psychosocial risk factors for work stress, bullying and violence. Results suggest worker health is good for the economy, and should be considered in national health and productivity accounting. Eroding unionism may not be good for worker health or the economy either. PMID:23849285

Dollard, Maureen F; Neser, Daniel Y

2013-09-01

17

Virtual Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Launched February 26, 1999, Virtual Economy (VE) is an Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS), Biz/ed, and Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC-UK) learning tool based on the UK governmental model for economic forecasting and planning. This elaborate site contains a "floor plan" for constructing a functional budget and is complete with teacher and student guides, case studies, and model details.

1999-01-01

18

Overall Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that they provide. So, to project employment, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) starts by projecting the gross domestic product (GDP) for 2018. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the…

Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

2010-01-01

19

Global Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning module from the Association of American Geographer's Center for Global Geography Education looks into the geographic characteristics of the global economy and the processes linking economic activities at local, regional, and global scales. Four case studies are included in the learning unit, each focusing on a different region (New Zealand, Chile, Central and South America, East/Southeast Asia).

2011-01-21

20

Overall Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that these workers provide. So, to project employment, BLS starts by estimating the components of gross domestic product (GDP) for 2020. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the size--in…

Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

2012-01-01

21

78 FR 76265 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Section 610...Automotive Fuel Economy Reports. 538...Exemption from Motor Vehicle Safety and Bumper Standards....

2013-12-17

22

Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

Education in Science, 1996

1996-01-01

23

Growing a market economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The ...

N. Basu R. J. Pryor

1997-01-01

24

Measuring the Green Economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This administration is committed to fostering the development of a clean and energy-efficient economy; that is, a 'green' economy. This means encouraging the development of green businesses and green products amd services, which in turn will create 'green...

2010-01-01

25

Understanding the New Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that while the Nasdaq bubble did burst, the new economy is real and that failure to understand the rules of the digital economy can lead to substandard investment portfolio performance. Offers guidelines for higher education institutional investors. (EV)

Morrell, Louis R.

2001-01-01

26

Carbohydrate Economy Clearinghouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A creation of the Institute for Local Self-Reliance (ILSR), the Carbohydrate Economy Clearinghouse (CEC) provides up-to-date information on "all facets of the plant matter-based industrial economy" from paints and inks to fuels and construction materials made from plants. In addition to the latest "new materials economy" news, the CEC site hosts a directory of carbohydrate economy companies as well as ILSR reports on plant matter-based products and technologies (in English, French, and Spanish).

27

The economy of qualities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to highlight the main characteristics of what the authors call 'the economy of qualities'. The authors show that qualifying products and positioning goods are major concerns for agents evolving within the 'economy of qualities'. Competition in such an economy is structured through two basic mechanisms. The first is what the authors propose to call

Michel Callon; Cécile Méadel; Vololona Rabeharisoa

2002-01-01

28

GLOBALIZATION AND NEW ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 90's two trends dominates the evolution of the world economy: globalization and the rising of the new economy based in information and communication technologies. Both phenomena are closely related. I examine the connection of their advent with the enduring expansion of American economy in the 90's and the subsequent recession which starts in 2001. The recession of the

2003-01-01

29

E-conomy Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A joint effort of the Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy (BRIE), the College of Engineering, the Haas School of Business, and the School of Information Management and Systems (SIMS), E-conomy Project creates "an intellectual resource to focus on the profound transformation being wrought by new digital technologies." Along with describing the focuses of the project, this Website also includes course descriptions and syllabi, news articles on the E-conomy Project, and papers and presentations from the E-conomy Project-sponsored conference, The Digital Economy in International Perspective: Common Construction or Regional Rivalry.

30

Renewable Hydrogen Carrier - Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon- Neutral Carbohydrate Economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable car...

J. R. Mielenz Y. P. Zhang

2011-01-01

31

Growing a market economy  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

1997-09-01

32

New Economy Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New Economy Index is a series of indicators that are "gathered from existing public and private data, to illustrate fundamental structural changes in the US economy, to show what those changes mean in the lives of working Americans, and to measure the nation's progress in several key foundation areas for future economic growth." The data in this excellent resource are divided into three sections. What's New About the New Economy includes thirteen indications that show the uniqueness and structure of the new technology-based and innovation-based economy. The second section considers the ways in which the New Economy will affect the lives of American workers. Finally, the third section, Foundations for Future Growth, projects the future growth of technology in the US. The site also includes information about the data sources, endnotes, and several side articles. Although the New Economy Index was created in 1998, the information is still valid and useful.

33

The economies of synthesis†  

PubMed Central

In this tutorial review the economies of synthesis are analysed from both detailed and macroscopic perspectives, using case-studies from complex molecule synthesis. Atom, step, and redox economy are more than philosophical constructs, but rather guidelines, which enable the synthetic chemist to design and execute an efficient synthesis. Students entering the field of synthesis might find this tutorial helpful for understanding the subtle differences between these economic principles and also see real-world situations where such principles are put into practice.

Newhouse, Timothy

2010-01-01

34

Low-carbon economy — The trend of world economy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-carbon economy is the trend of world economy development. Developing low-carbon economy, each country not only has common needs, and common interests, but also its own special interests and needs. However, the world will inevitably enter a “low carbon” eco-economy. This paper firstly draws up a comparative study of the low-carbon economy through the development of practice to use for

Xie Dan

2010-01-01

35

Digital Economy, 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Digital Economy 2003 (DE2003) is the Department's fifth annual report on conditions in U.S information technology (IT) industries and the effects of IT on national economic performance. Each of these reports has addressed questions that economists have so...

2003-01-01

36

Economy of a Windmill.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report the economics is given of a windmill installation for three family houses connected to the electrical grid. A status of the energy needs and financial economy is given for each house, all oil heated. Energy production from the windmill in r...

P. Hjuler Jensen

1982-01-01

37

New Cultures and Economies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Don Slater, Department of Sociology, University of London, shares interdisciplinary research in economic sociology at the New Cultures and Economies site. Readers may download extensive bibliographies on consumer culture and market society topics in Word97 or .zip formats or browse course pages online, and the Sociology of the Internet section, now in progress, aims to create dialogues among scholars of electronic media.

38

Anomalies in Political Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results in cognitive psychology and experimental economics indicate that under identifiable conditions individuals do not act in an economically rational way. These results are important for Political Economy. Anomalies appear in the behaviour of voters, politicans and administrators. Economic markets do not fully eliminate anomalies in the aggregation process. It is shown that political aggregation by democracy, bargaining or bureaucracy

Bruno S. Frey; Reiner Eichenberger

1991-01-01

39

Alaska's Economy: What's Ahead?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…

Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987

1987-01-01

40

INTERPRETING CHINA'S ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is unique in covering all important topics of the Chinese economy in depth but written in a language understandable to the layman and yet challenging to the expert. Beginning with entrepreneurship that propels the dynamic economic changes in China today, the book is organized into four broad parts to discuss China's economic development, to analyze significant economic issues,

Gregory C Chow

41

International Economy: Functions and Organizations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main purpose of this report is to identify those organizations which facilitate trade and development in the international economy, and to discuss the current integration of these organizations into the overall international economy. The identificatio...

K. O. Morse

1984-01-01

42

Knowledge Economy and Research Innovation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "knowledge economy" has been received with considerable scepticism by scholars within the fields of political economy, social and political philosophy, and higher education. Key arguments within this literature are reviewed in this article to suggest that, despite policy claims, "knowledge economy" does not describe a "new" mode of economic…

Bastalich, Wendy

2010-01-01

43

America and the New Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph explains the new economy from the point of view of people at work. It begins by providing an overview of the new economy and places the United States in it. Separate aspects of the new economy are elaborated in five parts. Part I presents the competitive standards that provide the cornerstone for the new economic reality: robust…

Carnevale, Anthony Patrick

44

Emergent Behavior in Information Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the dynamic behavior of information economies: verylarge open economies of automated information agents that will exist onthe Internet. Such large interacting systems are likely to exhibit emergentphenomena not straightforward to anticipate. We model a simpleinformation economy that revolves around economically-aware newsfilteringbrokers to whom consumers choose to subscribe. Our analysesand simulations reveal interesting emergent phenomena. One negativephenomenon we observe...

Jeffrey O. Kephart; James E. Hanson; Deffrey O. Levine; Benjamin N. Grosof; Jakka Sairamesh; Richard Segal; Steve R. White

1998-01-01

45

Dynamic (S,s) Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we provide a framework to study the aggregate dynamic behavior of an economy where individual units follow (S,s) policies. We characterize structural and stochastic heterogeneities that ensure convergence of the economy's aggregate to that of its frictionless counterpart, determine the speed at which convergence takes place, and describe the transitional dynamics of this economy. In particular, we

Ricardo J. Caballero; Eduardo M. R. A. Engel

1991-01-01

46

49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9...9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a) Vehicle configuration fuel economy values. (1) For each vehicle...

2013-10-01

47

Political economy of oil  

SciTech Connect

A nontechnical discussion of the political economy of the world oil market is intended to inform the beginning student as well as serve as a reference book. Beginning with definitions and an explanation of units, the text covers the world economy, oil supply, oil prices, oil consumption and non-oil energy materials supplies, oil companies, macroeconomics, and the market in an effort to relate both macro- and microeconomic phenomena. Professor Banks feels that population is the most crucial factor in economics today, followed by nonfuel minerals and energy; the technical problems pertaining to energy, however, can be managed if the first two are faced and dealt with. He thinks the outlook is good for replacing oil with other energy sources. 143 references, 23 figures, 26 tables. (DKC)

Banks, F.E.

1980-01-01

48

The Information Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Information Economy, maintained by Professor Hal R. Varian, Dean of the School of Information Management and Systems at the University of California, Berkeley, includes online information about "the Economics of the Internet, Information Goods, Intellectual Property and Related Issues." This directory includes a vast number of Websites dealing with topics including electronic publishing; intellectual property; network economics; and security, encryption, and privacy. Each section of the directory is divided into subtopics and includes succinct annotations and reviews of the sites.

2007-06-11

49

Comparison between response dynamics in transition economies and developed economies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In developed economies, the sign of the price increment influences the volatility in an asymmetric fashion—negative increments tend to result in larger volatility (increments with larger magnitudes), while positive increments result in smaller volatility. We explore whether this asymmetry extends from developed economies to European transition economies and, if so, how such asymmetry changes over time as these transition economies develop and mature. We analyze eleven European transition economies and compare the results with those obtained by analyzing U.S. market indices. Specifically, we calculate parameters that quantify both the volatility asymmetry and the strength of its dependence on prior increments. We find that, like their developed economy counterparts, almost all transition economy indices exhibit a significant volatility asymmetry, and the parameter ? characterizing asymmetry fluctuates more over time for transition economies. We also investigate how the association between volatility and volatility asymmetry varies by type of market. We test the hypothesis of a negative correlation between volatility and volatility asymmetry. We find that, for developed economies, ? experiences local minima during (i) “Black Monday” on October 19, 1987, (ii) the dot-com bubble crash in 2002, and (iii) the 2007-2009 global crisis while for transition economies, ? experiences local maxima during times of economic crisis.

Tenenbaum, Joel; Horvati?, Davor; Baji?, Slavica Cosovi?; Pehlivanovi?, Be?o; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

2010-10-01

50

Laboratory Ventilation and Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to meet the needs of both safety and economy, laboratory ventilation systems must effectively remove air-borne toxic and flammable materials and at the same time exhaust a minimum volume of air. Laboratory hoods are the most commonly used means of removing gases, dusts, mists, vapors, and fumed from laboratory operations. To be effective,…

Steere, Norman V.

1965-01-01

51

Immigration and informalization of the economy: Enrichment or atomization of community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The informal economy consists of those enterprises or individual workers which escape government regulation of wages, hours, labor safety and health, taxation, zoning or immigration. Estimates of the size of the informal economy loosely cluster around 6% to 12% of the GNP. Indicators of informalization are the proliferation of micro-enterprises, and heavy increases in self-employment and unpaid family workers. These

David E. Simcox

1997-01-01

52

Research on Green Packaging of Circular Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circular economy is the resource recycling economy, is the economy of harmonious development between economy and environment, also a kind of ecological economy. Circular economy demands that enterprises' logistics activities be green logistics packaging. The green packaging aims at improving the packing materials reuse, reducing resource consumption and lowering packaging waste pollution to the environment. Implementing green logistics packaging,

Zhang Guirong; Li Dehua; Wang Zhiping; Ma Chenglin

2010-01-01

53

76 FR 17808 - Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2011-2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NHTSA Vehicle Safety and Fuel Economy Rulemaking and Research Priority...NHTSA Vehicle Safety and Fuel Economy Rulemaking and Research Priority...vehicles), motorcoaches and fuel economy that must meet Congressional...there may not be a rulemaking planned to be issued by 2013,...

2011-03-31

54

Macroeconomics in an open economy.  

PubMed

The customary treatment of national economies as closed and self-contained must be substantially modified to allow for those economies that typically trade goods, services, and securities with other countries in increasing volume. Open economy macroeconomics is essential to understanding the major events of the U.S. economy over the past half dozen years. Both the sharp rise in the dollar and the unprecedentedly large U.S. trade deficit are linked to the U.S. budget deficit, as is the drop in the rate of inflation. PMID:17756868

Cooper, R N

1986-09-12

55

Safety Features in Anaesthesia Machine  

PubMed Central

Anaesthesia is one of the few sub-specialties of medicine, which has quickly adapted technology to improve patient safety. This application of technology can be seen in patient monitoring, advances in anaesthesia machines, intubating devices, ultrasound for visualisation of nerves and vessels, etc., Anaesthesia machines have come a long way in the last 100 years, the improvements being driven both by patient safety as well as functionality and economy of use. Incorporation of safety features in anaesthesia machines and ensuring that a proper check of the machine is done before use on a patient ensures patient safety. This review will trace all the present safety features in the machine and their evolution.

Subrahmanyam, M; Mohan, S

2013-01-01

56

Towards a Hydrogen Economy  

SciTech Connect

From electrolysis and thermolysis to production from biomass, hydrogen production methods are falling into place. So is storage, via all modes of gaseous, liquid, slush, and metal hydride systems. But proponents need to address the perception that hydrogen poses a severe safety risk, since the evidence suggests its risks are of the same order of magnitude as gasoline or natural gas.

Sherif, S.A.; Barbir, Frano; Veziroglu, T.N.

2005-07-01

57

Relative economy of different methods of airplane construction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of the relative economy of airplane construction shows that monoplanes are cheaper than biplanes; that all-metal construction is much more expensive than mixed construction; that multi-engine airplanes are more expensive than single-engine types of the same carrying capacity and speed;that the cost of airplanes is materially reduced by increasing their size without increasing the number of engines. The greatest economy usually coincides with the best aerodynamic and static conditions and the cost is always increased by safety requirements.

Herrmann, H

1931-01-01

58

Relative Economy of Different Methods of Airplane Construction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of the relative economy of airplane construction shows that monoplanes are cheaper than biplanes; that all-metal construction is much more expensive than mixed construction; that multi-engine airplanes are more expensive than single-engine types of the same carrying capacity and speed;that the cost of airplanes is materially reduced by increasing their size without increasing the number of engines. The greatest economy usually coincides with the best aerodynamic and static conditions and the cost is always increased by safety requirements.

Herrmann, H

1931-01-01

59

Did the apartheid economy ‘fail’?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often claimed — by analysts right across the political spectrum — that the apartheid economy grew ‘exceptionally rapidly’ until the early 1970s. Rarely, however, is evidence provided to back up this claim, which forms the focus of this article. Four practical growth criteria are proposed by which to evaluate whether the post?war South African economy grew as fast

Terence Moll

1991-01-01

60

Can Education Save the Economy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent global economic downturn is causing U.S. workers and employers to look to the educational system for skills that will allow them to thrive when the economy recovers. Education alone cannot save the economy. Much larger forces are at work, such as international equity and debt markets, the banking crisis, and the deflation of consumer …

Van Noy, Michelle; Zeidenberg, Matthew

2009-01-01

61

Towards New Open Economy Macroeconometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

I estimate the structural parameters of a small open economy model using data from Canada and the United States. The model improves upon the recent literature in open economy macroeconomics from an empirical perspective. I estimate parameters by using non-linear least squares at the single-equation level. Estimates of most parameters are characterized by small standard errors and are in line

Fabio Pietro Ghironi

2000-01-01

62

Nuclear safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

Buden, D.

1991-01-01

63

Women and the American Economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography represents a selected portion of the holdings of the Air Force Academy Library on the subject of women in the American economy. References include the following topics: History; Discrimination and Equal Rights; Employment and the Family;...

O. K. Sutton

1976-01-01

64

The Methanol Economy Project  

SciTech Connect

The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO{sub 2} capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO{sub 2} and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields. ? Direct electrophilic bromination of methane to methyl bromide followed by hydrolysis to yield methanol was investigated on a wide variety of catalyst systems, but hydrolysis proved impractical for large-scale industrial application. ? Bireforming the correct ratio of methane, CO{sub 2}, and water on a NiO / MgO catalyst yielded the right proportion of H{sub 2}:CO (2:1) and proved to be stable for at least 250 hours of operation at 400 psi (28 atm). ? CO{sub 2} capture utilizing supported polyethyleneimines yielded a system capable of adsorbing CO{sub 2} from the air and release at nominal temperatures with negligible amine leaching. ? CO{sub 2} electrolysis to formate and syngas showed considerable increases in rate and selectivity by performing the reaction in a high pressure flow electrolyzer. ? Formic acid was shown to decompose selectively to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} using either Ru or Ir based homogeneous catalysts. ? Direct formic acid fuel cells were also investigated and showed higher than 40% voltage efficiency using reduced loadings of precious metals. A technoeconomic analysis was conducted to assess the viability of taking each of these processes to the industrial scale by applying the data gathered during the experiments to approximations based on currently used industrial processes. Several of these processes show significant promise for industrial scale up and use towards improving our nation’s energy independence.

Olah, George; Prakash, G.K.

2013-12-31

65

The Butterfly Effect of Small Open Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rational expectations equilibrium of a small open economy can be subject to indeterminacy if foreign monetary policy does not satisfy the Taylor principle. We study the implications of foreign-induced indeterminacy for the conduct of monetary policy in a small open economy. In the canonical sticky-price small open economy model, we find that indeterminacy arising in the large economy can

Jarkko Jääskelä; Mariano Kulish

2007-01-01

66

Study on the development of dynamic alliance enterprises' low-carbon economy on market economy condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the differences and integration development of low carbon economy and industrial economy.? As an example of the method of dynamic alliance enterprises' cooperative competition,? combines the development characteristics and elements of low carbon economy, discusses and analyses the laws and characteristics of the development of low carbon industrial economy under the market economy condition .Besides,? it proposes

Yue Yang; Shu-hui Wen

2011-01-01

67

Working in the informal economy.  

PubMed

Informal ways of working are widespread and central to the economy and markets. This paper explores what informal economy is and how it could be more valuable for men and women. The informal economy is a mix of the following activities: 1) subsistence work which includes agriculture, marginal economic projects, and unpaid work in the home; 2) informal work which includes unregistered businesses, and illegal or criminal activities; 3) casual production, a sub-contracted or ¿off-the-books¿ work which deprives workers of the benefits tied to recognized employment; and 4) community work and barter. It is shown that more women, when compared to men, work and live on the border between the household and the market economy. Usually men do more technical or mechanized production while women tend to do activities within traditional women's roles. Men and women often have different understanding of what work is. Men consistently underestimate the women's contribution to the household income. To improve this critical issue of gender differences, rules, norms, and laws that cause problems must be identified, and then work can begin with both men and women to change laws and policies, as well as ideas and beliefs about women's contribution to the economy. PMID:12296264

Kidder, T

2000-07-01

68

Construction safety in Kuwait: issues, procedures, problems, and recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The building construction industry plays a major role in the economy of the state of Kuwait. This paper evaluates existing safety regulations, describes safety procedures adopted by owners, designers, contractors and insurance companies, and assesses the suitability of these regulations and procedures for Kuwait's environment and workforce. It also discusses problems associated with enforcing safety regulations at construction sites. Furthermore,

N. A Kartam; P Koushki

2000-01-01

69

Murphy's Moral Economy of Labor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral Economy of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize labor. (MJP)

Masters, Roger D.

1996-01-01

70

The Coffee Economy of Colombia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is based on the findings of a mission to Colombia in September/October 1967, sponsored by the Tripartite Coffee Study. It provides a step-by-step summation and assessment of the coffee economy of Colombia, covering Colombia in world coffee tra...

G. Kalmanoff

1968-01-01

71

The Underground Economy in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underground economy and underground money have become popular terms in newspapers and magazines. This interest has resulted from the suspension of the Green Card systemâ before the law that had been adopted in the spring of 1980 was implemented due to the tenacious opposition of political and financial sectors. It is the undeniable truth that the real reason for

Tatsuya YasukÅchi

1986-01-01

72

Enterprise Skills for the Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose ? In response to the emergence of an enterprise economy, government claims that building an enterprise culture is vital. Correspondingly, provision of entrepreneurship education in higher education has expanded. The paper aims to assess the potential of entrepreneurship education to develop skills, and of whether students perceive them as…

Galloway, Laura; Anderson, Maggie; Brown, Wendy; Wilson, Laura

2005-01-01

73

Competitiveness Evaluation of Slovenian Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of competitiveness became an important instrument for balancing the development process of the economy. For Slovenia it is important tool for policy creation. Benchmarking with more developed countries shows us the right directions of development process. Competitiveness can be analysed from different sides. Existed studies have focused on several different analytical levels: product, firm, industry cluster, region and nation.

Art Kovacic

2007-01-01

74

Steps toward the hydrogen economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrogen economy is defined as the industrial system in which one of the universal energy carriers is hydrogen (the other is electricity) and hydrogen is oxidized to water that may be reused by applying an external energy source for dissociation of water into its component elements hydrogen and oxygen. There are three different primary energy-supply system classes which may

S. S. Penner

2006-01-01

75

Economies of scale in networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A network's capacity can typically be increased in a variety of ways. For example, in a highway network, existing roads can be made wider or new roads added. This paper is concerned with the determination of the degree of local economies of scale in the cost function for the outputs of a congestible network when there are multiple margins for

Marvin Kraus

2008-01-01

76

Managing Inflation in Socialist Economies in Transition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Managing Inflation in Socialist Economies; Levels, Rates, and Sources of Inflation in Socialist Economies: A Dynamic Framework; Inflation and Stabilization in Socialist Countries: Some Lessons from the Yugoslav Experience; The Exchange Rate and ...

S. Commander

1991-01-01

77

The Structure of the American Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the relationship between input-output accounts and the national revenue function. The generalized inverse of an economy’s technology matrix carries information relating changes in endowments with changes in outputs; its transpose relates output prices and factor prices. Our primary theoretical contribution is to derive an economy’s revenue function for an arbitrary Leontief technology. Our main empirical contribution is to

Eric O'N. Fisher; Kathryn G. Marshall

2008-01-01

78

Implications for Safety and Health Training in a Green Economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Worker Education and Training Program (WETP) strives to use innovative approaches to educate those working with hazardous materials or responding to emergencies involving hazardous materials....

2009-01-01

79

The Born Global Entrepreneur In Emerging Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

As emerging economies increasingly participate in the global economy, Born Global firms from these countries are becoming significant players as well. In the literature, topics related to Born Global firms from emerging economies have mostly been overlooked. The purpose of this paper is to address part of this gap by studying the Born Global entrepreneur within the context of an

Elif S. Persinger; Emin Civi

2007-01-01

80

Low carbon economy and innovative management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low carbon economy has been becoming the mainstream in the development of world economy. The paper elaborates the close relationship between low carbon economy and advancing the innovative management, and sets forth about increasing efficiency and profit to achieve sustainable development through the innovation in thinking, technology, system and integration which would help reduce consumption, emission and pollution.

Liu XiFa

2010-01-01

81

Teaching Business Strategy for an Emerging Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Internet-based simulation about a business in an emerging economy is presented and described as a crucial ingredient for a business strategy course dealing with emerging economies. The development of the course took place in three separate classes where experiments were conducted regarding the key ingredients necessary for a course designed to teach Business Strategies for an Emerging Economy. The

Van V. Miller

2003-01-01

82

Dynamics of an Information-Filtering Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our overall goal is to characterize and understand the dynamicbehavior of information economies: very large open economies ofautomated information agents that are likely to come into existence onthe Internet. Here we model a simple information-filtering economy inwhich broker agents sell selected articles to a subscribed set of consumers.

