These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Massive vulvar edema in 2 prepartum dairy cows  

PubMed Central

Two late gestation Holstein cows about to begin the third lactation developed massive vulvar edema. These were the only affected animals in the herd of 500 milking cows. The vulvar edema spontaneously regressed postpartum for both cows. Massive vulvar swelling is seldom observed in dairy cows in advanced pregnancy and is not described in the literature. PMID:24790232

Cheong, Soon Hon; Gilbert, Robert O.

2014-01-01

2

[Massive gestational vulvar edema. A case report and review of literature].  

PubMed

We report the case of a 22-year-old primiparous, admitted to our hospital with a 2-week history of vulvar edema that had evolved within 24 hours to the point of stopping urine flow and hindering ambulation. The only remarkable finding in relation with the edema was hypoalbuminemia for no apparent cause. The correction of hypoalbuminemia and the establishment of diuretic treatment, with the drainage of the edema allowed for a complete resolution of the edema. PMID:25412558

Martí-Gamboa, Sabina; Savirón Cornudella, Ricardo; Campillos-Maza, José Manuel

2014-09-01

3

Edema  

MedlinePLUS

Edema means swelling caused by fluid in your body's tissues. It usually occurs in the feet, ankles ... it can involve your entire body. Causes of edema include Eating too much salt Sunburn Heart failure ...

4

Vulvar Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... sex painful and difficult. If found early, vulvar cancer has a high cure rate and the treatment options involve less surgery. ... people may also need radiation therapy. When vulvar cancer is found and treated early, the cure rate is over 90%. The key to a ...

5

[Vulvar diseases].  

PubMed

Vulvar diseases might cause problems in the differential diagnosis, because the clinical presentation of inflammatory, infectious and neoplastic disorders may be quite similar. Itching and pain as well as dysuria and dyspareunia are the most common symptoms of vulvar diseases. Inflammatory dermatoses like atopic and contact dermatitis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus and atrophic vulvitis account for the majority of cases in specialized clinics. Furthermore, neoplastic conditions such as vulvar carcinoma, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and vulvar Paget's disease have to be considered. Another frequent group are infections. Candida spp., herpes simplex viruses and human papilloma viruses are common pathogens. Additionally, vulvodynia is a typical problem that is sometimes difficult to treat. Because of the wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, cooperation with gynaecologists and psychosomatic specialists should be considered in difficult cases. The typical clinical presentations, their specific signs and symptoms, and pitfalls in the dermatological consultation are discussed. PMID:25475624

Peckruhn, M; Elsner, P

2015-01-01

6

Vulvar dermatosis.  

PubMed

Vulvar dermatoses are inflammatory conditions responsible for chronic or recurrent itching and soreness. The lesions are either circumscribed to the vulva or associated with extragenital localizations which may help to assess the diagnosis. They should be differentiated from infectious or neoplastic diseases which may have clinical similarities. As opposed to the majority of all dermatoses that have a benign and regular course, lichen sclerosus or lichen planus could exceptionally foster the occurrence of an epithelial cancer precursor which may evolve to squamous cell carcinoma. Topical corticosteroids are the mainstay treatment of vulvar dermatosis. We do not know if the treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus and vulvar lichen planus prevents squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25132276

Moyal-Barracco, Micheline; Wendling, Jeanne

2014-10-01

7

Vulvar myiasis.  

PubMed Central

Myiasis is a parasitic infestation caused by larvae of several fly species. Diagnosis and treatment are simple. This infestation is, however, rarely seen in the vulvar area. We present a short review of the disease and the case of a 19-year-old pregnant girl with vulvar myiasis and concomitant syphilis, vaginal trichomoniasis and genital candidiasis. The patient was also positive for human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:9702589

Passos, M R; Carvalho, A V; Dutra, A L; Goulart Filho, R A; Barreto, N A; Salles, R S; Santos, C C; Tibúrcio, A S; Monteiro, A C; Tavares, R R

1998-01-01

8

Can Vulvar Cancer Be Prevented?  

MedlinePLUS

... kidneys, and several other organs. Find and treat pre-cancerous conditions Pre-cancerous vulvar conditions that are not causing any ... t go away could be caused by vulvar pre-cancer and should be checked out. If vulvar ...

9

Paediatric vulvar disease.  

PubMed

Paediatric vulvar skin conditions are relatively common but often cause diagnostic difficulties for clinicians, which can lead to anxiety within the children's families. Vulvar skin conditions can be caused by various underlying aetiologies. Most are general dermatologic conditions that occur in the vulvar area, such as eczema, psoriasis, skin lesions or infections. However, other conditions such as lichen sclerosus and napkin dermatitis ('nappy rash') only affect the genital region. Every affected child needs a sensitive evaluation of the complaint including an assessment of the impact of the condition on the patient and her family. Paediatric vulvar disease often influences bowel and bladder habits and may lead to behavioural problems. General measures such as avoidance of irritants or soap substitution and regular use of emollients are helpful for all patients. Specific therapy depends upon the underlying diagnosis. Time spent reassuring the families, reinforcing regimens and providing written documentation can all be very helpful in successful management of paediatric vulvar skin conditions. PMID:25134451

Simpson, Rosalind C; Murphy, Ruth

2014-10-01

10

Vulvar and vaginal cancer.  

PubMed

Vulvar cancer is becoming more common as the population ages and is primarily a disease of the elderly. Most vulvar cancers are diagnosed at a localized stage and can be cured with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy. More conservative therapy has been the mainstay in vulvar cancer treatment, which has lessened short-term and long-term morbidity without sacrificing efficacy. Recent national and international studies continue to prove the value of sentinel lymph node technology, which is moving toward a new standard of care for women with early stage vulvar cancer. Vaginal cancer is a rare cancer that also affects elderly women. Prognosis is poor; however, adequate treatment can be delivered with a combination of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy, and with surgical resection for a select group of patients. PMID:22640712

Carter, Jori S; Downs, Levi S

2012-06-01

11

Acquired Vulvar Lymphangioma Circumscriptum  

PubMed Central

Lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC) is a benign dilation of lymph channels localized to the skin and subcutaneous tissues. It is generally localized in mouth mucosa, tongue, proximal regions of arms and legs, groin, axilla, and trunk. Primary vulvar involvement is very rare. Vulvar involvement occurs in various clinical settings. Here, two uncommon cases with giant lymphangioma circumscriptum mimicking genital warts will be presented: a 55-year-old female patient with extensive lymphangiectasic lesions and genital wart-like papular lesions in the vulva secondary to diffuse scrofuloderma scars and a 60-year-old female patient with verruca-like lesions secondary to chronic inflammation. PMID:24396614

Uçmak, Derya; Aytekin, Sema; Sula, Bilal; Akkurt, Zeynep Meltem; Türkçü, Gül; A?açayak, Elif

2013-01-01

12

Vulvar inflammation as the only clinical manifestation of Crohn disease in an 8-year-old girl.  

PubMed

Recognition of Crohn disease in children who present with cutaneous vulvar lesions as their initial clinical manifestation is often difficult. We report here the case of an 8-year-old girl with chronic vulvar edema, which on biopsy revealed granulomatous inflammation of the vulva. Further investigation and biopsy of the terminal ileum demonstrated similar findings and was consistent with a diagnosis of Crohn disease. PMID:20457677

Corbett, Shannon L; Walsh, Catharine M; Spitzer, Rachel F; Ngan, Bo-Yee; Kives, Sari; Zachos, Mary

2010-06-01

13

Subclinical vulvar papillomavirus infection.  

PubMed

Eighty-eight cases of subclinical human papillomavirus (HPV) vulvar infection were detected in a consecutive colposcopic series of 968 women. Three patterns of acetowhite lesions had a 72% predictive value (88/122) for histologically assessed HPV. The prevalence of subclinical vulvar HPV in self-referred patients was 7.9% (73/918); it was 9% (88/968) in the overall series and significantly higher in younger patients (age less than 25 years: 21/106, or 19.8%) or in those with cervical HPV or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) (40/100, or 40%). Routine inspection of the vulva after acetic acid lavage in association with a Papanicolaou test might help identify Papanicolaou-test-negative patients at high risk of developing cervical HPV or CIN. Treatment with beta-interferon (2,000,000 IU daily intramuscularly for 10 days) was given to 30 consecutive patients, but the results were poor: regression was observed in only 2 cases. PMID:1849176

Cecchini, S; Grazzini, G; Iossa, A; Taddei, G L; Colafranceschi, M; Scuderi, A; Cianferoni, L; Ciatto, S

1991-02-01

14

Drugs Approved for Vulvar Cancer  

Cancer.gov

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for vulvar cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

15

Bioimpedance Spectroscopy in Detecting Lower-Extremity Lymphedema in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Vulvar Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Lymphadenectomy  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Lymphedema; Perioperative/Postoperative Complications; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

2014-12-23

16

[Review of precancerous vulvar lesions].  

PubMed

Classification of squamous vulvar precancerous lesions is based on the concept of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and incorporates a three grade evaluation of the intensity of dysplastic changes (VIN I, II and III). On the basis of histological features, VIN has been subdivided into the usual VIN (u-VIN) and differentiated VIN (d-VIN), which represent the two basic pathways of the pathogenesis of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. Although u-VIN is etiologically associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and histologically corresponds to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, d-VIN represents the HPV-negative sequence of vulvar carcinogenesis, which is linked to lichen sclerosus (LS) and lichen simplex chronicus (LSC). u-VIN preferentially occurs in relatively young women with a history of cervical, vaginal or vulvar premalignant lesions. On the other hand, d-VIN usually affects postmenopausal women without anamnestic data of other dysplastic lesions of the lower female genital tract. d-VIN is characterized by a higher tendency of stromal invasion than u-VIN and its malignant potential is analogous to carcinoma in situ (VIN III). The histological appearance of d-VIN is subtle with basal atypia and a well-preserved differentiation of the superficial parts of the squamous epithelium, therefore it is frequently misdiagnosed for u-VIN I, LS or LSC in vulvar biopsies. Primarily because of the low diagnostic reproducibility of the u-VIN I category and the doubts about its precancerous potential as well as due to the questionable differentiation between u-VIN II and III, a revised VIN classification was proposed in 2004. The grading of vulvar precancerous lesions was abandoned, the u-VIN I category was discontinued and u-VIN II and III were merged. In the revised terminology, the term u-VIN represents HPV-associated high grade precancerous vulvar lesions (formerly u-VIN II and III) and d-VIN encompasses HPV-negative high grade dysplasias. PMID:22716003

Skapa, P; Robová, H; Rob, L; Záme?ník, J

2012-01-01

17

Vulvar lipoma: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vulvar lipoma is a rare tumor localization and only a few cases have been reported. The clinical characteristics of vulvar lipoma are well known. However, it is important to distinguish lipomas from liposarcomas. We report a case of vulvar lipoma and discuss its clinical features, including diagnostic aspects, with emphasis on histopathological evaluation of all excised lesions. We also report and discuss patient management and treatment outcomes. Case presentation We report the case of a 27-year-old Moroccan woman. Our patient presented with a painless and slow-growing right vulvar mass that had evolved over one year, which had suddenly become uncomfortable when walking. A physical examination revealed a single soft and pasty mass in her left labium majus, which could be mobilized under her skin towards her mons pubis. The largest dimension of the mass measured 6cm. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a homogenous hyperintense mass with a well-defined contour in her left labium majus; a fat-suppressed magnetic resonance image demonstrated a marked signal intensity decrease. The mass was completely removed surgically. A histological examination revealed a circumscribed benign tumor composed of mature adipocytes, confirming the diagnosis of vulvar lipoma. Conclusion Vulvar lipomas must be differentiated from liposarcomas, which demonstrate very similar clinical and imaging profiles. The final diagnosis should be based on histopathological evaluation. A precise diagnosis should allow for appropriate surgical treatment. PMID:24946809

2014-01-01

18

Pulmonary edema  

MedlinePLUS

Pulmonary edema is an abnormal buildup of fluid in the lungs. This buildup of fluid leads to shortness of ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

19

Vulvar Melanocytic Nevi: A Dermoscopic Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Very few dermoscopic investigations into pigmented genital lesions have been performed to date. To the best of our knowledge, no dermoscopical description of vulvar melanocytic nevi (MN) has yet been proposed. Objective: Our aims were to analyze the dermoscopic features of vulvar MN and to review the literature of dermoscopy of the vulvar area. Methods: Among 74 women presenting

Annarosa Virgili; Maria Rosaria Zampino; Andrea Marzola; Monica Corazza

2010-01-01

20

Differential hypermethylation of genes in vulvar cancer and lichen sclerosus coexisting or not with vulvar cancer.  

PubMed

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the vulva is a heterogeneous disease, associated or not with vulvar lichen sclerosus (LS). The precursor role of LS in vulvar cancer is unclear. We studied the epigenetic alterations of RASSF1A, RASSF2A, p16, TSP-1 and MGMT genes in vulvar SCCs, LS associated with SCC, isolated LS and normal vulvar skin. Gene hypermethylation and human papillomavirus presence were evaluated by methylation-specific PCR and PCR/reverse line blot, respectively. High-risk human papillomavirus types were present in 16.7% of the patients with vulvar SCC. There were increasing percentages of hypermethylation of genes from isolated LS to LS associated with vulvar SCC and vulvar SCC. The genes were hypermethylated more frequently in vulvar SCC associated with LS than in those not associated with LS, MGMT and RASSF2A being unmethylated in LS not associated with vulvar SCC. TSP-1 hypermethylation was related to recurrence in patients with vulvar cancer. Conclusions are as follows: (i) the epigenetic inactivation of genes is a common event in vulvar SCC and is also present in adjacent lesions, implying a possible precursor role for these alterations; (ii) MGMT and RASSF2A hypermethylation are present exclusively in vulvar SCC and LS associated with SCC, and absent from isolated LS; and (iii) TSP-1 hypermethylation is a bad prognosis factor in vulvar SCC. PMID:20734389

Guerrero, David; Guarch, Rosa; Ojer, Amaya; Casas, Juan Manuel; Méndez-Meca, Carolina; Esteller, Manel; Barba-Ramos, Edurne; Garcia-Bragado, Federico; Puras, Ana

2011-06-15

21

HPV-Associated Vulvar Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer Home HPV-Associated Vulvar Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Vulvar cancers are rare. It is ... women get vulvar cancer than women of other races or ethnicities. * Note: This study used cancer registry ...

22

Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

2014-12-23

23

Therapy for Primary Vulvar Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The rather rare vulvar cancer is almost always a squamous cell carcinoma that mostly develops from an underlying VIN or HPV infection. In addition, lichen sclerosus et atrophicans, immune deficiency, nicotine abuse or anogenital intraepithelial neoplasias may play a role in the pathogenesis. Surgical therapy aims at an R0 resection in the sense of a complete vulvectomy or a radical local excision with, if necessary, plastic reconstruction. Also, the vulvar field resection with consideration of the compartment model has been discussed. Besides the classic inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, in selected cases of vulvar cancer sentinel biopsies are performed by experienced surgeons in the larger centres. In contrast, systemic therapy plays only a subordinate role; in isolated cases down-staging by means of neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be useful. However, there is at present no indication for adjuvant chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy is also not to be recommended on account of its unfavourable ratio of efficacy to side effects. On the other hand adjuvant radiotherapy is indicated in cases of positive inguinal lymph nodes. According to the current data the indication should be made generously in such cases. PMID:24882877

Herr, D.; Juhasz-Boess, I.; Solomayer, E. F.

2014-01-01

24

Therapy for Primary Vulvar Carcinoma.  

PubMed

The rather rare vulvar cancer is almost always a squamous cell carcinoma that mostly develops from an underlying VIN or HPV infection. In addition, lichen sclerosus et atrophicans, immune deficiency, nicotine abuse or anogenital intraepithelial neoplasias may play a role in the pathogenesis. Surgical therapy aims at an R0 resection in the sense of a complete vulvectomy or a radical local excision with, if necessary, plastic reconstruction. Also, the vulvar field resection with consideration of the compartment model has been discussed. Besides the classic inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, in selected cases of vulvar cancer sentinel biopsies are performed by experienced surgeons in the larger centres. In contrast, systemic therapy plays only a subordinate role; in isolated cases down-staging by means of neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be useful. However, there is at present no indication for adjuvant chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy is also not to be recommended on account of its unfavourable ratio of efficacy to side effects. On the other hand adjuvant radiotherapy is indicated in cases of positive inguinal lymph nodes. According to the current data the indication should be made generously in such cases. PMID:24882877

Herr, D; Juhasz-Boess, I; Solomayer, E F

2014-03-01

25

Key concepts in management of vulvar cancer.  

PubMed

Vulvar carcinoma is an uncommon tumor that is seen most often in older women. Subtle symptoms such as pruritus should prompt examination and targeted biopsy in all women as this disease can be successfully treated even in elderly, frail individuals. Vulvar cancer has a bimodal age distribution and is seen in both young and older women with risk factors including human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, smoking, and vulvar skin diseases (i.e., lichen sclerosus). This cancer is staged surgically, with an update in 2009 incorporating prognostic factors. The treatment of vulvar carcinoma has evolved to include more conservative surgical techniques that provide improved cure rates with emphasis on minimizing morbidity. Advanced and metastatic lesions are now treated with chemoradiation which produces substantial cure rates with decreased morbidity. Promising areas of research in vulvar cancer include refinement of sentinel lymph node biopsy, prevention of lymphedema, and preservation of sexual function following treatment. PMID:25151473

Zweizig, Susan; Korets, Sharmilee; Cain, Joanna M

2014-10-01

26

Vulvar Paget's disease--a case report.  

PubMed

Vulvar Morbus Paget (MP) represents a rare intraepithelial adenocarcinoma. It accounts for less than 1% of all vulvar neoplasia and usually appears in postmenopausal women. Histologically it is analogous to Paget's disease of the breast. The most common clinical symptom is pruritus. The lesion appears as an erythematous or as an eczematous lesion with islands of hyperkeratosis. Occasionally, single anaplastic Paget's cells can be found on the vulvar smears which make cytological diagnosis of the disease possible. However, the disease can be diagnosed only by biopsy. We present a case of 49-year old woman with vulvar symptoms of pruritus, who had liver and kidney transplantation two years ago. During the standard gynecological examination the vulvar smear was taken for cytological evaluation. The smear was scanty, with inflammatory background, overloaded with squamae. There were two types of cells: dysplastic squamous cells from lower layer of the epithelium and the single, anaplastic cells with a high nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio who possessed eccentric, large nucleus. Nucleoli were rare. Cytoplasm varied from pale and delicate to densely basophilic. Accordingly, cytological diagnosis vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN III) with differential diagnosis of vulvar Paget's disease was made. The pathological verification supported the diagnosis of MP and an immunohistochemistry panel confirmed type III of Paget's disease and an evaluation of bladder was suggested. PMID:20698146

Simon, Suzana Kataleni?; Bolanca, Ines Krivak; Sentija, Karmela; Kukura, Vlastimir; Valeti?, Josip; Skrti?, Anita

2010-06-01

27

What Are the Risk Factors for Vulvar Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... developing vulvar cancer. Among women who have a history of HPV infection, smoking further increases the risk of developing vulvar cancer. ... cervical cancer are also linked to vulvar cancer. Smoking is also linked to a higher ... A family history of melanoma also leads to an increased risk. ...

28

VALOR DE LA BIOPSIA VULVAR EN EL DIAGNÓSTICO DE LIQUEN ESCLEROSO EN PACIENTES CON ALTERACIONES VULVARES CRÓNICAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A prospective study is presented. A vulvar biopsy was carried out in patients with symptoms and\\/or chronic vulvar alterations of more than one year of evolution. We stands out the importance of the vulvar biopsy like a simple, cheap procedure and exempt of complications, vital in the diagnostic confirmation of lichen sclerosus.

2004-01-01

29

Sentinel node biopsy in early vulvar cancer  

PubMed Central

Lymph node pathologic status is the most important prognostic factor in vulvar cancer; however, complete inguinofemoral node dissection is associated with significant morbidity. Lymphoscintigraphy associated with gamma-probe guided surgery reliably detects sentinel nodes in melanoma and breast cancer patients. This study evaluates the feasibility of the surgical identification of sentinel groin nodes using lymphoscintigraphy and a gamma-detecting probe in patients with early vulvar cancer. Technetium-99m-labelled colloid human albumin was administered perilesionally in 37 patients with invasive epidermoid vulvar cancer (T1–T2) and lymphoscintigraphy performed the day before surgery. An intraoperative gamma-detecting probe was used to identify sentinel nodes during surgery. A complete inguinofemoral node dissection was then performed. Sentinel nodes were submitted separately to pathologic evaluation. A total of 55 groins were dissected in 37 patients. Localization of the SN was successful in all cases. Eight cases had positive nodes: in all the sentinel node as positive; the sentinel node was the only positive node in five cases. Twenty-nine patients showed negative sentinel nodes: all of them were negative for lymph node metastases. Lymphoscintigraphy and sentinel-node biopsy under gamma-detecting probe guidance proved to be an easy and reliable method for the detection of sentinel node in early vulvar cancer. This technique may represent a true advance in the direction of less aggressive treatments in patients with vulvar cancer. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10646880

Cicco, C De; Sideri, M; Bartolomei, M; Grana, C; Cremonesi, M; Fiorenza, M; Maggioni, A; Bocciolone, L; Mangioni, C; Colombo, N; Paganelli, G

2000-01-01

30

Subunit Principle of Vulvar Reconstruction: Algorithm and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Vulvar defects result chiefly from oncologic resection of vulvar tumors. Reconstruction of vulvar defects restores form and function for the purpose of coitus, micturition, and defecation. Many surgical options exist for vulvar reconstruction. The purpose of this article is to present our experience with vulvar reconstruction. Methods From 2007 to 2013, 43 women presented to us with vulvar defects for reconstruction. Their mean age at the time of reconstruction was 61.1 years. The most common cause of vulvar defect was from resection of vulvar carcinoma and extramammary Paget's disease of the vulva. Method s of reconstruction ranged from primary closure to skin grafting to the use of pedicled flaps. Results The main complications were that of long term hypertrophic and/or unaesthetic scarring of the donor site in 4 patients. Twenty-two patients (51%) were able to resume sexual intercourse. There were no complications of flap loss, wound dehiscence, and urethral stenosis. Conclusions We present a subunit algorithmic approach to vulvar reconstruction based on defect location within the vulva, dimension of the defect, and patient age and comorbidity. The gracilis and gluteal fold flaps are particularly versatile and aesthetically suited for reconstruction of a variety of vulvar defects. From an aesthetic viewpoint the gluteal fold flap was superior because of the well-concealed donor scar. We advocate the routine use of these 2 flaps for vulvar reconstruction. PMID:25075361

Kang, Gavin Chun-Wui; Tay, Eng Hseon; Por, Yong Chen

2014-01-01

31

Premalignant epithelial disorders of the vulva: squamous vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, vulvar Paget's disease and melanoma in situ.  

PubMed

No standard screening programs exist to detect vulvar carcinoma or its precursor lesions, and therefore gynecologists, dermatologists and other healthcare providers in this field should be aware of the clinical features, behavior and management of the different existing premalignant vulvar lesions, squamous vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), vulvar Paget's disease and melanoma in situ. In 2004, a new classification for squamous VIN was introduced by the International Society for the Study of Vulvar Disease, subdividing squamous VIN into the HPV-related usual type, and into differentiated type, which is associated with lichen sclerosus. This review describes the relevant aspects of squamous VIN, vulvar Paget's disease and melanoma in situ, its epidemiological characteristics, diagnosis, management and malignant potential. PMID:20504079

Terlou, Annelinde; Blok, Leen J; Helmerhorst, Theo J M; van Beurden, Marc

2010-06-01

32

Vulvar Cancer in the North of Israel  

PubMed Central

Purpose This is a population study of patients who were treated for vulvar cancer in a tertiary center in northern Israel, aimed to report clinical findings, treatment, and outcome. Methods A retrospective chart review of all medical records of consecutive patients who were treated for vulvar cancer in the years 1993–2012 was conducted. Data extracted from the medical records included demographics, histology, size of lesion, stage of disease at diagnosis, type of treatment, radiation dose, follow-up, recurrence, and survival. Results The study included 44 patients with a median age of 69.8 years (range, 42–93 years). Thirty-five (79.5%) of the patients were of Jewish descent, five were Arabic, and four were of other descent. The most common histology type was squamous cell carcinoma in 35 (79.5%) patients. Most patients were staged FIGO II–III at time of diagnosis. Surgery was the most common primary treatment modality (54.2%). Twenty-three (52.2%) patients had recurrent disease. Older age and more advanced stage at diagnosis were associated with increased mortality. Conclusion Vulvar cancer is common among elderly women with co-morbidities who present in advanced disease stage; all these factors are significant for survival. PMID:25120922

Kaidar-Person, Orit; Ibrahim, Nour; Amit, Amnon; Bortnyak-Abdah, Roxolyana

2014-01-01

33

Patients with usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia-related vulvar cancer have an increased risk of cervical abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Background: Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) originates the following two pathways, related to differentiated (d) vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) or to human papillomavirus (HPV)-related usual (u) VIN. Multicentric HPV infections (cervix, vagina and vulva) are common. We hypothesise that patients with a uVIN-related vulvar SCC more often have cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) compared with women with dVIN-related vulvar SCC. Methods: All vulvar SCCs (201) were classified to be dVIN- (n=164) or uVIN related (n=37). Data with regard to the smear history and cervical histology were retrieved from PALGA, the nationwide Netherlands database of histo- and cytopathology. For HSIL cervical smears of which histology was taken, HPV DNA analysis on both the vulvar and cervical specimens was performed. Results: At least one smear was available in 145 (72%) of the 201 patients. Patients with a uVIN-related vulvar SCC more often had an HSIL compared with patients with a dVIN-related SCC (35 vs 2%, P<0.001). A total of 10 of the 13 HSILs were histologically assessed and identical HPV types were found in the vulva and cervix. Conclusion: These data emphasise the necessity to differentiate between dVIN- and uVIN-related vulvar tumours and to examine the entire lower female ano-genital tract once an uVIN-related lesion is found. PMID:19513077

de Bie, R P; van de Nieuwenhof, H P; Bekkers, R L M; Melchers, W J G; Siebers, A G; Bulten, J; Massuger, L F A G; de Hullu, J A

2009-01-01

34

Vulvar Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Langerhans cell histiocytoses (LCH) are a rare group of disorders that comprise a large spectrum of diseases initially known as histiocytosis X. In this case report, we relate a case of LCH affecting the vulva of a 47-year-old female. The patient presented since 3 years with a vulvar lesion characterized by non-healing ulcers and a perineal granuloma on which she underwent surgery. Professionals should keep in mind not to treat straightforwardly lesions of the genital tract as simple sexually transmitted diseases. Chronic, atypical genital lesions seen in women need to be worked up and dealt with accordingly. PMID:25404979

Khoummane, Nadia; Guimeya, Cyriane; Lipombi, Dominique; Gielen, François

2014-01-01

35

Vulvar cancer and the need for awareness of precursor lesions.  

PubMed

Vulvar cancer continues to rise in incidence. In the absence of screening, attempts to reduce this cancer must focus on recognizing precursor lesions, namely, lichen sclerosus and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN). The steep rise in human papillomavirus-repeated VIN will fall after the introduction of vaccination against human papillomavirus; in the meantime, those patients with VIN must be treated and then reviewed carefully and frequently. Lichen sclerosus has a 3% to 5% risk of progressing to vulvar cancer. Recommendations about which patients require referral to and follow-up by specialists/specialist clinics are given. PMID:19387133

Maclean, Allan B; Jones, Ronald W; Scurry, James; Neill, Sallie

2009-04-01

36

Pathophysiology of Macular Edema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macular edema is defined as an accumulation of fluid in the outer plexiform layer and the inner nuclear layer as well as a swelling of Müller cells of the retina. It consists of a localized expansion of the retinal extracellular space (sometimes associated with the intracellular space) in the macular area. Macular edema is a common cause of a sudden

Stefan Scholl; Janna Kirchhof; Albert J. Augustin

2010-01-01

37

Medical and surgical approaches to vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia.  

PubMed

Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is a precursor to invasive vulvar carcinoma. The two major types of VIN, usual and differentiated, differ in epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, pathology, and malignant potential. Usual VIN commonly occurs in younger women. It is associated with human papillomavirus and tends to have multifocal and multicentric involvement. Differentiated VIN is frequently associated with benign vulvar dermatoses such as lichen sclerosus and lichen simplex chronicus. It occurs in older women and typically is unifocal and unicentric. Clinicians must have a high suspicion for VIN, which is diagnosed by biopsy. Surgical excision has been the standard treatment in order to prevent progression to invasive disease. The objectives of treatment have expanded to include preservation of normal vulvar function and anatomy. Therefore, management options are being investigated, including topical therapy, laser excision and vaporization, and photodynamic therapy. All can be effective in both eliminating disease and maintaining relatively normal-appearing and functioning anatomy. PMID:20868402

Lai, Kimberly W; Mercurio, Mary Gail

2010-01-01

38

Bone marrow edema syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES) refers to transient clinical conditions with unknown pathogenic mechanism, such as transient\\u000a osteoporosis of the hip (TOH), regional migratory osteoporosis (RMO), and reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD). BMES is primarily\\u000a characterized by bone marrow edema (BME) pattern. The disease mainly affects the hip, the knee, and the ankle of middle-aged\\u000a males. Many hypotheses have been proposed

Anastasios V. Korompilias; Apostolos H. Karantanas; Marios G. Lykissas; Alexandros E. Beris

2009-01-01

39

Role of TP53 mutations in vulvar carcinomas.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV)-independent development of vulvar carcinomas is common and the disruption of the TP53 pathway seems to play a key role in these tumors. Overexpression of TP53 in precursor lesions (differentiated VIN) and associated invasive carcinomas is regarded as an important diagnostic feature of this subtype of vulvar cancer. To determine the relationship of TP53 mutation status with clinicopathologic parameters, HPV status, and patient outcome, 18 squamous cell carcinomas of the vulva with TP53 overexpression along with 21 immunohistochemically TP53-negative tumors were analyzed. TP53 mutations were found in 17 (43.6%) of vulvar cancers, 18 (46.2%) tumors were HPV associated, and 8 (20.5%) carcinomas showed no relation to HPV infection or TP53 mutations. The presence of TP53 mutations was significantly linked to TP53 overexpression (P=0.002) and negative HPV status (P=0.012). The specificity of TP53 protein overexpression for the occurrence of TP53 mutations was 68.2%, with a positive predictive value of 66.7%. The most frequent mutation types were C:G ?T:A transitions (57.9%). This mutation pattern strongly indicates the important role of oxidative stress in vulvar carcinogenesis. There were no relationships between TP53 mutation status and tumor stage, grading, nodal status, depth of invasion, or patient prognosis. In summary, TP53 mutations play a crucial role in a substantial proportion of vulvar carcinomas and are probably associated to cellular oxidative stress in chronically degenerative diseases of the vulva, such as lichen sclerosus. These data support the potential utility of restoring TP53 function as a therapeutic alternative in vulvar cancer. Further studies are necessary to clarify the prognostic implications of TP53 mutations in vulvar carcinomas. PMID:21804386

Choschzick, Matthias; Hantaredja, Widianto; Tennstedt, Pierre; Gieseking, Frederike; Wölber, Linn; Simon, Ronald

2011-09-01

40

Surgery for brain edema.  

PubMed

Brain edema is a common pathophysiological process seen in many neurosurgical conditions. It can be localized in relation to focal lesions or generalized in diffuse types of brain injury. In addition to local adverse effects occurring at a cellular level, brain edema is associated with raised intracranial pressure (ICP), and both phenomena contribute to poor outcome in patients. One of the goals in treating patients with acute neurosurgical conditions in intensive care is to control brain edema and maintain ICP below target levels. The mainstay of treatment is medical therapy to reduce edema, but in certain patients--for example, those with diffuse severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and malignant middle cerebral artery infarction--such treatment is not effective. In these patients, opening the skull (decompressive craniectomy) to reduce ICP is a potential option. In this review the authors discuss the role of decompressive craniectomy as a surgical option in patients with brain edema in the context of a variety of pathological entities. They also address the current evidence for the technique (predominantly observational series) and the ongoing randomized studies of decompressive craniectomy in TBI and ischemic stroke. PMID:17613232

Hutchinson, Peter; Timofeev, Ivan; Kirkpatrick, Peter

2007-01-01

41

ACOG Committee Opinion No. 509: Management of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia.  

