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Sample records for ecvam retrospective validation

  1. ECVAM retrospective validation of in vitro micronucleus test (MNT)

    PubMed Central

    Corvi, Raffaella; Albertini, Silvio; Hartung, Thomas; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Maurici, Daniela; Pfuhler, Stefan; van Benthem, Jan; Vanparys, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    In the past decade several studies comparing the in vitro chromosome aberration test (CAT) and the in vitro micronucleus test (MNT) were performed. A high correlation was observed in each of the studies (>85%); however, no formal validation for the micronucleus in vitro assay had been carried out. Therefore, a working group was established by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) to perform a retrospective validation of the existing data, in order to evaluate the validity of the in vitro MNT on the basis of the modular validation approach. The primary focus of this retrospective validation was on the evaluation of the potential of the in vitro MNT as alternative to the standard in vitro CAT. The working group evaluated, in a first step, the available published data and came to the conclusion that two studies [German ring trial, von der Hude, W., Kalweit, S., Engelhardt, G. et al. (2000) In-vitro micronucleus assay with Chinese hamster V79 cells: results of a collaborative study with 26 chemicals. Mutat. Res., 468, 137–163, and SFTG International Collaborative Study, Lorge, E., Thybaud, V., Aardema, M., Oliver, J., Wataka, A., Lorenzon, G. and Marzin, D. (2006) SFTG International Collaborative Study on in-vitro micronucleus test I. General conditions and overall conclusions of the study. Mutat. Res., 607, 13–36] met the criteria for a retrospective validation according to the criteria previously defined by the working group. These two studies were evaluated in depth (including the reanalysis of raw data) and provided the information required for assessing the reliability (reproducibility) of the test. For the assessment of the concordance between the in vitro MNT and the in vitro CAT, additional published data were considered. Based on this retrospective validation, the ECVAM Validation Management Team concluded that the in vitro MNT is reliable and relevant and can therefore be used as an alternative method to the in vitro CAT

  2. ECVAM's approach to intellectual property rights in the validation of alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Linge, Jens P; Hartung, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    In this article, we discuss how intellectual property rights affect the validation of alternative methods at ECVAM. We point out recent cases and summarise relevant EU and OECD documents. Finally, we discuss guidelines for dealing with intellectual property rights during the validation of alternative methods at ECVAM. PMID:17850189

  3. Overcoming barriers to validation of non-animal partial replacement methods/Integrated Testing Strategies: the report of an EPAA-ECVAM workshop.

    PubMed

    Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Akkan, Zerrin; Casati, Silvia; Coecke, Sandra; Corvi, Raffaella; Dal Negro, Gianni; De Bruijn, Jack; De Silva, Odile; Gribaldo, Laura; Griesinger, Claudius; Jaworska, Joanna; Kreysa, Joachim; Maxwell, Gavin; McNamee, Pauline; Price, Anna; Prieto, Pilar; Schubert, Roland; Tosti, Luca; Worth, Andrew; Zuang, Valerie

    2009-09-01

    The use of Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS) in toxicological hazard identification and characterisation is becoming increasingly common as a method for enabling the integration of diverse types of toxicology data. At present, there are no existing procedures and guidelines for the construction and validation of ITS, so a joint EPAA WG5-ECVAM workshop was held with the following objectives: a) to investigate the role of ITS and the need for validation of ITS in the different industry sectors (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, chemicals); b) to formulate a common definition of ITS applicable across different sectors; c) to explore how and when Three Rs methods are used within ITS; and d) to propose a validation rationale for ITS and for alternative methods that are foreseen to be used within ITS. The EPAA provided a platform for comparing experiences with ITS across different industry sectors. It became clear that every ITS has to be adapted to the product type, R&D stage, and regulatory context. However, common features of ITS were also identified, and this permitted the formulation of a general definition of ITS in a regulatory context. The definition served as a basis for discussing the needs, rationale and process of formal ITS validation. One of the main conclusions was that a formal validation should not be required, unless the strategy will serve as full replacement of an in vivo study used for regulatory purposes. Finally, several challenges and bottlenecks to the ITS validation were identified, and it was agreed that a roadmap on how to address these barriers would be established by the EPAA partners. PMID:19807215

  4. The Production of Polyclonal Antibodies in Laboratory Animals. The Report and Recommendations of ECVAM Workshop 35.

    PubMed

    Leenaars, P P; Hendriksen, C F; de Leeuw, W A; Carat, F; Delahaut, P; Fischer, R; Halder, M; Hanly, W C; Hartinger, J; Hau, J; Lindblad, E B; Nicklas, W; Outschoorn, I M; Stewart-Tull, D E

    1999-01-01

    This is the report of the thirty-fifth of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM's main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. One of the first priorities set by ECVAM was the implementation of procedures which would enable it to become well informed about the state-of-the-art of non-animal test development and validation, and the potential for the possible incorporation of alternative tests into regulatory procedures. It was decided that this would be best achieved by the organisation of ECVAM workshops on specific topics, at which small groups of invited experts would review the current status of various types of in vitro tests and their potential uses, and make recommendations about the best ways forward (1). This joint ECVAM/FELASA (Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations) workshop on The Immunisation of Laboratory Animals for the Production of Polyclonal Antibodies was held in Utrecht (The Netherlands), on 20-22 March 1998, under the co-chairmanship of Coenraad Hendriksen (RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands) and Wim de Leeuw (Inspectorate for Health Protection, The Netherlands). The participants, all experts in the fields of immunology, laboratory animal science, or regulation, came from universities, industry and regulatory bodies. The aims of the workshop were: a) to discuss and evaluate current immunisation procedures for the production of polyclonal antibodies (including route of injection, animal species and adjuvant ); and b) to draft recommendations and guidelines to improve the immunisation procedures, with regard both to animal welfare and to the optimisation of immunisation protocols. This report summarises the outcome of the discussions and includes

  5. ECVAM's ongoing activities in the area of acute oral toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Bulgheroni, Anna; Hartung, Thomas; Prieto, Pilar

    2009-12-01

    The 7th Amendment of the Cosmetics Directive (2003/15/EC) set up timelines for banning animal testing and marketing of cosmetic products and their ingredients tested on animals. For most of the human health effects, including acute toxicity, the deadline for these bans was in March 2009. Moreover, the new Regulation EC 1907/2006 on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) provided a strong impetus towards the application of alternative approaches to reduce the number of animals used for toxicological testing. Therefore, the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) is currently putting considerable effort into developing and validating alternative methods in the field of acute toxicity. The main activities in this area include: (1) the Integrated Project ACuteTox, funded by the European Commission's 6th Framework Programme in 2005 with the aim to develop and pre-validate a testing strategy to fully replace acute oral toxicity testing in vivo; (2) a follow-up validation study to assess the predictive capacity of the validated BALB/3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity assay to discriminate between toxic/hazardous (LD(50)<2,000 mg/kg) substances and substances not classified for acute toxicity (LD(50)>2,000 mg/kg); (3) an approach to identify compounds with LD(50)>2,000 mg/kg using information from 28-days repeated dose toxicity studies. PMID:19591916

  6. ECVAM: desperately needed or superfluous? An animal welfare perspective.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman

    2002-12-01

    Eurogroup for Animal Welfare is the umbrella organisation of the major animal welfare organisations in Europe. Whereas its long-term goal is the complete replacement of animal experiments by methods that do not involve pain, suffering or distress in animals, it is also committed to any reasonable effort to reduce and refine animal experiments, as long as these continue to be carried out. Eurogroup therefore supports the activities of ECVAM, and it acknowledges the contributions to animal protection in various areas of animal use for scientific purposes made by ECVAM to date. Eurogroup is not satisfied with the number of alternative methods accepted in the past, but it sees the main responsibility for the slow progress as being outside ECVAM. The insufficient involvement of ECVAM by the EU Commission in various issues that would require its competence is also a matter of concern to Eurogroup. PMID:12513669

  7. Validity Threats in Retrospective Pretest-Posttest Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprangers, Mirjam

    Social desirability responding and effort justification were each studied for their effect on response shift as seen in retrospective pretest-posttest responses. The first study used a bogus pipeline induction (half the subjects were told their self-reporting could later be validated) before the self-report pretest. After experimental or control…

  8. The validity of retrospectively reported conflict interactions in couples.

    PubMed

    Backer-Fulghum, Lindsey M; Sanford, Keith

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the extent to which researchers and clinicians can obtain valid retrospective self-reports of couples' conflict interactions outside a laboratory setting. A distinction was made between relationship attribute variance, regarding a shared perspective of both partners, and informant-specific variance, regarding the unique vantage point of each partner. By examining convergent and divergent associations for each type of variance, this study clarified the risk that responses might be influenced by informant-specific biases related to levels of relationship satisfaction. This study also investigated potential moderators of validity. Participants included both members of 269 married and cohabiting couples (538 individuals) who completed online questionnaires. Results were analyzed using a correlated trait-correlated method minus one model. The total true variance included large components of both shared relationship attribute variance and informant-specific variance. Although the shared component was moderately correlated with relationship satisfaction, the informant-specific component was mostly distinct from satisfaction, suggesting minimal bias. Convergent correlations between partners were strong and mostly unrelated to potential moderating variables, albeit slightly smaller than reported in studies conducted in laboratory settings. The results generally support the validity for retrospective self-reports of conflict interactions, especially when reports are obtained from both members of a couple. PMID:25689089

  9. Assessment of the predictive capacity of the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity test method to identify substances not classified for acute oral toxicity (LD50>2000 mg/kg): results of an ECVAM validation study.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Pilar; Cole, Thomas; Curren, Rodger; Gibson, Rosemary M; Liebsch, Manfred; Raabe, Hans; Tuomainen, Anita M; Whelan, Maurice; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka

    2013-04-01

    Assessing chemicals for acute oral toxicity is a standard information requirement of regulatory testing. However, animal testing is now prohibited in the cosmetics sector in Europe, and strongly discouraged for industrial chemicals. Building on the results of a previous international validation study, a follow up study was organised to assess if the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity assay could identify substances not requiring classification as acute oral toxicants under the EU regulations. Fifty-six coded industrial chemicals were tested in three laboratories, each using one of the following protocols: the previously validated protocol, an abbreviated version of the protocol and the protocol adapted for an automation platform. Predictions were very similar among the three laboratories. The assay exhibited high sensitivity (92-96%) but relatively low specificity (40-44%). Three chemicals were under predicted. Assuming that most industrial chemicals are not likely to be acutely toxic, this test method could prove a valuable component of an integrated testing strategy, a read-across argument, or weight-of-evidence approach to identify non toxic chemicals (LD50>2000 mg/kg). However, it is likely to under predict chemicals acting via specific mechanisms of action not captured by the 3T3 test system, or which first require biotransformation in vivo. PMID:23246604

  10. Validity of Adult Retrospective Reports of Adverse Childhood Experiences: Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardt, Jochen; Rutter, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Background: Influential studies have cast doubt on the validity of retrospective reports by adults of their own adverse experiences in childhood. Accordingly, many researchers view retrospective reports with scepticism. Method: A computer-based search, supplemented by hand searches, was used to identify studies reported between 1980 and 2001 in…

  11. The 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test: practical experience and implications for phototoxicity testing--the report of an ECVAM-EFPIA workshop.

    PubMed

    Ceridono, Mara; Tellner, Pär; Bauer, Daniel; Barroso, João; Alépée, Nathalie; Corvi, Raffaella; De Smedt, Ann; Fellows, Mick D; Gibbs, Neil K; Heisler, Eckhard; Jacobs, Abigail; Jirova, Dagmar; Jones, David; Kandárová, Helena; Kasper, Peter; Akunda, Jacqueline Kinyamu; Krul, Cyrille; Learn, Douglas; Liebsch, Manfred; Lynch, Anthony M; Muster, Wolfgang; Nakamura, Kazuichi; Nash, J Frank; Pfannenbecker, Uwe; Phillips, Gareth; Robles, Catherine; Rogiers, Vera; Van De Water, Femke; Liminga, Ulla Wändel; Vohr, Hans-Werner; Wattrelos, Olivier; Woods, Julie; Zuang, Valérie; Kreysa, Joachim; Wilcox, Phil

    2012-08-01

    This is the report from the "ECVAM-EFPIA workshop on 3T3 NRU Phototoxicity Test: Practical Experience and Implications for Phototoxicity Testing", jointly organized by ECVAM and EFPIA and held on the 25-27 October 2010 in Somma Lombardo, Italy. The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) was established in 1991 within the European Commission Joint Research, based on a Communication from the European Commission (1991). The main objective of ECVAM is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine and replace the use of laboratory animals. The European Federation of Pharmaceuticals Industries and Association (EFPIA) represent the pharmaceutical industry operating in Europe. Through its direct membership of 31 national associations and 40 leading pharmaceutical companies, EFPIA is the voice on the EU scene of 2200 companies committed to researching, developing and bringing to patients new medicines that improve health and the quality of life around the world. The workshop, co-chaired by Joachim Kreysa (ECVAM) and Phil Wilcox (GSK, EFPIA) involved thirty-five experts from academia, regulatory authorities and industry, invited to contribute with their experiences in the field of phototoxicology. The main objectives of the workshop were: -to present 'in use' experience of the pharmaceutical industry with the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake Phototoxicity Test (3T3 NRU-PT), -to discuss why it differs from the results in the original validation exercise, -to discuss technical issues and consider ways to improve the usability of the 3T3 NRU-PT for (non-topical) pharmaceuticals, e.g., by modifying the threshold of chemical light absorption to trigger photo-toxicological testing, and by modifying technical aspects of the assay, or adjusting the criteria used to classify a positive response. During the workshop, the assay methodology was reviewed by comparing the OECD

  12. Validation of the CDA CAMBRA caries risk assessment--a six-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Doméjean, Sophie; White, Joel M; Featherstone, John D B

    2011-10-01

    The present manuscript presents the results of a six-year retrospective study validating caries risk assessment in a caries management by risk assessment program in a large predominantly adult patient population seeking dental care. CRA was successful in accurately identifying patients at high caries risk. Caries risk assessment in a CAMBRA program is a good clinical tool for everyday dental practice. PMID:22132582

  13. A Method of Retrospective Computerized System Validation for Drug Manufacturing Software Considering Modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masakazu; Fukue, Yoshinori

    This paper proposes a Retrospective Computerized System Validation (RCSV) method for Drug Manufacturing Software (DMSW) that relates to drug production considering software modification. Because DMSW that is used for quality management and facility control affects big impact to quality of drugs, regulatory agency required proofs of adequacy for DMSW's functions and performance based on developed documents and test results. Especially, the work that explains adequacy for previously developed DMSW based on existing documents and operational records is called RCSV. When modifying RCSV conducted DMSW, it was difficult to secure consistency between developed documents and test results for modified DMSW parts and existing documents and operational records for non-modified DMSW parts. This made conducting RCSV difficult. In this paper, we proposed (a) definition of documents architecture, (b) definition of descriptive items and levels in the documents, (c) management of design information using database, (d) exhaustive testing, and (e) integrated RCSV procedure. As a result, we could conduct adequate RCSV securing consistency.

  14. Development and Retrospective Validation of the Juvenile Spondyloarthritis Disease Activity (JSpADA) Index

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Pamela F.; Colbert, Robert A.; Xiao, Rui; Feudtner, Chris; Beukelman, Timothy; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Pagnini, Ilaria; Wright, Tracey B.; Wallace, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop and validate a Juvenile Spondyloarthritis (JSpA) Disease Activity (JSpADA) index for use in clinical practice and research. Methods Using modified Delphi consensus techniques, ten items were selected by participants in the international pediatric rheumatology list-serve, the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance, and the list-serve for the Pediatric Section of the American College of Rheumatology. Validation was performed in a retrospective multicenter cohort of 243 children. Results 106 physicians representing 14 countries completed the initial questionnaire. Completion rates for the subsequent questionnaires were 84%, 75%, and 77% of the original respondents. Ten items reached 80% consensus: arthritis, enthesitis, patient pain assessment, inflammatory markers, morning stiffness, clinical sacroiliitis, uveitis, back mobility, and patient and physician assessments of disease activity. Two items were eliminated after item analysis (patient and physician assessments of disease activity). Factor analysis identified 3 primary domains that explain 58% of variance: peripheral disease, axial disease, and uveitis. Cronbach α coefficient was 0.66. The JSpADA had high or moderate correlations with the Juvenile Arthritis disease activity score (r=0.80), patient and physician assessments of disease activity (r=0.70 and 0.66), and the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (r=0.56). The JSpADA discriminated well between subjects with active versus inactive disease (p<0.001) and was responsive to improvement or worsening in disease activity over time (p<0.001). Conclusion Using international input and consensus formation techniques, we developed and validated the first disease activity assessment for JSpA. Future studies should validate the JSpADA index in a prospective multi-center cohort. PMID:25047959

  15. Retrospective validation of renewal-based, medium-term earthquake forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotondi, R.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, some methods for scoring the performances of an earthquake forecasting probability model are applied retrospectively for different goals. The time-dependent occurrence probabilities of a renewal process are tested against earthquakes of Mw ≥ 5.3 recorded in Italy according to decades of the past century. An aim was to check the capability of the model to reproduce the data by which the model was calibrated. The scoring procedures used can be distinguished on the basis of the requirement (or absence) of a reference model and of probability thresholds. Overall, a rank-based score, information gain, gambling scores, indices used in binary predictions and their loss functions are considered. The definition of various probability thresholds as percentages of the hazard functions allows proposals of the values associated with the best forecasting performance as alarm level in procedures for seismic risk mitigation. Some improvements are then made to the input data concerning the completeness of the historical catalogue and the consistency of the composite seismogenic sources with the hypotheses of the probability model. Another purpose of this study was thus to obtain hints on what is the most influential factor and on the suitability of adopting the consequent changes of the data sets. This is achieved by repeating the estimation procedure of the occurrence probabilities and the retrospective validation of the forecasts obtained under the new assumptions. According to the rank-based score, the completeness appears to be the most influential factor, while there are no clear indications of the usefulness of the decomposition of some composite sources, although in some cases, it has led to improvements of the forecast.

  16. Where We Used to Live: Validating Retrospective Measures of Childhood Neighborhood Context for Life Course Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Osypuk, Theresa L.; Kehm, Rebecca; Misra, Dawn P.

    2015-01-01

    Early life exposures influence numerous social determinants of health, as distal causes or confounders of later health outcomes. Although a growing literature is documenting how early life socioeconomic position affects later life health, few epidemiologic studies have tested measures for operationalizing early life neighborhood context, or examined their effects on later life health. In the Life-course Influences on Fetal Environments (LIFE) Study, a retrospective cohort study among Black women in Southfield, Michigan (71% response rate), we tested the validity and reliability of retrospectively-reported survey-based subjective measures of early life neighborhood context(N=693). We compared 3 subjective childhood neighborhood measures (disorder, informal social control, victimization), with 3 objective childhood neighborhood measures derived from 4 decades of historical census tract data 1970-2000, linked through geocoded residential histories (tract % poverty, tract % black, tract deprivation score derived from principal components analysis), as well as with 2 subjective neighborhood measures in adulthood. Our results documented that internal consistency reliability was high for the subjective childhood neighborhood scales (Cronbach’s α =0.89, 0.93). Comparison of subjective with objective childhood neighborhood measures found moderate associations in hypothesized directions. Associations with objective variables were strongest for neighborhood disorder (rhos=.40), as opposed to with social control or victimization. Associations between subjective neighborhood context in childhood versus adulthood were moderate and stronger for residentially-stable populations. We lastly formally tested for, but found little evidence of, recall bias of the retrospective subjective reports of childhood context. These results provide evidence that retrospective reports of subjective neighborhood context may be a cost-effective, valid, and reliable method to operationalize early

  17. Reliability and Validity of Retrospective Behavioral Self-Report by Narcotics Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anglin, M. Douglas; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reliability and validity of self-reported behavior within a deviant population are examined using data from 2 interviews with 323 narcotics addicts conducted 10 years apart (1974-75 and 1985-86). Results complement existing reliability and validity studies of alcohol use, and suggest that quality information can be obtained from heroin users. (SLD)

  18. Effects of the EVCAM chemical validation library on differentiation using marker gene expression in lmouse embryonic stem cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adherent cell differentiation and cytotoxicity (ACDC) assay was used to profile the effects of the ECVAM EST validation chemical library (19 compounds) on J1 mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC). PCR-based TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA) provided a high-content assessment of al...

  19. Identification and retrospective validation of T-cell epitopes in the hepatitis C virus genotype 4 proteome

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Hady, Karim M; Gutierrez, Andres H; Terry, Frances; Desrosiers, Joe; De Groot, Anne S; Azzazy, Hassan ME

    2014-01-01

    With over 150 million people chronically infected worldwide and millions more infected annually, hepatitis C continues to pose a burden on the global healthcare system. The standard therapy of hepatitis C remains expensive, with severe associated side effects and inconsistent cure rates. Vaccine development against the hepatitis C virus has been hampered by practical and biological challenges posed by viral evasion mechanisms. Despite these challenges, HCV vaccine research has presented a number of candidate vaccines that progressed to phase II trials. However, those efforts focused mainly on HCV genotypes 1 and 2 as vaccine targets and barely enough attention was given to genotype 4, the variant most prevalent in the Middle East and central Africa. We describe herein the in silico identification of highly conserved and immunogenic T-cell epitopes from the HCV genotype 4 proteome, using the iVAX immunoinformatics toolkit, as targets for an epitope-driven vaccine. We also describe a fast and inexpensive approach for results validation using the empirical data on the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) as a reference. Our analysis identified 90 HLA class I epitopes of which 20 were found to be novel and 19 more had their binding predictions retrospectively validated; empirical data for the remaining 51 epitopes was insufficient to validate their binding predictions. Our analysis also identified 14 HLA class II epitopes, of which 8 had most of their binding predictions validated. Further investigation is required regarding the efficacy of the identified epitopes as vaccine targets in populations where HCV genotype 4 is most prevalent. PMID:25424944

  20. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire for retrospective estimation of diet during the first 2 years of life

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Neufeld, Lynnette M.; García-Guerra, Armando; Quezada-Sanchez, Amado D.; Orjuela, Manuela A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aims to validate a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), specifically designed to retrospectively estimate dietary intake and supplement consumption during the first two years of life in children from resource poor households in semi-rural Mexico. Methods The FFQ querying about diet during the first 2 years of life was administered to mothers of children (N=84), who participated in a prospective study 3 to 5 years earlier, in which complementary feeding practice questionnaires and 24-hour recall (24hrR) were collected at several time points during the first 2 years of life to evaluate dietary and vitamin supplement intake. The resulting FFQ data were compared to intake data collected during the original study using Spearman correlations, deattenuated correlations and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results Total energy intake, as estimated by the retrospective and original instruments, did not differ in the second year (Yr2); correlations between the measures were significant (r=0.40, p<0.001). The 24hrR and FFQ-Yr2 were significantly correlated for dietary intake of vitamins B6, B12 (p<0.001) and folate (p<0.01); however, after including vitamin supplement intake, the two dietary instruments were correlated only for vitamins A and B12 (p<0.05). Conclusions The FFQ provides a reasonable estimate of a child’s dietary intake of energy and key micronutrients during the second year of life, and permits accurate ranking of intake 3 to 5 years after birth. PMID:23532627

  1. Validation of the species sensitivity distribution in retrospective risk assessment of herbicides at the river basin scale-the Scheldt river basin case study.

    PubMed

    Jesenska, Sona; Nemethova, Sabina; Blaha, Ludek

    2013-09-01

    Species sensitivity distribution (SSD) is commonly used in prospective risk assessment to derive predicted no-effect concentrations, toxicity exposure ratios, and environmental quality standards for individual chemicals such as pesticides. The application of SSD in the retrospective risk assessment of chemical mixtures at the river basin scale (i.e., the estimation of "multiple substance potentially affected fractions" [msPAFs]) has been suggested, but detailed critical assessment of such an application is missing. The present study investigated the impact of different data validation approaches in a retrospective model case study focused on seven herbicides monitored at the Scheldt river basin (Belgium) between 1998 and 2009. The study demonstrated the successful application of the SSD approach. Relatively high impacts of herbicides on aquatic primary producers were predicted. Often, up to 40 % of the primary producer communities were affected, as predicted by chronic msPAF, and in some cases, the predicted impacts were even more pronounced. The risks posed by the studied herbicides decreased during the 1998-2009 period, along with decreasing concentrations of highly toxic pesticides such as simazine or isoproturon. Various data validation approaches (the removal of duplicate values and outliers, the testing of different exposure durations and purities of studied herbicides, etc.) substantially affected SSD at the level of individual studied compounds. However, the time-consuming validation procedures had only a minor impact on the outcomes of the retrospective risk assessment of herbicide mixtures at the river basin scale. Selection of the appropriate taxonomic group for SSD calculation and selection of the species-specific endpoint (i.e., the most sensitive or average value per species) were the most critical steps affecting the final risk values predicted. The present validation study provides a methodological basis for the practical use of SSD in the

  2. Multicenter retrospective evaluation of the validity of the Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score system in children.