Jeffrey O. Kephart; James E. Hanson; David W. Levine; Benjamin N. Grosof; Jakka Sairamesh; Richard B. Segal; Steve R. White

1998-01-01

83

Corruption, Public Finances, and the Unofficial Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

August 1999In this sample of 49 Latin American, OECD, and transition economies, it is the ineffective and discretionary administration of tax and regulatory regimes - not higher tax rates alone - as well as corruption, that increases the size of the unofficial economy. And countries with a larger unofficial economy tend to grow more slowly.Johnson, Kaufmann, and Shleifer (1997) found

Pablo Zoido-Lobaton; Simon Johnson; Daniel Kaufmann

1999-01-01

84

Open-Economy Inflation Targeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines inflation targeting in a small open economy with forward-looking aggregate supply and demand with microfoundations, and with stylised realistic lags in the different monetary-policy transmission channels. The paper compares strict and flexible targeting of CPI and domestic inflation and inflation-targeting reaction functions and the Taylor rule. Flexible CPI-inflation targeting does not only limit the variability of CPI

Lars E. O. Svensson

1998-01-01

85

Open-economy inflation targeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines inflation targeting in a small open economy with forward-looking aggregate supply and demand with microfoundations, and with stylized realistic lags in the different monetary-policy transmission channels. The paper compares strict and flexible targeting of CPI and domestic inflation, and inflation-targeting reaction functions and the Taylor rule. Flexible CPI-inflation targeting does not limit the variability of CPI inflation

Lars E. O. Svensson

2000-01-01

86

Fuel Economy Standards for New Light Trucks (released in AEO2007)  

EIA Publications

In March 2006, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) finalized Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards requiring higher fuel economy performance for light-duty trucks in model year (MY) 2008 through 2011. Unlike the proposed CAFE standards discussed in Annual Energy Outlook 2006, which would have established minimum fuel economy requirements by six footprint size classes, the final reformed CAFE standards specify a continuous mathematical function that determines minimum fuel economy requirements by vehicle footprint, defined as the wheelbase (the distance from the front axle to the center of the rear axle) times the average track width (the distance between the center lines of the tires) of the vehicle in square feet.

Information Center

2007-02-22

87

Precious Metal Catalysts Supported on Ceramic and Metal Monolithic Structures for the Hydrogen Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed hydrogen for the hydrogen economy will require new catalysts and processes. Existing large?scale hydrogen plants can not simply be reduced in size to meet the economic, safety, and frequent duty cycle requirements for applications for fuel cells, hydrogen fueling stations, and industrial uses such as hydrogenation reactions, gas turbine cooling, metal processing, etc 12. Consequently, there is a need

Robert J. Farrauto; Ye Liu; Wolfgang Ruettinger; Oleg Ilinich; Larry Shore; Tom Giroux

2007-01-01

88

Supergroups and economies of scale.  

PubMed

With the changing environment for medical practice, physician practice models will continue to evolve. These "supergoups'' create economies of scale, but their advantage is not only in the traditional economic sense. Practices with enough size are able to better meet the challenges of medical practice with increasing regulatory demands, explosion of clinical knowledge, quality and information technology initiatives, and an increasingly tight labor market. Smaller practices can adapt some of these strategies selectively. Depending on the topic, smaller practices should think differently about how to approach the challenges of practice. PMID:19038641

Schlossberg, Steven

2009-02-01

89

Organizational Complexity in the Regional Cultural Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Markusen A. Organizational complexity in the regional cultural economy, Regional Studies. Cultural industries offer a truncated understanding of the regional cultural economy, undercounting self-employed workers and others outside the for-profit sector. Commercial, public, non-profit, and unincorporated community sectors produce, present, train, organize, guide, and regulate elements of the cultural economy, each with distinctive structures, goals, and operational systems. Using survey

Ann Markusen

2010-01-01

90

Examining new fuel economy standards for the United States.  

SciTech Connect

After decades of futile attempts to increase U.S. fuel economy standards for passenger cars, which have remained unchanged since enactment of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards in Title V of the 1975 Energy Policy Conservation Act, it seems increasingly likely that new and tougher standards will be enacted in the near future - especially after the Senate's 21 June passage of energy efficiency bill H.R. 6. As this magazine went to press, the bill, which calls for a 40 percent increase in vehicle fuel economy by 2020 among other efficiency and alternative energy goals, was headed to the House of Representatives for more debate. Congress has seen proposals like this since the 1980s, but this is the first time that one of them has passed in the Senate. The Bush administration has also weighed in with a proposal to increase new vehicle fuel economy by 4 percent per year from 2011 to 2017, and the administrator of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has asked Congress to grant the Secretary of Transportation the authority to restructure and increase CAFE standards for cars, a power denied by the original CAFE legislation. A confluence of events has led to this change of political climate, including: the failure of world oil production and refining capacity to keep pace with rapidly growing demand, especially from China and other emerging economies, which has led to the highest oil prices since the 1980s and growing fears that world production of conventional oil may be close to its peak and rapid decline; the escalating influence of oil resources on geopolitics as China seeks to guarantee its future access to supplies, enhanced revenues from the higher prices, which prop up authoritarian regimes in Iran, Venezuela, Russia, and elsewhere and allow them increasing freedom of action; the enhancement of the role of climate change in political decision making by new reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), with much strengthened language about the probability and severity of climate change and man's influence on it, and a recent Supreme Court decision rejecting the Environmental Protection Agency's assertion that it has no authority to regulate greenhouse gas emissions. New fuel economy standards will represent an ambitious and expensive undertaking on the part of the automobile industry and the nation, and proposals for new standards deserve careful congressional and public scrutiny.

Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

2007-01-01

91

Child Care and the New Economy: Part I--Three Pillars of the New Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Late in 2008, when it was becoming apparent that the economic downturn was not a simple blip but a serious recession, Warren Buffet confidently predicted that the American economy would bounce back and be as strong as ever. However, he observed, "the economy that emerges will not be the same economy that entered the downturn." Since then, one…

Neugebauer, Roger

2009-01-01

92

CIO in a Service Economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of the Chief Information Officer (CIO) has evolved considerably since its inception in the 1980s. This paper begins with a brief review of the evolution of this role and sets the stage for future change brought about by the rise of the service economy. The enterprise of the future is then characterized based on an important global study by IBM. Using this characterization, the future challenges for CIOs in areas such as strategic planning, governance and operations management of information technology services are assessed from the perspectives of the four major elements of a service system (technology, people, organization and shared information). The paper concludes with a summary of the important findings, pointing to the challenge that CIOs of the future must be the leaders in their organizations in the delivery of smarter, on-demand service systems to smarter customers.

Sorenson, Paul G.

93

Government and the Economy--Stabilization Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes the operation of public and private sector mechanisms which work to keep the Canadian economy stable. Part I discusses the many sources of instability in the Canadian economy. Instability is measured primarily in fluctuations in aggregate income or gross national product. Two important contributors to economic fluctuations…

Popkin, John W.

94

Employment promotion in a minerals economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a sense of mystery and frustration that the SA economy has not grown as much as expected nor generated employment in the 1990s. GEAR incorrectly assumed that growth would be premised on foreign direct investment, which was meant to spur new value-adding industries and related clusters. It is not surprising that this did not occur. The SA economy

Miriam Altman

2001-01-01

95

Political Capital in a Market Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research applies a transaction-focused institutional analysis to compare the value of political capital in different institutional domains of China's market economy. Our results show that the value of political capital is associated with institutional domains of the economy in which agents can use political connections to secure advantages.…

Nee, Victor; Opper, Sonja

2010-01-01

96

Getting Tenure in a Down Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic tenure is now under attack. A down economy has placed greater pressure on institutions making tenure more difficult to obtain. Nineteen tips for gaining tenure in a down economy are presented along with several justifications for tenure and why tenure is important for the preservation of the academy and the freedom to research and teach.

Shaw, Darla; Maidment, Fred

2010-01-01

97

Developing a Political Economy of Skill.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds little evidence of a paradigm shift in capitalism or a trend toward a high-skills knowledge economy. Points out problems in demand-side proposals. Concludes that it is necessary to recognize the centrality of conflict, power, and exploitation in capitalism and outlines a radical political economy of skill. (Contains 104 references.) (SK)

Lloyd, Caroline; Payne, Jonathan

2002-01-01

98

Technology, Social Innovation, and the Informal Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unpaid work in the home is an important contributor to national wealth: very nearly half of all work in a modern economy takes place outside the formal economy. A major effect of new technology is to increase the extent of informal production through the development of new productive equipment for installation in private households. Domestic production becomes more efficient, and

Jonathan Gershuny

1987-01-01

99

Manufacturing Careers, Skilled Workers and the Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to jumpstart the economy, "Made in the U.S.A." needs to be synonymous with in-demand, high-quality products sold throughout the world. Recognizing the importance of the manufacturing industry and its connection to a healthy economy, President Obama addressed Carnegie Mellon University and launched the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership…

Martino, Lisa

2011-01-01

100

Automated Control Systems in the Ukrainian Economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains an article on the September 1972 L'vov conference on the development and application of computers in the economy of the Ukrainian SSR and an article on the use of computer controlled systems in the economy of the republic. (Author)

M. T. Matveev

1972-01-01

101

The butterfly effect of small open economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rational expectations equilibrium of a small open economy can be subject to indeterminacy if foreign monetary policy does not satisfy the Taylor principle. We study the implications of foreign induced indeterminacy in the two-country version of the sticky-price small open economy model. Our main finding is that ‘smallness’ is a property of the unique rational expectations equilibrium of the

Jarkko P. Jääskelä; Mariano Kulish

2010-01-01

102

The financialization of the American economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents systematic empirical evidence for the financialization of the US economy in the post-1970s period. While numerous researchers have noted the increasing salience of finance, there have been few systematic attempts to consider what this shift means for the nature of the economy, considered broadly. In large part, this omission reflects the considerable methodological difficulties associated with using

Greta R. Krippner

2005-01-01

103

Education Blueprint: An Economy Built to Last.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In his State of the Union Address, President Obama laid out a blueprint for an economy that's built to last an economy built on American manufacturing, American energy, skills for American workers, and a renewal of American values. The President has taken...

2012-01-01

104

Towards the Political Economy of Pluriactivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores theoretical concerns of political economy approaches in agriculture and links these to farm pluriactivity. Focuses on relevance of debates concerning labor commoditization and uneven development, suggesting recognition of pluriactivity for broader understanding of political economy. Recommends broader approach for understanding economic…

Marsden, Terry

1990-01-01

105

40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test...Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement....

2010-07-01

106

40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2007-07-01 true Fuel economy measurement. 610...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test...Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement....

2009-01-01

107

Hand Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... is a Hand Therapist? About ASSH Hand Safety Fireworks Lawnmowers Snowblowers Pumpkin Carving Gardening Turkey Carving Removing ... is a Hand Therapist? About ASSH Hand Safety Fireworks Lawnmowers Snowblowers Pumpkin Carving Gardening Turkey Carving Removing ...

108

Tractor Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... tractor is involved in a high proportion of farm fatalities and severe injuries. To avoid them, follow safe management principles and implement a tractor safety program on your farm. • Develop a "safety first" attitude. Follow safe work ...

109

ATV Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... an accident less likely and help prevent serious injuries if an accident does happen. Reviewed by: Sean M. Elwell, MSN, RN, EMT, and Patti ... Safety Center Farm Safety Broken Bones Learning to Drive: Tips and ...

110

Laser Safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A literature survey of the most recent laser safety parameters and precautions is presented. Recent laser safety legislation is discussed. The basic features of a laser are discussed. Recommended safe exposure levels are given for the eye and skin. Models...

W. N. Mohon

1970-01-01

111

Safety Rules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Safety is an important part of a science lesson or activity. This safety material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Sixteen rules reinforce common safety concerns for science classrooms. Among the safety rules are the recommendations that teachers practice demonstrations before presenting them, make proper eyewear and shields available, use customary disposal techniques, and possess a thorough knowledge of the chemical reactions being used. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL); Jacobs, Steve

2004-01-01

112

Safety Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Safety policies, procedures, and related information are presented in this manual to assist school personnel in a continuing program of accident prevention. Chapter 1 discusses safety education and accident prevention in general. Chapter 2 covers traffic regulations relating to school safety patrols, school bus transportation, bicycles, and…

Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

113

Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy (BRIE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Berkeley Roundtable on International Economy (BRIE) is a research project based at the University of California at Berkeley that examines the "real-world interactions of technology, markets, and economies" and "formulate[s] path-breaking positions that challenge conventional economic policy-making." Visitors to the site will find a collection of working papers, research papers and research notes written by BRIE researchers. Current and more recent papers are available for viewing on-line. The site offers a collection of detailed summaries of briefing papers from the BRIE conference titled "Will there be a Unified European Economy?".

1997-01-01

114

Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy (BRIE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Berkeley Roundtable on International Economy (BRIE) is a research project based at the University of California at Berkeley that examines the "real-world interactions of technology, markets, and economies" and "formulate[s] path-breaking positions that challenge conventional economic policy-making." Visitors to the site will find a collection of working papers, research papers and research notes written by BRIE researchers. Current and more recent papers are available for viewing on-line. The site offers a collection of detailed summaries of briefing papers from the BRIE conference titled "Will there be a Unified European Economy?".

2007-07-02

115

Self-regulation, Corporate Social Responsibility, and the Business Case: Do they Work in Achieving Workplace Equality and Safety?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The political shift toward an economic liberalism in many developed market economies, emphasizing the importance of the marketplace\\u000a rather than government intervention in the economy and society (Dorman, Systematic Occupational Health and Safety Management:\\u000a Perspectives on an International Development, 2000; Tombs, Policy and Practice in Health and Safety 3(1):24–25, 2005; Walters, Policy and Practice in Health and Safety 03(2):3–19, 2005),

Susan Margaret Hart

2010-01-01

116

Welcome to the experience economy.  

PubMed

First there was agriculture, then manufactured goods, and eventually services. Each change represented a step up in economic value--a way for producers to distinguish their products from increasingly undifferentiated competitive offerings. Now, as services are in their turn becoming commoditized, companies are looking for the next higher value in an economic offering. Leading-edge companies are finding that it lies in staging experiences. To reach this higher level of competition, companies will have to learn how to design, sell, and deliver experiences that customers will readily pay for. An experience occurs when a company uses services as the stage--and goods as props--for engaging individuals in a way that creates a memorable event. And while experiences have always been at the heart of the entertainment business, any company stages an experience when it engages customers in a personal, memorable way. The lessons of pioneering experience providers, including the Walt Disney Company, can help companies learn how to compete in the experience economy. The authors offer five design principles that drive the creation of memorable experiences. First, create a consistent theme, one that resonates throughout the entire experience. Second, layer the theme with positive cues--for example, easy-to-follow signs. Third, eliminate negative cues, those visual or aural messages that distract or contradict the theme. Fourth, offer memorabilia that commemorate the experience for the user. Finally, engage all five senses--through sights, sounds, and so on--to heighten the experience and thus make it more memorable. PMID:10181589

Pine, B J; Gilmore, J H

1998-01-01

117

Concern for Economy Reflected in Resolutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 21 resolutions approved at the American Vocational Association (AVA) New Orleans Convention reflected: concern about the economy, the single State agency concept for administering funds, more resources for research, and support for the adoption of the metric system. (EA)

American Vocational Journal, 1975

1975-01-01

118

Towards a hydrogen economy. 3rd ed.  

SciTech Connect

The report is a study of the movement towards using hydrogen as a key energy carrier in the future. It takes a look at the current state of hydrogen and addresses the infrastructure requirements needed to make the hydrogen economy a reality. The report offers a detailed look at the move to a hydrogen economy by: Identifying the current status of hydrogen production and use; Discussing the key business drivers of the move towards hydrogen; Discussing the barriers to implementation that stand in the way of a transition; Providing a critical look at whether the hydrogen economy can succeed; Describing the options that exist for a hydrogen infrastructure; Identifying the key government initiatives making the hydrogen economy a reality; Providing company-by-company profiles of automobile manufacturer efforts to develop and commercialize hydrogen vehicles; and Providing profiles of key hydrogen infrastructure manufacturers.

NONE

2006-07-15

119

Globalization and its Impact on Bangladesh Economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the past decades, globalization has now become a new world order, which virtually influences everything that comes in our mind. Developing countries like Bangladesh with vulnerable geopolitical locations and weak economies are now looking at globaliz...

F. Rahman

2005-01-01

120

Economy, Competition, and the Retail Automotive Dealer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report primarily explores how the economy, especially during a recession or economic downturn, influences the trends of auto sales, the retail network, and the performance of dealerships. The authors postulate that the strength and long-term viabilit...

M. S. Flynn K. Hill K. F. Alkire B. M. Belzowski G. Kang R. H. Senter

2001-01-01

121

NAFTA: The Mexican Economy, and Undocumented Migration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The North American Free Trade Agreement is variously blamed for undocumented migration from Mexico and credited with reducing it. This paper seeks to distinguish free trade's influence upon the Mexican economy from other factors and argues that where it a...

D. McClurg

2011-01-01

122

Mexican Economy After the Global Financial Crisis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The state of Mexico's economy is important for U.S. policymakers for many reasons, most significantly because a prosperous and democratic neighboring country is in the best interest of the United States. The two countries have strong economic, political, ...

M. A. Villarreal

2010-01-01

123

Global Economy - Fertile Soil for Future Conflict.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The future prosperity and security of the United States is inextricably tied to the global economy. The growing number of multinational corporations and their complex network of foreign investments, production and marketing across international borders wi...

S. G. Leblanc

2002-01-01

124

Towards A Hydrogen Economy, 3. edition  

SciTech Connect

The report provides a study of the movement towards using hydrogen as a key energy carrier in the future and takes a high-level look at the current state of hydrogen and addresses the infrastructure requirements needed to make the hydrogen economy a reality. The report offers a detailed look at the move to a hydrogen economy by: identifying the current status of hydrogen production and use; discussing the key business drivers of the move towards hydrogen; discussing the barriers to implementation that stand in the way of a transition; providing a critical look at whether the hydrogen economy can succeed; describing the options that exist for a hydrogen infrastructure; identifying the key government initiatives making the hydrogen economy a reality; providing company-by-company profiles of automobile manufacturer efforts to develop and commercialize hydrogen vehicles; and, providing profiles of key hydrogen infrastructure manufacturers.

NONE

2007-05-15

125

Traffic airships with special reference to economy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first part of this report details the efficiency and economy of airship travel, while the second part presents methods of economic efficiency with regards to construction, cost of upkeep and operation, and the establishment of airship lines.

Leyensetter, Walther

1921-01-01

126

Infectious Diseases in a Global Economy - Consequences for Developing Nations  

PubMed Central

Since the end of the cold war the world economy has become dominated by Western [largely US] interests. In this period there have developed several pandemics or epidemics of infectious diseases that have affected most nations. HIV, SARS, Avian Influenza, Hepatitis-C, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, drug-resistant TB, viral zoonoses, are specific examples that will be discussed in terms of their genesis, economic impact and consequences for ways of life in the range of economies – developed, developing and under developed countries. The burden falls most on the underdeveloped countries who are least able to mount the resources to combat the consequences of these global infections. The capability to diagnose, prevent, treat and manage is largely in the hands of commercial interests that are anchored into international trade agreements. This circumstance contrasts with the situation that existed for vaccine development and distribution in the early parts of 20th century. Most countries established “public good” institutions that developed vaccines for public health purposes [diphtheria, tetanus, polio, pneumococcal antisera are examples]. In this 21st century the international capability for developing vaccines is largely in the hands of industry. Thus the developing countries need support of UN or similar global organizations to underwrite product development that suits their needs. The process of product development, safety and efficacy assessment will be presented in a manner that indicates the crucial and essential role of developing nations – and why they should receive fair recognition for their contributions.

Peter, McDonald AM

2006-01-01

127

Cost and safety superiority of fusion-fission hybrid reactor in China nuclear energy development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Considering economy and safety, an optimization model of nuclear energy developing scenarios of China was set up. An objective function to optimize was determined. Three prospective developing scenarios of China nuclear energy system including hybrid reac...

P. E. Pereslavtszev Luan Guishi Xia Chengang

1994-01-01

128

Middle East food safety perspectives.  

PubMed

Food safety and quality assurance are increasingly a major issue with the globalisation of agricultural trade, on the one hand, and intensification of agriculture, on the other. Consumer protection has become a priority in policy-making amongst the large economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries following a number of food safety incidents. To enhance food safety, it is necessary to establish markets underpinned by knowledge and resources, including analysis of international rejections of food products from MENA countries, international laboratory accreditation, improved reporting systems and traceability, continued development and validation of analytical methods, and more work on correlating sensory evaluation with analytical results. MENA countries should develop a national strategy for food safety based on a holistic approach that extends from farm-to-fork and involves all the relevant stakeholders. Accordingly, food safety should be a regional programme, raising awareness among policy- and decision-makers of the importance of food safety and quality for consumer protection, food trade and economic development. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24415527

Idriss, Atef W; El-Habbab, Mohammad S

2014-08-01

129

e-Labs and Work Objects: Towards Digital Health Economies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimal provision of healthcare and public health services requires the synthesis of evidence from multiple disciplines. It is necessary to understand the genetic, environmental, behavioural and social determinants of disease and health-related states; to balance the effectiveness of interventions with their costs; to ensure the maximum safety and acceptability of interventions; and to provide fair access to care services for given populations. Ever expanding databases of knowledge and local health information, and the ability to employ computationally expensive methods, promises much for decisions to be both supported by best evidence and locally relevant. This promise will, however, not be realised without providing health professionals with the tools to make sense of this information rich environment and to collaborate across disciplines. We propose, as a solution to this problem, the e-Lab and Work Objects model as a sense-making platform for digital health economies - bringing together data, methods and people for timely health intelligence.

Ainsworth, John D.; Buchan, Iain E.

130

Three Forms of the Knowledge Economy: Learning, Creativity and Openness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines and reviews three forms and associated discourses of the "knowledge economy": the "learning economy", based on the work of Bengt-Ake Lundvall; the "creative economy" based on the work of Charles Landry, John Howkins and Richard Florida; and the "open knowledge economy" based on the work of Yochai Benkler and others. Arguably,…

Peters, Michael A.

2010-01-01

131

Youth and the New Economy=Les jeunes et la nouvelle economie.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Community Perspective Series document includes statements about young people in the new economy of Toronto made by three participants in the October 2000 annual general meeting of the Toronto Training Board. "A Hitchhiker's Guide to the New Economy" (Olivia Chow) suggests that training programs available to young people are fragmented and…

Community Perspectives Series, 2002

2002-01-01

132

Indigenous Economies, Theories of Subsistence, and Women: Exploring the Social Economy Model for Indigenous Governance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…

Kuokkanen, Rauna

2011-01-01

133

Education and the Economy: Boosting Kansas' Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

2011-01-01

134

Education and the Economy: Boosting Alaska's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

2011-01-01

135

Education and the Economy: Boosting Florida's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

2011-01-01

136

An entropic framework for modeling economies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop an information-theoretic framework for economic modeling. This framework is based on principles of entropic inference that are designed for reasoning on the basis of incomplete information. We take the point of view of an external observer who has access to limited information about broad macroscopic economic features. We view this framework as complementary to more traditional methods. The economy is modeled as a collection of agents about whom we make no assumptions of rationality (in the sense of maximizing utility or profit). States of statistical equilibrium are introduced as those macrostates that maximize entropy subject to the relevant information codified into constraints. The basic assumption is that this information refers to supply and demand and is expressed in the form of the expected values of certain quantities (such as inputs, resources, goods, production functions, utility functions and budgets). The notion of economic entropy is introduced. It provides a measure of the uniformity of the distribution of goods and resources. It captures both the welfare state of the economy as well as the characteristics of the market (say, monopolistic, concentrated or competitive). Prices, which turn out to be the Lagrange multipliers, are endogenously generated by the economy. Further studies include the equilibrium between two economies and the conditions for stability. As an example, the case of the nonlinear economy that arises from linear production and utility functions is treated in some detail.

Caticha, Ariel; Golan, Amos

2014-08-01

137

Safety issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the NASA safety review process is to make sure that any system hazards that can endanger the manned flight system are precluded. The systems that address manned flight in a payload safety review process are discussed. The types of basic hazards that are normally addressed on any of the payloads are: contamination, electrical shock, explosions, radiation, and temperature extremes.

Rohal, R.

1991-01-01

138

Safety First!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working with young children and chemicals requires attention to safety. This article details the experiences of a third-grade teacher who used a "disaster" to create a hands-on inquiry that introduces children to chemistry safety during a third-grade acid/base exploration.

Longfield, Judith

2006-02-01

139

Lab Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the Texas Hazardous Communication Act (THCA) of 1986 which raised many new health and liability issues regarding students in science laboratories, a laboratory safety survey was generated for use in evaluating laboratory safety. This article contains the easy-to-use survey. (ZWH)

West, Sandra S.

1991-01-01

140

Laser safety.  

PubMed

Laser safety is a critical component in any laser surgery program. When used improperly, lasers have the potential to cause severe skin burns, induce corneal opacity and cataracts, damage the retina leading to blindness, and cause chronic respiratory diseases. For these reasons, each laser user is obligated to establish and comply with a laser safety program as outlined by ANSI. PMID:12064040

Fry, Thomas R

2002-05-01

141

Safety Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

Halligan, Tom

2009-01-01

142

Sanitary engineering and water economy in Europe  

PubMed Central

The author deals with a wide variety of aspects of water economy and the development of water resources, relating them to the sanitary engineering problems they give rise to. Among those aspects are the balance between available resources and water needs for various purposes; accumulation and storage of surface and ground water, and methods of replenishing ground water supplies; pollution and purification; and organizational measures to deal with the urgent problems raised by the heavy demands on the world's water supply as a result of both increased population and the increased need for agricultural and industrial development. The author considers that at the national level over-all plans for developing the water economy of countries might well be drawn up by national water boards and that the economy of inter-State river basins should receive international study. In such work the United Nations and its specialized agencies might be of assistance.