PubMed

Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is an increasingly common problem, particularly among women in their 40s. The term VIN is used to denote high-grade squamous lesions and is subdivided into usual-type VIN (including warty, basaloid, and mixed VIN) and differentiated VIN. Usual-type VIN is commonly associated with carcinogenic genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) and other HPV persistence risk factors, such as cigarette smoking and immunocompromised status, whereas differentiated VIN usually is not associated with HPV and is more often associated with vulvar dermatologic conditions, such as lichen sclerosus. Biopsy is indicated for any pigmented vulvar lesion. Treatment is indicated for all cases of VIN. When occult invasion is not a concern, VIN can be treated with surgical therapy, laser ablation, or medical therapy. After resolution, women should be monitored at 6 and 12 months and annually thereafter. PMID:22015906

2011-11-01

42

Vulvar skin disorders throughout lifetime: about some representative dermatoses.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to present general considerations which should be kept in mind by clinicians in charge of women with vulvar diseases. Four representative vulvar dermatoses are described. Lichen simplex chronicus is a pathological condition related to chemical and mechanical irritant agents. Detrimental effects of these irritants, in the presence of other dermatoses, have to be considered when therapeutic responses are unsatisfactory. Lichen sclerosus is the most common vulvar dermatosis in elderly. However, it should be kept in mind that it may be diagnosed at any age. Lichen planus, in spite of sharing a similar range of etiological factors with lichen sclerosus, is a very distinct entity. Finally, Paget's disease, although rare, is also described especially because of the challenge it represents both clinically and therapeutically. PMID:24511539

Doyen, Jean; Demoulin, Stéphanie; Delbecque, Katty; Goffin, Frédéric; Kridelka, Frédéric; Delvenne, Philippe

2014-01-01

43

Latest advances in edema  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic concepts in the physiopathology of edema are reviewed. The mechanisms of fluid exchange across the capillary endothelium are explained. Interstitial flow and lymph formation are examined. Clinical disorders of tissue and lymphatic transport, microcirculatory derangements in venous disorders, protein disorders, and lymphatic system disorders are explored. Techniques for investigational imaging of the lymphatic system are explained.

Villavicencio, J. L.; Hargens, A. R.; Pikoulicz, E.

1996-01-01

44

Vulvar Dermatoses – Irritant and Allergic Contact Dermatitis of the Vulva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis are commonly seen in patients complaining about itching, burning and irritation in the vulvar area. Irritation often precedes allergic sensitization. Clinically, irritant and allergic contact dermatitis can be difficult to distinguish. Diagnosis is made by history, clinical investigation and patch testing. Recommended patch test series are the standard series, a medicament series, the patient’s own

A. Bauer; C. Rödiger; C. Greif; M. Kaatz; P. Elsner

2005-01-01

45

Colposcopy and High Resolution Anoscopy in Screening For Anal Dysplasia in Patients With Cervical, Vaginal, or Vulvar Dysplasia or Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 1; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Vaginal Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

2012-06-08

46

Topical calcineurin inhibitors for the treatment of vulvar dermatoses.  

PubMed

Repeated courses of potent topical corticosteroids and maintenance therapy with moderately potent topical corticosteroids are frequently needed to treat various forms of vulvar dermatoses, which are often characterized by an abnormal proliferation or activation of T lymphocytes. Because such therapeutic regimen is associated with an increased risk of potential side effects, particularly skin atrophy, an anti-inflammatory alternative to topical corticosteroids is desirable. The two non-steroid topical calcineurin inhibitors pimecrolimus and tacrolimus are immunomodulators that block the release of inflammatory cytokines from T lymphocytes in the skin while promoting cutaneous innate host defences. They are currently approved in Europe and in the United States of America as second-line anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. We provide a comprehensive summary of existing case reports, series of cases, and open-label prospective studies concerning the use of topical pimecrolimus and tacrolimus for the treatment of anogenital lichen sclerosus, genital lichen planus, vulvar lichen simplex chronicus and related pruritic vulvar dermatoses (chronic vulvar pruritus and allergic contact dermatitis of the vulva). The available data suggest that both topical calcineurin inhibitors may be effective and well tolerated in these vulvar dermatoses, although topical pimecrolimus may exhibit a better long-term tolerability profile. Being devoid of steroid-related side effects, they may represent a useful second-line therapeutic option for patients who are intolerant of, or resistant to topical corticosteroids. Controlled clinical trials and comparative studies are warranted to substantiate the promising findings summarized in this review. PMID:19631446

Goldstein, Andrew T; Thaçi, Diamant; Luger, Thomas

2009-09-01

47

Diabetic Macular Edema  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical coherence tomography (OCT), a noninvasive and noncontact diagnostic method, was introduced in 1995 for imaging macular diseases. In diabetic macular edema (DME), OCT scans show hyporeflectivity, due to intraretinal and/or subretinal fluid accumulation, related to inner and/or outer blood-retinal barrier breakdown. OCT tomograms may also reveal the presence of hard exudates, as hyperreflective spots with a shadow, in the outer retinal layers, among others. In conclusion, OCT is a particularly valuable diagnostic tool in DME, helpful both in the diagnosis and follow-up procedure.

Lobo, Conceição; Pires, Isabel; Cunha-Vaz, José

48

Immunohistochemical expression of SOX2 in vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

SOX2 is a transcription factor controlling pluripotency in both embryonic stem cells and adult tissue-specific stem cells. SOX2 has been reported as an important factor in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of different locations and is involved in tumorigenesis. We evaluated the expression of SOX2 in vulvar non-neoplastic and neoplastic epithelia to test whether it is related to neoplastic progression. SOX2 immunoexpression was evaluated in 101 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival vulvar epithelia consisting of normal squamous vulvar epithelia (n=25), lichen sclerosus (n=9), high-grade classic vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-VIN, n=16), differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (d-VIN, n=18), and vulvar invasive keratinizing SCC (n=33). Immunoexpression of SOX2 was nuclear and increased stepwise from normal vulvar epithelia/lichen sclerosus to HG-VIN and d-VIN (P<0.0001), from HG-VIN and d-VIN to invasive SCC (P=0.0029), and followed the morphologic distribution of atypical squamous epithelial cells. Scores for normal vulvar epithelia versus lichen sclerosus and HG-VIN versus d-VIN, respectively, did not differ significantly. SOX2 expression increased from tumor Grade 1 to 3 (P=0.0124); there was no relation to recurrence and survival. This is the first study presenting SOX2 as overexpressed in vulvar intraepithelial and invasive squamous lesions. This overexpression apparently reflects an early event in the neoplastic transformation of vulvar squamous epithelia. However, SOX2 seems to play a role in histologic dedifferentiation to Grade 3 invasive SCC too, and may be relevant to vulvar carcinogenesis. PMID:23518916

Brustmann, Hermann; Brunner, Andreas

2013-05-01

49

Vulvar lichen sclerosus in the elderly: pathophysiology and treatment update.  

PubMed

Lichen sclerosus is a chronic skin condition that most commonly affects the anogenital skin of postmenopausal women. The aetiology of the condition is multifactorial. The most common presenting symptom is itching. Lichen sclerosus has a characteristic appearance. Diagnosis is made with vulvar biopsy. Treatment is important and the regimen most often includes topical corticosteroid ointments. Lifetime surveillance of the skin is imperative because of the increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma in patients with lichen sclerosus. PMID:19761274

Saunders, Natalie A; Haefner, Hope K

2009-01-01

50

Trends in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Vulva: The Influence of Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine trends in the clinicopathology of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma over the past 2 decades, with particular reference to the possible effects of the increasing incidence of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) during this time.Methods: Two cohorts of 56 and 57 women with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva and separated by at least 2 decades were reviewed retrospectively.

R. W Jones; Judith Baranyai; S Stables

1997-01-01

51

Feasibility of Collecting Vulvar Pain Variability and Its Correlates Using Prospective Collection with Smartphones  

PubMed Central

Context. Vulvar pain level may fluctuate in women with vulvodynia even in the absence of therapy; however, there is little evidence suggesting which factors may be associated with variability. Objective. Determine the feasibility of using smartphones to collect prospective data on vulvar pain and factors that may influence vulvar pain level. Methods. 24 clinically confirmed women were enrolled from a population-based study and asked to answer five questions using their smartphones each week for one month. Questions assessed vulvar pain level (0–10), presence of pain upon wakening, pain elsewhere in their body, treatment use, and intercourse. Results. Women completed 100% of their scheduled surveys, with acceptability measures highly endorsed. Vulvar pain ratings had a standard deviation within women of 1.6, with greater variation on average among those with higher average pain levels (P < 0.001). On the weeks when a woman reported waking with pain, her vulvar pain level was higher by 1.82 on average (P < 0.001). Overall, average vulvar pain level was not significantly associated with the frequency of reporting other body pains (P = 0.64). Conclusion. Our smartphone tracking system promoted excellent compliance with weekly tracking of factors that are otherwise difficult to recall, some of which were highly associated with vulvar pain level. PMID:25006458

Nguyen, Ruby H. N.; Turner, Rachael M.; Sieling, Jared; Williams, David A.; Hodges, James S.; Harlow, Bernard L.

2014-01-01

52

Feasibility of collecting vulvar pain variability and its correlates using prospective collection with smartphones.  

PubMed

Context. Vulvar pain level may fluctuate in women with vulvodynia even in the absence of therapy; however, there is little evidence suggesting which factors may be associated with variability. Objective. Determine the feasibility of using smartphones to collect prospective data on vulvar pain and factors that may influence vulvar pain level. Methods. 24 clinically confirmed women were enrolled from a population-based study and asked to answer five questions using their smartphones each week for one month. Questions assessed vulvar pain level (0-10), presence of pain upon wakening, pain elsewhere in their body, treatment use, and intercourse. Results. Women completed 100% of their scheduled surveys, with acceptability measures highly endorsed. Vulvar pain ratings had a standard deviation within women of 1.6, with greater variation on average among those with higher average pain levels (P < 0.001). On the weeks when a woman reported waking with pain, her vulvar pain level was higher by 1.82 on average (P < 0.001). Overall, average vulvar pain level was not significantly associated with the frequency of reporting other body pains (P = 0.64). Conclusion. Our smartphone tracking system promoted excellent compliance with weekly tracking of factors that are otherwise difficult to recall, some of which were highly associated with vulvar pain level. PMID:25006458

Nguyen, Ruby H N; Turner, Rachael M; Sieling, Jared; Williams, David A; Hodges, James S; Harlow, Bernard L

2014-01-01

53

Vulvar squamous papillomatosis and human papillomavirus infection. A polymerase chain reaction study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Squamous papillae of the vulvar vestibule and introitus are quite a common clinical finding, however their origin is uncertain. They were formerly described as a normal variant of the mucosal epithelium, but recently they have been attributed to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Eight women with clinical findings compatible with a diagnosis of vulvar squamous papillomatosis were studied. All were free

Michele Fimiani; Carlo Mazzatenta; Maurizio Biagioli; Lucio Andreassi

1993-01-01

54

Recognition and management of vulvar dermatologic conditions: lichen sclerosus, lichen planus, and lichen simplex chronicus.  

PubMed

Lichen sclerosus, lichen planus, and lichen simplex chronicus are dermatologic conditions that can affect the vulva. Symptoms include vulvar itching, irritation, burning, and pain, which may be chronic or recurrent and can lead to significant physical discomfort and emotional distress that can affect mood and sexual relationships. With symptoms similar to common vaginal infections, women often seek care from gynecological providers and may be treated for vaginal infections without relief. Recognition and treatment of these vulvar conditions is important for symptom relief, sexual function, prevention of progressive vulvar scarring, and to provide surveillance for associated vulvar cancer. This article reviews these conditions including signs and symptoms, the process of evaluation, treatment, and follow-up, with attention to education and guidelines for vulvar care and hygiene. PMID:22594865

Thorstensen, Katrina Alef; Birenbaum, Debra L

2012-01-01

55

Flexitouch® Home Maintenance Therapy or Standard Home Maintenance Therapy in Treating Patients With Lower-Extremity Lymphedema Caused by Treatment for Cervical Cancer, Vulvar Cancer, or Endometrial Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Lymphedema; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

2014-12-29

56

Angioneurotic Edema Associated with Haloperidol  

PubMed Central

Background. Angioneurotic edema is a life-threatening medical emergency that requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Haloperidol is in the butyrophenone class of antipsychotic medications. Acute anaphylaxis to Haloperidol is very rare and no cases have been reported in literature. Objective. To report the association of life-threatening angioneurotic edema with intramuscular Haloperidol. Case Report. We present a case of an adult with no known allergies in whom angioneurotic edema with tongue swelling and protrusion developed after the administration of a single IM dose of Haloperidol. Conclusion. We propose angioneurotic edema in a rare side effect of Haloperidol. The onset of the symptoms is abrupt, but it may take 12–36 hours to resolve completely. Therefore patient should be monitored for 12–36?hrs. PMID:23326722

Kahlon, Samrina; Lee, Cathy; Chirurgi, Roger; Worku Hassen, Getaw

2012-01-01

57

Pulmonary Edema in Myasthenic Crisis  

PubMed Central

We report a previously asymptomatic 50-year-old lady who came with myasthenic crisis as initial presentation of myasthenia gravis. She developed pulmonary edema following intravenous immunoglobulin administration and had ischemic changes in ECG and left ventricular dysfunction on echocardiography. She improved with diuretics, dobutamine, and fluid restriction alone. This is the first report in English-language medical literature describing the association between myasthenic crisis and likely takotsubo cardiomyopathy-related pulmonary edema following intravenous immunoglobulin administration. PMID:24829832

Anand, Uttara Swati; Arulneyam, Jayanthi

2013-01-01

58

A rare vulvar manifestation of neurofibromatosis 1 in a teen.  

PubMed

Neurofibromatosis 1 is an autosomal dominant disorder with cutaneous findings that include multiple café-au-lait spots, axillary/inguinal freckling, dermal, and plexiform neurofibromas. Skin manifestations, including involvement of the vulva, are often the most troubling physical finding to patients. Hormonal and growth factor changes during puberty have been implicated in neurofibroma growth. In the case presented here, an exceedingly rare isolated vulvar neurofibroma without clitoral involvement became enlarged and symptomatic, requiring excisional surgery after puberty. The diffuse involvement of these tumors makes complete resection very difficult and recurrence is common. PMID:21715194

Skorupski, Josh C; Hafener, Hope K; Smith, Yolanda R; Quint, Elisabeth H

2011-10-01

59

Vulvar lactating adenoma associated to a fibroadenoma: common neoplasms in an uncommon site  

PubMed Central

Ectopic breast tissue is defined as glands located outside of the breast. Ectopic breast tissue should be excised because it may develop benign (fibroadenoma) or malignant pathologic processes. Less than forty cases of fibroadenomas have been reported in the literature. Although lactation changes can occur, lactating adenoma in the vulva are extremely rare. Only four cases have been reported. We report a case of a young woman who presented with vulvar mass during her lactation. The mass was excised, and histology confirmed vulvar lactating adenoma associated with fibroadenoma. This is the first case of vulvar heterotopic breast lesion associating lactating adenoma and fibroadenoma. PMID:23330038

Dhaoui, Amen; Nfoussi, Haifa; Kchir, Nidhameddine; Haouet, Slim

2012-01-01

60

Genetic and epigenetic variation in vulvar cancer: current research and future clinical practice.  

PubMed

Vulvar cancer is a relatively rare gynaecological malignancy, the treatment of which is associated with significant patient morbidity. With reports that the incidence of vulvar cancer is increasing, there is a rising need for improved preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Recent advances within genetics and epigenetics present possible approaches for addressing this need, by contributing to the clarification of the aetiology of this disease, identifying screening and drug targets and introducing the potential for personalised treatments. This paper reviews the genetic and epigenetic research undertaken to date within vulvar cancer, evaluates its potential for clinical application and identifies directions for future research. PMID:25159988

McWhirter, Rebekah E; Marthick, James R; Boyle, Jacqueline A; Dickinson, Joanne L

2014-10-01

61

Pathways of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) accounts for >90% of the malignant tumours of the vulva. Most VSCCs originate in intraepithelial lesions, named vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), that precede the development of VSCC by a variable period of time. Strong evidence has accumulated showing that there are two different aetiopathogenic pathways for the development of VSCC and VIN, one associated with infection by human papillomavirus (HPV), and a second independent of HPV infection. These two different types of VSCC have different epidemiological, pathological and clinical characteristics, and should therefore be considered as two separate entities. Histologically, HPV-associated VSCCs are of the basaloid or warty type, and arise from VIN of the usual type. Inactivation of p53 and the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor gene product by the viral gene products E6 and E7 is involved in the process of malignant transformation. HPV-independent VSCCs are histologically keratinizing, are associated with differentiated VIN and lichen sclerosus, and frequently show mutations of p53. p16(INK4a) and p53 immunostaining can be useful for classifying VSCC into HPV-associated or HPV-independent. Although large, multicentre studies are needed to definitively assess the involvement of HPV in the prognosis of VSCC, most studies have not found clear differences in survival between HPV-associated and HPV-independent tumours. PMID:23190170

Del Pino, Marta; Rodriguez-Carunchio, Leonardo; Ordi, Jaume

2013-01-01

62

Aberrant staining patterns of E-cadherin and ?-catenin: a potential diagnostic value for distinguishing vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia from non-neoplastic vulvar lesions  

PubMed Central

Histologically, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasm (VIN) is a proliferative disorder of the female vulva. No single clinical characteristic or pathognomonic feature facilitates the diagnosis of VIN, and the agreement between different pathologists on the diagnoses varies significantly. In this study, we evaluate the immunohistochemical expression patterns of E-cadherin and ?-catenin in 22 patients with VIN and 10 patients with non-neoplastic vulvar lesions. our results showed that membranous staining for E-cadherin and ?-catenin was observed in squamous epithelial cells of all control non-neoplastic vulvar samples. Abnormal E-cadherin (17/19, 89.5%) and ?-catenin (15/19, 78.9%) staining occurred more frequently in usual-type VIN than in non-neoplastic vulvar lesions (P=0.000 and P=0.000, respectively). However, in differentiated VIN, only 1 patient showed abnormal E-cadherin and ?-catenin immunohistochemical expressions, which did not differ significantly. The abnormal expression of E-cadherin and ?-catenin proteins might be useful in distinguishing VIN from non-neoplastic vulvar squamous epithelium lesions in problematic cases. PMID:23826417

Li, Bo; Zhang, Qingfu; Ouyang, Ling; Jia, Lin; Han, Xue; Zhou, Yang; Tong, Xin; Song, Zixuan; Zhang, Shulang; Qiu, Xueshan

2013-01-01

63

Vulvar nevi, melanosis, and melanoma: An epidemiologic, clinical, and histopathologic review.  

PubMed

Pigmented vulvar lesions are present in approximately 1 in 10 women and include melanocytic and nonmelanocytic proliferations. Vulvar nevi, melanosis, and melanoma are particularly challenging because of the similarity of their clinical and/or histopathological presentation. As a result, they are often difficult to diagnose, may result in patient and physician anxiety, and can lead to unneeded, potentially disfiguring surgical procedures. Because it is often detected late, vulvar melanoma carries a poor prognosis with associated significant morbidity and mortality, underscoring the importance of prompt recognition and treatment. In this review, we analyze the distinct epidemiologic, clinical, and histopathologic characteristics of vulvar nevi, melanosis, and melanoma, discuss treatment options, and propose a practical, systematic approach to facilitate formulation of a differential diagnosis and initiation of appropriate management. PMID:25267379

Murzaku, Era Caterina; Penn, Lauren A; Hale, Christopher S; Pomeranz, Miriam Keltz; Polsky, David

2014-12-01

64

Late recurrence of sigmoid carcinoma mimicking primary vulvar cancer: case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Objective To demonstrate a unique case report about late and isolated vulvar metastasis of sigmoid adeno-carcinoma with review of the literature. Material-method 57 year old postmenopausal patient with prior sigmoid colon cancer history was admitted with isolated vulvar mass. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and KRAS gen mutation analysis following surgery were performed to discriminate the metastasis from a vulvar primary malignancy. Further imaging techniques were also performed to exclude additional tumours. Results Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and KRAS gene mutation analysis revealed isolated metastasis of the colonic adeno-carcinoma in the vulva. Conclusion Isolated and late occurring vulvar metastasis of colonic origin is very unusual. Careful evaluation and IHC is useful for such cases. PMID:22949946

Pabuccu, Emre; Tolunay, Harun Egemen; Kocbulut, Evren; Task?n, Salih; Ortac, F?rat; Sertcelik, Ayse; Sasmaz, Aysegul; Savas, Berna

2012-01-01

65

Therapeutic implications of melatonin in cerebral edema.  

PubMed

Cerebral edema/brain edema refers to the accumulation of fluid in the brain and is one of the fatal conditions that require immediate medical attention. Cerebral edema develops as a consequence of cerebral trauma, cerebral infarction, hemorrhages, abscess, tumor, hypoxia, and other toxic or metabolic factors. Based on the causative factors cerebral edema is differentiated into cytotoxic cerebral edema, vasogenic cerebral edema, osmotic and interstitial cerebral edema. Treatment of cerebral edema depends on timely diagnosis and medical assistance. Pragmatic treatment strategies such as antihypertensive medications, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, barbiturates, steroids, glutamate and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists and trometamol are used in clinical practice. Although the above mentioned treatment approaches are being used, owing to the complexity of the mechanisms involved in cerebral edema, a single therapeutic strategy which could ameliorate cerebral edema is yet to be identified. However, recent experimental studies have suggested that melatonin, a neurohormone produced by the pineal gland, could be an effective alternative for treating cerebral edema. In animal models of stroke, melatonin was not only shown to reduce cerebral edema but also preserved the blood brain barrier. Melatonin's beneficial effects were attributed to its properties, such as being a potent anti-oxidant, and its ability to cross the blood brain barrier within minutes after its administration. This review summarizes the beneficial effects of melatonin when used for treating cerebral edema. PMID:24876075

Rathnasamy, Gurugirijha; Ling, Eng-Ang; Kaur, Charanjit

2014-12-01

66

The first leg video endoscopic groin lymphadenectomy in vulvar cancer: A case report  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION The current management of vulvar cancer depends on the extension of disease, and includes primary tumor resection with safety margin as well as inguinofemoral lymph node staging. We report the case of the first leg videoendoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy performed in a woman with a squamous cell vulvar carcinoma. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 74 years old female referred to our institution complaining of vulvar mass associated with bleeding and swelling from external genitals, vaginal burning sensation and dysuria for 5 months. A vulvar–vaginal examination under narcosis reported a right major labium lesion of 5 cm with an irregular and ulcerated surface, easily bleeding on palpation, involving anteriorly the clitoral region and with a histological finding of a poorly differentiated squamous cell invasive carcinoma of the vulva ulcerating the surface epithelium. We performed, after adequate informed consent, a radical vulvectomy with a standard right inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy and a contralateral simultaneous video endoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy-Leg procedure. DISCUSSION Our minimally invasive VEIL-Leg approach, performed for the first time in literature in a woman with vulvar cancer, could reduce the presence of high risk factors represented by surgical incision and by procedure-related complications, including wound infection and breakdown, hematoma, cellulitis and hernia formation. CONCLUSION A multicenter prospective randomized study will be helpful to clarify how this procedure could replace the standard laparotomic approach to inguinal lymphadenectomy in the vulvar cancer treatment and staging. PMID:24973526

Naldini, Angelica; Rossitto, Cristiano; Morciano, Andrea; Panico, Giovanni; Campagna, Giuseppe; Paparella, Pierluigi; Scambia, Giovanni

2014-01-01

67

Small-Area Analysis of Incidence and Localisation of Vulvar Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective. Vulvar cancer is a rare disease mainly in older women. HPV and non-HPV induced vulvar cancer reflect two types of oncogenesis. Controversies exist on most recent developments in vulvar cancer incidence, patients, and disease characteristics. Changes in incidence, age of disease onset, and tumor site in women treated for primary vulvar cancer in a single German university hospital unit will be described. Methods. A retrospective analysis of patient records of women treated between 1994 and 2008 was performed. The fifteen-year-spanning period was divided into three five year-spanning cohorts. Descriptive and statistical analyses were performed. Results. 104 patients were identified: cohort-1 from 1994 to 1998 (11 patients); cohort-2 from 1999 to 2003 (21 patients); cohort-3 from 2004 to 2008 (72 patients). Mean age (years) was 73.18 (confidence interval (CI): 64.04; 82.33), 58.9 (CI: 52.24; 65.57), and 61.19 (CI: 57.27; 65.12), respectively. Vulvar cancer confined to the region between clitoris and urethra was seen more often in cohort-3 (n = 20) compared to cohort-1 (n = 0) or cohort-2 (n = 1). Conclusion. This analysis supports the notion of rising incidence of vulvar cancer and a changing pattern of anatomical local extension. Disease onset is not restricted to older women. PMID:20652011

Baumann, Klaus H.; Müller, Olga; Naujok, Helke B.; Mann, Ellen; Barth, Peter; Wagner, Uwe

2010-01-01

68

Spindle cell morphology is related to poor prognosis in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background: Vulvar cancer is the fourth most common gynaecological malignancy, with an annual incidence of 2 out of 100?000 women. Although most cases of early stage vulvar cancer have a good prognosis, recurrence and rapid tumour progression can occur. We investigated the prevalence of spindle cell morphology in vulvar cancer and its association with survival. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 108 patients with primary vulvar squamous cell carcinoma who were treated at the Leiden University Medical Center during 2000–2009. Paraffin-embedded tissue was examined for the presence of spindle cell morphology. Survival and histology data were compared between cases with spindle and without spindle cell morphology. Results: Twenty-two (20%) tumours showed spindle cells infiltrating the stromal tissue. All spindle cell tumours were human papillomavirus (HPV) negative. Spindle cell morphology was strongly associated with poor prognosis and with a high risk of lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis (relative risk 2.26 (95% CI 1.47–3.47)). Five-year disease-specific survival was lower in patients with vs without spindle cell morphology (45.2% vs 79.7%, respectively; P=0.00057). Conclusion: Vulvar spindle cell morphology occurs frequently and seems to develop through the non-HPV pathway. It is associated with a worse prognosis than conventional vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:24064972

Trietsch, M D; Peters, A A W; Gaarenstroom, K N; van Koningsbrugge, S H L; ter Haar, N T; Osse, E M; Halbesma, N; Fleuren, G J

2013-01-01

69

[Hereditary angioneurotic edema (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Hereditary angioneurotic edema is a rare autosomally-inherited disease, which is caused by a deficiency or functional inactivation of C-1 inactivator in the complement system. The poor prognosis of the disease mandates that an early diagnosis be made and drug therapy begun to prevent a lethal outcome. The pathogenesis, clinical course and therapies available are detailed. PMID:7462039

Löhle, E; Mann, W

1980-01-01

70

Hip disarticulation for recurrent vulvar cancer in the groin.  

PubMed

A patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva treated with a radical vulvectomy and bilateral inguinal and femoral lymphadenectomies utilizing separate groin incisions, subsequently developed a recurrence in the skin bridge between the vulvar and groin excisions. Following groin irradiation with chemosensitization, the tumor progressed to involve the superior public ramus and femoral vessels. A left hip disarticulation and resection of a portion of the superior pubic ramus was performed. The patient has been free of disease for 3 years. The advantages of this procedure over a hemipelvectomy include shorter operative time, reduced blood loss, better fascial closure of the abdomen, and the creation of a stump which is more amendable to prosthetic fitting. PMID:1427389

Powell, J L; Donovan, J T; Reed, W P

1992-10-01

71

Phosphorylated S6 as an immunohistochemical biomarker of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia.  

PubMed

As life expectancy lengthens, cases of non-viral-associated vulvar squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor lesion, so-called differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), continue to increase in frequency. Differentiated VIN often is difficult to recognize and failure to detect it before invasion results in morbidity and mortality. Thus, identification of a reliable biomarker for this type of lesion would be of great clinical benefit. Our recent studies have identified activation (ser235/236 phosphorylation) of ribosomal protein S6 (p-S6) in basal epithelial cells as an event that precedes and accompanies laminin ?(2) overexpression in most preinvasive oral dysplasias. To test this as a potential biomarker of vulvar dysplasia, we immunostained seven differentiated VINs and nine papillomavirus-related 'classic' VINs, most of which were associated with carcinoma, for p-S6. All carcinomas, all differentiated VINs, and most classic VINs contained regions of p-S6 staining in the basal layer, whereas basal and parabasal cells of normal vulvar epithelium and hyperplastic and inflamed lesions lacking cellular atypia were p-S6 negative. Laminin ?(2) was expressed in a subset of VINs, always occurring within basal p-S6 positive regions, as we had found previously for oral dysplasias. Lichen sclerosus is considered a potential precursor of vulvar carcinoma. Two lichen sclerosus lesions of patients with a concurrent carcinoma and one of six lichen sclerosus lesions without atypia or known concurrent carcinoma were basal p-S6 positive. In summary, there is a distinct difference in p-S6 basal cell layer staining between benign and neoplastic vulvar squamous epithelium, with consistent staining of differentiated VIN and of some lichen sclerosus lesions. These results support further studies to assess the potential of p-S6 as a biomarker to identify vulvar lesions at risk of progressing to invasive cancer. PMID:23765247

Pinto, Alvaro P; Degen, Martin; Barron, Patricia; Crum, Christopher P; Rheinwald, James G

2013-11-01

72

Localized amyloidosis of the vulva with and without vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: report of a series.  

PubMed

Localized primary cutaneous amyloidosis is uncommon in Europe and North America and is infrequently reported in the English literature. The constituents of such deposits have not been previously examined; this series characterizes amyloid deposits in localized vulvar amyloidosis and their association with vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. All biopsies and excisions of vulva over 18 months were reviewed. Cases with suspected amyloidosis were retrieved after institutional review board approval. Twenty cases mimicking amyloidosis were selected as controls. All study and control cases were stained with Congo red. Four Congo red-positive study cases were studied by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Of 27 Congo red-positive study cases, 25 were then examined by immunohistochemical stains with antibodies to cytokeratin 5 (CK5) and cytokeratin 14 (CK14). Of 149 cases reviewed, 26 localized and 1 systemic vulvar amyloidosis were identified. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the deposits revealed unique peptide profile consistent with CK5 and CK14. Immunohistochemical staining with antibodies to CK5 and CK14 also detected these components in the deposits. The vulvar deposit of systemic amyloidosis consisted of amyloid light chain (?)-type amyloid deposit. All control cases were negative for Congo red. Keratin-associated amyloid materials (CK5 and CK14) were found to be unique in localized vulvar amyloidosis. Leakage of keratins from the basal layer of the epithelium into the superficial dermis may have been the possible source of the deposits. It appears to be associated with both high-grade and low-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasias and, rarely, lichen sclerosus, seborrheic keratosis, and benign vulvar skin. PMID:25149547

Quddus, M Ruhul; Sung, C James; Simon, Rochelle A; Lawrence, W Dwayne

2014-10-01

73

Further Data on the Usefulness of Sentinel Lymph Node Identification and Ultrastaging in Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The aim was to determine the feasibility of surgical identification and pathological ultrastaging of sentinel nodes (SNs) in vulvar carcinoma and to evaluate whether SN negativity rules out the possibility of metastasis in other nodes and can therefore avoid conventional lymphadenectomy.Material and methods. In 26 patients with vulvar squamous cell carcinoma the SNs were detected using both peritumoral injection

Luis M. Puig-Tintoré; Jaume Ordi; Sergi Vidal-Sicart; José A Lejárcegui; Aureli Torné; Jaume Pahisa; Xavier Iglesias

2003-01-01

74

Differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is often found in lesions, previously diagnosed as lichen sclerosus, which have progressed to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Lichen sclerosus is considered to be the precursor lesion of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma, of which only 2-5% progress to squamous cell carcinoma. Differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) has been proposed to be the direct precursor lesion, but this is a recently recognized, and a difficult to diagnose, entity, which may easily be mistaken for a benign dermatosis. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that of all lesions that have been diagnosed as lichen sclerosus in the past, a part might currently be diagnosed as differentiated VIN, and to identify histopathological differences between lichen sclerosus lesions with and without progression to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. All lichen sclerosus slides were revised by two expert gynecopathologists and histopathological characteristics were documented. After revision of lichen sclerosus biopsies without progression (n = 61), 58 were reclassified as lichen sclerosus. Revision of lichen sclerosus biopsies with progression yielded concordant diagnoses in 18 of 60 cases (30%). Of 60 lesions, 25 (42%) were reclassified as differentiated VIN. The median time from differentiated VIN to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma was shorter (28 months) than that from lichen sclerosus to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (84 months) (P < 0.001). Lichen sclerosus that progressed to squamous cell carcinoma, but did not meet the criteria for differentiated VIN, more often showed parakeratosis (P = 0.004), dyskeratosis (P < 0.001), hyperplasia (P = 0.048) and basal cellular atypia (P = 0.009) compared with lichen sclerosus without progression. In conclusion, differentiated VIN diagnosis has been frequently missed and is associated with rapid progression to squamous cell carcinoma. Patients with lichen sclerosus with dyskeratosis and parakeratosis, hyperplasia and/or basal cellular atypia should be kept under close surveillance as these lesions also tend to progress to squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:21057461

van de Nieuwenhof, Hedwig P; Bulten, Johan; Hollema, Harrie; Dommerholt, Rianne G; Massuger, Leon F A G; van der Zee, Ate G J; de Hullu, Joanne A; van Kempen, Leon C L T

2011-02-01

75

Ranibizumab in diabetic macular edema  

PubMed Central

By 2050 the prevalence of diabetes will more than triple globally, dramatically increasing the societal and financial burden of this disease worldwide. As a consequence of this growth, it is anticipated that there will be a concurrent rise in the numbers of patients with diabetic macular edema (DME), already among the most common causes of severe vision loss worldwide. Recent available therapies for DME target the secreted cytokine, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This review focuses on the treatment of DME using the first humanized monoclonal antibody targeting VEGF that has been Food and Drug Administration-approved for the use in the eye, ranibizumab (Lucentis®). PMID:24379922

Krispel, Claudia; Rodrigues, Murilo; Xin, Xiaoban; Sodhi, Akrit

2013-01-01

76

Vulvar basal cell carcinoma: report of a case involving the mucosa and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

We report the case of woman who presented a vulvar basal cell carcinoma (BCC) on the inner part of the labium majus, treated with local resection. Vulvar BCC is a rare cancer but can be long misdiagnosed due to a non-specific presentation. Though even rarer, BCC involving the mucosal side of the labium majus has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of the vulvar tumors. A complete excision with free margins is the treatment most recommended. Other recommendations include the early identification of aggressive subtypes, which carry a greater risk of recurrence and spreading potential as well as a long-term follow-up with exhaustive muco-cutaneous examination. PMID:25386289

Caucanas, Marie; Müller, Gebhard; Vanhooteghem, Olivier

2011-01-01

77

Bilateral ankle edema with bilateral iritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

I report two patient presented to me with bilateral symmetrical ankle edema and bilateral acute iritis. A 42-year-old female\\u000a of Indian origin and 30-year-old female from Somalia both presented with bilateral acute iritis. In the first patient, bilateral\\u000a ankle edema preceded the onset of bilateral acute iritis. Bilateral ankle edema developed during the course of disease after\\u000a onset of ocular

Sunil Kumar

2007-01-01

78

Comparison of molecular abnormalities in vulvar and vaginal melanomas.  