    PubMed

    Sellin, Jonathan N; Steele, William J; Simpson, Lauren; Huff, Wei X; Lane, Brandon C; Chern, Joshua J; Fulkerson, Daniel H; Sayama, Christina M; Jea, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE The Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score (TLICS) system was developed to streamline injury assessment and guide surgical decision making. To the best of the authors' knowledge, external validation in the pediatric age group has not been undertaken prior to this report. METHODS This study evaluated the use of the TLICS in a large retrospective series of children and adolescents treated at 4 pediatric medical centers (Texas Children's Hospital, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Riley Children's Hospital, and Doernbecher Children's Hospital). A total of 147 patients treated for traumatic thoracic or lumbar spine trauma between February 1, 2002, and September 1, 2015, were included in this study. Clinical and radiographic data were evaluated. Injuries were classified using American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) status, Denis classification, and TLICS. RESULTS A total of 102 patients (69%) were treated conservatively, and 45 patients (31%) were treated surgically. All patients but one in the conservative group were classified as ASIA E. In this group, 86/102 patients (84%) had Denis type compression injuries. The TLICS in the conservative group ranged from 1 to 10 (mean 1.6). Overall, 93% of patients matched TLICS conservative treatment recommendations (score ≤ 3). No patients crossed over to the surgical group in delayed fashion. In the surgical group, 26/45 (58%) were ASIA E, whereas 19/45 (42%) had neurological deficits (ASIA A, B, C, or D). One of 45 (2%) patients was classified with Denis type compression injuries; 25/45 (56%) were classified with Denis type burst injuries; 14/45 (31%) were classified with Denis type seat belt injuries; and 5/45 (11%) were classified with Denis type fracture-dislocation injuries. The TLICS ranged from 2 to 10 (mean 6.4). Eighty-two percent of patients matched TLICS surgical treatment recommendations (score ≥ 5). No patients crossed over to the conservative management group. Eight patients (8

  3. Validation of the Framingham general cardiovascular risk score in a multiethnic Asian population: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Sarah Yu Weng; Ching, Siew Mooi; Lim, Hooi Min; Chinna, Karuthan

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to examine the validity of the Framingham general cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk chart in a primary care setting. Design This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study. Setting A primary care clinic in a teaching hospital in Malaysia. Participants 967 patients’ records were randomly selected from patients who were attending follow-up in the clinic. Main outcome measures Baseline demographic data, history of diabetes and smoking, blood pressure (BP), and serum lipids were captured from patient records in 1998. Each patient's Framingham CVD score was computed from these parameters. All atherosclerotic CVD events occurring between 1998 and 2007 were counted. Results In 1998, mean age was 57 years with 33.8% men, 6.1% smokers, 43.3% diabetics and 59.7% hypertensive. Median BP was 140/80 mm Hg and total cholesterol 6.0 mmol/L (1.3). The predicted median Framingham general CVD risk score for the study population was 21.5% (IQR 1.2–30.0) while the actual CVD events that occurred in the 10 years was 13.1% (127/967). The median CVD points for men was 30.0, giving them a CVD risk of more than 30%; for women it is 18.5, a CVD risk of 21.5%. Our study found that the Framingham general CVD risk score to have moderate discrimination with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.63. It also discriminates well for Malay (AUC 0.65, p=0.01), Chinese (AUC 0.60, p=0.03), and Indians (AUC 0.65, p=0.001). There was good calibration with Hosmer-Lemeshow test χ2=3.25, p=0.78. Conclusions Taking into account that this cohort of patients were already on treatment, the Framingham General CVD Risk Prediction Score predicts fairly accurately for men and overestimates somewhat for women. In the absence of local risk prediction charts, the Framingham general CVD risk prediction chart is a reasonable alternative for use in a multiethnic group in a primary care setting. PMID:25991451

  4. Recommended lists of genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals for assessment of the performance of new or improved genotoxicity tests: a follow-up to an ECVAM workshop.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, David; Kasper, Peter; Müller, Lutz; Corvi, Raffaella; Speit, Günter

    2008-05-31

    At a recent ECVAM workshop considering ways to reduce the frequency of irrelevant positive results in mammalian cell genotoxicity tests [D. Kirkland, S. Pfuhler, D. Tweats, M. Aardema, R. Corvi, F. Darroudi, A. Elhajouji, H.-R. Glatt, P. Hastwell, M. Hayashi, P. Kasper, S. Kirchner, A. Lynch, D. Marzin, D. Maurici, J.-R. Meunier, L. Müller, G. Nohynek, J. Parry, E. Parry, V. Thybaud, R. Tice, J. van Benthem, P. Vanparys, P. White, How to reduce false positive results when undertaking in vitro genotoxicity testing and thus avoid unnecessary followup animal tests: Report of an ECVAM Workshop, Mutat. Res. 628 (2007) 31-55], recommendations for improvements/modifications to existing tests, and suggestions for new assays were made. Following on from this, it was important to identify chemicals that could be used in the evaluation of modified or new assays. An expert panel was therefore convened and recommendations made for chemicals to fit three different sets of characteristics, namely: This paper therefore contains these three recommended lists of chemicals and describes how these should be used for any test-evaluation programme. PMID:18539078

  5. Psychometric validation of measures of alcohol expectancies, retrospective subjective response, and positive drinking consequences for use with adolescents.

    PubMed

    Morean, M E; Zellers, S; Tamler, M; Krishnan-Sarin, S

    2016-07-01

    The Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale (AEAS), the Subjective Effects of Alcohol Scale, and the Positive Drinking Consequences Questionnaire (PDCQ) are psychometrically sound measures of alcohol expectancies (expectancies), subjective response to alcohol, and positive drinking consequences, respectively, for use with adults. Prior research using these measures suggests that expectancies, subjective response, and positive drinking consequences are related yet distinct determinants of drinking. The current study presents psychometric evaluations of these measures for use with adolescents including confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of the previously identified latent structures, internal consistency, and test-criterion relationships. Legally, alcohol cannot be administered to adolescents, so we assessed retrospective subjective response (during the first drinking episode ever [SEAS First] and the most recent drinking episode [SEAS Recent]). The sample comprised 248 Connecticut high school students (53.6% male; mean age 16.50 [1.19] years; 71.4% White) who completed an anonymous survey. CFA confirmed the latent factor structures for each measure. The AEAS, SEAS First, SEAS Recent and the PDCQ were internally consistent (mean α AEAS=0.83; SEAS First=0.88; SEAS Recent=0.89, PDCQ=0.87). AEAS subscales evidenced moderate overlap with corresponding SEAS First subscales (mean=0.36) and SEAS Recent subscales (mean=0.46) and modest overlap with the PDCQ (mean=0.17). Expectancies, subjective response, and positive drinking consequences also accounted for significant variance in monthly drinking, lifetime maximum number of drinks consumed, and alcohol-related problems. In sum, the AEAS, the retrospective SEAS, and the PDCQ are psychometrically sound measures for use with adolescents. PMID:26967911

  6. Retrospective Assessment of ADHD Symptoms in Childhood: Discriminatory Validity of Finnish Translation of the Wender Utah Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivisaari, Sasa; Laasonen, Marja; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the discriminatory validity of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and its five suggested subscales (Conduct Problems, Impulsivity Problems, Mood Difficulties, Inattention/Anxiety, Academic Concerns) in a Finnish sample. Method: WURS was administered to 114 adults, aged 18 to 55 years. Participants with ADHD (n = 37) and…

  7. Retrospective validation of WTAR and NART scores as estimators of prior cognitive ability using the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936.

    PubMed

    Dykiert, Dominika; Deary, Ian J

    2013-12-01

    In order to assess the degree of cognitive decline resulting from a pathological state, such as dementia, or from a normal aging process, it is necessary to know or to have a valid estimate of premorbid (or prior) cognitive ability. The National Adult Reading Test (NART; Nelson & Willison, 1991) and the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR; Psychological Corporation, 2001) are 2 tests developed to estimate premorbid or prior ability. Due to the rarity of actual prior ability data, validation studies usually compare NART/WTAR performance with measures of current abilities in pathological and nonpathological groups. In this study, we validate the use of WTAR scores and extend the validation of the use of NART scores as estimates of prior ability, vis-à-vis the actual prior (childhood) cognitive ability. We do this in a large sample of healthy older people, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (Deary, Gow, Pattie, & Starr, 2012; Deary et al., 2007). Both NART and WTAR scores were correlated with cognitive ability tested in childhood (r = .66-.68). Scores on both the NART and the WTAR had high stability over a period of 3 years in old age (r in excess of .90) and high interrater reliability. The NART accounted for more unique variance in childhood intelligence than did the WTAR. PMID:23815111

  8. CD8+/FOXP3+-ratio in osteosarcoma microenvironment separates survivors from non-survivors: a multicenter validated retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Fritzsching, Benedikt; Fellenberg, Joerg; Moskovszky, Linda; Sápi, Zoltan; Krenacs, Tibor; Machado, Isidro; Poeschl, Johannes; Lehner, Burkhard; Szendrõi, Miklos; Bosch, Antonio Llombart; Bernd, Ludger; Csóka, Monika; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild; Ewerbeck, Volker; Kinscherf, Ralf; Kunz, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor characterized by juvenile onset, tumor heterogeneity, and early pulmonary metastasis. Therapeutic improvement stagnates since more than two decades. Unlike major malignancies, biomarkers as prognostic factors at time of diagnosis are missing. Disease rareness hampers study recruitment of patient numbers sufficient to outweigh tumor heterogeneity. Here, we analyzed in a multicenter cohort the osteosarcoma microenvironment to reduce effects of tumor cell heterogeneity. We hypothesized that quantitative ratios of intratumoral CD8+T-cells to FOXP3+T-cells (CD8+/FOXP3+-ratios) provide strong prognostic information when analyzed by whole-slide imaging in diagnostic biopsies. We followed recommendations-for-tumor-marker-prognostic-studies (REMARK). From 150 included cases, patients with complete treatment were identified and assigned to the discovery (diagnosis before 2004) or the validation cohort (diagnosis 2004–2012). Highly standardized immunohistochemistry of CD8+ and FOXP3+, which was validated by methylation-specific gene analysis, was performed followed by whole-slide analysis and clinical outcome correlations. We observed improved estimated survival in patients with CD8+/FOXP3+-ratios above the median (3.08) compared to patients with lower CD8+/FOXP3+-ratios (p = 0.000001). No patients with a CD8+/FOXP3+-ratio above the third quartile died within the observation period (median follow-up 69 mo). Multivariate analysis demonstrated independence from current prognostic factors including metastasis and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Data from an independent validation cohort confirmed improved survival (p = 0.001) in patients with CD8+/FOXP3+-ratios above 3.08. Multivariate analysis proofed that this observation was also independent from prognostic factors at diagnosis within the validation cohort. Intratumoral CD8+/FOXP3+-ratio in pretreatment biopsies separates patients with prolonged survival from non

  9. Validation of the chronic disease score-infectious disease (CDS-ID) for the prediction of hospital-associated clostridium difficile infection (CDI) within a retrospective cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aggregate comorbidity scores are useful for summarizing risk and confounder control in studies of hospital-associated infections. The Chronic Disease Score – Infectious Diseases (CDS-ID) was developed for this purpose, but it has not been validated for use in studies of Clostridium difficile Infection (CDI). The aim of this study was to assess the discrimination, calibration and potential for confounder control of CDS-ID compared to age alone or individual comorbid conditions. Methods Secondary analysis of a retrospective cohort study of adult inpatients with 2 or more days of antibiotic exposure at a tertiary care facility during 2005. Logistic regression models were used to predict the development of CDI up to 60 days post-discharge. Model discrimination and calibration were assessed using the c-statistic and Hosmer-Lemeshow (HL) tests, respectively. C-statistics were compared using chi-square tests. Results CDI developed in 185 out of 7,792 patients. The CDS-ID was a better standalone predictor of CDI than age (c-statistic 0.653 vs 0.609, P=0.04). The best discrimination was observed when CDS-ID and age were both used to predict CDI (c-statistic 0.680). All models had acceptable calibration (P>0.05). Conclusion The CDS-ID is a valid tool for summarizing risk of CDI associated with comorbid conditions. PMID:23530876

  10. Derivation and validation of a clinical prediction rule for uncomplicated ureteral stone—the STONE score: retrospective and prospective observational cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Bomann, Scott; Daniels, Brock; Luty, Seth; Molinaro, Annette; Singh, Dinesh; Gross, Cary P

    2014-01-01

    Objective To derive and validate an objective clinical prediction rule for the presence of uncomplicated ureteral stones in patients eligible for computed tomography (CT). We hypothesized that patients with a high probability of ureteral stones would have a low probability of acutely important alternative findings. Design Retrospective observational derivation cohort; prospective observational validation cohort. Setting Urban tertiary care emergency department and suburban freestanding community emergency department. Participants Adults undergoing non-contrast CT for suspected uncomplicated kidney stone. The derivation cohort comprised a random selection of patients undergoing CT between April 2005 and November 2010 (1040 patients); the validation cohort included consecutive prospectively enrolled patients from May 2011 to January 2013 (491 patients). Main outcome measures In the derivation phase a priori factors potentially related to symptomatic ureteral stone were derived from the medical record blinded to the dictated CT report, which was separately categorized by diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the top five factors associated with ureteral stone and these were assigned integer points to create a scoring system that was stratified into low, moderate, and high probability of ureteral stone. In the prospective phase this score was observationally derived blinded to CT results and compared with the prevalence of ureteral stone and important alternative causes of symptoms. Results The derivation sample included 1040 records, with five factors found to be most predictive of ureteral stone: male sex, short duration of pain, non-black race, presence of nausea or vomiting, and microscopic hematuria, yielding a score of 0-13 (the STONE score). Prospective validation was performed on 491 participants. In the derivation and validation cohorts ureteral stone was present in, respectively, 8.3% and 9.2% of the low probability (score 0

  11. The alpha-globin genotype does not influence sickle cell disease severity in a retrospective cross-validation study of the pediatric severity score.

    PubMed

    Joly, Philippe; Pondarré, Corinne; Bardel, Claire; Francina, Alain; Martin, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    To validate the recently proposed pediatric severity score (PSS) for sickle cell disease (SCD), we retrospectively assembled clinical data from a cohort of 122 patients with SCD (105 S/S or S/β(0) -thal. and 17 S/C) followed up for at least 2 years. Besides age and α- and β-globin genotypes, four new parameters were also tested against the PSS: duration of data assembly, neonatal screening, use of transcranial Doppler ultrasound to prevent vasculopathies and β-globin gene cluster haplotype. Once again, the PSS clearly differentiated patients by their β-globin genotype (P=0.004) but not by their age during data assembly (P=0.159). But, surprisingly, alpha-gene deletions were not associated with a lower PSS (P=0.604), possibly reflecting the opposite effects of α-thalassemia on global SCD severity. As for the newly tested parameters, the PSS appeared not to be influenced by the duration of data assembly (P=0.071) and neonatal screening (P=0.678) but rather by the introduction of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (P=0.006). Moreover, the Senegal haplotype at the homozygous state may be associated with a lower PSS. Methodologically, our data globally confirm the usefulness of the PSS to identify major etiological factors of SCD gravity. Nevertheless, the score is surely underestimated for patients who have been switched to a chronic therapy before the main SCD complications. Biologically, our study questions about the exact influence of α-thalassemia on global SCD severity. PMID:21910753

  12. Cumulative Retrospective Exposure Assessment (REA) as a predictor of amphibole asbestos lung burden: validation procedures and results for industrial hygiene and pathology estimates

    PubMed Central

    Roggli, Victor L.; Boelter, Fred W.; Rasmuson, Eric J.; Redinger, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    Context A detailed evaluation of the correlation and linearity of industrial hygiene retrospective exposure assessment (REA) for cumulative asbestos exposure with asbestos lung burden analysis (LBA) has not been previously performed, but both methods are utilized for case-control and cohort studies and other applications such as setting occupational exposure limits. Objective (a) To correlate REA with asbestos LBA for a large number of cases from varied industries and exposure scenarios; (b) to evaluate the linearity, precision, and applicability of both industrial hygiene exposure reconstruction and LBA; and (c) to demonstrate validation methods for REA. Methods A panel of four experienced industrial hygiene raters independently estimated the cumulative asbestos exposure for 363 cases with limited exposure details in which asbestos LBA had been independently determined. LBA for asbestos bodies was performed by a pathologist by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and free asbestos fibers by SEM. Precision, reliability, correlation and linearity were evaluated via intraclass correlation, regression analysis and analysis of covariance. Plaintiff’s answers to interrogatories, work history sheets, work summaries or plaintiff’s discovery depositions that were obtained in court cases involving asbestos were utilized by the pathologist to provide a summarized brief asbestos exposure and work history for each of the 363 cases. Results Linear relationships between REA and LBA were found when adjustment was made for asbestos fiber-type exposure differences. Significant correlation between REA and LBA was found with amphibole asbestos lung burden and mixed fiber-types, but not with chrysotile. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for the precision of the industrial hygiene rater cumulative asbestos exposure estimates and the precision of repeated laboratory analysis were found to be in the excellent range. The ICC estimates were performed

  13. Feasibility of a semi-automated contrast-oriented algorithm for tumor segmentation in retrospectively gated PET images: phantom and clinical validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carles, Montserrat; Fechter, Tobias; Nemer, Ursula; Nanko, Norbert; Mix, Michael; Nestle, Ursula; Schaefer, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    PET/CT plays an important role in radiotherapy planning for lung tumors. Several segmentation algorithms have been proposed for PET tumor segmentation. However, most of them do not take into account respiratory motion and are not well validated. The aim of this work was to evaluate a semi-automated contrast-oriented algorithm (COA) for PET tumor segmentation adapted to retrospectively gated (4D) images. The evaluation involved a wide set of 4D-PET/CT acquisitions of dynamic experimental phantoms and lung cancer patients. In addition, segmentation accuracy of 4D-COA was compared with four other state-of-the-art algorithms. In phantom evaluation, the physical properties of the objects defined the gold standard. In clinical evaluation, the ground truth was estimated by the STAPLE (Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation) consensus of three manual PET contours by experts. Algorithm evaluation with phantoms resulted in: (i) no statistically significant diameter differences for different targets and movements (Δ φ =0.3+/- 1.6 mm); (ii) reproducibility for heterogeneous and irregular targets independent of user initial interaction and (iii) good segmentation agreement for irregular targets compared to manual CT delineation in terms of Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC  =  0.66+/- 0.04 ), Positive Predictive Value (PPV  =  0.81+/- 0.06 ) and Sensitivity (Sen.  =  0.49+/- 0.05 ). In clinical evaluation, the segmented volume was in reasonable agreement with the consensus volume (difference in volume (%Vol)  =  40+/- 30 , DSC  =  0.71+/- 0.07 and PPV  =  0.90+/- 0.13 ). High accuracy in target tracking position (Δ ME) was obtained for experimental and clinical data (Δ ME{{}\\text{exp}}=0+/- 3 mm; Δ ME{{}\\text{clin}}=0.3+/- 1.4 mm). In the comparison with other lung segmentation methods, 4D-COA has shown the highest volume accuracy in both experimental and clinical data. In conclusion, the accuracy in volume

  14. Relationship between Obesity and Massive Transfusion Needs in Trauma Patients, and Validation of TASH Score in Obese Population: A Retrospective Study on 910 Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    De Jong, Audrey; Deras, Pauline; Martinez, Orianne; Latry, Pascal; Jaber, Samir; Capdevila, Xavier; Charbit, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Background Prediction of massive transfusion (MT) is challenging in management of trauma patients. However, MT and its prediction were poorly studied in obese patients. The main objective was to assess the relationship between obesity and MT needs in trauma patients. The secondary objectives were to validate the Trauma Associated Severe Hemorrhage (TASH) score in predicting MT in obese patients and to use a grey zone approach to optimize its ability to predict MT. Methods and Findings An observational retrospective study was conducted in a Level I Regional Trauma Center Trauma in obese and non-obese patients. MT was defined as ≥10U of packed red blood cells in the first 24h and obesity as a BMI≥30kg/m². Between January 2008 and December 2012, 119 obese and 791 non-obese trauma patients were included. The rate of MT was 10% (94/910) in the whole population. The MT rate tended to be higher in obese patients than in non-obese patients: 15% (18/119, 95%CI 9‒23%) versus 10% (76/791, 95%CI 8‒12%), OR, 1.68 [95%CI 0.97‒2.92], p = 0.07. After adjusting for Injury Severity Score (ISS), obesity was significantly associated with MT rate (OR, 1.79[95%CI 1.00‒3.21], p = 0.049). The TASH score was higher in the obese group than in the non-obese group: 7(4–11) versus 5(2–10)(p<0.001). The area under the ROC curves of the TASH score in predicting MT was very high and comparable between the obese and non-obese groups: 0.93 (95%CI, 0.89‒0.98) and 0.94 (95%CI, 0.92‒0.96), respectively (p = 0.80). The grey zone ranged respectively from 10 to 13 and from 9 to 12 in obese and non obese patients, and allowed separating patients at low, intermediate or high risk of MT using the TASH score. Conclusions Obesity was associated with a higher rate of MT in trauma patients. The predictive performance of the TASH score and the grey zones were robust and comparable between obese and non-obese patients. PMID:27010445

  15. Retrospective studies.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Manfro, Gisele Gus

    2015-01-01

    Large retrospective, epidemiological studies accumulated in the late 1980s, providing increasing evidence to the deeply rooted thought that perinatal events could persistently affect the individual's functioning and health/disease patterns throughout the lifetime. Evidences of such associations can be found in the literature since the beginning of the twentieth century, but studies from Barker, Hales, and colleagues serve as an important hallmark. They proposed the "thrifty phenotype" hypothesis, stating that poor nutrition in fetal and early infant life is detrimental to the development and function of the individuals' organism, predisposing them to the later development of adult chronic diseases. At first used to explain the increased risk for type 2 diabetes in low birth weight individuals, the hypothesis was soon adapted to other systems, becoming one of the core assumptions of the Developmental Origins of Adult Health and Disease (DOHaD) model. The central nervous system is also vulnerable to the effects of environmental variation during fetal or neonatal life. Many researchers have explored the effects of perinatal programming on the human neurodevelopment, and some aspects of the brain structure and/or functioning (such as cognitive function, physiological reactivity to stress, and the risk for behavioral disorders or psychopathology) were shown to be modifiable by the exposure to certain adverse events early in life such as neonatal infections, exposure to gestational psychosocial stress, nutrition during gestation, exposure to drugs, or tobacco smoking during pregnancy. Until recently, most studies focused on birth weight as a strong surrogate of the intrauterine environment, investigating the effects of low birth weight (as a marker of suboptimal fetal environment) on a variety of neurodevelopmental outcomes. Despite the fact that literature reviews on this topic are as old as 1940, the more recent retrospective studies are summarized in this chapter

  16. Meeting Report: Validation of Toxicogenomics-Based Test Systems: ECVAM–ICCVAM/NICEATM Considerations for Regulatory Use

    PubMed Central

    Corvi, Raffaella; Ahr, Hans-Jürgen; Albertini, Silvio; Blakey, David H.; Clerici, Libero; Coecke, Sandra; Douglas, George R.; Gribaldo, Laura; Groten, John P.; Haase, Bernd; Hamernik, Karen; Hartung, Thomas; Inoue, Tohru; Indans, Ian; Maurici, Daniela; Orphanides, George; Rembges, Diana; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Snape, Jason R.; Toda, Eisaku; Tong, Weida; van Delft, Joost H.; Weis, Brenda; Schechtman, Leonard M.

    2006-01-01

    This is the report of the first workshop “Validation of Toxicogenomics-Based Test Systems” held 11–12 December 2003 in Ispra, Italy. The workshop was hosted by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and organized jointly by ECVAM, the U.S. Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM). The primary aim of the workshop was for participants to discuss and define principles applicable to the validation of toxicogenomics platforms as well as validation of specific toxicologic test methods that incorporate toxicogenomics technologies. The workshop was viewed as an opportunity for initiating a dialogue between technologic experts, regulators, and the principal validation bodies and for identifying those factors to which the validation process would be applicable. It was felt that to do so now, as the technology is evolving and associated challenges are identified, would be a basis for the future validation of the technology when it reaches the appropriate stage. Because of the complexity of the issue, different aspects of the validation of toxicogenomics-based test methods were covered. The three focus areas include a) biologic validation of toxicogenomics-based test methods for regulatory decision making, b) technical and bioinformatics aspects related to validation, and c) validation issues as they relate to regulatory acceptance and use of toxicogenomics-based test methods. In this report we summarize the discussions and describe in detail the recommendations for future direction and priorities. PMID:16507466

  17. Validation: A highly charged concept.

    PubMed

    Koëter, H B

    1995-12-01

    establishment of international centres such as the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) and the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) where scientists, including regulators, can meet and discuss strategies not only for validation but also for the use of alternative methods in risk assessment, is considered essential for a good understanding of the relevance of the new in vitro, toxicity tests. PMID:20650166

  18. Can in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity test results be used to complement positive results in the Ames test and help predict carcinogenic or in vivo genotoxic activity? I. Reports of individual databases presented at an EURL ECVAM Workshop.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, David; Zeiger, Errol; Madia, Federica; Gooderham, Nigel; Kasper, Peter; Lynch, Anthony; Morita, Takeshi; Ouedraogo, Gladys; Parra Morte, Juan Manuel; Pfuhler, Stefan; Rogiers, Vera; Schulz, Markus; Thybaud, Veronique; van Benthem, Jan; Vanparys, Philippe; Worth, Andrew; Corvi, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    Positive results in the Ames test correlate well with carcinogenic potential in rodents. This correlation is not perfect because mutations are only one of many stages in tumour development. Also, situations can be envisaged where the mutagenic response may be specific to the bacteria or the test protocol, e.g., bacterial-specific metabolism, exceeding a detoxification threshold, or the induction of oxidative damage to which bacteria may be more sensitive than mammalian cells in vitro or tissues in vivo. Since most chemicals are also tested for genotoxicity in mammalian cells, the pattern of mammalian cell results may help identify whether Ames-positive results predict carcinogenic or in vivo mutagenic activity. A workshop was therefore organised and sponsored by the EU Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) to investigate this further. Participants presented results from other genotoxicity tests with Ames-positive compounds. Data came from published, regulatory agency, and industry sources. The question was posed whether negative results in mammalian cell tests were associated with absence of carcinogenic or in vivo genotoxic activity despite a positive Ames test. In the limited time available, the presented data were combined and an initial analysis suggested that the association of negative in vitro mammalian cell test results with lack of in vivo genotoxic or carcinogenic activity could have some significance. Possible reasons why a positive Ames test may not be associated with in vivo activity and what additional investigations/tests might contribute to a more robust evaluation were discussed. Because a considerable overlap was identified among the different databases presented, it was recommended that a consolidated database be built, with overlapping chemicals removed, so that a more robust analysis of the predictive capacity for potential carcinogenic and in vivo genotoxic activity could be derived from the patterns of mammalian

  19. Variation between Hospitals with Regard to Diagnostic Practice, Coding Accuracy, and Case-Mix. A Retrospective Validation Study of Administrative Data versus Medical Records for Estimating 30-Day Mortality after Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kristoffersen, Doris Tove; Skyrud, Katrine Damgaard; Lindman, Anja Schou

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of patient administrative data (PAS) for calculating 30-day mortality after hip fracture as a quality indicator, by a retrospective study of medical records. Methods We used PAS data from all Norwegian hospitals (2005–2009), merged with vital status from the National Registry, to calculate 30-day case-mix adjusted mortality for each hospital (n = 51). We used stratified sampling to establish a representative sample of both hospitals and cases. The hospitals were stratified according to high, low and medium mortality of which 4, 3, and 5 hospitals were sampled, respectively. Within hospitals, cases were sampled stratified according to year of admission, age, length of stay, and vital 30-day status (alive/dead). The final study sample included 1043 cases from 11 hospitals. Clinical information was abstracted from the medical records. Diagnostic and clinical information from the medical records and PAS were used to define definite and probable hip fracture. We used logistic regression analysis in order to estimate systematic between-hospital variation in unmeasured confounding. Finally, to study the consequences of unmeasured confounding for identifying mortality outlier hospitals, a sensitivity analysis was performed. Results The estimated overall positive predictive value was 95.9% for definite and 99.7% for definite or probable hip fracture, with no statistically significant differences between hospitals. The standard deviation of the additional, systematic hospital bias in mortality estimates was 0.044 on the logistic scale. The effect of unmeasured confounding on outlier detection was small to moderate, noticeable only for large hospital volumes. Conclusions This study showed that PAS data are adequate for identifying cases of hip fracture, and the effect of unmeasured case mix variation was small. In conclusion, PAS data are adequate for calculating 30-day mortality after hip-fracture as a quality

  20. Revealing latent value of clinically acquired CTs of traumatic brain injury through multi-atlas segmentation in a retrospective study of 1,003 with external cross-validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plassard, Andrew J.; Kelly, Patrick D.; Asman, Andrew J.; Kang, Hakmook; Patel, Mayur B.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Medical imaging plays a key role in guiding treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and for diagnosing intracranial hemorrhage; most commonly rapid computed tomography (CT) imaging is performed. Outcomes for patients with TBI are variable and difficult to predict upon hospital admission. Quantitative outcome scales (e.g., the Marshall classification) have been proposed to grade TBI severity on CT, but such measures have had relatively low value in staging patients by prognosis. Herein, we examine a cohort of 1,003 subjects admitted for TBI and imaged clinically to identify potential prognostic metrics using a "big data" paradigm. For all patients, a brain scan was segmented with multi-atlas labeling, and intensity/volume/texture features were computed in a localized manner. In a 10-fold crossvalidation approach, the explanatory value of the image-derived features is assessed for length of hospital stay (days), discharge disposition (five point scale from death to return home), and the Rancho Los Amigos functional outcome score (Rancho Score). Image-derived features increased the predictive R2 to 0.38 (from 0.18) for length of stay, to 0.51 (from 0.4) for discharge disposition, and to 0.31 (from 0.16) for Rancho Score (over models consisting only of non-imaging admission metrics, but including positive/negative radiological CT findings). This study demonstrates that high volume retrospective analysis of clinical imaging data can reveal imaging signatures with prognostic value. These targets are suited for follow-up validation and represent targets for future feature selection efforts. Moreover, the increase in prognostic value would improve staging for intervention assessment and provide more reliable guidance for patients.