Krul, W. F. J. M.

1957-01-01

143

An inquiry into the household economy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The value of the time which people devote to each activity of their lives is compared with the money they spend on the activity. After tax wage rates are used to value an individual's time. The enormous size of the household economy and the fact that for most activities the value of the consumer's time devoted to an activity exceeds the money expenditures on the activity, suggest that there are many opportunities for productivity improvements in the household economy which have been overlooked in most traditional thinking on productivity.

Samuelson, R. D.

1979-01-01

144

Safety - PPE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This high school activity from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center challenges "your students' ability to identify safety hazards, as they play the role of a safety inspector." On this page, visitors will find a link to two company overview sheets, one with information about TECO, a company that generate and distributes electricity, and another with information about CF Industries, a fertilizer producer. The site also provides a lesson plan, a PowerPoint presentation, and a student handout. This is a great resource to introduce students to hands-on practices in safety inspection in different industries.

2009-10-07

145

Software safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.

Leveson, Nancy

1987-01-01

146

Fireworks Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... at 350 °F Water boils at 212 °F Fireworks Safety Fireworks are often used to mark special ... fireworks NFPA is opposed to consumer use of fireworks. This includes sparklers and firecrackers. Even sparklers burn ...

147

Bike Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... for speed on a paved surface, all those high-tech shocks and other mountain-climbing gadgets will do ... and look inside for either a CPSC (Consumer Product Safety Commission) or Snell sticker. Only buy helmets ...

148

Auto Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... from forward-facing child safety seat to belt-positioning booster seat. Review the forward-facing convertible seat ... of age and older. Some convert to belt-positioning booster seats. Weight and height limits will vary ...

149

Water Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... best measure of protection. Back Continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ... water during bad weather, especially lightning. Back Continue Water Park Safety Water parks can be a lot ...

150

Sun Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Related Links Buttons and Badges Cancer Home Sun Safety The sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays can damage your ... UV protection than a dry one, and darker colors may offer more protection than lighter colors. Some ...

151

Cryogenics Safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The safety hazards associated with handling cryogenic fluids are discussed in detail. These hazards include pressure buildup when a cryogenic fluid is heated and becomes a gas, potential damage to body tissues due to surface contact, toxic risk from breat...

R. Reider

1977-01-01

152

Pedestrian Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... blurb should go here Social Media ACEP in Social Media Campaigns Campaigns Read Patient Stories Health News About Emergencies Childhood / Student Emergencies Diseases & Infections Disaster Preparedness Elderly Safety Holiday & Seasonal Injury Prevention Travel & Motor Vehicle ...

153

Old age security in transitional economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The former communist countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) are undertaking their second great social experiment of the century: the transition from authoritarian central planning to a market economy. One of the many problems they face during the transition is what to do with their pension systems. Their problems are more complex than countries elsewhere at the same

Louise Fox

1994-01-01

154

Alternative resources for the methanol economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally, methanol produced for chemical applications is made predominantly via fossil resources. But it can also be obtained from any carbon-containing feedstock, including biomass, biogas, forest residues, and municipal or other waste products. Perspective viewing and critical assessment show the possibilities and constraints of such alternative resources for the realization of the methanol economy with high sustainability. The bibliography includes 57 references.

Reschetilowski, W.

2013-07-01

155

Macroeconomic framework for the economy of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) provided support to the MOF to formulate a user-friendly and easily transferable computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to reflect the effect of changes in various public policies and forecast changes of fiscal policy on different sectors of the economy. However, given the difficulties posed by institutionalization of the CGE model and the priorities of the

Bazlul Haque Khondker; Selim Raihan

2008-01-01

156

A Dynamic Economy with Costly Price Adjustments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies a general-equilibrium model of a dynamic economy with menu costs. Each firm's productivity is exposed to idiosyncratic and aggregate productivity shocks around a trend, and the money supply to monetary shocks around a trend. All consumption, pricing, and production decisions are based on optimizing behavior. There exists a staggered Markov perfect equilibrium with prices determined by a

Leif Danziger

1999-01-01

157

Evolution of the New Economy Business Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An earlier version of this paper is forthcoming in Eric Brousseau and Nicolas Curien, eds., The Economics of the Internet, Cambridge University Press. I am currently elaborating and detailing the arguments made here in a book for the W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, tentatively entitled, The New Economy Business Model and Sustainable Prosperity: The Future of High-Tech Employment

William Lazonick

2005-01-01

158

Economy's Troubles Could Hit Colleges Unusually Hard  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Financial experts everywhere agree that the economy appears headed toward a recession. The question is how long it will last and how deep it will be. The last recession, in 2001, lasted less than a year. Most sectors, including higher education, shrugged it off. During lengthier downturns, colleges have often benefited from increased enrollments.…

Wolverton, Brad

2008-01-01

159

European test methods for fuel economy oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Europe is well aware of work by the ASTM Fuel Efficient Engine Oil Task Force to develop test procedures for the measurement of the effects of the engine oil on the fuel economy of passenger cars and light duty vehicles. These procedures are designed to cover North American requirements and are not entirely suitable for European needs. The paper explains

K. P. Bush; D. C. Roberts; T. Villis

1983-01-01

160

The new open economy macroeconomics: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1995 publication of Obsteld and Rogoff’s Redux model, there has been an outpouring of research on open-economy dynamic general equilibrium models that incorporate imperfect competition and nominal rigidities. This paper offers an interim survey of this recent literature.

2001-01-01

161

The New Open Economy Macroeconomics: a Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1995 publication of Obsteld and Rogoff's Redux model, there has been an outpouring of research on open-economy dynamic general equilibrium models that incorporate imperfect competition and nominal rigidities. This paper offers an interim survey of this recent literature.

1999-01-01

162

The Economic Thinking on Low Carbon Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low carbon economy is the inevitable result of the capitalist production model, and is economic development model which mankind is forced to adopt. The measures to reduce carbon emissions mainly include laws and regulations, carbon taxes or carbon trading, subsidies or tax cuts on clean production, technological innovation and demand reduction. These measures have respective advantages and disadvantages. The paper

Niu Yongping

2011-01-01

163

Drugs, the informal economy and globalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on the connections between illegal drugs and the informal economy and consider this in the light of the increasing levels of global interconnectedness in recent decades. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This is a review of the empirical drugs literature with a primary focus on British-based research and analysis of the

Toby Seddon

2008-01-01

164

On the mathematical foundations of political economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political economy views economic issues through the lens of political organisation. In today's world, it must focus on the roles of markets and of democracy, two concepts which are driving revolutionary changes in the political organisation of both Europe and Asia. There are two main paradigms for the analysis of markets and democracy, both of which have been mathematically advanced

Graciela Chichilnisky

1990-01-01

165

Technology transfer to the broader economy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approaches to the transfer of government-funded civil space technology to the broader commercial economy were addressed by Working Panel no. 4. Some of the problems related to current strategies for technology transfer and recommendations for new approaches are described in outline form.

Dyer, Gordon; Clark, Robert

1992-01-01

166

Is the Paradigm Economy Principle Relevant?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critiques Carstair's Paradigm Economy Principle (PEP) with regard to historical linguistics. The principle "one form, one meaning" (OFOM) is contrasted with PEP as providing a more satisfactory explanation for occurrences of morphological change. Latin and Maori paradigms are used as examples. (Author/LMO)

Nyman, Martti

1987-01-01

167

An Inside Story on the Experience Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many views on the experience economy start with the behavior of actors in society at large and try to understand and explain their dynamics. In other words, the focus is on the external, objective, physical world of experience. But since experiences are inherently personal and only exist in our own internal, subjective, mental universe it is interesting to start from

2006-01-01

168

Piracy and Its Impact on the Economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis attempts to shed light on the growing threat maritime piracy has on the economy along with possible solutions (military and diplomatic operations) the world can take to combat this threat. Maritime piracy has been around since the beginning of...

R. H. Islam

2010-01-01

169

The Political Economy of North American Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents 12 papers that proceed from the idea that Native American history in the United States and Canada is best understood not as an Indian-European cultural conflict but as an economic conflict between communal and capitalist modes of production. Three chapters are of particular educational interest. "Political Economy in…

Moore, John H., Ed.

170

Foreign direct investment in a digital economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The analysis of the role of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the emergence and development of digital economy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Examination of the developments of FDI and the new destinations explained by the liberalization measures undertaken by governments and inward investment agencies in globalization. Findings – While FDI does displace some exports, it also creates a number of

Georgios Zekos

2005-01-01

171

Supply Chain Management in a Global Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

With globalization and integration of the world economy, the concept of extended enterprise has taken root, leading to an increasingly important role played by the entire supply chain management, including procurement, logistics and distribution for ensuring a consistently high degree of customer satisfaction in terms of quality, delivery and cost. Through examples from the Middle East and South Asia I

Janak Mehta

2004-01-01

172

Family division in China's transitional economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a longitudinal data-set (the China Health and Nutrition Survey) we explored the effect of various economic factors, including household wealth, employment sector, and involvement in a household business on the division of extended families in China's transitional economy. Results from event history analyses suggest that these economic factors act as either a dividing or a unifying force on the

Feinian Chen

2009-01-01

173

The Learning Region between Pedagogy and Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economic growth is stimulated through learning. In "the learning economies" of those European regions that chose to develop their human and intellectual capital wisely, benefits have been visible. But this is a one-dimensional outlook in a multi-dimensional world. A "Learning Region" is an entirely different entity, pooling and mobilising its…

Piazza, Roberta

2010-01-01

174

Labor and the Economy in 1973  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the economy in 1973 includes coverage of price controls and freezes; monetary and fiscal policy; unemployment collective bargaining (apparel, railroads, rubber, electrical equipment, postal, trucking, automobiles); strikes; legal developments (employment discrimination and legislation); union developments (indictment, farm ferment,…

Defina, Catherine C.

1974-01-01

175

Valid Knowledge: The Economy and the Academy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The future of Western universities as public institutions is the subject of extensive continuing debate, underpinned by the issue of what constitutes "valid knowledge". Where in the past only propositional knowledge codified by academics was considered valid, in the new economy enabled by information and communications technology, the procedural…

Williams, Peter John

2007-01-01

176

The Planned Economies and International Economic Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This 1991 book was the first comprehensive study of the role of socialist countries within the international economic order. The author presents an overview of the emergence of the postwar economic order and examines the key features of three kinds of centrally planned economies. He then analyses the role of financial frameworks and the international trade system in ensuring smooth

Jozef M. Brabant

177

Constitutional political economy in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article surveys recent research in constitutional political economy in Europe. Although not all of the works discussed necessarily focus only on European constitutional issues or are written by Europeans, European constitutional issues figure importantly in each area surveyed. The article examines the literatures linking constitutional institutions to economic growth, government size, government deficits and corruption, bicameralism, direct democracy and

Dennis C. Mueller

2005-01-01

178

The Political Economy of European Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues of European monetary union and international commercial policy share the centre stage of very current deliberations. This paper addresses the broader political economy perspective of monetary union rather than the specifics of this or that proposal, so as to abstract from the somewhat fluid nature of the discussions. I consider in turn, the background to the quest for monetary

A. R. Nobay

2011-01-01

179

International Political Economy\\/Development Otherwise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opening to cultural differences in IPE\\/development is presented in academic circles as a disciplinary breakthrough. The cultural turn welcomes contributions from semiotics, ethnology, sociology, geography, and ethics. Surprisingly, despite the claim for this being a ‘cultural approach’, there have been few attempts to incorporate proposals from marginalized cultures. Absent from a cultural political economy are counter-discourses coming from critical

Cristina Rojas

2007-01-01

180

Awareness and AIDS: A Political Economy Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple political economy model that explains two major puzzles of government policies to combat HIV\\/AIDS epidemic: the lack of policy response in many countries where the epidemic is massive and the reversal of the downward trend in HIV prevalence in the countries that have adopted early agressive prevention campaigns. The model builds on the assumption that the

Gani Aldashev; Jean-Marie Baland

2008-01-01

181

The Information Economy: Definition and Measurement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report series defines and measures the "information activity" within the national economy. "Information activity" is defined to include those specific industries and occupations whose primary function is to produce, process, or transmit economically valuable information. Changes in the national labor force are analyzed over a 120-year span.…

Porat, Marc Uri

182

Rebel Recruitment in a Coffee Exporting Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent literature in the political economy of civil war has pointed to the importance of (changes) in the economic environment for the understanding of conflict dynamics. Three channels, negative income shocks, the presence of exportable commodities and indiscriminate violence inflicted on one’s community are considered as drivers of conflict. This paper studies these channels with a new fifteen-year panel of

Eleonora Nillesen; Philip Verwimp

2009-01-01

183

Income Inequality, Global Economy and the State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigate interrelationship among income inequality, global economy and the role of the state using an unbalanced panel data set with 311 observations on 60 countries, dated from 1970 to 1994. The analysis proceeds in two stages. First, we test for effects on income inequality of variables characterizing the situation of a society in the…

Lee, Cheol-Sung; Nielsen, Francois; Alderson, Arthur S.

2007-01-01

184

A Revised Curriculum in Political Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economics curriculum developed to fit Dominican College's new urban-international focus is outlined. Eight courses in the sequence are the nature of economics in a political context, comparative decision making systems, current issues, political economy in your experience, international political economics, economic development, macroeconomic…

Taube, Richard K.

1975-01-01

185

Apparel Graduate Course Focuses on Global Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students at all levels of study must understand the impact and consequences of globalization. Because of technology innovations, integration of world economies through trade and cash flows, and the movement of people from one location to another, the world is becoming flatter. Based on this growing need to study globalization, a graduate course,…

Warnock, Mary M.

2006-01-01

186

Economies of Scale within State Prisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the cost of state prisons as a function of state prison populations across U.S. states. Historically and intuitively, a given state's prison expenditures have risen as more inmates enter the prison system. Through panel regression analysis, a detailed understanding is obtained of how state prisons experience economies of scale as inmate populations rise over time. Our model

Nicholas William Irving; David Anthony King

2012-01-01

187

HGSMEs in Latin American Emerging Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin American SMEs play a similar role in the economy as other SMEs worldwide, but possess distinctive characteristics to those in OECD countries. However, despite differences in the entrepreneurial environment and the innovation framework in Latin America, most of the best policy practices and lessons learned in industrialized countries can be applied to Latin American countries such as Brazil, Chile

Juan J. Llisterri; Jaime García-Alba

2008-01-01

188

Defence spending and the American economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the end of the 1980s, lagging innovation, low productivity, spiralling public and private debt, crumbling infrastructure and competitiveness problems indicated to many observers that the US economy was in decline. For some, such as Yale historian Paul Kennedy, these problems were linked to high levels of defence spending.The argument that there is a link between defence spending and economic

David Gold; Gordon Adams

1990-01-01

189

Your Institution in a Global Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author offers his reflections on the American economy and its "slow, gradual, and tedious" recovery. What the American people are experiencing now is not one of the ordinary recessions that have been experienced since World War II. What they have seen is a bursting of a bubble in the credit markets and in financial…

Freund, William

2009-01-01

190

Fuel Economy of Heavy Duty Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the fuel economy data analysis performed on data from the report, A Study of Emissions from Heavy Duty Vehicles. The contract involved emission testing of 30 trucks. The truck stratification included two axle single unit trucks, 3 a...

C. J. France

1976-01-01

191

Employment Opportunities in Poland's Changing Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dramatic changes in Poland's economy since adoption of a free market and parliamentary democracy in 1989 are chronicled, and resulting changes in the occupation structure, vocational and higher education, earnings, and unemployment are examined. The experiences of other Western countries suggest that a strategy of flexibility and adaptation in…

Bialecki, Ireneusz; Domanski, Henryk

1995-01-01

192

Library Automation in a Difficult Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The downturn in the economy has taken its toll on libraries. Even in the best of times, most libraries have to work with budgets that are barely adequate to support their essential activities. In these recent months, the recession has subtracted significant funds from the parent organizations of many libraries: city, county, and state governments;…

Breeding, Marshall

2009-01-01

193

The Political Economy of Kenya's Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using political economy analysis, this paper discusses three precipitating factors that were ignited by Kenya's 2007 election, which was too close to call beforehand and highly contested afterwards. These factors were: the gradual loss of the state's monopoly of legitimate force and the consequent diffusion of violence; the deliberate weakening of institutions outside the executive in favour of personalized presidential

Susanne D. Mueller

2008-01-01

194

The "Celtic Tiger" and a Knowledge Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last two decades, Ireland has proactively marketed its educated workforce, its favourable corporate tax rates, membership of the European common market, and other advantages, to multinational technology corporations. The resulting foreign direct investment in high-tech manufacturing operations has driven a booming Irish economy that has…

Crawley, Gerard M.; O'Sullivan, Eoin

2006-01-01

195

Toward a Theory of the Informal Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic activity taking place within the informal sector—traditionally defined as activity unregulated by law but governed by custom or personal ties—represents an emerging frontier for management researchers with interests from alleviating poverty at the bottom of the economic pyramid to entrepreneurship, innovation, or organizational functioning in advanced knowledge economies. A substantial portion of the world's economic activity takes place informally,

Paul C. Godfrey

2011-01-01

196

Engendering the political economy of agrarian change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past thirty odd years, the analysis of agrarian social relations, institutions, and movements has benefited from the insights offered by feminist scholars whose intellectual project has been to bring into the political economy of agrarian change the pervasiveness of gender relations and their interconnections with broader processes of social change. The implications of this re-thinking are potentially radical.

Shahra Razavi

2009-01-01

197

Safety Guidelines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In order for students to inquire confidently, we must create safe classroom environments. Safety is not just a set of rules but a state of mind, and perhaps, most importantly, it is an attitude and a set of skills that carry over into a students' daily life. But research also shows that the space in which students inquire is vital to their safety and security. This chapter summarizes some of the important factors that contribute to safe laboratory environments.

Biehle, James T.; Motz, Lamoine L.; West, Sandra S.

2007-01-01

198

China's food safety regulation and mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Food safety is essential to people's health and people's livelihood. To ensure that food safety is an important current strategy of the governments, both regulation and standardization are important support for implementing this strategic initiative effectively. The status and prospects of China's food laws, regulations, and standards system are introduced. China now has established a complete law regime providing a sound foundation and good environment for keeping the health of people, maintaining the order of social economy and promoting the international trade of food. At the same time, it is undoubtedly important to strengthen standardization and improve the food safety standards system. In the administration of food safety, mass spectrometry is becoming more and more important and many analytical methods developed in China are based on its application. PMID:21643903

Chu, Xiaogang; Zhang, Feng; Nie, Xuemei; Wang, Wenzhi; Feng, Feng

2011-01-01

199

System safety education focused on flight safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

Holt, E.

1971-01-01

200

Abraham Lincoln and the global economy.  

PubMed

Abraham Lincoln would have well understood the challenges facing many modern emerging nations. In Lincoln's America, as in many developing nations today, sweeping economic change threatened older industries, traditional ways of living, and social and national cohesion by exposing economies and societies to new and powerful competitive forces. Yet even in the midst of the brutal and expensive American Civil war--and in part because of it--Lincoln and the Republican Congress enacted bold legislation that helped create a huge national market, a strong and unified economy governed by national institutions, and a rising middle class of businessmen and property owners. Figuring out how to maximize the benefits of globalization while minimizing its disruptions is a formidable challenge for policy makers. How do you expand opportunities for the talented and the lucky while making sure the rest of society doesn't fall behind? It may be helpful to look at the principles that informed the policies that Lincoln and the Republican Congress instituted after they came to power in 1861: Facilitate the upward mobility of low- and middle-income groups to give them a significant stake in the country. Emphasize the good of the national economy over regional interests. Affirm the need for sound government institutions to temper the dynamics of the free enterprise system. Tailor policies to the national situation. Realize that a period of turmoil may present a unique opportunity for reform. These principles drove the reforms that helped Americans cope with and benefit from rapid technological advances and the fast integration of the American economy in the nineteenth century. They may be instructive to today's policy makers who are struggling to help their own citizens integrate into the fast-changing global economy of the twenty-first century. PMID:12884668

Hormats, Robert D

2003-08-01

201

Annual Report of the Secretary of Labor under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, Fiscal Year 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mining, an industry vital to our Nation's economy, continues to become a safer and more healthful occupation in which to work. In the 1980's, cooperative efforts by the mining community have resulted in unprecedented safety progress. Fatal mine accidents,...

1985-01-01

202

General Equilibrium in Infinite Dimensional Economies: A Truncation Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mostly infinite dimensional economies can be considered limits of finite dimensional economies, in particular when we think of time or product differentiation. We investigate conditions under which sequences of quasi-equilibria in finite dimensional econo...

S. J. L. van Eijndhoven J. H. van Geldrop C. A. A. M. Withagen

1996-01-01

203

Fuel economy screening study of advanced automotive gas turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel economy potentials were calculated and compared among ten turbomachinery configurations. All gas turbine engines were evaluated with a continuously variable transmission in a 1978 compact car. A reference fuel economy was calculated for the car with its conventional spark ignition piston engine and three speed automatic transmission. Two promising engine/transmission combinations, using gasoline, had 55 to 60 percent gains over the reference fuel economy. Fuel economy sensitivities to engine design parameter changes were also calculated for these two combinations.

Klann, J. L.

1980-01-01

204

Nanotechnology and MEMS-based systems for civil infrastructure safety and security: Opportunities and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical civil infrastructure systems such as bridges, high rises, dams, nuclear power plants and pipelines present a major investment and the health of the United States' economy and the lifestyle of its citizens both depend on their safety and security. The challenge for engineers is to maintain the safety and security of these large structures in the face of terrorism

Nidia Robinson; Mohamed Saafi

2006-01-01

205

The lived political economy of occupational overuse syndrome among New Zealand workers.  

PubMed

In New Zealand, as in other industrialised nations, rates of work-related gradual onset injuries increased during the 1980s and 1990s. The perspectives and experiences of workers suffering what became known as occupational overuse injuries in New Zealand offer insights into local lived political economies. Here, we explore the dominant metaphor, 'battling', in participants' narratives. On the face of it, battles were fought over diagnoses, over occupational health and safety in the workplace, and over entitlements to therapy and income compensation. However, participants were also battling to maintain their identities as hard workers, while resisting and challenging normalising technologies of self and morally charged negative identities offered them by employers, state-funded accident and injury insurance agencies, and the medical profession. Inherent in their narratives is a critique of the neo-liberal capitalist political economy that allows workers' bodies to be exploited (and sacrificed) for employers' profits. PMID:20663098

Jaye, Chrystal; Fitzgerald, Ruth

2010-11-01

206

Statistical analysis on current status of China forest fire safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China, forests are a very rare natural resource. Forest fires happen frequently and the loss is very serious each year. In this paper, statistical data on forest fires in China are analyzed in order to reveal new features regarding the forest fire safety situation as the economy of China is growing. The causes of forest fires in China are

Maohua Zhong; Weicheng Fan; Tiemin Liu; Peide Li

2003-01-01

207

THE ETHICS OF ECONOMIC INTERACTIONS IN THE NETWORK ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rise of the network economy brought about the strong conviction that economic interactions in the network economy could be based on cooperative, informed and transparent communication, which would counteract the negative welfare effects of unequal bargaining power, the opacity of the intentions of the parties, opportunistic behaviors, monopolies and market failures. So the contracts of the network economy nowadays

László Fekete

2006-01-01

208

The Problems and Strategies of the Low Carbon Economy Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low carbon economy is the inevitable choice to tackle global warming and achieve the sustainable development. Based on describing the connotation, characteristics and development pattern of low carbon economy, this paper analyses the actuality and existing problems of low carbon economy, mainly including the unreasonable energy structure, irrational industrial structure, backward technology level, developed countries “lock-in effect” and imperfect carbon

Xing Xin; Wang Yuding; Wang Jianzhong

2011-01-01

209

Economies of Scale and Scope in Japanese Private Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employs a fixed-cost quadratic function to estimate multiple-output cost functions for 94 private universities in Japan for 1991. Outputs were undergraduate teaching, graduate teaching, and research. Results indicate ray economies of scale and both global and product-specific economies of scope. Product-specific economies of scale are shown for…

Hashimoto, Keiji; Cohn, Elchanan

1997-01-01

210

Globalisation, Knowledge and the Myth of the Magnet Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the dominant view of the changing relationship between education, jobs and rewards in the global knowledge economy. This asserts that the developed economies can resolve issues of individual aspirations, economic efficiency and social justice through the creation of a high-skills, high-wage "magnet" economy. Here the authors…

Brown, Phillip; Lauder, Hugh

2006-01-01

211

The Role of Online Travel Agents in the Experience Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our society has evolved through the product economy and the service economy to the experience economy. Due to this fact the value of a travel product, nowadays, is far beyond the goods and services. Experiences are driving the travel industry and make the travel product more and more diverse. Moreover, not only the travel experience itself, but also an experience

Anton Bogdanovych; Marc Esteva; Simeon Simoff; Greg Smith

212

The Structure and Future of the Information Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the United States economy and reviews National Income Accounting concepts and evidence about future of an information economy. It is concluded that information economy growth will be in products, not services, and that it will not continue at same rate it has in past. Thirty-six references are cited. (EJS)

Cooper, Michael D.