PubMed

Malignant melanoma of the vulva and vagina is relatively uncommon and accounts for <5% of all melanomas in women. The aim of our study was to establish the biological properties and evaluate potential therapeutic targets in these tumors. We collected a series of 65 cases from three centers and re-evaluated the tumor tissue for predominant growth pattern (superficial spreading, nodular, and mucosal lentiginous) and tumor thickness. KIT (CD117) expression was detected immunohistochemically. In addition, tumors were screened for BRAF, NRAS, and KIT mutations by PCR and DNA sequencing as well as for KIT amplifications by fluorescence in situ hybridization. None of the cases contained BRAF mutations. NRAS mutations and KIT amplifications were detected in similar frequency (?12%) in tumors of the vulva and vagina. In contrast, KIT mutations were present in 18% of primary melanomas of the vulva, but in none of the tumors arising in the vagina. Moderate or strong KIT protein expression was detected in 30 cases, including all tumors with KIT mutations and 6 of the 7 with KIT amplifications. In conclusion, BRAF mutations are virtually absent in melanomas originating from the vulva or vagina, whereas NRAS mutations and KIT amplifications occur in both locations. KIT mutations appear to be specific for melanomas of the vulva, suggesting that in spite of the anatomic proximity, the development of vulvar and vaginal melanomas involves different molecular alterations which may be targeted by novel treatment approaches. PMID:24603591

Aulmann, Sebastian; Sinn, Hans P; Penzel, Roland; Gilks, C Blake; Schott, Sarah; Hassel, Jessica C; Schmidt, Dietmar; Kommoss, Friedrich; Schirmacher, Peter; Kommoss, Stefan

2014-10-01

79

Mitochondrial genotype in vulvar carcinoma - cuckoo in the nest  

PubMed Central

Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) is a rare female genital neoplasm. Although numerous molecular changes have been reported in VSCC, biomarkers of clinical relevance are still lacking. On the other hand, there is emerging evidence on the use of mtDNA as a diagnostic tool in oncology. In order to investigate mtDNA status in VSCC patients, haplogroup distribution analysis and D-loop sequencing were performed. The results were compared with available data for the general Polish population, cancer free-centenarians as well as patients with endometrial and head and neck cancer. The obtained data were also compared with the current status of mitochondrial databases. Significant differences in haplogroup distribution between VSCC cohort, general Polish population and cancer-free centenarians cohort were found. Moreover, a correlation between the VSCC patients haplogroup and HPV status was observed. Finally, a specific pattern of mtDNA polymorphisms was found in VSCC. Our results suggest that the mitochondrial genetic background may influence the risk of VSCC occurrence as well as susceptibility to HPV infection. PMID:20825678

2010-01-01

80

A Clinical and Pathological Overview of Vulvar Condyloma Acuminatum, Intraepithelial Neoplasia, and Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Condyloma acuminatum, intraepithelial neoplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma are three relatively frequent vulvar lesions. Condyloma acuminatum is induced by low risk genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV). Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and squamous cell carcinoma have different etiopathogenic pathways and are related or not with high risk HPV types. The goal of this paper is to review the main pathological and clinical features of these lesions. A special attention has been paid also to epidemiological data, pathological classification, and clinical implications of these diseases. PMID:24719870

Léonard, Boris; Kridelka, Frederic; Delbecque, Katty; Goffin, Frederic; Demoulin, Stéphanie; Doyen, Jean; Delvenne, Philippe

2014-01-01

81

Malignant vulvar melanoma: colposcopic evaluation and review of the literature. A case report.  

PubMed

Because of the rarity of this kind of vulvar neoplasia, the diagnostic difficulties (clinical and histopathological) conditioning the therapeutic approach and the missing iconographical material, we report a case of vulvar melanoma seen at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the University of L'Aquila in April 2001, together with a review of the literature. Owing to radical vulvectomy and bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy with the Byron three-incision approach the histological report was: epithelioid cell apigmented melanoma radially spreading (MMSS), a tumor-free margin of at least 1.7 cm with sufficient lympholitic infiltration. PMID:14658594

Di Stefano, L; Calvisi, G; Coppola, G; Patacchiola, F; Di Berardino, C; Mascaretti, G

2003-01-01

82

Case-control study of vulvar vestibulitis risk associated with genital infections.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS) associated with genital infections in a case-control study. METHODS: Diagnosed cases with VVS (n = 69) and age-frequency-matched healthy controls (n = 65) were enrolled from gynecology clinics in a university medical hospital during 1999. They were compared for potential risk factors and symptoms of disease. RESULTS: VVS cases had a significantly higher risk of physician-reported bacterial vaginosis (BV) (odds ratio, OR = 9.4), Candida albicans (OR = 5.7), pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (OR = 11.2), trichomoniasis (OR = 20.6), and vulvar dysplasia (OR = l5.7) but no risk associated with human papillomavirus (HPV), ASCUS, cervical dysplasia, genital warts, chlamydia, genital herpes or gonorrhea. Genital symptoms reported significantly more often with VVS included vulvar burning (91 vs. 12%), dyspareunia (81 vs. 15%), vulvar itching (68 vs. 23%) and dysuria (54 vs. 19%) (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: A history of genital infections is associated with an increased risk of VVS. Long-term follow-up case-control studies are needed to elucidate etiologic mechanisms, methods for prevention and effective treatment. PMID:12648313

Smith, Elaine M; Ritchie, Justine M; Galask, Rudolph; Pugh, Erica E; Jia, Jian; Ricks-McGillan, Joan

2002-01-01

83

Radiosurgery for brain metastases and cerebral edema.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess reduction in cerebral edema following linear accelerator radiosurgery (LINAC) as first line therapy for brain metastasis. We reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent LINAC radiosurgery for brain metastasis at our institution during 2010-2012, and who had not previously undergone either surgery or whole brain radiotherapy. Data were analyzed for 55 brain metastases from 46 patients (24 males), mean age 59.9years. During the 2months following LINAC radiosurgery, the mean steroid dose decreased from 4.8 to 2.6mg/day, the mean metastasis volume decreased from 3.79±4.12cc to 2.8±4.48cc (p=0.001), and the mean edema volume decreased from 16.91±30.15cc to 12.85±24.47cc (p=0.23). The 17 patients with reductions of more than 50% in brain edema volume had single metastases. Edema volume in the nine patients with two brain metastases remained stable in five patients (volume change <10%, 0-2cc) and increased in four patients (by >10%, 2-14cc). In a subanalysis of eight metastases with baseline edema volume greater than 40cc, edema volume decreased from 77.27±37.21cc to 24.84±35.6cc (p=0.034). Reductions in brain edema were greater in metastases for which non-small-cell lung carcinoma and breast cancers were the primary diseases. Overall, symptoms improved in most patients. No patients who were without symptoms or who had no signs of increased intracranial pressure at baseline developed signs of intracranial pressure following LINAC radiosurgery. In this series, LINAC stereotactic radiosurgery for metastatic brain lesions resulted in early reduction in brain edema volume in single metastasis patients and those with large edema volumes, and reduced the need for steroids. PMID:25533053

Gazit, Inbal; Har-Nof, Sagi; Cohen, Zvi R; Zibly, Zion; Nissim, Uzi; Spiegelmann, Roberto

2015-03-01

84

Lymphangiogenesis-independent resolution of experimental edema  

PubMed Central

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C is necessary for lymphangiogenesis, and excess VEGF-C has been shown to be ameliorative for edema produced by lymphatic obstruction in experimental models. However, it has recently been shown that edema can resolve in the mouse tail even in the complete absence of capillary lymphangiogenesis when distal lymph fluid crosses the regenerating wound site interstitially. This finding has raised questions about the action of VEGF-C/VEGF receptor (VEGFR) signaling during the resolution of experimental edema. Here, the roles of VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 signaling in edema resolution were explored. It was found that edema resolved following neutralization of either VEGFR-2 or VEGFR-3 in the mouse tail skin, which inhibited lymphangiogenesis. Neutralization of either VEGFR-2 or VEGFR-3 reduced angiogenesis at the site of obstruction at day 10 (9.2 ± 1.2% and 11.5 ± 1.0% blood capillary coverage, respectively) relative to controls (14.3 ± 1.5% blood capillary coverage). Combined VEGFR-2/-3 neutralization more strongly inhibited angiogenesis (6.9 ± 1.5% blood capillary coverage), leading to a reduced wound repair of the lymphatic obstruction and extended edema in the tail skin. In contrast, improved tissue repair of the obstruction site increased edema resolution. Macrophages in the swollen tissue were excluded as contributing factors in the VEGFR-dependent extended edema. These results support a role for VEGFR-2/-3-combined signaling in the resolution of experimental edema that is lymphangiogenesis independent. PMID:20207821

Ongstad, Emily L.; Bouta, Echoe M.; Roberts, Jaclynn E.; Uzarski, Joseph S.; Gibbs, Sara E.; Sabel, Michael S.; Cimmino, Vincent M.; Roberts, Melissa A.

2010-01-01

85

Melatonin lowers edema after spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Melatonin has been shown to diminish edema in rats. Melatonin can be used to treat spinal cord injury. This study presumed that melatonin could relieve spinal cord edema and examined how it might act. Our experiments found that melatonin (100 mg/kg, i.p.) could reduce the water content of the spinal cord, and suppress the expression of aquaporin-4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein after spinal cord injury. This suggests that the mechanism by which melatonin alleviates the damage to the spinal cord by edema might be related to the expression of aquaporin-4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein.

Li, Cheng; Chen, Xiao; Qiao, Suchi; Liu, Xinwei; Liu, Chang; Zhu, Degang; Su, Jiacan; Wang, Zhiwei

2014-01-01

86

immunohistochemical expression of survivin and ?-H2AX in vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and low-stage squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Survivin inhibits apoptosis and is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression and in the mitotic spindle formation. It is overexpressed in many cancers. The histone ?-H2AX is a marker of activated DNA damage and is overexpressed in different cancers and their precursor lesions. It also forms early during apoptosis. Eighty-seven formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival vulvar tissues originating from 55 preoperatively untreated patients were immunostained with antibodies to survivin and ?-H2AX to determine their expression in normal squamous vulvar epithelia (NE, n=25), lichen sclerosus (n=10), high-grade classic vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (n=16), differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (n=16), and vulvar invasive keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (ISCC, n=20; FIGO Ib). Immunostaining for both factors was scored for moderate and strong intensities with regard to quantity. Statistical analysis was performed by the ? test and Fisher exact test. Nuclear surviving expression increased from NE and lichen scleros to high-grade classic vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, and ISCC significantly (P=0.0001) and followed the distribution of immature squamous epithelial cells. Positive scores for ?-H2AX were found in nuclei of cells in all diagnostic cohorts, in any epithelial level with some accentuation in the upper layers, was seen in pycnotic nuclei in horn pearls of ISCC and apoptotic bodies, without relevant statistical distributions. Immunoscores did not differ between grade 1 and grades 2/3. Expression patterns were different for both factors, suggesting their involvement in different biologic mechanisms as an early event leading to resistance to apoptosis in vulvar carcinogenesis. PMID:21979596

Brustmann, Hermann; Hinterholzer, Susanne; Brunner, Andreas

2011-11-01

87

Acute vulvar pain in a lady with post circumcision inclusion cyst of the vulva containing stones: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Despite global eradication efforts, female genital cutting is still deep routed practice in some parts of Asia and East Africa. The crude and unscientific natures of the practice lead to many complications. Epidermoid inclusion cysts of the vulva are one of the late complications of female genital cutting and typically present as painless cystic swellings. But clinical presentation as ‘stone’ containing, hard vulvar mass is reported only once in the literature and presentation with acute vulvar pain has never been documented. Case presentation A 21 yrs old, Ethiopian, unmarried, lady presented with sever acute vulvar pain, discharge, and a stony hard vulvar swelling 13 years after type-III female genital cutting (infibulation). Surgical excision of the cyst, which contained two ‘stones’ inside it, and defibulation were done. Histopathology confirmed calcified, keratinizing epidermoid inclusion cyst of the vulva. Conclusions Clinicians, in areas where female genital cutting is prevalent, should be aware of such unusual late vulvar complication of the practice which might be misdiagnosed for other solid vulvar swellings and be familiar with the appropriate management. PMID:24387298

2014-01-01

88

Cystoid macular edema associated with acitretin  

PubMed Central

Summary Cystoid macular edema represents a “final common pathway” response of the retina to a variety of insults. It has been reported in association with vascular problems, inflammatory conditions, inherited diseases, tractional problems, intraocular surgery and medications. We report a case of cystoid macular edema associated with acitretin in a 65-year-old woman and document its resolution with optical coherence tomography (OCT). PMID:24459457

Yap, Joel; Buller, Alex

2013-01-01

89

Transient Corneal Edema is a Predictive Factor for Pseudophakic Cystoid Macular Edema after Uncomplicated Cataract Surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report transient corneal edema after phacoemulsification as a predictive factor for the development of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME). Methods A total of 150 eyes from 150 patients (59 men and 91 women; mean age, 68.0 ± 10.15 years) were analyzed using spectral domain optical coherence tomography 1 week and 5 weeks after routine phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Transient corneal edema detected 1 week after surgery was analyzed to reveal any significant relationship with the development of PCME 5 weeks after surgery. Results Transient corneal edema developed in 17 (11.3%) of 150 eyes 1 week after surgery. A history of diabetes mellitus was significantly associated with development of transient corneal edema (odds ratio [OR], 4.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41 to 11.54; p = 0.011). Both diabetes mellitus and transient corneal edema were significantly associated with PCME development 5 weeks after surgery (OR, 4.58; 95% CI, 1.56 to 13.43; p = 0.007; and OR, 6.71; CI, 2.05 to 21.95; p = 0.003, respectively). In the 8 eyes with both diabetes mellitus and transient corneal edema, 4 (50%) developed PCME 5 weeks after surgery. Conclusions Transient corneal edema detected 1 week after routine cataract surgery is a predictive factor for development of PCME. Close postoperative observation and intervention is recommended in patients with transient corneal edema. PMID:25646056

Do, Jae Rock; Oh, Jong-Hyun; Chuck, Roy S.

2015-01-01

90

Brain edema in diseases of different etiology.  

PubMed

Cerebral edema is a potentially life-threatening complication shared by diseases of different etiology, such as diabetic ketoacidosis, acute liver failure, high altitude exposure, dialysis disequilibrium syndrome, and salicylate intoxication. Pulmonary edema is also habitually present in these disorders, indicating that the microcirculatory disturbance causing edema is not confined to the brain. Both cerebral and pulmonary subclinical edema may be detected before it becomes clinically evident. Available evidence suggests that tissue hypoxia or intracellular acidosis is a commonality occurring in all of these disorders. Tissue ischemia induces physiological compensatory mechanisms to ensure cell oxygenation and carbon dioxide removal from tissues, including hyperventilation, elevation of red blood cell 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate content, and capillary vasodilatation. Clinical, laboratory, and necropsy findings in these diseases confirm the occurrence of low plasma carbon dioxide partial pressure, increased erythrocyte 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate concentration, and capillary vasodilatation with increased vascular permeability in all of them. Baseline tissue hypoxia or intracellular acidosis induced by the disease may further deteriorate when tissue oxygen requirement is no longer matched to oxygen delivery resulting in massive capillary vasodilatation with increased vascular permeability and plasma fluid leakage into the interstitial compartment leading to edema affecting the brain, lung, and other organs. Causative factors involved in the progression from physiological adaptation to devastating clinical edema are not well known and may include uncontrolled disease, malfunctioning adaptive responses, or unknown factors. The role of carbon monoxide and local nitric oxide production influencing tissue oxygenation is unclear. PMID:22579570

Adeva, María M; Souto, Gema; Donapetry, Cristóbal; Portals, Manuel; Rodriguez, Alberto; Lamas, David

2012-07-01

91

Differentiated (simplex) vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Differentiated (simplex) vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is an uncommon variant of VIN characterized by highly differentiated morphology, making it a potential diagnostic pitfall. It may arise in the background of lichen sclerosus, and unlike most VIN, is not causally associated with human papilloma virus infection. It occurs in an older demographic and is thought to be the precursor of aggressive, invasive vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. For this reason, the timely and accurate diagnosis of this unusual lesion is crucial. The clinical and histologic features of a case of a 70-year-old woman with newly diagnosed differentiated (simplex) VIN arising in a background of long-standing lichen sclerosus is reported, and the historic aspects, current terminology, and diagnostic criteria of differentiated (simplex) VIN are reviewed. PMID:21522046

Taube, Janis M; Badger, Joanna; Kong, Christina S; Dadras, Soheil S

2011-05-01

92

The Inferior Gluteal Flap in the Difficult Vulvar and Perineal Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.The objective was to study the feasibility and complications of the use of the inferior gluteal flap in the difficult vaginal, perineal, and vulvar reconstruction among women treated for gynecologic cancers.Methods.A prospective pilot study is reported. Between October 1994 and May 1996, seven patients underwent either unilateral (n= 3) or bilateral (n= 4) inferior gluteal flaps for primary reconstruction of

Thom R. Loree; Ronald E. Hempling; Gamal H. Eltabbakh; Fernando O. Recio; M. Steven Piver

1997-01-01

93

Cryotherapy for massive vulvar lymphatic leakage complicated with lymphangiomas following gynecological cancer treatment.  

PubMed

Vulvar lymphatic leakage is a severe complication associated with gynecological cancer treatments. However, standard treatment strategies have not yet been determined. We encountered a rare case of a 76-year-old multiparous woman suffering from massive lymphatic fluid leakage from the entire vulva, and papules developed and were identified as lymphangiomas. A large amount of straw-colored discharge continued from all vulvar papules, which extended over the mons pubis. Nine years ago, the patient had undergone a radical hysterectomy with concurrent chemoradiation for uterine cervical cancer treatment. Her serum albumin level was 1.9 mg/dl, which was attributed to the loss of a large amount of lymph fluid due to leakage from the vulva. Her quality of life gradually decreased because of general fatigue and the need for frequent diaper exchanges every 2 h. The patient received a less-invasive treatment with cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen. She also received a multimodality treatment consisting of the intravenous administration of albumin, massage of the lower limbs and intensive rehabilitation. Cryotherapy was administered once a week for 3 months. Her discharge almost stopped and vulvar lymphangiomas decreased without any major complications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of massive lymphatic leakage complicated with vulvar lymphangiomas. Additionally, this case may represent the first successful treatment of vulva lymph leakage by cryotherapy without recurrence. Cryotherapy may have the potential to improve the quality of life as a less-invasive treatment for gynecological cancer survivors without serious complications. PMID:25190008

Yanazume, Shintaro; Douzono, Haruhiko; Kubo, Hidemichi; Nagata, Tomomi; Douchi, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Hiroaki

2014-11-01

94

Preoperative chemoradiation for advanced vulvar cancer: a phase II study of the Gynecologic Oncology Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine the feasibility of using preoperative chemoradiotherapy to avert the need for more radical surgery for patients with T3 primary tumors, or the need for pelvic exenteration for patients with T4 primary tumors, not amenable to resection by standard radical vulvectomy.Methods and Materials: Seventy-three evaluable patients with clinical Stage III–IV squamous cell vulvar carcinoma were enrolled in this

David H Moore; Gillian M Thomas; Gustavo S Montana; Angelika Saxer; Donald G Gallup; George Olt

1998-01-01

95

Investigation of prognostic significance of CD109 expression in women with vulvar squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the between cluster of differentiation 109 (CD109) expression and tumor diameter, invasion depth, tumor grade, presence of lymph-node metastasis, and overall survival in patients with vulvar squamous cell carcinoma, which is the most common type of vulvar cancer. Method Twenty-six patients who underwent an operation for vulvar cancer between 1999 and 2009 in our clinic were included in this study. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. Result Tumor diameter was not found to be significantly associated with CD109 expression, intensity of cytoplasmic staining, or combined score (P = 0.325, P = 0.169, P = 0.352, respectively). Invasion depth and combined score were also not significantly correlated with CD109 expression (P = 0.324 and P = 0.174 respectively). There was a negative correlation between invasion depth and the intensity of cytoplasmic staining (P = 0.042). There was no significant correlation between tumor stage and CD109 expression, the intensity of cytoplasmic staining, and the combined score (P = 0.574, P = 0.389, P = 0.605, respectively). A significant positive correlation was observed between tumor grade and CD109 expression, the intensity of cytoplasmic staining, and the combined score (P = 0.003, P = 0.018, P = 0.008, respectively). No significant difference was found between the percentages of CD109 expression in patients with positive (48%) and negative (11%) lymph nodes (P = 0.058). The percentage of CD109 expression did not significantly differ in relation to overall survival (P = 0.483). Conclusion Comprehensive and more extensive studies are needed to examine the relationship between CD109 expression and vulvar malignant lesions. PMID:23776335

Özbay, Pelin Özün; Ekinci, Tekin; Yi?it, Seyran; Yavuzcan, Ali; Uysal, Selda; Soylu, Ferit; Cakalagaoglu, Fulya

2013-01-01

96

Pidotimod in the management of vulvar papillomatosis: double-blind clinical trial versus placebo.  

PubMed

To investigate whether the immune system improvement induced by pidotimod increases the rate of spontaneous disappearance of vulvar papillomatous lesions, a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was performed. Forty-nine patients (23 in the pidotimod group and 26 in the placebo group) with first diagnosis of vulvar papillomatosis as shown by clinical and histological findings underwent 90-day treatment with oral 800-mg pidotimod once a day or identical placebo. The main outcome measure was the difference between vulvar papillomatous infected area before and after treatment judged by the following: complete regression (complete disappearance of all papillomatous lesions); partial regression (a decrease of at least 75% of the infected area); no response (a decrease of less than 75% of the infected area or new viral lesions not present at baseline). Forty patients completed the trial according to the study protocol and were entered in the "per protocol" analysis of efficacy. Complete regression was observed in 12 of 18 patients (66.7%) receiving pidotimod compared with 7 of 22 patients (31.8%) receiving placebo. The total infected surface area at the end of treatment was 10.1 +/- 18.5 mm2 (mean +/- SD) in the pidotimod arm and 198.3 +/- 399.2 mm2 in the placebo arm (p < 0.05 between treatment). Notwithstanding the fact that better results were obtained in the pidotimod group, more data are needed to confirm our encouraging results. PMID:10099052

Guerra, B; Perino, A; Polatti, F; Scala, M

1998-05-01

97

Management of patients with vulvar cancer: a perspective review according to tumour stage  

PubMed Central

Treatment of patients with vulvar cancer is challenging for gynaecologic oncologists. Owing to the localization in a sensitive area, surgical radicality and the indication for adjuvant treatment have to be balanced with psychosocial aspects to treat patients adequately. Clinical management is therefore highly dependent on the tumour stage. For patients with early-stage disease (FIGO I–II) therapy mainly concentrates on surgery with resection of the primary tumour and staging of the groin lymph nodes. In intermediate-stage vulvar cancer (FIGO III), advanced disease is expressed by affected inguinofemoral lymph nodes bringing radical lymphadenectomy and adjuvant therapy as well as radiation or chemoradiation into the focus of treatment. For locally advanced or metastatic vulvar cancer (FIGO IV) neoadjuvant or definitive chemoradiation has to be considered besides surgery. Owing to the low incidence of the disease, the level of evidence for different treatment modalities is poor. This review therefore puts different recommendations of clinical management in context and highlights the need for future trials. PMID:23634196

Woelber, Linn; Trillsch, Fabian; Kock, Lilli; Grimm, Donata; Petersen, Cordula; Choschzick, Matthias; Jaenicke, Fritz

2013-01-01

98

Influence of treatments on prognosis for vulvar lichen sclerosus: facts and controversies.  

PubMed

Lichen sclerosus (LS) is an inflammatory dermatosis with a predilection for the anogential skin. Vulvar LS can be a debilitating disease, causing pruritus and pain, and it carries the potential for atrophy, scarring, and significant functional impairment. Recently, many advances have been made regarding the etiology and natural history of the disease process; however, much debate still exists regarding the most advantageous medical and surgical management of this disorder. In an effort to provide a comprehensive review on current vulvar LS literature, the following three controversies will be discussed: (1) optimal disease treatment, (2) theories behind LS's oncogenicity and treatments for minimizing malignancy, and (3) the value of surgical treatment for LS. Ultra-potent topical corticosteroids (TCSs) are the first-line treatment for vulvar LS, while topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs) remain second-line agents for patients for whom TCS treatment resulted in incomplete resolution of symptoms or adverse events. Due to the relapsing nature of the disease, long-term maintenance therapy is often required. In addition, recent advances have contributed to the understanding of the association between LS and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). While the exact mechanism responsible for LS-associated SCC is not known, immune dysregulation and inflammation may play an important role; therefore, successful treatment of LS should be directed towards alleviation of symptoms and reversal of the underlying histopathologic changes. Patients with LS-associated malignancy, as well as patients who need correction of functionally restrictive, scarring processes, can successfully undergo surgical intervention with tissue conservation. PMID:24160287

Brodrick, Brooks; Belkin, Zoe R; Goldstein, Andrew T

2013-01-01

99

Implication of human papillomavirus-66 in vulvar carcinoma: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vulvar cancer in older women is seldom associated with human papillomavirus infection. Case presentation We present the case of an 80-year-old Greek Caucasian woman with an undetermined obstetric and gynecologic history. The patient underwent radical vulvectomy and bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy for a vulvar carcinoma. A human papillomavirus infection was suggested on the basis of histological and cytological examinations followed by human papillomavirus DNA typing, which revealed the presence of human papillomavirus-66. Conclusion Even though human papillomavirus-16 and human papillomavirus-18 are most frequently implicated in the pathogenesis of vulvar carcinoma, human papillomavirus-66 can also be regarded as a causative factor. Suspicious lesions should be biopsied, and in the presence of carcinoma, vulvectomy with bilateral lymphadenectomy, if necessary, must be performed. Furthermore, polymerase chain reaction assay analysis with clinical arrays in cytological samples is an accurate test for the detection of a wide range of human papillomavirus genotypes and can be used to verify the infection and specify the human papillomavirus type implicated. PMID:21702970

2011-01-01

100

Diabetic macular edema: New promising therapies.  

PubMed

The treatment of diabetic macular edema is rapidly evolving. The era of laser therapy is being quickly replaced by an era of pharmacotherapy. Several pharmacotherapies have been recently developed for the treatment of retinal vascular diseases such as diabetic macular edema. Several intravitreal injections or sustained delivery devices have undergone phase 3 testing while others are currently being evaluated. The results of clinical trials have shown the superiority of some of these agents to laser therapy. However, with the availability of several of these newer agents, it may be difficult to individualize treatment options especially those patients respond differently to various therapies. As such, more effort is still needed in order to determine the best treatment regimen for a given patient. In this article, we briefly summarize the major new therapeutic additions for the treatment of diabetic macular edema and allude to some future promising therapies. PMID:24379924

Shamsi, Hanan N Al; Masaud, Jluwi S; Ghazi, Nicola G

2013-12-15

101

Bilateral ankle edema with bilateral iritis.  

PubMed

I report two patient presented to me with bilateral symmetrical ankle edema and bilateral acute iritis. A 42-year-old female of Indian origin and 30-year-old female from Somalia both presented with bilateral acute iritis. In the first patient, bilateral ankle edema preceded the onset of bilateral acute iritis. Bilateral ankle edema developed during the course of disease after onset of ocular symptoms in the second patient. Both patients did not suffer any significant ocular problem in the past, and on systemic examination, all clinical parameters were within normal limit. Lacrimal gland and conjunctival nodule biopsy established the final diagnosis of sarcoidosis in both cases, although the chest x-rays were normal. PMID:16633708

Kumar, Sunil

2007-07-01

102

Diabetic macular edema: New promising therapies  

PubMed Central

The treatment of diabetic macular edema is rapidly evolving. The era of laser therapy is being quickly replaced by an era of pharmacotherapy. Several pharmacotherapies have been recently developed for the treatment of retinal vascular diseases such as diabetic macular edema. Several intravitreal injections or sustained delivery devices have undergone phase 3 testing while others are currently being evaluated. The results of clinical trials have shown the superiority of some of these agents to laser therapy. However, with the availability of several of these newer agents, it may be difficult to individualize treatment options especially those patients respond differently to various therapies. As such, more effort is still needed in order to determine the best treatment regimen for a given patient. In this article, we briefly summarize the major new therapeutic additions for the treatment of diabetic macular edema and allude to some future promising therapies. PMID:24379924

Shamsi, Hanan N Al; Masaud, Jluwi S; Ghazi, Nicola G

2013-01-01

103

Langerhans cells in lichen sclerosus of the vulva and lichen sclerosus evolving in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Vulvar lichen sclerosus (LS) represents a benign chronic inflammatory skin lesion that carries a risk for development of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We aimed at determining whether premalignant changes in vulvar LS, a multifactorial disease, presenting a welter of evidence implicating the immune system in its pathogenesis, could be identified by analysing the Langerhans' cells (LCs), the primary cell responsible for antigen recognition and presentation. The relationship existing between inflammation and cancer due to chronic infection, and demonstrated in many solid tumors, led us to study LCs in eight cases of vulvar LS, which showed an evolution to carcinoma of the vulva and in ten cases of unchanged vulvar LS in matched patients by immunohistochemistry for antibodies CD1a and S100. We did not find a statistically significantly different number of LCs counted either in S100 stained specimens, nor in CD1a stained specimens of LS epithelium in unchanged or evolving cases. The data emerging in our study do not support the hypothesis that the variation in the number of LCs may be related to the development of SCC in late stage LS cases. PMID:19130403

Raspollini, Maria Rosaria; Baroni, Gianna; Taddei, Gian Luigi

2009-03-01

104

International brain edema symposia 1967-2011.  

PubMed

This is a brief review of previous international brain edema symposia. The symposia that took place from 1965 to 1999 were summarized by Igor Klatzo and A. Marmarou in the proceedings Brain Edema XI [1]. In this article the author summarized the symposia, including latest five. Images from previous symposia such as the cover pages of the proceedings and snapshots of organizers were included. The outline and key words of the symposia were summarized in tables. The name of the prize winner and the title of the memorial lectures in recent symposia were also summarized in a table. PMID:23564096

Kuroiwa, Toshihiko

2013-01-01

105

Prevention, identification and treatment of vulvar squamous (pre)malignancies: a review focusing on quality of care.  