  1. Can analyses of electronic patient records be independently and externally validated? Study 2—the effect of β-adrenoceptor blocker therapy on cancer survival: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Springate, David A; Ashcroft, Darren M; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Doran, Tim; Ryan, Ronan; Reeves, David

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To conduct a fully independent, external validation of a research study based on one electronic health record database using a different database sampling from the same population. Design Retrospective cohort analysis of β-blocker therapy and all-cause mortality in patients with cancer. Setting Two UK national primary care databases (PCDs): the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and Doctors’ Independent Network (DIN). Participants CPRD data for 11 302 patients with cancer compared with published results from DIN for 3462 patients; study period January 1997 to December 2006. Primary and secondary outcome measures All-cause mortality: overall; by treatment subgroup (β-blockers only, β-blockers plus other blood pressure lowering medicines (BPLM), other BPLMs only); and by cancer site. Results Using CPRD, β-blocker use was not associated with mortality (HR=1.03, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.14, vs patients prescribed other BPLMs only), but DIN β-blocker users had significantly higher mortality (HR=1.18, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.33). However, these HRs were not statistically different (p=0.063), but did differ for patients on β-blockers alone (CPRD=0.94, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.07; DIN=1.37, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.61; p<0.001). Results for individual cancer sites differed by study, but only significantly for prostate and pancreas cancers. Results were robust under sensitivity analyses, but we could not be certain that mortality was identically defined in both databases. Conclusions We found a complex pattern of similarities and differences between databases. Overall treatment effect estimates were not statistically different, adding to a growing body of evidence that different UK PCDs produce comparable effect estimates. However, individually the two studies lead to different conclusions regarding the safety of β-blockers and some subgroup effects differed significantly. Single studies using even internally well-validated databases do not guarantee generalisable results

  2. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: I. Summary of pre-validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Burlinson, Brian; Escobar, Patricia A; Kraynak, Andrew R; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Nakajima, Madoka; Pant, Kamala; Asano, Norihide; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this validation effort was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The purpose of the pre-validation studies (i.e., Phase 1 through 3), conducted in four or five laboratories with extensive comet assay experience, was to optimize the protocol to be used during the definitive validation study. PMID:26212293

  3. Henry's Law: A Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Robert M.; Peticolas, Warner L.

    2004-01-01

    A retrospective view of Henry's law and its applicability in any specific system at a finite concentration is tested. It can be concluded that Henry's law is only a limiting law and is adequate at low mole fractions but is useful for practical purposes where high precision is not required.

  4. A retrospective of VAWT technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwill, Thomas D.; Sutherland, Herbert J.; Berg, Dale E.

    2012-01-01

    The study of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) technology at Sandia National Laboratories started in the 1970's and concluded in the 1990's. These studies concentrated on the Darrieus configurations because of their high inherent efficiency, but other configurations (e.g., the Savonius turbine) were also examined. The Sandia VAWT program culminated with the design of the 34-m 'Test Bed' Darrieus VAWT. This turbine was designed and built to test various VAWT design concepts and to provide the necessary databases to validate analytical design codes and algorithms. Using the Test Bed as their starting point, FloWind Corp. developed a commercial VAWT product line with composite blades and an extended height-to-diameter ratio. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the design process and results of the Sandia 34-m VAWT Test Bed program and the FloWind prototype development program with an eye toward future offshore designs. This paper is our retrospective of the design, analysis, testing and commercial process. Special emphasis is given to those lessons learned that will aid in the development of an off-shore VAWT.

  5. Single Doses up to 800 mg of E-52862 Do Not Prolong the QTc Interval – A Retrospective Validation by Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modelling of Electrocardiography Data Utilising the Effects of a Meal on QTc to Demonstrate ECG Assay Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Täubel, Jörg; Ferber, Georg; Lorch, Ulrike; Wang, Duolao; Sust, Mariano; Camm, A. John

    2015-01-01

    Background E-52862 is a Sigma-1 receptor antagonist (S1RA) currently under investigation as a potential analgesic medicine. We successfully applied a concentration-effect model retrospectively to a four-way crossover Phase I single ascending dose study and utilized the QTc shortening effects of a meal to demonstrate assay sensitivity by establishing the time course effects from baseline in all four periods, independently from any potential drug effects. Methods Thirty two healthy male and female subjects were included in four treatment periods to receive single ascending doses of 500 mg, 600 mg or 800 mg of E-52862 or placebo. PK was linear over the dose range investigated and doses up to 600 mg were well tolerated. The baseline electrocardiography (ECG) measurements on Day-1 were time-matched with ECG and pharmacokinetic (PK) samples on Day 1 (dosing day). Results In this conventional mean change to time-matched placebo analysis, the largest time-matched difference to placebo QTcI was 1.44 ms (90% CI: -4.04, 6.93 ms) for 500 mg; -0.39 ms (90% CI: -3.91, 3.13 ms) for 600 mg and 1.32 ms (90% CI: -1.89, 4.53 ms) for 800 mg of E-52862, thereby showing the absence of any QTc prolonging effect at the doses tested. In addition concentration-effect models, one based on the placebo corrected change from baseline and one for the change of QTcI from average baseline with time as fixed effect were fitted to the data confirming the results of the time course analysis. Conclusion The sensitivity of this study to detect small changes in the QTc interval was confirmed by demonstrating a shortening of QTcF of -8.1 (90% CI: -10.4, -5.9) one hour and -7.2 (90% CI: -9.4, -5.0) three hours after a standardised meal. Trial Registration EU Clinical Trials Register EudraCT 2010 020343 13 PMID:26291080

  6. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Retrospective Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Romanyukha, Alex; Trompier, Francois

    2011-05-05

    Necessity for, principles of, and general concepts of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) retrospective dosimetry are presented. Also presented and given in details are examples of EPR retrospective dosimetry applications in tooth enamel, bone, and fingernails with focus on general approaches for solving technical and methodological problems. Advantages, drawbacks, and possible future developments are discussed and an extensive bibliography on EPR retrospective dosimetry is provided.

  7. Retrospective CMORPH Reprocessing Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarosh, Y.; Joyce, R.; Xie, P.

    2008-05-01

    constellation, there is enough to retrospectively reprocess CMORPH well beyond the current archive start. Also IR based PMW calibrated rainfall estimates will be calculated as part of the retrospective reprocessing. These estimates will be blended for times and locations that the PMW information is too old for relative accuracy. This blended method (CMORPH-IR) combines the CMORPH and IR based estimates via an error model developed by running test CMORPH processing, albeit withholding random high quality PMW estimates, and determining the error/skill of the CMORPH relative to the IR-based rainfall as a function of season, surface type, region, and age of PMW information in half hourly increments from PMW scan time. The retrospective processing will be performed for Year 2002 and proceed backward. Detailed results will be reported at the meeting.

  8. Causal Inference in Retrospective Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Paul W.; Rubin, Donald B.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of drawing causal inferences from retrospective case-controlled studies is considered. A model for causal inference in prospective studies is applied to retrospective studies. Limitations of case-controlled studies are formulated concerning relevant parameters that can be estimated in such studies. A coffee-drinking/myocardial…

  9. Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review provides a yearly comparison between realized energy outcomes and the Reference case projections included in previous Annual Energy Outlooks (AEO) beginning with 1982. This edition of the report adds the AEO 2012 projections and updates the historical data to incorporate the latest data revisions.

  10. Intercomparison of retrospective radon detectors.

    PubMed Central

    Field, R W; Steck, D J; Parkhurst, M A; Mahaffey, J A; Alavanja, M C

    1999-01-01

    We performed both a laboratory and a field intercomparison of two novel glass-based retrospective radon detectors previously used in major radon case-control studies performed in Missouri and Iowa. The new detectors estimate retrospective residential radon exposure from the accumulation of a long-lived radon decay product, (210)Pb, in glass. The detectors use track registration material in direct contact with glass surfaces to measure the alpha-emission of a (210)Pb-decay product, (210)Po. The detector's track density generation rate (tracks per square centimeter per hour) is proportional to the surface alpha-activity. In the absence of other strong sources of alpha-emission in the glass, the implanted surface alpha-activity should be proportional to the accumulated (210)Po, and hence to the cumulative radon gas exposure. The goals of the intercomparison were to a) perform collocated measurements using two different glass-based retrospective radon detectors in a controlled laboratory environment to compare their relative response to implanted polonium in the absence of environmental variation, b) perform collocated measurements using two different retrospective radon progeny detectors in a variety of residential settings to compare their detection of glass-implanted polonium activities, and c) examine the correlation between track density rates and contemporary radon gas concentrations. The laboratory results suggested that the materials and methods used by the studies produced similar track densities in detectors exposed to the same implanted (210)Po activity. The field phase of the intercomparison found excellent agreement between the track density rates for the two types of retrospective detectors. The correlation between the track density rates and direct contemporary radon concentration measurements was relatively high, considering that no adjustments were performed to account for either the residential depositional environment or glass surface type

  11. Intercomparison of Retrospective Radon Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R W.; Steck, D J.; Parkhurst, Maryann ); Mahaffey, Judith A. ); Alavanja, M C.

    1998-11-01

    We performed both a laboratory and field intercomparison of two novel glass-based retrospective radon detectors previously used in major radon case-control studies performed in Missouri and Iowa. The new detectors estimate retrospective residential radon exposure from the accumulation of a long-lived radon decay product, Pb-210, in glass. The detectors use track registration material in direct contact with glass surfaces to measure the alpha emission of a Pb-210 decay product, Po-210. The detector's track density generation rate (tracks cm{sup -2} hr{sup -1}) is proportional to the surface alpha activity. In the absence of other strong sources of alpha emission in the glass, the implanted surface alpha activity should be proportional to the accumulated Po-210 and hence, the cumulative radon gas exposure. The goals of the intercomparison were to: (1) perform collocated measurements using two different glass-based retrospective radon detectors in a controlled laboratory environment to compare their relative response to implanted polonium in the absence of environmental variation, (2) perform collocated measurements using two different retrospective radon progeny detectors in a variety of residential settings to compare their detection of glass implanted polonium activities, and (3) examine the correlation between track density rates and contemporary radon gas concentrations. The laboratory results suggested that the materials and methods used by the studies produced similar track densities in detectors exposed to the same implanted Po-210 activity. The field phase of the intercomparison found excellent agreement between the track density rates for the two types of retrospective detectors. The correlation between the track density rates and direct contemporary radon concentration measurements was relatively high, considering that no adjustments were performed to account for either the residential depositional environment or glass surface type.

  12. Cosmetics Europe multi-laboratory pre-validation of the SkinEthic™ reconstituted human corneal epithelium test method for the prediction of eye irritation.

    PubMed

    Alépée, N; Bessou-Touya, S; Cotovio, J; de Smedt, A; de Wever, B; Faller, C; Jones, P; Le Varlet, B; Marrec-Fairley, M; Pfannenbecker, U; Tailhardat, M; van Goethem, F; McNamee, P

    2013-08-01

    Cosmetics Europe, The Personal Care Association, known as Colipa before 2012, conducted a program of technology transfer and assessment of Within/Between Laboratory (WLV/BLV) reproducibility of the SkinEthic™ Reconstituted Human Corneal Epithelium (HCE) as one of two human reconstructed tissue eye irritation test methods. The SkinEthic™ HCE test method involves two exposure time treatment procedures - one for short time exposure (10 min - SE) and the other for long time exposure (60 min - LE) of tissues to test substance. This paper describes pre-validation studies of the SkinEthic™ HCE test method (SE and LE protocols) as well as the Eye Peptide Reactivity Assay (EPRA). In the SE WLV study, 30 substances were evaluated. A consistent outcome with respect to viability measurement across all runs was observed with all substances showing an SD of less than 18%. In the LE WLV study, 44 out of 45 substances were consistently classified. These data demonstrated a high level of reproducibility within laboratory for both the SE and LE treatment procedures. For the LE BLV, 19 out of 20 substances were consistently classified between the three laboratories, again demonstrating a high level of reproducibility between laboratories. The results for EPRA WLV and BLV studies demonstrated that all substances analysed were categorised similarly and that the method is reproducible. The SkinEthic™ HCE test method entered into the experimental phase of a formal ECVAM validation program in 2010. PMID:23524228

  13. Retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, David A.

    Charting a course toward an uncertain future is always a risky business, especially among shoals of fiscal restraint or national tragedy, and the prudent navigator is well advised to remember where he's been as he looks ahead. The ocean and space sciences are poised for grand joint adventures, but shrinking budgets and the lingering Challenger numbness are restrictive lee shores that must be considered when laying plans. To sharpen the focus on future choices, it may be helpful to glance in the geophysical rearview mirror and remember some of the challenges and opportunities of a different era.A quarter century is a long time, but many images from 25 years ago can still be recalled in crisp detail, like photographs in a scrapbook. In 1961, results from the International Geophysical Year (IGY) filled the pages of the Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, and the U.S. program of space exploration finally was underway with conviction. The Indian Ocean Expedition, conceived during the IGY, ushered in a new era of international oceanography. The TIROS III satellite beamed to earth fuzzy pictures of tropical storms and revealed the intricate writhings of the Gulf Stream. Forecasters and fluid dynamicists suddenly saw new horizons, and geophysical turbulence became a major topic at the IUGG Symposium in Marseilles, France. Papers with prescient themes were presented at the AGU Ocean Section meeting: June Pattullo (then at Oregon State College, Corvallis) on heat storage in the Pacific; Ferris Webster (then at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.) on Gulf Stream meanders. Polar oceanography was well represented in AGU journals: Kenneth Hunkins (at what was then called the Lamont Geological Observatory, Palisades, N.Y.) described the Alpha Rise, discovered from a drifting Arctic ice island, and Edward Thiel (then at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis) and his co-workers discussed open ocean tides, gravimetrically measured from Antarctic ice shelves.

  14. Retrospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Anthony

    1971-01-01

    A collection of essays on education printed in The New Era during the 1920-1930 era and written by: Beatrice Ensor, A. S. Neill, G. Bernard Shaw, Adolphe Ferriere, C. G. Jung, Martin Buber, Alfred Adler, Harold Rugg, Ovide Decroly, and Paul Langevin. (SE)

  15. Validation study of the in vitro skin irritation test with the LabCyte EPI-MODEL24.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hajime; Ando, Yoko; Idehara, Kenji; Katoh, Masakazu; Kosaka, Tadashi; Miyaoka, Etsuyoshi; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Suzuki, Tamie; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Yoshimura, Isao; Yuasa, Atsuko; Watanabe, Yukihiko; Omori, Takashi

    2012-03-01

    A validation study on an in vitro skin irritation assay was performed with the reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) LabCyte EPI-MODEL24, developed by Japan Tissue Engineering Co. Ltd (Gamagori, Japan). The protocol that was followed in the current study was an optimised version of the EpiSkin protocol (LabCyte assay). According to the United Nations Globally Harmonised System (UN GHS) of classification for assessing the skin irritation potential of a chemical, 12 irritants and 13 non-irritants were validated by a minimum of six laboratories from the Japanese Society for Alternatives to Animal Experiments (JSAAE) skin irritation assay validation study management team (VMT). The 25 chemicals were listed in the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) performance standards. The reconstructed tissues were exposed to the chemicals for 15 minutes and incubated for 42 hours in fresh culture medium. Subsequently, the level of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 α) present in the conditioned medium was measured, and tissue viability was assessed by using the MTT assay. The results of the MTT assay obtained with the LabCyte EPI-MODEL24 (LabCyte MTT assay) demonstrated high within-laboratory and between-laboratory reproducibility, as well as high accuracy for use as a stand-alone assay to distinguish skin irritants from non-irritants. In addition, the IL-1α release measurements in the LabCyte assay were clearly unnecessary for the success of this model in the classification of chemicals for skin irritation potential. PMID:22558976

  16. Labyrinthine fistulae: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Vanclooster, C; Debruyne, F; Vantrappen, G; Desloovere, C; Feenstra, L

    1997-01-01

    A retrospective analysis has been conducted of 57 labyrinthine fistulae found in 375 cholesteatoma cases, primarily treated by removal of the matrix of the cholesteatoma and covering the fistula with a mixture of bone paste and fibrin glue. CT-scan with slices of 1 mm demonstrated the fistula in almost 90% of the cases. Eighteen percent of the ears were pre-operatively totally deaf. Large fistulae are riskier than smaller ones for post-operative perceptive losses, but even in very large and multiple fistulae the hearing may be preserved in most cases. PMID:9241379

  17. Cosmetics Europe multi-laboratory pre-validation of the EpiOcular™ reconstituted human tissue test method for the prediction of eye irritation.

    PubMed

    Pfannenbecker, U; Bessou-Touya, S; Faller, C; Harbell, J; Jacob, T; Raabe, H; Tailhardat, M; Alépée, N; De Smedt, A; De Wever, B; Jones, P; Kaluzhny, Y; Le Varlet, B; McNamee, P; Marrec-Fairley, M; Van Goethem, F

    2013-03-01

    Cosmetics Europe, The Personal Care Association (known as Colipa before 2012), conducted a program of technology transfer and within/between laboratory reproducibility of MatTek Corporation's EpiOcular™ Eye Irritation Test (EIT) as one of the two human reconstructed tissue test methods. This EIT EpiOcular™ used a single exposure period for each chemical and a prediction model based on a cut-off in relative survival [ ≤60%=irritant (I) (GHS categories 2 and 1); >60%=no classification (NC)]. Test substance single exposure time was 30 min with a 2-h post-exposure incubation for liquids and 90 min with an 18-h post-exposure incubation for solids. Tissue viability was determined by tetrazolium dye (MTT) reduction. Combinations of 20 coded chemicals were tested in 7 laboratories. Standardized laboratory documentation was used by all laboratories. Twenty liquids (11 NC/9 I) plus 5 solids (3 NC/2 I) were selected so that both exposure regimens could be assessed. Concurrent positive (methyl acetate) and negative (water) controls were tested in each trial. In all, 298 independent trials were performed and demonstrated 99.7% agreement in prediction (NC/I) across the laboratories. Coefficients of variation for the% survival for tissues from each treatment group across laboratories were generally low. This protocol has entered in 2010 the experimental phase of a formal ECVAM validation program. PMID:23159500

  18. Retrospective analysis of fatal falls.

    PubMed

    Thierauf, Annette; Preuss, Johanna; Lignitz, Eberhard; Madea, Burkhard

    2010-05-20

    Fatal falls are frequent and inhomogeneous events and affect every age. The criminalistic classification can often only be done on the basis of extensive investigations and the autopsy results. We retrospectively surveyed 291 cases of fatal falls on which a post-mortem examination had been carried out in the institutes of Forensic Medicine in Bonn and Greifswald. In large part, these cases are falls from height (n=123) and ground-level falls (n=122). These are compared to fatal falls down a stairs (n=46); the analysis is confined to injuries to the cranium. In ground-level falls the injury pattern in falls under the influence of alcohol differs from that of falls with no alcohol in the case history: all injuries are seen in higher relative frequency in casualties after the consumption of alcohol. In falls from height, the previous consumption of alcohol did not influence the injury pattern; the intracranial traumas are seen in decreasing frequency with increasing heights. The aim of this retrospective analysis is to present injury patterns and influencing factors like fall heights and alcohol for the different kinds of falls on the basis of our collective and to demonstrate similarities and differences between the subgroups. PMID:20176452

  19. Validation of survivability validation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, T.A. )

    1993-05-01

    Issues associated with the validation of survivability protocols are discussed. Both empirical and analytical approaches to protocol validation are included. The use of hybrid simulations (hardware-in-the-loop, scene generators, software generators, man-in-the-loop, etc.) for the validation of survivability protocols is discussed.

  20. High temporal resolution OCT using image-based retrospective gating

    PubMed Central

    Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Jenkins, Michael W.; Wilson, David L.; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    High temporal resolution OCT imaging is very advantageous for analyzing cardiac mechanics in the developing embryonic heart of small animals. An image-based retrospective gating technique is presented to increase the effective temporal resolution of an OCT system and to allow visualization of systolic dynamics in 3D. The gating technique employs image similarity measures for rearranging asynchronously acquired input data consisting of a time series of 2D images at each z position along the heart volume, to produce a time sequence of 3D volumes of the beating heart. The study includes a novel robust validation technique, which quantitatively evaluates the accuracy of the gating technique, in addition to visual evaluations by 2D multiplanar reformatting (MPR) and 3D volume rendering. The retrospective gating and validation is demonstrated on a stage 14 embryonic quail heart data set. Using the validation scheme, it is shown that the gating is accurate within a standard deviation of 4.7 ms, which is an order of magnitude shorter than the time interval during which systolic contraction (∼50 ms) occurs in the developing embryo. This gating method has allowed, for the first time, clear visualization of systolic dynamics of the looping embryonic heart in 3D. PMID:19550478

  1. Retrospective Birth Dating of Cells

    SciTech Connect

    L.Spalding, K; Bhardwaj, R D; Buchholz, B A; Druid, H; Frisen, J

    2005-04-19

    The generation of cells in the human body has been difficult to study and our understanding of cell turnover is limited. Extensive testing of nuclear weapons resulted in a dramatic global increase in the levels of the isotope {sup 14}C in the atmosphere, followed by an exponential decrease after the test ban treaty in 1963. We show that the level of {sup 14}C in genomic DNA closely parallels atmospheric levels, and can be used to establish the time point when the DNA was synthesized and cells were born. We use this strategy to determine the age of cells in the cortex of the adult human brain, and show that whereas non-neuronal cells are exchanged, occipital neurons are as old as the individual, supporting the view that postnatal neurogenesis does not take place in this region. Retrospective birth dating is a generally applicable strategy that can be used to measure cell turnover in man under physiological and pathological conditions.

  2. Reconstructing Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Pamela A.

    2007-01-01

    In response to Lissitz and Samuelsen (2007), the author reconstructs the historical arguments for the more comprehensive unitary concept of validity and the principles of scientific inquiry underlying it. Her response is organized in terms of four questions: (a) How did validity in educational measurement come to be conceptualized as unitary, and…

  3. Retrospective Conversion: Investing in the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Report on developments in the retrospective conversion of manual library files to machine-readable form discusses planning and decision making; accommodating full records; conforming to standards; creating bibliographic records; sources of retrospective conversion support (bibliographic utilities, stand-alone systems); use of microcomputers;…

  4. Measuring Program Outcomes: Using Retrospective Pretest Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Clara C.; McGuigan, William M.; Katsev, Aphra R.

    2000-01-01

    Used longitudinal data from 307 mothers of firstborn infants participating in a home-visitation, child abuse prevention program in a retrospective pretest methodology. Results shows that when response shift bias was present, the retrospective pretest methodology produced a more legitimate assessment of program outcomes than did the traditional…

  5. Translation: in retrospect and prospect.

    PubMed Central

    Woese, C R

    2001-01-01

    This review is occasioned by the fact that the problem of translation, which has simmered on the biological sidelines for the last 40 years, is about to erupt center stage--thanks to the recent spectacular advances in ribosome structure. This most complex, beautiful, and fascinating of cellular mechanisms, the translation apparatus, is also the most important. Translation not only defines gene expression, but it is the sine qua non without which modern (protein-based) cells would not have come into existence. Yet from the start, the problem of translation has been misunderstood--a reflection of the molecular perspective that dominated Biology of the last century. In that the our conception of translation will play a significant role in creating the structure that is 21st century Biology, it is critical that our current (and fundamentally flawed) view of translation be understood for what it is and be reformulated to become an all-embracing perspective about which 21st century Biology can develop. Therefore, the present review is both a retrospective and a plea to biologists to establish a new evolutionary, RNA-World-centered concept of translation. What is needed is an evolutionarily oriented perspective that, first and foremost, focuses on the nature (and origin) of a primitive translation apparatus, the apparatus that transformed an ancient evolutionary era of nucleic acid life, the RNA World, into the world of modern cells. PMID:11497425

  6. Academic Workload and Working Time: Retrospective Perceptions versus Time-Series Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyvik, Svein

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the validity of perceptions by academic staff about their past and present workload and working hours. Retrospective assessments are compared with time-series data. The data are drawn from four mail surveys among academic staff in Norwegian universities undertaken in the period 1982-2008. The findings show…

  7. Retrospective Assessment of Behavioral Inhibition in Infants and Toddlers: Development of a Parent Report Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gensthaler, A.; Mohler, E.; Resch, F.; Paulus, F.; Schwenck, C.; Freitag, C. M.; Goth, K.

    2013-01-01

    A behaviorally inhibited temperament in early childhood has been identified as a potential risk factor for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. The purpose of our investigation was the development and evaluation of the factor structure, reliability and validity of the first retrospective parent report measure to assess behavioral…

  8. QWT: Retrospective and New Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yi; Yang, Xiaokang; Song, Li; Traversoni, Leonardo; Lu, Wei

    Quaternion wavelet transform (QWT) achieves much attention in recent years as a new image analysis tool. In most cases, it is an extension of the real wavelet transform and complex wavelet transform (CWT) by using the quaternion algebra and the 2D Hilbert transform of filter theory, where analytic signal representation is desirable to retrieve phase-magnitude description of intrinsically 2D geometric structures in a grayscale image. In the context of color image processing, however, it is adapted to analyze the image pattern and color information as a whole unit by mapping sequential color pixels to a quaternion-valued vector signal. This paper provides a retrospective of QWT and investigates its potential use in the domain of image registration, image fusion, and color image recognition. It is indicated that it is important for QWT to induce the mechanism of adaptive scale representation of geometric features, which is further clarified through two application instances of uncalibrated stereo matching and optical flow estimation. Moreover, quaternionic phase congruency model is defined based on analytic signal representation so as to operate as an invariant feature detector for image registration. To achieve better localization of edges and textures in image fusion task, we incorporate directional filter bank (DFB) into the quaternion wavelet decomposition scheme to greatly enhance the direction selectivity and anisotropy of QWT. Finally, the strong potential use of QWT in color image recognition is materialized in a chromatic face recognition system by establishing invariant color features. Extensive experimental results are presented to highlight the exciting properties of QWT.