1983-01-01

213

Do Liberal Arts Colleges Exhibit Economies of Scale and Scope?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study empirically estimates a multiple-product fixed total cost function and output relationship for liberal arts colleges in the United States. Statistical results based on data for 295 private liberal arts colleges suggest that there are both economies of scale and economies of scope in higher education. Furthermore, product-specific economies of scope do exist for all output levels and activities.

Rajindar Koshal; Manjulika Koshal

2000-01-01

214

Opportunity Knocks: Training the Commonwealth's Workers for the New Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current situation regarding training Massachusetts' workers for the new economy was reviewed. Special attention was paid to the following topics: Massachusetts and the skill-centered economy; opportunities for workforce system reform; skills demanded in the new economy; ways other states are building workers' skills; and the fragile setting…

Donahue, John D.; Lynch, Lisa M.; Whitehead, Ralph, Jr.

215

Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

2008-01-01

216

The Initiation of Homeless Youth into the Street Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…

Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C.; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S.

2009-01-01

217

Science Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by specialists at the Baylor College of Medicine's BioEd Online team, the Science Safety site brings together videos, pamphlets, and other instructional resources designed to help students and educators learn about lab safety. The site contains three key videos: "Tools and Equipment of Science," "Using a Bright Field Light Microscope," and "Using a Micropipettor." Demonstrators include scientists and teachers from around Texas and the tone of the films is erudite, age-appropriate, and accessible. Additionally, the site includes links to Lesson Demonstrations, which address subjects such as ecology, forces and motion, and microorganisms.

Vu, Michael

218

Political economy of tobacco control in Thailand  

PubMed Central

Thailand has some of the world's strongest anti-tobacco legislation. This paper examines the political economy of tobacco control in Thailand, emphasising the identification of forces which have supported and opposed the passage of strong anti-tobacco measures. It argues that while a powerful tobacco control coalition was created in the late 1980s, the gains won by this coalition are now under threat from systematic attempts by transnational tobacco companies to strengthen their share of the Thai cigarette market. The possible privatisation of the Thailand Tobacco Monopoly could threaten the tobacco control cause, but the pro-control alliance is fighting back with a proposed Health Promotion Act which would challenge the tobacco industry with a hypothecated excise tax dedicated to health awareness campaigns.???Keywords: anti-tobacco legislation; political economy; Thailand; transnational tobacco companies

Chantornvong, S.; McCargo, D.

2001-01-01

219

A Glossary of Political Economy Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Paul M. Johnson, political scientist at Auburn University, this Website serves as an excellent online reference for students of political economy. There are over 200 definitions here of relevant terms, including capitalism, communism, market economy, tariff, supply side economics, law of supply and demand, macroeconomics, and many more. The entries feature hypertext links to related terms in the glossary. Definitions range from a concise sentence to a brief essay depending on the topic. Communism, for instance, receives well over a full frame; capitalism is defined in a few sentences. Nonetheless, the definitions seem to be without any definite political bias and more-than-adequate for students in high school and undergraduate courses as well as, of course, for the merely curious.

Johnson, Paul M.

2007-04-21

220

A Glossary of Political Economy Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Paul M. Johnson, political scientist at Auburn University, this Website serves as an excellent online reference for students of political economy. There are over 200 definitions here of relevant terms, including capitalism, communism, market economy, tariff, supply side economics, law of supply and demand, macroeconomics, and many more. The entries feature hypertext links to related terms in the glossary. Definitions range from a concise sentence to a brief essay depending on the topic. Communism, for instance, receives well over a full frame; capitalism is defined in a few sentences. Nonetheless, the definitions seem to be without any definite political bias and more-than-adequate for students in high school and undergraduate courses as well as, of course, for the merely curious.

Johnson, Paul M.

1994-01-01

221

Sustainable development of marine economy in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is a large marine country. Developing marine economy is an effective way to solve a series of problems with which man\\u000a is faced, such as the want of natural resource, space limitation, the environmental deterioration, etc. This article analyzes\\u000a the rich resources of marine biology, harbor, offshore oil and natural gas and coastal tourism resources in China and describes

Yao-guang Zhang; Li-jing Dong; Jun Yang; Sheng-yun Wang; Xin-ru Song

2004-01-01

222

An Artificial Economy of Post Production Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of how a computer program can learn, by interacting with an environment, to return an algorithm for solving\\u000a a class of problems. The two example domains studied in this paper are Blocks World stacking problems and Rubik’s Cube. Our\\u000a approach is to simulate the evolution of an artificial economy of computer programs called “agents”. Simple rules

Eric B. Baum; Igor Durdanovic

2000-01-01

223

The hydrogen economy of 2050: OTEC driven?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technical and economic model of numerous future Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plants serviced by shuttle tankers was compared with other future energy sources described by U.S. Dept of Energy's Hydrogen Economy documents. OTEC is more expensive than coal or nuclear power sources, but is comparable to land-based renewable energy sources. The system's high capacity factor, land-use avoidance and reasonable

Joe Van Ryzin; Patrick Grandelli; David Lipp; Richard Argall

2005-01-01

224

Maintaining Financial Stability in a Global Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City has made available the papers presented at the "Maintaining Financial Stability in a Global Economy" symposium. The aim of the symposium is to explore "options for public authorities in adapting policies to keep financial systems safe and efficient, and to discuss response mechanisms to financial crises." The papers presented here look at the causes of financial instability, why policymakers should be concerned about financial instability, lessons from recent financial crises, and policies for maintaining financial stability.

1997-01-01

225

The Geopolitical economy of ‘resource wars’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geopolitical concerns about so-called ‘resource wars’ have mostly focused on international resource competition, and the vulnerability of resource supply. This article presents an alternative view emphasizing the political and economic vulnerabilitites of resource-dependent states in relation to resource-linked armed conflicts. It then outlines how the geopolitics of resource competition, the history, identity formation, political economy, and characteristics of resource exploitation,

Philippe Le Billon

2004-01-01

226

FINANCIAL MARKETS AND THE MACRO ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to provide a deeper insight into the links between financial markets and the real economy. To that end, we study the short-term anticipation and response of U.S. stock, Treasury, and corporate bond markets to the first release of U.S. macroeconomic information. Specifically, we focus on the impact of these announcements not only on the

Menachem Brenner; Paolo Pasquariello; Marti Subrahmanyam

2005-01-01

227

Optimal food allocation in a slave economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We propose a model of food allocation in an economy in which property rights exist in human beings. We assume that a slave-owner\\u000a allocates food over the slave's lifetime so as to maximise his own wealth. The slave's productive capacity is determined endogenously\\u000a by food consumption. Food allotment during childhood and adolescence determines productive capacity over the life course.

R. Rees; John Komlos; Ngo V. Long; Ulrich Woitek

2003-01-01

228

Constitutional political economy in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article surveys recent research in constitutional political economy in Europe. Although not all of theworks discussed\\u000a necessarily focus only on European constitutional issues or are written by Europeans, European constitutional issues figure\\u000a importantly in each area surveyed. The article examines the literatures linking constitutional institutions to economic growth,\\u000a government size, government deficits and corruption, bicameralism, direct democracy and federalism.

Dennis C. Mueller

229

The American economy in the 1980's  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  There are many things that could distort or completely change the picture that has been sketched of the U.S. economy in the\\u000a 1980's. War and major technological innovations are two that come immediately to mind. A quick and unexpected reversal of\\u000a the trends that form the basis of the picture could also, although this seems very unlikely. Or new and

Ralph W. Pfouts

1979-01-01

230

Agricultural Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... than 20 years of age die annually from farm-related injuries (1995 -2002), with most of these deaths occurring ... an estimated 14,000 youth were injured on farms; 2,700 of these injuries were due to farm work. National occupational safety ...

231

Art Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocating that Canadian art programs should use and model environmentally safe practices, the articles in this journal focus on issues of safe practices in art education. Articles are: (1) "What is WHMIS?"; (2) "Safety Precautions for Specific Art Processes"; (3) "Toxic Substances"; (4) "Using Clay, Glazes, and Kilns Safely in the Classroom"…

BCATA Journal for Art Teachers, 1991

1991-01-01

232

Child Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... right child safety seat in your car Teach children how to cross the street safely Make sure they wear the right gear and equipment for sports Install and test smoke alarms Store medicines, cleaners and other dangerous ... your home Don't leave small children unattended

233

Water Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... be sure to wear a Coast Guard-approved life jacket when necessary, and be sure there is lifeguard supervision. And make sure you do slide runs feet first or you'll put yourself at risk for a ride that's a lot less fun — one to your doctor or dentist. Boating Safety ...

234

Safety Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We are engaged in a research program in safety-critical computing that is based on two case studies. We use these case studies to provide application-specific details of the various research issues, and as targets for evaluation of research ideas. The fir...

1995-01-01

235

Safety First!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author relates how a hands-on chemistry investigation provided her the inspiration to develop an effective safety lesson for her third grade chemistry class. She began the lesson by demonstrating the use of pH indicator paper to show that ordinary household (white) vinegar was an acid. With the students, she wondered aloud…

Longfield, Judith

2006-01-01

236

Farm Safety  

PubMed Central

Accident and safety are related terms; the higher the accident rate in any industry, the greater is the need for safety measures designed to prevent accidents. This article discusses the accident and safety problems in agriculture, which includes horticulture and forestry. There is still a tendency among townspeople to think of the countryside as peaceful and tranquil, a place where nothing happens very quickly and far removed from violent death or crippling injury. This pleasant rustic picture has undergone a striking change in the last 30 years owing to considerable agricultural mechanization and the development of chemical pesticides, which have brought new dangers to those who live and work on the land. Although men have readily adapted themselves to new machines and methods, they have not proved as able to recognize new dangers and learn how to guard against them. In consequence, accidents have increased to such an extent that the whole industry has realized the need for positive preventive measures. In this country, it is generally accepted that an employer of labour has a responsibility to provide safe working conditions for those he employs. Farm safety legislation goes a little further and usually requires an employer to provide necessary safeguards, with the added requirement on a worker to make use of them. It is a feature of accident prevention work that it never reaches a stage when it can be regarded as complete. Even when a reduction in accidents has been achieved, the effort must be sustained or the trend will be quickly reversed. Images

Wilson, G. S.

1966-01-01

237

First Aid and Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... for Toddlers and Preschoolers Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries Concussions Electrical, Heating & Cooling: Household Safety Checklist Farm Safety Fire Safety Firesetting First-Aid Kit Food ...

238

From Centrally-Planned to Market Economies: The Road from CPE to PCPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the early stages of transformation of centrally-planned economies (CBEs) into market economies during which expectations playa key role. It focuses on the transitional phase during which the economy is not any more a CPE but has not yet become a market economy. During this phase the economy is referred to as a 'previously centrally-planned economy\\

Guillermo A. Calvo; Jacob Frenkel

1991-01-01

239

Capacity planning in a transitional economy: What issues? Which models?  

SciTech Connect

This paper is devoted to an exploration of the important issues facing the Russian power generation system and its evolution in the foreseeable future and the kinds of modeling approaches that capture those issues. These issues include, for example, (1) trade-offs between investments in upgrading and refurbishment of existing thermal (fossil-fired) capacity and safety enhancements in existing nuclear capacity versus investment in new capacity, (2) trade-offs between investment in completing unfinished (under construction) projects based on their original design versus investment in new capacity with improved design, (3) incorporation of demand-side management options (investments in enhancing end-use efficiency, for example) within the planning framework, (4) consideration of the spatial dimensions of system planning including investments in upgrading electric transmission networks or fuel shipment networks and incorporating hydroelectric generation, (5) incorporation of environmental constraints and (6) assessment of uncertainty and evaluation of downside risk. Models for exploring these issues include low power shutdown (LPS) which are computationally very efficient, though approximate, and can be used to perform extensive sensitivity analyses to more complex models which can provide more detailed answers but are computationally cumbersome and can only deal with limited issues. The paper discusses which models can usefully treat a wide range of issues within the priorities facing decision makers in the Russian power sector and integrate the results with investment decisions in the wider economy.

Mubayi, V.; Leigh, R.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bright, R.N. [Anylec Research, Inc., Bayport, NY (United States)

1996-03-01

240

Safety harness  

DOEpatents

A safety harness to be worn by a worker, especially a worker wearing a plastic suit thereunder for protection in a radioactive or chemically hostile environment, which safety harness comprises a torso surrounding portion with at least one horizontal strap for adjustably securing the harness about the torso, two vertical shoulder straps with rings just forward of the of the peak of the shoulders for attaching a life-line and a pair of adjustable leg supporting straps releasibly attachable to the torso surrounding portion. In the event of a fall, the weight of the worker, when his fall is broken and he is suspended from the rings with his body angled slightly back and chest up, will be borne by the portion of the leg straps behind his buttocks rather than between his legs. Furthermore, the supporting straps do not restrict the air supplied through hoses into his suit when so suspended.

Gunter, Larry W. (615 Sand Pit Rd., Leesville, SC 29070)

1993-01-01

241

Safety valve  

DOEpatents

The safety valve contains a resilient gland to be held between a valve seat and a valve member and is secured to the valve member by a sleeve surrounding the end of the valve member adjacent to the valve seat. The sleeve is movable relative to the valve member through a limited axial distance and a gap exists between said valve member and said sleeve.

Bergman, Ulf C. (Malmoe, SE)

1984-01-01

242

Safety and Liability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of five articles highlights Pensacola Junior College's occupational safety course, involving simulated emergencies, Florida's standards for teacher liability, electrical safety in the classroom and laboratory, color coding for machine safety, and Florida industrial arts safety instructional materials. (SK)

Berthelot, Ronald J.; And Others

1982-01-01

243

The remodeling transient and the calcium economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The remodeling transient describes a change in bone mass that lasts one remodeling cycle following an intervention that disturbs\\u000a the calcium economy. We demonstrated the transient in a study of the response of bone density to calcium\\/vitamin D3 supplementation\\u000a and show the hazards of misinterpretation if the transient is not considered.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  The remodeling transient describes a change in bone mass

J. F. Aloia; S. Arunabh-Talwar; S. Pollack; J. K. Yeh

2008-01-01

244

National Center on Education and the Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Center on Education and the Economy (NCEE) is a nonprofit organization that promotes standards-based reform for education and training systems. Focusing on helping state and local educational systems create and implement unique standards, the NCEE believes that educational standards must be tailored to fit communities and that both students and educators must understand the value of these standards. The NCEE Website offers a variety of information about the Center as well as its programs and resources. While the site doesn't contain very many full-text resources, it does, however, give in-depth overviews of all of NCEE's products and services.

245

Aspen: A microsimulation model of the economy  

SciTech Connect

This report presents, Aspen. Sandia National Laboratories is developing this new agent-based microeconomic simulation model of the U.S. economy. The model is notable because it allows a large number of individual economic agents to be modeled at a high level of detail and with a great degree of freedom. Some features of Aspen are (a) a sophisticated message-passing system that allows individual pairs of agents to communicate, (b) the use of genetic algorithms to simulate the learning of certain agents, and (c) a detailed financial sector that includes a banking system and a bond market. Results from runs of the model are also presented.

Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.; Quint, T.; Arnold, T.

1996-10-01

246

VEEP - Vehicle Economy, Emissions, and Performance program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

VEEP is a general-purpose discrete event simulation program being developed to study the performance, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions of a vehicle modeled as a collection of its separate components. It is written in SIMSCRIPT II.5. The purpose of this paper is to present the design methodology, describe the simulation model and its components, and summarize the preliminary results. Topics include chief programmer team concepts, the SDDL design language, program portability, user-oriented design, the program's user command syntax, the simulation procedure, and model validation.

Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

1977-01-01

247

An expanding sexual economy along National Route 3 in Luang Namtha Province, Lao PDR.  

PubMed

With some of the lowest development indicators in Southeast Asia, remote upland areas of the Lao People's Democratic Republic are among the poorest in the region. The advent of improved transport and communication links, along with opportunities for wage employment, have accelerated the growth of a cash economy in traditionally isolated farming communities of Luang Namtha Province. Interviews and focus group discussions with young people, women in the sexual service business and health workers indicate that the lure of the new economy is wooing villagers away from their agrarian roots. Motorbikes and mobile phones have expanded the sexual territory of indigenous youth at a time when international commerce and a cash economy along improved highways are bringing new people into the region. Among the concerns for their health and safety are at-risk behaviours involving alcohol and sexual practices, especially HIV and sexually transmitted infections. Of particular concern is the sexual trade in the province with a predominance of young, poorly educated Khmou women providing sexual services in a growing number of entertainment places. PMID:21660783

Doussantousse, Serge; Sakounnavong, Bounchanh; Patterson, Ian

2011-12-01

248

Safety Characteristics of LBE Cooled Long-Life Small Reactor, 'LSPR'  

SciTech Connect

Lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) shows a good performance on neutron economy, and LBE cooled fast reactor can be designed as an excellent long-life small reactor. LBE is good not only for neutron economy but for chemical inertness and high boiling point, which may realize a much safer reactor than conventional sodium-cooled reactor. We have designed such a long-life small reactor and name it LSPR. This paper presents safety characteristics of LSPR. (authors)

Hiroshi Sekimoto [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Shinichi Makino [Nissan Motor Co., LTD., 1, Natsushima-cho, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa 237-8523 (Japan)

2002-07-01

249

The Knowledge Economy and Innovation: Certain Uncertainty and the Risk Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The knowledge economy is a dominant force in today's world, and innovation policy and national systems of innovation are central to it. In this article, we draw on different sociological and economic theories of risk to engage critically with innovation policy and national systems of innovation. Beck's understanding of a risk society, Schumpeter's…

Bullen, Elizabeth; Fahey, Johannah; Kenway, Jane

2006-01-01

250

Scope on Safety: Proactive safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Horrifying stories of accidents in the science lab abound. You may think that such accidents could never happen in your lab, but accidents do happen even in the most controlled environments. So, the best thing you can do to protect yourselves and your students is to implement and document proactive safety procedures. The following actions are recommended to reduce accidents in the lab and litigation in the courtroom.

Roy, Ken

2006-09-01

251

Does a robotic scrub nurse improve economy of movements?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective: Robotic assistance during surgery has been shown to be a useful resource to both augment the surgical skills of the surgeon through tele-operation, and to assist the surgeon handling the surgical instruments to the surgeon, similar to a surgical tech. We evaluated the performance and effect of a gesture driven surgical robotic nurse in the context of economy of movements, during an abdominal incision and closure exercise with a simulator. Methods: A longitudinal midline incision (100 mm) was performed on the simulated abdominal wall to enter the peritoneal cavity without damaging the internal organs. The wound was then closed using a blunt needle ensuring that no tissue is caught up by the suture material. All the instruments required to complete this task were delivered by a robotic surgical manipulator directly to the surgeon. The instruments were requested through voice and gesture recognition. The robotic system used a low end range sensor camera to extract the hand poses and for recognizing the gestures. The instruments were delivered to the vicinity of the patient, at chest height and at a reachable distance to the surgeon. Task performance measures for each of three abdominal incision and closure exercises were measured and compared to a human scrub nurse instrument delivery action. Picking instrument position variance, completion time and trajectory of the hand were recorded for further analysis. Results: The variance of the position of the robotic tip when delivering the surgical instrument is compared to the same position when a human delivers the instrument. The variance was found to be 88.86% smaller compared to the human delivery group. The mean task completion time to complete the surgical exercise was 162.7+/- 10.1 secs for the human assistant and 191.6+/- 3.3 secs (P<.01) when using the robotic standard display group. Conclusion: Multimodal robotic scrub nurse assistant improves the surgical procedure by reducing the number of movements (lower variance in the picking position). The variance of the picking point is closely related to the concept of economy of movements in the operating room. Improving the effectiveness of the operating room can potentially enhance the safety of surgical interventions without affecting the performance time.

Wachs, Juan P.; Jacob, Mithun; Li, Yu-Ting; Akingba, George

2012-02-01

252

Agrofuels capitalism: a view from political economy.  

PubMed

This article considers the global expansion of agrofuels feedstock production from a political economy perspective. It considers and dismisses the environmental and pro-poor developmental justifications attached to agrofuels. To local populations and direct producers, the specific destination of the crop as fuel, food, cosmetics or other final uses in faraway places is probably of less interest than the forms of (direct or indirect) appropriation of their land and the forms of their insertion or exclusion as producers in global commodity chains. Global demand for both agrofuels and food is stimulating new forms (or the resurgence of old forms) of corporate land grabbing and expropriation, and of incorporation of smallholders in contracted production. Drawing both on recent studies on agrofuels expansion and on the political economy literature on agrarian transition and capitalism in agriculture, this article raises the question whether "agrofuels capitalism" is in any way essentially different from other forms of capitalist agrarian monocrop production, and in turn whether the agrarian transitions involved require new tools of analysis. PMID:20873026

White, Ben; Dasgupta, Anirban

2010-01-01

253

The initiation of homeless youth into the street economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15–23) were recruited from four community-based organizations. All participated in structured interviews and 25% participated in

Marya Viorst Gwadz; Karla Gostnell; Carol Smolenski; Brian Willis; David Nish; Theresa C. Nolan; Maya Tharaken; Amanda S. Ritchie

2009-01-01

254

Exercise economy in African American and European American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously shown that Achilles tendon length is related to walking economy on the flat, presumably because of increased\\u000a stretch–shortening cycle elastic energy savings. In addition, greater walking economy in African American (AA) women compared\\u000a to European American (EA) women is explained by longer Achilles tendons in AA women. The purposes of this study were to determine\\u000a whether economy

Gary R. HunterJohn; John P. McCarthy; Marcas M. Bamman; D. Enette Larson-Meyer; Gordon Fisher; Bradley R. Newcomer

255

In-use fuel economy of 1980 passenger cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

An owner survey was conducted to determine the owner-measured in-use fuel economy of 1980 model passenger cars for a number of manufacturers. The in-use fuel economy is compared to the laboratory tested fuel economy ratings as established by the Environmental Protection Agency. An analysis of how this comparison has changed between 1975, 1976, 1978, and 1980 models is presented. Finally,

R. W. Schneider; B. W. Lipka; F. K. Miller

1981-01-01

256

Safety Gear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following resource is from Lessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. In this lesson, students will consider the design factors that impact safety gear by creating their own âhelmetâ for an egg. Students will experiment with shape, materials and design in this hands-on project. Students will use their experiences and additional research to debate the topic of having a mandatory helmet law for bicyclists.

2010-01-01

257

Safety Grooving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Safety grooving, the cutting of grooves in concrete to increase traction and prevent injury, was first developed to reduce aircraft accidents on wet runways. Represented by the International Grooving and Grinding Association (IG&GA), the industry expanded into highway and pedestrian applications. The technique originated at Langley, which assisted in testing the grooving at airports and on highways. Skidding was reduced, stopping distance decreased, and a vehicle's cornering ability on curves was increased. The process has been extended to animal holding pens, steps, parking lots and other potentially slippery surfaces.

1985-01-01

258

Health and safety manual  

SciTech Connect

The manual consists of the following chapters: general policies and administration; the Environmental Health and Safety Department; the Medical Services Department: biological hazards; chemical safety; confined space entry; cryogenic safety; electrical safety; emergency plans; engineering and construction; evacuations, trenching, and shoring; fire safety; gases, flammable and compressed; guarding, mechanical; ladders and scaffolds, work surfaces; laser safety; materials handling and storage; noise; personal protective equipment; pressure safety; radiation safety, ionizing and non-ionizing; sanitation; seismic safety; training, environmental health and safety; tools, power and hand-operated; traffic and transportation; and warning signs and devices. (JGB)

Not Available

1980-02-01

259

On Development Model based on Intra-county Cyclic Economy under Low-carbon Economy for Northeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northeast China as the old industrial base is still under the development stage of resource-consuming. In order to rejuvenate northeast China, it is necessary to actively accelerate the transformation of economic growth mode. The development mode of intra-county cyclic economy under low-carbon economy should be strived to develop. Based experiences on development of intra-county economy, the scientific and effective low-carbon

Guo Zhen; Liu Qieyi; Wang Xiaoxu

2011-01-01

260

A low carbon economy and society.  

PubMed

This paper examines various aspects of moving from high carbon economies and societies to a cluster of low carbon systems. First, some historical material is considered from the Second World War and the 1970s, periods with some lessons for the contemporary 'powering down' of whole societies. Second, analysis is provided of some green shoots of a powering down of existing systems identifiable in the contemporary developed world. Third, analysis is provided of the array of systems, social practices and innovations that would have to develop in order to effect powering down on a sufficient scale and within an appropriate time period. Most examples are drawn from transport and mobility. Finally, the paper demonstrates just why developing new systems is so hard, especially as this must involve a transformed cluster of systems. The forces that make a new cluster unlikely are exceptionally powerful and make this a very difficult but not impossible outcome. PMID:23359737

Urry, John

2013-03-13

261

Pacific Institute Releases New Economy of Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Riveting reading, the Pacific Institute's report on The Economy of Water puts it all up front when it comes to the status and power of water as an issue of looming national and international significance. Looking at water from multiple perspectives, the report clearly details the impact and potential harm of current and pending zoning and privatization efforts on the part of utilities and other interested agencies, both public and private. In particular, the study focuses on the social and financial costs of water privatization efforts and their long term implications for specific countries and societies. Perhaps most compelling is the policy brief's emphasis on the competing forces of globalization and privatization and how they tend to play out and off of one another.