PubMed

Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma, its precursor lesions (usual and differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia) and lichen sclerosus are rare diseases that may have a large impact on the lives of affected women and their partners. Proper identification is vital, but the lesions are sometimes difficult to diagnose because of their rarity and variety of symptoms. High quality of care and proper treatment is important in order to minimize the morbidity and mortality caused by these lesions. This review gives an outline of the latest insights regarding the current evidence in this area and unresolved issues. Additionally, it highlights the improvements that should be made in order to optimize prevention and identification of (pre-)malignant vulvar lesions and to increase the quality of care for these patients. PMID:23875663

van den Einden, Loes Cg; van der Avoort, Irene Am; de Hullu, Joanne A

2013-07-01

106

Cervical and Vulvar Cancer Risk in Relation to Joint Effects of Cigarette Smoking and Genetic Variation in Interleukin 2  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoking is an established co-factor to human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development of cervical and vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and may influence risk through an immunosuppressive pathway. Genetic variation in interleukin 2 (IL2), associated in some studies with inhibition of HPV-targeted immunity, may modify the effect of smoking on the risk of HPV-related anogenital cancers. We conducted a population-based case-only study to measure the departure from a multiplicative joint effect of cigarette smoking and IL2 variation on cervical and vulvar SCC. Genotyping of four IL2 tagSNPs (rs2069762, rs2069763, rs2069777, and rs2069778) was performed in 399 cervical and 486 vulvar SCC cases who had been interviewed regarding their smoking history. Compared to cases carrying the rs2069762 TT genotype, we observed significant departures from multiplicativity for smoking and carriership of the TG or GG genotypes in vulvar SCC risk (interaction odds ratio (IOR)=1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 2.41). Carriership of one of three diplotypes together with cigarette smoking was associated with either a supra-multiplicative (TGCT/GGCC, IOR=2.09, 95% CI: 0.98, 4.46) or sub-multiplicative (TTCC/TGTC, IOR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.85 or TGCT/TGCC, IOR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.87) joint effect in vulvar cancer risk. For cervical SCC, departure from multiplicativity was observed for smokers homozygous for the rs2069763 variant allele (TT versus GG or GT genotypes) (IOR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.00, 3.48), and for carriership of the TTCC/TTCC diplotype, (IOR=2.08, 95% CI: 1.01, 4.30). These results suggest that cervical and vulvar SCC risk among cigarette smokers is modified by genetic variation in IL2. PMID:18628433

Hussain, Shehnaz K.; Madeleine, Margaret M.; Johnson, Lisa G.; Du, Qin; Malkki, Mari; Wilkerson, Hui-Wen; Farin, Federico M.; Carter, Joseph J.; Galloway, Denise A.; Daling, Janet R.; Petersdorf, Effie W.; Schwartz, Stephen M.

2008-01-01

107

Near-infrared fluorescence sentinel lymph node biopsy in vulvar cancer: a randomized comparison of lymphatic tracers  

PubMed Central

This study aims to confirm feasibility of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging for sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in vulvar cancer and to compare the tracer indocyanine green (ICG) bound to human serum albumin (HSA) versus ICG alone. Patients received 99mTc-nanocolloid and patent blue for SLN detection. Subsequently, patients randomly received ICG:HSA or ICG alone. In 24 patients, 35 SLNs were intraoperatively detected. All SLNs detected were radioactive and NIR fluorescent and 27 (77%) were blue. No significant difference was found between ICG:HSA and ICG alone. This trial confirms the feasibility of NIR fluorescence imaging for SLN mapping in vulvar cancer. PMID:23418877

Schaafsma, Boudewijn E.; Verbeek, Floris P.R.; Peters, Alexander A.W.; van der Vorst, J.R.; de Kroon, Cornelis D.; van Poelgeest, Mariette I. E.; Trimbos, J. Baptist M.Z.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Frangioni, John V.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Gaarenstroom, Katja N.

2012-01-01

108

Vulvar vitiligo-like depigmentation and multiple halos of hypomelanosis at the trunk following treatment with imiquimod 5% cream for vulvar condylomata: casual or related events?*  

PubMed Central

A 25-year-old Caucasian female with multiple genital warts involving the vulvar area was treated with imiquimod 5% cream. During follow-up the patient developed areas of hypopigmentation at the site of application of imiquimod cream and areas of hypomelanosis around multiple preexisting nevi of the trunk. At 18 months follow-up genital depigmentation persisted and halo nevi of the trunk were still present. Different mechanisms of imiquimod-induced depigmentation have been reported. Halo nevi are considered expression of an autoimmune response. In the case presented here, it might be conceivable that both vitiligo-like depigmentation at the site of application and halo of hypomelanosis around melanocytic nevi have been induced by the same immunologic mechanism elicited by topical application of imiquimod. PMID:25184923

Serra, Maíra Chiarelli; Menicanti, Claudia; Pennacchioli, Elisabetta; Tosti, Giulio

2014-01-01

109

Using the laser to treat vulvar condylomata acuminata and intraepidermal neoplasia.  

PubMed Central

The therapeutic effectiveness of the carbon dioxide laser was evaluated in 55 women with condylomata acuminata, particularly of the vulva but also of the urethral meatus and anal region, and in 11 women with multicentric vulvar intraepidermal neoplasia. The rates of persistence and recurrence were 13% and 5% respectively for condylomata and were both 9% for intraepidermal neoplasia. Perioperative and postoperative complications occurred in 6 of the 66 cases (9%) and all were managed on an outpatient basis. Laser beam therapy is recommended as an effective and safe means of treating extensive condylomata and intraepidermal neoplasia of the external urogenital region and anal mucous membrane. PMID:6848156

Ferenczy, A.

1983-01-01

110

Aggressive angiomyxoma: a small palpable vulvar lesion with a huge mass in the pelvis.  

PubMed

Aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM) is a rare soft tissue tumor typically in the pelvis and perineum in women of reproductive age, which is easily misdiagnosed. We describe a woman with vulvar AAM, initially mismanaged as a Bartholin cyst. However, a huge pelvic mass is noted on the following imaging studies. The characteristics of AAM on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been specified in the literature, but we further point out the potential value of sonography in diagnosing AAM. Besides, excisional biopsy may cause tumor bleeding in a case of AAM. PMID:23222052

Huang, Chun-Chao; Sheu, Chin-Yin; Chen, Tung-Ying; Yang, Yuh-Cheng

2013-01-01

111

Methyl - aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy and topical tretinoin in a patient with vulvar extramammary Paget's disease.  

PubMed

Extramammary Paget's disease is a rare neoplasm of apocrine gland-bearing areas of the skin. The most common site of presentation is the vulva. Surgery is the most frequently reported therapy so far; however, it is invasive and it is complicated by a high rate of recurrence. For this reason, several less-invasive treatments have been recently proposed, including photodynamic therapy. We describe in this article the case of an 84-year-old patient with a noninvasive vulvar extramammary Paget's disease successfully treated with methyl-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy associated with topical tretinoin. PMID:23551374

Magnano, Michela; Loi, Camilla; Bardazzi, Federico; Burtica, Elena Cleopatra; Patrizi, Annalisa

2013-01-01

112

[Epidemiology and development of macular edema in the diabetic].  

PubMed

Macular edema is the first cause of blindness in diabetics. Macular edema is defined by macular thickening or deposits of hard exudates. On 1000 diabetics examined over 2 years, 60 patients had a macular edema of which we retained 38 cases(54 eyes). All the patients had an ophthalmologic examination with a retinal angiography. Laser photocoagulation with green Argon laser was instituted in 50 eyes. 63% had background rethinopathy. Total or partial regression of the edema happened in 84.4%. Laser photocoagulation decrease by the half vision loss risk. Interest of early detection and treatment to decrease blindness incidence of macular edema in diabetics. PMID:11892440

Zghal-Mokni, I; Jeddi, A; Boujemaa, C; Ben Hadj Alouane, W; Gaigi, S; Ayed, S

2001-12-01

113

Management of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema.  

PubMed

Pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) is a common complication following cataract surgery. Acute PCME may resolve spontaneously, but some patients will develop chronic macular edema that affects vision and is difficult to treat. This disease was described more than 50 years ago, and there are multiple options for clinical management. We discuss mechanisms, clinical efficacy, and adverse effects of these treatment modalities. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and corticosteroids are widely used and, when combined, may have a synergistic effect. Intravitreal corticosteroids and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents have shown promise when topical medications either fail or have had limited effects. Randomized clinical studies evaluating anti-VEGF agents are needed to fully evaluate benefits and risks. When PCME is either refractory to medical therapy or is associated with significant vitreous involvement, pars plana vitrectomy has been shown to improve outcomes, though it is associated with additional risks. PMID:25438734

Guo, Suqin; Patel, Shriji; Baumrind, Ben; Johnson, Keegan; Levinsohn, Daniel; Marcus, Edward; Tannen, Brad; Roy, Monique; Bhagat, Neelakshi; Zarbin, Marco

2014-09-01

114

Osmotherapy in brain edema: a questionable therapy.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that it has been used since the 1960s in diseases associated with brain edema and has been investigated in >150 publications on head injury, very little has been published on the outcome of osmotherapy. We can only speculate whether osmotherapy improves outcome, has no effect on outcome, or leads to worse outcome. Here we describe the action and potentially beneficial and adverse effects of the 2 most commonly used osmotic solutions, mannitol and hypertonic saline, and present some critical aspects of their use. There is a well-documented transient intracranial pressure (ICP)-reducing effect of osmotherapy, but an adverse rebound increase in ICP after its withdrawal has been discussed extensively in the literature and is an expected pathophysiological phenomenon. From side effects related to renal and pulmonary failure, electrolyte disturbances, and a rebound increase in ICP, osmotherapy can be negative for outcome, which may explain why we lack scientific support for its use. These drawbacks, and the fact that the most recent Cochrane meta-analyses of osmotherapy in brain edema and stroke could not find any beneficial effects on outcome, make routine use of osmotherapy in brain edema doubtful. Nevertheless, the use of osmotherapy as a temporary measure may be justified to acutely prevent brain stem compression until other measures, such as evacuation of space-occupying lesions or decompressive craniotomy, can be performed. This article is the Con part in a Pro-Con debate in the present journal on the general routine use of osmotherapy in brain edema. PMID:22955195

Grände, Per-Olof; Romner, Bertil

2012-10-01

115

[Transient bone marrow edema of the hip].  

PubMed

Transient bone marrow edema of the hip is characterized by moderate homogeneous low MR signal intensity with ill-defined margins that involves at least a portion of the femoral head. Spin echo T1-weighted images are helpful to exclude other underlying diseases (tumor, infection, necrosis from systemic origin…), for which marrow edema is secondary or no epiphyseal in location. High-resolution fat-suppressed T2-weighted or proton density images allow evaluation of the articular cartilage, subchondral bone and subchondal marrow: if the articular cartilage is abnormal, the lesion is irreversible (arthrosis or necrosis); if the subchondral bone is focally interrupted and/or if the femoral is no longer spherical, the lesion is irreversible (necrosis); if a focal linear fluid collection is present under the subchondral bone, the lesion is irreversible (necrosis). Finally, subchondral changes may provide useful prognostic information: the absence of any abnormality other than marrow edema typically indicates that complete resolution is likely; the presence of a focal T2-weighted hypointense lesion immediately next to the subchondral bone suggests an irreversible lesion, especially if it is equal to or thicker than 4mm or the joint space. In some instances, prognosis cannot be reliably determined requiring the need for follow-up imaging. PMID:21704251

Vande Berg, B; Lecouvet, F; Koutaïssoff, S; Simoni, P; Maldague, B; Malghem, J

2011-06-01

116

[Post-traumatic cerebral edema. Physiopathology and treatment].  

PubMed

Severe head injury often produces complex intracranial displacements of the brain, resulting in widespread, often microscopic lesions. These are responsible for two types of edema: vasogenic edema, with outflow of molecules and fluid into the extracellular spaces by rupture of the blood-brain barrier and vasoplegia, and cytotoxic edema, with swelling of astrocytes due to membrane lesions. The connexions between these two types of edema are still obscure. Alterations in membrane phospholipids may impede function of Na-K pump enzymes, causing accumulation of water in the cell. Cerebral edema is responsible for intracranial hypertension and tentorial herniation, which in turn increase edema through venous compression, ischemia, and hypoxia. The least controversial anti-edema therapeutic measures include relative fluid and salt restriction, mannitol if called for, neuroplegia, in particular with diazepam and Gamma-OH, and assisted ventilation. PMID:6322313

Verier, A; Jomin, M; Lozes, G; Lesoin, F

1984-03-01

117

An Autoimmune Phenotype in Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus and Lichen Planus: A Th1 Response and High Levels of MicroRNA155  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulvar lichen sclerosus and lichen planus are T-cell–mediated chronic skin disorders. Although autoimmunity has been suggested, the exact pathogenesis of these disorders is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the molecular and immunological mechanisms critical to the pathogenesis of vulvar lichen sclerosus and lichen planus. By using gene expression profiling and real-time RT-PCR experiments,

Annelinde Terlou; Lindy A M Santegoets; Willem I van der Meijden; Claudia Heijmans-Antonissen; Sigrid M A Swagemakers; Peter J van der Spek; Patricia C Ewing; Marc van Beurden; Theo J M Helmerhorst; Leen J Blok

2012-01-01

118

The Curious Question of Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Edema  

PubMed Central

The question of whether pulmonary edema develops during exercise on land is controversial. Yet, the development of pulmonary edema during swimming and diving is well established. This paper addresses the current controversies that exist in the field of exercise-induced pulmonary edema on land and with water immersion. It also discusses the mechanisms by which pulmonary edema can develop during land exercise, swimming, and diving and the current gaps in knowledge that exist. Finally, this paper discusses how these fields can continue to advance and the areas where clinical knowledge is lacking. PMID:21660232

Bates, Melissa L.; Farrell, Emily T.; Eldridge, Marlowe W.

2011-01-01

119

Avascular necrosis and bone marrow edema syndrome.  

PubMed

MR imaging is the most accurate modality for the diagnosis of AVN, bone marrow edema syndrome, and femoral head insufficiency fractures. When the particular demographics of the patient are considered, the specificity of this examination is high. The reported success rates of joint-sparing operative intervention are variable. When compared with conservative management, the outcome of joint-sparing operative intervention in patients who have early (stage I, II) AVN lesions is improved. This is impetus for screening programs for patients who are known to be at high risk for AVN, such as patients who have undergone renal transplants and others who are on long-term, high-dose corticosteroid treatment. There is strong evidence that bone marrow edema syndrome (TO) is a distinct entity with demonstrable unique histopathology and well-defined demographics. Increased spatial resolution revealed typical subchondral findings of AVN in lesions that were once believed to represent irreversible TO. SIF of the femoral head is a new concept with a seemingly distinct population and with clinical presentation and imaging characteristics that should permit its differentiation from AVN. PMID:15049532

Watson, Rohan M; Roach, Neil A; Dalinka, Murray K

2004-01-01

120

New Compton densitometer for measuring pulmonary edema  

SciTech Connect

Pulmonary edema is the pathological increase of extravascular lung water found most often in patients with congestive heart failure and other critically ill patients who suffer from intravenous fluid overload. A non-invasive lung density monitor that is accurate, easily portable, safe and inexpensive is needed for clinical evaluation of pulmonary edema. Other researchers who have employed Compton scattering techniques generally used systems of extended size and detectors with poor energy resolution. This has resulted in significant systematic biases from multiply-scattered photons and larger errors in counting statistics at a given radiation dose to the patient. We are proposing a patented approach in which only backscattered photons are measured with a high-resolution HPGe detector in a compact system geometry. By proper design and a unique data extraction scheme, effects of the variable chest wall on lung density measurements are minimized. Preliminary test results indicate that with a radioactive source of under 30 GBq, it should be possible to make an accurate lung density measurement in one minute, with a risk of radiation exposure to the patient a thousand times smaller than that from a typical chest x-ray. The ability to make safe, frequent lung density measurements could be very helpful for monitoring the course of P.E. at the hospital bedside or outpatient clinics, and for evaluating the efficacy of therapy in clinical research. 6 refs., 5 figs.

Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.; Simon, D.S.

1985-10-01

121

Objectification of the severity of Reinke's edema.  

PubMed

According to the severity, Reinke's edema (RE) of the vocal folds can be divided into three stages as classified by Yonekawa. We evaluated open and closed quotients of vocal folds vibratory cycles using Videostrobokymography (VSK) in a cohort of patients with RE. Parameters were measured from the anterior, medial and posterior third of the vocal folds. Mean values from RE group were OQ (0.44; 0.46; 0.52); CQ (0.56; 0.54; 0.48). Results from the whole glottis OQ and CQ in RE were: OQ=0.48 and CQ=0.52. Significant differences were found for OQ and CQ mean values as well as values measured from each third of the glottis between the control group and patients with RE. In the first Yonekawa group no statistically significant differences were found compared to the control group, but there were significant differences in the remaining two groups. The correlation between the stage of edema on the Yonekawa classification and the mean values of OQ and CQ was 70%. PMID:25173824

Szkie?kowska, Agata; Mia?kiewicz, Beata; Krasnod?bska, Paulina; Skar?y?ski, Henryk

2014-01-01

122

[Pulmonary edemas due to acute heroin poisoning].  

PubMed

Their frequency is estimated with difficulty, although on autopsy pulmonary edema is found almost routinely. It is a major complication of overdoses (48 p. 100 of severe intoxications). Their formation can be suspected, when after the first phase of respiratory depressions, with coma, myosis, and a variable latent period, a second attack of respiratory insufficiency occurs with tachypnea, and cyanosis. The chest X-ray shows diffuse alveolar infiltration, sparing the apices. The heart being generally of normal size. Rapid disappearance of this infiltrate (24 to 48 hours) enables the elimination of two diagnoses: pneumonia due to inhalation of gastric fluid, an infectious pneumonia. Their pathogenesis remains very debatable: - in the majority of cases abrupt L.V.F. can be eliminated: -on the other hand it could be an allergic accident of the anaphylactic type, or local liberation of histamine, or a local toxic action on the pulmonary capillaries; - hypoxia, secondary to respiratory depression, could lead to pulmonary edema, by the same mechanism as at altitude; - finally, owing to the central neurological disorders a neurogenic theory can be put forward. Their treatment is essentially a combination of Nalorphine with oxygen therapy (by mask, or if necessary by assisted, controlled ventilation) with prevention of inhalation of gastric fluid (gastric emptying) or curative treatment of possible aspiration by antibiotics, and cortico-steroids. Diuretics can be useful, as well as cardiotonics. PMID:9875

Francois, G; Faizende, J; Reboul, J

1975-01-01

123

[Vulvar amebiasis. Report of a case and review of the literature].  

PubMed

Genital amebiasis by Entamoeba histolytica is rare, even in Mexico where the disease is endemic. We report a case of genital amebiasis in a female patient with a recto-perineal fistula and two-week history of a profuse vaginal discharge, a painful and friable vulvar ulcer and induration in gluteal and inner side of thighs. The PAP smear and the biopsy showed trophozoites, no malignant cells were observed. The findings were compatible with genital amebiasis. The serology test for E. histolytica was positive (> 1: 512). The patient was treated with metronidazol 750 mg tid for 3 weeks. Complete resolution was achieved. The long term fistula, the low socioeconomic status, the poor hygiene and diabetes mellitus of a recent onset were probably the risk factors associated to this infection. We reviewed the literature. PMID:12708354

Cornejo Juárez, Patricia; Avilés-Salas, A

2003-02-01

124

Context and dating of Aurignacian vulvar representations from Abri Castanet, France.  

PubMed

We report here on the 2007 discovery, in perfect archaeological context, of part of the engraved and ocre-stained undersurface of the collapsed rockshelter ceiling from Abri Castanet, Dordogne, France. The decorated surface of the 1.5-t roof-collapse block was in direct contact with the exposed archaeological surface onto which it fell. Because there was no sedimentation between the engraved surface and the archaeological layer upon which it collapsed, it is clear that the Early Aurignacian occupants of the shelter were the authors of the ceiling imagery. This discovery contributes an important dimension to our understanding of the earliest graphic representation in southwestern France, almost all of which was discovered before modern methods of archaeological excavation and analysis. Comparison of the dates for the Castanet ceiling and those directly obtained from the Chauvet paintings reveal that the "vulvar" representations from southwestern France are as old or older than the very different wall images from Chauvet. PMID:22586111

White, Randall; Mensan, Romain; Bourrillon, Raphaëlle; Cretin, Catherine; Higham, Thomas F G; Clark, Amy E; Sisk, Matthew L; Tartar, Elise; Gardère, Philippe; Goldberg, Paul; Pelegrin, Jacques; Valladas, Hélène; Tisnérat-Laborde, Nadine; de Sanoit, Jacques; Chambellan, Dominique; Chiotti, Laurent

2012-05-29

125

Context and dating of Aurignacian vulvar representations from Abri Castanet, France  

PubMed Central

We report here on the 2007 discovery, in perfect archaeological context, of part of the engraved and ocre-stained undersurface of the collapsed rockshelter ceiling from Abri Castanet, Dordogne, France. The decorated surface of the 1.5-t roof-collapse block was in direct contact with the exposed archaeological surface onto which it fell. Because there was no sedimentation between the engraved surface and the archaeological layer upon which it collapsed, it is clear that the Early Aurignacian occupants of the shelter were the authors of the ceiling imagery. This discovery contributes an important dimension to our understanding of the earliest graphic representation in southwestern France, almost all of which was discovered before modern methods of archaeological excavation and analysis. Comparison of the dates for the Castanet ceiling and those directly obtained from the Chauvet paintings reveal that the “vulvar” representations from southwestern France are as old or older than the very different wall images from Chauvet. PMID:22586111

White, Randall; Mensan, Romain; Bourrillon, Raphaëlle; Cretin, Catherine; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Clark, Amy E.; Sisk, Matthew L.; Tartar, Elise; Gardère, Philippe; Goldberg, Paul; Pelegrin, Jacques; Valladas, Hélène; Tisnérat-Laborde, Nadine; de Sanoit, Jacques; Chambellan, Dominique; Chiotti, Laurent

2012-01-01

126

Efficacy of 5% Imiquimod Cream on Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia in Korea: Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background Various therapeutic options, including surgery, electrocautery, cryotherapy, 5-fluorouracil treatment, laser therapy, radiotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and interferon-?/? injection, have been employed to treat vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) with varying degrees of success. To truly cure VIN, human papillomavirus elimination is considered important. Objective To investigate the efficacy of 5% imiquimod cream used to treat VIN in Korean patients Methods We performed a prospective, uncontrolled, observational study. Nine patients with histologically confirmed VIN applied 5% imiquimod cream to their vulvar lesions three to five times a week until a clinical response was apparent. All lesions were photo-documented, and therapeutic efficacy was assessed in terms of local adverse effects lesion number, size, and hyperpigmentation. Results The mean treatment duration was 30.2 months, and the median follow-up period after therapy completion was 30 months. Of the nine patients recruited, six (66.6%) experienced complete responses (CR) or partial responses (PR). Hyperpigmented patches in the VIN lesions were evident in five subjects (55.6%), and all experienced either CR or PR. Only three patients (33.3%) suffered from local adverse effects, which were relieved after temporary suspension of therapy, and better outcomes were attained ultimately. Conclusion The imiquimod cream was more efficacious when used to treat VIN of the hyperpigmented type compared with lesions lacking pigmentation. The unifocal nature of a lesion and the development of local adverse effects are useful factors when imiquimod cream is prescribed. However, although the cream is convenient and effective, regional resistance may develop, and close follow-up is essential because VIN may become malignant.

Kim, Jeong-Min; Lee, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Su-Han; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Moon-Bum

2015-01-01

127

Noncardiac Pulmonary Edema induced by Sitagliptin Treatment  

PubMed Central

A 74-year-old male patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted to the emergency department with the complaints of progressive breathlessness, dry cough, and swollen lower extremities. Our patient had type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension for 3 years. His HbA1c was not within the target range so sitagliptin was added to on-going therapy. After 1 week of starting sitagliptin therapy, even though the patient had not heart failure he applied to the emergency department with a complaint of dyspnea. The cardiovascular safety and efficacy of many anti-hyperglycemic agents such as sitagliptin, saxagliptin are unclear. Our case has shown that dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors may cause pulmonary edema. Hence, it should be used with cautious, especially in patients with heart failure.

Belice, Tahir; Yuce, Suleyman; Kizilkaya, Bayram; Kurt, Aysel; Cure, Erkan

2014-01-01

128

Early cortical cytotoxic edema in meningococcal meningitis.  

PubMed

Meningococcal disease frequently presents neurologic sequels via vascular, metabolic, or inflammatory processes. Understanding the underlying pathogenic mechanisms may influence both treatment and outcome. We present a 2-year-old child affected by Neisseria meningitidis sepsis, who on the second day from clinical onset manifested recurrent partial motor seizures and focal neurologic signs. An early magnetic resonance angiography of the circle of Willis produced normal results, whereas magnetic resonance imaging of the brain disclosed cortical signal abnormalities consistent with cytotoxic edema, without involvement of the adjacent white matter. Six-month follow-up magnetic resonance imaging of the brain indicated faint cortical atrophy in the same regions, although the neurologic picture had resolved. The literature contains few data on early magnetic resonance parenchymal changes, and their pathogenic mechanism is controversial. Diffusion-weighted images may contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms of such brain damage. PMID:19589467

Citton, Valentina; Toldo, Irene; Calderone, Milena; Sartori, Stefano; Manara, Renzo

2009-08-01

129

Oxygen-deficient metabolism and corneal edema  

PubMed Central

Wear of low-oxygen-transmissible soft contact lenses swells the cornea significantly, even during open eye. Although oxygen-deficient corneal edema is well-documented, a self-consistent quantitative prediction based on the underlying metabolic reactions is not available. We present a biochemical description of the human cornea that quantifies hypoxic swelling through the coupled transport of water, salt, and respiratory metabolites. Aerobic and anaerobic consumption of glucose, as well as acidosis and pH buffering, are incorporated in a seven-layer corneal model (anterior chamber, endothelium, stroma, epithelium, postlens tear film, contact lens, and prelens tear film). Corneal swelling is predicted from coupled transport of water, dissolved salts, and especially metabolites, along with membrane-transport resistances at the endothelium and epithelium. At the endothelium, the Na+/K+ - ATPase electrogenic channel actively transports bicarbonate ion from the stroma into the anterior chamber. As captured by the Kedem–Katchalsky membrane-transport formalism, the active bicarbonate-ion flux provides the driving force for corneal fluid pump-out needed to match the leak-in tendency of the stroma. Increased lactate-ion production during hypoxia osmotically lowers the pump-out rate requiring the stroma to swell to higher water content. Concentration profiles are predicted for glucose, water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydronium, lactate, bicarbonate, sodium, and chloride ions, along with electrostatic potential and pressure profiles. Although the active bicarbonate-ion pump at the endothelium drives bicarbonate into the aqueous humor, we find a net flux of bicarbonate ion into the cornea that safeguards against acidosis. For the first time, we predict corneal swelling upon soft-contact-lens wear from fundamental biophysico-chemical principles. We also successfully predict that hypertonic tear alleviates contact-lens-induced edema. PMID:21820076

Leung, B.K.; Bonanno, J.A.; Radke, C.J.

2014-01-01

130

Involvement of bradykinin in brain edema development after ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the Western world. Ischemic stroke is characterized by a rapid loss of brain function due to disturbance in the blood supply to a part of the brain. Due to fixed intracranial space, any increase in intracranial fluid volume, or progressive brain edema formation, contributes to further deterioration of the already impaired brain function. Bradykinin increases blood-brain barrier permeability and raises intracranial capillary blood pressure by arterial dilatation and venous constriction leading to brain edema formation. The aim of this paper is to summarize the recent research in the field of bradykinin function (structure, synthesis, signaling pathways, mechanism of action) followed by characterization of different types of brain edema development related to ischemic brain injury, together with the involvement of bradykinin in edema formation. Since there is currently no causal treatment addressing brain edema after ischemic stroke, specific bradykinin receptor antagonists are proposed as a possible new therapeutic approach. PMID:24756199

Dobrivojevi?, Marina; Špiranec, Katarina; Sin?i?, Aleksandra

2015-02-01

131

Vulvar Care  

MedlinePLUS

... A make up remover that contains mineral oil, petroleum jelly, and paraffi n also can be used ( ... washcloth and put it against your vulva. Refrigerated petroleum jelly (Vaseline) and cold plain yogurt put on ...

132

Vulvar Care  

MedlinePLUS

... care professionals to share with clients. Any other reproduction is sub- ject to the Journal of Midwifery & ... jelly keeps the area moist and soft . For Sexual Activity • Some birth control products you can get ...

133

Painless transient bone marrow edema syndrome in a pediatric patient.  

PubMed

Transient regional migratory osteoporosis, considered to be part of the spectrum of bone marrow edema syndrome, is a rare condition with an unknown etiology. Patients usually present with lower extremity pain, most commonly in the 4th-5th decades of life. We describe a 15-year-old male patient with type 1 Gaucher disease who presented with transient bone marrow edema syndrome with features most closely resembling regional migratory osteoporosis. The patient presented with bone marrow edema of the lateral tibial epiphysis of his right knee that was incidentally seen on routine surveillance MRI that was performed as protocol for patients with type 1 Gaucher disease on enzyme replacement therapy. At this time, the patient had no pain and physical examination was normal. Follow-up MRI of the right knee 4 months afterward showed complete resolution of the signal abnormality in the right tibial epiphysis, and repeat study 8 months later displayed a new focus of painless migratory edema of the medial tibial epiphysis of the same knee. These changes completely resolved as well. Marrow signal abnormalities in children with Gaucher disease can have a broad differential, including infection, marrow infiltration, trauma, osteonecrosis, and bone marrow edema syndrome, amongst others. Correct diagnosis of bone marrow edema syndrome is critical, as this disease process most often resolves on conservative measures. The unusual presentation of transient bone marrow edema syndrome with regional migratory osteoporosis features in a young patient with Gaucher disease is described. PMID:24893724

Joshi, Vivek; Hermann, George; Balwani, Manisha; Simpson, William L

2014-11-01

134

Economic Considerations of Macular Edema Therapies  

PubMed Central

Purpose To relate costs and treatment benefits for macular edema due to diabetes (DME) and branch and central retinal vein occlusion (BRVO, CRVO). Design A model of resource utilization, outcomes, and cost effectiveness and utility. Participants none Methods Results from published clinical trials (index studies) of laser, intravitreal corticosteroids, intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents, and vitrectomy trials were used to ascertain visual benefit and clinical protocols. Calculations followed from the costs of one year of treatment for each treatment modality and the visual benefits as ascertained. Main Outcome measures Visual acuity (VA) saved, cost of therapy, cost per line saved, cost per line-year saved, and costs per quality adjusted life years (QALYs). Results The lines saved for DME (0.26 to 2.02), BRVO (0.74 to 4.92), and CRVO (1.2 to 3.75) yielded calculations of costs/line of saved VA for DME ($1329 to 11609), BRVO ($494 to 13039), and CRVO ($704 to 7611), costs/line-year for DME ($60 to 561), BRVO ($25 to 754), and CRVO ($45 to 473), and costs/QALY of $824 to $25566. Conclusion Relative costs and benefits should be considered in perspective when applying and developing treatment strategies. PMID:21507488

Smiddy, William E.

2012-01-01

135

[Intestinal edema caused by ingested formalin].  

PubMed

A 65-yr-old man treated for depression was transferred to our hospital. He ingested over 150 ml of formalin for suicidal attempt. On admission, he was hypotensive, developing acute renal failure and liver dysfunction. During first 36 hours, he needed 21 l of lactate Ringer solutions to maintain enough urination. The abdominal computed tomography showed obvious edema of intestine and endoscopic findings of the upper digestive tract were corrosive erosions. We started proton pump inhibiter on the first day. After a week, they changed in many ulcers with smooth-surfaced elevation on the greater curvature of the stomach. On the 15th hospitalized day, he was discharged from our hospital without sequelae. Formalin consists of forty percent solution of formaldehyde and methanol. Ingestion of formaldehyde may cause burning in the digestive systems and harmful effect to major organ such as kidney or liver. Although previous reports said that formalin has direct toxicity to major organs, we could discharge him without sequelae by treatment with large amount of fluid resuscitation. PMID:14740567

Shimizu, Keiki; Sugita, Manabu; Yokote, Ryo; Sekii, Hajime; Miyake, Yasufumi; Kiyota, Kazuya

2003-10-01

136

A clinical overview of bone marrow edema.  