  9. Technology readiness assessments: A retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankins, John C.

    2009-11-01

    The development of new system capabilities typically depends upon the prior success of advanced technology research and development efforts. These systems developments inevitably face the three major challenges of any project: performance, schedule and budget. Done well, advanced technology programs can substantially reduce the uncertainty in all three of these dimensions of project management. Done poorly, or not at all, and new system developments suffer from cost overruns, schedule delays and the steady erosion of initial performance objectives. It is often critical for senior management to be able to determine which of these two paths is more likely—and to respond accordingly. The challenge for system and technology managers is to be able to make clear, well-documented assessments of technology readiness and risks, and to do so at key points in the life cycle of the program. In the mid 1970s, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) introduced the concept of "technology readiness levels" (TRLs) as a discipline-independent, programmatic figure of merit (FOM) to allow more effective assessment of, and communication regarding the maturity of new technologies. In 1995, the TRL scale was further strengthened by the articulation of the first definitions of each level, along with examples (J. Mankins, Technology readiness levels, A White Paper, NASA, Washington, DC, 1995. [1]). Since then, TRLs have been embraced by the U.S. Congress' General Accountability Office (GAO), adopted by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and are being considered for use by numerous other organizations. Overall, the TRLs have proved to be highly effective in communicating the status of new technologies among sometimes diverse organizations. This paper will review the concept of "technology readiness assessments", and provide a retrospective on the history of "TRLs" during the past 30 years. The paper will conclude with observations concerning prospective future

  10. The psychometric properties of the Retrospective Child Feeding Questionnaire in Hebrew.

    PubMed

    Lev-Ari, Lilac; Zohar, Ada H

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop the Retrospective Child Feeding Questionnaire (RCFQ), and to assess its structural validity. In its original version, the CFQ was constructed to measure current practices of maternal feeding of children. For the present study, the CFQ was translated into Hebrew by translation, independent back-translation, and revision, and was then reworded to assess a retrospective assessment of maternal child feeding practices by adults. A large community sample of volunteers (N=406) was recruited and administered the RCFQ, and self-reported on body satisfaction, disordered eating, and body mass. The structural validity of the RCFQ was established by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis for men and women. Some measure of construct validity is provided by correlational analysis. The RCFQ is structurally robust, and useful in assessing early influences on adult BMI, eating behavior, and body dissatisfaction. PMID:23376732

  11. Alignment validation

    SciTech Connect

    ALICE; ATLAS; CMS; LHCb; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-06

    The four experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are currently under constructionat CERN. They will study the products of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. All experiments are equipped with sophisticated tracking systems, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the inner detector andthe muon system requires an accurate alignment of all detector elements. Alignmentinformation is deduced from dedicated hardware alignment systems and the reconstruction of charged particles. However, the system is degenerate which means the data is insufficient to constrain all alignment degrees of freedom, so the techniques are prone to converging on wrong geometries. This deficiency necessitates validation and monitoring of the alignment. An exhaustive discussion of means to validate is subject to this document, including examples and plans from all four LHC experiments, as well as other high energy experiments.

  12. Mechanistic validation.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Stephens, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Validation of new approaches in regulatory toxicology is commonly defined as the independent assessment of the reproducibility and relevance (the scientific basis and predictive capacity) of a test for a particular purpose. In large ring trials, the emphasis to date has been mainly on reproducibility and predictive capacity (comparison to the traditional test) with less attention given to the scientific or mechanistic basis. Assessing predictive capacity is difficult for novel approaches (which are based on mechanism), such as pathways of toxicity or the complex networks within the organism (systems toxicology). This is highly relevant for implementing Toxicology for the 21st Century, either by high-throughput testing in the ToxCast/Tox21 project or omics-based testing in the Human Toxome Project. This article explores the mostly neglected assessment of a test's scientific basis, which moves mechanism and causality to the foreground when validating/qualifying tests. Such mechanistic validation faces the problem of establishing causality in complex systems. However, pragmatic adaptations of the Bradford Hill criteria, as well as bioinformatic tools, are emerging. As critical infrastructures of the organism are perturbed by a toxic mechanism we argue that by focusing on the target of toxicity and its vulnerability, in addition to the way it is perturbed, we can anchor the identification of the mechanism and its verification. PMID:23665802

  13. SANSMIC Validation.

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Paula D.; Rudeen, David Keith; Lord, David L.

    2014-08-01

    SANSMIC is solution mining software that was developed and utilized by SNL in its role as geotechnical advisor to the US DOE SPR for planning purposes. Three SANSMIC leach modes - withdrawal, direct, and reverse leach - have been revalidated with multiple test cases for each mode. The withdrawal mode was validated using high quality data from recent leach activity while the direct and reverse modes utilized data from historical cavern completion reports. Withdrawal results compared very well with observed data, including the location and size of shelves due to string breaks with relative leached volume differences ranging from 6 - 10% and relative radius differences from 1.5 - 3%. Profile comparisons for the direct mode were very good with relative leached volume differences ranging from 6 - 12% and relative radius differences from 5 - 7%. First, second, and third reverse configurations were simulated in order to validate SANSMIC over a range of relative hanging string and OBI locations. The first-reverse was simulated reasonably well with relative leached volume differences ranging from 1 - 9% and relative radius differences from 5 - 12%. The second-reverse mode showed the largest discrepancies in leach profile. Leached volume differences ranged from 8 - 12% and relative radius differences from 1 - 10%. In the third-reverse, relative leached volume differences ranged from 10 - 13% and relative radius differences were %7E4 %. Comparisons to historical reports were quite good, indicating that SANSMIC is essentially the same as documented and validated in the early 1980's.

  14. The lasting memory enhancements of retrospective attention.

    PubMed

    Reaves, Sarah; Strunk, Jonathan; Phillips, Shekinah; Verhaeghen, Paul; Duarte, Audrey

    2016-07-01

    Behavioral research has shown that spatial cues that orient attention toward task relevant items being maintained in visual short-term memory (VSTM) enhance item memory accuracy. However, it is unknown if these retrospective attentional cues ("retro-cues") enhance memory beyond typical short-term memory delays. It is also unknown whether retro-cues affect the spatial information associated with VSTM representations. Emerging evidence suggests that processes that affect short-term memory maintenance may also affect long-term memory (LTM) but little work has investigated the role of attention in LTM. In the current event-related potential (ERP) study, we investigated the duration of retrospective attention effects and the impact of retrospective attention manipulations on VSTM representations. Results revealed that retro-cueing improved both VSTM and LTM memory accuracy and that posterior maximal ERPs observed during VSTM maintenance predicted subsequent LTM performance. N2pc ERPs associated with attentional selection were attenuated by retro-cueing suggesting that retrospective attention may disrupt maintenance of spatial configural information in VSTM. Collectively, these findings suggest that retrospective attention can alter the structure of memory representations, which impacts memory performance beyond short-term memory delays. PMID:27038756

  15. Uncovering the Problem-Solving Process: Cued Retrospective Reporting Versus Concurrent and Retrospective Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.; Witte, Puk

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the amounts of problem-solving process information ("action," "why," "how," and "metacognitive") elicited by means of concurrent, retrospective, and cued retrospective reporting. In a within-participants design, 26 participants completed electrical circuit troubleshooting tasks under different reporting conditions. The…

  16. Assessing family-of-origin functioning in Mexican American adults: retrospective application of the family environment scale.

    PubMed

    Negy, Charles; Snyder, Douglas K

    2006-12-01

    Although both theoretical and empirical literature suggests that individuals' family-of-origin experiences affect subsequent relationship functioning as adults, few studies have examined the appropriateness of family assessment techniques when applied retrospectively for use in either theory development or clinical applications. This study examined psycho-metric characteristics of the Family Environment Scale (FES) when used retrospectively with Mexican Americans to assess their families-of-origin. Findings provided qualified support for the internal consistency of the FES and showed significant mean profile differences for this population across gender and when compared to the normative sample for this measure. Retrospective reports on the FES related to independent measures of family history of distress and, to a lesser extent, with current relationship functioning, providing preliminary support for the criterion-related validity of the FES when adapted for retrospective assessment. Limitations and implications of findings for further research are discussed. PMID:17050910

  17. A Retrospective Appraisal of Teacher Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasser-Abu Alhija, Fadia M.; Fresko, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Examination of an induction program for new teachers was undertaken from the viewpoint of induction graduates three years after participation. Their retrospective perspectives were investigated as to their satisfaction with assimilation in school in the induction year, their attitudes towards organizational aspects of the program, and the…

  18. Retrospective Conversion of Music Collection. Project Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayne, Pauline S.; And Others

    This manual describes procedures followed by the University of Tennessee, Knoxville Library Cataloging Department in its Music Retrospective Conversion Project. The goal of the project, running from October 1, 1983 to December 31, 1984, is full conversion of bibliographic records for scores, recordings, and music monographs to machine readable…

  19. The Learning Organization Turns 15: A Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter A. C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Special Issue; to provide a practitioner's retrospective views of the learning organization concept; and to comment on the status of "The Learning Organization" journal. Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted involves recounting a personal history of a practitioner's experiences…

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of Retrospective Search Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donald W.; Caldwell, Nancy W.

    The purpose of the present study is to explore cost-effectiveness factors that affect the choice among alternative system designs for retrospective searching services. A cost-effectiveness model that may be used to evaluate potential systems was derived, and a statement of the general magnitude of costs that the American Psychological Association…

  1. Optical Scanning for Retrospective Conversion of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Morten

    1986-01-01

    This discussion of the use of optical scanning and computer formatting for retrospective conversion focuses on a series of applications known as Optical Scanning for Creation of Information Databases (OSCID). Prior research in this area and the usefulness of OSCID for creating low-priced machine-readable data representing older materials are…

  2. Childhood Maltreatment in South Korea: Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yanghee; Kim, Sangwon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the prevalence of childhood maltreatment in South Korea using the retrospective version of ICAST and the associations between perceptions of abuse experienced during childhood and recent interpersonal problems and depression. Methods: 539 young persons, aged 18-24 years, from various universities, work places, and…

  3. Secondary Education Reform: Retrospect and Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passow, A. Harry

    In these lectures the author examines current criticisms of secondary education in light of the history of secondary education reform and then discusses future prospects for reform as they relate to the place of secondary education in modern American society. The author begins by presenting a retrospective analysis of a number of studies and…

  4. Emerging technological bases for retrospective dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Straume, T; Anspaugh, L R; Haskell, E H; Lucas, J N; Marchetti, A A; Likhtarev, I A; Chumak, V V; Romanyukha, A A; Khrouch, V T; Gavrilin YuI; Minenko, V F

    1997-01-01

    In this article we discuss examples of challenging problems in retrospective dosimetry and describe some promising solutions. The ability to make measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry and luminescence techniques promises to provide improved dosimetry for regions of Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation contaminated by radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident. In addition, it may soon be possible to resolve the large neutron discrepancy in the dosimetry system for Hiroshima through novel measurement techniques that can be used to reconstruct the fast-neutron fluence emitted by the bomb some 51 years ago. Important advances in molecular cytogenetics and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements have produced biodosimeters that show potential in retrospective dosimetry. The most promising of these are the frequency of reciprocal translocations measured in chromosomes of blood lymphocytes using fluorescence in situ hybridization and the electron paramagnetic resonance signal in tooth enamel. PMID:9368303

  5. [An Improved Retrospective Respiratory Navigator Gating Technique].

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhongqiang; Du, Yiping

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal imaging is one of the important clinical applications of magnetic resonance imagining, but image degradation due to respiratory motion remains a major problem. Retrospective respiratory navigator gating technique is an effective approach to alleviate such degradation but is subject to long scan time and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) efficiency. In this study, a modified retrospective navigator gating technique with variable over-sampling ratio acquisition and weighted average reconstruction algorithm is presented. Experiments in phantom and the imaging results of seven volunteers demonstrated that the proposed method provided an enhanced SNR and reduced ghost-to-image ratio compared to the conventional method. The proposed method can also be used to reduce imaging time while maintaining comparable image quality. PMID:27079107

  6. The DAO Retrospective Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todling, Richardo; Zhu, Yanqiu; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The fixed-lag Kalman smoother of Cohn et al. (1994), or a version of a more computationally feasible approximation of it developed by Todling et al. (1998), is under implementation at the Data Assimilation Office (DAO) to build a retrospective data assimilation system (RDAS). The initial version of the RDAS uses the physical-space statistical analysis system and a modification of the incremental analysis update (IAU) procedure of Bloom et al. (1996); a follow up version of the RDAS Nill require the use of the adjoint of the DAO general circulation model (developed by Y. Yang and M Navon). The retrospective procedure is designed to produce improved analyses as well as improved assimilated fields consequently providing an improved climate representation through data assimilation.

  7. From Construct Validity to Theory Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haig, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Lee Cronbach once expressed the view that all roads lead to construct validity. In looking to clarify the consensus definition of validity, and its place in assessment, Newton is also led to the troublesome idea of construct validity. To be sure, he addresses other validity issues, but in this commentary, I will restrict my attention to construct…

  8. A retrospective study of nineteen ataxic horses

    PubMed Central

    Nappert, Germain; Vrins, André; Breton, Luc; Beauregard, Michel

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study of 19 ataxic horses admitted to the College of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Montreal during the period of January 1985 to December 1988 is presented. There were 11 cases of cervical vertebral malformation, four of equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy, two of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, one each of vertebral osteomyelitis and intervertebral disc protrusion. The clinical diagnosis of ataxia in horses requires neurological, radiographic, myelographic, and laboratory examinations. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:17423438

  9. [Deep neck infections: a retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Bagnati, Tania; Olina, Massimo; Guglielmetti, Chiara; Borello, Giovanni; Valletti, Paolo Aluffi; Pia, Francesco; Garavelli, Pietro Luigi

    2007-09-01

    A retrospective study was carried out on 79 patients with deep neck infections (DNI) admitted to our Department between 1990 and 2005 in order to review our experience with DNI and verify if diabetic and immunocompromised patients have more aggressive infections and poorer prognosis. Demographics, clinical presentation, etiology, site of infection, associated systemic diseases (26.6%-21/79), microbiology, treatment and complications were considered. PMID:17902568

  10. The ALMA assembly, integration, and verification project: a retrospective analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, B.; Knee, L. B. G.; Jager, H.; Whyborn, N.; McMullin, J.; Murowinski, R.; Peck, A.; Corder, S.

    2014-08-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA consists of 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an aperture synthesis array in the (sub)millimeter wavelength range. Assembly, Integration, and Verification (AIV) of the antennas was completed at the end of the year 2013, while the final optimization and complete expansion to validate all planned observing modes will continue. This paper compares the actually obtained results of the period 2008-2013 with the baselines that had been laid out in the early project-planning phase (2005-2007). First plans made for ALMA AIV had already established a two-phased project life-cycle: phase 1 for setting up necessary infrastructure and common facilities, and taking the first three antennas to the start of commissioning; and phase 2 focused on the steady state processing of the remaining units. Throughout the execution of the project this lifecycle was refined and two additional phases were added, namely a transition phase between phases 1 and 2, and a closing phase to address the project ramp-down. A sub-project called Accelerated Commissioning and Science Verification (ACSV) was carried out during the year 2009 in order to provide focus to the whole ALMA organization, and to accomplish the start-of-commissioning milestone. Early phases of CSV focused on validating the basic performance and calibration. Over time additional observing modes have been validated as capabilities expanded both in hardware and software. This retrospective analysis describes the originally presented project staffing plans and schedules, the underlying assumptions, identified risks and operational models, among others. For comparison actual data on staffing levels, the resultant schedule, additional risks identified and those that actually materialized, are presented. The

  11. The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire: a population-based random sampling study.

    PubMed

    Piauilino, D C; Bueno, O F A; Tufik, S; Bittencourt, L R; Santos-Silva, R; Hachul, H; Gorenstein, C; Pompéia, S

    2010-05-01

    The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) has been shown to have acceptable reliability and factorial, predictive, and concurrent validity. However, the PRMQ has never been administered to a probability sample survey representative of all ages in adulthood, nor have previous studies controlled for factors that are known to influence metamemory, such as affective status. Here, the PRMQ was applied in a survey adopting a probabilistic three-stage cluster sample representative of the population of Sao Paulo, Brazil, according to gender, age (20-80 years), and economic status (n=1042). After excluding participants who had conditions that impair memory (depression, anxiety, used psychotropics, and/or had neurological/psychiatric disorders), in the remaining 664 individuals we (a) used confirmatory factor analyses to test competing models of the latent structure of the PRMQ, and (b) studied effects of gender, age, schooling, and economic status on prospective and retrospective memory complaints. The model with the best fit confirmed the same tripartite structure (general memory factor and two orthogonal prospective and retrospective memory factors) previously reported. Women complained more of general memory slips, especially those in the first 5 years after menopause, and there were more complaints of prospective than retrospective memory, except in participants with lower family income. PMID:20408038

  12. 42 CFR 476.94 - Notice of QIO initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... changes as a result of a DRG validation. 476.94 Section 476.94 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... changes as a result of a DRG validation. (a) Notice of initial denial determination—(1) Parties to be... retrospective review, (excluding DRG validation and post procedure review), within 3 working days of the...

  13. 42 CFR 476.94 - Notice of QIO initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... changes as a result of a DRG validation. 476.94 Section 476.94 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... changes as a result of a DRG validation. (a) Notice of initial denial determination—(1) Parties to be... retrospective review, (excluding DRG validation and post procedure review), within 3 working days of the...

  14. A retrospective on the LBNL PEM project.

    PubMed

    Huber, Jennifer S; Moses, William W; Wang, Gin-Chung; Derenzo, Stephen E; Huesman, Ronald H; Qi, Jinyi; Virador, Patrick; Choong, Woon-Seng; Mandelli, Emanuele; Beuville, Eric; Pedrali-Noy, Marzio; Krieger, Brad; Meddeler, Gerrit J

    2006-01-01

    We present a retrospective on the LBNL Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) project, looking back on our design and experiences. The LBNL PEM camera utilizes detector modules that are capable of measuring depth of interaction (DOI) and places them into 4 detector banks in a rectangular geometry. In order to build this camera, we had to develop the DOI detector module, LSO etching, Lumirror-epoxy reflector for the LSO array (to achieve optimal DOI), photodiode array, custom IC, rigid-flex readout board, packaging, DOI calibration and reconstruction algorithms for the rectangular camera geometry. We will discuss the high-lights (good and bad) of these developments. PMID:17645996

  15. A retrospective on the LBNL PEM project

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, J.S.; Moses, W.W.; Wang, G.C.; Derenzo, S.E.; Huesman,R.H.; Qi, J.; Virador, P.; Choong, W.S.; Mandelli, E.; Beuville, E.; Pedrali-Noy, M.; Krieger, B.; Meddeler, G.

    2004-11-15

    We present a retrospective on the LBNL Positron EmissionMammography (PEM) project, looking back on our design and experiences.The LBNL PEM camera utilizes detector modules that are capable ofmeasuring depth of interaction (DOI) and places them into 4 detectorbanks in a rectangular geometry. In order to build this camera, we had todevelop the DOI detector module, LSO etching, Lumirror-epoxy reflectorfor the LSO array (to achieve optimal DOI), photodiode array, custom IC,rigid-flex readout board, packaging, DOI calibration and reconstructionalgorithms for the rectangular camera geometry. We will discuss thehighlights (good and bad) of these developments.

  16. Construct Validity and Case Validity in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teglasi, Hedwig; Nebbergall, Allison Joan; Newman, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Clinical assessment relies on both "construct validity", which focuses on the accuracy of conclusions about a psychological phenomenon drawn from responses to a measure, and "case validity", which focuses on the synthesis of the full range of psychological phenomena pertaining to the concern or question at hand. Whereas construct validity is…

  17. Aging and Retrospective Revaluation of Causal Learning

    PubMed Central

    Mutter, Sharon A.; Atchley, Anthony R.; Plumlee, Leslie M.

    2011-01-01

    In a two-stage causal learning task, young and older participants first learned which foods presented in compound were followed by an allergic reaction (e.g., STEAK - BEANS → REACTION) and then the causal efficacy of one food from these compounds was revalued (e.g., BEANS → NO REACTION). In Experiment 1, unrelated food pairs were used and although there were no age differences in compound or single cue – outcome learning, older adults did not retrospectively revalue the causal efficacy of the absent target cues (e.g. STEAK). However, they had weaker within – compound associations for the unrelated foods and this may have prevented them from retrieving the representations of these cues. In Experiment 2, older adults still showed no retrospective revaluation of absent cues even though compound food cues with pre-existing associations were used (e.g., STEAK - POTATO) and they received additional learning trials. Finally, in Experiment 3, older adults revalued the causal efficacy of the target cues when small, unobtrusive icons of these cues were present during single cue revaluation. These findings suggest that age – related deficits in causal learning for absent cues are due to ineffective associative binding and reactivation processes. PMID:21843025

  18. Retrospective Reactor Dosimetry with Zirconium Alloy Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Foster, John P.

    2009-11-01

    Retrospective measurements are routinely performed with stainless steel samples. Recent experiments have been successfully conducted using zirconium alloy samples, involving somewhat different neuron activation reactions than are normally encountered with stainless steel samples. The alloy composition consisted of nominally 1% (by weight) niobium, 1% tin, and 0.1% iron, with the balance zirconium. The activation products observed in the samples by gamma spectroscopy included Zr-95, Nb-95, Sn-113, Sb-125, Mn-54, Co-60, Nb-94, and Ta-182. The niobium was then chemically separated following ASTM procedure E1297 and the Nb-93m activities were measured by x-ray spectroscopy. The thermal neutron fluences, as determined independently by the neutron capture gamma reactions to Zr-95, Sn-113, Nb-94, and Sn/Sb-125, were in excellent agreement. The fast neutron fluences, as determined separately by the Fe-54(n,p)Mn-54 and Nb-93(n,n’)Nb-93m reactions, were also in good agreement, thus demonstrating the versatility of the retrospective dosimetry technique.

  19. Exposure assessment in industry specific retrospective occupational epidemiology studies.

    PubMed Central

    Seixas, N S; Checkoway, H

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative estimation of exposure for occupational epidemiology studies has received increasing attention in recent years and, as a result, a body of methodological literature has begun to take form. This paper reviews the generic issues in the methodology of exposure assessment, particularly methods for quantitative retrospective assessment studies. A simple framework, termed an exposure data matrix (EDM), for defining and analysing exposure data is proposed and discussed in terms of the definition of matrix dimensions and scales. Several methods for estimation, interpolation, and extrapolation, ranging from subjective ratings to quantitative statistical modelling are presented and discussed. The various approaches to exposure assessment based on the EDM concept are illustrated with studies of lung disease among coal miners and other dust and chemically induced chronic occupational diseases. The advantages of validated statistical models are emphasised. The importance of analysis and control of errors in exposure assessments, and integration of the exposure assessment and exposure-response processes, especially for emerging occupational health issues, is emphasised. PMID:7489051

  20. A retrospective study of patient outcomes and satisfaction following pinnaplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Nicholas; Smith, Caroline P; Cullen, Jim R; McCluney, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Up to 5% of all children have prominent ears. Psychological distress and bullying adversely affect these children and can cause significant social exclusion. In times of austerity, cosmetic procedures such as surgical correction of prominent ears are felt to be an unnecessary cost to the health service. Materials and methods A retrospective case note review of all patients undergoing pinnaplasty was undertaken. Postoperative outcomes were compared against the Royal College of Surgeons of England standards. The Glasgow Benefit Inventory, a validated post-intervention questionnaire, was then posted out to all patients. Results A total of 72 patients were identified. Average age at procedure was 13 years. Eleven patients were above the age of 19 years. Twenty-eight patients were male and forty-four female. Sixty-two cases underwent bilateral pinnaplasty. No patients developed hematoma, and there were no readmissions within 30 days of surgery. Twenty-nine patients responded to the questionnaire (40%), of whom 27 reported a positive impact on their psychosocial well-being with a mean score of 36. Conclusion Pinnaplasty offers patients an opportunity to alleviate the psychological distress of bullying and harassment secondary to the appearance of prominent ears. PMID:27307775

  1. Ultratrace LC-MS/MS analysis of segmented calf hair for retrospective assessment of time of clenbuterol administration in Agriforensics.

    PubMed

    Duvivier, Wilco F; van Beek, Teris A; Meijer, Thijs; Peeters, Ruth J P; Groot, Maria J; Sterk, Saskia S; Nielen, Michel W F

    2015-01-21

    In agriforensics, time of administration is often debated when illegal drug residues, such as clenbuterol, are found in frequently traded cattle. In this proof-of-concept work, the feasibility of obtaining retrospective timeline information from segmented calf tail hair analyses has been studied. First, an ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) hair analysis method was adapted to accommodate smaller sample sizes and in-house validated. Then, longitudinal 1 cm segments of calf tail hair were analyzed to obtain clenbuterol concentration profiles. The profiles found were in good agreement with calculated, theoretical positions of the clenbuterol residues along the hair. Following assessment of the average growth rate of calf tail hair, time of clenbuterol administration could be retrospectively determined from segmented hair analysis data. The data from the initial animal treatment study (n = 2) suggest that time of treatment can be retrospectively estimated with an error of 3-17 days. PMID:25537490

  2. Nursing student medication errors: a retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Harding, Lorill; Petrick, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a retrospective review of medication errors made and reported by nursing students in a 4-year baccalaureate program. Data were examined in relation to the semester of the program, kind of error according to the rights of medication administration, and contributing factors. Three categories of contributing factors were identified: rights violations, system factors, and knowledge and understanding. It became apparent that system factors, or the context in which medication administration takes place, are not fully considered when students are taught about medication administration. Teaching strategies need to account for the dynamic complexity of this process and incorporate experiential knowledge. This review raised several important questions about how this information guides our practice as educators in the clinical and classroom settings and how we can work collaboratively with practice partners to influence change and increase patient safety. PMID:18232615

  3. Retrospective study of late febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Webb, D W; Jones, R R; Manzur, A Y; Farrell, K

    1999-04-01

    This retrospective study documents the clinical features, electroencephalographic data, and outcome of 50 children with a history of seizures with fever that occurred after 5 years of age. Children with afebrile seizures before the onset of febrile seizures were excluded. Outcome was based on a cross-sectional survey and the follow-up period was 1-13 years. Of the 50 children, 40 had two or fewer febrile seizures after 5 years of age, and febrile seizures did not occur after 10 years of age. Twenty had complex febrile seizures, and 16 had a first-degree relative with febrile seizures. Five developed afebrile seizures, and 18 had educational difficulties. Epileptiform electroencephalographic abnormalities were observed in 22 but were not predictive of later afebrile seizures. Febrile seizures that occur after 5 years of age recur infrequently and cease by 10 years of age. The risk of developing afebrile seizures in this group is small. PMID:10328275

  4. Serological investigations in retrospective diagnosis of malaria.

    PubMed

    Draper, C C; Sirr, S S

    1980-06-28

    Sera were obtained in 415 known cases of malaria (88 residents, 327 immigrants) at different times after diagnosis. Three antigens were used in the indirect fluorscence antibody test to detect antibodies to either Plasmodium falciparum or P vivax. Results in residents and immigrants were analysed separately. Most residents had detectable antibodies within one week after an attack, which began to wane after a month. The strongest reactions were obtained in cases of falciparum malaria with the homologous antigen and in cases of vivax malaria with P fieldi. The overall pattern of results was the same in the immigrants but the proportions positive for malaria antibodies, mean titres, persistence of antibodies, and the cross-reaction were usually greater. Testing for malaria antibodies is probably of value in the retrospective differential diagnosis of malaria in patients who have not been exposed to malaria before but must be interpreted with caution in others. PMID:7000244

  5. DSCOVR Retrospective Science Products and Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, W. F.; Codrescu, S. M.; Tilton, M.; Redmon, R. J.; Loto'aniu, P. T. M.; Cartwright, J.; Mccullough, H.; Denig, W. F.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA's Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) will provide essential next-generation solar wind measurements from L1 to space-weather forecasters, modelers, and the science community in general. Parameters available include bulk flow speed, velocities, number density, and vector magnetic field. The NCEI Solar Geophysics Branch is responsible for long-term archive and user-access of the products created by the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC), as well as creation of and access to a set of additional products based on the archived data. We discuss the data available to retrospective users and some of the new capabilities that we have developed to allow improved search and access for our science community. Feedback concerning additional products or access features that would be of interest to the user base will also be solicited. The NCEI DSCOVR access page can be located at http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/dscovr/

  6. Retrospective dream components and musical preferences.

    PubMed

    Kroth, Jerry; Lamas, Jasmin; Pisca, Nicholas; Bourret, Kristy; Kollath, Miranda

    2008-08-01

    Retrospective dream components endorsed on the KJP Dream Inventory were correlated with those on the Short Test of Musical Preference for 68 graduate students in counseling psychology (11 men). Among 40 correlations, 6 were significant between preferences for Heavy Metal and Dissociative avoidance dreams (.32), Dreaming that you are dreaming (.40), Dreaming that you have fallen unconscious or asleep (.41), Recurring pleasantness (.31), and Awakening abruptly from a dream (-.31); between preferences for Rap/Hip-Hop and Sexual dreams (.27); and between preferences for Jazz and Recurring pleasantness in dreams (.33). Subjects preferring Classical music reported a higher incidence of Dreams of flying (.33) and rated higher Discontentedness in dreams (-.26). The meaning of these low values awaits research based on personality inventories and full dream reports. PMID:18982941

  7. Space Adaptation Back Pain: A Retrospective Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, E. L.; Scheuring, R. A.; Barnes, M. G.; DeKorse, T. B.; Saile, L. G.