2002-01-01

262

Potential improvements in turbofan engine fuel economy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method developed for initial evaluation of possible performance improvements in the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program, directed toward improving the fuel economy of turbofan engines, is outlined, and results of the evaluation of 100 candidate engine modifications are presented. The study indicates that fuel consumption improvements of as much as 5% may be possible in current JT3D, JT8D, and JT9D turbofan engines. Aerodynamic, thermodynamic, material, and structural advances are expected to yield fuel consumption improvements on the order of 10 to 15% in advanced turbofan engines, with the greatest improvement stemming from significantly higher cycle pressure ratios. Higher turbine temperature and fan bypass ratios are also expected to contribute to fuel conservation.

Hines, R. W.; Gaffin, W. O.

1976-01-01

263

Work security in a global economy.  

PubMed

Work security is a fundamental right of all working people. After World War II, the welfare state became an intrinsic part of the "Golden Age" of capitalism, in which universal prosperity seemed attainable. Workers' organizations frequently played a crucial role in policy decisions that promoted full employment, income stability, and equitable treatment of workers. Today's world order is quite different. Globalization in its present form is a major obstacle to work security. Globalization is not simply a market-driven phenomenon. It is a political and ideological movement that grants authority to capital over governments and labor. This transfer of authority hinders national efforts to promote work security and may impact the well-being of communities worldwide. In the absence of domestic autonomy, international labor standards are needed to protect social welfare. They should be geared toward curbing unemployment, poverty, and social exclusion in the global economy. The article looks at three initiatives to promote global work security. PMID:17208713

Rosskam, Ellen

2003-01-01

264

Social Computing and the Attention Economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social computing focuses on the interaction between social behavior and information, especially on how the latter propagates across social networks and is consumed and transformed in the process. At the same time the ubiquity of information has left it devoid of much monetary value. The scarce, and therefore valuable, resource is now attention, and its allocation gives rise to an attention economy that determines how content is consumed and propagated. Since two major factors involved in getting attention are novelty and popularity, we analyze the role that both play in attracting attention to web content and how to prioritize them in order to maximize it. We also demonstrate that the relative performance of strategies based on prioritizing either popularity or novelty exhibit an abrupt change around a critical value of the novelty decay time, resembling a phase transition.

Huberman, Bernardo A.

2013-04-01

265

The Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1982, The Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy (BRIE) is an interdisciplinary research project that focuses on ïÿý"international economic competition and the development and application of advanced technologies". Moving between the worlds of the private sector to interactions with fellow scholars and policymakers, BRIE has created a number of thought-provoking documents for the web-browsing public and placed them on this site. Visitors who require a bit more background material may want to first visit the "About BRIE" area which includes information on their objectives and research mission. After taking a look at the materials there, interested parties should proceed to the "Publications" area, which contains a very nice working papers area. Here visitors can download such intriguing titles as "Transforming Politics in a Digital Era" and "Boom Boxes: Shipping Containers and Terrorists".

266

Electrical Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Electrical Safety, is the third chapter in Volume I. Topics covered in this chapter include: shock current path, OhmâÂÂs law, safe practices, emergence response, safe circuit design, safe meter usage, and electric shock data. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-23

267

Propeller Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With over 412,000 members, the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) continues to work for the issues that are important to its members. One area that they are very concerned with is providing educational materials and opportunities for those persons who would like to enter the aircraft maintenance field. They are continuingly updating their online collection of technical primers and general overviews. One particular noteworthy publication is their "Propeller Safety" manual. Within the document's 12 pages, visitors can learn the basics about working around the propeller, prop mechanics, and key maintenance matters. Along the way, interested parties will find helpful graphics, photographs, and visual aids that will help them identify various problem areas.

268

Herbal Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the past decade, there has been an increased interest in herbal medicines and treatments, both from the mainstream medical community and the general public. One need look no further than the cold drink section of the local supermarket to see the various herbal supplements that are prominently displayed on many drink labels. In an effort to provide critical evaluations of these various herbs and related products, the University of Texas at El Paso has created this important website in order to disseminate information about research findings related to herbal use and to provide these findings in both English and Spanish. There are a number of very helpful fact sheets presented here, including those that the deal with such commonly used medicinal herbs and plants, such as ginseng, chamomile, pumpkin seeds, and St. John's Wort. The Herbal Safety site also contains information on recent medical studies that examine the effectiveness of such medicinal treatments.

269

Laser safety.  

PubMed

The use of lasers in medical practice has seen great expansion in the past decades. However, these devices may also pose a significant hazard. Laser hazards are generally divided into beam hazards and nonbeam hazards. Beam hazards inflict ocular and cutaneous injury, whereas nonbeam hazards stem from the laser device itself or its interaction with materials within the surgical environment. The latter include laser plume hazards, fire hazards, and electrical hazards inherent in a high-voltage system that is a laser device. Therefore, a thorough understanding of these hazards along with methods to reduce their risk is of paramount importance in order to ensure maximal safety for the surgeon, the staff, and the patient. PMID:21865796

Dudelzak, Jacob; Goldberg, David J

2011-01-01

270

DIRECT FOREIGN INVESTMENT IN A SMALL OPEN ECONOMY AND GLOBAL TRADE LIBERALIZATION IN AGRICULTURE: A NOTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a production structure reasonable for a developing economy this note shows that there may arise a conflict between the worldwide liberalized trade policies in agriculture, which raise the price of the economy’s primary exportable commodity, and the inflow of foreign capital into the economy. However, if the economy strictly adheres to the different facets of the agricultural trade liberalization

Sarbajit Chaudhuri

2005-01-01

271

Foreign Direct Investment in a Small Open Economy and Global Trade Liberalization in Agriculture: A Note  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a production structure reasonable for a developing economy this note shows that there may arise a conflict between the worldwide liberalized trade policies in agriculture, which raise the price of the economy’s primary exportable commodity, and the inflow of foreign capital into the economy. However, if the economy strictly adheres to the different facets of the agricultural trade liberalization

Sarbajit Chaudhuri

2003-01-01

272

Health and safety organizing: OCAW'S worker-to-worker health and safety training program.  

PubMed

In 1987, the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers International Union (OCAW) was funded as one of the original eleven awardees of the Superfund Worker Training Program of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. The OCAW, with the Labor Institute, developed a hazardous waste worker and hazardous materials emergency responder health and safety training program that was specific to its members in the represented industries. A social history is developed to explore a union-led, worker health education intervention. The program sought to develop worker-trainers who would conduct the training, using the Small-Group Activity Method, participate in curriculum development, and ultimately use health and safety training as a vehicle for identifying, developing, and mobilizing health and safety activists among the membership. Although the direction for this effort came from progressive leadership, it arose from the political economy of labor/management relations within specific industrial sectors. PMID:17208754

Slatin, C

2001-01-01

273

Hydrogen: Its Future Role in the Nation's Energy Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates the development of a hydrogen fuel economy as an alternative to the predominately electric economy based upon nuclear plants and depleting fossil fuel supplies. Evaluates the economic and environmental benefits of hydrogen energy delivery systems in the residential and transportation sectors. (JR)

Winsche, W. E.; And Others

1973-01-01

274

Malaysia Transitions toward a Knowledge-Based Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The emergence of a knowledge-based economy (k-economy) has spawned a "new" notion of workplace literacy, changing the relationship between employers and employees. The traditional covenant where employees expect a stable or lifelong employment will no longer apply. The retention of employees will most probably be based on their skills and…

Mustapha, Ramlee; Abdullah, Abu

2004-01-01

275

Paying Attention to Attention: New Economies for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Challenging formal education's traditional monopoly over the mass-scale acculturation of youth, the technological infrastructure of the new economy brings in its wake a new attentional economy in which any connected adult or child owns and controls a full economic share of her or his own attention. For youth who have never known the text-bound…

de Castell, Suzanne; Jenson, Jennifer

2004-01-01

276

Dollarization in Transition EconomiesEvidence and Policy Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

After most restrictions on foreign currency holdings were relaxed in the early 1990s, foreign currency deposits in transition economies have been increasing rapidly. This paper takes a first look at the evidence on dollarization for 15 transition economies, and then discusses some key conceptual and policy implications. Depending on the institutional constraints, foreign currency deposits as a proportion of broad

R. Vegh Sahay; Carlos Végh

1995-01-01

277

The Brazilian economy from Cardoso to Lula: An interim view  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter on the Brazilian economy after 1994 is of a somewhat different nature compared to those on the economy in earlier periods. It is more speculative than its predecessors and based on a more restricted range of bibliographical material, as there is less consolidated research work on the period. It is to stress the obvious that the essay is

Marcelo de Paiva Abreu; Rogério Ladeira Furquim Werneck

2005-01-01

278

Adjustment of Conventional PSE's Methodology for Economy in Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional PSE's methodology doesn't provide adequate estimation of agricultural support for the economy in transition. In this paper we attempt to adjust PSE's methodology for Russian economy, and also coefficients' analysis and interpretations are adapted for transitional conditions. Investigation showed that the level of agricultural support in Russia is much lower than conventional methodology estimates.

Olga Shick

2002-01-01

279

Teaching Applied Macro in Emergent Economies: Lessons from Bahrain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we explore the challenges of adapting a standard introductory MBA course in applied macroeconomics to a student audience in a small open economy with a pegged currency. Our focus will be on the Kingdom of Bahrain, with reference to other countries in the Arabian Gulf region, where one would expect to use an open-economy theoretical…

Miller, Michael S.; Epstein, Seth

2013-01-01

280

Green Transport Management of Logistics Enterprises Based on Circular Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circular economy is a new concept of sustainable development model of economic development with the objective of making the most effective use of resources and protecting the environment. Green Logistics is the achievement of circular economy in the logistics field. From the demand perspective, green transportation should be environment-friendly transportation and resources-saved transportation. Besides, we should establish a scientific and

Zhang Guirong; Li Gengke; Zhao Zongjian; Mu Yuxin

2010-01-01

281

Maximal Strength Training Improves Running Economy in Distance Runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

STKREN, K., J. HELGERUD, E. M. STKA, and J. HOFF. Maximal Strength Training Improves Running Economy in Distance Runners. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 40, No. 6, pp. 1089-1094, 2008. Purpose: The present study investigated the effect of maximal strength training on running economy (RE) at 70% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic speed

KYVIND STKREN; JAN HELGERUD; EVA MARIA STKA; JAN HOFF

2008-01-01

282

The Market Economy Discourse on Education: Interpretation, Impact, and Resistance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the impact on Canadian schools of the market economy discourse on education that emerges from international organizations and Canadian business and government agencies. Argues that market economy policies have a deleterious effect on curriculum theory and development, and suggests that educators use critical thinking tools to resist this…

Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.

2000-01-01

283

Low-carbon Economy and Low-carbon Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article has analyzed the influence of low-carbon (LC) economy on our country economy, particularly described on the concept of low-carbon food and carbon emissions in Chinese food currently, and explored the importance of the development low carbon food systematically.

Yang Xiaowei; Jia Xing

2011-01-01

284

The Quantitative Evaluation Method of Low-carbon Economy Auditing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantified evaluation of the low-carbon economy auditing which is carried out by applying the low-carbon economic theory, financial accounting theory and economic analysis theory focuses on analysing the social benefits of project construction as well as the social costs. Due to the energy crisis, various countries are promoting a low carbon economy which is a comprehensive issue dealing with natural

Xin Jinguo; Wu Yanxia

2011-01-01

285

Transhumance economy, setting and settlement in Highland Perthshire  

Microsoft Academic Search

First Edition six inch to the mile Ordnance Survey maps are used to examine the economy, sites and sizes of transhumance settlements in Highland Perthshire. It is suggested that these characteristics may have influenced the use of several Gaelic transhumance words in Perthshire, and the links between landscape, economy and placenames are explored

Albert Bil

1989-01-01

286

ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND SCOPE IN WATER SUPPLY  

EPA Science Inventory

This study examines the multiproduct nature of water supply relative to economies of scale and scope. he water utility is viewed as a multiproduct firm providing residential and nonresidential services with spatial variation. here are no significant economies of scale in the util...

287

The Changing Role of Tourism in China's Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to examine the features of China's tourism development after its rapid economic progress over the past few decades. Three main features were discovered. First, as China's economy continues to grow, the insignificant share of tourism in the economy indicates that tourism is not a growth engine. Second, instead of stimulating economic growth, tourism has been employed to

Min-Hua Chiang

2012-01-01

288

Universities' Entrepreneurial Performance: The Role of Agglomeration Economies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spite of the extensive research on universities' entrepreneurship, whether research strength fosters or dampens their entrepreneurial performance remains controversial. Much research claims an influential role of research universities in regional economy, however, little has been said about what a part that the agglomeration economies may play…

Chen, Ping Penny

2011-01-01

289

Review of the Economy Spelling Series, "Spelling Growth."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first four books of the Economy spelling series, "Spelling Growth," are reviewed in this paper in terms of content and, to a lesser degree, method. The Economy series is teacher-directed and emphasizes discrimination and identification of sounds. These two skills are clearly useful for spelling, but it is claimed that the series makes…

Cronnell, Bruce

290

A Chinese Renaissance in an Unremittingly Integrating Asian Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to address an imperative topic in Asian economic development: the relationship between China's economic expansion and Asian economic growth. It tries to answer the all important query, whether China's economic ascent is a threat or an opportunity for the Asian economies. Due to the size of its economy, its openness and the rapidity of its GDP growth,

Dilip K. Das

2009-01-01

291

Alternatives for enhancement of transport economy in underwater gliders  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical flight survey was conducted of the net transport economy of the present generation of underwater gliders, referred to as legacy gliders. Net transport economy (NTE) is the total energy consumed. The analysis determined that legacy gliders operate in a scale regime equivalent to that of bats and small birds. Gliding performance of the legacy glider does not match

Scott A. Jenkins; Douglas E. Humphreys; Jeff Sherman; Jim Osse; Clayton Jones; Naomi Leonard; Joshua Graver; Ralf Bachmayer

2003-01-01

292

BRIDGING EAST AND WEST: TRANSFORMING MANAGEMENT FOR THE DIGITAL ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typically, creative intelligence underlies the wealth of organisations and nations operating in knowledge economies. A knowledge economy is driven and sustained by knowledge workers. The increased awareness of human capital as central to the strategic success of organisations in the digital age presents new challenges to management. Managing highly developed mental faculties of skilled, highly-educated, talented, innovative and creative individuals

Karthyeni Purushothaman; Amrik S Sohal

293

Education, Globalisation and the Future of the Knowledge Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dominant view today is of a global knowledge-based economy, driven by the application of new technologies, accelerating the shift to high-skilled, high-waged European economies. This view is reflected in the expansion of higher education and the key role of higher education in national and European economic policy. The Lisbon agenda seeks to…

Brown, Phillip; Lauder, Hugh; Ashton, David

2008-01-01

294

Shaping the Curriculum: Values, Community, and a Global Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five major trends are shaping curricula in two-year colleges today, including clear shifts in emphasis from teaching to learning; from the college degree as a terminal point to learning as a lifelong activity; from solitary instruction to learning communities; from management to leadership; and from a national economy to a global economy. The…

Terrey, John N.

295

Facilitating innovations in higher education in transition economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse innovations in education from the point of view of product content and markets selected. Emerging market economies face a number of problems many of which are closely linked to and dependent upon the effectiveness of higher professional education. External environment changes, such as the formation of knowledge economy, globalisation, changes

Olga Saginova; Vladimir Belyansky

2008-01-01

296

Higher Skills and the Knowledge Economy: The Challenge of Offshoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent economics literature on offshoring highlights the trend towards the relocation of high-skill jobs to emerging economies. This evolution presents a challenge to the established knowledge economy discourse on which the relationship between higher education, higher skills, higher productivity and higher incomes has been based. This paper…

Craig, John; Gunn, Andrew

2010-01-01

297

A feasibility study of implementing an Ammonia Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis reports the results of a feasibility study performed on the concept of an Ammonia Economy, which treats ammonia as an alternative fuel and energy storage mechanism. As part of the Ammonia Economy, costs for production, storage, and transportation of this alternative fuel are also presented. The cost of hydrogen, which is the main feedstock for ammonia production, was

Jeffrey Ralph Bartels

2008-01-01

298

The Future of the Hydrogen Economy: Bright or Bleak?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, many have considered the production and use of hydrogen, assuming that it is just another gaseous fuel and can be handled much like natural gas in today's energy economy. With this study we present an analysis of the energy required to operate an elemental hydrogen economy, with particular reference to road transport. High-grade electricity from renewable or

Ulf Bossel; Baldur Eliasson; Gordon Taylor

2003-01-01

299

U.S. Immigration Policy and the Mexican Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural Mexico's economy currently relies heavily on illegal migrants to the United States. Severing the link between rural Mexican households and U.S. labor markets would require restructuring not only affecting U.S. industries, which are the focus of federal immigration reform, but also migrant-sending economies in Mexico. If effectively enforced,…

Taylor, J. Edward

300

Schumpeterian Profits in the American Economy: Theory and Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the importance of Schumpeterian profits in the United States economy. Schumpeterian profits are defined as those profits that arise when firms are able to appropriate the returns from innovative activity. We first show the underlying equations for Schumpeterian profits. We then estimate the value of these profits for the non-farm business economy. We conclude that only

William D. Nordhaus

2004-01-01

301

The American political economy and monopoly capital: A reinterpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, the American political economy is presented as a negation of the two-stage theory of capitalist development advanced by theorists like Hilferding, Steindl and Baran and Sweezy. Various cases from the American economy are presented to contradict the argument that with the emergence of large-scale industry competition among capitals is eliminated or highly restricted. The experience of the

L.-A Perez-Feliciano

2004-01-01

302

Clean Water and the American Economy: An Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report serves as a background document for the 'Clean Water and the American Economy Conference'. The object of the conference is to address the importance of clean water resources to the United States economy, and to explore how the Clean Water Act ...

1992-01-01

303

Learning in organisations: a corporate curriculum for the knowledge economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper elaborates on the argument that the economy is transforming into a knowledge economy. Therefore, individuals, teams and companies need to develop the necessary competencies to be able to participate in a working life that is mainly based on knowledge productivity. The traditional approaches to management, training and development will not provide the learning environment that is required for

Joseph W. M. Kessels

2001-01-01

304

The Political Economy of War and Peace in Afghanistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 20-year old Afghan conflict has created an open war economy, affecting Afghanistan and surrounding areas. Not only has Afghanistan become the world’s largest opium producer and a center for arms dealing, but it supports a multibillion dollar trade in goods smuggled from Dubai to Pakistan. This criminalized economy funds both the Taliban and their adversaries. It has transformed social

Barnett R. Rubin

2000-01-01

305

Regional clusters of the information economy in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matuschewski A. (2006) Regional clusters of the information economy in Germany, Regional Studies40, 409–422. In Germany, similar to other countries, enterprises that belong to the information economy (IE) tend to concentrate in a few regions. The paper takes a closer look at the reasons and driving forces for regional clustering within the IE. It is based on the analysis of

Anke Matuschewski

2006-01-01

306

Corporate Governance and Cash Holdings: Listed New Economy versus Old Economy Firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTManuscript Type: EmpiricalResearch Question/Issue: This study examines the impact of corporate governance on the cash-holding policies of firms with different investment opportunities. It is difficult to determine the optimal level of cash holdings for “listed new economy” firms (firms in the computer, software, Internet, telecommunications, or networking industries), which require large amounts of capital for investment opportunities with high return

Yenn-Ru Chen

2008-01-01

307

Austria's Economy in 2008: International Economic and Financial Crisis Distresses the Domestic Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2008, Austria's economy grew by 1.8 percent in real terms. The year started out with a solid growth rate but ended with the country in recession. Economic stagnation in the third quarter was followed by a decline over the previous quarter of the seasonally and working day-adjusted GDP. Flagging international demand impacted on export-oriented manufacturing which recorded a perceptible

Sandra Steindl

2009-01-01

308

Attentional bias toward safety predicts safety behaviors.  

PubMed

Safety studies have primarily focused on how explicit processes and measures affect safety behavior and subsequent accidents and injuries. Recently, safety researchers have paid greater attention to the role of implicit processes. Our research focuses on the role of attentional bias toward safety (ABS) in workplace safety. ABS is a basic, early-stage cognitive process involving the automatic and selective allocation of attentional resources toward safety cues, which reflect the implicit motivational state of employees regarding safety goal. In this study, we used two reaction time-based paradigms to measure the ABS of employees in three studies: two modified Stroop tasks (Studies 1 and 2) and a visual dot-probe task (Study 3). Results revealed that employees with better safety behavior showed significant ABS (Study 2), and greater ABS than employees with poorer safety behavior (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, ABS was positively associated with the perceived safety climate and safety motivation of employees, both of which mediate the effect of ABS on safety behavior (Study 3). These results contributed to a deeper understanding of how early-stage automatic perceptual processing affects safety behavior. The practical implications of these results were also discussed. PMID:24922613

Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Wang, Guangxi; Yuan, Xiao; Ding, Weidong; Shen, Zhongxiang

2014-10-01

309

The Economic Impact of a Rural Higher Education Institution on the Local Economy and the Nonlocal Metropolitan Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study examines the impacts of South Plains College (SPC) (Levelland, Texas) on the local rural economy of Hockley County in which it is situated, as well as on the economy of neighboring, more metropolitan Lubbock County. The study addressed both business volume and employment impacts. Direct business volume impact was derived from four…

Johnson, Troy M.

310

Workplace Safety and Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An index of information on workplace hazards, illnesses, injuries, and safety compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Includes information on biosafety, chemical safety, and electrical safety.

2010-03-02

311

Water Safety Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

Water Safety Quiz Trivia quiz loading... Please enable javascript. Stay Safe around Water Download water safety tips in English or Spanish and share them with your friends. Make Water Safety a Priority Contact your local Red Cross ...

312

Paper Shredder Safety Alert  

MedlinePLUS

Paper Shredder Safety Alert Consumer model paper shredders are very popular. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission ( ... offers the following safety tips when using a paper shredder: ? Never allow children to operate paper shredders, ...

313

Activities report in safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional and radiation aspects of safety management, and safety programs at a nuclear research institute are presented. The design of the laboratory is described. The technical execution of the safety management is outlined.

1984-12-01

314

Model Checking Safety Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Safety properties are an interesting subset of general temporal properties for systems. In the linear time paradigm, model checking of safety properties is simpler than the general case, because safety properties can be captured by finite automata. This w...

T. Latvala

2002-01-01

315

Health and Safety Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The manual consists of the following chapters: general policies and administration; the Environmental Health and Safety Department; the Medical Services Department: biological hazards; chemical safety; confined space entry; cryogenic safety; electrical sa...

1980-01-01

316

Kids and Car Safety  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Safety HealthDay June 25, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Child Safety Heat Illness Motor Vehicle Safety Transcript As ... parents that cars can be extremely dangerous for children even when they're in park. Council experts ...

317

Air Bag Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety Technology Tires Tires Rating Passenger Van Safety Air Bag Safety Air Bag Basics General Information Air Bag Deployment After Deployment ... Bag Module Crash Sensors Electronic Control Unit Counterfeit Air Bags General Information What Consumers Should Know About Counterfeit ...

318

ETE Electrical Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a collection of safety topics that may be discussed in electrical safety meetings or classes. Topics include fuse removal, GFCIs, electrical shock, first aid, LOTO, PPE, fire safety, and hazardous locations.

2013-06-13

319

Policy Manual - Safety Appendices - Safety Committee  

Cancer.gov

 CCR Home   About CCR   CCR Intranet        Laboratory of Pathology LP Home Clinical Services Basic Sciences Training LP Staff Accessibility of Web Site Policy Manual Main Page LP Forms and Checklists Safety Appendices Contents Safety Committee Clinical

320

Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... in Mining Topic Page Ergonomic Interventions in the Building, Repair, and Dismantling of Ships Eye Safety Topic Page Slips, trips and falls PREVENTION THROUGH DESIGN NIOSH Safety and Health Topic: Industry and Occupation ...

321

Safety analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are engaged in a research program in safety-critical computing that is based on two case studies. We use these case studies to provide application-specific details of the various research issues, and as targets for evaluation of research ideas. The first case study is the Magnetic Stereotaxis System (MSS), an investigational device for performing human neurosurgery being developed in a joint effort between the Department of Physics at the University of Virginia and the Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Iowa. The system operates by manipulating a small permanent magnet (known as a 'seed') within the brain using an externally applied magnetic field. By varying the magnitude and gradient of the external magnetic field, the seed can be moved along a non-linear path and positioned at a site requiring therapy, e.g., a tumor. The magnetic field required for movement through brain tissue is extremely high, and is generated by a set of six superconducting magnets located in a housing surrounding the patient's head. The system uses two X-ray cameras positioned at right angles to detect in real time the locations of the seed and of X-ray opaque markers affixed to the patient's skull. the X-ray images are used to locate the objects of interest in a canonical frame of reference. the second case study is the University of Virginia Research Nuclear Reactor (UVAR). It is a 2 MW thermal, concrete-walled pool reactor. The system operates using 20 to 25 plate-type fuel assemblies placed on a rectangular grid plate. There are three scramable safety rods, and one non-scramable regulating rod that can be put in automatic mode. It was originally constructed in 1959 as a 1 MW system, and it was upgraded to 2 MW in 1973. Though only a research reactor rather than a power reactor, the issues raised are significant and can be related to the problems faced by full-scale reactor systems.