PubMed

Bone marrow edema (BME) is a descriptive term which identifies a specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pattern that can be observed in a number of clinical entities, which are often characterized by pain as their main symptom, but show significant differences in terms of histopathological findings, causal mechanisms and prognosis. Bone marrow lesions in the subchondral bone of subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) seem to be associated with pain and progression of cartilage damage over time. Some histopathological studies of advanced OA have shown a prevalent fibrosis and bone marrow necrosis. BME of the subchondral bone in rheumatoid arthritis is associated with an infiltrate of inflammatory cells and osteoclasts and has a predictive value of further development of erosions. In spondyloarthritis, BME of the sacroiliac joints identifies an active sacroiliitis and is associated with histological inflammation and radiographic progression, whereas the relationship between BME lesions of the spine and syndesmophyte development is still controversial. BME syndromes (BMES), such as transient osteoporosis of the hip, regional migratory osteoporosis, and transient post-traumatic BMES, are characterized by a BME pattern on MRI and a self-limiting course. The potential evolution of BMES toward osteonecrosis is still controversial. PMID:25069499

Manara, M; Varenna, M

2014-01-01

137

IMAGING OF PULMONARY EDEMA WITH ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE TOMOGRAPHY  

E-print Network

IMAGING OF PULMONARY EDEMA WITH ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE TOMOGRAPHY Andy ADLER , Yves BERTHIAUME=?J - Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) uses electrical measurements at electrodes placed on the thorax Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is an imaging technique which calculates the electrical conductivity

Adler, Andy

138

An update on vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: terminology and a practical approach to diagnosis.  

PubMed

There are two distinct types of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), which differ in their clinical presentation, aetiology, pathogenesis and histological/immunophenotypical features. One form driven by high-risk human papilloma virus infection usually occurs in young women and has been termed classic or usual VIN (uVIN). The other, not related to viral infection, occurs in postmenopausal women with chronic skin conditions such as lichen sclerosus and lichen simplex chronicus and is termed differentiated or simplex-type VIN. The latter is the precursor lesion of the most common type of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the vulva, namely keratinizing SCC (representing 60% of cases). In contrast, uVIN usually gives rise to basaloid or warty SCC (40% of cases). The histological features of uVIN are similar to those of high grade lesions encountered in other lower anogenital tract sites (hyperchomatic nuclei with high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios and increased mitotic activity). However, differentiated VIN has very subtle histopathological changes and often escapes diagnosis. Since uVIN is driven by high-risk human papilloma virus infections, p16 immunohistochemistry is diffusely positive in these lesions and is characterized with a high Ki-67 proliferation index. In contrast, differentiated or simplex-type VIN is consistently negative for p16 and the majority of the cases harbour TP53 mutations, correlating with p53 positivity by immunohistochemistry. PMID:24399036

Reyes, M Carolina; Cooper, Kumarasen

2014-04-01

139

Sentinel lymph node detection and accuracy in vulvar cancer: Experience of a tertiary center in Turkey  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the accuracy of sentinel lymph node (SLN) dissection in predicting regional lymph node status by using either only Technetium-99m-labelled (Tc-99m) or in combination with a blue dye in patients with squamous cell cancer of vulva. Material and Methods Twenty-one patients who had T1 (?2 cm) or T2 (>2cm) tumors that did not encroach into the urethra, vagina or anus were included in the study. For the first twelve patients, Tc-99m was used for SLN identification, and the combined technique was used in subsequent patients. Preoperatively, Tc-99m and a blue dye was injected intradermally around the tumor. Following SLN dissection, complete inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy was performed. Results We could detect SLN in all 21 patients (100%) by either Tc-99m or the combined method. SLN was found to be histopathologically negative in 13 groins via Tc-99m and 10 groins via the combined method. Twenty-one of these 23 (91.3%) groin non-SLN were also negative, but in two groins, we detected metastatic non-SLN. Conclusion Although SLN dissection appears promising in vulvar cancer, false negative cases are reported in the literature. Sentinel lymph node dissection without complete lymphadenectomy does not seem appropriate for routine clinical use, since it is known that groin metastasis is fatal. PMID:24592094

Boran, Nurettin; C?r?k, Derya Akda?; I??kdo?an, Zuhal; K?r, Metin; Turan, Taner; Tulunay, Gökhan; Köse, Mehmet Faruk

2013-01-01

140

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like events in vulvar cancer and its relation with HPV  

PubMed Central

Background: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) still remains an obscure event in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC). Methods: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) expression of E-cadherin, ?-catenin, Snail, Slug, Twist and Vimentin was analysed in 87 VSCC, controlled for human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity, considering tumour front and central tumour as different morphological categories from the same tumour. Results: Lower ?-catenin and higher Vimentin expression was associated with invasive front when compared with the central tumour (P=0.013 and P?0.001, respectively). Higher expression of E-cadherin in central tumour was significantly related to absence of vascular and perineural invasion, lower invasion depth and ?2 lymph node involvement. Loss of ?-catenin and high Slug, Snail and Twist expression was associated with HPV-negative tumours. Moreover, ?-catenin lower expression associated with gain in Slug expression predicts a subgroup with worst outcome (P=0.001). Lower expression of ?-catenin in both central tumour and invasive front correlated with lower overall survival (P=0.021 and P=0.011, respectively). Also, multivariate analysis showed that lower ?-catenin expression was independently associated with poorer outcome (P=0.044). Conclusion: Human papillomavirus-related tumours show better prognosis and outcome; besides, they do not progress through EMT phenomenon. Immunohistochemical analysis of ?-catenin in invasive tumour front is a key issue for establishing prognosis of vulva cancer. PMID:23778524

Rodrigues, I S; Lavorato-Rocha, A M; de M Maia, B; Stiepcich, M M A; de Carvalho, F M; Baiocchi, G; Soares, F A; Rocha, R M

2013-01-01

141

The bacterial microbiome in paired vaginal and vestibular samples from women with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome.  

PubMed

Composition of the bacterial microbiome in the vagina and vestibule from 30 women with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS) and 15 healthy controls were compared by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Vaginal concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1? were determined by ELISA. Questionnaires elicited clinical and symptom data. Eighteen genera were detected in vaginal samples, and 23 genera were identified in vestibule samples, from women with VVS. The genera at both sites and the mean number of genera in subjects with VVS were largely similar to those in control subjects. However, differences were noted including higher proportions of Streptococcus and Enterococcus in women with VVS. Furthermore, Lactobacillus iners was more frequently identified in women with VVS while L. crispatus was more frequent in the control women. The dominant bacterial genera in the vagina closely paralleled the dominant genera present in the corresponding vestibular sample in both groups, leading us to postulate that vaginal secretions are an important source of bacteria present on the vestibule. Vaginal IL-1? levels were similar and varied depending on the dominant bacteria. We conclude in this pilot study that no major differences are apparent in the vagina and vestibule between women with or without VVS, except for an increased prevalence of Streptococcus and L. iners in some women with VVS. PMID:24961922

Jayaram, Aswathi; Witkin, Steven S; Zhou, Xia; Brown, Celeste J; Rey, Gustavo E; Linhares, Iara M; Ledger, William J; Forney, Larry J

2014-12-01

142

Treatment of vulvar/vaginal condyloma by HPV: developed instrumentation and clinical report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human papillomavirus (HPVs) are a family of sexually viruses with over 100 different genotypes identified till date. They are associated in 99% of cervical cancers, with HPV16 found in about 50% of cases. They are a cause of the second most common female cancer worldwide. PDT may constitute an alternative treatment for condyloma by HPV. In this work we present the development of a PDT device specifically designed for the treatment of vulvar and vaginal lesions induced by HPV. This equipment has been used in a clinical protocol and it is optically based on 640 nm LED (light emitting diodes) arrays. There are three illumination probes available that were anatomically designed for specific site applications: a 30 mm x 115 mm diffuser cylinder for intravaginal illumination and uniform irradiance of 42 mW/cm2; a 36 mm circular probe with 118 mW/cm2 and a 74 mm circular probe with 57 mW/cm2, both for external illumination. The 10% aminolevulinic acid cream is topically placed over the lesions and 4-6 hours after the application the illumination is performed. The illumination time is set depending on the chosen probe and treatment area to achieve a fluence of 200 J/cm2. In this presentation, the preliminary results of this clinical trial will be presented.

Inada, N. M.; Kurachi, C.; Ferreira, J.; Ribeiro, E. S.; Guimarães, O. C. C.; Quintana, S. M.; Lombardi, W.; Bagnato, V. S.

2009-06-01

143

Local fluid shifts and edema in humans during simulated microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Local fluid shifts and edema in humans during simulated microgravity is studied. Recent results and significance and future plans on the following research topics are discussed: mechanisms of headward edema formation during head-down tilt; postural responses of head and foot microcirculations and their sensitivity to bed rest; and transcapillary fluid transport associated with lower body negative pressure (LBNP) with and without saline ingestion.

Hargens, Alan R.

1991-01-01

144

Angioneurotic edema: a rare case of hypersensitivity to metoclopramide  

PubMed Central

The case of a 30-year-old woman who had already experienced two incidents of angioneurotic edema and urticaria caused by drugs during the acute gastroenteritis. The allergological workup revealed hypersensitivity to metoclopramide. This case documents that metoclopramide, a drug commonly used to inhibit the vomiting, may cause not only bronchospastic reaction in an asthmatic patient but also angioneurotic edema of the tongue and larynx as well as urticaria. No similar cases in the literature were found. PMID:24278059

Zakrzewski, Aleksander; Matuszewski, Tomasz; Kruszewski, Jerzy

2013-01-01

145

Negative pressure pulmonary edema after acute upper airway obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objectives: To review the clinical characteristics and the pathogenesis of negative pressure pulmonary edema, and to determine its incidence in surgical patients.Design: Retrospective case-report study.Setting: Operating room, postanesthesia care unit and surgical intensive care of a teaching hospital.Patients: 30 surgical adult ASA physical status I, II, III, IV, and V patients who suffered from negative pressure pulmonary edema during

Krishnaprasad Deepika; Charbel A. Kenaan; Alex M. Barrocas; Janett J. Fonseca; George B. Bikazi

1997-01-01

146

Evaluation of brain edema using magnetic resonance proton relaxation times  

SciTech Connect

Experimental and clinical studies on the evaluation of water content in cases of brain edema were performed in vivo, using MR proton relaxation times (longitudinal relaxation time, T1; transverse relaxation time, T2). Brain edema was produced in the white matter of cats by the direct infusion method. The correlations between proton relaxation times obtained from MR images and the water content of white matter were studied both in autoserum-infused cats and in saline-infused cats. The correlations between T1 as well as T2 and the water content in human vasogenic brain edema were also examined and compared with the data obtained from the serum group. T1 and T2 showed good correlations with the water content of white matter not only in the experimental animals but also in the clinical cases. The quality of the edema fluid did not influence relaxation time and T1 seemed to represent almost solely the water content of the tissue. T2, however, was affected by the nature of existence of water and was more sensitive than T1 in detecting extravasated edema fluid. It seems feasible therefore to evaluate the water content of brain edema on the basis of T1 values.

Fu, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Nishimura, S. (Baba Memorial Hospital, Osaka (Japan))

1990-01-01

147

Human platelets modulate edema formation in isolated rabbit lungs.  

PubMed Central

The role of platelet glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) in mediating the effects of human platelets on oxidant-induced edema in the isolated perfused rabbit lung was investigated using dehydroepiandrosterone, a specific steroidal inhibitor of G-6-PD. Xanthine oxidase (0.003 and 0.012 U/ml) caused lung edema that was attenuated by coinfusion of washed human platelets. Platelets that were incubated with DEA to inhibit G-6-PD activity augmented xanthine oxidase-induced lung edema and pulmonary hypertension at both doses of xanthine oxidase. Infusion of papaverine to maintain stable pulmonary artery (PA) pressures, incubation of G-6-PD-inhibited platelets with acetylsalicylate, or infusion of a thromboxane-prostaglandin endoperoxide receptor site antagonist, SQ 29548, into the lung perfusate prevented augmentation of lung edema and the PA pressor response by G-6-PD-inhibited platelets. It was concluded that antioxidant-intact platelets attenuate oxidant-induced lung edema by preventing increased membrane permeability, and that G-6-PD-inhibited platelets augment lung edema through hydrostatic mechanisms mediated by release of platelet cyclooxygenase products. PMID:2527253

Heffner, J E; Cook, J A; Halushka, P V

1989-01-01

148

Preoperative Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Vulvar Carcinoma: Analysis of Pattern of Relapse  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine clinical outcomes and relapse patterns in locally advanced vulvar carcinoma treated using preoperative chemotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients with stage I-IV{sub A} (stage I, n=3; stage II, n=13; stage III, n=23; stage IV{sub A}, n=3) vulvar cancer were treated with chemotherapy and IMRT via a modified Gynecological Oncology Group schema using 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin with twice-daily IMRT during the first and last weeks of treatment or weekly cisplatin with daily radiation therapy. Median dose of radiation was 46.4 Gy. Results: Thirty-three patients (78.6%) had surgery for resection of vulva; 13 of these patients also had inguinal lymph node dissection. Complete pathologic response was seen in 48.5% (n=16) of these patients. Of these, 15 had no recurrence at a median time of 26.5 months. Of the 17 patients with partial pathological response, 8 (47.1%) developed recurrence in the vulvar surgical site within a median of 8 (range, 5-34) months. No patient had grade ?3 chronic gastrointestinal/genitourinary toxicity. Of those having surgery, 8 (24.2%) developed wound infections requiring debridement. Conclusions: Preoperative chemotherapy/IMRT was well tolerated, with good pathologic response and clinical outcome. The most common pattern of recurrence was local in patients with partial response, and strategies to increase pathologic response rate with increasing dose or adding different chemotherapy need to be explored to help further improve outcomes.

Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Shukla, Gaurav; Shinde, Ashwin; Heron, Dwight E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Kelley, Joseph L.; Edwards, Robert P.; Sukumvanich, Paniti; Richards, Scott; Olawaiye, Alexander B.; Krivak, Thomas C. [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

2013-04-01

149

Preliminary experience of performing a video endoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy using a hypogastric subcutaneous approach in patients with vulvar cancer  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the feasibility and surgical outcome of video endoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy (VEIL) using a hypogastric subcutaneous approach, 21 patients with vulvar cancer who underwent this procedure were included in the present study. Between December 2010 and March 2013, 21 consecutive patients with vulvar cancer underwent radical vulvectomy and VEIL using a hypogastric subcutaneous approach. The intraoperative and post-operative results and follow-up data were retrospectively analyzed. No intraoperative complications occurred. The mean duration of surgery for the endoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomies was 130 min (range, 80–180 min), with a mean estimated blood loss of 103 ml (range, 30–350 ml). The mean lymph node yield was 15 (range, 10–22 lymph nodes). The suction drains were removed after a mean duration of 7 days (range, 5–11 days). No skin-related complications were observed in the groin region and a lymphocele was only observed in 1/21 (4.8%) patients. After a mean follow-up period of 17 months (range, 3–31 months), recurrence was found in only one patient. All the patients were alive at the time of publication. Based on our preliminary experience, performing VEIL using a hypogastric subcutaneous approach is a safe and feasible technique for patients with vulvar cancer. These results indicate that this surgical technique may decrease the post-operative morbidity of lymphadenectomy without compromising the therapeutic efficacy. Future prospective studies with a greater sample size and a longer duration of follow-up are required. PMID:25621046

WANG, HE; LI, LI; YAO, DESHENG; LI, FEI; ZHANG, JIEQING; YANG, ZHIJUN

2015-01-01

150

Vulvar and Perianal Condyloma Superimposed Inflammatory Linear Verrucous Epidermal Nevus: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus (ILVEN) is a benign cutaneous hamartoma characterized by intensely erythematous, pruritic, and inflammatory papules that occur as linear bands along the lines of Blaschko. There is a considerable clinical and histological resemblance between ILVEN and linear psoriasis, lichen striatus, linear lichen planus, and invasion of epidermal nevus by psoriasis. The pathogenesis of ILVEN is unknown. It is regarded as a genetic dyskeratotic disease reflecting genetic mosaicism. Here, a case of vulvar and perianal condyloma superimposed ILVEN is presented. PMID:24396613

Avcio?lu, Sümeyra Nerg?z; Altinkaya, Sündüz Özlem; Küçük, Mert; Yüksel, Hasan; Demircan-Sezer, Selda; Uçar, Gonca

2013-01-01

151

The Co-Existence of Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus, Ulcerated Calcinosis Cutis, and Dermatomyositis: Coincidence or Immunological Mechanism?  

PubMed Central

Calcinosis cutis is a condition characterized by the deposition of calcium salts in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and patients suffering from it encounter various connective tissue disorders, such as dermatomyositis (DM), scleroderma, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Although calcinosis cutis is frequently accompanied by juvenile dermatomyositis, rare cases have been reported in adult patients with DM. On the other hand, lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin and mucosal surfaces. In the present report, we present a rare case of a 71-year-old patient with DM accompanied by ulcerated calcinosis cutis and vulvar LS. PMID:22346282

Çelik, Ebru; Sar?kaya, Gökhan; Yenin, Jülide Zehra; Atik, Esin

2011-01-01

152

Prognostic significance of c-KIT in vulvar cancer: bringing this molecular marker from bench to bedside  

PubMed Central

Background Vulvar carcinomas are rare tumors, and there is limited data regarding molecular alterations. To our knowledge there are no published studies on c-KIT and squamous cell carcinomas of the vulva (VSCC). Although there are a significant number of other tumor types which express c-KIT, there remains controversy as to its relationship to patient outcome. Thus, we wished to investigate such controversial findings to determine the prognostic importance of c-KIT by evaluating its protein and mRNA expression in VSCCs, correlating these findings with clinicopathological features and Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Methods c-KIT expression was scored by immunohistochemistry (IHC) as positive or negative in 139 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cases of vulvar carcinomas arrayed in a tissue microarray (TMA) using the DAKO® A4502 rabbit polyclonal c-KIT antibody (diluted 1:100). c-KIT mRNA was evaluated by qRT-PCR in 34 frozen samples from AC Camargo Hospital Biobank (17 tumoral and 17 non-tumoral samples) using TaqMan probes–Applied Biosystems [Hs00174029_m1]. HPV genotyping was assessed in 103 samples using Linear Array® HPV Genotyping Test kit (Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland). All results obtained were correlated with clinical and pathological data of the patients. Results c-KIT protein was positive by immunohistochemistry in 70.5% of the cases and this was associated with a higher global survival (p?=?0.007), a higher recurrence-free survival (p?vulvar tumors staining positively for c-KIT present better prognosis. Thus, positivity of c-KIT as evaluated by IHC may be a good predictor for use of more conservative surgery techniques and lymph node dissection in vulvar cancer. So part of the essence of our study is to see the possibility of translating our current results from the bench to the bedside. This will help provide patients a more appropriate, less mutilating treatment, in order to keep the maximum physical and psychic quality as possible to these women. PMID:22839358

2012-01-01

153

Glyburide in Treating Malignant Cerebral Edema. Blocking Sulfonyl Urea One (SUR1) Receptors  

PubMed Central

Cerebral edema is a serious side effect of malignant stroke. On average 70,000 patients are diagnosed with malignant cerebral edema every year, of those patients, approximately 60-80% results in fatalities. The treatment of cerebral edema includes multimodality approaches. In this article, we discuss our experience with glibenclamide in the treatment for malignant cerebral edema. Our study indicates that glibenclamide may decrease cerebral edema by blocking SUR1 receptors in ischemic stroke and non-ischemic etiologies. PMID:25422710

Ahmed, Iftekhar

2014-01-01

154

Tumor proteomics by multivariate analysis on individual pathway data for characterization of vulvar cancer phenotypes.  

PubMed

Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) is the fourth most common gynecological cancer. Based on etiology VSCC is divided into two subtypes; one related to high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) and one HPV negative. The two subtypes are proposed to develop via separate intracellular signaling pathways. We investigated a suggested link between HPV infection and relapse risk in VSCC through in-depth protein profiling of 14 VSCC tumor specimens. The tumor proteomes were analyzed by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Relative protein quantification was performed by 8-plex isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification. Labeled peptides were fractionated by high-resolution isoelectric focusing prior to liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to reduce sample complexity. In total, 1579 proteins were regarded as accurately quantified and analyzed further. For classification of clinical groups, data analysis was performed by comparing protein level differences between tumors defined by HPV and/or relapse status. Further, we performed a biological analysis on individual tumor proteomes by matching data to known biological pathways. We here present a novel analysis approach that combines pathway alteration data on individual tumor level with multivariate statistics for HPV and relapse status comparisons. Four proteins (signal transducer and activator of transcription-1, myxovirus resistance protein 1, proteasome subunit alpha type-5 and legumain) identified as main classifiers of relapse status were validated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Two of the proteins are interferon-regulated and on mRNA level known to be repressed by HPV. By both liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry data we could single out a subgroup of HPV negative/relapse-associated tumors. The pathway level data analysis confirmed three of the proteins, and further identified the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway as altered in the high risk subgroup. We show that pathway fingerprinting with resolution on individual tumor level adds biological information that strengthens a generalized protein analysis. PMID:22499770

Sandberg, Annsofi; Lindell, Gunnel; Källström, Brita Nordström; Branca, Rui Mamede; Danielsson, Kristina Gemzell; Dahlberg, Mats; Larson, Barbro; Forshed, Jenny; Lehtiö, Janne

2012-07-01

155

Ospemifene 12-month safety and efficacy in postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy  

PubMed Central

Objective Assessment of 12-month safety of ospemifene 60 mg/day for treatment of postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA). Methods In this 52-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, women 40–80 years with VVA and an intact uterus were randomized 6 : 1 to ospemifene 60 mg/day or placebo. The primary objective was 12-month safety, particularly endometrial; 12-week efficacy was assessed. Safety assessments included endometrial histology and thickness, and breast and gynecological examinations. Efficacy evaluations included changes from baseline to week 12 in percentage of superficial and parabasal cells and vaginal pH. Results Of 426 randomized subjects, 81.9% (n = 349) completed the study with adverse events the most common reason for discontinuation (ospemifene 9.5%; placebo 3.9%). Most (88%) treatment-emergent adverse events with ospemifene were considered mild or moderate. Three cases (1.0%) of active proliferation were observed in the ospemifene group. For one, active proliferation was seen at end of study week 52, and diagnosed as simple hyperplasia without atypia on follow-up biopsy 3 months after the last dose. This subsequently resolved with progestogen treatment and dilatation and curettage. In six subjects (five ospemifene (1.4%), one placebo (1.6%)) endometrial polyps were found (histopathology); however, only one (ospemifene) was confirmed as a true polyp during additional expert review. Endometrial histology showed no evidence of carcinoma. Statistically significant improvements were seen for all primary and secondary efficacy measures and were sustained through week 52 with ospemifene vs. placebo. Conclusions The findings of this 52-week study confirm the tolerance and efficacy of oral ospemifene previously reported in short- and long-term studies. PMID:23984673

2014-01-01

156

[Tactical diagnostic-therapeutic procedures in early stages of vulvar cancer].  

PubMed

The objective of this report is to present the diagnostic and therapeutic tactics in early vulvar carcinoma i.e. carcinoma in situ and carcinoma in I stage (IA and IB) which aim is to limit the radicalisation of the surgery. The clinical material is 57 women aged 27-63 years, colposcopy, cytology and histology diagnosed. The histology examination was made under colposcopic control, and the initial staging was settled i.e. ca in situ in 11 cases, carcinoma IA in 7 cases and carcinoma IB in 39 cases. In qualifying criteria for surgery, unifocal or multifocal location in carcinoma in situ was analysed, and presence of dystrophic lesions in ca in situ and ca IA was taken into consideration. In ca IB the additionally diameter of the lesion (1 cm and 1-2 cm), location (clitoris, perineum, or pudendal lip) and in carcinoma located within the pudendal lip, presence of metastases in lymphatic nodes of inguino-femoral region was taken into consideration. Local excision of lesion was therapeutical procedure in majority of cases in carcinoma in situ and carcinoma IA stage. In multifocal localisation of ca in situ or in coexistence of dystrophic lesions in ca in situ and ca IA vulvectomy was performed. But in carcinoma IB located within the pudendal lips, where lack of metastases to lymphatic nodes in intraoperative histopathology was confirmed, local excision of neoplastic lesion was performed. Presence of lesion within the clitoris, perineum or presence of metastases in lymphatic nodes led to more radical procedure including radical vulvectomy with bilateral lymphadenectomy of inguino-femoral region. PMID:10375936

Basta, A

1999-01-01

157

Edema can be a handicap in treatment of anorexia nervosa.  

PubMed

Anorexia and bulimia nervosa are common in western civilized countries. They are among the psychiatric disorders in that they are often accompanied by a variety of life-threatening physical abnormalities. These patients need a close follow-up of the pediatrician in collaboration with the psychiatrist since the changes in bodily functions affect the psychiatric therapy. The challenge to the physician is to use the traditional tools of medicine to diagnose and treat these physical abnormalities using careful medical history, a complete physical examination and appropriate laboratory testing. Peripheral edema is seen as a physical finding in anorexia nervosa (AN) and it is not rare. The estimated frequency is up to 20% among adolescent patients. Peripheral edema in this setting can be easily confused as weight gain. There are five possible mechanisms for its occurrence: hypoproteinemia, electrolyte imbalance, hormonal changes, rapid refeedings, and abuse of laxative, diuretics and diet pills. Patients with eating disorders may ingest a large number of drugs in an attempt to control their weight. We present a case of a female adolescent with AN and peripheral edema who terminated her psychiatric treatment during the refeeding phase because of the unbearable anxiety caused by this edema that affected her body image dramatically. With this case study, we point out the importance of assessing peripheral edema and discriminating it from true weight gain. PMID:20196395

Derman, Orhan; Kiliç, Emine Zinnur

2009-01-01

158

Photoacoustic diagnosis of edema in rat burned skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diagnosis of edema, abnormal accumulation of water in tissue, is important for managing various traumatic injuries and diseases. However, there is no established method for real-time, noninvasive monitoring of edema. In severe extensive burn injuries, edema develops both topically and systemically due to the increased permeability of blood vessels. In this study, we examined photoacoustic (PA) monitoring of edema formed in rat burn models. Deep dermal burn with a 20% total body surface area was made in the dorsal skin of rats. Burn and its adjacent nonburn tissues were irradiated with 6-ns light pulses at 1430 nm, which is one of the absorption peak wavelengths of water in the near infrared. The PA signal amplitude increased until 12 - 24 hr postburn, and thereafter it gradually decreased to its initial level; the latter phase (after 24 hr postburn) coincided with a diuretic phase in the rats. There was a significant correlation between the PA signal amplitudes and water contents in the tissue measured by wet/dry weight method. These findings demonstrate the validity of PA measurement for real-time, noninvasive monitoring of edema.

Yoshida, Ken; Sato, Shunichi; Hatanaka, Kosuke; Saitoh, Daizoh; Ashida, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Toshihisa; Obara, Minoru

2010-02-01

159

Changes in Men’s Salivary Testosterone and Cortisol Levels, and in Sexual Desire after Smelling Female Axillary and Vulvar Scents  

PubMed Central

Several studies have shown that a woman’s vaginal or axillary odors convey information on her attractivity. Yet, whether such scents induce psychoneuroendocrinological changes in perceivers is still controversial. We studied if smelling axillary and vulvar odors collected in the periovulatory and late luteal phases of young women modify salivary testosterone and cortisol levels, as well as sexual desire in men. Forty-five women and 115 men, all of them college students and unacquainted with each other, participated in the study. Female odors were collected on pads affixed to the axilla and on panty protectors both worn the entire night before experiments. Men provided five saliva samples, a basal one before the smelling procedure, and four more 15, 30, 60, and 75?min after exposure to odors. Immediately after smelling the odor source, men answered a questionnaire rating hedonic qualities of scents, and after providing the last saliva sample they answered questionnaire on sexual desire. We found that periovulatory axillary and vulvar odors increased testosterone and cortisol levels, with vulvar scents producing a more prolonged effect. Luteal axilla odors decreased testosterone and cortisol levels, while luteal vulva odors increased cortisol. Periovulatory axilla and vulva scents accounted for a general increase of interest in sex. These odors were also rated as more pleasant and familiar, while luteal vulvar odors were perceived as intense and unpleasant. PMID:24194730

Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Hernández-López, Leonor; de la O, Claudio E.; Chavira-Ramírez, Roberto; Mondragón-Ceballos, Ricardo

2013-01-01

160

Primary Tumor Vascularity, HIF-1? and VEGF expression in vulvar squamous cell carcinomas: their relationships with clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic impact  

PubMed Central

Background Increased vascularity is a crucial event in the tumor progression and has prognostic significance in various cancers. However, the ultimate role of angiogenesis in the pathogenesis and clinical outcome of vulvar carcinoma patients is still not settled. Methods Tumor vascularity using CD34 stained slides measured by Chalkley counting method as well as hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) immunoexpression was examined in 158 vulvar squamous cell carcinomas. Associations between vascular Chalkley count, HIF-1? and VEGF expression and clinicopathological factors and clinical outcome were evaluated. Results High CD34 Chalkley count was found to correlate with larger tumor diameter (P = 0.002), deep invasion (P < 0.001) and HIF-1? (P = 0.04), whereas high VEGF expression correlate significantly with poor tumor differentiation (P = 0.007). No significant association between CD34 Chalkley counts and VEGF expression and disease-specific survival was observed. High HIF-1? expression showed better disease specific survival in both univariate and multivariate analyses (P = 0.001). Conclusions A significant association between high tumor vascularity and larger tumor size as well as deeper tumor invasion suggests an important role of angiogenesis in the growth and progression of vulvar carcinomas. HIF-1? expression in vulvar carcinomas was a statistically independent prognostic factor. PMID:24165149

2013-01-01

161

Immunohistochemical patterns of ProEx C in vulvar squamous lesions: detection of overexpression of MCM2 and TOP2A.  

PubMed

Two major subtypes of vulvar squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) have been described. Basaloid and warty SCC are human papillomavirus-related and associated with classic vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN). Keratinizing SCC is associated with lichen sclerosus and differentiated VIN, but not with human papillomavirus. This study was undertaken to examine the expression patterns of ProEx C in vulvar SCC and its precursors. We analyzed 22 cases with normal vulvar epidermis, 13 cases of lichen sclerosus, 14 cases of condylomas, 23 cases of high-grade classic VIN, 6 cases of differentiated VIN, 3 cases of verrucous carcinomas, 10 cases of keratinizing SCC, and 8 cases of basaloid and warty SCC. ProEx C targets minichromosome maintenance protein and topoisomerase II alpha protein which are overexpressed in the cell nucleus during aberrant S-phase induction. Marked confluent ProEx C expression is present in high-grade classic VIN with nuclear staining extending into the middle and upper layers of the epidermis. Condylomas show parabasal nuclear immunoreactivity associated with scattered ProEx C-positive nuclei in the more differentiated suprabasilar layers. Invasive SCC shows variable staining patterns. In contrast, ProEx C staining is essentially limited to the basal and parabasal layers in normal epidermis, lichen sclerosus, differentiated VIN, and verrucous carcinoma. Overall, ProEx C is a useful proliferation marker for high-grade VIN analogous to the staining patterns reported in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. PMID:20697251

Chen, Hui; Gonzalez, Jorge L; Brennick, Jeoffry B; Liu, Miaoliang; Yan, Shaofeng

2010-09-01

162

Inflammatory optic disc edema due to Sarcoidosis mimicking malignant hypertension.  

PubMed

A common ocular manifestation of sarcoidosis is anterior uveitis. Posterior uveitis is uncommon and optic disc edema is rare. We report one such case in which the initial presentation was mimicking malignant hypertension as the patient had a recent record of high blood pressure. However, the painful progressive vision loss due to optic disc edema, along with anterior uveitis, and histological proof of non-caseating granulomas on transbronchial lung biopsy clinched the diagnosis of ocular sarcoidosis. There was complete resolution of signs and symptoms with institution of steroids. There was also probable cardiac involvement. This case highlights the fact that all disc edemas in a diabetic and hypertensive patients is not just due to malignant hypertension, even if there is a recent history of elevated blood pressure. PMID:25351429

Sharma, Aman; Sagar, Vinay; Singla, Veenu; Sharma, Kusum; Singh, Ramandeep; Singh, Surjit; Gupta, Amod

2014-10-28

163

Kawasaki Disease with Retropharyngeal Edema following a Blackfly Bite  

PubMed Central

We describe a patient with Kawasaki disease (KD) and retropharyngeal edema following a blackfly bite. An 8-year-old boy was referred to our hospital because of a 3-day-history of fever and left neck swelling and redness after a blackfly bite. Computed tomography of the neck revealed left cervical lymph nodes swelling with edema, increased density of the adjacent subcutaneous tissue layer, and low density of the retropharyngeum. The patient was initially presumed to have cervical cellulitis, lymphadenitis, and retropharyngeal abscess. He was administered antibiotics intravenously, which did not improve his condition. The patient subsequently exhibited other signs of KD and was diagnosed with KD and retropharyngeal edema. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and oral flurbiprofen completely resolved the symptoms and signs. A blackfly bite sometimes incites a systemic reaction in humans due to a hypersensitive reaction to salivary secretions, which may have contributed to the development of KD in our patient. PMID:25349761

Watanabe, Toru

2014-01-01

164

Epiretinal macular edema associated with thick epiretinal membranes.  