    2008-01-01

    Back pain is frequently reported by astronauts during the early phase of space flight as they adapt to the microgravity environment. However, the epidemiology of space adaptation back pain has not been well defined. The purpose of this retrospective study was to develop a case definition of space adaptation back pain, determine the incidence of space adaptation back pain, and determine the effectiveness of available treatments. Medical records from the Mercury, Apollo, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Skylab, Mir, International Space Station (ISS), and Shuttle programs were reviewed. All episodes of in-flight back pain that met the criteria for space adaptation back pain were recorded. Pain characteristics, including intensity, location, and duration of the pain were noted. The effectiveness of specific treatments also was recorded. The incidence of space adaptation back pain among astronauts was determined to be 53% (384/722). Most of the affected astronauts reported mild pain (85%). Moderate pain was reported by 11% of the affected astronauts and severe pain was reported by only 4% of the affected astronauts. The most effective treatments were fetal positioning (91% effective) and the use of analgesic medications (85% effective). This retrospective study aids in the development of a case definition of space adaptation back pain and examines the epidemiology of space adaptation back pain. Space adaptation back pain is usually mild and self-limited. However, there is a risk of functional impairment and mission impact in cases of moderate or severe pain that do not respond to currently available treatments. Therefore, the development of preventive measures and more effective treatments should be pursued.

  8. Retrospective Evaluation of Anaesthetic Techniques for Caesarean

    PubMed Central

    Sarı, Melek Aksoy; Küçükgüçlü, Semih; Özbilgin, Şule; Günenç, Ferim Sakize; Mercan, Sümeyye; Esen, Ayşenur; Yetim, Büşra

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the maternal, foetal and neonatal effects of anaesthetic techniques used in caesarean sections (C/S) retrospectively over 6 years at the Hospital of Medical School of Dokuz Eylül University and to compare the results with the literature from Turkey and developed countries. Methods After obtaining approval from the ethics committee, anaesthetic and gestational data from all caesarean operations performed over a 6-year period between 2005 and 2010 was retrospectively obtained from hospital archives. Results During this period, a total of 10,819 labours was conducted and C/S ratio was 55% with 5953 patients. General anaesthesia was performed in 1479 patients (24.8%) and regional anaesthesia was performed in 4474 patients (75.2%) [Spinal anaesthesia for 1203 patients (26.9%), epidural anaesthesia for 830 patients (18.5%) and combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia for 2441 patients (54.6%)]. In 2010, regional anaesthesia ratio increased to 84.6%, whereas in 2005, it was 63.8%. Regional anaesthesia was used significantly more often in both elective and urgent patients (82% elective and 65.2% emergency). Because of failed regional anaesthesia or surgical complications, anaesthesia was changed to general anaesthesia in 215 patients (4.8%). APGAR scores in 1 and 5 min were significantly higher with regional anaesthesia when compared with general anaesthesia. Conclusion Regional anaesthesia rate for C/S patients in the Hospital of Medical School of Dokuz Eylül University is increased and is higher than Turkey’s average; but these figures are still lower than those in the developed countries. PMID:27366533

  9. Assessing the Validity of Can-Do Statements in Retrospective (Then-Now) Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, N. Anthony; Dewey, Dan P.; Cox, Troy L.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated the strengths and limitations of a self-assessment based on ACTFL Can-Do statements ("ACTFL," 2013]) as a tool for measuring linguistic gains over an internship abroad in Russia. They assessed its reliability, determined how its items mapped with the ACTFL scale, and measured the degree to which…

  10. Agreeing on Validity Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    Kane (this issue) presents a comprehensive review of validity theory and reminds us that the focus of validation is on test score interpretations and use. In reacting to his article, I support the argument-based approach to validity and all of the major points regarding validation made by Dr. Kane. In addition, I call for a simpler, three-step…

  11. 42 CFR 456.709 - Retrospective drug use review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retrospective drug use review. 456.709 Section 456... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.709 Retrospective drug use review. (a)...

  12. 42 CFR 456.709 - Retrospective drug use review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retrospective drug use review. 456.709 Section 456... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.709 Retrospective drug use review. (a)...

  13. CA Condensates as a Retrospective Search Tool. A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Inge Berg

    1973-01-01

    A retrospective test search on one year of CA Condensates was carried out in order to calculate the costs per profile and to get an impression of how CA Condensates would suffice as a database for retrospective use. (11 references) (Author)

  14. 45 CFR 233.27 - Supplemental payments under retrospective budgeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental payments under retrospective budgeting. 233.27 Section 233.27 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY... payments under retrospective budgeting. (a) General requirements. A State plan which provides for...

  15. 45 CFR 233.27 - Supplemental payments under retrospective budgeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplemental payments under retrospective budgeting. 233.27 Section 233.27 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY... payments under retrospective budgeting. (a) General requirements. A State plan which provides for...

  16. 42 CFR 456.709 - Retrospective drug use review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retrospective drug use review. 456.709 Section 456... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.709 Retrospective drug use review. (a)...

  17. 42 CFR 456.709 - Retrospective drug use review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retrospective drug use review. 456.709 Section 456... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.709 Retrospective drug use review. (a)...

  18. 42 CFR 456.709 - Retrospective drug use review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retrospective drug use review. 456.709 Section 456... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.709 Retrospective drug use review. (a)...

  19. (Self-)Portrait of Prof. R. C.: A Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Charles E., III

    2010-01-01

    This essay offers a retrospective on the four special issues of this journal (1957, 1980, 1990, 2001) dedicated to the "state of the art" of rhetorical criticism. Drawing on Oscar Wilde's "The Portrait of Mr. W. H." as allegory, the essay also functions to queer this retrospective in an ongoing effort to queer rhetorical studies. The essay closes…

  20. A Retrospective Analysis of Ruptured Breast Implants

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Woo Yeol; Lew, Dae Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Rupture is an important complication of breast implants. Before cohesive gel silicone implants, rupture rates of both saline and silicone breast implants were over 10%. Through an analysis of ruptured implants, we can determine the various factors related to ruptured implants. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 72 implants that were removed for implant rupture between 2005 and 2014 at a single institution. The following data were collected: type of implants (saline or silicone), duration of implantation, type of implant shell, degree of capsular contracture, associated symptoms, cause of rupture, diagnostic tools, and management. Results Forty-five Saline implants and 27 silicone implants were used. Rupture was diagnosed at a mean of 5.6 and 12 years after insertion of saline and silicone implants, respectively. There was no association between shell type and risk of rupture. Spontaneous was the most common reason for the rupture. Rupture management was implant change (39 case), microfat graft (2 case), removal only (14 case), and follow-up loss (17 case). Conclusions Saline implants have a shorter average duration of rupture, but diagnosis is easier and safer, leading to fewer complications. Previous-generation silicone implants required frequent follow-up observation, and it is recommended that they be changed to a cohesive gel implant before hidden rupture occurs. PMID:25396188

  1. Canine urolithiasis: retrospective analysis of 438 cases.

    PubMed

    Brown, N O; Parks, J L; Greene, R W

    1977-02-15

    In a retrospective analysis of 438 cases of canine urolithiasis, a total of 561 urolithic episodes were found to have occurred in a 6 1/2-year period. The hospital incidence of urolithiasis during that period, defined as the proportion of dogs hospitalized with urolithiasis to the total number of dogs hospitalized, was 2.8%. The major chemical component of the calculus in 307 dogs was phosphate; in 95 dogs, cystine; in 21 dogs, urate; in 12 dogs, oxalate; and in 3 dogs, carbonate. The Miniature Schnauzer, Dachsund, Dalmatian, Pug, Bulldog, Welsh Corgi, Beagle, and Bassett Hound were breeds that had a significantly higher (P less than 0.05) incidence of calculi than did breeds of other dogs hospitalized. Predisposition for calculi, by sex, was not found. Most dogs with calculi were between 3 and 7 years old. Most calculi were radiopaque and were located in the bladder or in the bladder and urethra. Specimens for bacteriologic culture were obtained by catheterization or by swabbing of tissue at the surgical site. Of 259 specimens obtained, 181 were culture-positive. The most common organisms isolated were Staphylococcus spp, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp, Streptococcus spp, and Klebsiella spp. Most of the bacteria were sensitive to gentamicin, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, cephalothin, and methanamine mandelate. PMID:838615

  2. Adolescent ovarian masses: A retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Bindiya; Guleria, Kiran; Suneja, Amita; Vaid, Neelam B; Rajaram, Shalini; Wadhwa, Neelam

    2016-05-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to review incidence, clinical practice, surgical management and histology of adolescent ovarian masses in order to audit and improve future practices. Complete hospital records of all adolescents between 10 and 20 years who had undergone surgery for ovarian masses were analysed between November 2006 to 2014. Parameters analysed were age, clinical features, diagnosis, operative procedure and histopathology. Ninety-four patients were included in the study and among them, 37 had non-neoplastic masses, 30 had benign neoplasms while 27 had malignant tumors. The main clinical presentations were abdominal pain (54%) and abdominal mass (41%). Dermoid was the most common benign neoplasm while germ cell tumor was the most common malignant mass; dysgerminoma being the commonest (68%). Malignancy was more common in early adolescence (12 ± 4.8 years) while non-neoplastic masses were seen more frequently in late adolescence (17.7 ± 2.2 years). There was a fair correlation between ultrasound and histopathological diagnosis. PMID:26789784

  3. Oral presentation bias: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Decullier, Evelyne; Chapuis, François

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess oral presentation bias at a national level. This was a retrospective cohort study with initial characteristics of the approved protocols extracted from the committee's archives, and follow-up characteristics obtained from a questionnaire mailed to the principal investigators. A representative sample of French research ethics committees (25/48), the only committees legally endorsed for ethical authorisation in biomedical research, were studied. All completed research protocols, which had been approved in 1994 by these committees, were included. Initial characteristics (design, study size, investigator) of completed studies and follow-up information (direction of results, rates of publication and rates of oral presentation) were collected. Complete information on results and their dissemination was available for 248 completed non-confidential protocols. Half of these (49%) were declared as orally presented. The observed ranking for strategies to disseminate results was the following: orally presented and published, published only, neither orally presented nor published and orally presented only. Confirmatory results were more often orally presented, with an adjusted OR of 6.4 (95% CI 2.69 to 15.22). Other associated variables are the following: national/international scope of the study, protocol writer's university status, adverse events and interim analysis. There is a trend to submit or accept confirmatory results for oral presentations: meetings are a biased representation of research, and oral presentation bias could even be higher than publication bias. PMID:17325393

  4. Space Adaptation Back Pain: A Retrospective Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Astronaut back pain is frequently reported in the early phase of space flight as they adapt to microgravity. The epidemiology of space adaptation back pain (SABP) has not been well established. This presentation seeks to determine the exact incidence of SABP among astronauts, develop a case definition of SABP, delineate the nature and pattern of SABP, review available treatments and their effectiveness in relieving SABP; and identify any operational impact of SABP. A retrospective review of all available mission medical records of astronauts in the U.S. space program was performed. It was revealed that the incidence of SABP has been determined to be 53% among astronauts in the U.S. space program; most cases of SABP are mild, self-limited, or respond to available treatment; there are no currently accepted preventive measures for SABP; it is difficult to predict who will develop SABP; the precise mechanism and spinal structures responsible for SABP are uncertain; there was no documented evidence of direction operational mission impact related to SABP; and, that there was the potential for mission impact related to uncontrolled pain, sleep disturbance, or the adverse side effects pf anti-inflammatory medications

  5. Acute endosulfan poisoning: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jeong Mi; Chun, Byeong Jo

    2009-05-01

    Endosulfan is a widely used insecticide that is associated with a high fatality rate in humans when ingested accidentally or with the aim of suicide. However, the literature concerning human endosulfan exposure is limited to case reports. Thus, we sought to 1) describe the clinical features of patients with acute endosulfan poisoning and 2) identify independent factors to predict patients' outcome. Fifty-two patients who presented with acute endosulfan poisoning between January 2001 and January 2007 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Sixteen (30.7%) of the 52 patients died, and 48 patients experienced seizures. Endosulfan poisoning caused the hypotension and the abnormalities on electrocardiogram at presentation. Over half of the patients developed complications, such as rhabdomyolysis, hepatic toxicity, and hypotension. These complications resolved without sequelae in the survival group. Refractory status epilepticus was the most common cause of death in this series (75.0%). Amount ingested being greater than 35 g of endosulfan was the most found to be an independent variable that predicted patient mortality. Patients with this risk factor must be treated aggressively during the early stage of endosulfan poisoning. PMID:19755461

  6. Retrospective exposure assessment using Bayesian methods.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, G

    2001-11-01

    This paper presents the application of a Bayesian framework for retrospective exposure assessment of workers in a nickel smelter. Using only sparsely available historical measurements will result in exposure estimates with large uncertainties. However, additional information, in the form of expert judgments informed by knowledge of historical plant conditions, can be brought to bear on this process. The experts are provided with an information packet that contains historical process information, process throughput levels for each year, the dimensions of the workplace, ventilation records, and task descriptions for each job category. Based on this information, the experts provide subjective prior probability distributions for input parameters to a general ventilation model that predicts building concentrations. These priors can be synthesized with the historical measurements using Bayes theorem. The prior distributions of exposures are updated using the average measured exposures (historical measurements) and their associated variances to obtain the posterior probability distributions for building concentrations as well as concentrations at specific locations in the building. Expert input was also obtained from a plant industrial hygienist, in the form of probability distributions, regarding the amounts of time spent by each job category in different locations in the building. Monte Carlo sampling, from the posterior probability distributions of concentrations in different micro-environments and the probability distributions of time spent by each job category in those micro-environments, was used to obtain worker exposures using a time-weighted averaging model. PMID:11718661

  7. Childhood Learning Disabilities and Atypical Dementia: A Retrospective Chart Review

    PubMed Central

    Seifan, Alon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To further our understanding of the association between self-reported childhood learning disabilities (LDs) and atypical dementia phenotypes (Atypical Dementia), including logopenic primary progressive aphasia (L-PPA), Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA), and Dysexecutive-type Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Methods This retrospective case series analysis of 678 comprehensive neuropsychological assessments compared rates of self-reported LD between dementia patients diagnosed with Typical AD and those diagnosed with Atypical Dementia. 105 cases with neuroimaging or CSF data available and at least one neurology follow-up were identified as having been diagnosed by the neuropsychologist with any form of neurodegenerative dementia. These cases were subject to a consensus diagnostic process among three dementia experts using validated clinical criteria for AD and PPA. LD was considered Probable if two or more statements consistent with prior LD were documented within the Social & Developmental History of the initial neuropsychological evaluation. Results 85 subjects (Typical AD n=68, Atypical AD n=17) were included in the final analysis. In logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, handedness, education and symptom duration, patients with Probable LD, compared to patients without Probable LD, were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with Atypical Dementia vs. Typical AD (OR 13.1, 95% CI 1.3-128.4). All three of the L-PPA cases reporting a childhood LD endorsed childhood difficulty with language. By contrast, both PCA cases reporting Probable childhood LD endorsed difficulty with attention and/or math. Conclusions In people who develop dementia, childhood LD may predispose to atypical phenotypes. Future studies are required to confirm whether atypical neurodevelopment predisposes to regional-specific neuropathology in AD and other dementias. PMID:26106899

  8. Land Product Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morisette, Jeffrey; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Land Product Validation (LPV) subgroup of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Working Group on Calibration and Validation was formed in 2000. Goals of the LPV subgroup are: 1) to increase the quality and economy of global satellite product validation via developing and promoting international standards and protocols for field sampling, scaling, error budgeting, data exchange and product evaluation; 2) to advocate mission-long validation programs for current and future earth observing satellites.

  9. The Iowa Validation Site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing can be used to observe the land surface hydrologic cycle, but the quantitative aspects of these observations are not well known. We present a small (1 km^2) experimental validation site, the Iowa Validation Site. Initially we have focused on validating remotely-sensed observations of ...

  10. The Concept of Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsboom, Denny; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.; van Heerden, Jaap

    2004-01-01

    This article advances a simple conception of test validity: A test is valid for measuring an attribute if (a) the attribute exists and (b) variations in the attribute causally produce variation in the measurement outcomes. This conception is shown to diverge from current validity theory in several respects. In particular, the emphasis in the…

  11. Cross-Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langmuir, Charles R.

    1954-01-01

    Cross-validation in relation to choosing the best tests and selecting the best items in tests is discussed. Cross-validation demonstrated whether a decision derived from one set of data is truly effective when this decision is applied to another independent, but relevant, sample of people. Cross-validation is particularly important after…

  12. Validity, Responsibility, and Aporia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author problematizes external, objectified, oversimplified, and mechanical approaches to validity in qualitative research, which endorse simplistic and reductionist views of knowledge and data. Instead of promoting one generalizable definition or operational criteria for validity, the author's "deconstructive validity work"…

  13. Sternal fractures: retrospective analysis of 100 cases.

    PubMed

    Athanassiadi, Kalliopi; Gerazounis, Michalis; Moustardas, Marios; Metaxas, Efstathios

    2002-10-01

    Isolated sternal fractures are seen with increasing frequency in road accidents, especially since the introduction of seatbelt legislation. The medical records of all our patients who were treated with a diagnosis of sternal fracture (SF) over the past two decades were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of this entity. Between 1984 and 1998, 100 consecutive patients were admitted to the Department of Surge Surgery, General Hospital of Nikea-Piraeus, Greece, for SF. There were 72 men and 28 women ranging in age between 17 and 84 years. Sixty-seven patients sustained an isolated SF and the remaining 33 had a SF in combination with multiple injuries such as flail chest (n = 19), head injury (n = 18), limb fractures (n = 10), spinal fractures (n = 4), hear contusion (n = 1), hemo-pneumothorax (n = 9), pneumothorax (n = 6), hemomediastinum (n = 5), and pericarditis (n = 2), among others. All patients with a radiological diagnosis were admitted for cardiac monitoring for at least 24 hours. Electrocardiogram (ECG), determinations of cardiac enzyme levels such as lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and creatine kinase-MB, and evaluation by a cardiologist were routinely performed. An echocardiogram was performed as indicated by the cardiologist. Seven patients underwent operation, two for abdominal bleeding, two for chest wall and sternal stabilization, two for open pneumothorax, and one for massive hemothorax. Eight of our patients needed ventilatory support. Four of them died from respiratory insufficiency, myocardial infarction, and heart and lung contusion. Although an isolated SF carries a good prognosis, careful evaluation and clinical observation are essential. PMID:12181604

  14. Application of different nuclides in retrospective dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Konheiser, J.; Mittag, S.; Viehrig, H.W.; Gleisberg, B.

    2011-07-01

    The activities of nuclides produced via the neutron irradiation of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel are used to validate respective fluence calculations. Niobium, nickel, and technetium isotopes from RPV trepans of the decommissioned NPP Greifswald (VVER-440) have been analyzed. The activities were determined by TRAMO (Monte-Carlo) fluence calculations, newly applying 640 neutron-energy groups and ENDF/B7 data. Relative to earlier results, fluences up to 20% higher have been computed, leading to somewhat better agreement between measurement and calculation, particularly in the case of Tc-99. (authors)

  15. Daptomycin Therapy for Osteomyelitis: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Daptomycin is a rapidly bactericidal agent with broad coverage against Gram-positive organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, the most frequent cause of osteomyelitis. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical outcome of patients with non-hardware associated osteomyelitis, and the safety profile of daptomycin in the treatment of these infections. Methods All patients with osteomyelitis, excluding concurrent orthopedic foreign body infections, treated with daptomycin and identified between 2007–2008 in a retrospective, multicenter, observational registry, were included. Investigators assessed patient outcome (cured, improved, failed, non-evaluable) at the end of daptomycin therapy. Patients with a successful outcome at the end of daptomycin therapy were reassessed in 2009. All patients were included in the safety analysis; evaluable patients were included in the efficacy analysis. Data was assessed using descriptive statistics. A Kaplan Meier analysis was used to assess time to clinical failure. Results Two-hundred and nine osteomyelitis patients successfully completed daptomycin therapy in 2007–2008, 71 of which (34%) had a follow-up visit in 2009 and had an evaluable clinical outcome. The median (min, max) daptomycin dose and duration were 6 mg/kg (4, 10) and 42 days (1, 88), respectively. Of the 52 patients with a documented pathogen, S. aureus was the most common (42%); primarily methicillin-resistant S. aureus. All patients were included in the safety analysis; evaluable patients were included in the efficacy analysis. Clinical resolution was reported in 94% (CI - 86.2%, 98.44%) of patients. A Kaplan Meier analysis of time to clinical failure showed that approximately 85% (CI – 64%, 95%) of patients had a continued successful outcome at the time of re-evaluation. Eighteen patients (25%) in the safety population experienced an adverse event; 13 patients (18%) had an adverse event that was possibly-related to daptomycin

  16. Looking forward, looking back: anticipation is more evocative than retrospection.

    PubMed

    Van Boven, Leaf; Ashworth, Laurence

    2007-05-01

    The results of 5 experiments indicate that people report more intense emotions during anticipation of, than during retrospection about, emotional events that were positive (Thanksgiving Day), negative (annoying noises, menstruation), routine (menstruation), and hypothetical (all-expenses-paid ski vacation). People's tendency to report more intense emotion during anticipation than during retrospection was associated with a slight, but only occasionally significant, tendency for people to expect future emotions to be more intense than they remembered past emotions having been. The greater evocativeness of anticipation than retrospection was also associated with and statistically mediated by participants' tendency to report mentally simulating future emotional events more extensively than they report mentally stimulating past emotional events. The conclusion that anticipation is more evocative than retrospection has implications for research methodology, clinical practice, decision making, and well-being. PMID:17500652

  17. A Simple Lightning Assimilation Technique For Improving Retrospective WRF Simulations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Convective rainfall is often a large source of error in retrospective modeling applications. In particular, positive rainfall biases commonly exist during summer months due to overactive convective parameterizations. In this study, lightning assimilation was applied in the Kain...

  18. RETROSPECTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH WASTEWATER UTILIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A retrospective epidemiological study was carried out on the association between enteric disease incidence and wastewater utilization in 79 kibbutzim (cooperative agricultural settlements) in Israel having a population of 32,672. Medical records on disease incidence were collecte...

  19. Film as a Revolutionary Weapon: A Jorge Sanjines Retrospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Leon G.; Cortes, Carlos E.

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes the career and films of Jorge Sanjines and the Ukamau Film Collective by providing a historical retrospective of revolutionary filmmaking and by discussing Ukamau's messages, intended audiences, filmmaking processes, and objectives. (Author/CK)

  20. The Informant Panel: A Retrospective Methodology for Guiding Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Craig C.; Glassman, Alan M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the origins and developmental requirements of the Informant Panel, an inexpensive, time-efficient, retrospective method for obtaining consequently meaningful information needed to guide organizational change projects. The panel combines features of the Nominal Group and Delphi Techniques. (WAS)

  1. Retrospective stress-forecasting of earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yuan; Crampin, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    retrospectively stress-forecasting ~17 earthquakes ranging in magnitude from a M1.7 swarm event in N Iceland, to the 1999 M7.7 Chi-Chi Earthquake in Taiwan, and the 2004 Mw9.2 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake (SAE). Before SAE, the changes in SWS were observed at seismic stations in Iceland at a distance of ~10,500km the width of the Eurasian Plate, from Indonesia demonstrating the 'butterfly wings' sensitivity of the New Geophysics of a critically microcracked Earth. At that time, the sensitivity of the phenomena had not been recognised, and the SAE was not stress-forecast. These results have been published at various times in various formats in various journals. This presentation displays all the results in a normalised format that allows the similarities to be recognised, confirming that observations of SWS time-delays can stress-forecast the times, magnitudes, and in some circumstances fault-breaks, of impending earthquakes. Papers referring to these developments can be found in geos.ed.ac.uk/home/scrampin/opinion. Also see abstracts in EGU2015 Sessions: Crampin & Gao (SM1.1), Liu & Crampin (NH2.5), and Crampin & Gao (GD.1).