Knight, John C.

1995-01-01

322

40 CFR 600.008-01 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Review of fuel economy data, testing by the... ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977...three percent (or such lower percentage to be...

2010-07-01

323

40 CFR 600.207-86 - Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type... ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977...600.206(a) for low-altitude...

2010-07-01

324

76 FR 11196 - Antidumping Methodologies in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of Production...antidumping proceedings involving non-market economy (``NME'') countries. See Antidumping...in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of...

2011-03-01

325

76 FR 65694 - Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of...liquidate such entries at the non-market economy (``NME'')-wide rate. FOR FURTHER...non-reviewed exporters. See Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment...

2011-10-24

326

40 CFR 600.510-08 - Calculation of average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-08 Section 600.510-08...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

2010-07-01

327

40 CFR 600.008-08 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

328

40 CFR 600.510-08 - Calculation of average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2007-07-01 true Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-08 Section 600.510-08 ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

2009-01-01

329

40 CFR 600.510-86 - Calculation of average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2007-07-01 true Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-86 Section 600.510-86 ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

2009-01-01

330

40 CFR 600.510-86 - Calculation of average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-86 Section 600.510-86...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

2010-07-01

331

40 CFR 600.510-93 - Calculation of average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2007-07-01 true Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-93 Section 600.510-93 ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

2009-01-01

332

76 FR 34046 - Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of...administrative reviews involving non-market economy countries (``NME''), the Department...the investigation or review. In market economy (``ME'') proceedings, the...

2011-06-10

333

40 CFR 600.510-93 - Calculation of average fuel economy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-93 Section 600.510-93...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

2010-07-01

334

40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test...Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust...

2009-01-01

335

40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test...Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust...

2010-07-01

336

40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy calculations. 600.114-08... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and...

2009-01-01

337

10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation...DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3 Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy...

2009-01-01

338

10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation...DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3 Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy...

2010-01-01

339

Nuclear criticality safety guide  

SciTech Connect

This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C. [eds.] [eds.

1996-09-01

340

Farm Health and Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

341

National Ag Safety Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A national central repository of agricultural health, safety, and injury prevention materials for the agricultural community and especially for agricultural safety specialists. Spanish materials are included.

2007-01-15

342

The Political economy of world energy  

SciTech Connect

The continuous growth in global energy consumption has created international concern about the linkage between energy and socioeconomic development. Provoked by awareness of the potential effects of long-term growth in energy use on fuel availability, economics, geopolitics, and environmental quality, considerable scholarly attention has focused on assessing historical patterns as well as generating plausible estimates of alternative energy futures. While conservation projections to the middle of the next century suggest the existing developed countries will then be using about one-half of the world's energy with the US share declining to roughly one-sixth of the world's total, overall consumption is likely to increase due to population growth as well as economic modernization among the current set of developing countries. Not surprisingly, scenarios such as this raise the question of the social, political, and economic implications of varying energy supply systems. This book seeks to provide answers to that question by presenting a broad, historical analysis of the role played by changing energy management systems in the international political economy of this century. In the study, the author primarily concentrates on attempting to identify institutional factors and salient events shaping the politics and economics of global energy supply and utilization patterns from approximately 1900 to 1980. While the primary emphasis is on the Western industrialized countries and the less-developed countries (LDCs) which are energy-producing states, some attention also is devoted to the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and the energy-importing LDCs.

Clark, J.G.

1990-01-01

343

Laos: rural economy threatened by AIDS.  

PubMed

Laos is a rural country in which more than 70% of the work force depends upon the agricultural sector for its livelihood. Crop production in Laos is a low-productivity, labor-intensive affair which is highly vulnerable to disruption by natural disasters and outbreaks of disease. Laos is also a crossroads for trade from Cambodia, China, Thailand, and Vietnam. While such trade has some positive effect upon the domestic economy, it also facilitates the spread of sexually transmitted diseases into Laos from neighboring countries with high rates of HIV infection. The northwestern trading corridor bordering Thailand, Myanmar, and China is of particular concern with regard to the spread of HIV. The Lao government identified eleven individuals infected with HIV and had officially reported only one case of AIDS to the World Health Organization (WHO) as of April 1992. Although WHO has not yet confirmed or projected the number of HIV-seropositive and AIDS cases in Laos, scant available data suggest that AIDS is concentrated in urban areas. Poverty and isolation will not, however, protect rural villages from HIV. The implications of a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic for rural social structures are considered. It is clear that such a situation could lead to agroeconomic dislocation and jeopardize national food security. The following measures are recommended to confront HIV/AIDS in the agricultural sector: change cropping systems, provide AIDS prevention education and technical assistance, and recruit village cadres to increase AIDS awareness among young Lao and care for the very ill. PMID:12287639

Zola, A M

1994-01-01

344

Forest products in the global economy  

SciTech Connect

The various industries which comprise the forest product sector - most importantly timber, wood pulp and newsprint - are significant elements on the global economy. While world production and trade remain concentrated in the industrialized world many Third World countries have invested in forest products and these countries will play an important role in the future. This book presents a comprehensive survey of forest product manufacturing and trade throughout the world. It analyses the forest resource policies of producer countries and outlines output levels and growth rates. It examines world patterns of trade including both demand and supply and temperate and tropical producers. It considers the industry itself, its organisation, ownership and control, the technology employed and technology transfer. The book covers all the major countries involved in the industry including the USA, Canada, Japan, the Soviet bloc, South East Asia, West Africa and Northern Europe. It concludes with an assessment of likely future trends. CONTENTS. Introduction, origins and evolution, the forest resource, distribution, ownership and utilization, world patterns of production and trade, world patterns of demand, organization, technology and location, the coniferous belt producers, the tropical producers, the international transfer of technology in forest products, forest products in third world development, and future prospects.

Hayter, R.

1987-01-01

345

Bromine Safety  

SciTech Connect

The production and handling in 1999 of about 200 million kilograms of bromine plus substantial derivatives thereof by Great Lakes Chemical Corp. and Albemarle Corporation in their southern Arkansas refineries gave OSHA Occupational Injury/Illness Rates (OIIR) in the range of 0.74 to 1.60 reportable OIIRs per 200,000 man hours. OIIRs for similar industries and a wide selection of other U.S. industries range from 1.6 to 23.9 in the most recent OSHA report. Occupational fatalities for the two companies in 1999 were zero compared to a range in the U.S.of zero for all computer manufacturing to 0.0445 percent for all of agriculture, forestry and fishing in the most recent OSHA report. These results show that bromine and its compounds can be considered as safe chemicals as a result of the bromine safety standards and practices at the two companies. The use of hydrobromic acid as an electrical energy storage medium in reversible PEM fuel cells is discussed. A study in 1979 of 20 megawatt halogen working fluid power plants by Oronzio de Nora Group found such energy to cost 2 to 2.5 times the prevailing base rate at that time. New conditions may reduce this relative cost. The energy storage aspect allows energy delivery at maximum demand times where the energy commands premium rates. The study also found marginal cost and performance advantages for hydrobromic acid over hydrochloric acid working fluid. Separate studies in the late 70s by General Electric also showed marginal performance advantages for hydrobromic acid.

Meyers, B

2001-04-09

346

Global warming, bad weather, insurance losses and the global economy  

SciTech Connect

Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. The impact on the insurance industry is described. Why global warming in the near term causes very bad weather is explained. The continuing trend of very bad weather and the future impact on the insurance industry is explored. How very bad weather can affect the global financial market is explained. Taking a historical view of the development of the modern economy, the authors describe in the near term the impact of global warming on the global economy. The long term impact of global warming on the global economy and the human race is explored. Opportunities presented by global warming are described.

Low, N.C. [UOB Life Assurance Ltd., Singapore (Singapore); Shen, S. [Global Warming International Center, Woodridge, IL (United States)

1996-09-01

347

Safety: Preventive Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Underscores the need for community colleges to practice safety within the institutions and to instruct students in workplace safety procedures and requirements. Reviews Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) regulations and their impact on industry and education. Looks at the legal responsibilities of colleges for safety. (DMM)

Kotula, John R.; Digenakis, Anthony

1985-01-01

348

Safety Standards for Projectors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The safety of projectors and related viewing devices for school, home, and business use is of paramount importance. The Advisory Committee on Safety (ACOS) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has established a working group to consider the problem of projector safety and to make recommendations for safety standards. (CMV)

Wyman, Raymond

1979-01-01

349

Safety: An Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes eight safety concepts developed by the author to teach safety and accident prevention in industrial arts shops and to promote more positive student attitudes toward shop safety. Stressing several general safety concepts instead of requiring dozens of rules has been found to work. (MF)

Smith, Harry T.

1978-01-01

350

Safety Concept Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of safety-critical systems requires the dasiasafepsila development of a dasiasafepsila system. Not only should the realized system fulfill specific safety goals, but for certification purposes the development process itself has to comply with safety standards. Both of these tasks are complex and cause a lot of effort and costs that cannot be sufficiently reduced by existing safety engineering

Dominik Domis; M. Forster; S. Kemmann; M. Trapp

2009-01-01

351

Essays on Firm Behavior in Developing Economies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of firms is central to growth in developing economies. A burgeoning literature within development economics seeks to understand the behavior of firms in developing countries and the constraints to their performance. This dissertation explores two types of constraints---infrastructure-related constraints and trade-related constraints---faced by manufacturing firms in developing countries. Despite the widely acknowledged importance of infrastructure for economic growth, there has been relatively little research on how infrastructure affects the decisions of firms. Electricity, in particular, is commonly cited by firms in developing countries as a major obstacle to their performance. In the first two chapters, I analyze the responses of firms to two types of electricity constraints, namely electricity prices and electricity shortages. Chapter 1 provides evidence on how electricity prices affect a firm's industry choice and productivity growth using data on Indian manufacturing firms. I construct an instrument for electricity price as the interaction between the price of coal paid by power utilities, which is arguably exogenous to firm characteristics, and the initial share of thermal generation in a state's total electricity generation capacity. I find that, in response to an exogenous increase in electricity price, firms reduce their electricity consumption and switch to industries with less electricity-intensive production processes. I also find that firm output, machine intensity and labor productivity decline with an increase in electricity price. In addition to these level effects, I show that firm output and productivity growth rates are negatively affected by high electricity prices. These results suggest that electricity constraints faced by firms may limit a country's growth by leading firms to operate in industries with fewer productivity-enhancing opportunities. Chapter 2 examines the impact of electricity shortages on firm investment. I identify this impact by studying an electricity rationing program that took place in Ghana in 1998, which placed significant constraints on the electricity available to firms. Using data on Ghanaian manufacturing firms, I find a significant decline in investment in plant and machinery during the electricity rationing period. The decline in investment is more pronounced for firms in electricity-intensive sectors. I explore alternative explanations for the reduction in investment during the electricity rationing period, including a contraction in firm credit access and economy-wide shocks unrelated to electricity constraints, and find no evidence in support of either explanation. The results, therefore, suggest that the reduction in investment during the electricity rationing period was due to the constraints on the availability of electricity. These findings highlight the potentially negative impact of the inadequate provision of electricity that frequently plagues developing countries. These electricity constraints can hinder growth in these countries by curbing investment by firms. In Chapter 3, I turn to the investigation of the effect of a trade-related constraint. Until recently, most of the literature on firms engaged in international trade had largely focused on exporting, with little work on the role of imports in the behavior and performance of firms. Using data on Indonesian manufacturing firms, Chapter 3 analyzes the effect of a reduction in tariffs on imported inputs on the exporting activity of firms. I argue that a tariff reduction program in Indonesia, which generated exogenous variation in the tariffs imposed on imports of goods used by firms, had a positive effect on the exported share of output of firms. I explore the mechanisms underlying this positive effect and find that an increase in the use of imported inputs, facilitated by the reduction in input tariffs, generated an increase in the exported share of output of firms. I also find that this positive effect is stronger for firms in industries with a greater scope for quality differentiation a

Abeberese, Ama Baafra

352

49 CFR 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 531...section, each manufacturer of passenger automobiles shall comply with the fleet average...2011, a manufacturer's passenger automobile fleet shall comply with the...

2013-10-01

353

Antimony Availability--Market Economy Countries. A Minerals Availability Appraisal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines studied the potential availability of primary antimony (Sb) from demonstrated resources in 21 mines and deposits in market economy countries (MEC's). Twelve of these properties were evaluated as producers and nine as non-producers. The...

C. M. Palencia C. P. Mishra

1986-01-01

354

Privatejede vindmoellers oekonomi. (Economy of privately owned windmills).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Danish government ordered that an investigation of the economy of privately owned windmills be undertaken from 1991. Updating is a part of the follow-up of Danish energy policy designated ''Energi 2000'' (Energy 2000). The report contains descriptions...

1994-01-01

355

State of Transportation in Illinois. Lifelines to the Economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An adequate transportation network is indispensable to a healthy economy. It is essential for the distribution of products and services to local, regional, state, national and international markets. It is essential for getting people to work and to the ot...

1994-01-01

356

Texas in transition: dependence on oil and the national economy  

SciTech Connect

Although Texas may once have appeared immune to national business cycles, the state's economy no longer has such immunity. The authors quantify the degree to which the Texas economy's responsiveness to oil prices and the national economy has changed. They find that Texas nonagricultural employment is 62% less sensitive to unexpected changes in real oil prices and 338% more responsive to unexpected changes in national employment. Further, the authors also develop measures of the degree of dissimilarity between the Texas and national economies. They find that these dissimilarity measures, which reflect differences in economic structure between Texas and the nation, bear a closer relation to real oil prices than does state employment. 15 references, 7 figures, 5 tables.

Fomby, T.B.; Hirschberg, J.G.

1989-01-01

357

42 CFR 440.370 - Economy and efficiency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Benchmark Benefit and Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.370 Economy and efficiency. Benchmark and benchmark-equivalent coverage and any additional benefits must...

2013-10-01

358

Planned Economy. Volume 24, Numbers 9-10 1969.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains materials on the economic development of Poland, including vocational schools and employment, the utilization of technical personnel, manpower use in a socialized economy, demographic forecasting by sex and age groups, foreign trade, d...

1972-01-01

359

Planned Economy. Volume 24, Numbers 11-12, 1969.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document contains articles on economic affairs in Poland, including economic relations in the 1971-1975 plan; changes in consumption, housing, and the national economy; mathematical models and computer technology in planning; labor productivity, wage ...

1973-01-01

360

48 CFR 17.502-2 - The Economy Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...with the order. (d) Business-case analysis requirements for multi-agency...Economy Act authority, a business-case analysis must be prepared by the servicing agency. The business-case analysis shall— (1)...

2011-10-01

361

Columbium Availability--Market Economy Countries. A Minerals Availability Appraisal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines has investigated the availability of columbium from 19 deposits (3 producers and 16 nonproducers) in 7 market economy countries (MEC's). Brazil has the largest recoverable columbium resource, posessing approximately 2.39 million metric...

F. W. Miller R. J. Fantel D. A. Buckingham

1986-01-01

362

MEDEA: a DSGE model for the Spanish economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we provide a brief introduction to a new macroeconometric model of the Spanish economy named MEDEA (Modelo de Equilibrio Dinámico de la Economía EspañolA). MEDEA is a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model that aims to describe the main features of the Spanish economy\\u000a for policy analysis, counterfactual exercises, and forecasting. MEDEA is built in the tradition

Pablo Burriel; Jesús Fernández-Villaverde; Juan F. Rubio-Ramírez

2010-01-01

363

Economies of Traffic Density in the Deregulated Airline Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article estimates a structural model of competition among hub-and-spoke airlines in order to measure the strength of economies of traffic density on individual route segments. We find that economies of density were strong during the sample period (fourth quarter 1985), stronger than previous estimates by Douglas Caves, Laurits Christensen, and Michael Tretheway derived from traditional cost-function methods. We also

Jan K. Brueckner; Pablo T. Spiller

1994-01-01

364

Pirates, privateers and the political economy of private violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical accounts of private violence in international relations are often rather under-theorised and under-contextualised. Overall, private violence historically needs to be seen in the context of the relationship between state-building, political economy and violence, rather than through the narrative of states gradually monopolising violence. Pirates and privateers in late-seventeenth and early-eighteenth century Europe were embedded in a broader political economy

Bryan Mabee

2009-01-01

365

The new economy is stronger than you think.  

PubMed

Many policy makers at the Fed contend that the new economy is a fragile bubble--and that with the "irrational exuberance" of the capital markets, the sky is going to fall on the U.S. economy. That couldn't be further from the truth, according to William Sahlman. As long as the government doesn't interfere, he argues, the economy is sturdy, resilient, and raring to grow. The new economy is strong for several reasons. First, it is based on a business model that works. Any business system that relentlessly drives out inefficiency, forces intelligent business-process reengineering, and gives customers more of what they want will be sustainable. Second, it is built on America's admiration for entrepreneurs and its tolerance for failure, not to mention its easy access to capital. Third, the new economy is attracting the best and brightest minds in the country. And finally, says Sahlman, the new economy is strong because it is spreading. It may be primarily an American phenomenon now, but in a few short years it will start to show its effects everywhere, making the whole world a more productive place. Still, Sahlman believes, the road ahead is not without potholes and sharp curves. But that is what the new economy is all about, he maintains--companies attacking the status quo and entrenched players, companies experimenting to find new technologies that improve or replace earlier ones. Such activity presents no cause for alarm. The economic, social, and cultural factors undergirding the new economy are rock solid. It's simply a matter of letting them stand. PMID:10662008

Sahlman, W A

1999-01-01

366

Renewable Hydrogen Carrier Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy  

SciTech Connect

Abstract The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology called cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB). Assembly of numerous enzymes and co-enzymes in vitro can create complicated set of biological reactions or pathways that microorganisms cannot complete, for example, C6H10O5 (aq) + 7 H2O (l) 12 H2 (g) + 6 CO2 (g) (PLoS One 2007, 2:e456). Thanks to 100% selectivity of enzymes, modest reaction conditions, and high-purity of generated hydrogen, carbohydrate is a promising hydrogen carrier for end users. Gravimetric density of carbohydrate is 14.8 H2 mass% if water can be recycled from PEM fuel cells or 8.33% H2 mass% without water recycling. Renewable carbohydrate can be isolated from plant biomass or would be produced from a combination of solar electricity/hydrogen and carbon dioxide fixation mediated by high-efficiency artificial photosynthesis mediated by SyPaB. The construction of this carbon-neutral carbohydrate economy would address numerous sustainability challenges, such as electricity and hydrogen storage, CO2 fixation and long-term storage, water conservation, transportation fuel production, plus feed and food production.

Zhang, Y.-H. Percival [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL

2011-01-01

367

Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy  

PubMed Central

The bio-based economy relies on sustainable, plant-derived resources for fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed rather than on the evanescent usage of fossil resources. The cornerstone of this economy is the biorefinery, in which renewable resources are intelligently converted to a plethora of products, maximizing the valorization of the feedstocks. Innovation is a prerequisite to move a fossil-based economy toward sustainable alternatives, and the viability of the bio-based economy depends on the integration between plant (green) and industrial (white) biotechnology. Green biotechnology deals with primary production through the improvement of biomass crops, while white biotechnology deals with the conversion of biomass into products and energy. Waste streams are minimized during these processes or partly converted to biogas, which can be used to power the processing pipeline. The sustainability of this economy is guaranteed by a third technology pillar that uses thermochemical conversion to valorize waste streams and fix residual carbon as biochar in the soil, hence creating a carbon-negative cycle. These three different multidisciplinary pillars interact through the value chain of the bio-based economy.

Vanholme, Bartel; Desmet, Tom; Ronsse, Frederik; Rabaey, Korneel; Breusegem, Frank Van; Mey, Marjan De; Soetaert, Wim; Boerjan, Wout

2013-01-01

368

Building Digital Economy - The Research Councils Programme and the Vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We at the Research Councils believe that there are many aspects of society and business that could be transformed by the innovative design and use of digital technologies. This has led to the Digital Economy Programme. The Digital Economy is an RCUK Cross-Research Council Programme, led by the EPSRC, but working closely with ESRC, MRC, AHRC and TSB. What is Digital Economy? Digital Economy is the novel design or use of information and communication technology to help transform the lives of individuals, society or business. All Digital Economy research involves the user community. This can include industry, government, society, charities or other groups as applicable. The research will understand the technologies and also why change is needed, what the impacts will be and who will benefit. Research in this cross-research council area can be driven by economic, social or technical need. The early involvement of the user community is vital if new technologies are to be integrated successfully into business opportunities, technical solutions or commercial products and processes. Challenges in the Digital Economy will require multi-disciplinary academic input, including, but not limited to, the arts and humanities, economic and social sciences and medical sciences, in addition to engineering and physical sciences.

Hand, John

369

Evaluation of automobile safety regulations: The case of compulsory seat belt legislation in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A basic tenet of the “new conservatism” in political economy is that government policies frequently lead to unintended consequences which may offset the benefits of the policy. Auto safety legislation may be a case in point. As the first country to make the wearing of seat belts compulsory, Australia is highly suitable as a case study. Traffic accident casualties were

John A. C. Conybeare; C. CONYBEARE

1980-01-01

370

Safety System Design Concept and Performance Evaluation for a Long Operating Cycle Simplified Boiling Water Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long operating cycle simplified boiling water reactor is a reactor concept that pursues both safety and the economy by employing a natural circulation reactor core without a refueling, a passive decay heat removal, and an integrated building for the reactor and turbine. Throughout the entire spectrum of the design basis accident, the reactor core is kept covered by the

Kenji Arai; Seijiro Suzuki; Mikihide Nakamaru; Hideaki Heki

2003-01-01

371

71 FR 77872 - Fuel Economy Labeling of Motor Vehicles: Revisions To Improve Calculation of Fuel Economy Estimates  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...manufacturers can request in writing EPA approval of alternative...emission and fuel economy results mathematically by including the cold...manufacturer of the rejection in writing. (e) If, based on a...notify the manufacturer, in writing, that the...

2006-12-27

372

Structures and mechanisms - Streamlining for fuel economy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of prospective NASA space station components which inherently possess the means for structural growth without compromising initial system characteristics is considered. In structural design terms, space station growth can be achieved by increasing design safety factors, introducing dynamic isolators to prevent loads from reaching the initial components, or preplanning the refurbishment of the original structure with stronger elements. Design tradeoffs will be based on the definition of on-orbit loads, including docking and maneuvering, whose derived load spectra will allow the estimation of fatigue life. Improvements must be made in structural materials selection in order to reduce contamination, slow degradation, and extend the life of coatings. To minimize on-orbit maintenance, long service life lubrication systems with advanced sealing devices must be developed.

Card, M. F.

1983-01-01

373

The Shadow Economies in Middle and South America and their Influence on the Official Economy: What do we know?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the DYMIMIC and currency demand approach, the size and development of the shadow economies of 21 Middle and South American countries (including Columbia) are estimated. Averaging the figures over all 21 countries the shadow economy increased from 41.1% in 1999\\/2000 to 43.4% in 2002\\/03 and since then declined to 42.2% of official GDP in 2004\\/05. The most important factors

Friedrich Schneider

2007-01-01

374

Teaching Science: Lab Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Before entering the world of pipettes and Geiger counters, budding scientists will need to know about lab safety. Science educators will benefit from this laboratory safety site, developed by Professor Norman Herr, who teaches at California State University, Northridge. On his site, Professor Herr provides topically organized links that fall into the areas of safety standards, chemical hazards, chemical storage, and five other relevant topics. Within each section, visitors will find links to state safety standards, sample laboratory safety contracts, and fact sheets on chemical hazards. One potentially delightful classroom activity is the laboratory safety "scavenger hunt". Through this activity, students will learn about storage requirements, chemical risks, and other potential delicate matters.

375

Space engine safety system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rocket engine safety system was designed to initiate control procedures to minimize damage to the engine or vehicle or test stand in the event of an engine failure. The features and the implementation issues associated with rocket engine safety systems are discussed, as well as the specific concerns of safety systems applied to a space-based engine and long duration space missions. Examples of safety system features and architectures are given, based on recent safety monitoring investigations conducted for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and for future liquid rocket engines. Also, the general design and implementation process for rocket engine safety systems is presented.

Maul, William A.; Meyer, Claudia M.

1991-01-01

376

Vocational Education Safety Instruction Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual describes four program areas in vocational education safety instruction: (1) introduction to a safety program; (2) resources to ensure laboratory safety; (3) safety program implementation; and (4) safety rules and safety tests. The safety rules and tests included in section four are for the most common tools and machines used in…

Cropley, Russell, Ed.; Doherty, Susan Sloan, Ed.

377

SNTP environmental, safety, and health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on space nuclear thermal propulsion (SNTP) environmental, safety, and health are presented. Topics covered include: program safety policy; program safety policies; and DEIS public hearing comments.

Harmon, Charles D.