PubMed

High-resolution imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography has identified an unusual group of epiretinal membranes (ERMs) in the presence of lamellar macular holes. These ERMs are unusually thick. The authors present the case of a patient with age-related macular degeneration who developed edema within a thickened ERM in both eyes after cataract surgery. The edema resolved with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. The authors propose that the VEGF-responsive fluid within these thick ERMs arose from fibrovascular tissue derived from the retina. Further studies with histopathology will be required to determine whether neovascular tissue is present in all cases of thickened ERMs with epiretinal edema. PMID:24044720

Doshi, Rishi R; Lowrance, Matthew D; Kim, Brian T; Davis, Janet L; Rosenfeld, Philip J

2013-01-01

165

Effect of Peripheral Edema on Oscillometric Blood Pressure Measurement  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Blood pressure (BP) measurement is essential for epidemiological studies and clinical decisions. It seems that tissue characteristics can affect BP results and we try to find edema effect on BP results taken by different methods. Methods: BP of 55 children before open heart surgery were measured and compared according to three methods: Arterial as standard and reference, oscillometric and auscultatory methods. Peripheral edema as a tissue characteristic was defined in higher than +2 as marked edema and in equal or lower than +2 as no edema. Statistical analyses: data was expressed as Mean and 95% of confidence interval (CI 95%). Comparison of two groups was performed by T independent test and of more than two groups by ANOVA test. Mann–Whitney U and paired T-test were used for serially comparisons of changes. P less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Fifty five children aged 29.4±3.9 months were divided into two groups: 10 children with peripheral edema beyond +2 and 45 cases without edema. Oscillometric method overestimated systolic BP and the Mean (CI 95%) difference of oscillometric to arterial was 4.8 (8/-1, P=0.02) in edematous and 4.2 (7/1, p=0.004) in non edematous. Oscillometric method underestimated diastolic BP as -9 (-1.8/-16.5, P=0.03) in edematous group and 2.6 (-0.7/+5, P= 0.2) in non edematous compared to arterial method. Conclusion: Oscillometric device standards cannot cover all specific clinical conditions. It underestimates diastolic BP significantly in edematous children, which was 9.2 mmHg in average beyond the acceptable standards. PMID:25610552

Ghaffari, Shamsi; Malaki, Majid; Rezaeifar, Afshin; Abdollahi Fakhim, Shahin

2014-01-01

166

Viral Load, Integration and Methylation of E2BS3 and 4 in Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) 16-Positive Vaginal and Vulvar Carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate if viral load, integration and methylation of E2BS3 and 4 represent different ways of tumor transformation in vaginal and vulvar carcinoma and to elucidate its clinical impact. Methods Fifty-seven samples, positive for HPV16, were selected for the study. Detection of viral load was made with realtime-PCR using copy numbers of E6 and integration was calculated from comparing E2 to E6-copies. Methylation of E2BS3 and 4 was analysed using bisulphite treatment of tumor DNA, followed by PCR and pyrosequencing. Results Vaginal tumors were found to have a higher viral load (p?=?0.024) compared to vulvar tumors but a high copy number (> median value, 15 000) as well as high methylation (>50%) was significantly (p?=?0.010 and p?=?0.045) associated with a worse cancer-specific survival rate in vulvar carcinoma, but not in vaginal carcinoma. Four groups could be defined for the complete series using a Cluster Two step analysis; (1) tumors holding episomal viral DNA, viral load below 150 000 copies not highly methylated (n?=?25, 46.3%); (2) tumors harboring episomal viral DNA and being highly methylated (>50%; n?=?6, 11.1%); (3) tumors with viral DNA fully integrated (n?=?11, 20.4%), and (4) tumors harboring episomal viral DNA and being medium- or unmethylated (<50%) and having a high viral load (> total mean value 150 000; n?=?12, 22.2%). The completely integrated tumors were found to be distinct group, whilst some overlap between the groups with high methylation and high viral load was observed. Conclusion HPV16- related integration, methylation in E2BS3 and 4 and viral load may represent different viral characteristics driving vaginal and vulvar carcinogenesis. HPV16- related parameters were found to be of clinical importance in the vulvar series only. PMID:25393237

Lillsunde Larsson, Gabriella; Helenius, Gisela; Sorbe, Bengt; Karlsson, Mats G.

2014-01-01

167

Treatment of human papillomavirus-associated vulvar disease with the CO2-laser. Physical and histological aspects with use of a new scanning device, the SwiftLase.  

PubMed

The CO2-laser has a successful record in treatment of extensive, refractory vulvar condylomas and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. A prerequisite for optimal use of the laser is careful preoperative diagnosis and optimized surgical technique based upon the exact knowledge of the interaction process between laser radiation and tissue. Using a new CO2-laser scanning device, the Sharplan Swift-Lase, this in-vivo study analyses the effects of CO2-laser parameters [average power density (PD), beam size and exposure time] on vulvar skin to determine optimum laser settings. Our histomorphometric analyses reveal a minimal skin destruction (ablation depth 40 microns, extent of irreversible thermal damage 80 microns to 120 microns) after application of the CO2-laser energy with the SwiftLase using a PD of 1000 W/cm2 with a beam size of 1 mm diameter. Previous CO2-laser application techniques required low PD (200 W/cm2 to 750 W/cm2) and a larger beam size (1.5 mm to 2 mm) moving over the epithelial surface as fast as possible to obtain a precise skin destruction. The SwiftLase allows the laser beam to be moved slowly with a beam size of 1 mm and significantly higher PD (up to 5000 W/cm2). These advantageous application conditions guarantee precise, homogeneous vulvar skin treatments with minimal thermal damage to the surrounding normal skin. The SwiftLase enables a less experienced colposcopists to perform vulvar CO2-laser surgery. PMID:8933926

Spörri, S; Frenz, M; Altermatt, H J; Hannigan, E V; Dreher, E

1996-01-01

168

Imaging of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema.  

PubMed

Imaging of the retinal complications of diabetes mellitus is rapidly changing from the emergence of new technology such as optical coherence tomography. In particular, the characterization of diabetic macular edema is much easier for the clinician and there are new, more sensitive clinical research end points. However, our understanding of structure-functional relationships remains suboptimal and the classification of macular edema by optical coherence tomography continues to evolve. The classification of diabetic retinopathy severity continues to rely upon fundus photography, although the transition from film to digital photography presents both challenges and advantages. PMID:21607565

Danis, Ronald P; Hubbard, Larry D

2011-08-01

169

Perihematomal edema as predictor of outcome in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) is a form of cerebrovascular accident with a very high rate of morbidity and mortality. The determinants of prognosis include the demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiologic factors. It is long known that the hematoma size has a negative impact on the outcome in SICH. The influence of perihematomal edema (PHE) is not established to the extent same as that of hematoma volume. Hence, we planned this study to determine as to what role does PHE plays in the outcome in SICH. Aim of the Study: To evaluate the prognostic influence of absolute and relative edema (ratio of absolute edema to hematoma volume) in the patients of SICH. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective case-controlled study. A total of 44 patients were enrolled after excluding the confounding factors. The patients were evaluated and their disability was assessed using modified Rankin scale (MRS). The imaging was done in the interval between 24 and 72 h and the hematoma volume, absolute edema volume, and the relative edema were calculated. The outcome was reassessed at 12 weeks and defined as favorable if MRS < 3. Results: A total of 69 patients were found to be having SICH on imaging; however, 25 patients were excluded as they had one of the criterion for exclusion. Hence, only 44 patients were included in the study. On univariate analysis, none of the demographic characteristics of the patients, vascular risk factors, presenting complaints, blood pressure, Glasgow coma scale, and MRS at admission, laboratory parameters were not significantly different in the two outcome groups. The hematoma volume was significantly higher in the poor outcome group (P < 0.0001) and the relative edema was associated with a favorable outcome at 12 weeks (P < 0.0001). On multivariate logistic regression, the hematoma volume and relative edema were found to have effect on the outcome similar to that seen on univariate analysis. Conclusion: In SICH, a larger hematoma volume is a predictor of poor outcome and a relative edema is associated with a better functional status. PMID:24741251

Gupta, Mani; Verma, Rajesh; Parihar, Anit; Garg, Ravindra K.; Singh, Maneesh K.; Malhotra, Hardeep S.

2014-01-01

170

Resolution of macular edema in idiopathic juxtafoveal telangiectasis using PDT.  

PubMed

A 57-year-old woman was treated by photodynamic therapy for macular edema due to idiopathic juxtafoveal telangiectasis (presumed type 1A) without subretinal neovascularization. Initial visual acuity of the treated eye was 20/200 and it improved to 20/40 by 3 months after the photodynamic therapy session. Visual acuity remained stable 32 months after the treatment. Color photographs and fundus fluorescein angiography before and after photodynamic therapy revealed regression of hemorrhages, exudates, and fluorescein leakage. Photodynamic therapy has long-term benefits for the patient with idiopathic juxtafoveal telangiectasis, presumed type 1A, because it can improve visual acuity and macular edema. PMID:19205501

Kotoula, Maria G; Chatzoulis, Dimitrios Z; Karabatsas, Constantinos H; Tsiloulis, Aristoteles; Tsironi, Evangelia E

2009-01-01

171

Perianeurysmal edema as a predictive sign of aneurysmal rupture.  

PubMed

Subarachnoid hemorrhage following intracranial aneurysmal rupture is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Several factors may affect the probability of rupture, such as tobacco and alcohol use; size, shape, and location of the aneurysm; presence of intraluminal thrombus; and even the sex of the patient. However, few data correlate such findings with the timing of aneurysmal rupture. The authors report 2 cases of middle-age women with headache and MRI findings of incidental aneurysms. Magnetic resonance imaging showed evidence of surrounding parenchymal edema, and in one case there was a clear increase in edema during follow-up, suggesting a progressive inflammatory process that culminated with rupture. These findings raise the possibility that bleb formation and an enlargement of a cerebral aneurysm might be associated with an inflammatory reaction of the aneurysm wall resulting in perianeurysmal edema and subsequent aneurysmal rupture. There may be a temporal link between higher degree of edema and higher risk for rupture, including risk for immediate rupture. PMID:25036206

Pahl, Felix Hendrik; de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes; Ferreira, Nelson Paes Fortes Diniz; de Macedo, Leonardo Lopes; Brock, Roger Schmidt; de Souza, Valéria Cardoso

2014-11-01

172

Experimental toxic pulmonary edema in albino mice with influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic edema of the lungs during influenza develops 3 h after infection of mice with concentrated influenza viruses adapted to lung tissue. The toxic action of the viruses is manifested by filling of the alveoli with a liquid exudate, by the development of stasis in the pulmonary vessels, by eosinophilic necrosis of the epithelium of the bronchioles, and also by

V. N. Parusov; V. V. Zhunko

1977-01-01

173

The adenylyl cyclase activity of anthrax edema factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent for anthrax, secretes edema factor (EF) to disrupt intracellular signaling pathways. Upon translocation into host cells and association with a calcium sensor, calmodulin (CaM), EF becomes a highly active adenylyl cyclase (AC) that raises the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP (cAMP). Growing evidence shows that EF plays a key role in anthrax pathogenesis by affecting

Wei-Jen Tang; Qing Guo

2009-01-01

174

Implications of the Lymphatic System in CVI-Associated Edema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymph drainage is intimately linked with venous drainage in health and disease. Evidence exists to support the view that lymphatics frequently fail in venous disease, particularly in its advanced stages. The implications of this are to increase the risk of infection and the amount of edema, events which can only further the morbidity of venous disease.

P. S. Mortimer

2000-01-01

175

Hereditary angioneurotic edema: clinical management and case report.  

PubMed

Hereditary angioneurotic edema, although a rare clinical entity, can be fatal if diagnosis and appropriate therapy are not instituted before the performance of routine dental and oral surgical procedures. The pathophysiology, physical findings, and therapeutic treatment modalities have been reviewed, and a case involving both restorative and surgical dental intervention has been presented. PMID:6122699

Mauro, J V; Meyrowitz, M R; Licari, G; Jankowski, R

1982-05-01

176

Periorbital edema as an initial presentation of rosacea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosacea is a common dermatosis with a variety of clinical manifestations. The eyes are often affected. The most frequent ocular findings are blepharitis and conjunctivitis. We describe three patients with rosacea in whom periorbital edema was the initial presentation. This symptom may be confused with other dermatoses and may be refractory to conventional treatments for rosacea. (J Am Acad Dermatol

Diana M. Chen; David L. Crosby

1997-01-01

177

Lobar pulmonary edema due to mitral regurgitation: diagnosis by echocardiography.  

PubMed

One etiology of unilateral lobar pulmonary edema is mitral regurgitation. Echocardiography is able to demonstrate the retrograde flow of blood into the pulmonary veins and allows timely diagnosis and treatment planning. Correction of mitral regurgitation is followed by resolution of the radiographic abnormality. PMID:9690502

Dexter, E U; Snider, J M; Gordon, E E; Richenbacher, W E

1997-01-01

178

Topical indomethacin in the treatment of chronic cystoid macular edema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty percent of 30 eyes with chronic cystoid macular edema (CME) after cataract extraction achieved improved visual acuity of three or more lines when treated with 1% indomethacin eye drops. Of these patients 53% demonstrated an “on\\/off” phenomenon induced by the initiation and cessation of treatment documented by visual acuity measurements and fluorescein angiography. This “on\\/off” phenomenon suggests that there

Michael Peterson; Marc O. Yoshizumi; Robert Hepler; Bartly Mondino; Allan Kreiger

1992-01-01

179

The Evolving Treatment Options for Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of vision loss in working-age adults, and diabetic macular edema (DME) is the most common cause of visual impairment in individuals with DR. This review focuses on the pathophysiology, previous treatment paradigms, and emerging treatment options in the management of DME. PMID:24106640

Jain, Atul; Varshney, Neeta; Smith, Colin

2013-01-01

180

PSEUDOPHAKIC CYSTOID MACULAR EDEMA. ASSESMENT WITH OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY EDEMA MACULAR QUÍSTICO PSEUDOFÁQUICO. DETECCIÓN MEDIANTE «OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine the incidence of cystoid macular edema (CME) by means of clinical evalua- tion and subclinical assessment by means of ocular coherence tomography (OCT), and to compare the incidence between diabetic and non-diabetic groups of patients. Methods: Prospective study of 260 consecutive cataract surgeries operated from September 2004 to March 2005. The procedures were performed by means of

TORRÓN-FERNÁNDEZ-BLANCO C; RUIZ-MORENO O; FERRER-NOVELLA E; SÁNCHEZ-CANO A; HONRUBIA-LÓPEZ FM

181

A dosimetric evaluation of dose escalation for the radical treatment of locally advanced vulvar cancer by intensity-modulated radiation therapy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this planning study was to determine whether intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) reduces the radiation dose to organs at risk (OAR) when compared with 3D conventional radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in patients with vulvar cancer treated by irradiation. This study also investigated the use of sequential IMRT boost (seq-IMRT) and simultaneous integrated boost (SIB-IMRT) for dose escalation in the treatment of locally advanced vulvar cancer. Five vulvar cancer patients treated in the postoperative setting and 5 patients treated with definitive intent (def-group) were evaluated. For the postoperative group, 3D-CRT and IMRT plans to a total dose (TD) of 45 Gy were generated. For the def-group, 4 plans were generated: a 3D-CRT and an IMRT plan to a TD of 56.4 Gy, a SIB-IMRT plan to a TD of 56 Gy, and a SIB-IMRT with dose escalation (SIB-IMRT-esc): TD of 67.2 Gy. Mean dose and dose-volume histograms were compared using Student's t-test. IMRT significantly (all p < 0.05) reduced the D(mean), V30, and V40 for all OAR in the adjuvant setting. The V45 was also significantly reduced for all OAR except the bladder. For patients treated in the def-group, all IMRT techniques significantly reduced the D(mean), V40, and V45 for all OAR. The mean femur doses with SIB-IMRT and SIB-IMRT-esc were 47% and 49% lower compared with 3D-CRT. SIB-IMRT-esc reduced the doses to the OAR compared with seq-3D-CRT but increased the D(max.) for the small bowel, rectum, and bladder. IMRT reduces the dose to the OAR compared with 3D-CRT in patients with vulvar cancer receiving irradiation to a volume covering the vulvar region and nodal areas without compromising the dosimetric coverage of the target volume. IMRT for vulvar cancer is feasible and an attractive option for dose escalation studies. PMID:22317848

Bloemers, Monique C W M; Portelance, Lorraine; Ruo, Russell; Parker, William; Souhami, Luis

2012-01-01

182

9 CFR 309.8 - Cattle affected with anasarca and generalized edema.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Cattle affected with anasarca and generalized edema. 309.8 Section 309.8 Animals...Cattle affected with anasarca and generalized edema. All cattle found on ante-mortem...characterized by an extensive and generalized edema shall be identified as U.S....

2010-01-01

183

A surgical approach to giant condyloma (Buschke-Löwenstein tumour) with underlying superficial vulvar carcinoma: A case report  

PubMed Central

Anogenital warts (condyloma acuminatum or venereal warts) are a common sexually transmitted disease in males and females. Common clinical treatment of anogenital warts is conservative, however, in extreme cases conservative therapy is insufficient and surgical excision is required. Giant condyloma acuminata (Buschke-Löwenstein tumour) is an extremely rare clinical type of genital wart, characterised by aggressive down growth into underlying dermal structures. A 55-year-old female presented with cauliflower-like growth over the anogenital and sacral region, earlier diagnosed as condyloma acuminatum which was resistant to conservative therapy. During the period between 2005 and 2008 the patient underwent five surgical procedures. Due to the size and location of the tumour, gynaecological and plastic surgeons were involved in the procedures. In addition, definitive histology examination identified a superficial vulvar carcinoma. PMID:23420321

ZEKAN, JOSKO; PETROVIC, DAVOR; EL-SAFADI, SAMER; BANOVIC, MAJA; HULINA, DAVOR; HRGOVIC, ZLATKO

2013-01-01

184

Synovitis with pitting edema as the presenting manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

Rheumatologists are increasingly aware of the entity synovitis with pitting edema. The remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) syndrome has been reported with an array of conditions that include polymyalgia rheumatica, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome and psoriatic arthropathy. Synovitis with pitting edema is now being increasingly recognized with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We report a patient who presented with edema of hands and feet and was diagnosed eventually with definite SLE. With magnetic resonance imaging, joint effusions and tenosynovitis were confirmed to be associated with the otherwise-unexplained extremity edema. PMID:24786784

Hegazi, M O; Saleh, F; Al Rashidi, A; Yaktien, M M

2014-09-01

185

Anti-VEGF therapy for diabetic macular edema.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a pivotal role in the development of diabetic macular edema (DME), the leading cause of vision loss among working-aged individuals. A decade of clinical trials demonstrated that drugs that bind soluble VEGF restore the integrity of the blood-retinal barrier, resolve macular edema, and improve vision in most patients with DME. Four drugs (pegaptanib, ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept) effectively treat DME when administered by intravitreal injections. Only ranibizumab has received U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for DME, but bevacizumab is commonly used off-label, and an FDA application for aflibercept is pending. Effective treatment requires repeated injections, although recent data suggest that the treatment burden diminishes after 1 year. Intravitreal therapy is generally safe, although the incidence of systemic thromboembolic events varies among trials. PMID:24919750

Stewart, Michael W

2014-08-01

186

Acute paraplegia and pulmonary edema after benzathine penicillin injection.  

PubMed

Accidental intra-arterial injection is a potentially devastating complication of the intragluteal injection of benzathine penicillin. A 35-year-old woman developed after intramuscular injection of benzathine penicillin G acute paraplegia and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation was initiated with furosemide and corticosteroids. A magnetic resonance imaging scan showed findings consistent with syringomyelia and spinal cord ischemia at T9 through T10. Vascular injury may be the result of microemboli of the injected crystals of the penicillin salts. The mechanism of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema is perhaps an immunogically mediated one. At 2-year follow-up, she had no improvement in neurologic status. The deficit is considered permanent. PMID:18272127

Mjahed, Khalid; Alaoui, Sd Youssef; Salam, Siham; Lhoucine, Barrou

2008-02-01

187

Testicular edema is associated with spermatogonial arrest in irradiated rats.  

PubMed

Irradiation of LBNF1 rat testes induces arrest of spermatogonial differentiation, which can be reversed by suppression of testosterone with GnRH antagonist treatment. The cause of the arrest is unknown. We investigated the time course and hormonal effects on radiation-induced arrest and changes in interstitial fluid volume. We postulated that the edema evident in irradiated testes caused the differentiation blockade. Rat testes were irradiated with 3.5 or 6 Gy. Interstitial fluid testosterone (IFT) increased between 2 and 6 wk after irradiation, followed by increased interstitial fluid volume at 6 wk and spermatogonial blockade at 8 wk. Additional rats irradiated with 6 Gy were given GnRH antagonist, alone or with exogenous testosterone, for 8 wk starting at 15 wk after irradiation. In rats treated with GnRH antagonist, IFT started falling within 1 wk of treatment, followed by interstitial fluid volume decreases at wk 2 and 3, with recovery of spermatogenesis starting at wk 4. Addition of exogenous testosterone largely blocked the effects of GnRH antagonist on IFT, interstitial fluid volume, and spermatogenesis. Thus the testicular edema was largely modulated by intratesticular testosterone levels. The time course of changes in the spermatogonial blockade more closely followed that of the testicular edema than of IFT, indicating that testosterone may block spermatogonial differentiation indirectly by producing edema. This conclusion was further supported by an experiment in which irradiated rats were treated with GnRH antagonist plus estrogen; the treatment further reduced IFT and interstitial fluid volume and reduced the time to initiation of recovery of spermatogonial differentiation. These results suggest that studies of the edematous process or composition of the fluid would help elucidate the mechanism of spermatogonial arrest in toxicant-treated rats. PMID:16306082

Porter, Karen L; Shetty, Gunapala; Meistrich, Marvin L

2006-03-01

188

Edema Toxin Impairs Anthracidal Phospholipase A2 Expression by Alveolar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is a spore-forming Gram-positive bacterium. Infection with this pathogen results in multisystem dysfunction and death. The pathogenicity of B. anthracis is due to the production of virulence factors, including edema toxin (ET). Recently, we established the protective role of type-IIA secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) against B. anthracis. A component of innate immunity produced

Macrophages Benoit Raymond; Dominique Leduc; Lucas Ravaux; Ronan Le Goffic; Thomas Candela; Michel Raymondjean; Pierre Louis Goossens; Lhousseine Touqui

189

Alterations in classical and nonclassical HLA expression in recurrent and progressive HPV-induced usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and implications for immunotherapy.  

PubMed

Immunotherapy of usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN) is promising; however, many patients still fail to show clinical responses, which could be explained by an immune escape through alterations in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) expression. Therefore, we analyzed a cohort of patients with a primary (n = 43) and subsequent recurrent uVIN lesion (n = 20), vaccine-treated uVIN patients (n = 12), patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced vulvar carcinoma (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 26) for the expression of classical HLA-class I/II and nonclassical HLA-E/-G and MHC class I chain-related molecule A (MICA). HLA-class I was downregulated in 70% of uVIN patients, including patients with a clinical response to immunotherapy. Downregulation of HLA-class I is probably reversible, as only 15% of the uVIN cases displayed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and HLA-class I could be upregulated in uVIN keratinocyte cultures by interferon ?. HLA-class I downregulation is more frequently associated with LOH in vulvar carcinomas (25-55.5%). HLA-class II was found to be focally expressed in 65% of uVIN patients. Of the nonclassical molecules, MICA was downregulated in 80% of uVIN whereas HLA-E and -G were expressed in a minority of cases. Their expression was more prominent in vulvar carcinoma. No differences were found between the alterations observed in paired primary and recurrent uVIN. Importantly, downregulation of HLA-B/C in primary uVIN lesions was associated with the development of recurrences and progression to cancer. We conclude that downregulation of HLA is frequently observed in premalignant HPV-induced lesions, including clinical responders to immunotherapy, and is associated with worse clinical outcome. However, in the majority of cases downregulation may still be reversible. PMID:24415578

van Esch, E M G; Tummers, B; Baartmans, V; Osse, E M; Ter Haar, N; Trietsch, M D; Hellebrekers, B W J; Holleboom, C A G; Nagel, H T C; Tan, L T; Fleuren, G J; van Poelgeest, M I E; van der Burg, S H; Jordanova, E S

2014-08-15

190

Comparison of characteristic CT findings of lymphedema, cellulitis, and generalized edema in lower leg swelling.  

PubMed

To determine the different computed tomography (CT) findings of lymphedema, cellulitis, and generalized edema in the lower leg. CT images of 44 patients with confirmed lymphedema (n = 19), cellulitis (n = 11), or generalized edema (n = 14) were retrospectively reviewed. The following characteristics were evaluated: extent of edema, laterality, skin thickening, honeycombing, taller than wide appearance, muscle edema, conglomeration of septum of fat lobule, fluid collection, fascial enhancement, inguinal lymph node (LN) enlargement, medullary fat obliteration of inguinal LN, trunk subcutaneous edema, and bone marrow edema. Fisher's exact test with Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparisons. Honeycombing and taller than wide appearance of fat lobules were more common in lymphedema (P < 0.01). Fat obliteration of inguinal LN and inguinal LN enlargement at the affected side were more common in cellulitis (P < 0.01). Bone marrow and subcutaneous edema of the trunk were more common in generalized edema (P < 0.01). Honeycombing is commonly seen in lymphedema, but is not a specific finding. Inguinal LN enlargement is a specific sign of cellulitis. Truncal edema and bone marrow edema were specific findings of generalized edema. PMID:24293042

Shin, Sung Ui; Lee, Whal; Park, Eun-Ah; Shin, Cheong-Il; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung

2013-12-01

191

Intravitreal injection of Bevacizumab in diabetic macular edema  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of intravitreal injection of Bevacizumab in the treatment of diabetic macular edema. Methods: This case series was conducted at Department of Ophthalmology, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Karachi. The duration of study was six months from May 26, 2011 to November 25, 2011. The study group comprised of 54 patients of the Diabetic Macular Edema (DME). Intravitreal injection of 1.25 mg of bevacizumab (Avastin) was injected 3.5 mm from the limbus under topical anaesthetic drops. Post procedure follow up was scheduled on 1st post procedure day and after one month. Post procedure Optical Coherence tomography (OCT) was performed in all patients 1 week before and 1st month after 1st injection. The results were statistically analyzed through SPSS 17. Results: Out of the 54 Eyes of 54 Patients who were given the Intravitreal injection of Avastin (Bevacizumab), 43 Eyes (79.6%) showed more than ten percent decrease in macular thickness from pre-injection thickness, 10 Eyes (18.5%) showed less than ten percent decrease and 1 Eye (1.9%) showed increase in macular thickness post operatively after one month. Conclusions: Intravitreal injection of Bevacizumab (Avastin) is effective in the treatment of diabetic macular edema.

Ateeq, Asim; Tahir, Muhammad Ali; Cheema, Alyscia; Dahri, Arif; Tareen, Saifullah

2014-01-01

192

An autoimmune phenotype in vulvar lichen sclerosus and lichen planus: a Th1 response and high levels of microRNA-155.  

PubMed

Vulvar lichen sclerosus and lichen planus are T-cell-mediated chronic skin disorders. Although autoimmunity has been suggested, the exact pathogenesis of these disorders is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the molecular and immunological mechanisms critical to the pathogenesis of vulvar lichen sclerosus and lichen planus. By using gene expression profiling and real-time RT-PCR experiments, we demonstrated a significantly increased expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN?, CXCR3, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CCR5, CCL4, and CCL5) specific for a Th1 IFN?-induced immune response. In addition, BIC/microRNA-155 (miR-155)--a microRNA involved in regulation of the immune response--was significantly upregulated in lichen sclerosus and lichen planus (9.5- and 17.7-fold change, respectively). Immunohistochemistry showed a significant T-cell response, with pronounced dermal infiltrates of CD4(+), CD8(+), and FOXP3(+) cells. In conclusion, these data demonstrate an autoimmune phenotype in vulvar lichen sclerosus and lichen planus, characterized by increased levels of Th1-specific cytokines, a dense T-cell infiltrate, and enhanced BIC/miR-155 expression. PMID:22113482

Terlou, Annelinde; Santegoets, Lindy A M; van der Meijden, Willem I; Heijmans-Antonissen, Claudia; Swagemakers, Sigrid M A; van der Spek, Peter J; Ewing, Patricia C; van Beurden, Marc; Helmerhorst, Theo J M; Blok, Leen J

2012-03-01

193

Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema Associated with Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery  

PubMed Central

We report a very rare case of negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) that occurred immediately after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). The patient was a 25-year-old man who sustained a facet fracture-dislocation of C5 during a traffic accident. After ACDF, he developed NPPE and needed mechanical ventilation. Fortunately, he recovered fully within 24 hours. NPPE is a rare postoperative complication that may occur after cervical spine surgery. The aims of this report are to present information regarding the diagnosis and emergent treatment of NPPE, and to review the previous literature regarding this serious complication. PMID:25558327

Yoneda, Masana; Tanaka, Yasuhito

2014-01-01

194

Is High Altitude Pulmonary Edema Relevant to Hawai'i?  

PubMed

High altitude clinical syndromes have been described in the medical literature but may be under recognized in the state of Hawai'i. As tourism increases, high altitude injuries may follow given the easy access to high altitude attractions. Visitors and clinicians should be aware of the dangers associated with the rapid ascent to high altitudes in the perceived comfort of a vehicle. This paper will review the basic pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of the most serious of the high altitude clinical syndromes, high altitude pulmonary edema. PMID:25478294

Cornell, Seth Lewis

2014-11-01

195

Acute Pulmonary Edema Associated With Propofol: An Unusual Complication  

PubMed Central

Propofol is frequently used in the emergency department to provide procedural sedation for patients undergoing various procedures and is considered to be safe when administered by trained personnel. Pulmonary edema after administration of propofol has rarely been reported. We report a case of a 23-year-old healthy male who developed acute cough, hemoptysis and hypoxia following administration of propofol for splinting of a foot fracture. Chest radiography showed bilateral patchy infiltrates. The patient was treated successfully with supportive care. This report emphasizes the importance of this potentially fatal propofol-associated complication and discusses possible underlying mechanisms and related literature. PMID:25493132

Waheed, Mian Adnan; Oud, Lavi

2014-01-01

196

Antiinflammatory activity of flavonoids: Mouse ear edema inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, the various flavonoid aglycones were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against croton-oil or\\u000a arachidonic acid induced mouse ear edema by oral or topical administration. The compounds tested were thirteen derivatives\\u000a of flavan-3-ol (catechin and epicatechin), flavanone (flavanone and naringenin), flavone (flavone, chrysin and apigenin),\\u000a flavonol (flavonol, galangin, quercetin and morin) and isoflavone (biochanin A and 2-carbethoxy5,7-dihydroxy-4?-methoxyisoflavone),\\u000a along

Hee Kee Kim; Soon Young Namgoong; Hyun Pyo Kim

1993-01-01

197

Pathology Case Study: History of Fatigue and Edema  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with fatigue and two weeks of increasing edema. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, laboratory findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hepatopathology.

Adamson, Ann T.

2007-10-30

198

Acupuncture and moxibustion reduces neuronal edema in Alzheimer's disease rats  

PubMed Central

To examine the possible correlation of aberrant Wnt signaling and pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease, we established a rat model of Alzheimer's disease and measured axin and ?-catenin expression in the hippocampus. Rats were pretreated with moxibustion or electroacupuncture, or both, at Baihui (GV20) and Shenshu (BL23). Axin expression was lower, ?-catenin expression was greater, and neuronal cytoplasmic edema was visibly prevented in the rats that had received the pretreatments. Our results suggest that the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of acupuncture and moxibustion in Alzheimer's disease is associated with axin and ?-catenin expression in the Wnt signal transduction pathway. PMID:25206919

Zhou, Hua; Sun, Guojie; Kong, Lihong; Du, Yanjun; Shen, Feng; Wang, Shuju; Chen, Bangguo; Zeng, Xiaoling

2014-01-01

199

Negative pressure pulmonary edema associated with anterior cervical spine surgery.  