  2. Medical imaging, PACS, and imaging informatics: retrospective.

    PubMed

    Huang, H K

    2014-01-01

    Historical reviews of PACS (picture archiving and communication system) and imaging informatics development from different points of view have been published in the past (Huang in Euro J Radiol 78:163-176, 2011; Lemke in Euro J Radiol 78:177-183, 2011; Inamura and Jong in Euro J Radiol 78:184-189, 2011). This retrospective attempts to look at the topic from a different angle by identifying certain basic medical imaging inventions in the 1960s and 1970s which had conceptually defined basic components of PACS guiding its course of development in the 1980s and 1990s, as well as subsequent imaging informatics research in the 2000s. In medical imaging, the emphasis was on the innovations at Georgetown University in Washington, DC, in the 1960s and 1970s. During the 1980s and 1990s, research and training support from US government agencies and public and private medical imaging manufacturers became available for training of young talents in biomedical physics and for developing the key components required for PACS development. In the 2000s, computer hardware and software as well as communication networks advanced by leaps and bounds, opening the door for medical imaging informatics to flourish. Because many key components required for the PACS operation were developed by the UCLA PACS Team and its collaborative partners in the 1980s, this presentation is centered on that aspect. During this period, substantial collaborative research efforts by many individual teams in the US and in Japan were highlighted. Credits are due particularly to the Pattern Recognition Laboratory at Georgetown University, and the computed radiography (CR) development at the Fuji Electric Corp. in collaboration with Stanford University in the 1970s; the Image Processing Laboratory at UCLA in the 1980s-1990s; as well as the early PACS development at the Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, in the late 1970s, and film scanner and digital radiography developed by Konishiroku Photo Ind. Co. Ltd

  3. Irisin and FNDC5 in retrospect

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Harold P

    2013-01-01

    FNDC5 (fibronectin domain-containing [protein] 5) was initially discovered and characterized by two groups in 2002. In 2011 FNDC5 burst into prominence as the parent of irisin, a small protein containing the fibronectin type III domain. Irisin was proposed to be secreted by skeletal muscle cells in response to exercise, and to circulate to fat tissue where it induced a transition to brown fat. Since brown fat results in dissipation of energy, this pathway is of considerable interest for metabolism and obesity. Here I review the original discoveries of FNDC5 and the more recent discovery of irisin. I note in particular three problems in the characterization of irisin: the antibodies used to detect irisin in plasma lack validity; the recombinant protein used to demonstrate activity in cell culture was severely truncated; and the degree of shedding of soluble irisin from the cell surface has not been quantitated. The original discovery proposing that FNDC5 may be a transmembrane receptor may deserve a new look. PMID:24052909

  4. Validating Automated Speaking Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Jared; Van Moere, Alistair; Cheng, Jian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents evidence that supports the valid use of scores from fully automatic tests of spoken language ability to indicate a person's effectiveness in spoken communication. The paper reviews the constructs, scoring, and the concurrent validity evidence of "facility-in-L2" tests, a family of automated spoken language tests in Spanish,…

  5. TES Validation Reports

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-06-30

    ... Reports: TES Data Versions: TES Validation Report Version 6.0 (PDF) R13 processing version; F07_10 file versions TES Validation Report Version 5.0 (PDF) R12 processing version; F06_08, F06_09 file ...

  6. A Validity Network Schema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinberg, David; McGrath, Joseph E.

    Numerous forms and meanings of validity have been developed to provide researchers with the opportunity to assess the many potential sources of ambiguity that exist in any research finding. A Validity Network Schema (VNS) developed by Brinberg & McGrath (1982) is extended and elaborated in order to describe the components of the research process…

  7. Five Data Validation Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkin, Mark G.

    2008-01-01

    Data-validation routines enable computer applications to test data to ensure their accuracy, completeness, and conformance to industry or proprietary standards. This paper presents five programming cases that require students to validate five different types of data: (1) simple user data entries, (2) UPC codes, (3) passwords, (4) ISBN numbers, and…

  8. An SAT® Validity Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    This primer should provide the reader with a deeper understanding of the concept of test validity and will present the recent available validity evidence on the relationship between SAT® scores and important college outcomes. In addition, the content examined on the SAT will be discussed as well as the fundamental attention paid to the fairness of…

  9. Validating Analytical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)

  10. SOSS ICN Model Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Zhifan

    2016-01-01

    Under the NASA-KAIA-KARI ATM research collaboration agreement, SOSS ICN Model has been developed for Incheon International Airport. This presentation describes the model validation work in the project. The presentation will show the results and analysis of the validation.

  11. Identifying Patients with Bacteremia in Community-Hospital Emergency Rooms: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Takeshima, Taro; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Noguchi, Yoshinori; Maki, Nobuyuki; Gibo, Koichiro; Tsugihashi, Yukio; Doi, Asako; Fukuma, Shingo; Yamazaki, Shin; Kajii, Eiji; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) To develop a clinical prediction rule to identify patients with bacteremia, using only information that is readily available in the emergency room (ER) of community hospitals, and (2) to test the validity of that rule with a separate, independent set of data. Design Multicenter retrospective cohort study. Setting To derive the clinical prediction rule we used data from 3 community hospitals in Japan (derivation). We tested the rule using data from one other community hospital (validation), which was not among the three “derivation” hospitals. Participants Adults (age ≥ 16 years old) who had undergone blood-culture testing while in the ER between April 2011 and March 2012. For the derivation data, n = 1515 (randomly sampled from 7026 patients), and for the validation data n = 467 (from 823 patients). Analysis We analyzed 28 candidate predictors of bacteremia, including demographic data, signs and symptoms, comorbid conditions, and basic laboratory data. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression were used to derive an integer risk score (the “ID-BactER” score). Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (i.e., the AUC) were computed. Results There were 241 cases of bacteremia in the derivation data. Eleven candidate predictors were used in the ID-BactER score: age, chills, vomiting, mental status, temperature, systolic blood pressure, abdominal sign, white blood-cell count, platelets, blood urea nitrogen, and C-reactive protein. The AUCs was 0.80 (derivation) and 0.74 (validation). For ID-BactER scores ≥ 2, the sensitivities for derivation and validation data were 98% and 97%, and specificities were 20% and 14%, respectively. Conclusions The ID-BactER score can be computed from information that is readily available in the ERs of community hospitals. Future studies should focus on developing a score with a higher specificity while maintaining the desired sensitivity

  12. Retrospective biodosimetry using translocation frequency in a stable cell of occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min Su; Lee, Jin Kyung; Bae, Keum Seok; Han, Eun-Ae; Jang, Seong Jae; Ha, Wi-Ho; Lee, Seung-Sook; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Kim, Wan Tae

    2015-07-01

    Two cases of hematological malignancies were reported in an industrial radiography company over a year, which were reasonably suspected of being consequences of prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation because of the higher incidence than expected in the general population. We analyzed chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes from the other workers who had been working under similar circumstances as the patients in the company. Among the subjects tested, 10 workers who belonged to the highest band were followed up periodically for 1.5 years since the first analysis. The aim of this study was to clarify pertinence of translocation analysis to an industrial set-up where chronic exposure was commonly expected. To be a useful tool for a retrospective biodosimetry, the aberrations need to be persistent for a decade or longer. Therefore we calculated the decline rates and half-lives of frequency for both a reciprocal translocation and a dicentric chromosome and compared them. In this study, while the frequency of reciprocal translocations was maintained at the initial level, dicentric chromosomes were decreased to 46.9% (31.0-76.5) of the initial frequency over the follow-up period. Our results support the long-term stability of reciprocal translocation through the cell cycle and validate the usefulness of translocation analysis as a retrospective biodosimetry for cases of occupational exposure. PMID:25922373

  13. Retrospective biodosimetry using translocation frequency in a stable cell of occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Min Su; Lee, Jin Kyung; Bae, Keum Seok; Han, Eun-Ae; Jang, Seong Jae; Ha, Wi-Ho; Lee, Seung-Sook; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Kim, Wan Tae

    2015-01-01

    Two cases of hematological malignancies were reported in an industrial radiography company over a year, which were reasonably suspected of being consequences of prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation because of the higher incidence than expected in the general population. We analyzed chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes from the other workers who had been working under similar circumstances as the patients in the company. Among the subjects tested, 10 workers who belonged to the highest band were followed up periodically for 1.5 years since the first analysis. The aim of this study was to clarify pertinence of translocation analysis to an industrial set-up where chronic exposure was commonly expected. To be a useful tool for a retrospective biodosimetry, the aberrations need to be persistent for a decade or longer. Therefore we calculated the decline rates and half-lives of frequency for both a reciprocal translocation and a dicentric chromosome and compared them. In this study, while the frequency of reciprocal translocations was maintained at the initial level, dicentric chromosomes were decreased to 46.9% (31.0–76.5) of the initial frequency over the follow-up period. Our results support the long-term stability of reciprocal translocation through the cell cycle and validate the usefulness of translocation analysis as a retrospective biodosimetry for cases of occupational exposure. PMID:25922373

  14. Retrospective assessment of dryland soil stability in relation to grazing and climate change.

    PubMed

    Washington-Allen, Robert A; West, Neil E; Ramsey, R Douglas; Phillips, Debra H; Shugart, Herman H

    2010-01-01

    Accelerated soil erosion is an aspect of dryland degradation that is affected by repeated intense drought events and land management activities such as commercial livestock grazing. A soil stability index (SSI) that detects the erosion status and susceptibility of a landscape at the pixel level, i.e., stable, erosional, or depositional pixels, was derived from the spectral properties of an archived time series (from 1972 to 1997) of Landsat satellite data of a commercial ranch in northeastern Utah. The SSI was retrospectively validated with contemporary field measures of soil organic matter and erosion status that was surveyed by US federal land management agencies. Catastrophe theory provided the conceptual framework for retrospective assessment of the impact of commercial grazing and soil water availability on the SSI. The overall SSI trend was from an eroding landscape in the early drier 1970s towards stable conditions in the wetter mid-1980s and late 1990s. The landscape catastrophically shifted towards an extreme eroding state that was coincident with the "The Great North American Drought of 1988". Periods of landscape stability and trajectories toward stability were coincident with extremely wet El Niño events. Commercial grazing had less correlation with soil stability than drought conditions. However, the landscape became more susceptible to erosion events under multiple droughts and grazing. Land managers now have nearly a year warning of El Niño and La Niña events and can adjust their management decisions according to predicted landscape erosion conditions. PMID:19130278

  15. Predicting reading success in a multilevel schoolwide reading model: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Chard, David J; Stoolmiller, Mike; Harn, Beth A; Wanzek, Jeanne; Vaughn, Sharon; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia; Kame'enui, Edward J

    2008-01-01

    Despite recent research findings that implicate a long list of student variables that predict reading success or failure, these predictor variables have not been considered in the context of contemporary models of multitiered schoolwide reading intervention. This longitudinal, retrospective study follows 668 kindergarten and first-grade students identified as at risk for later reading difficulties through third grade. Key predictor variables were examined to determine their validity for predicting initial status and growth on oral reading fluency, third-grade oral reading fluency, and third-grade performance on a standardized test of reading. Results are provided in light of the instructional model provided. Implications for instruction and assessment are discussed. PMID:18354936

  16. Field experience with volume traps for assessing retrospective radon exposures.

    PubMed

    Paridaens, J; Vanmarcke, H; Zunic, Z S; McLaughlin, J P

    2001-05-14

    Approximately 200 volume traps were retrieved from dwellings in various radon prone areas in Europe. They were analysed for the purpose of retrospective radon assessment. Emphasis is put on specific problems encountered when using field samples as opposed to laboratory exposed samples. It was seen that in very dusty circumstances, direct penetration of radon decay products from the outside to the centre of the volume traps calls for extra caution. Rinsing the samples is proposed as a solution and was tested in field and laboratory conditions, showing good results. An attempt was made to give an assessment of the achievable accuracy of the method. Where possible, the volume trap retrospective results were compared with contemporary measurements or to retrospective results from surface traps. The overall impression is that although volume traps are sometimes hard to find in the field, the high reliability of the results makes it well worth the effort. PMID:11379924

  17. Model Validation Status Review

    SciTech Connect

    E.L. Hardin

    2001-11-28

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M&O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and

  18. Retrospective Evaluation of New Chinese Diagnostic Scoring System for Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jun; Wang, Huafang; Guo, Tao; Mei, Heng; Hu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To retrospectively validate the new Chinese DIC scoring system (CDSS). Methods This study retrospectively collected the information of 619 patients (371 cases with non-hematologic malignancies, 248 cases with hematologic malignancies) who suspected of DIC in Wuhan Union Hospital during 2013-4 to 2014-6. We validated CDSS by comparing it with three leading scoring systems, from International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH), Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) and Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare (JMHW), and evaluated its prognostic value by 28 days mortality, APACHE II and SOFA score. Results In non-hematologic malignancies, CDSS was more specific than JAAM (72.55% vs. 50.49%, p<0.05) and more sensitive than ISTH (77.07% vs. 62.03%, p<0.05). In hematologic malignancies, the area under the ROC curve of CDSS was larger than ISTH and JMHW (0.933 vs. 0.889, p<0.01 with ISTH, 0.944 vs. 0.845, p<0.01 with JMHW). In addition, the 28-day mortality rate, SOFA scores, APACHE II scores of DIC patients diagnosed by CDSS were significantly greater than non-DIC (P <0.05). Conclusions We are the first group to propose CDSS. It emphasized the values of the clinical manifestations, the rapidly declining platelet count, APTT in the diagnosis of DIC and used D-dimer as the fibrin-related maker. DIC with hematological malignancies was treated as a special part. In this study we can see that CDSS displayed an acceptable property for the diagnosis of DIC with appropriate sensitivity and specificity, and also had a good prognostic value for DIC patients. PMID:26076032

  19. Feasibility and validity of ecological momentary assessment in adolescents with high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder.

    PubMed

    Khor, Angela S; Gray, Kylie M; Reid, Sophie C; Melvin, Glenn A

    2014-01-01

    Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) may increase accuracy of data compared with retrospective questionnaires by assessing behaviours as they occur, hence decreasing recall biases and increasing ecological validity. This study examined the feasibility and concurrent validity of an EMA tool for adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASD). Thirty-one adolescents with HFASD completed a mobile phone EMA application that assessed stressors and coping for two weeks. Parents and adolescents also completed retrospective measures of the adolescent's coping/stressors. Moderate compliance with the EMA tool was achieved and some concurrent validity was established with the retrospective measure of coping. Concordance was found between the types of stressors reported by parents and adolescents but not the quantity. The results suggest adolescents with HFASD are capable of reporting on their stressors and coping via EMA. EMA has the potential to be a valuable research tool in this population. PMID:24331303

  20. Instrumentation and radiopharmaceutical validation.

    PubMed

    Zigler, S S

    2009-08-01

    Although the promise of new positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents is great, the process of bringing these agents to commercialization remains in its infancy. There are no PET products today that have gone through the full clinical and chemistry development process required to gain marketing approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The purpose of this paper was to review validation from the perspective of the chemistry, manufacturing and controls (CMC) section of an FDA filing, as well as the validation requirements described in FDA good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations, guidance documents and general chapters of the US Pharmacopeia (USP). The review includes discussion of validation from development to commercial production of PET radiopharmaceuticals with a special emphasis on equipment and instrumentation used in production and testing. The goal is to stimulate a dialog that leads to the standardization of industry practices and regulatory requirements for validation practices in PET. PMID:19834450

  1. Land Product Validation (LPV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaepman, Gabriela; Roman, Miguel O.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will discuss Land Product Validation (LPV) objectives and goals, LPV structure update, interactions with other initiatives during report period, outreach to the science community, future meetings and next steps.

  2. EOS Terra Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David

    1999-01-01

    The EOS Terra mission will be launched in July 1999. This mission has great relevance to the atmospheric radiation community and global change issues. Terra instruments include ASTER, CERES, MISR, MODIS and MOPITT. In addition to the fundamental radiance data sets, numerous global science data products will be generated, including various Earth radiation budget, cloud and aerosol parameters, as well as land surface, terrestrial ecology, ocean color, and atmospheric chemistry parameters. Significant investments have been made in on-board calibration to ensure the quality of the radiance observations. A key component of the Terra mission is the validation of the science data products. This is essential for a mission focused on global change issues and the underlying processes. The Terra algorithms have been subject to extensive pre-launch testing with field data whenever possible. Intensive efforts will be made to validate the Terra data products after launch. These include validation of instrument calibration (vicarious calibration) experiments, instrument and cross-platform comparisons, routine collection of high quality correlative data from ground-based networks, such as AERONET, and intensive sites, such as the SGP ARM site, as well as a variety field experiments, cruises, etc. Airborne simulator instruments have been developed for the field experiment and underflight activities including the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS), AirMISR, MASTER (MODIS-ASTER), and MOPITT-A. All are integrated on the NASA ER-2, though low altitude platforms are more typically used for MASTER. MATR is an additional sensor used for MOPITT algorithm development and validation. The intensive validation activities planned for the first year of the Terra mission will be described with emphasis on derived geophysical parameters of most relevance to the atmospheric radiation community. Detailed information about the EOS Terra validation Program can be found on the EOS Validation program

  3. Verification and validation benchmarks.

    SciTech Connect

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2007-02-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V&V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V&V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the level of

  4. Validation suite for MCNP

    SciTech Connect

    Mosteller, R. D.

    2002-01-01

    Two validation suites, one for criticality and another for radiation shielding, have been defined and tested for the MCNP Monte Carlo code. All of the cases in the validation suites are based on experiments so that calculated and measured results can be compared in a meaningful way. The cases in the validation suites are described, and results from those cases are discussed. For several years, the distribution package for the MCNP Monte Carlo code1 has included an installation test suite to verify that MCNP has been installed correctly. However, the cases in that suite have been constructed primarily to test options within the code and to execute quickly. Consequently, they do not produce well-converged answers, and many of them are physically unrealistic. To remedy these deficiencies, sets of validation suites are being defined and tested for specific types of applications. All of the cases in the validation suites are based on benchmark experiments. Consequently, the results from the measurements are reliable and quantifiable, and calculated results can be compared with them in a meaningful way. Currently, validation suites exist for criticality and radiation-shielding applications.

  5. The GOES Time Code Service, 1974-2004: A Retrospective.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Michael A; Hanson, D Wayne

    2005-01-01

    NIST ended its Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) time code service at 0 hours, 0 minutes Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) on January 1, 2005. To commemorate the end of this historically significant service, this article provides a retrospective look at the GOES service and the important role it played in the history of satellite timekeeping. PMID:27308105

  6. Retrospective Miscue Analysis with Proficient Adult ESL Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurr, Adrian J.; Theurer, Joan L.; Kim, Koomi J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports recent research investigating the use of retrospective miscue analysis (RMA) as an instructional strategy with proficient second-language (L2) readers. RMA aims to heighten a reader's awareness of the reading process by involving readers in detailed analysis of their oral reading behavior. Using a cross-case analysis of three…

  7. Retrospective Cognition by Food-Caching Western Scrub-Jays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Kort, S.R.; Dickinson, A.; Clayton, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    Episodic-like memory, the retrospective component of cognitive time travel in animals, needs to fulfil three criteria to meet the behavioral properties of episodic memory as defined for humans. Here, we review results obtained with the cache-recovery paradigm with western scrub-jays and conclude that they fulfil these three criteria. The jays…

  8. Client Retrospective Recall of Resolved and Unresolved Misunderstanding Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Renee H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Studied client retrospective recall of major misunderstanding events in 19 cases of therapy. Found that good relationship, clients' willingness to assert negative feelings about being misunderstood, and therapists' facilitation of mutual repair effort through maintaining flexible and accepting stance typically led to resolution. (Author/NB)

  9. Differences in Retrospective and Prospective Parental Reports of Children's Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abmayr, Sandra B.; Day, H. D.

    The parents of 64 children (ages 5 to 12) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), other psychiatric diagnoses, and no history of school or home problems reported the frequency of their children's sleep disturbances in a 40-item questionnaire. Retrospective data were gathered by asking parents to report on the child's behaviors for…

  10. Site-Based Management: Retrospective Understandings and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levey, Joyce C.; Acker-Hocevar, Michele

    This paper presents a retrospective view of how a school district implemented Site-Based Management (SBM). A pilot study examined the historical development of the site-based decision-making process so as to gain a better understanding of how a large urban school district implemented the process and to assess teachers' understanding of their roles…

  11. Education in Asia and the Pacific. Retrospect: Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raja Roy

    Offered as a tribute to the growing and fruitful spirit of regional cooperation in education in Asia and the Pacific, this volume provides a retrospective and prospective view of cooperative efforts and conditions in the 28 countries of the region. Part One outlines landmark efforts accomplished through a series of UNESCO regional conferences…

  12. The GOES Time Code Service, 1974–2004: A Retrospective

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Michael A.; Hanson, D. Wayne

    2005-01-01

    NIST ended its Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) time code service at 0 hours, 0 minutes Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) on January 1, 2005. To commemorate the end of this historically significant service, this article provides a retrospective look at the GOES service and the important role it played in the history of satellite timekeeping. PMID:27308105

  13. Portraits of Students (1969-1999): A Retrospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, K. Patricia

    This retrospective picture of college students over the past 30 years reflects what has been written about students in "Change" magazine between 1969 and 1999. Using the analogy of a museum gallery, the student portraits are grouped into five eras; each of which dominated the literature for approximately 10 years. The Gallery of Student Protest,…

  14. Earned-Secure Attachment Status in Retrospect and Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Padron, Elena; Sroufe, L. Alan; Egeland, Byron

    2002-01-01

    This 23-year longitudinal study examined the attachment history of earned-secure young adults who coherently describe negative childhood experiences. Findings indicated that retrospective earned-secures were not more likely than continuous-secures to have been anxiously attached in infancy, and were observed in childhood and adolescence to have…

  15. School Discipline and Corporal Punishment: An American Retrospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raichle, Donald R.

    1977-01-01

    The author presents a retrospective examination of the recurring conflict between the inculcation of America's cultural heritage and the development of the child as a free individual, by examining the concept of "school discipline" as practiced from colonial days through the twentieth century. (MJB)

  16. Retrospective Revaluation Effects Following Serial Compound Training and Target Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effting, Marieke; Vervliet, Bram; Kindt, Merel

    2010-01-01

    Using a conditioned suppression task, two experiments examined retrospective revaluation effects after serial compound training in a release from overshadowing design. In Experiment 1, serial X [right arrow] A+ training produced suppression to target A, which was enhanced when preceded by feature X, whereas X by itself elicited no suppression.…

  17. The Student Mentoring Program, 1989-1992. Retrospective Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Cate

    The retrospective report summarizes results and recommendations resulting from the Oregon Community Foundation's Student Mentoring Program (SMP), which brought together college students from four private universities and a number of eighth grade students from four middle schools in mentoring relationships. The students were originally defined as…

  18. Retrospective Descriptive Study of Cerebral Palsy in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapa, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    There is very little data pertaining to cerebral palsy (CP) from Nepal. In this retrospective study it was observed that dyskinetic CP was seen in 29% and the sex ratio of males to females was two in the study population of children with CP. Both of these are much higher than data from developed countries. Hence, further randomized cross-sectional…

  19. 77 FR 47572 - Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    .... 77 FR 8114 (Feb. 14, 2012). This Plan provides that the Commission will, every two years, review its... (76 FR 66004 (Oct. 25, 2011)) will be considered in this review and need not be resubmitted. Examples... COMMISSION 19 CFR Chapter II Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules AGENCY: International Trade...

  20. 77 FR 8114 - Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... sought public comments on its Preliminary Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules. 76 FR 66004... and the identification of specific rules to be included in the plan. 76 FR 66004 (Oct. 25, 2011) and... documents filed with the agency will be filed by electronic means. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011)....

  1. A Retrospective of Four Decades of Community College Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Deborah L.; Felsher, Rivka A.; Ramdin, Gianna

    2016-01-01

    In the 40th publication year of the "Community College Journal of Research and Practice" ("CCJRP"), the authors present a 39-year retrospective on research on the community college through the lens of the journal. It is not known exactly what the body of community college research wholly consists of. Without access to the…

  2. "JTPE": A 30-Year Retrospective of Published Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Jesse L.; Woods, Amelia M.; Daum, David N.; Ellison, Douglas; Trendowski, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    This case study presents an examination of 30 years of "Journal of Teaching in Physical Education" ("JTPE") research. The purpose of this study was to provide a retrospective view of "JTPE" and its contribution to the field of physical education. In this effort the current study employed citation analysis, co-author…

  3. Experiential Learning in Retrospect: A Future Organizational Challenge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Annika; Bjoorn, Urban; Jonson, Gunilla

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe a retrospective reflection over unconscious, emergent learning among employees of an organization and to suggest how to capture these moments of experiential learning for future organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: Action research in organizations is undertaken in interaction with…

  4. Techniques for Improved Retrospective Fine-scale Meteorology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pleim-Xiu Land-Surface model (PX LSM) was developed for retrospective meteorological simulations to drive chemical transport models. One of the key features of the PX LSM is the indirect soil moisture and temperature nudging. The idea is to provide a three hourly 2-m temperature ...

  5. A Retrospective Look at Website Accessibility over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Stephanie; Parmanto, Bambang; Zeng, Xiaoming

    2005-01-01

    Websites were retrospectively analysed to study the effects that technological advances in web design have had on accessibility for persons with disabilities. A random sample of general websites and a convenience sample of US government websites were studied and compared for the years 1997-2002. Web accessibility barrier (WAB) and complexity…

  6. Sources of Machine-Readable Cataloging and Retrospective Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, Judy; Boss, Richard W.

    1985-01-01

    This issue on current options in the area of machine-readable cataloging and retrospective conversion highlights generation and use of machine-readable bibliographic records, editing, standards, online and batch access, keying and coding, full-service cataloging and conversion, interlibrary loan, and authority control. Profiles of 22…

  7. 76 FR 31892 - Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Chapter III Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Request for information. SUMMARY: In accordance with Executive Order (E.O.) 13563, ``Improving... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On January 18, 2011, the President issued E.O. 13563, ``Improving Regulation...

  8. Parenting Environment and Scholastic Achievement during Adolescence: A Retrospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taris, Toon W.; Bok, Inge A.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the effects of perceived parenting style (overly protective versus a warm and loving environment) on the scholastic achievement of 986 Dutch adults age 18-30 years. Retrospective and longitudinal data suggested that respondents with overprotective parents drop out more frequently and have a lower level of educational attainment…

  9. Looking Forward, Looking Back: Anticipation is More Evocative than Retrospection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Boven, Leaf; Ashworth, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    The results of 5 experiments indicate that people report more intense emotions during anticipation of, than during retrospection about, emotional events that were positive (Thanksgiving Day), negative (annoying noises, menstruation), routine (menstruation), and hypothetical (all-expenses-paid ski vacation). People's tendency to report more intense…

  10. How to kill gamete donation: retrospective legislation and donor anonymity.

    PubMed

    Pennings, Guido

    2012-10-01

    Victoria (Australia) is considering retrospective legislation on the abolition of gamete donor anonymity. Retrospective legislation evokes many negative emotions mainly because it is considered unfair. It also makes it impossible for citizens to organize their life with reasonable certainty of the consequences. Introduction of this law for donor anonymity is defended by the right of the child to know its genetic origins. Against this law, people appeal to the right to privacy and confidentiality of the donor. This paper analyses the arguments for and against a retrospective law on donor anonymity by looking at the conditions that should be respected when two principles (the donor's right to privacy and the child's right to genetic information) have to be balanced. It is concluded that the justification for introducing retrospective law is lacking: the conditions are not fulfilled. Moreover, retroactive laws in the context of gamete donation may jeopardize the whole practice by destroying the trust of candidate donors and recipients in the government. PMID:22786778

  11. Groundwater Model Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed E. Hassan

    2006-01-24

    Models have an inherent uncertainty. The difficulty in fully characterizing the subsurface environment makes uncertainty an integral component of groundwater flow and transport models, which dictates the need for continuous monitoring and improvement. Building and sustaining confidence in closure decisions and monitoring networks based on models of subsurface conditions require developing confidence in the models through an iterative process. The definition of model validation is postulated as a confidence building and long-term iterative process (Hassan, 2004a). Model validation should be viewed as a process not an end result. Following Hassan (2004b), an approach is proposed for the validation process of stochastic groundwater models. The approach is briefly summarized herein and detailed analyses of acceptance criteria for stochastic realizations and of using validation data to reduce input parameter uncertainty are presented and applied to two case studies. During the validation process for stochastic models, a question arises as to the sufficiency of the number of acceptable model realizations (in terms of conformity with validation data). Using a hierarchical approach to make this determination is proposed. This approach is based on computing five measures or metrics and following a decision tree to determine if a sufficient number of realizations attain satisfactory scores regarding how they represent the field data used for calibration (old) and used for validation (new). The first two of these measures are applied to hypothetical scenarios using the first case study and assuming field data consistent with the model or significantly different from the model results. In both cases it is shown how the two measures would lead to the appropriate decision about the model performance. Standard statistical tests are used to evaluate these measures with the results indicating they are appropriate measures for evaluating model realizations. The use of validation

  12. Base Flow Model Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Neeraj; Brinckman, Kevin; Jansen, Bernard; Seiner, John

    2011-01-01

    A method was developed of obtaining propulsive base flow data in both hot and cold jet environments, at Mach numbers and altitude of relevance to NASA launcher designs. The base flow data was used to perform computational fluid dynamics (CFD) turbulence model assessments of base flow predictive capabilities in order to provide increased confidence in base thermal and pressure load predictions obtained from computational modeling efforts. Predictive CFD analyses were used in the design of the experiments, available propulsive models were used to reduce program costs and increase success, and a wind tunnel facility was used. The data obtained allowed assessment of CFD/turbulence models in a complex flow environment, working within a building-block procedure to validation, where cold, non-reacting test data was first used for validation, followed by more complex reacting base flow validation.