1993-01-01

378

Dynamic systems of regional economy management optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most actual problems of the Russian economic life is a regional economic systems formation. The hierarchy of economic and branch priorities should follow from the general idea of an industrial policy. The matter is that the concept of an industrial policy is defined by the system of priorities mainly incorporated in it. The problem of priorities is not solved yet neither on federal, nor at a regional level. It is necessary to recognize, that a substantiation of this or that variant of priorities - objectively a challenge. Such substantiation can be received with the help of dynamic structural modeling and management technology. At formation of the regional industrial policy program the special attention is given to creation of modern type commercial structures. In regions there are headquarters and branches of many largest corporations, holdings and banks. Besides it, many regional enterprises already became inter-regional or even the transnational companies. In this connection an assistance of transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups in vertically integrated companies and modern type holdings can become a prominent aspect of an industrial policy. Regional economic structures should be reconstructed gradually on the general model of the world class competitive companies. Assistance to creation of new corporational control systems, the organization of headquarters and the central services work - all this can be included into the sphere of regional administration industrial policy. The special attention should be turned on necessity of development of own system of the corporate structures, capable to provide to the region an independent participation in use of the natural resources and industrial-technological potential, at the stage of a regional industrial policy program formation. Transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups into modern type vertically-integrated companies and holdings can become one of the major directions of an industrial policy of region. The situational-analytical centers (SAC) of regional administration The major component of SAC is dynamic modeling, analysis, forecasting and optimization systems, based on modern intellectual information technologies. Spheres of SAC are not only financial streams management and investments optimization, but also strategic forecasting functions, which provide an optimum choice, "aiming", search of optimum ways of regional development and corresponding investments. It is expedient to consider an opportunity of formation of the uniform organizational-methodical center of an industrial policy of region. This organization can be directly connected to the scheduled-analytical services of the largest economic structures, local authorities, the ministries and departments. Such "direct communication" is capable to provide an effective regional development strategic management. Anyway, the output on foreign markets demands concentration of resources and support of authorities. Offered measures are capable to provide a necessary coordination of efforts of a various level economic structures. For maintenance of a regional industrial policy an attraction of all newest methods of strategic planning and management is necessary. Their activity should be constructed on the basis of modern approaches of economic systems management, cause the essence of an industrial policy is finally reduced to an effective regional and corporate economic activities control centers formation. Opportunities of optimum regional economy planning and management as uniform system Approaches to planning regional economic systems can be different. We will consider some most effective methods of planning and control over a regional facilities condition. All of them are compact and evident, that allows to put them into the group of average complexity technologies. At the decision of problems of a regional resource management is rather perspective the so-called "topographical" approach, which is used by intellectual information tec

Trofimov, S.; Kudzh, S.

379

Practicing Fireworks Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Practicing Fireworks Safety Tweet Fireworks eye injuries common in young people, bystanders Nearly ... to avoid the risk of serious eye injury." Fireworks Safety Tips The Academy advises that the best ...

380

Safety organizations and experts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Handbook lists organizations and experts in specific, well defined areas of safety technology. Special emphasis is given to relevant safety information sources on aircraft fire hazards and aircraft interior flammability.

Mandel, G.; Rubinstein, R. I.; Pinto, J. J.; Meschkow, S. Z.

1977-01-01

381

State Highway Safety Laws  

MedlinePLUS

State Highway Safety Laws & Funding State Laws Each state and U.S. territory has enacted laws governing various driver behaviors, ... page contains charts for a specific type of highway safety law, listing the provisions for all U.S. ...

382

Air Bag Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... be properly secured in car safety seats , belt-positioning booster seats, or the lap and shoulder belts ... their car safety seat should use a belt-positioning booster seat until the vehicle seat belt fits ...

383

Design for fire safety  

SciTech Connect

This book aims to present a broad knowledge of the basic technical concepts of fire development and fire safety, and their relation to the design process. The book explains the design options open to the architect to make fire safety an integral part of building design and not merely a set of rules and regulations to be followed. The contents are: Concepts in fire safety design . Relationship between design process and the potential fire scenario . Concepts of environmental change . Fire safety objective in building . Fire safety evaluation . Intraspatial fire safety . Fire risk associated with spatial activity . Reduction of ignition risk . Fire prevention (hazard reduction) . Properties of combustible materials . Occupant safety . Smoke control systems . Detection systems . Fire growth and development . Fire suppression systems . Inter-spatial fire safety . Smoke control systems . Escape route design . Fire control by construction . High temperature behaviour of combustible materials.

Marchant, E.W.

1987-01-01

384

Safety without Stuttering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new formalization of safety properties is given. The formalization agrees with the informal definition - that a safety property stipulates that some bad thing doesn't happen during execution - for properties that are not invariant under stuttering, as w...

B. Alpern A. J. Demers F. B. Schneider

1985-01-01

385

Water safety and drowning  

MedlinePLUS

... among people of all ages. Learning and practicing water safety is important to prevent drowning accidents. ... Water safety tips for all ages include: Learn CPR. Never swim alone. Never dive into water unless ...

386

Flood Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... USFA Home Citizens Home Fire Prevention Flood Safety Flood Fire Safety This page may contain links to ... Fire Related Hazards Present During and After a Flood Generators are often used during power outages. Unless ...

387

Pet Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Family › Home Fire Prevention › Pet Fire Safety Pet Fire Safety Protecting Your Pets from Potential Danger Home ... evacuate them, too. Prevent Your Pet from Starting Fires The National Fire Protection Association estimates that nearly ...

388

Bedroom Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Citizens Home Fire Prevention Bedroom Fire Safety Bedroom Fire Safety This page may contain links to non- ... and property resulting from bedroom fires. Kids and Fire: A Bad Match Children are one of the ...

389

Spacecraft Fire Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fire detection, fire standards and testing, fire extinguishment, inerting and atmospheres, fire-related medical science, aircraft fire safety, Space Station safety concerns, microgravity combustion, spacecraft material flammability testing, and metal combustion are among the topics considered.

Margle, Janice M. (editor)

1987-01-01

390

Gun Safety Tips  

MedlinePLUS

... You are here Home > Safety Tips > Tip > Guns Gun Safety Tips Store Guns and Ammunition Safely Store ... visit about safe gun storage practices. Dispose of Guns You Don't Need If you decide that ...

391

Summer Storm Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more about generator safety Heating Safety Kerosene heaters may not be legal in your area and ... can be a source of toxic fumes. Alternative heaters need their space. Keep anything combustible at least ...

392

Swimming Pool Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Teen: 12-18 yrs. Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult: 18-21 yrs. Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Safety & Prevention Immunizations Chickenpox Tdap Haemophilus Influenzae Type B ( ...

393

Policy Manual - Safety Appendices  

Cancer.gov

 CCR Home   About CCR   CCR Intranet        Laboratory of Pathology LP Home Clinical Services Basic Sciences Training LP Staff Accessibility of Web Site Policy Manual Main Page LP Forms and Checklists Safety Appendices Contents Safety Committee Clinical

394

Teaching Children Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... USFA Home Citizens Parents Teaching Children Fire Safety Teaching Children Fire Safety This page may contain links ... Take the mystery out of fire play by teaching children that fire is a tool, not a ...

395

Sectoral Economies, Economic Contexts, and Attitudes toward Immigration  

PubMed Central

Do economic considerations shape attitudes toward immigration? In this article, we consider the relationship between economic interests and immigration preferences by examining how developments in individuals' sectors of employment affect these views. Using survey data across European countries from 2002 to 2009 and employing new measures of industry-level exposure to immigration, we find that sectoral economies shape opinions about immigration. Individuals employed in growing sectors are more likely to support immigration than are those employed in shrinking sectors. Moreover, the economic context matters: Making use of the exogenous shock to national economies represented by the 2008 financial crisis, we show that sector-level inflows of immigrant workers have little effect on preferences when economies are expanding, but that they dampen support for immigration when economic conditions deteriorate and confidence in the economy declines. These sectoral effects remain even when controlling for natives' views about the impact of immigration on the national economy and culture. When evaluating immigration policy, individuals thus appear to take into account whether their sector of employment benefits economically from immigration.

Donnelly, Michael J.

2013-01-01

396

Safety analysts training  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this task was to support ESH-3 in providing Airborne Release Fraction and Respirable Fraction training to safety analysts at LANL who perform accident analysis, hazard analysis, safety analysis, and/or risk assessments at nuclear facilities. The task included preparation of materials for and the conduct of two 3-day training courses covering the following topics: safety analysis process; calculation model; aerosol physic concepts for safety analysis; and overview of empirically derived airborne release fractions and respirable fractions.

Bolton, P.

2000-10-01

397

Agriscience Shop Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After completing this project, you should be able to pass the Shop Safety Test, allowing you to participate in the Agriscience Shop. Before you are allowed into the shop, you are required to pass a Shop Safety Test. The tools that follow will help you prepare for the test. Use the Shop Safety Chart that Mr. Creel gave you in class to take notes on important safety rules. OSHA is the "governmental ...

Creel, Mr.

2011-11-02

398

Generic safety documentation model  

SciTech Connect

This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

Mahn, J.A.

1994-04-01

399

DOE handbook electrical safety  

SciTech Connect

Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

NONE

1998-01-01

400

Electrical safety guidelines  

SciTech Connect

The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

Not Available

1993-09-01

401

School Bus Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Equipment to allow safe transportation of disabled children is reviewed. Such equipment includes infant car seats, child safety seats, safety vests, and accommodations for children in casts and/or braces. Five principles for evaluation and selection of safe seating options are given as are safety rules and information on standards and resources.…

Stroup, Karen Bruner; And Others

1991-01-01

402

Virtual Safety Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Multimedia Tool Box Talk is a web-based quick reference safety guide and training tool for construction personnel. An intended outcome of this effort was to provide an efficient and effective way to locate and interpret crucial safety information while at the job site. The tool includes information from the Occupational Safety and Health…

Fuller, Scott; Davis, Jason

2003-01-01

403

Factors affecting tanker safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major factors influencing tanker safety are discussed. For the discussion information has been gleaned from maritime labour officials, industry experts and a recent United States Coast Guard study on tanker safety. Results of other tanker safety studies and\\/or accident reports are also utilized. Some of the factors analysed are the size and age of vessel, licence qualifications for mates

Craig J. Forsyth

1991-01-01

404

EHS Online Safety Training  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from Oklahoma State University provides access to a number of occupational safety modules. All modules are available to view online, and some include PowerPoint or Microsoft Word documents as well. Topics include electrical safety, lockout/tagout, safety data sheets, asbestos and bloodborne pathogens.

2013-08-06

405

Recognizing Safety and Liveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper substantiates that experience by formalizing safety and liveness in a way that permits the relationship between safety and invariance and between liveness and wellfoundedness to be demonstrated for a large class of properties. In so doing, we give new characterizations of safety and liveness and prove that they satisfy the formal definitions in [Alpera & Schneider 85a

Bowen Alpern

1986-01-01

406

Nuclear Reactor Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear Reactor Safety (NRS), published monthly, is a collection of abstracts of worldwide information available on all safety-related aspects of reactors, including accident analysis, safety systems, radiation protection, decommissioning and dismantling, and security measures. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the

J. D. Bales; R. Boshears

1996-01-01

407

NUCLEAR REACTOR SAFETY SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nuclear reactor safety system is designed to provide an automatic ; safeguard for the reactor under fault conditions. It is also important that the ; safety system does not generate faults of its own. The basic layout of a safety ; system is described, and it is shown that application of the principles of ; coincidence and redundancy to

Jervis

1962-01-01

408

A perspective of food safety laws in Mexico.  

PubMed

Mexico, with a population of 112 million, is one of the most interesting countries in the world with regard to food, hunger, domestic food consumption, tourism and international trade, and it deserves an in-depth study to explain the status of its food safety laws. Mexico has a strong and stable emerging economy and is the second country worldwide with regard to the number of free-trade agreements. Nevertheless, more than half the population lives in poverty. However, Mexico is a huge market for food consumption because, in addition to its own population, it receives 20 million international tourists per year. So, multi-national food companies have representatives and facilities throughout the country. This scenario may explain the evolution of food safety laws in Mexico, as well as the challenges that must be faced in order to achieve food safety. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24122602

Leon, Marco A; Paz, Esmeralda

2014-08-01

409

Evaluating Energy Efficiency Policies with Energy-Economy Models  

SciTech Connect

The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyse bottom-up energy-economy models and corresponding evaluation studies on energy efficiency policies to induce technological change. We use the household sector as a case study. Our analysis focuses on decision frameworks for technology choice, type of evaluation being carried out, treatment of market and behavioural failures, evaluated policy instruments, and key determinants used to mimic policy instruments. Although the review confirms criticism related to energy-economy models (e.g. unrealistic representation of decision-making by consumers when choosing technologies), they provide valuable guidance for policy evaluation related to energy efficiency. Different areas to further advance models remain open, particularly related to modelling issues, techno-economic and environmental aspects, behavioural determinants, and policy considerations.

Mundaca, Luis; Neij, Lena; Worrell, Ernst; McNeil, Michael A.

2010-08-01

410

Fuel economy rebound effect of U.S. household vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an econometric estimation of the rebound effect for household vehicle travel in the US based on analysis of survey data collected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) at approximately three-year intervals over a 15-year period. The rebound effect measures the tendency to take back potential energy savings from fuel economy improvements as increased travel. Vehicle use models were estimated for one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-vehicle households. The results confirm recent estimates based on national or state-level data: a long-run take back of about 20% of potential energy savings. Consumer responses to changes in fuel economy or fuel price per gallon appear to be equal and opposite in sign. Recognizing the interdependencies among miles of travel, fuel economy and price is key to obtaining meaningful results.

Greene, D.L.; Kahn, J.R.; Gibson, R.C.

1999-07-01

411

Energy-economy study methods and transit cases. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to describe energy economy study methods that are now available for practical use. The report discusses methods of estimating energy demands in Chapter II. Three heavy rail transit systems and two bus systems (Chapters III to VII) are described in terms of their development history, physical characteristics, operations, service, and energy demands. Estimates are made for the direct and indirect energy demands for the systems and energy economy studies of hypothetical alternatives for operations, equipment, or facilities are presented for the following systems: PATH (Port Authority Trans-Hudson) rail system; BART (Bay Area Rapid Transit District) rail system; AC Transit (Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District) bus system; Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Metrobus and Metrorail systems. Chapter VIII discusses a number of opportunities to conduct energy economy studies, and presents quantitative data for three comparisons of hypothetical alternatives. Some infomation from actual settings was used. (MCW)

Henderson, C.; Ellis, H.T.

1981-07-01

412

Designing Corporate Training in Developing Economies Using Open Educational Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Food Safety Knowledge Network (FSKN) is a collaboration between Michigan State University, the Global Food Safety Initiative of the Consumer Goods Forum, and other food industry and public sector partners. FSKN's goal is to help strengthen the food industry's response to the complex food safety knowledge and training challenges that affect…

Geith, Chris; Vignare, Karen; Bourquin, Leslie D.; Thiagarajan, Deepa

2010-01-01

413

Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 14: Pedestrian Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume 14 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on pedestrian safety. The purpose and objectives of a pedestrian safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of pedestrian safety and policies regarding a safety program…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

414

Equipment Safety. An International Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: International rules--The International Labor Office; Model code of safety regulations of ILO; Agreement No. 119 on equipment safety; Recommendation No. 118 on equipment safety; Ergonomics and equipment safety. CIS Information Sheet 10; Further d...

1977-01-01

415

Science Education Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Downloadable guides published by the Council of State Science Supervisors (CSSS) that provide information on laboratory safety practices in elementary and secondary schools. Topics include legal issues, the purchase, storage, and disposal of chemicals, chemical hygiene, and response to spills or accidents. There is also information on the use of plants or animals in the lab, protective equipment, laboratory layouts, glassware and electricity precautions, field-trip safety, and other topics. The site also includes a science safety checklist, recommendations for general lab safety, and links to safety information from other websites.

416

Safety and IVHM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When we address safety in a book on the business case for IVHM, the question arises whether safety isn t inherently in conflict with the need of operators to run their systems as efficiently (and as cost effectively) as possible. The answer may be that the system needs to be just as safe as needed, but not significantly more. That begs the next question: How safe is safe enough? Several regulatory bodies provide guidelines for operational safety, but irrespective of that, operators do not want their systems to be known as lacking safety. We illuminate the role of safety within the context of IVHM.

Goebel, Kai

2012-01-01

417

Oil and the world economy: some possible futures.  

PubMed

This paper, using a six-region dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model of the world economy, assesses the output and current account implications of permanent oil supply shocks hitting the world economy. For modest-sized shocks and conventional production technologies, the effects are modest. But for larger shocks, for elasticities of substitution that decline as oil usage is reduced to a minimum, and for production functions in which oil acts as a critical enabler of technologies, output growth could drop significantly. Also, oil prices could become so high that smooth adjustment, as assumed in the model, may become very difficult. PMID:24298081

Kumhof, Michael; Muir, Dirk

2014-01-13

418

Education for the Green Economy: Opportunities, Resources and Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by American Association of Community Colleges, National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium, Association for Career and Technical Education and Green For All, this website offers the PowerPoint and audio recording from a Green Economy webinar. It highlights different types of green jobs, professional development, certification, and curriculum materials for educators at a high school or community college level regarding green jobs. Finally, the webinar also addresses partnership models between government, schools, and businesses working in a green economy. The WebEx ARF player is needed to playback the recording and is available to download on the website.

2010-02-12

419

The economy and absenteeism: a macro-level study.  

PubMed

Despite much speculation, little is known about the net effects of the economy on the employed workforce. To fill this gap, we used state-level data collected by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to examine the effects of the condition of the economy, as indicated by the unemployment rate, on incidence rates of absence reportedly due to symptoms of illness and violent acts in the workplace for 43 states from 1992 to 2009. Our results suggest that the unemployment rate is positively associated with these indicators of absenteeism, and that these effects are delayed in time. PMID:22229691

Shoss, Mindy K; Penney, Lisa M

2012-07-01

420

System safety in manned spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System safety in manned spaceflight is discussed with attention to the organization of the NASA safety effort, hazard identification and resolution, safety program integration, risk management visibility, and space transportation system payload safety. Key ingredients of the safety program, including concepts such as a distinct and appropriate level of responsibility for safety, and comprehensive and appropriate safety requirements from the policy level to the system level, are summarized. Program safety interrelationships are indicated.

Hammack, J. B.

1977-01-01

421

NASA Software Safety Standard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If software is a critical element in a safety critical system, it is imperative to implement a systematic approach to software safety as an integral part of the overall system safety programs. The NASA-STD-8719.13A, "NASA Software Safety Standard", describes the activities necessary to ensure that safety is designed into software that is acquired or developed by NASA, and that safety is maintained throughout the software life cycle. A PDF version, is available on the WWW from Lewis. A Guidebook that will assist in the implementation of the requirements in the Safety Standard is under development at the Lewis Research Center (LeRC). After completion, it will also be available on the WWW from Lewis.

Rosenberg, Linda

1997-01-01

422

Policy Manual - Safety Overview - Annual Fire Safety  

Cancer.gov

Fire drills are conducted at least annually with the guidance of the fire prevention inspector. The Safety Officer is responsible for notifying hearing impaired persons or alarm situations. Evacuation routes are posted in each section.

423

Electrosurgical safety: conducting a safety audit.  

PubMed

ECRI detailed some of the lesser-known risks of electrosurgery in a collection of articles published in the August 2005 Health Devices. However, it's also important to recognize that even hazards that are well understood by clinical personnel can lead to injury if appropriate safety measures aren't applied consistently. In this follow-up to our August 2005 articles, we offer guidance to help healthcare facilities conduct a safety audit that examines critical aspects of the facility's use of electrosurgical technology. ECRI recommends that healthcare facilities periodically conduct such an audit to ensure that the appropriate equipment and procedures are in place to protect patients and staff from injury. This article reviews some of the key questions to ask during a safety audit, and it includes detailed guidance for developing an electrosurgical safety checklist. PMID:16483127

2005-12-01

424

Missouri Elementary Science Safety Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this safety manual is to provide a resource to help manage and minimize potential risks in science classrooms where students spend up to 60% of instructional time engaged in hands-on activities. Information on general laboratory safety, science equipment safety, safety with plants, safety with animals, safety with chemicals, field…

Lemons, Judith L.

425

Principles of Safety Pharmacology  

PubMed Central

Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. This gives Safety Pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for Safety Pharmacology are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and finally clinical safety monitoring. This article sets out to explain the drivers for Safety Pharmacology so that the wider pharmacology community is better placed to understand the discipline. It concludes with a summary of principles that may help inform future resolution of unmet needs (especially establishing model validation for accurate risk assessment). Subsequent articles in this issue of the journal address specific aspects of Safety Pharmacology to explore the issues of model choice, the burden of proof and to highlight areas of intensive activity (such as testing for drug-induced rare event liability, and the challenge of testing the safety of so-called biologics (antibodies, gene therapy and so on.).

Pugsley, M K; Authier, S; Curtis, M J

2008-01-01

426

A Market-Forces Policy for the New Farm Economy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper first discusses the changes that are bringing about the New Farm Economy. A wave of consolidation has shifted agricultural production to larger, lower cost producers in almost all sectors of agriculture. At the same time, supply chains represent a new form of ownership and control that is replacing commodity markets as the preferred way to market farm output.

Russell L. Lamb

2002-01-01

427

The IFIs and Labour Reform in Post Communist Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1999 the International Financial Institutions (IFIs) have sought to revise their policy approach to encourage participation, facilitation and dialogue with civil society organisations and trade unions. This Post Washington Consensus has been applied in transformation economies, where the IFIs have established labour market reform as a pre-condition for loans and grants. Such labour reforms have been deleterious to the

Martin Upchurch

2009-01-01

428

Prospects on fuel economy improvements for hydrogen powered vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel cell vehicles are the subject of extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. Because fuel cell vehicles remain expensive and the demand for hydrogen is therefore limited, very few fueling stations are being built. To try to accelerate the development of a hydrogen economy, some original equipment manufacturers (OEM) in the automotive

A. Rousseau; T. Wallner; S. Pagerit; H. Lohse-Bush

2008-01-01

429

Economies of Scale in U.S. Electric Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the estimations, cross-section data for 1955 and 1970 are analyzed using the translog cost function. It was found that in 1955 there were significant scale economies available to nearly all firms. By 1970, however, the bulk of U.S. electricity generation was by firms operating in the essentially flat area of the average cost curve. It is concluded that a

Laurits R. Christensen; William H. Greene

1976-01-01

430

The Political Economy of Networked Learning Communities in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses the example of the recent (ill-fated) experiment in the creation of a global education product--the UKeU--to explore how the concept of community in learning changes in this context. It uses a framework borrowed from the literature on changes in the welfare state to explain how the new economies of on line education distort the…

Greener, Ian; Perriton, Linda

2005-01-01

431

Political Economy Origins of Financial Markets in Europe and Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contributes to the finance-growth literature by examining the political economy origins of some of the most successful financial markets in Europe and Asia. It provides historical evidence from London, Amsterdam and Hong Kong that highlights the essential role played by the government sector in kick-starting financial development. We show that the emergence of financial systems did not occur

Svetlana Andrianova; Panicaos Demetriades; Chenggang Xu

2008-01-01

432

Delegated Monitoring and Bank Structure in a Finite Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

When banks act as delegated monitors of borrowing firms in a finite economy, two factors help banks dominate direct lending: portfolio diversification, which increases with bank size, and bank capitalization, which diminishes with size. With free entry into banking, intermediated equilibria are possible even when direct lending cannot overcome autarky. There are usually multiple intermediated equilibria; these may not be

Andrew Winton

1995-01-01

433

Competition, economies of scale, and diversity of firm sizes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an empirical example in which small firms are able to compete by specializing, without monopolistic conduct, despite economies of scale. The viability of small commercial banks in Illinois is established both by casual observation and by a finding of constant returns to scale, not correcting for specialization. A second specification of the cost function, correcting for specialization,

Sherrill Shaffer

1985-01-01

434

Why Do Emerging Economies Borrow in Foreign Currency?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Paper explores the hypothesis that the dollarization of liabilities in emerging market economies is the result of a lack of monetary credibility. I present a model in which firms choose the currency composition of their debts so as to minimize their probability of default. Decreasing monetary credibility can induce firms to dollarize their liabilities, even though this makes them

Olivier Jeanne

2003-01-01

435

The Socialist System: The Political Economy of Communism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides a comprehensive account of the structure, conduct, and performance of the centrally planned economies of Eastern Europe, the USSR, Communist China and the Marxist LDCs, looking at 26 nations in all. The author focuses on reform, perhaps the most important issue facing countries such as the USSR, Poland, Hungary, and China. Bureaucracy, soft budget constraints, markets, and

Janos Kornai

1992-01-01

436

Teacher popularity and contrast effects in a classroom token economy.  

PubMed Central

There is a common fear that the use of a token economy in one classroom might harm pupil performance in situations where the contingencies are not in effect. This study investigated potential contrast effects on measures of children's productivity and attitudes toward teachers. Six children with reading deficits participated. A multiple baseline design was used to assess the effects of a token economy which was systematically introduced across three teachers. Dependent measures included two rating forms of teacher popularity and work rate on a programmed reading series. The results indicated that the token system was effective in increasing the children's productivity and that no consistent behavioral contrast effects occurred. Furthermore, children's attitudes toward teachers did not appear to be influenced by the token economy until only one teacher was not delivering tokens. At this point, her popularity declined until she also delivered tokens. The token economy manipulation appeared to have a specific, desirable effect on the targeted behavior (i.e., work rate) and had minimal negative or positive "side effects" on teacher popularity.