PubMed

We report a very rare case of negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) that occurred immediately after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). The patient was a 25-year-old man who sustained a facet fracture-dislocation of C5 during a traffic accident. After ACDF, he developed NPPE and needed mechanical ventilation. Fortunately, he recovered fully within 24 hours. NPPE is a rare postoperative complication that may occur after cervical spine surgery. The aims of this report are to present information regarding the diagnosis and emergent treatment of NPPE, and to review the previous literature regarding this serious complication. PMID:25558327

Shigematsu, Hideki; Yoneda, Masana; Tanaka, Yasuhito

2014-12-01

200

Use of antivascular endothelial growth factor for diabetic macular edema  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetic macular edema (DME) is one of the manifestations of diabetic retinopathy leading to loss of central vision and visual acuity. It manifests itself with swelling around the central part of the retina, the area responsible for sharp vision. Current treatment includes laser therapy and intravitreal steroids with preventative measures including diabetes control. No one treatment has guaranteed control of diabetic macular edema which leads to deteriorating visual acuity, function and quality of life in patients. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to be a critical stimulus in the pathogenesis of macular edema secondary to diabetes.1 Antiangiogenic therapy encompassed treatment with anti-VEGF which inhibits VEGF-driven neovascularization hence macular edema leading to decreased visual acuity. Objective For this review, we evaluated the effectiveness of intravitreal anti-VEGF in treating DME. Data sources We identified five trials (n = 525) using electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials [Central], Medline®, and Excerpta Medica Database [EMBASE®]) in October 2008, supplemented by hand searching of reference lists, review articles, and conference abstracts. Methods We included all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating any form of intravitreal anti-VEGF for treating DME. The main outcome factor was change in best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness. One author assessed eligibility, methodological quality, and extracted data. Meta analysis was performed when appropriate. Results We included three trials of adequate methodological quality in our meta-analysis. Patients treated with anti-VEGF showed improvement in visual acuity of ?0.17 (95% confidence interval [CI]: ?0.23, ?0.10) and central macular thickness ?84.69 (95% CI: ?117.09, ?52.30). Patients treated with combined anti-VEGF and intravitreal triamcinolone showed improvement of visual acuity of ?0.19 (95% CI: ?0.27, ?0.11) and central macular thickness mean change being –111.20 (95% CI: ?148.13, ?74.28). Conclusions Anti-VEGF has been associated with an improvement in visual acuity and central macular thickness in the analysis, however trial analysis was of a short duration and further research is needed to determine long-term benefits. PMID:20535227

Karim, Rushmia; Tang, Benjamin

2010-01-01

201

Acupuncture and moxibustion reduces neuronal edema in Alzheimer's disease rats.  

PubMed

To examine the possible correlation of aberrant Wnt signaling and pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease, we established a rat model of Alzheimer's disease and measured axin and ?-catenin expression in the hippocampus. Rats were pretreated with moxibustion or electroacupuncture, or both, at Baihui (GV20) and Shenshu (BL23). Axin expression was lower, ?-catenin expression was greater, and neuronal cytoplasmic edema was visibly prevented in the rats that had received the pretreatments. Our results suggest that the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of acupuncture and moxibustion in Alzheimer's disease is associated with axin and ?-catenin expression in the Wnt signal transduction pathway. PMID:25206919

Zhou, Hua; Sun, Guojie; Kong, Lihong; Du, Yanjun; Shen, Feng; Wang, Shuju; Chen, Bangguo; Zeng, Xiaoling

2014-05-01

202

Topical Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are nowadays widely used in ophthalmology to reduce eye inflammation, pain, and cystoid macular edema associated with cataract surgery. Recently, new topical NSAIDs have been approved for topical ophthalmic use, allowing for greater drug penetration into the vitreous. Hence, new therapeutic effects can be achieved, such as reduction of exudation secondary to age-related macular degeneration or diabetic maculopathy. We provide an updated review on the clinical use of NSAIDs for retinal diseases, with a focus on the potential future applications. PMID:24227908

Parmeggiani, Francesco; Romano, Mario R.; dell'Omo, Roberto

2013-01-01

203

In vivo photoacoustic tomography of mouse cerebral edema induced by cold injury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time, we have implemented photoacoustic tomography (PAT) to image the water content of an edema in vivo. We produced and imaged a cold-induced cerebral edema transcranially, then obtained blood vessel and water accumulation images at 610 and 975 nm, respectively. We tracked the changes at 12, 24, and 36 h after the cold injury. The blood volume decreased after the cold injury, and the maximum area of edema was observed 24 h after the cold injury. We validated PAT of the water content of the edema through magnetic Resonance Imaging and the water spectrum from the spectrophotometric measurement.

Xu, Zhun; Zhu, Quing; Wang, Lihong V.

2011-06-01

204

Current management of salicylate-induced pulmonary edema.  

PubMed

Salicylate-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE) can occur in both acute and chronic users of aspirin or salicylate products. The medical history, especially when it reveals the use of salicylates, is critical when considering this diagnosis. Unfortunately, the neurologic and systemic effects of salicylate toxicity may hinder the ability to obtain a reliable medical history. SIPE should be considered in patients who present with pulmonary edema and neurological changes, anion-gap metabolic acidosis, or possible sepsis. Some patients may be treated for "pseudosepsis" or other conditions, thereby delaying the diagnosis of salicylate intoxication. Misdiagnosis and possibly delayed diagnosis of SIPE can lead to a significant increase in morbidity and mortality. Serum and urine alkalinization by administration of intravenous sodium bicarbonate are commonly utilized therapeutic strategies. Finally, hemodialysis is a therapy which should be considered early in the course of treatment. The objective of this review was to emphasize the importance of rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment in patients with SIPE, and summarize the current literature as it relates to the adult population. PMID:21297545

Glisson, James K; Vesa, Telciane S; Bowling, Mark R

2011-03-01

205

Interleukin-2 induces early multisystem organ edema mediated by neutrophils.  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-2 (IL-2), an agent known to activate neutrophils (PMN) with thromboxane (Tx)B2 release, produces pulmonary edema within 6 hours of intravenous infusion. This study tests the role of PMN in mediating the edema. Anesthetized rats received 10(6)U recombinant human IL-2 (n = 15) or vehicle (n = 14) as a constant intravenous infusion during a period of 1 hour. At this time there was leukopenia 3.63 +/- 0.43 (x10(3)/mm3) relative to vehicle-infused control rats 6.12 +/- 0.86 and a decline in PMN, 2.19 +/- 0.14 relative to control value of 3.33 +/- 0.05 (both p less than 0.05). After 6 hours edema, as measured by increase in the wet to dry weight (W/d) ratio, was present in the lungs (4.93 +/- 0.20 relative to control 4.06 +/- 0.10), heart (4.09 +/- 0.11 versus 3.76 +/- 0.08), liver (3.50 +/- 0.10 versus 3.18 +/- 0.10), and kidney (4.25 +/- 0.07 versus 4.00 +/- 0.07) (all p less than 0.05). There was increased lung permeability demonstrated by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein concentration of 1970 +/- 210 micrograms/mL relative to control 460 +/- 90 micrograms/mL (p less than 0.05). Interleukin-2 resulted in lung PMN sequestration of 53 +/- 7 PMN/10 high-power fields (HPF) relative to 23 +/- 2 PMN/10 HPF in controls (p less than 0.05) and increased plasma TxB2 levels to 1290 +/- 245 pg/mL relative to control 481 +/- 93 pg/mL (p less than 0.05). Pretreatment of other rats (n = 8) with selective anti-rat neutrophil antiserum 18 hours before the experiment led to a peripheral PMN count 10% of baseline and prevented edema in the lungs (W/d ratio 4.20 +/- 0.16) and heart (3.67 +/- 0.07) (both p less than 0.05) but not liver or kidney. Protein in lung lavage was reduced to 760 +/- 220 micrograms/mL (p less than 0.05). The protection afforded by leukopenia was associated with lack of PMN sequestration and prevention of the increase in plasma Tx levels (484 +/- 120 pg/mL, p less than 0.05). These data indicate that the rapid induction of lung and heart edema with a 1-hour infusion of IL-2 in the rat is mediated, in large part, by activated PMNs. PMID:1867524

Welbourn, R; Goldman, G; Kobzik, L; Paterson, I; Shepro, D; Hechtman, H B

1991-01-01

206

Strategy for the Management of Diabetic Macular Edema: The European Vitreo-Retinal Society Macular Edema Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. To compare the efficacy of different therapies in the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). Design. Nonrandomized, multicenter clinical study. Participants. 86 retina specialists from 29 countries provided clinical information on 2,603 patients with macular edema including 870 patients with DME. Methods. Reported data included the type and number of treatment(s) performed, the pre- and posttreatment visual acuities, and other clinical findings. The results were analyzed by the French INSEE (National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies). Main Outcome Measures. Mean change of visual acuity and mean number of treatments performed. Results. The change in visual acuity over time in response to each treatment was plotted in second order polynomial regression trend lines. Intravitreal triamcinolone monotherapy resulted in some improvement in vision. Treatment with threshold or subthreshold grid laser also resulted in minimal vision gain. Anti-VEGF therapy resulted in more significant visual improvement. Treatment with pars plana vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling alone resulted in an improvement in vision greater than that observed with anti-VEGF injection alone. In our DME study, treatment with vitrectomy and ILM peeling alone resulted in the better visual improvement compared to other therapies.

Adelman, Ron; Parnes, Aaron; Boscher, Claude; Ducournau, Didier

2015-01-01

207

Intraepithelial macrophage infiltration is related to a high number of regulatory T cells and promotes a progressive course of HPV-induced vulvar neoplasia.  

PubMed

Human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced usual-type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN) is infiltrated by myeloid cells but the type and role of these cells is unclear. We used triple immunofluorescent confocal microscopy to locate, identify and quantify myeloid cells based on their staining pattern for CD14, CD33 and CD163 in a cohort of 43 primary and 20 recurrent uVIN lesions, 21 carcinomas and 26 normal vulvar tissues. The progressive course of uVIN is characterized by an increase in both intraepithelial and stromal mature M1 and M2 macrophages. While the M2 macrophages outnumber M1 macrophages in healthy controls and uVIN, they are matched in number by M1 macrophages in cancer. Importantly, uVIN patients with a dense intraepithelial infiltration with mature CD14+ macrophages (irrespective of M1 or M2 type) displayed approximately a six times higher risk to develop a recurrence and a high number of these cells constituted an independent prognostic factor for recurrence. In addition, a dense intraepithelial CD14+ cell infiltration was associated with high numbers of intraepithelial CD4+ Tregs and low numbers of stromal CD8+TIM3+ T cells. Patients with low numbers of intraepithelial CD14+ cells and high numbers of stromal CD8+TIM3+ cells showed the best recurrence-free survival. These data clearly show the importance of the local immune response in HPV-induced vulvar neoplasia and may be of help in predicting the prognosis of patients or their response to immunotherapy. PMID:25220265

van Esch, Edith M G; van Poelgeest, Mariette I E; Trimbos, J Baptist M Z; Fleuren, Gert Jan; Jordanova, Ekaterina S; van der Burg, Sjoerd H

2015-02-15

208

Coexisting high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and condyloma acuminatum: independent lesions due to different HPV types occurring in immunocompromised patients.  

PubMed

The majority of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is high-grade and is related to high-risk human papillomavirus (HRHPV) (most commonly HPV 16). It is considered to be the precursor of HRHPV-related vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. Vulvar condyloma acuminatum is low-risk HPV (LRHPV)-related (most commonly types 6 and 11) and has virtually no risk of neoplastic progression. While infection with multiple LRHPV and HRHPV types has been reported for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, coexisting vulvar condyloma and adjacent high-grade VIN have not been well characterized. Eleven cases of concurrent condyloma acuminatum and adjacent flat high-grade VIN and 3 cases of high-grade VIN with prominent condylomatous architecture were analyzed using immunohistochemical analysis of p16 expression, in situ hybridization (ISH) for HPV detection [HPV 6/11, HPV 16, HPV 18, and HPV wide spectrum (types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 51, 52) probes], and HPV typing by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method (in select cases). All patients had underlying immunosuppressive conditions (human immunodeficiency virus infection or posttransplant therapy). Among the 11 cases of concurrent high-grade VIN and condyloma, the lesions were directly adjacent to one another in 5 cases (with 2 of these demonstrating an intimate admixture of lesions), and in 6 cases the lesions were found in separate tissue sections from the same specimen. Diffuse/strong p16 expression was seen in all high-grade VIN lesions, whereas patchy/weak staining was found in all condylomata. All condylomata contained HPV 6 or 11 as detected by ISH. HRHPV was detected in all of the accompanying high-grade VIN lesions. Ten contained HPV 16 (9 by ISH, 1 by PCR), with the remaining case containing multiple HPV types by PCR. All condylomatous high-grade VIN lesions demonstrated diffuse/strong p16 expression and had evidence of HRHPV (1 with HPV 16 by ISH, 1 with HPV 18 by ISH, and 1 with multiple HPV types by PCR), with no detection of HPV 6 or 11 by ISH. The restriction of LRHPV to condylomatous components and HRHPV to high-grade VIN components of adjacent lesions suggests these are independent lesions caused by different HPV types. Diffuse p16 expression can highlight small foci of high-grade VIN, which may be overlooked in more abundant condylomatous tissue from immunosuppressed patients. The presence of only HRHPV in those VIN lesions with high-grade cytologic features but prominent condylomatous architecture supports their classification as forms of pure high-grade VIN and distinguishes them from condyloma acuminatum. PMID:23026935

Maniar, Kruti P; Ronnett, Brigitte M; Vang, Russell; Yemelyanova, Anna

2013-01-01

209

Coexisting High-grade Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia (VIN) and Condyloma Acuminatum - Independent Lesions Due to Different HPV Types Occurring in Immunocompromised Patients  

PubMed Central

The majority of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is high-grade and is related to high-risk human papillomavirus (HRHPV) (most commonly HPV16). It is considered to be the precursor of HRHPV-related vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. Vulvar condyloma acuminatum is low-risk HPV (LRHPV)-related (most commonly types 6 and 11) and has virtually no risk of neoplastic progression. While infection with multiple LR- and HRHPV types has been reported for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, coexisting vulvar condyloma and adjacent high-grade VIN have not been well characterized. Eleven cases of concurrent condyloma acuminatum and adjacent flat high-grade VIN and three cases of high-grade VIN with prominent condylomatous architecture were analyzed using immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of p16 expression, in situ hybridization (ISH) for HPV detection (HPV6/11, HPV16, HPV 18, and HPV WS [types 6,11,16,18,31,33,35,45,51,52] probes), and HPV typing by PCR-based method (in select cases). All patients had underlying immunosuppressive conditions (human immunodeficiency virus infection or post-transplant therapy). Among the 11 cases of concurrent high-grade VIN and condyloma, the lesions were directly adjacent to one another in 5 cases (with 2 of these demonstrating an intimate admixture of lesions), and in 6 cases were found in separate tissue sections from the same specimen. Diffuse/strong p16 expression was seen in all high-grade VIN lesions, whereas patchy/weak staining was found in all condylomata. All condylomata contained HPV 6 or 11 as detected by ISH. All of the accompanying high-grade VIN lesions had HRHPV detected. Ten contained HPV 16 (9 by ISH, 1 by PCR), with the remaining case containing multiple HPV types by PCR. All condylomatous high-grade VIN lesions demonstrated diffuse/strong p16 expression and had evidence of HRHPV (one with HPV 16 by ISH, one with HPV 18 by ISH, and one with multiple HPV types by PCR), with no detection of HPV 6 or 11 by ISH. The restriction of LRHPV to condylomatous components and HRHPV to high-grade VIN components of adjacent lesions suggests these are independent lesions caused by different HPV types. Diffuse p16 expression can highlight small foci of high-grade VIN which may be overlooked in more abundant condylomatous tissue from immunosuppressed patients. The presence of only HRHPV in those VIN lesions with high-grade cytologic features but prominent condylomatous architecture supports their classification as forms of pure high-grade VIN and distinguishes them from condyloma acuminatum. PMID:23026935

Maniar, Kruti P.; Ronnett, Brigitte M.; Vang, Russell; Yemelyanova, Anna

2012-01-01

210

Cystoid macular edema in a patient with Danon disease  

PubMed Central

To report a patient with Danon retinopathy with cystoid macular edema treated with topical dorzolamide 2% eye drops and oral acetazolamide. A 37-year-old Caucasian man with Danon disease treated with topical and oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors participated in the study. Examinations performed before and during treatment included visual acuity (VA), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and electroretinography. Following total 48 weeks of treatment, VA decreased from 20/30 OD, 20/200 OS, to 20/40 OD, CF OS. The mean central retinal thickness was unchanged from baseline 263 ?m OD, 226 ?m OS, after treatment 283 ?m OD and 202 ?m OS. In our case, carbonic anydrase inhibitors were not effective. However, a general recommendation cannot be given based on a single case. PMID:23571262

Mack, Heather G

2014-01-01

211

Cystoid macular edema in a patient with Danon disease.  

PubMed

To report a patient with Danon retinopathy with cystoid macular edema treated with topical dorzolamide 2% eye drops and oral acetazolamide. A 37-year-old Caucasian man with Danon disease treated with topical and oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors participated in the study. Examinations performed before and during treatment included visual acuity (VA), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and electroretinography. Following total 48 weeks of treatment, VA decreased from 20/30 OD, 20/200 OS, to 20/40 OD, CF OS. The mean central retinal thickness was unchanged from baseline 263 ?m OD , 226 ?m OS, after treatment 283 ?m OD and 202 ?m OS. In our case, carbonic anydrase inhibitors were not effective. However, a general recommendation cannot be given based on a single case. PMID:23571262

Mack, Heather G

2014-12-01

212

Detection of diabetic foveal edema with biomicroscopy, fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

To describe different techniques for the detection of diabetic foveal edema. A retrospective review of the detection of diabetic foveal edema. Noncontact lens biomicroscopy is relatively insensitive in mild foveal thickening apparent on optical coherence tomography. Optical coherence tomography measurements can detect early retinal damage in diabetic retinopathy patients. ABSTRACT

Rosana Zacarias Hannouche; Marcos Pereira Ávila

2008-01-01

213

Decreased light attenuation in cerebral cortex during cerebral edema detected using optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

Cerebral edema develops in response to a variety of conditions, including traumatic brain injury and stroke, and contributes to the poor prognosis associated with these injuries. This study examines the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for detecting cerebral edema in vivo. Three-dimensional imaging of an in vivo water intoxication model in mice was performed using a spectral-domain OCT system centered at 1300 nm. The change in attenuation coefficient was calculated and cerebral blood flow was analyzed using Doppler OCT techniques. We found that the average attenuation coefficient in the cerebral cortex decreased over time as edema progressed. The initial decrease began within minutes of inducing cerebral edema and a maximum decrease of 8% was observed by the end of the experiment. Additionally, cerebral blood flow slowed during late-stage edema. Analysis of local regions revealed the same trend at various locations in the brain, consistent with the global nature of the cerebral edema model used in this study. These results demonstrate that OCT is capable of detecting in vivo optical changes occurring due to cerebral edema and highlights the potential of OCT for precise spatiotemporal detection of cerebral edema.

Rodriguez, Carissa L. R.; Szu, Jenny I.; Eberle, Melissa M.; Wang, Yan; Hsu, Mike S.; Binder, Devin K.; Park, B. Hyle

2015-01-01

214

Cystoid macular edema associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis resolved by a dexamethasone intravitreal implant.  

PubMed

Uveitis, glaucoma, and cystoid macular edema frequently develop in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The authors describe a case of cystoid macular edema associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis that had not responded to intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and bevacizumab but improved significantly following intravitreal injection with a dexamethasone 0.7 mg implant. PMID:24811080

Totan, Yüksel; Güler, Emre; Guragaç, Fatma B; Dervisogullari, Mehmet S; Tenlik, Aylin; Hepsen, Ibrahim F

2014-01-01

215

Bone marrow edema of the mandibular condyle related to internal derangement, osteoarthrosis, and joint effusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate whether common magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) variables such as temporomandibular joint (TMJ) internal derangement, osteoarthrosis, and effusion may predict the diagnostic group of bone marrow edema of the mandibular condyle. Materials and Methods: The relationship between bone marrow edema and TMJ disc displacement, osteoarthrosis, and effusion was analyzed in MRIs

Iris Brandlmaier; Christoph Schmid; Stefan Bertram; Ansgar Rudisch

2003-01-01

216

Pulmonary edema due to partial upper airway obstruction in a child  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case of an 8-year-old boy is reported, who developed acute pulmonary edema associated with acute subglottic swelling and subsequent partial upper airway obstruction after extubation and recovery from anaesthesia. The main factors responsible for the formation of pulmonary edema presumbly are a large subatmospheric transpulmonary pressure gradient and hypoxia leading to translocation of circulating blood volume into the pulmonary

R. Scherer; P. Dreyer; G. Jorch

1988-01-01

217

Characterization and quantification of cerebral edema induced by synchrotron x-ray microbeam radiation therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral edema is one of the main acute complications arising after irradiation of brain tumors. Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), an innovative experimental radiotherapy technique using spatially fractionated synchrotron x-rays, has been shown to spare radiosensitive tissues such as mammal brains. The aim of this study was to determine if cerebral edema occurs after MRT using diffusion-weighted MRI and microgravimetry. Prone

Raphaël Serduc; Yohan van de Looij; Gilles Francony; Olivier Verdonck; Boudewijn van der Sanden; Jean Laissue; Régine Farion; Elke Bräuer-Krisch; Erik Albert Siegbahn; Alberto Bravin; Yolanda Prezado; Christoph Segebarth; Chantal Rémy; Hana Lahrech

2008-01-01

218

Reduction of edema of lower extremities by subcutaneous, controlled drainage: Eight cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the pathophysiology and modern treatment of edema. Dissatisfied with the treatment available, the authors report on the use of a closed, controlled drainage procedure in eight patients with severe edema of the lower limbs. It is important to note that this technique is used as a palliative procedure. Seven out of the eight patients considered the procedure

Lawrence J. Clein; Eglee Pugachev

2004-01-01

219

Cost-Effectiveness of Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Background Macular edema is the most common cause of visual loss among patients with diabetes. Objective To determine the cost-effectiveness of different treatments of diabetic macular edema (DME). Design Markov model. Data Sources Published literature and expert opinion. Target Population Patients with clinically significant DME. Time Horizon Lifetime. Perspective Societal. Intervention Laser treatment, intraocular injections of triamcinolone or a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor, or a combination of both. Outcome Measures Discounted costs, gains in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Results of Base-Case Analysis All treatments except laser monotherapy substantially reduced costs, and all treatments except triamcinolone monotherapy increased QALYs. Laser treatment plus a VEGF inhibitor achieved the greatest benefit, gaining 0.56 QALYs at a cost of $6975 for an ICER of $12 410 per QALY compared with laser treatment plus triamcinolone. Monotherapy with a VEGF inhibitor achieved similar outcomes to combination therapy with laser treatment plus a VEGF inhibitor. Laser monotherapy and triamcinolone monotherapy were less effective and more costly than combination therapy. Results of Sensitivity Analysis VEGF inhibitor monotherapy was sometimes preferred over laser treatment plus a VEGF inhibitor, depending on the reduction in quality of life with loss of visual acuity. When the VEGF inhibitor bevacizumab was as effective as ranibizumab, it was preferable to because of its lower cost. Limitation Long-term outcome data for treated and untreated diseases are limited. Conclusion The most effective treatment of DME is VEGF inhibitor injections with or without laser treatment. This therapy compares favorably with cost-effective interventions for other conditions. Primary Funding Source Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. PMID:24573663

Pershing, Suzann; Enns, Eva A.; Matesic, Brian; Owens, Douglas K.; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.

2014-01-01

220

Involvement of COX2-thromboxane pathway in TCDD-induced precardiac edema in developing zebrafish.  

PubMed

The cardiovascular system is one of the most characteristic and important targets for developmental toxicity by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in fish larvae. However, knowledge of the mechanism of TCDD-induced edema after heterodimerization of aryl hydrocarbon receptor type 2 (AHR2) and AHR nuclear translocator type 1 (ARNT1) is still limited. In the present study, microscopic analysis with a high-speed camera revealed that TCDD increased the size of a small cavity between the heart and body wall in early eleutheroembryos, a toxic effect that we designate as precardiac edema. A concentration-response curve for precardiac edema at 2 days post fertilization (dpf) showed close similarity to that for conventional pericardial edema at 3 dpf. Precardiac edema caused by TCDD was reduced by morpholino knockdown of AHR2 and ARNT1, as well as by an antioxidant (ascorbic acid). A selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX2), NS398, also markedly inhibited TCDD-induced precardiac edema. A thromboxane receptor (TP) antagonist, ICI-192,605 almost abolished TCDD-induced precardiac edema and this effect was canceled by U46619, a TP agonist, which was not influential in the action of TCDD by itself. Knockdown of COX2b and thromboxane A synthase 1 (TBXS), but not COX2a, strongly reduced TCDD-induced precardiac edema. Knockdown of COX2b was without effect on mesencephalic circulation failure caused by TCDD. The edema by TCDD was also inhibited by knockdown of c-mpl, a thrombopoietin receptor necessary for thromobocyte production. Finally, induction of COX2b, but not COX2a, by TCDD was seen in eleutheroembryos at 3 dpf. These results suggest a role of the COX2b-thromboxane pathway in precardiac edema formation following TCDD exposure in developing zebrafish. PMID:24858302

Teraoka, Hiroki; Okuno, Yuki; Nijoukubo, Daisuke; Yamakoshi, Ayumi; Peterson, Richard E; Stegeman, John J; Kitazawa, Takio; Hiraga, Takeo; Kubota, Akira

2014-09-01

221

PET Reveals Inflammation around Calcified Taenia solium Granulomas with Perilesional Edema  

PubMed Central

Objective Neurocysticercosis, an infection with the larval form of the tapeworm, Taeniasolium, is the cause of 29% of epilepsy in endemic regions. Epilepsy in this population is mostly associated with calcified granulomas; at the time of seizure recurrence 50% of those with calcifications demonstrate transient surrounding perilesional edema. Whether edema is consequence of the seizure, or a result of host inflammation directed against parasite antigens or other processes is unknown. To investigate whether perilesional edema is due to inflammation, we imaged a marker of neuroinflammation, translocater protein (TSPO), using positron emission tomography (PET) and the selective ligand 11C-PBR28. Methods In nine patients with perilesional edema, degenerating cyst or both, PET findings were compared to the corresponding magnetic resonance images. Degenerating cysts were also studied because unlike perilesional edema, degenerating cysts are known to have inflammation. In three of the nine patients, changes in 11C-PBR28 binding were also studied over time. 11C-PBR28 binding was compared to the contralateral un-affected region. Results 11C-PBR28 binding increased by a mean of 13% in perilesional edema or degenerating cysts (P = 0·0005, n = 13 in nine patients). Among these 13 lesions, perilesional edema (n=10) showed a slightly smaller increase of 10% compared to the contralateral side (P = 0·005) than the three degenerating cysts. In five lesions with perilesional edema in which repeated measurements of 11C-PBR28 binding were done, increased binding lasted for 2-9 months. Conclusions Increased TSPO in perilesional edema indicates an inflammatory etiology. The long duration of increased TSPO binding after resolution of the original perilesional edema and the pattern of periodic episodes is consistent with intermittent exacerbation from a continued baseline presence of low level inflammation. Novel anti-inflammatory measures may be useful in the prevention or treatment of seizures in this population. PMID:24058514

Fujita, Masahiro; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Ferraris Araneta, Maria Desiree; Hong, Jinsoo; Pike, Victor W.; Innis, Robert B.; Nash, Theodore E.

2013-01-01

222

HPV-negative vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) with basaloid histologic pattern: an unrecognized variant of simplex (differentiated) VIN.  

PubMed

Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is classified into 2 clinicopathologic subtypes, classic, related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and affecting relatively young women, and simplex (differentiated), negative for HPV and affecting elderly women. Histologically, classic VIN may be basaloid and characterized by a replacement of the whole epidermis by a homogeneous population of small, "undifferentiated" keratinocytes, which are diffusely positive for p16(INK4a) and negative for p53. Simplex VIN is characterized by atypia of the basal layer with high degree of cellular differentiation and shows negative staining for p16(INK4a) and frequent positivity for p53. Simplex VIN is frequently associated with squamous cell hyperplasia and lichen sclerosus. From a series of 110 invasive squamous cell carcinomas of the vulva negative for HPV by highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction, 51 had VIN lesions located at least 1 cm away from the tumor. In 4 (7.8%) cases, the VIN had basaloid histologic features. All cases showed obvious architectural disorganization with a homogeneous population of basaloid, undifferentiated keratinocytes with scanty cytoplasm replacing the whole epidermis. Immunohistochemically, all cases were negative for p16(INK4a) and strongly positive for p53 with suprabasilar extension of positive cells. All patients were postmenopausal (median age 61.0 y; range, 45-76). Squamous cell hyperplasia was identified in 1 case and lichen sclerosus in 1 case. The invasive squamous cell carcinoma was of keratinizing type in 3 cases and basaloid in 1 case. In conclusion, simplex, HPV-negative VIN may occasionally have basaloid morphology. Immunostaining for p16(INK4a) and p53 protein may be helpful in the identification of these lesions and the differential diagnosis with classic, HPV-positive basaloid VIN. PMID:19730361

Ordi, Jaume; Alejo, Maria; Fusté, Victòria; Lloveras, Belen; Del Pino, Marta; Alonso, Immaculada; Torné, Aureli

2009-11-01

223

Safety and efficacy of ospemifene for the treatment of dyspareunia associated with vulvar and vaginal atrophy due to menopause  

PubMed Central

During the menopausal transition, women experience a number of symptoms due to declining estrogen levels, including vasomotor symptoms and vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA). Unlike vasomotor symptoms, vaginal dryness and dyspareunia, the main symptoms of VVA, typically worsen without treatment and can significantly impact the quality of life. Up to 60% of postmenopausal women may be affected by VVA, but many women unfortunately do not seek treatment due to embarrassment or other factors. After 20+ years in development, ospemifene (Osphena™) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2013 for treatment of moderate-to-severe dyspareunia associated with VVA due to menopause. As the first non-hormonal alternative to estrogen-based products for this indication, the approval of ospemifene represents a significant milestone in postmenopausal women’s health. Ospemifene is a non-steroidal estrogen receptor agonist/antagonist, also known as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), from the same chemical class as the breast cancer drugs tamoxifen and toremifene. Unlike other selective estrogen receptor modulators, ospemifene exerts a strong, nearly full estrogen agonist effect in the vaginal epithelium, making it well suited for the treatment of dyspareunia in postmenopausal women. Results of Phase III clinical trials showed that ospemifene significantly improved the vaginal maturation index (decreased parabasal cells and increased superficial cells), decreased vaginal pH, and decreased severity of the self-identified most bothersome symptom (dyspareunia or vaginal dryness) compared to placebo. Long-term safety studies revealed that 60 mg ospemifene given daily for 52 weeks was well tolerated and was not associated with any endometrium or breast-related safety concerns. This review discusses the preclinical and clinical data supporting the use of ospemifene for the treatment of dyspareunia associated with VVA due to menopause and provides an overview of its clinical safety. PMID:25419123

Wurz, Gregory T; Kao, Chiao-Jung; DeGregorio, Michael W

2014-01-01

224

Macular Edema After Cataract Surgery In Eyes Without Pre-operative Central-involved Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the incidence of central-involved macular edema (ME)16 weeks following cataract surgery in eyes with diabetic retinopathy (DR) without definite central-involved diabetic macular edema (DME) preoperatively. Methods In a multicenter, prospective, observational study, participants (N = 293) with DR without definite OCT central subfield (CSF) thickening underwent cataract surgery. The primary outcome was development of central-involved ME defined as; (1) OCT CSF thickness ? 250?m (time domain) or ? 310?m (spectral domain) with ?1 step increase in logOCT CSF thickness pre-operative to the 16-week visit; (2) ?2-step increase in logOCT CSF pre-operative to 16-week visit; or (3) non-topical treatment for ME received before the 16-week visit with either of the OCT criteria met at the time of treatment. Results Median participant age was 64 years with median visual acuity letter score of 69 (Snellen equivalent 20/40). Forty-four percent of eyes had history of prior treatment for DME. Sixteen weeks postoperatively, central-involved ME was noted in 0% (95%CI: 0-20%) of 17 eyes with no pre-operative DME. Of eyes with non-central involved DME, 10% (95%CI: 5-18%) of 97 eyes without central involved DME and 12% (95%CI: 7-19%) of 147 eyes with possible central involved DME at baseline progressed to central-involved ME. History of DME treatment was significantly associated with central-involved ME development (P<0.001). Conclusion In eyes with DR without concurrent central-involved DME, presence of non-central DME immediately prior to cataract surgery, or history of DME treatment, may increase risk of developing central-involved ME 16 weeks after cataract extraction. PMID:23599174

Baker, Carl W.; Almukhtar, Talat; Bressler, Neil M.; Glassman, Adam R.; Grover, Sandeep; Kim, Stephen J.; Murtha, Timothy J.; Rauser, Michael E.; Stockdale, Cynthia

2014-01-01

225

The Effect of TIP on Pneumovirus-Induced Pulmonary Edema in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Pulmonary edema plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced respiratory failure. In this study we determined whether treatment with TIP (AP301), a synthetic cyclic peptide that mimics the lectin-like domain of human TNF, decreases pulmonary edema in a mouse model of severe human RSV infection. TIP is currently undergoing clinical trials as a therapy for pulmonary permeability edema and has been shown to decrease pulmonary edema in different lung injury models. Methods C57BL/6 mice were infected with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) and received TIP or saline (control group) by intratracheal instillation on day five (early administration) or day seven (late administration) after infection. In a separate set of experiments the effect of multiple dose administration of TIP versus saline was tested. Pulmonary edema was determined by the lung wet-to-dry (W/D) weight ratio and was assessed at different time-points after the administration of TIP. Secondary outcomes included clinical scores and lung cellular response. Results TIP did not have an effect on pulmonary edema in different dose regimens at different time points during PVM infection. In addition, TIP administration did not affect clinical severity scores or lung cellular response. Conclusion In this murine model of severe RSV infection TIP did not affect pulmonary edema nor course of disease. PMID:25047452

van den Berg, Elske; Bem, Reinout A.; Bos, Albert P.; Lutter, Rene; van Woensel, Job B. M.