  13. The Effect of Retrospective Sampling on Estimates of Prediction Error for Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Winham, Stacey J.; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The standard in genetic association studies of complex diseases is replication and validation of positive results, with an emphasis on assessing the predictive value of associations. In response to this need, a number of analytical approaches have been developed to identify predictive models that account for complex genetic etiologies. Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) is a commonly used, highly successful method designed to evaluate potential gene-gene interactions. MDR relies on classification error in a cross-validation framework to rank and evaluate potentially predictive models. Previous work has demonstrated the high power of MDR, but has not considered the accuracy and variance of the MDR prediction error estimate. Currently, we evaluate the bias and variance of the MDR error estimate as both a retrospective and prospective estimator and show that MDR can both underestimate and overestimate error. We argue that a prospective error estimate is necessary if MDR models are used for prediction, and propose a bootstrap resampling estimate, integrating population prevalence, to accurately estimate prospective error. We demonstrate that this bootstrap estimate is preferable for prediction to the error estimate currently produced by MDR. While demonstrated with MDR, the proposed estimation is applicable to all data-mining methods that use similar estimates. PMID:20560921

  14. Developing a Clinical Prediction Rule for First Hospital-Onset Clostridium difficile Infections: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Press, Anne; Ku, Benson; McCullagh, Lauren; Rosen, Lisa; Richardson, Safiya; McGinn, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    BACKGROUND The healthcare burden of hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) demands attention and calls for a solution. Identifying patients' risk of developing a primary nosocomial CDI is a critical first step in reducing the development of new cases of CDI. OBJECTIVE To derive a clinical prediction rule that can predict a patient's risk of acquiring a primary CDI. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING Large tertiary healthcare center. PATIENTS Total of 61,482 subjects aged at least 18 admitted over a 1-year period (2013). INTERVENTION None. METHODS Patient demographic characteristics, evidence of CDI, and other risk factors were retrospectively collected. To derive the CDI clinical prediction rule the patient population was divided into a derivation and validation cohort. A multivariable analysis was performed in the derivation cohort to identify risk factors individually associated with nosocomial CDI and was validated on the validation sample. RESULTS Among 61,482 subjects, CDI occurred in 0.46%. CDI outcome was significantly associated with age, admission in the past 60 days, mechanical ventilation, dialysis, history of congestive heart failure, and use of antibiotic medications. The sensitivity and specificity of the score, in the validation set, were 82.0% and 75.7%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.85. CONCLUSION This study successfully derived a clinical prediction rule that will help identify patients at high risk for primary CDI. This tool will allow physicians to systematically recognize those at risk for CDI and will allow for early interventional strategies. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:896-900. PMID:27123975

  15. The Chimera of Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Education policy over the past 40 years has focused on the importance of accountability in school improvement. Although much of the scholarly discourse around testing and assessment is technical and statistical, understanding of validity by a non-specialist audience is essential as long as test results drive our educational…

  16. Validating an Alternate Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Evelyn; Arnold, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the validity of one state's alternate assessment portfolio system using the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and National Council on Measurement in Education's Standards for Psychological and Educational Testing. The results indicate serious shortcomings in the evidence for content,…

  17. Land Product Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morisette, Jeffrey; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The "Land Product Validation" (LPV) subgroup of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Working on Group on Calibration and Validation was formed in 2000. Goals of the LPV subgroup are: (1)to increase the quality and economy of global satellite product validation via developing and promoting international standards and protocols for field sampling, scaling, error budgeting, data exchange and product evaluation, and (2) to advocate mission-long validation programs for current and future earth observing satellites. First-round LPV activities will compliment the research themes of the Global Observation of Forest Cover (GOFC) program, which are: biophysical products, fire/burn scar detection, and land cover mapping. Meetings in June and July of 2001 focused on the first two themes. The GOFC "Forest Cover Characteristics and Changes" meeting provides a forum to initiate LPV activities related to Land Cover. The presentation will start with a summary of the LPV subgroup and its current activities. This will be followed by an overview of areas for potential coordination between the LPV and the GOFC Land Cover Theme.

  18. Validity, not Dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Samindranath

    2015-03-01

    Science journals have been transformed by the internet. In particular, increasingly their role appears to be to validate research, not to disseminate it. How are journals, and the communities they interact with, adapting? In this context, are alternatives to peer review on the horizon? Are these challenges unique to physics journals, or also seen in other publication scenarios?

  19. Needs Assessment Validation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainone, Rocco; Kaiser, Robert

    This resource guide is intended for local school district personnel involved in planning activities for establishing educational priorities, phase two of the Local Planning and Assessment Process (LPAP). Information is presented on the development of performance indicators and the validation of perceived needs. The guide is organized in two…

  20. Validity and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maraun, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    As illuminated forcefully by Professor Newton's provocative analytical and historical excursion, as long as tests are employed to practical ends (prediction, selection, etc.) there is little cause for the metatheoretic angst that occasions rounds of papers on the topic of validity. But then, also, there seems little need, within this context of…

  1. EOS Terra Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David

    2000-01-01

    The EOS Terra mission will be launched in July 1999. This mission has great relevance to the atmospheric radiation community and global change issues. Terra instruments include Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multi-Angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). In addition to the fundamental radiance data sets, numerous global science data products will be generated, including various Earth radiation budget, cloud and aerosol parameters, as well as land surface, terrestrial ecology, ocean color, and atmospheric chemistry parameters. Significant investments have been made in on-board calibration to ensure the quality of the radiance observations. A key component of the Terra mission is the validation of the science data products. This is essential for a mission focused on global change issues and the underlying processes. The Terra algorithms have been subject to extensive pre-launch testing with field data whenever possible. Intensive efforts will be made to validate the Terra data products after launch. These include validation of instrument calibration (vicarious calibration) experiments, instrument and cross-platform comparisons, routine collection of high quality correlative data from ground-based networks, such as AERONET, and intensive sites, such as the SGP ARM site, as well as a variety field experiments, cruises, etc. Airborne simulator instruments have been developed for the field experiment and underflight activities including the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) AirMISR, MASTER (MODIS-ASTER), and MOPITT-A. All are integrated on the NASA ER-2 though low altitude platforms are more typically used for MASTER. MATR is an additional sensor used for MOPITT algorithm development and validation. The intensive validation activities planned for the first year of the Terra

  2. Dermatologic manifestation of hyperandrogenism: a retrospective chart review.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte M; Rudolph, Jennifer; Gerber, Donald A; Glick, Sharon; Shalita, Alan R; Lowenstein, Eve J

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have described a wide spectrum of hyperandrogenism diseases, many of which are difficult to distinguish from each other. In order to better understand diseases of hyperandrogenism, the authors performed a retrospective study of the cutaneous features and metabolic findings in women with hyperandrogenism. A retrospective chart analysis compiled by three dermatologists in both academic and private settings was performed, including patients presenting with > or = 2 manifestations of hyperandrogenism. Relevant dermatologic and associated manifestations and laboratory and imaging study findings were reviewed. Moderate to severe acne was the most common manifestation. Other common manifestations that patients first presented with include hirsutism, acanthosis nigricans, androgenic alopecia, and skin tags. Oligomenorrhea was the most common systemic presenting sign. Statistical analysis of various clinical markers revealed correlations with hyperandrogenemia. Acanthosis nigricans and hirsutism were found to be useful clinical markers for hyperandrogenism, whereas androgenic alopecia was not. This study provides some insights into the presentation and diverse manifestations seen in hyperandrogenism. PMID:24933845

  3. OSL studies of local bricks for retrospective dosimetric application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Menon, S. N.; Kadam, S. Y.; Koul, D. K.; Datta, D.

    2016-09-01

    Luminescence properties of quartz extracted from bricks has been reported worldwide for its use in dose estimation in case of nuclear or radiological accident. Accordingly, in this study the feasibility of utilizing the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) emission of quartz extracted from red bricks collected from three different locations in and around Mumbai, India for retrospective dosimetry was explored. Thermoluminescence and OSL characterization of the samples were carried out. The growth curve, thermal stability and equivalent dose plateau of the OSL signal suggested the signals to be well behaving. Subsequently, the dose recovery tests carried for different administered doses, using single aliquot regenerative protocol, demonstrated the feasibility of the OSL emissions of these samples for dose evaluation in retrospective dosimetry.

  4. Retrospective dosimetry analyses of reactor vessel cladding samples

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L. R.; Soderquist, C. Z.; Fero, A. H.

    2011-07-01

    Reactor pressure vessel cladding samples for Ringhals Units 3 and 4 in Sweden were analyzed using retrospective reactor dosimetry techniques. The objective was to provide the best estimates of the neutron fluence for comparison with neutron transport calculations. A total of 51 stainless steel samples consisting of chips weighing approximately 100 to 200 mg were removed from selected locations around the pressure vessel and were sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for analysis. The samples were fully characterized and analyzed for radioactive isotopes, with special interest in the presence of Nb-93m. The RPV cladding retrospective dosimetry results will be combined with a re-evaluation of the surveillance capsule dosimetry and with ex-vessel neutron dosimetry results to form a comprehensive 3D comparison of measurements to calculations performed with 3D deterministic transport code. (authors)

  5. Retrospective dosimetry using EPR and TL techniques: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Haskell, E.H.

    1996-12-31

    Methods of retrospective dosimetry, including luminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), rely on measurement of accident dose absorbed by naturally occurring materials - ceramics in the case of both thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and organic materials and bio- minerals in the case of EPR. Each of these methods relies on measurement of radiation defects resulting from accidental exposure. Since defects also result from natural sources of radiation over the lifetime of a sample, analysis is usually restricted to materials for which the natural dose may be determined and subtracted from the measured cumulative dose. Luminescence dating techniques rely heavily on an accurate assessment of cumulative dose from natural radiation sources, and dating research has provided us with the bulk of our knowledge in this area. Virtually all of the work on natural dose determination can be directly applied to retrospective techniques. With EPR techniques the cumulative dose from diagnostic x- rays is also of importance.

  6. Reliability of retrospective survey data on infant feeding.

    PubMed

    Haaga, J G

    1988-05-01

    This article examines retest reliability and digit preference in retrospective survey data on breastfeeding duration and type of supplementary food, covering three decades and reported by more than 1200 Malaysian women. Women with little or no education, rural residents, and those of Malay ethnicity are found to give less reliable data. In a logistic regression analysis, these respondent characteristics are more important determinants of data quality than the length of the recall period. PMID:3396753

  7. Retrospective studies of operating problems in air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Lauber, J. K.; Cooper, G. E.; Ruffell-Smith, H. P.

    1976-01-01

    An epidemiological model for the study of human errors in aviation is presented. In this approach, retrospective data are used as the basis for formulation of hypotheses as to system factors which may have contributed to such errors. Prospective experimental studies of aviation operations are also required in order to prove or disprove the hypotheses, and to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention techniques designed to solve operational problems in the aviation system.

  8. Retrospective review of corneal ulcers in Ipoh Hospital.

    PubMed

    Kursiah, M R; Sharif, F Mohd; Balaravi, P

    2008-12-01

    This study was a retrospective study on corneal ulcer of one year period in Hospital Ipoh. A total of 28 cases were studied. Among the risk factors identified were foreign body on cornea, trauma, contact lens, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and surgical complication. The nature of this disease which was severe and slow healing caused prolonged hospital admission. Identification of causative microorganism by corneal scraping help in the treatment and management of this condition. PMID:19803298

  9. Automated classification of radiology reports to facilitate retrospective study in radiology.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yihua; Amundson, Per K; Yu, Fang; Kessler, Marcus M; Benzinger, Tammie L S; Wippold, Franz J

    2014-12-01

    Retrospective research is an import tool in radiology. Identifying imaging examinations appropriate for a given research question from the unstructured radiology reports is extremely useful, but labor-intensive. Using the machine learning text-mining methods implemented in LingPipe [1], we evaluated the performance of the dynamic language model (DLM) and the Naïve Bayesian (NB) classifiers in classifying radiology reports to facilitate identification of radiological examinations for research projects. The training dataset consisted of 14,325 sentences from 11,432 radiology reports randomly selected from a database of 5,104,594 reports in all disciplines of radiology. The training sentences were categorized manually into six categories (Positive, Differential, Post Treatment, Negative, Normal, and History). A 10-fold cross-validation [2] was used to evaluate the performance of the models, which were tested in classification of radiology reports for cases of sellar or suprasellar masses and colloid cysts. The average accuracies for the DLM and NB classifiers were 88.5% with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.9% and 85.9% with 95% CI of 2.0%, respectively. The DLM performed slightly better and was used to classify 1,397 radiology reports containing the keywords "sellar or suprasellar mass", or "colloid cyst". The DLM model produced an accuracy of 88.2% with 95% CI of 2.1% for 959 reports that contain "sellar or suprasellar mass" and an accuracy of 86.3% with 95% CI of 2.5% for 437 reports of "colloid cyst". We conclude that automated classification of radiology reports using machine learning techniques can effectively facilitate the identification of cases suitable for retrospective research. PMID:24874407

  10. Reconstruction of Organ Dose for External Radiotherapy Patients in Retrospective Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choonik; Jung, Jae Won; Pelletier, Christopher; Pyakuryal, Anil; Lamart, Stephanie; Kim, Jongoh; Lee, Choonsik

    2015-01-01

    Organ dose estimation for retrospective epidemiological studies of late effects in radiotherapy patients involves two challenges: radiological images to represent patient anatomy are not usually available for patient cohorts who were treated years ago, and efficient dose reconstruction methods for large-scale patient cohorts are not well established. In the current study, we developed methods to reconstruct organ doses for radiotherapy patients by using a series of computational human phantoms coupled with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) and a radiotherapy-dedicated Monte Carlo transport code, and performed illustrative dose calculations. First, we developed methods to convert the anatomy and organ contours of the pediatric and adult hybrid computational phantom series to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-image and DICOM-structure files, respectively. The resulting DICOM files were imported to a commercial TPS for simulating radiotherapy and dose calculation for in-field organs. The conversion process was validated by comparing electron densities relative to water and organ volumes between the hybrid phantoms and the DICOM files imported in TPS, which showed agreements within 0.1% and 2%, respectively. Second, we developed a procedure to transfer DICOM-RT files generated from the Eclipse system directly to a Monte Carlo transport code, X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) for more accurate dose calculations. Third, to illustrate the performance of the established methods, we simulated a whole brain treatment for the 10-year-old male phantom and a prostate treatment for the adult male phantom. Radiation doses to selected organs were calculated using the Eclipse and XVMC, and compared to each other. Organ average doses from the two methods matched within 7%, whereas maximum and minimum point doses differed up to 45%. The dosimetry methods and procedures established in this study will be useful for the reconstruction of organ dose to

  11. Reconstruction of organ dose for external radiotherapy patients in retrospective epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choonik; Jung, Jae Won; Pelletier, Christopher; Pyakuryal, Anil; Lamart, Stephanie; Kim, Jong Oh; Lee, Choonsik

    2015-03-21

    Organ dose estimation for retrospective epidemiological studies of late effects in radiotherapy patients involves two challenges: radiological images to represent patient anatomy are not usually available for patient cohorts who were treated years ago, and efficient dose reconstruction methods for large-scale patient cohorts are not well established. In the current study, we developed methods to reconstruct organ doses for radiotherapy patients by using a series of computational human phantoms coupled with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) and a radiotherapy-dedicated Monte Carlo transport code, and performed illustrative dose calculations. First, we developed methods to convert the anatomy and organ contours of the pediatric and adult hybrid computational phantom series to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-image and DICOM-structure files, respectively. The resulting DICOM files were imported to a commercial TPS for simulating radiotherapy and dose calculation for in-field organs. The conversion process was validated by comparing electron densities relative to water and organ volumes between the hybrid phantoms and the DICOM files imported in TPS, which showed agreements within 0.1 and 2%, respectively. Second, we developed a procedure to transfer DICOM-RT files generated from the TPS directly to a Monte Carlo transport code, x-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) for more accurate dose calculations. Third, to illustrate the performance of the established methods, we simulated a whole brain treatment for the 10 year-old male phantom and a prostate treatment for the adult male phantom. Radiation doses to selected organs were calculated using the TPS and XVMC, and compared to each other. Organ average doses from the two methods matched within 7%, whereas maximum and minimum point doses differed up to 45%. The dosimetry methods and procedures established in this study will be useful for the reconstruction of organ dose to support

  12. Reconstruction of organ dose for external radiotherapy patients in retrospective epidemiologic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choonik; Jung, Jae Won; Pelletier, Christopher; Pyakuryal, Anil; Lamart, Stephanie; Kim, Jong Oh; Lee, Choonsik

    2015-03-01

    Organ dose estimation for retrospective epidemiological studies of late effects in radiotherapy patients involves two challenges: radiological images to represent patient anatomy are not usually available for patient cohorts who were treated years ago, and efficient dose reconstruction methods for large-scale patient cohorts are not well established. In the current study, we developed methods to reconstruct organ doses for radiotherapy patients by using a series of computational human phantoms coupled with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) and a radiotherapy-dedicated Monte Carlo transport code, and performed illustrative dose calculations. First, we developed methods to convert the anatomy and organ contours of the pediatric and adult hybrid computational phantom series to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-image and DICOM-structure files, respectively. The resulting DICOM files were imported to a commercial TPS for simulating radiotherapy and dose calculation for in-field organs. The conversion process was validated by comparing electron densities relative to water and organ volumes between the hybrid phantoms and the DICOM files imported in TPS, which showed agreements within 0.1 and 2%, respectively. Second, we developed a procedure to transfer DICOM-RT files generated from the TPS directly to a Monte Carlo transport code, x-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) for more accurate dose calculations. Third, to illustrate the performance of the established methods, we simulated a whole brain treatment for the 10 year-old male phantom and a prostate treatment for the adult male phantom. Radiation doses to selected organs were calculated using the TPS and XVMC, and compared to each other. Organ average doses from the two methods matched within 7%, whereas maximum and minimum point doses differed up to 45%. The dosimetry methods and procedures established in this study will be useful for the reconstruction of organ dose to support

  13. MERIS Land Products Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramon, D.; Santer, R.; Dilligeard, E.; Jolivet, D.; Vidot, J.

    2004-05-01

    Over land, the aerosol remote sensing is based on the observation of Dense Dark Vegetation (DDV) and this concept is applied on MERIS with a spectral index (ARVI, Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index) to detect the DDV and the use of the bands at 412, 443 and 670 nm to characterize the aerosols. The aerosol size distribution is assumed to follow the Junge law while the aerosol refractive index is set to 1.44. The aerosol product consists on the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 865 nm and on the spectral dependence of the aerosol path radiance (Epsilon coefficient ɛ which is the ratio of the aerosol reflectance at 765 nm to that at 865 nm). The validation exercise is mostly based on the use of ground based optical measurements from the AERONET network. A classical validation of the aerosol product is conducted using the extinction measurements. A deeper validation is done in order to investigate the different assumptions used in the aerosol remote sensing module by: (i) using the ground based measurements to validate the DDV reflectance model. Atmospheric correction will be done, including the aerosols, to derive DDV reflectances for comparison to standard values. (ii) using the ground based measurements to validate the choice of the Junge size distribution by comparing the simulated radiances with this model to the measurements in the principal plane. The AOT at 865 nm is badly retrieved because of the inaccuracy of the DDV reflectance model in the red whereas the AOT at 443 nm is in good agreement with AERONET data and accuracy is comparable to what is achieved by MODIS over comparable sites. The Junge size distribution is well adapted for the representation of aerosols optical properties. The main algorithm improvement we recommend consists in introducing a dynamical DDV reflectance model that is a reflectance which varies with the ARVI of the target. Under clear sky conditions, the surface pressure is a level-2 MERIS product based on a two band ratio

  14. 77 FR 65645 - Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules: Notice of Staff Memorandum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Chapter I Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules: Notice of Staff..., 2011 Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules prepared in response to Executive Order 13579, which requested independent regulatory agencies issue plans for periodic retrospective analysis of...

  15. 45 CFR 233.23 - When assistance shall be paid under retrospective budgeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When assistance shall be paid under retrospective budgeting. 233.23 Section 233.23 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY... shall be paid under retrospective budgeting. (a) A State which uses retrospective budgeting...

  16. 45 CFR 233.23 - When assistance shall be paid under retrospective budgeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When assistance shall be paid under retrospective budgeting. 233.23 Section 233.23 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY... shall be paid under retrospective budgeting. (a) A State which uses retrospective budgeting...

  17. 45 CFR 233.26 - Retrospective budgeting; determining eligibility after the initial one or two months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retrospective budgeting; determining eligibility... PROGRAMS § 233.26 Retrospective budgeting; determining eligibility after the initial one or two months. (a) Under retrospective budgeting, there are three options for determining eligibility. The State plan...

  18. The Correspondence of Daily and Retrospective PTSD Reports among Female Victims of Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Simpson, Tracy L.; Moore, Sally A.; Varra, Alethea A.; Kaysen, Debra L.

    2012-01-01

    Research addressing the association between daily and retrospective symptom reports suggests that retrospective reports are typically inflated. The present study examined the association between daily posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom reports over 1 month and a corresponding retrospective report (PTSD Checklist [PCL]; Weathers et al.,…

  19. Flight code validation simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, B.A.

    1995-08-01

    An End-To-End Simulation capability for software development and validation of missile flight software on the actual embedded computer has been developed utilizing a 486 PC, i860 DSP coprocessor, embedded flight computer and custom dual port memory interface hardware. This system allows real-time interrupt driven embedded flight software development and checkout. The flight software runs in a Sandia Digital Airborne Computer (SANDAC) and reads and writes actual hardware sensor locations in which IMU (Inertial Measurements Unit) data resides. The simulator provides six degree of freedom real-time dynamic simulation, accurate real-time discrete sensor data and acts on commands and discretes from the flight computer. This system was utilized in the development and validation of the successful premier flight of the Digital Miniature Attitude Reference System (DMARS) in January 1995 at the White Sands Missile Range on a two stage attitude controlled sounding rocket.

  20. Validating MEDIQUAL Constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Gun; Min, Jae H.

    In this paper, we validate MEDIQUAL constructs through the different media users in help desk service. In previous research, only two end-users' constructs were used: assurance and responsiveness. In this paper, we extend MEDIQUAL constructs to include reliability, empathy, assurance, tangibles, and responsiveness, which are based on the SERVQUAL theory. The results suggest that: 1) five MEDIQUAL constructs are validated through the factor analysis. That is, importance of the constructs have relatively high correlations between measures of the same construct using different methods and low correlations between measures of the constructs that are expected to differ; and 2) five MEDIQUAL constructs are statistically significant on media users' satisfaction in help desk service by regression analysis.

  1. CIPS Validation Data Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nam Dinh

    2012-03-01

    This report documents analysis, findings and recommendations resulted from a task 'CIPS Validation Data Plan (VDP)' formulated as an POR4 activity in the CASL VUQ Focus Area (FA), to develop a Validation Data Plan (VDP) for Crud-Induced Power Shift (CIPS) challenge problem, and provide guidance for the CIPS VDP implementation. The main reason and motivation for this task to be carried at this time in the VUQ FA is to bring together (i) knowledge of modern view and capability in VUQ, (ii) knowledge of physical processes that govern the CIPS, and (iii) knowledge of codes, models, and data available, used, potentially accessible, and/or being developed in CASL for CIPS prediction, to devise a practical VDP that effectively supports the CASL's mission in CIPS applications.

  2. Bioculture System Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Kevin Y.

    2012-01-01

    The Bioculture System first flight will be to validate the performance of the hardware and its automated and manual operational capabilities in the space flight environment of the International Space Station. Biology, Engineering, and Operations tests will be conducted in the Bioculture System fully characterize its automated and manual functions to support cell culturing for short and long durations. No hypothesis-driven research will be conducted with biological sample, and the science leads have all provided their concurrence that none of the data they collect will be considered as proprietary and can be free distributed to the science community. The outcome of the validation flight will be to commission the hardware for use by the science community. This presentation will provide non-proprietary details about the Bioculture System and information about the activities for the first flight.

  3. Self-Validating Thermocouple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M. (Inventor); Mata, Carlos T. (Inventor); Santiago, Josephine B. (Inventor); Vokrot, Peter (Inventor); Zavala, Carlos E. (Inventor); Burns, Bradley M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Self-Validating Thermocouple (SVT) Systems capable of detecting sensor probe open circuits, short circuits, and unnoticeable faults such as a probe debonding and probe degradation are useful in the measurement of temperatures. SVT Systems provide such capabilities by incorporating a heating or excitation element into the measuring junction of the thermocouple. By heating the measuring junction and observing the decay time for the detected DC voltage signal, it is possible to indicate whether the thermocouple is bonded or debonded. A change in the thermal transfer function of the thermocouple system causes a change in the rise and decay times of the thermocouple output. Incorporation of the excitation element does not interfere with normal thermocouple operation, thus further allowing traditional validation procedures as well.