Kistner, J; Hammer, D; Wolfe, D; Rothblum, E; Drabman, R S

1982-01-01

437

Eight Ways to Retain Students in a Tough Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Universities are not immune to the effects of the slumping economy, yet many of them are reporting their highest application and enrollment rates ever, as hard times compel people to look for new ways to increase their skills. Students' efforts to improve their job prospects, along with colleges' marketing efforts, have, indeed, translated to…

Cardona, Adolfo Rudy

2009-01-01

438

Colleges' Billion-Dollar Campaigns Feel the Economy's Sting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economy's collapse has caught up with the billion-dollar campaign. In the past 12 months, the amount of money raised by a dozen of the colleges engaged in higher education's biggest fund-raising campaigns fell 32 percent from the year before. The decline, which started before the worst of the recession, has forced colleges to postpone…

Masterson, Kathryn

2009-01-01

439

Governance, Globalization, and Political Economy: Perspectives from Canadian Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of governance has become increasingly popular over the past 15 years signifying its growing acceptance in a number of key sectors of society. Is governance a neutral term that is merely a synonym for government, or does it signify a shift to neoliberalism? Working from a political-economy perspective, this article will explore the…

Sumner, Jennifer

2008-01-01

440

Building Schools in a Tight Economy? Do Your Homework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With unemployment rising and the public more concerned about the economy than at any other time in recent memory, the idea of a municipality deciding to spend millions of dollars to build or refurbish a school seems an uphill challenge to say the least. In the best of times, voter approval for school construction projects is difficult to get;…

Watts, Chris

2009-01-01

441

Quality Assurance in Higher Education in 20 MENA Economies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The last decades have witnessed an increased concern in higher education over accountability, quality and productivity, and a struggle to meet increasingly complex challenges. This is more so in Middle East and North African (MENA) economies that witnessed a large expansion as a result of a high social demand and massification policies adopted by…

El Hassan, K.

2013-01-01

442

Environmentalism, Globalization and National Economies, 1980-2000  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is commonly assumed that environmentalism harms national economies because environmental regulations constrain economic activity and create incentives for firms to move production and investment to other countries. We point out that global environmentalism involves large-scale institutional changes that: (1) encourage new kinds of economic…

Schofer, Evan; Granados, Francisco J.

2006-01-01

443

A Political Economy of University Funding: The English Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this paper is the coalition United Kingdom government policy on university funding in England as a political economy. It depicts higher education as a public and private good in the context of international trends in "cost sharing" and it addresses the centrality of economic drivers for the profile and orientation of higher education,…

Saunders, Murray

2012-01-01

444

Generic Skills for the New Economy. Review of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The generic skills needed for the new economy were identified through a review of research studies. First, the development of sets of key competencies/key skills in Great Britain, the United States, and Australia were examined. The U.S. model, which involves a broader, more flexible, and more holistic set of generic skills, was contrasted with the…

Kearns, Peter

445

Harnessing the hidden enterprise culture of advanced economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In the majority (third) world, informal employment has been long viewed as an asset to be harnessed rather than a hindrance to development. The purpose of this paper is to show how a similar perspective is starting to be embraced in advanced economies and investigates the implications for public policy of this re-reading. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Documents the shifts

Colin C. Williams; Jan Windebank

2006-01-01

446

Assessment of Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Economies  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study is to examine the marginal lands in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies and evaluate their biomass productivity potential. Twelve categories of marginal lands are identified using the Global Agro-Ecological Zones system of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

2009-08-01

447

Nicaragua: Political-Economy as Communication and Media Influence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Nicaraguan people, through a successful revolution and subsequent elections, have chosen a communist government. This paper, using an historical-descriptive methodology, examines the status of Nicaragua under the current political-economy that prevails in that nation. Political-economic statements made and published in the press that support…

Oseguera, A. Anthony

448

The Essential ways of China low-carbon economy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate problem has become the world's challenges, which most countries must confront. Under the background of carbon emissions growth and fossil energy's unsustainable development, low-carbon economy has become a global trend of economic and social development. Faced with the global emissions pressure and industrialization development energy, resources, with such multiple constraints, urgently need to speed up economic development in China.

JingWei Liu; Ying Wang

2011-01-01

449

Achieving a low carbon economy in a fast developing country  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most fast developing countries have set targets to achieve a developed status in the near future. Nonetheless, emerging economies from developing countries must struggle to balance the need for energy but coping with environmental sustainability principles, both local and globally. Chile has set a voluntary target of capping CO2 emissions by 20 % by the year 2020, with 2007 as

Sebastian Mocarquer; Hugh Rudnick

2011-01-01

450

Commercial bank's development strategy under low-carbon economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-carbon economy as one scientific development way is becoming the choice to achieve sustainable development. In recent years, our country's low carbon economic development brings a series of changes in social and economic field; it also causes corresponding changes in financial sector. Commercial banks as the main form of financial institutions implement low carbon strategy too, but there are

Houmin; Xuqun

2010-01-01

451

Achieving low-carbon economy by disruptive innovation in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a framework for China to achieve low-carbon economy by disruptive innovations. Chinapsilas rapid industrialization and economic growth have significantly increased its energy consumption. The issue of Greenhouse Gas mitigation poses a huge challenge to China to create an innovative and sustainable development pattern. Both theoretical and empirical studies imply that technological transition approach would be a suitable

Zhiwei Wang; Jin Chen

2008-01-01

452

Recovery Act: Transforming the American Economy through Innovation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With over $787 billion in funding, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act is one of the single boldest and largest investments in the U.S. economy in the nation's history. The Recovery Act's design was three-fold: to rescue a rapidly deteriorating eco...

2010-01-01

453

How is water pollution related to economy and human health?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study are not only to examine the rel ationship between water pollution and economy but also to test the interrelations hips between them and human health. This study applies global data over nearly twenty-five years. In addition, a dynamic model and several changes in the spe cification have been applied for the reason of robustness and

Yi-Jung WANG

454

Fringe Focus: Informal Economy and Green Career Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that what are currently regarded as peripheral career development activities will move to the center of career counseling. Argues that counseling in the informal economy and environmentally concerned career counseling will move up the agenda as traditional concepts of careers fade away. (Contains 23 references.) (Author/GCP)

Plant, Peter

1999-01-01

455

Atherosclerosis - The Future Challenge for Europe's Health Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atherosclerotic disease has been a feature of more affluent societies since ancient times. Currently, cardiovascular disease accounts for almost half of all mortality across Europe, causing over two million deaths within the EU and costing EU health economies €192 billion per year. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is complex, and our understanding of it has come a long way over the

Andrew Carson

2010-01-01

456

The political economy of coffee, dictatorship, and genocide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a political economy analysis of the Habyarimana regime in Rwanda. The analysis shows how, through the producer price of coffee, the dictator buys political loyalty from the peasant population, and how, in periods of economic growth, the dictator increases his level of personal consumption as well as power over the population. The analysis of Habyarimana's policy decisions

Philip Verwimp

2003-01-01

457

The Moral Economy of Violence in the US Inner City  

PubMed Central

In an 8-week period, there were 16 shootings with three fatalities, three stabbings, and 14 additional “aggravated assaults” in the four square blocks surrounding our field site in the Puerto Rican corner of North Philadelphia. In the aftermath of the shoot-outs, the drug sellers operating on our block were forced to close down their operations by several mothers who repeatedly called the police. Drawing on the concept of moral economy (Thompson, Scott, Taussig), Mauss’s interpretation of gift exchange, and a political economy critique of hypercarceralization in the United States, we understand the high levels of US inner-city violence as operating within a moral logic framed by economic scarcity and hostile state relations. Residents seek security, self-respect, and profit in social networks that compel them to participate in solidary exchanges of assistive violence dynamized by kinship and gender obligations. A hierarchical, extractive drug economy fills the void left by deindustrialization, resulting in a dynamic of embodied primitive accumulation at the expense of addicted customers and chronically incarcerated just-in-time street sellers at high risk of assault. Nevertheless, the mobilization of violence organizing the illegal drug economy also follows ethical norms and obligations that are recognized as legitimate by many local residents.

Karandinos, George; Hart, Laurie Kain; Castrillo, Fernando Montero; Bourgois, Philippe

2014-01-01

458

Do Liberal Arts Colleges Exhibit Economies of Scale and Scope?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirically estimates a multiple-product fixed total cost function and output relationship for 295 U.S. private liberal-arts colleges. Statistical results suggest that there are economies of scale and scope in higher education. Research at such colleges is not cost-effective. (Contains 31 references.) (MLH)

Koshal, Rajindar K.; Koshal, Manjulika

2000-01-01

459

Controlling for Economy of Expression in Creativity Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether lengthy responses to the blank card reflect a contaminating factor such as glibness in creativity research. Two groups of college students completed the Remote Associates Test, Thematic Apperception Test, or Hand Test. Results suggested that blank cards among ambiguous stimuli evoke not glibness but economy of expression. (JAC)

Wakefield, John F.

1983-01-01

460

Subsistence Economy of El Paraiso, an Early Peruvian Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of food remains from the Preceramic monumental site of El Paraiso, Peru (1800 to 1500 B.C.), have shed new light on a debate regarding the relative importance of seafood versus terrestrial resources and the role of cultigens in subsistence economies during the early development of Peruvian civilization. Fish was the primary animal food at the site whereas plant foods

Jeffrey Quilter; Bernardino Ojeda E; D. H. SANDWEISS; J. G. JONES; E. S. WING

1991-01-01

461

Software agents and the route to the information economy  

PubMed Central

Humans are on the verge of losing their status as the sole economic species on the planet. In private laboratories and in the Internet laboratory, researchers and developers are creating a variety of autonomous economically motivated software agents endowed with algorithms for maximizing profit or utility. Many economic software agents will function as miniature businesses, purchasing information inputs from other agents, combining and refining them into information goods and services, and selling them to humans or other agents. Their mutual interactions will form the information economy: a complex economic web of information goods and services that will adapt to the ever-changing needs of people and agents. The information economy will be the largest multiagent system ever conceived and an integral part of the world's economy. I discuss a possible route toward this vision, beginning with present-day Internet trends suggesting that agents will charge one another for information goods and services. Then, to establish that agents can be competent price setters, I describe some laboratory experiments pitting software bidding agents against human bidders. The agents' superior performance suggests they will be used on a broad scale, which in turn suggests that interactions among agents will become frequent and significant. How will this affect macroscopic economic behavior? I describe some interesting phenomena that my colleagues and I have observed in simulations of large populations of automated buyers and sellers, such as price war cycles. I conclude by discussing fundamental scientific challenges that remain to be addressed as we journey toward the information economy.

Kephart, Jeffrey O.

2002-01-01

462

The Teaching Challenge: Science, Engineering and the Knowledge Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the presidential address delivered to the Association for Science Education (ASE) at its annual meeting held at the University of Surrey, January 2001. Consists of three sections: (1) science and engineering and the knowledge economy; (2) teaching challenge and the role of science teachers; and (3) partnerships to support science,…

Dowling, Patrick

2001-01-01

463

Departmental Productivity in American Universities: Economies of Scale and Scope.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines departmental production and cost structures of a homogeneous sample of 18 research universities to estimate relative economies of scale and scope. Examines three departmental clusters (social, physical, and engineering sciences), using a four-output quadratic cost function. Average incremental and marginal costs are highest for research…

Dundar, Halil; Lewis, Darrell R.

1995-01-01

464

Economies of Scale and Scope in Turkish Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines production and cost structures of 28 Turkish universities to estimate their economies of scale and scope. Estimates multiproduct cost functions for teaching and research, examining social, health, and engineering sciences departments across 186 college faculties. Average incremental and marginal costs are highest for graduate instruction…

Lewis, Darrell R.; Dundar, Halil

1995-01-01

465

Wage bargaining and shock sensitivity of a small open economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the effects of centralized bargaining over a nominal wage (indexation) rule on a small open economy with fixed exchange rates. It is shown that the relative bargaining power of the confederation of employers and the union, respectively, affects not only the level of the endogenous variables but also their reaction to exogenous disturbances. If the union's power

Ernst Fehr; Franz X. Hof

1994-01-01

466

How Does Global Disinflation Drag Inflation in Small Open Economies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows the way how persistent world inflation shocks hitting a small open economy can re-weight the importance of domestic and foreign factors in the determination of prices. In this sense, we study why the recently observed global disinflation environment may imply a weakening of the standard interest rate channel of monetary policy to affect inflation. We derive a

Diego Winkelried; Diego Winkelreid

2004-01-01

467

Sustainable Energy Economy: The Next Challenge for Systems Engineers; Preprint.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The realities of shrinking fossil fuel reserves, growing global energy demand, and climate change concerns will force a change to a sustainable energy economy. Systems engineers need to take a leadership role in making the transition to this new energy ec...

N. Snyder

2008-01-01

468

DRI Model of the U.S. Economy -- Model Documentation:  

EIA Publications

Provides documentation on Data Resources, Inc., DRI Model of the U.S. Economy and the DRI Personal Computer Input/Output Model. It also describes the theoretical basis, structure and functions of both DRI models; and contains brief descriptions of the models and their equations.

Information Center

1993-12-01

469

Conditionality and Ownership in IMF Lending: A Political Economy Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between IMF conditionality and country ownership of assistance programs is considered from a political economy perspective, focusing on the question of why conditionality is needed if it is in a country’s best interests to undertake the reform program. It is argued that heterogeneity of interests must form the basis of any discussion of conditionality and ownership. The Paper

Allan Drazen

2002-01-01

470

Clandestine Employment: The Situation in the Industrialised Market Economy Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As an introduction to the study of this complex matter, this book outlines both the current situation and the discussions on clandestine employment which are at present taking place in the industrialized market economy countries. In the first part the aut...

R. de Grazia

1984-01-01

471

The political economy of timber taxation: The case of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the political economy of timber taxation in Ghana. Our results show that politicians maintain control over allocation of timber rights, that taxation constitutes an insignificant share of the value of the timber resource, and that the distribution of timber revenues hardly contributes towards the official forest policy justifications. Our analysis suggests that politicians wield control over rent-seeking opportunities

Christian P. Hansen; Jens F. Lund

2011-01-01

472

EMISSIONS AND FUEL ECONOMY OF FEDERAL ALTERNATIVELY FUELED FLEET VEHICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents results from a study designed to investigate the effects of automobile fuels on emissions and fuel economy. The study is part of a larger program mandated by the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988 that requires the Department of Energy (DOE), in cooperation w...

473

Employment, migration and livelihoods in the Hill Economy of Uttaranchal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on primary survey data, the study begins with a brief overview of the theoretical and empirical evidence on employment and livelihoods for rural households in Chapter I. A macro picture of the economy of Uttaranchal is presented in Chapters II and III based on the secondary data. The former analyses the composition and trends in the growth of state

Rajendra P. Mamgain

2004-01-01

474

Fuel Economy Through Teamwork. Energy Savings in School Transportation Publication Series. 1. Pupil Transportation and Energy Conservation. 2. Purchasing for Fuel Economy. 3. Driving for Fuel Economy. 4. Operating for Fuel Economy. 5. The Science of Saving Fuel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication series of five booklets presents a summary of tips for saving energy in pupil transportation. The first booklet offers guidelines and suggestions to assist school transportation administration in achieving better fuel economy and cost management goals. The second presents purchasing tips and shows ways to use benefit cost analysis…

BRI Systems, Inc., Phoenix, AZ.

475

Fuel Economy Standards, New Vehicle Sales, and Average Fuel Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average fuel efficiency of new automobiles sold in the United States increased substantially from 1975 to 1981. This trend stagnated in 1981, however, and average fuel efficiency has actually fallen since 1987. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards—the major policy tool in the United States directed at improving fuel efficiency—may have contributed to the stagnation and decline of average

Steven G. Thorpe

1997-01-01

476

Skeptics Say Billions for Education Won't Stimulate Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Skeptics question whether infusion of billions of dollars for education in the economic-stimulus bill before Congress would actually give a healthy jolt to the economy. The bill would help thousands of students pay for college and could give colleges money to fix crumbling buildings. Some members of Congress are calling for the removal of…

Field, Kelly

2009-01-01

477

Cash-based related party transactions in new economy firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to investigate associations between related party transactions (RPTs) and governance and performance factors of new economy firms. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Previous research has examined the RPTs of large US firms. In contrast, the authors focus on smaller, newly listed Australian firms. Referred to as “commitments test entities” (CTE), these firms are distinguished by the unique Australian

Gerry Gallery; Natalie Gallery; Matthew Supranowicz

2008-01-01

478

Jordan Reforms Public Education to Compete in a Global Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The King of Jordan's vision for education is resulting in innovative projects for the country. King Abdullah II wants Jordan to develop its human resources through public education to equip the workforce with skills for the future. From King Abdullah II's vision, the Education Reform for a Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) project implemented by the…

Erickson, Paul W.

2009-01-01

479

Scitovsky's The Joyless Economy and the economics of happiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scitovsky's The Joyless Economy is especially well-known in recent economic studies on happiness. However, his insightful contributions have not been taken up as they deserve, mainly because they were, and still are, too original. By reconstructing Scitovsky's analysis on the basis of all his relevant writings, this article integrates his most original concepts, such as novelty, consumption skill, endogenous preferences,

Maurizio Pugno

2012-01-01

480

Growth of the Japanese Economy: Challenges to American National Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As the Japanese economy has grown more powerful over the last two decades, there has been an increasing number of influential Americans who have voiced the fear that sharp economic competition from Japan is beginning to threaten the health of the US econo...

D. T. Frankenberger

1991-01-01

481

Structural adjustment, agriculture, and deforestation in the Sumatera regional economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian financial crisis led to a major devaluation of the Indonesian exchange rate, macro instability, and the need for a “structural adjustment” program. The real devaluation affects prices throughout the economy and has a major impact on growth, production, deforestation, and income distribution in the Sumatera region. This paper uses computable general equilibrium (CGE) models —a national model and

Nu Nu San; Hans Löfgren; Sherman Robinson

2000-01-01

482

Intangible management and enterprise success in the Chinese transitional economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has undergone extensive reform of its business system in its rapid transition to a market economy. In this process, the success of enterprises has depended heavily on changing structural conditions, such as the transformation of ownership and market competition, on the ability of management to adapt to new labour and product markets, and on new ways of getting workers

Ying Zhu; Michael Webber; John Benson

2010-01-01

483

Poli 672 Fall Semester 2007 International Political Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This course provides an introduction to the field of International Political Economy. We survey the major approaches to the study of international economic relations and apply them to the fields of trade, capital mobility, and foreign direct investment. Prerequisites: This course is an advanced graduate seminar. First, it assumes familiarity with the major schools of IR theory and a

Yakub Halabi

484

Facilitating Innovations in Higher Education in Transition Economies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse innovations in education from the point of view of product content and markets selected. Emerging market economies face a number of problems many of which are closely linked to and dependent upon the effectiveness of higher professional education. External environment changes, such as the formation…

Saginova, Olga; Belyansky, Vladimir

2008-01-01

485

A Global Economy Perspective on U.S. History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that teachers often ignore the role of the world economy in U.S. history, leading students to conclude that global economic issues were not important to U.S. development. Describes an imaginary conversation between Benjamin Franklin and a social studies teacher in which Franklin discusses the significance of international trade and…

Wentworth, Donald R.

1994-01-01

486

Enterprise-Level Computing in the Soviet Economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since 1966 the Soviets have undertaken a massive program to introduce computer-based information and control systems (ASUs) into all management levels of the economy. ASU is a generic term used by the Soviets to designate a wide variety of computerized da...

1987-01-01

487

Mergers in the Presence of Economies of Scope  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the extensive economics literature on mergers, there is little theoretical work on whether economies of scope might explain mergers between …rms and, if so, what type of mergers will occur. Some recent applied literature on banking, insurance, electricity generation industry, airlines, urban transport, in the EU and the USA, as well as on the healthcare industry in the USA,

Duarte Brito

2002-01-01

488

The Political Economy of Services in Regional Trade Agreements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do the services commitments that countries have made in their post-Uruguay Round regional trade agreements (RTAs) indicate the types of concessions that they would be willing to multilateralise in the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)? While there are important legal and economic dimensions to ponder in answering this question, considerations of political economy must also be taken into

Craig VanGrasstek

2011-01-01

489

Federalism and European Union: A Political Economy Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federalism and European Union examines the decision to adopt EMU as a federal bargain by the European Union as designed to provide the countries of Europe with a bulwark against the volatility of the international economy. Although the precise motives of the participants varied from country to country, all were agreed that only federal like political and economic arrangements would

David McKay

490

Unmeasurable characteristics in comparing economies: Poland and European Union Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the recent period of economic and political change, many countries of Central and Eastern Europe are interested in integrating with the European Union. Therefore, there is considerable significance in comparative research in economic policies. One of the methods used is the taxonomic approach. During the evaluation and comparison of various national economies' development, both measurable and unmeasurable features are

Maciej Jesionowski

1998-01-01

491

Student Activity Guide for "Business in an Information Economy."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 20 chapters of this student activity guide provide study guides (key terms and concepts reviews), projects, cases for analyses, and self-assessment exercises for business and career education classes. Topics covered include the following: business winners (entrepreneurship); growth of the U.S. economy, the basics of economics, comparing…

Graf, David; And Others

492

The hydrogen economy, fuel cells, and electric cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hopes have again been raised about developing a “hydrogen economy”, in which hydrogen could be expected to replace oil and natural gas for most uses, including transportation and heating. It is again being claimed that hydrogen will be a widely available, clean, safe fuel. This article argues that such expectations are almost certainly illusory. Hydrogen, like electricity, is not an

Reuel Shinnar

2003-01-01

493

Domination and evolution in agent based model of an economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce Agent Based Model of a pure exchange economy and a simple economy that includes production, consumption and distributions. Markets are described by Edgeworth Exchange in both models. Trades are binary bilateral trades at prices that are set in each trade. We found that the prices converge over time to a value that is not the standard Equilibrium value given by the Walrasian Tattonement fiction. The average price, and the distributions of Wealth, depends on the degree of Domination (persuasive power) we introduced based on differentials in trading "leverage" due to wealth differences. The full economy model is allowed to evolve by replacement of agents that do not survive with agents having random properties. We found that, depending upon the average productivity compared to the average consumption, very different kinds of behavior emerged. The Economy as a whole reaches a steady state by the population adapting to the conditions of productivity and consumption. Correlations develop in a population between what would be for each individual a random assignment of Productivity, Labor power, Wealth, and Preferences. The population adapts to the economic environment by development of these Correlations and without any learning process. We see signs of emerging social structure as a result of necessity of survival.

Kazmi, Syed S.

494

Solidarity Economies in Marche, Italy: current trends and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper illustrates selected results of an exploratory research study coordinated by the “Solidarity Economy Network” of the Marche Region in Italy (REES Marche) in 2010-2011. The study was funded by Banca Popolare Etica, it involved three Universities of the Region (Università Politecnica delle Marche, Università di Macerata, Università di Camerino), adopting an interdisciplinary approach. It aimed at investigating the

Matteo Belletti; Francesco Orazi; Marco Socci; Marco Giovagnoli; Barbara Pojaghi

2012-01-01

495

Economies of Scale and Scope in Australian Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper estimates economies of scale and scope for 36 Australian universities using a multiple-input, multiple-output cost function over the period 1998-2006. The three inputs included in the analysis are full-time equivalent academic and non-academic staff and physical capital. The five outputs are undergraduate, postgraduate and PhD…

Worthington, A. C.; Higgs, H.

2011-01-01

496

Regulating the cellular economy of supply and demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular metabolism is a molecular economy that is functionally organised into supply and demand blocks linked by metabolic products and cofactor cycles. Supply–demand analysis allows the behaviour, control and regulation of metabolism as a whole to be understood quantitatively in terms of the elasticities of supply and demand, which are experimentally measurable properties of the individual blocks. The kinetic and

Jan-Hendrik S. Hofmeyr; Athel Cornish-Bowden

2000-01-01

497

The Economic Impacts of the College on the Local Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This economic impact analysis presents the methods and findings of a study of the short-term effects of Broome Community College on the local economy. Chapter I provides an introduction to the purpose of the study, and its research antecedents. After discussing the general research approach used in the study, chapter II presents the mathematical…

Romano, R.; Herbert, N.

498

The importance of animal production to the national economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractFor a number of years now, New Zealand has staggered from one crisis to another in respect of her overseas balance of payments, and one has only to examine the make-up of exports to appreciate her vital dependence upon the sale of animal produce for the overseas exchanges she needs to support the economy. Last year, for instance, well over

L. R. Wallace

1966-01-01

499

Hidden Challenges to Education Systems in Transition Economies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, published by the World Bank, sounds the alarm for education in Europe and Central Asia (ECA). It describes how the transition from communism to free-market economies has left many countries' educational systems in disarray. At the start of transition, ECA education systems had solved problems that plagued other regions of the world,…

Berryman, Sue E.

500

Study on Green Supply Chain Management Based on Circular Economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article starts with circular economy and the connotation of green supply chain, then analyzes the difference between green supply chain and traditional supply chain and elaborates the content of green supply chain management. On that basis, the approach to implement green supply chain management in china shall be put forward.

Ying, Jiang; Li-jun, Zhou