  4. Validation of the Hong Kong accident and emergency triage guidelines.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mandy M W; Leung, L P

    2013-06-01

    OBJECTIVE. To validate the Hong Kong Accident and Emergency Triage guidelines. DESIGN. Retrospective chart review. SETTING. The Accident and Emergency Department of a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS. Patients who attended the Accident and Emergency Department on one day in February 2012. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. The inter-rater reliability in two pairs of nurses grouped according to experience and validity as compared with an expert panel. RESULTS. Of the 100 patients recruited and triaged into levels 1 to 5, the weighted kappa coefficient (inter-rater reliability) for the two pairs of nurses was 0.699 and 0.717, respectively. The weighted kappa coefficient for validity was 0.766. When only patients in triage levels 3 and 4 were included, the weighted kappa coefficient for reliability dropped to 0.632 and 0.585, respectively. The weighted kappa coefficient for validity also decreased to 0.558. CONCLUSIONS. The overall inter-rater reliability and validity of the Guidelines appeared acceptable. Further revision of the Guidelines on triaging patients to levels 3 or 4 is probably necessary. PMID:23568939

  5. Excavator Design Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pholsiri, Chalongrath; English, James; Seberino, Charles; Lim, Yi-Je

    2010-01-01

    The Excavator Design Validation tool verifies excavator designs by automatically generating control systems and modeling their performance in an accurate simulation of their expected environment. Part of this software design includes interfacing with human operations that can be included in simulation-based studies and validation. This is essential for assessing productivity, versatility, and reliability. This software combines automatic control system generation from CAD (computer-aided design) models, rapid validation of complex mechanism designs, and detailed models of the environment including soil, dust, temperature, remote supervision, and communication latency to create a system of high value. Unique algorithms have been created for controlling and simulating complex robotic mechanisms automatically from just a CAD description. These algorithms are implemented as a commercial cross-platform C++ software toolkit that is configurable using the Extensible Markup Language (XML). The algorithms work with virtually any mobile robotic mechanisms using module descriptions that adhere to the XML standard. In addition, high-fidelity, real-time physics-based simulation algorithms have also been developed that include models of internal forces and the forces produced when a mechanism interacts with the outside world. This capability is combined with an innovative organization for simulation algorithms, new regolith simulation methods, and a unique control and study architecture to make powerful tools with the potential to transform the way NASA verifies and compares excavator designs. Energid's Actin software has been leveraged for this design validation. The architecture includes parametric and Monte Carlo studies tailored for validation of excavator designs and their control by remote human operators. It also includes the ability to interface with third-party software and human-input devices. Two types of simulation models have been adapted: high-fidelity discrete

  6. Fracture mechanics validity limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Dennis M.; Ernst, Hugo A.

    1994-01-01

    Fracture behavior is characteristics of a dramatic loss of strength compared to elastic deformation behavior. Fracture parameters have been developed and exhibit a range within which each is valid for predicting growth. Each is limited by the assumptions made in its development: all are defined within a specific context. For example, the stress intensity parameters, K, and the crack driving force, G, are derived using an assumption of linear elasticity. To use K or G, the zone of plasticity must be small as compared to the physical dimensions of the object being loaded. This insures an elastic response, and in this context, K and G will work well. Rice's J-integral has been used beyond the limits imposed on K and G. J requires an assumption of nonlinear elasticity, which is not characteristic of real material behavior, but is thought to be a reasonable approximation if unloading is kept to a minimum. As well, the constraint cannot change dramatically (typically, the crack extension is limited to ten-percent of the initial remaining ligament length). Rice, et al investigated the properties required of J-type parameters, J(sub x), and showed that the time rate, dJ(sub x)/dt, must not be a function of the crack extension rate, da/dt. Ernst devised the modified-J parameter, J(sub M), that meets this criterion. J(sub M) correlates fracture data to much higher crack growth than does J. Ultimately, a limit of the validity of J(sub M) is anticipated, and this has been estimated to be at a crack extension of about 40-percent of the initial remaining ligament length. None of the various parameters can be expected to describe fracture in an environment of gross plasticity, in which case the process is better described by deformation parameters, e.g., stress and strain. In the current study, various schemes to identify the onset of the plasticity-dominated behavior, i.e., the end of fracture mechanics validity, are presented. Each validity limit parameter is developed in

  7. High spatial and temporal resolution retrospective cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance from shortened free breathing real-time acquisitions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is challenging in patients who cannot perform repeated breath holds. Real-time, free-breathing acquisition is an alternative, but image quality is typically inferior. There is a clinical need for techniques that achieve similar image quality to the segmented cine using a free breathing acquisition. Previously, high quality retrospectively gated cine images have been reconstructed from real-time acquisitions using parallel imaging and motion correction. These methods had limited clinical applicability due to lengthy acquisitions and volumetric measurements obtained with such methods have not previously been evaluated systematically. Methods This study introduces a new retrospective reconstruction scheme for real-time cine imaging which aims to shorten the required acquisition. A real-time acquisition of 16-20s per acquired slice was inputted into a retrospective cine reconstruction algorithm, which employed non-rigid registration to remove respiratory motion and SPIRiT non-linear reconstruction with temporal regularization to fill in missing data. The algorithm was used to reconstruct cine loops with high spatial (1.3-1.8 × 1.8-2.1 mm2) and temporal resolution (retrospectively gated, 30 cardiac phases, temporal resolution 34.3 ± 9.1 ms). Validation was performed in 15 healthy volunteers using two different acquisition resolutions (256 × 144/192 × 128 matrix sizes). For each subject, 9 to 12 short axis and 3 long axis slices were imaged with both segmented and real-time acquisitions. The retrospectively reconstructed real-time cine images were compared to a traditional segmented breath-held acquisition in terms of image quality scores. Image quality scoring was performed by two experts using a scale between 1 and 5 (poor to good). For every subject, LAX and three SAX slices were selected and reviewed in the random order. The reviewers were blinded to the reconstruction approach and

  8. A simple method to retrospectively estimate patient dose-area product for chest tomosynthesis examinations performed using VolumeRAD

    SciTech Connect

    Båth, Magnus Svalkvist, Angelica; Söderman, Christina

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the present work was to develop and validate a method of retrospectively estimating the dose-area product (DAP) of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system (GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, UK) from digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data available in the scout image. Methods: DICOM data were retrieved for 20 patients undergoing chest tomosynthesis using VolumeRAD. Using information about how the exposure parameters for the tomosynthesis examination are determined by the scout image, a correction factor for the adjustment in field size with projection angle was determined. The correction factor was used to estimate the DAP for 20 additional chest tomosynthesis examinations from DICOM data available in the scout images, which was compared with the actual DAP registered for the projection radiographs acquired during the tomosynthesis examination. Results: A field size correction factor of 0.935 was determined. Applying the developed method using this factor, the average difference between the estimated DAP and the actual DAP was 0.2%, with a standard deviation of 0.8%. However, the difference was not normally distributed and the maximum error was only 1.0%. The validity and reliability of the presented method were thus very high. Conclusions: A method to estimate the DAP of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system from DICOM data in the scout image was developed and validated. As the scout image normally is the only image connected to the tomosynthesis examination stored in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) containing dose data, the method may be of value for retrospectively estimating patient dose in clinical use of chest tomosynthesis.

  9. CEMS data validation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Caiazza, R.; Coates, T.F.

    1997-12-31

    Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMPC) validates all the CEMS data in the EPA Part 75 report before submittal. Data validation refers to acceptance and documentation of the data. Acceptable data are accurate and representative. Trend analysis is used primarily to review the data for accuracy, i.e., to exclude potential instrument problems. Outlier analysis is also used to check accuracy but primarily documents the data for future analyses. NMPC`s data validation emphasizes analysis of the reportable hourly data. Once data collected by the Environmental Systems Corporation polling computer have been initially accepted, the data are downloaded into STATGRAPHICS Plus for Windows{copyright} (Manugistics, Inc., Rockville, MD) for review and analysis. The trend analysis uses plots to determine if there was a change in the measured values over time. Plots of the hourly sulfur dioxide mass emissions, nitrogen oxide emission rate, carbon dioxide concentration or flow rate against load are generated. STATGRAPHICS Plus for Windows{copyright} includes a feature which allows the analyst to change the color of the plotted points as a function of time. If the relationship between the measured value and load changes over time, there is potential for an instrument problem. Those periods are reviewed in detail. The outlier analysis uses both plots and reports to determine hours where there might be problems. Although instrument problems can be recognized, more likely are periods when the data are not representative of the whole distribution. STATGRAPHICS Plus for Windows{copyright} generates a table that lists all the hours in which there are unusual residuals in the distribution of a regression between the measured parameter and load. Outliers on the plots are also checked. The results of both analyses are filed to document data quality. If necessary, results are also included with the data submittals to EPA.

  10. ALHAT System Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Tye; Bailey, Erik; Crain, Timothy; Paschall, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    NASA has embarked on a multiyear technology development effort to develop a safe and precise lunar landing capability. The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is investigating a range of landing hazard detection methods while developing a hazard avoidance capability to best field test the proper set of relevant autonomous GNC technologies. Ultimately, the advancement of these technologies through the ALHAT Project will provide an ALHAT System capable of enabling next generation lunar lander vehicles to globally land precisely and safely regardless of lighting condition. This paper provides an overview of the ALHAT System and describes recent validation experiments that have advanced the highly capable GNC architecture.

  11. Validating Measures of Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettegrew, Loyd S.; Wolf, Glenda E.

    1982-01-01

    A validation study in the development of empirical measures of teacher stress is presented. Role-related, task-based, and environmental stress measures demonstrated internal consistency and provided reliable and valid multivariate assessment of teacher stress. (PN)

  12. Experience of the Spiritist Hospital Chaplaincy Service: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Anefalos, Alexandre; E Silva, Wilkens Aurélio Buarque; Pinto, Renan Mercuri; Ferrari, Renée Danckwardt; de Fátima Boni, Aparecida; Dos Santos, Hélio Goulart; Duarte, Cleide Borges

    2016-06-01

    The Hospital Chaplaincy service is made of religious volunteer work done by representatives of various religions properly trained to offer spiritual support to hospitalized patients, as well as their families, contributing as a source of protection, comfort and restoring faith in the face of illness. The objective of this study is to present a retrospective analysis of records made by chaplains, guided by the Spiritist Medical Association of Piracicaba, through 7419 calls to 2191 patients admitted at Unimed Hospital of Piracicaba in 2014. The results contributed to the production of scientific documentation about this new holistic model that still lies in acceptance phase in the country. PMID:26272098

  13. Behavioral responses of substance-exposed newborns: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Higley, Anne Marie; Morin, Karen H

    2004-02-01

    This study assessed the behavior of infants whose mothers had a drug history by using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. Data were collected via retrospective chart review (N = 103). Urine testing was only reported for 66 mothers during pregnancy and at birth. Infants performed within normally expected ranges for all items, except consolability and self-quieting. These findings support the use of NBAS in assessing newborn behavior because the information gained assists the parent in providing a supportive care giving environment that will not only help the infant recover but also enhance interaction between infant and parent. PMID:14991553

  14. Effectiveness of steroid treatment in myasthenia gravis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Cosi, V; Citterio, A; Lombardi, M; Piccolo, G; Romani, A; Erbetta, A

    1991-07-01

    The records of 142 patients with generalized autoimmune myasthenia gravis who had been treated with steroids as the single immunosuppressive agent, collected at regular intervals, were employed for a retrospective evaluation. The effectiveness of treatment was assessed after 24 months; the data from the 6th and 12th months were also considered. After 24 months, 63.4% of the whole sample had improved (33.8% were in clinical or pharmacological remission); 13.4% were unchanged or had worsened and 22.3% had moved to a different immunosuppressive treatment. The rate of positive outcome was higher in patients over the age of 40 at disease onset. PMID:1927259

  15. EAS Tycho Brahe prize lecture 2011. Hipparcos: a retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perryman, Michael

    2011-10-01

    The Hipparcos satellite was launched in 1989. It was the first, and remains to date the only, attempt at performing large-scale astrometric measurements from space. Hipparcos marked a fundamentally new approach to the field of astrometry, revolutionising our knowledge of the positions, distances, and space motions of the stars in the solar neighbourhood. In this retrospective, I look back at the processes which led to the mission's acceptance, provide a short summary of the underlying measurement principles and the experiment's scientific achievements, and a conclude with a brief summary of its principal legacy—the Gaia mission.

  16. Aura Science and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, E.; Schoeberl, M.; Douglass, A.; Anderson, J.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The EOS-Aura Mission is designed to answer three basic questions concerning the Earth's atmosphere: 1) Is ozone recovering as predicted, 2) is air quality getting worse, and 3) how is climate changing? Aura's four instruments work synergistically and are dedicated to answering these questions. These questions relate to NASA Earth Science Enterprise's overall strategic questions, which seek to understand the consequences of climate change for human civilization and determine if these changes can be predicted. NASA supports an ongoing research and analysis program, which is conducted independently and in support of satellite missions. The research program conducts several on-going field campaigns employing aircraft, balloons, and ground based systems. These campaigns have focused on exploring processes in the tropics, high latitudes, and continental outflow to explain the chemistry and transport in the troposphere and stratosphere and how these regions interact. NASA is now studying how the Aura mission and requirements of the research and analysis program might be merged to achieve its strategic goals related to global atmospheric chemistry changes. In addition, NASA field campaign resources will be folded into Aura's validation requirements. Aura validation requires correlative measurements throughout the troposphere and stratosphere under a range of observing and geophysical conditions. Because of the recent launches of Envisat and other smaller international chemistry satellites, the NASA program plans to collaborate with European space agencies in developing a series of campaigns that will provide continuity between those satellites missions and Aura.

  17. A Retrospective Study of Congenital Cardiac Abnormality Associated with Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Ucpunar, Hanifi; Sevencan, Ahmet; Balioglu, Mehmet Bulent; Albayrak, Akif; Polat, Veli

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To identify the incidence of congenital cardiac abnormalities in patients who had scoliosis and underwent surgical treatment for scoliosis. Overview of Literature Congenital and idiopathic scoliosis (IS) are associated with cardiac abnormalities. We sought to establish and compare the incidence of congenital cardiac abnormalities in patients with idiopathic and congenital scoliosis (CS) who underwent surgical treatment for scoliosis. Methods Ninety consecutive scoliosis patients, who underwent surgical correction of scoliosis, were classified as CS (55 patients, 28 female [51%]) and IS (35 patients, 21 female [60%]). The complete data of the patients, including medical records, plain radiograph and transthoracic echocardiography were retrospectively assessed. Results We found that mitral valve prolapse was the most common cardiac abnormality in both patients with IS (nine patients, 26%) and CS (13 patients, 24%). Other congenital cardiac abnormalities were atrial septal aneurysm (23% of IS patients, 18% of CS patients), pulmonary insufficiency (20% of IS patients, 4% of CS patients), aortic insufficiency (17% of IS patients), atrial septal defect (11% of IS patients, 13% of CS patients), patent foramen ovale (15% of CS patients), dextrocardia (4% of CS patients), bicuspid aortic valve (3% of IS patients), aortic stenosis (2% of CS patients), ventricular septal defect (2% of CS patients), and cardiomyopathy (2% of CS patients). Conclusions We determined the increased incidence of congenital cardiac abnormalities among patients with congenital and IS. Mitral valve prolapse appeared to be the most prevalent congenital cardiac abnormality in both groups. PMID:27114761

  18. Federal Public Health Service: In Retrospect and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Kolbe, Lloyd J

    2016-10-01

    In this article, I offer a retrospective case study about my early, short-term work within the U.S. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health and then my later, longer-term work within the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, where I endeavored for two decades largely to help our nation's schools improve health and associated education outcomes. First, for context, I briefly portray the nature of our related political and public health systems. I then frame this retrospective by illustrating how my serial employment within other public health system organizations led to, and then resulted from, my work within these two federal public health agencies. To represent the many talented individuals in each organization with whom I had the good fortune to work, I name only one in each organization. I then characterize how these individuals and organizations progressively shaped my work and career. I conclude by speculating about prospects for academic institutions to more purposefully prepare students and faculty to work within federal government public health agencies. PMID:27585459

  19. Oral lichen planus – retrospective study of 563 Croatian patients

    PubMed Central

    Budimir, Vice; Richter, Ivica; Andabak-Rogulj, Ana; Vučićević-Boras, Vanja

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of oral lichen planus (OLP) in a group of Croatian patients seen between 2006 and 2012. Study Design: A group of 563 patients with a diagnosis of OLP was retrospectively reviewed in our clinic. Data regarding age, gender, medical history, drugs, smoking, alcohol, chief complaint, clinical type, localization, histology, treatment and malignant transformation were registered. Results: Of the 563 patients, 414 were females and 149 were males. The average age at the diagnosis was 58 (range 11-94). The most common site was buccal mucosa (82.4%). Most of our patients did not smoke (72.5%) or consume alcohol (69.6%). Patients reported oral soreness (43.3%), mucosal roughness (7%), xerostomia (3%), gingival bleeding (2%) and altered taste (0.5%) as the chief complaint, while almost half of them were asymptomatic (44.2%). The most common types of OLP were reticular (64.8%) and erosive (22.9%). Plaque-like (5.7%) atrophic/erythemtous (4.3%) and bullous (2.3%) type were also observed. Malignant transformation rate of 0.7% was recorded. Conclusions: OLP mostly affects non-smoking middle-aged women. Buccal mucosa is the most commonly affected site. In almost half of the cases patients are asymptomatic. In spite of the small risk for malignant transformation all patients should be regularly monitored. Key words:Oral lichen planus, malignant transformation, epidemiology, retrospective study. PMID:24608217

  20. Earned-secure attachment status in retrospect and prospect.

    PubMed

    Roisman, Glenn L; Padrón, Elena; Sroufe, L Alan; Egeland, Byron

    2002-01-01

    Past research with the Berkeley Adult Attachment Interview demonstrates that retrospectively defined earned-secures (who coherently describe negative childhood experiences) parent as effectively as do continuous-secures (who coherently describe positive childhood experiences), but manifest liabilities in the form of depressive symptomatology. This article presents data from a 23-year longitudinal study that replicate and extend prior research, testing a key premise that earned-secures so defined actually have a history of insecure attachments that change over time and/or endure consistently harsh or ineffective parenting in their youth. Discrepant with assumptions, retrospective earned-secures were not more likely than continuous-secures to have been anxiously attached in infancy and were observed in childhood and adolescence to have encountered among the most supportive and structured maternal parenting in a high-risk sample. Prospectively defined earned-secures (operationalized using participants' infant attachment classifications) did indeed go on to have success in their close relationships, many without reporting relatively high levels of internalizing distress in adulthood. PMID:12146743

  1. [Second-order retrospective revaluation in human contingency learning].

    PubMed

    Numata, Keitaro; Shimazaki, Tsuneo

    2009-04-01

    We demonstrated second-order retrospective revaluation with three cues (T1, T2, and C) and an outcome, in human contingency learning. Experimental task, PC-controlled video game in which participants were required to observe about the relations between firing missiles and the tank destruction, consisted of three training phases and two rating phases. Groups C+ and C- consisted of same first two training phases, CT+ (cues C and T with an outcome) and T1T2+ followed by C+, or C- training for Groups C+, C-, respectively. In rating phases, it is clearly demonstrated that the judgment of predictive value for the outcome of the T2 were higher by C+ training (second-order unovershadowing) and lowered by C- training (second-order backward blocking). The results for Groups RC+ and RC-, in which the orders of the first two training phase for Groups C+ and C- were interchanged, also showed second-order unovershadowing and second-order backward blocking. These results, the robustness of second-order retrospective revaluation against the order of the first training phases, can be explained by the extended comparator hypothesis and probabilistic contrast model. However, these results cannot be explained by traditional associative learning models. PMID:19489431

  2. Auditory neuropathy/dyssynchrony: a retrospective analysis of 15 cases.

    PubMed

    Unal, Murat; Vayisoglu, Yusuf

    2015-04-01

    Introduction Auditory neuropathy/dyssynchrony (AN/AD) comprises a spectrum of pathology affecting the auditory pathways anywhere from the inner hair cells to the brainstem. It is characterized by an absent or atypical auditory brainstem response (ABR) with preservation of the cochlear microphonics and/or otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Objective Retrospective analysis of patients with AN/AD. Methods Fifteen patients with AN/AD were included in this study and their records were retrospectively investigated. Results Possible etiology of AN/AD was neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in three patients, family history of hearing loss in three patients, consanguineous marriage in two patients, head trauma in two patients, mental motor retardation in one patient, cerebrovascular disease in one patient, and there was no apparent cause in three patients. Conclusion Otolaryngologists should keep in mind the diagnosis of AN/AD especially in patients complaining of difficulty in hearing and speech and audiological evidence of disassociation between pure tone and speech audiometry. ABR and OAE testing is recommended in these patients for AN/AD diagnosis. PMID:25992171

  3. How bad was unmodified electroconvulsive therapy! A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Anindya Kumar

    2016-01-01

    “Unmodified”-electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) being considered unethical remained away from the scientific literature, but continued in practice in many parts of the world. The Mental Health Care Bill, 2011, proposed for its banning in India. The aim of this study is to retrospectively observe “how bad was unmodified-ECT” to the patients in a naturalistic setting. The study was done at the Central Institute of Psychiatry, India. Files of patients receiving unmodified ECT during 1990–1995 were retrospectively reviewed. Outcome was evaluated in terms of desired effectiveness and the side effects as noted in the files by the treating team. Six hundred and thirty-seven patients (6.94% of total admission) received ECT with meticulous standard-of-care except provision of anesthesia. Satisfactory improvement was noted in 95.45% patients with no noticeable/reported complication in 89.05%. Premature termination of ECT for complications occurred in 2.19% patients. “Unmodified”-ECT, though unethical, still could ensure favorable outcome with proper case selection and meticulous standard-of-care.

  4. How bad was unmodified electroconvulsive therapy! A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ray, Anindya Kumar

    2016-01-01

    "Unmodified"-electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) being considered unethical remained away from the scientific literature, but continued in practice in many parts of the world. The Mental Health Care Bill, 2011, proposed for its banning in India. The aim of this study is to retrospectively observe "how bad was unmodified-ECT" to the patients in a naturalistic setting. The study was done at the Central Institute of Psychiatry, India. Files of patients receiving unmodified ECT during 1990-1995 were retrospectively reviewed. Outcome was evaluated in terms of desired effectiveness and the side effects as noted in the files by the treating team. Six hundred and thirty-seven patients (6.94% of total admission) received ECT with meticulous standard-of-care except provision of anesthesia. Satisfactory improvement was noted in 95.45% patients with no noticeable/reported complication in 89.05%. Premature termination of ECT for complications occurred in 2.19% patients. "Unmodified"-ECT, though unethical, still could ensure favorable outcome with proper case selection and meticulous standard-of-care. PMID:27385857

  5. Retrospective serological survey of Porcine circovirus-2 infection in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto; Castillo-Juárez, Héctor; Hernández, Jesús; Correa, Pablo; Segalés, Joaquim

    2009-01-01

    Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) is considered a multifactorial emerging disease of which Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) is the necessary infectious cause. However, retrospective studies have shown that PMWS is not a new disease and that PCV-2 has been circulating in pig farms for years. Most of these studies were performed in Europe and Asia; only a few were performed in North or South America. A PCV-2 retrospective serological survey was carried out with 659 serum samples collected from pigs in Mexico between 1972 and 2000. Serological analyses were performed with an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA). The overall prevalence of PCV-2 antibodies was 59% (387/659); the prevalence was 27% (24/90) for the period from 1972-1979; 44% (74/169) from 1980-1989, and 72% (289/400) from 1990-2000. Antibodies to PCV-2 were detected in at least 1 pig from all tested years since 1973. This study shows evidence of enzootic PCV-2 infection in Mexico for many years before the first description of PMWS in the country (in 2001), further supporting results obtained in other parts of the world. To date, this study provides the earliest evidence of PCV-2 infection in the North and South American continents. PMID:19337391

  6. Retrospective Study of Japanese Patients with Schizophrenia Treated with Aripiprazole

    PubMed Central

    Tanioka, Tetsuya; Fuji, Syoko; Kataoka, Mika; King, Beth; Tomotake, Masahito; Yasuhara, Yuko; Locsin, Rozzano; Sekido, Keiko; Mifune, Kazushi

    2012-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate changes in clinical indicators which influence the quality of life (QOL) of patients with schizophrenia treated by antipsychotic therapy before and after switching to aripiprazole. Methods. A retrospective chart review of 27 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and who were switched from one antipsychotic to aripiprazole was performed. Clinical indicators about the daily dosage of antipsychotics and antiparkinsonian drugs, psychiatric condition, and glucose/lipid metabolism, clinical evaluation by nursing observation were used to measure the responsiveness of subjects to aripiprazole. Results. Of the 27 subjects, 14 responded to the switch to aripiprazole with significant improvement of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) score (P = 0.04), significant decrease in dosage of antipsychotics in 71% of patients (P = 0.03), and tendency toward reduction in dosage of antiparkinsonian drugs (P = 0.07) and body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.06). However, 8 of 27 subjects had a significant increase in lipid levels after switching to aripiprazole (P = 0.01). Conclusion. QOL for subjects who responded to the switch to aripiprazole improved as indicated by lower doses of antipsychotic and antiparkinson medications, improvement in BPRS score, and a decrease in BMI. Results indicate little influence on patient's QOL. PMID:22970386

  7. Retrospective serological survey of Porcine circovirus-2 infection in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto; Castillo-Juárez, Héctor; Hernández, Jesús; Correa, Pablo; Segalés, Joaquim

    2009-01-01

    Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) is considered a multifactorial emerging disease of which Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) is the necessary infectious cause. However, retrospective studies have shown that PMWS is not a new disease and that PCV-2 has been circulating in pig farms for years. Most of these studies were performed in Europe and Asia; only a few were performed in North or South America. A PCV-2 retrospective serological survey was carried out with 659 serum samples collected from pigs in Mexico between 1972 and 2000. Serological analyses were performed with an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA). The overall prevalence of PCV-2 antibodies was 59% (387/659); the prevalence was 27% (24/90) for the period from 1972–1979; 44% (74/169) from 1980–1989, and 72% (289/400) from 1990–2000. Antibodies to PCV-2 were detected in at least 1 pig from all tested years since 1973. This study shows evidence of enzootic PCV-2 infection in Mexico for many years before the first description of PMWS in the country (in 2001), further supporting results obtained in other parts of the world. To date, this study provides the earliest evidence of PCV-2 infection in the North and South American continents. PMID:19337391

  8. [Introduce a new vitro replacement method of skin irritation test].

    PubMed

    Sun, Likui; Hou, Li; Shi, Yanping

    2011-09-01

    A series of new replacement methods of skin irritation test such as EpiSkin, EpiDermSIT (updated) and SkinEthicRHE have been validated by ECVAM. Due to it, animals are protected to the full extent. These provide more methods for biological evaluation of medical devices. PMID:22242390

  9. Conference Report: Advancing the Science of Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing for Better Safety Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Introduction The 3rd International Conference on Alternatives for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing (DNT3), organized by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, was held from May 10 -13, 20...

  10. Pregnancy after Treatment for Cervical Cancer Precursor Lesions in a Retrospective Matched Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Naleway, Allison L.; Weinmann, Sheila; Krishnarajah, Girishanthy; Arondekar, Bhakti; Fernandez, Jovelle; Swamy, Geeta; Myers, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether treatments for precancerous cervical lesions were associated with lower pregnancy rates compared to rates in unexposed women and women who had a diagnostic cervical biopsy or colposcopy. Design Matched, retrospective cohort study. Setting Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW), an integrated healthcare delivery system in Oregon and Washington. Patients Women 14 to 53 years old with KPNW enrollment during the period 1998 through 2009. Main Outcome Measure Pregnancy after exposure or index date. Pregnancy was defined using a validated algorithm and electronic medical records data. Results We observed 570 pregnancies following cervical treatment in 4,137 women, 1,533 pregnancies following a diagnostic procedure in 13,767 women, and 7,436 pregnancies in a frequency-matched sample of 81,435 women unexposed to treatment or diagnostic procedures. After adjusting for age and contraceptive use, we observed a higher rate of pregnancies in the treatment group compared to unexposed women (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30–1.55), but no difference in pregnancy rates between the treatment and diagnostic procedure groups (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.93–1.13). Conclusions No adverse effects of cervical procedures on subsequent rates of pregnancy were observed in this cohort with up to twelve years of follow-up time. PMID:25671561