2014-01-01

226

The effect of inhaled nitric oxide on the carrageenan-induced paw edema.  

PubMed

Inhaled nitric oxide therapy reaches not only pulmonary vessels, but also other vasculatures, presenting anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of inhaled nitric oxide on a mice model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. Paw edema was induced in male Swiss mice (20-30 g) by subplantar injection of carrageenan (0.05 ml of a 1% suspension in 0.9% saline). The evaluation of time-course edema (mililiter) was measured by plethysmometry until 12 h following carrageenan administration. Thirty minutes after carrageenan injection, some groups received inhaled nitric oxide (300 ppm at variable doses and times) or Indometacin (INDO 5 mg/Kg, v.o), while others received sildenafil (1 mg/Kg, i.p) or rolipram (3 mg/Kg, i.p.) with or without inhaled nitric oxide. Paws were assessed for edema levels by plethysmometry, mieloperoxidase activity and histological analysis. Inhaled nitric oxide significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema, mieloperoxidase activity and inflammatory infiltrate, although similar results were also observed in sildenafil and rolipram treated groups. In addition, significant effects between inhaled nitric oxide with pharmacological therapy was observed. Inhaled nitric oxide presents anti-inflammatory effects on carrageenan-induce paw edema, as observed through reduced edema, mieloperoxidase activity and neutrophil infiltration, indicating that inhaled nitric oxide therapy goes beyond lung vascular effects. PMID:25070733

Coelho, Carly Faria; Vieira, Rodolfo P; Lopes-Martins, Patrícia Sardinha Leonardo; Teixeira, Simone Aparecida; Borbely, Alexandre Urban; Gouvea, Irene Maria; Frigo, Lucio; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Álvaro Brandão

2015-01-01

227

Evaluation of Peritumoral Edema in the Delineation of Radiotherapy Clinical Target Volumes for Glioblastoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the spatial relationship between peritumoral edema and recurrence pattern in patients with glioblastoma (GBM). Methods and Materials: Forty-eight primary GBM patients received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy that did not intentionally include peritumoral edema within the clinical target volume between July 2000 and June 2001. All 48 patients have subsequently recurred, and their original treatment planning parameters were used for this study. New theoretical radiation treatment plans were created for the same 48 patients, based on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) target delineation guidelines that specify inclusion of peritumoral edema. Target volume and recurrent tumor coverage, as well as percent volume of normal brain irradiated, were assessed for both methods of target delineation using dose-volume histograms. Results: A comparison between the location of recurrent tumor and peritumoral edema volumes from all 48 cases failed to show correlation by linear regression modeling (r {sup 2} 0.0007; p = 0.3). For patients with edema >75 cm{sup 3}, the percent volume of brain irradiated to 46 Gy was significantly greater in treatment plans that intentionally included peritumoral edema compared with those that did not (38% vs. 31%; p = 0.003). The pattern of failure was identical between the two sets of plans (40 central, 3 in-field, 3 marginal, and 2 distant recurrence). Conclusion: Clinical target volume delineation based on a 2-cm margin rather than on peritumoral edema did not seem to alter the central pattern of failure for patients with GBM. For patients with peritumoral edema >75 cm{sup 3}, using a constant 2-cm margin resulted in a smaller median percent volume of brain being irradiated to 30 Gy, 46 Gy, and 50 Gy compared with corresponding theoretical RTOG plans that deliberately included peritumoral edema.

Chang, Eric L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: echang@mdanderson.org; Akyurek, Serap [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Avalos, Tedde C [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Rebueno, Neal C [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Spicer, Chris C [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Garcia, John C [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Famiglietti, Robin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Allen, Pamela K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Chao, K.S. Clifford [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mahajan, Anita [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Woo, Shiao Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Maor, Moshe H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2007-05-01

228

Characterization of corneal edema by forward and backward second harmonic generation microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy to image and quantify the structural changes of bovine corneal edema. Forward SHG (FWSHG) and backward SHG (BWSHG) signals were simultaneously collected from normal and edematous bovine corneas to reveal their morphological differences. In SHG imaging, edematous corneas can be characterized by uneven expansion in the lamellar interspacing and increased lamellar thickness in posterior stroma (depth > 200 ?m), while the anterior stroma composed of interwoven collagen architecture remained unaffected. Our work demonstrate the capability of SHG imaging in providing morphological information for the investigation of corneal edema biophysics and its potential application in the in vivo evaluation of advancing corneal edema.

Hsueh, Chiu-Mei; Lo, Wen; Chen, Wei-Liang; Hovhannisyan, Vladimir A.; Tan, Hsin-Yuan; Dong, Chen-Yuan

2010-02-01

229

Loss of wwox expression in zebrafish embryos causes edema and alters Ca2+ dynamics  

PubMed Central

We investigated the role of the WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (wwox) gene in the embryonic development of zebrafish, with particular emphasis on intracellular Ca2+ dynamics because Ca2+ is an important intracellular messenger. Comparisons between zebrafish wwox and human WWOX sequences identified highly conserved domain structures. wwox was expressed in developing heart tissues in the zebrafish embryo. Moreover, wwox knockdown induced pericardial edema with similarities to conditions observed in human breast cancer. The wwox knockdown embryos with the edema died within a week. High Ca2+ levels were observed at the boundary between the edema and yolk in wwox knockdown embryos. PMID:25649963

Konishi, Masataka; Shimada, Eriko

2015-01-01

230

Bevacizumab for the management of diabetic macular edema  

PubMed Central

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision loss in the working-age population and is relatedto 1%-5% of cases of blindness worldwide. Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the most frequent cause of DR vision loss and is an important public health problem. Recent studies have implicated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in DR and DME pathogenesis, as well as provided evidence of the benefits of anti-VEGF agents for the management of such conditions. Despite the benefits of intravitreal ranibizumab injection for the management of DME, the cost-effectiveness of intravitreal bevacizumab therapy has gained increasing interest in the scientific community. This review summarizes the studies examining bevacizumab for the management of DME, focusing on the efficacy and duration of the clinical benefits of decreasing DME and the improvement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). There is strong evidence that intravitreal bevacizumab injection therapy has a good cost-effective profile in the management of DME and may be associated with laser photocoagulation; however, its clinical superiority in terms of the duration of DME regression and the improvement of BCVA compared with intravitreal ranibizumab and other intravitreal anti-VEGF therapies remains unclear and deserves further investigation. PMID:23593532

Stefanini, Francisco Rosa; Arevalo, J Fernando; Maia, Maurício

2013-01-01

231

Structural Changes in Individual Retinal Layers in Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has enabled objective measurement of the total retinal thickness in diabetic macular edema (DME). The central retinal thickness is correlated modestly with visual impairment and changes paradoxically after treatments compared to the visual acuity. This suggests the clinical relevance of the central retinal thickness in DME and the presence of other factors that affect visual disturbance. Recent advances in spectral-domain (SD) OCT have provided better delineation of the structural changes and fine lesions in the individual retinal layers. Cystoid spaces in the inner nuclear layer and outer plexiform layer are related to quantitative and qualitative parameters in fluorescein angiography. OCT often shows vitreoretinal interface abnormalities in eyes with sponge-like retinal swelling. Serous retinal detachment is sometimes accompanied by hyperreflective foci in the subretinal fluid, which exacerbates the pathogenesis at the interface of the photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium. Photoreceptor damage at the fovea is thought to be represented by disruption of the external limiting membrane or the junction between the inner and outer segment lines and is correlated with visual impairment. Hyperreflective foci in the outer retinal layers on SD-OCT images, another marker of visual disturbance, are associated with foveal photoreceptor damage. PMID:24073417

Yoshimura, Nagahisa

2013-01-01

232

Lower extremity edema in patients with early ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to investigate clinical manifestations of lower extremity edema (LEE) in early ovarian cancer. Methods Patients with early ovarian cancer who underwent staging surgery between January 2001 and December 2010. Medical records for LEE and/or responses to the Gynecologic Cancer Lymphedema Questionnaire (GCLQ) were evaluated. Results Patients had a median age of 46 years. Twenty-nine patients (40.8%) had past (13 patients, 44.8%) and/or current patient-reported LEE (16 patients, 55.2%). Symptoms reported on the GCLQ in over 20% of respondents were numbness, firmness/tightness, swelling, heaviness, limited movement of knee, and aching. GCLQ total symptoms score was significantly higher in patients with current LEE. Most of the LEE (25/29, 86.2%) developed within 12 months after surgery and LEE lasted more than 6 months in approximately two-thirds of the patients (18/29, 62.1%). Only half of the patients (52.1%) indicated knowledge of lymphedema: 86.2% of LEE patients and 28.6% of patients with no LEE. Conclusions Although a significant proportion of patients with ovarian cancer have LEE after surgery, most are not aware of lymphedema until they develop. Education and analyses for LEE and lymphedema are needed in patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:24602386

2014-01-01

233

Cistoid macular edema as first manifestation of sarcoidosis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to report a case of cystoid macular edema (CME) as a rare first manifestation of ocular sarcoidosis after cataract surgery. A 60-year-old male developed a CME following uneventful phacoemulsification cataract extraction on his left eye. It resolved with conventional medical therapy. One year later the patient was diagnosed with bilateral CME. Oral corticosteroid therapy produced a significant regression. His medical and ocular histories were unremarkable and all tests for etiological diagnosis were negative. There were inflammation recurrences in his left eye, which were also treated with steroids. Optical coherence tomography showed complete resolution of foveal thickening without improvement in vision. Four years later, the patient presented with CME in both eyes. The laboratory tests included high angiotensin-converting enzyme levels and a gallium scan which were also consistent with sarcoidosis. Azathioprine was needed for management of ocular involvement, but it was withheld due to side-effects. At the present time, the CME is controlled with low-dose corticoids. Ocular involvement in sarcoidosis occurs in 20-50 % of patients. CME is not often the initial manifestation of the disease, but ocular sarcoidosis may present with a wide variety of ocular symptoms in all parts of the eye. Therefore, sarcoidosis should be kept in mind when evaluating a patient with ocular inflammation. PMID:24322273

Cabrillo-Estevez, Lucia; de Juan-Marcos, Lourdes; Kyriakou, Danai; Hernández-Galilea, Emiliano

2014-08-01

234

Molecular pathogenetic mechanisms of nephrotic edema: progress in understanding.  

PubMed

Molecular and pathogenetic mechanisms in sodium retention and water reabsorption of nephrotic edema are discussed. Are reported and analyzed molecular mechanisms about sodium retention in collecting duct cells regarding activation and surface expression of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) and sodium-potassium-ATPase (Na,K-ATPase) by aldosterone, vasopressin, natriuretic peptide system (underfill theory): is necessary a better understanding about the dysregulation of ENaC and Na,K-ATPase surface expression and the resistance to natriuretic peptide system. Are also reported and analyzed molecular mechanisms of sodium retention in proximal tubule cells regarding intrinsic albumin toxicity upon type 3 sodium-hydrogen exchanger ionic pump and the activity of sodium-hydrogen exchanger regulatory factor protein (overfill theory): a better knowledge about the link between albumin, sodium-hydrogen exchanger type 3 (NHE3) ionic pump, sodium-hydrogen exchanger regulatory factor protein is necessary. Then molecular mechanisms of vasopressin free water retention through acquaporin water channels in collecting duct cells are discussed: further studies are necessary to understand vasopressin release pathway (osmotic/nonosmotic) and V2 receptor activation with cell surface expression of renal acquaporins water channel. PMID:15893443

Camici, Marcello

2005-06-01

235

Automatic segmentation of microcystic macular edema in OCT  

PubMed Central

Microcystic macular edema (MME) manifests as small, hyporeflective cystic areas within the retina. For reasons that are still largely unknown, a small proportion of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) develop MME—predominantly in the inner nuclear layer. These cystoid spaces, denoted pseudocysts, can be imaged using optical coherence tomography (OCT) where they appear as small, discrete, low intensity areas with high contrast to the surrounding tissue. The ability to automatically segment these pseudocysts would enable a more detailed study of MME than has been previously possible. Although larger pseudocysts often appear quite clearly in the OCT images, the multi-frame averaging performed by the Spectralis scanner adds a significant amount of variability to the appearance of smaller pseudocysts. Thus, simple segmentation methods only incorporating intensity information do not perform well. In this work, we propose to use a random forest classifier to classify the MME pixels. An assortment of both intensity and spatial features are used to aid the classification. Using a cross-validation evaluation strategy with manual delineation as ground truth, our method is able to correctly identify 79% of pseudocysts with a precision of 85%. Finally, we constructed a classifier from the output of our algorithm to distinguish clinically identified MME from non-MME subjects yielding an accuracy of 92%. PMID:25657884

Lang, Andrew; Carass, Aaron; Swingle, Emily K.; Al-Louzi, Omar; Bhargava, Pavan; Saidha, Shiv; Ying, Howard S.; Calabresi, Peter A.; Prince, Jerry L.

2014-01-01

236

Automatic segmentation of microcystic macular edema in OCT.  

PubMed

Microcystic macular edema (MME) manifests as small, hyporeflective cystic areas within the retina. For reasons that are still largely unknown, a small proportion of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) develop MME-predominantly in the inner nuclear layer. These cystoid spaces, denoted pseudocysts, can be imaged using optical coherence tomography (OCT) where they appear as small, discrete, low intensity areas with high contrast to the surrounding tissue. The ability to automatically segment these pseudocysts would enable a more detailed study of MME than has been previously possible. Although larger pseudocysts often appear quite clearly in the OCT images, the multi-frame averaging performed by the Spectralis scanner adds a significant amount of variability to the appearance of smaller pseudocysts. Thus, simple segmentation methods only incorporating intensity information do not perform well. In this work, we propose to use a random forest classifier to classify the MME pixels. An assortment of both intensity and spatial features are used to aid the classification. Using a cross-validation evaluation strategy with manual delineation as ground truth, our method is able to correctly identify 79% of pseudocysts with a precision of 85%. Finally, we constructed a classifier from the output of our algorithm to distinguish clinically identified MME from non-MME subjects yielding an accuracy of 92%. PMID:25657884

Lang, Andrew; Carass, Aaron; Swingle, Emily K; Al-Louzi, Omar; Bhargava, Pavan; Saidha, Shiv; Ying, Howard S; Calabresi, Peter A; Prince, Jerry L

2015-01-01

237

Anti-VEGF for the Management of Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is an important cause of vision loss around the world, being the leading cause in the population between 20 and 60 years old. Among patients with DR, diabetic macular edema (DME) is the most frequent cause of vision impairment and represents a significant public health issue. Macular photocoagulation has been the standard treatment for this condition reducing the risk of moderate visual loss by approximately 50%. The role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in DR and DME pathogenesis has been demonstrated in recent studies. This review addresses and summarizes data from the clinical trials that investigated anti-VEGF for the management of DME and evaluates their impact on clinical practice. The literature searches were conducted between August and October 2013 in PubMed and Cochrane Library with no date restrictions and went through the most relevant studies on pegaptanib, ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept for the management of DME. The efficacy and safety of intravitreal anti-VEGF as therapy for DME have recently been proved by various clinical trials providing significantly positive visual and anatomical results. Regarding clinical practice, those outcomes have placed intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF as an option that must be considered for the treatment of DME. PMID:24741610

Stefanini, Francisco Rosa; Badaró, Emmerson; Falabella, Paulo; Koss, Michael; Farah, Michel Eid; Maia, Maurício

2014-01-01

238

Costs and Quality of Life in Diabetic Macular Edema: Canadian Burden of Diabetic Macular Edema Observational Study (C-REALITY)  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To characterize the economic and quality of life burden of diabetic macular edema (DME) in Canadian patients. Patients and Methods. 145 patients with DME were followed for 6 months with monthly telephone interviews and medical chart reviews at months 0, 3, and 6. Visual acuity in the worst-seeing eye was assessed at months 0 and 6. DME-related healthcare costs were determined over 6 months, and vision-related (National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire) and generic (EQ-5D) quality of life was assessed at months 0, 3, and 6. Results. Mean age of patients was 63.7 years: 52% were male and 72% had bilateral DME. At baseline, visual acuity was categorized as normal/mild loss for 63.4% of patients, moderate loss for 10.4%, and severe loss/nearly blind for 26.2%. Mean 6-month DME-related costs/patient were as follows: all patients (n = 135), $2,092; normal/mild loss (n = 88), $1,776; moderate loss (n = 13), $1,845; and severe loss/nearly blind (n = 34), $3,007. Composite scores for vision-related quality of life declined with increasing visual acuity loss; generic quality of life scores were highest for moderate loss and lowest for severe loss/nearly blind. Conclusions. DME-related costs in the Canadian healthcare system are substantial. Costs increased and vision-related quality of life declined with increasing visual acuity severity. PMID:24795818

Gonder, John R.; Walker, Valery M.; Barbeau, Martin; Zaour, Nancy; Zachau, Bryan H.; Hartje, James R.; Li, Ruihong

2014-01-01

239

[Cardiogenic pulmonary edema - truth and myths in the perspective of emergency medicine].  

PubMed

This critical analysis of the traditional pathophysiological approach to the diagnosis and treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary edema calls into question some long-established ideas and interventions that ought to be replaced by better evidence-based concepts. PMID:22991149

Osterwalder, J J

2012-09-19

240

9 CFR 309.8 - Cattle affected with anasarca and generalized edema.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle affected with anasarca and generalized... ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.8 Cattle affected with anasarca and generalized edema. All cattle found on ante-mortem inspection to...

2011-01-01

241

9 CFR 311.8 - Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or...CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.8 Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema. (a) Carcasses of cattle found on post-mortem...

2011-01-01

242

Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging corneal edema  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the structural features of corneal edema by multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy and the potential of this technique as a clinical in vivo monitoring technique for cornea disease diagnosis.

Hsueh, Chiu-Mei; Lo, Wen; Tan, Hsin-Yuan; Dong, Chen-Yuan

2008-02-01

243

Dose calculation for permanent prostate implants incorporating spatially anisotropic linearly time-resolving edema  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The objectives of this study were (i) to develop a dose calculation method for permanent prostate implants that incorporates a clinically motivated model for edema and (ii) to illustrate the use of the method by calculating the preimplant dosimetry error for a reference configuration of {sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, and {sup 137}Cs seeds subject to edema-induced motions corresponding to a variety of model parameters. Methods: A model for spatially anisotropic edema that resolves linearly with time was developed based on serial magnetic resonance imaging measurements made previously at our center to characterize the edema for a group of n=40 prostate implant patients [R. S. Sloboda et al., ''Time course of prostatic edema post permanent seed implant determined by magnetic resonance imaging,'' Brachytherapy 9, 354-361 (2010)]. Model parameters consisted of edema magnitude, {Delta}, and period, T. The TG-43 dose calculation formalism for a point source was extended to incorporate the edema model, thus enabling calculation via numerical integration of the cumulative dose around an individual seed in the presence of edema. Using an even power piecewise-continuous polynomial representation for the radial dose function, the cumulative dose was also expressed in closed analytical form. Application of the method was illustrated by calculating the preimplant dosimetry error, RE{sub preplan}, in a 5x5x5 cm{sup 3} volume for {sup 125}I (Oncura 6711), {sup 103}Pd (Theragenics 200), and {sup 131}Cs (IsoRay CS-1) seeds arranged in the Radiological Physics Center test case 2 configuration for a range of edema relative magnitudes ({Delta}=[0.1,0.2,0.4,0.6,1.0]) and periods (T=[28,56,84] d). Results were compared to preimplant dosimetry errors calculated using a variation of the isotropic edema model developed by Chen et al. [''Dosimetric effects of edema in permanent prostate seed implants: A rigorous solution,'' Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 47, 1405-1419 (2000)]. Results: As expected, RE{sub preplan} for our edema model indicated underdosage in the calculation volume with a clear dependence on seed and calculation point positions, and increased with increasing values of {Delta} and T. Values of RE{sub preplan} were generally larger near the ends of the virtual prostate in the RPC phantom compared with more central locations. For edema characteristics similar to the population average values previously measured at our center, i.e., {Delta}=0.2 and T=28 d, mean values of RE{sub preplan} in an axial plane located 1.5 cm from the center of the seed distribution were 8.3% for {sup 131}Cs seeds, 7.5% for {sup 103}Pd seeds, and 2.2% for {sup 125}I seeds. Maximum values of RE{sub preplan} in the same plane were about 1.5 times greater. Note that detailed results strictly apply only for loose seed implants where the seeds are fixed in tissue and move in synchrony with that tissue. Conclusions: A dose calculation method for permanent prostate implants incorporating spatially anisotropic linearly time-resolving edema was developed for which cumulative dose can be written in closed form. The method yields values for RE{sub preplan} that differ from those for spatially isotropic edema. The method is suitable for calculating pre- and postimplant dosimetry correction factors for clinical seed configurations when edema characteristics can be measured or estimated.

Monajemi, T. T.; Clements, Charles M.; Sloboda, Ron S. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada) and Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada)

2011-04-15

244

Quick and accurate measures in negative pressure pulmonary edema: a guideline for orthognathic surgeons.  

PubMed

Perioperative pulmonary edema is a rare complication of maxillofacial surgery. However, this potentially fatal complication may arise during any maxillofacial surgery. Negative pressure pulmonary edema can be caused by upper airway obstruction after operation. When this phenomenon arises, if not treated properly, it progresses rapidly causing fatal outcomes. Because orthognathic surgery is performed mostly on healthy and young patients, surgeons and anesthesiologists might neglect the possibility of such complications. Therefore, we must always take into consideration the possibility of negative pressure pulmonary edema. Careful observation of the patient; accurate knowledge; and active, quick, and noninvasive safe measures are required to treat this malady when it does occur. We report a case of negative pressure pulmonary edema after orthognathic surgery and its successful treatment. PMID:25153065

Hong, Sung Ok; Chung, Jun-Young; Lee, Deok-Won

2014-09-01

245

MYELIN BASIC PROTEIN-MESSENGER RNA (MBP-MRNA) EXPRESSION DURING TRIETHYLTIN-INDUCED MYELIN EDEMA  

EPA Science Inventory

Triethyltin (TET) is a neurotoxicant that produces severe but transient cerebral edema, characterized ultrastructurally by vacuolation of the intraperiod line of central nervous system (CNS) myelin. ET has been reported to depress levels of myelin basic protein (MBP), a glycoprot...

246

Cerebellar haemorrhage as a cause of neurogenic pulmonary edema-case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurogenic pulmonary edema is a rare clinical situation caused by an imbalance characterized by an excessive sympathetic\\u000a outflow. It is observed mostly in young patients, is associated with brain or spinal cord haemorrhage, trauma, tumours or\\u000a infections and is usually fatal. A case of neurogenic pulmonary edema in a 27-year-old woman is presented, caused by a cerebellar\\u000a haemorrhage due

Victor Gonçalves; Lu’is Silva-Carvalho; Isabel Rocha

2005-01-01

247

Optical coherence tomography of cystoid macular edema associated with retinitis pigmentosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE:To detect cystoid macular edema in consecutive eyes with retinitis pigmentosa by means of optical coherence tomography and to study the correlation between cross-sectional structures and angiographic findings in cystoid macular edema.METHODS:In a prospective study, cross-sectional images through the fovea were evaluated by means of optical coherence tomography in 89 phakic eyes of 46 patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Eyes showing

Hirohide Hirakawa; Hiroyuki Iijima; Takashi Gohdo; Shigeo Tsukahara

1999-01-01

248

Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) syndrome: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) is a rare form of paraneoplastic tenosynovitis, which is more prone to occur in elderly males. A 78-year-old male had a past history of gastric cancer 23 years ago and underwent subtotal gastrectomy then. He led a fair life after the surgery. However, fever, edema in four extremities, gait disturbance, and liver

Yi-Ming Chen; Liang-Kung Chen; Shinn-Jang Hwang; Der-Yuan Chen; Hidenori Arai

2011-01-01

249

Severe weight gain and generalized insulin edema after the starting of an insulin pump.  

PubMed

The possibility of the occurrence of a generalized edema after initiation or intensification of insulin treatment in patients with diabetes, although considered a rare event, has long been described in the literature. In this case, a state of clinically significant edema, with a concurrent severe weight gain, occurred in a patient with type 1 diabetes in whom the implantation of an insulin pump resulted in a dramatic and abrupt improvement in glycemic control. PMID:25282002

Greco, Domenico

2015-02-01

250

The Role of Inflammation in the Pathogenesis of Macular Edema Secondary to Retinal Vascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

Macular edema (ME) is a nonspecific sign of numerous retinal vascular diseases. This paper is an updated overview about the role of inflammatory processes in the genesis of both diabetic macular edema (DME) and ME secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO). We focus on the inflammatory mediators implicated, the effect of the different intravitreal therapies, the recruitment of leukocytes mediated by adhesion molecules, and the role of retinal Müller glial (RMG) cells. PMID:25152567

Ascaso, Francisco J.

2014-01-01

251

Bilateral cystoid macular edema with giant retinal achromic patch in a patient with tuberous sclerosis.  

PubMed

Retinal astrocytic hamartoma is the most common retinal finding in tuberous sclerosis and has been reported in association with cystoid macular edema. A retinal achromic patch is the second most common retinal finding in tuberous sclerosis. The authors report the first case of bilateral cystoid macular edema in which one the eyes does not have an identifiable retinal astrocytic hamartoma. They also describe a new retinal finding in tuberous sclerosis termed giant retinal achromic patch. PMID:25423644

Andrews, Laura; Lally, David R; Baumal, Caroline R

2014-01-01

252

Vaccination with genetically modified Shiga-like toxin IIe prevents edema disease in swine.  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli strains producing Shiga-like toxin II variant (SLT-IIe, formerly called SLT-IIv) cause edema disease in weaned pigs. Vaccination of pigs with a genetically modified form of Shiga-like toxin IIe, SLT-IIe(E167Q), has been previously shown to be nontoxic and to induce antibodies to SLT-IIe (V.M. Gordon. S.C. Whipp, H.W. Moon, A.D. O'Brien, and J.E. Samuel, Infect, Immun. 60:485-502, 1992). Fifty micrograms of SLT-IIe(E167Q) toxin was used to vaccinate suckling pigs at 1 and 2 weeks of age. Both vaccinated and nonvaccinated pigs were orally inoculated with an SLT-IIe-producing strain of E. coli after weaning (3 to 4 weeks of age). Pigs fed a low-protein diet that were not vaccinated with SLT-IIe(E167Q) developed subclinical edema disease, histologically evident as vascular necrosis. Pigs fed a high-protein diet that were not vaccinated with SLT-IIe(E167Q) developed clinical edema disease manifested as vascular necrosis, reduced weight gain, ataxia, palpebral edema, lateral recumbency, and death. Pigs vaccinated with SLT-IIe(E167Q) had a reduction in the incidence of subclinical edema disease and never developed clinical edema disease. These data demonstrate that vaccination with a genetically modified form of SLT-IIe prevents edema disease and are consistent with the notion that diet influences susceptibility to edema disease. PMID:8557374

Bosworth, B T; Samuel, J E; Moon, H W; O'Brien, A D; Gordon, V M; Whipp, S C

1996-01-01

253

Cerebral Edema and Cerebral Hemorrhages in Interleukin-10-Deficient Mice Infected with Plasmodium chabaudi  

PubMed Central

During a Plasmodium chabaudi infection in interleukin-10 (IL-10) knockout mice, there is greater parasite sequestration, more severe cerebral edema, and a high frequency of cerebral hemorrhage compared with infection of C57BL/6 mice. Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha treatment ameliorated both cerebral edema and hemorrhages, suggesting that proinflammatory responses contributed to cerebral complications in infected IL-10?/? mice. PMID:15102820

Sanni, Latifu A.; Jarra, William; Li, Ching; Langhorne, Jean

2004-01-01

254

Acute bone marrow edema of the hip: role of MR imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute bone marrow edema of the hip is a diagnostic challenge for both radiologists and clinicians. Marrow edema is often seen\\u000a in patients with hip pain and restriction of motion. In patients with acute non-traumatic hip pain, whose radiographs are\\u000a negative or inconclusive, MR imaging is the imaging study of choice. MR imaging is the most sensitive and specific imaging

Apostolos H. Karantanas

2007-01-01

255

An improved right sided electrical impedance method to monitor pulmonary edema  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Currently commercial devices exist that monitor pulmonary edema by measuring the electrical impedance between a lead in the\\u000a right ventricle (RV) and the device can. Studies have shown up to a 40% false alarm rate with these devices. We have published,\\u000a using a computer model, about a three fold improvement in lung sensitivity to edema by measuring the impedance between

R. P. Patterson; F. Yang; A. Belalcazar

256

Intravitreal bevacizumab for persistent macular edema with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.  

PubMed

To evaluate the effectiveness of an intravitreal bevacizumab injection on retinal neovascularization and diabetic macular edema (DME) refractory to laser photocoagulation therapy. Thirty-four eyes of 22 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and DME refractory to laser photocoagulation therapy received an intravitreal injection of 1.25 mg/0.05 ml of bevazicumab. Changes in mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), regression of neovascularization over time, and correlation between BCVA and CMT were evaluated. Follow-up visits were at weeks 1, 2 and 4 and months 3 and 6. Mean BCVA was significantly better than baseline only at week 2 (P = 0.036). Mean CMT decreased significantly from baseline at weeks 1, 2, and 4 (P = 0.001). At months 3 and 6, mean CMT increased, albeit insignificantly (P = 0.804 and P = 1.0). The decrease in fluorescein leakage was moderate in all eyes at the end of week 1. At week 2, there was total resolution of fluorescein leakage in 24 (70.5%) eyes and moderate resolution in 10 (29.5%) eyes. At the end of month 3, the fluorescein leakage was fully resolved in 5 (14.7%) eyes, moderately resolved in 24 (70.5%) eyes, and was similar to baseline in 5 (14.7%) eyes. At month 6, the fluorescein leakage was fully resolved in 3 (8.8%) eyes, moderately resolved in 20 (58.8%) eyes, and was similar to baseline in 11 (32.4%) eyes. A moderate but insignificant negative correlation was found between visual acuity and CMT (P > 0.05). Persistence or recurrence of neovascular tissue after panretinal photocoagulation may be attributed to the production of vascular endothelial growth factor by the residual ischemic retina, which also results in persistent or recurrent DME despite macular grid photocoagulation. PMID:20936526

Gulkilik, Gokhan; Taskapili, Muhittin; Kocabora, Selim; Muftuoglu, Gulipek; Demirci, Goktug

2010-12-01

257

Spontaneous resolution of macular edema after silicone oil removal  

PubMed Central

AIM To investigate the macular changes in eyes filled with silicone oil (SO) and course of these changes after SO removal. METHODS A retrospective optical coherence tomography scan review was conducted for twenty-four patients who underwent uncomplicated pars plana vitrectomy with SO tamponade for complex retinal detachments were detected with optical coherence tomography before, and one week, one month and three months after SO removal. RESULTS Mean duration of SO tamponade was 3.6±1.0mo (range: 3-7mo). Cystoid macular edema (CME) was detected in 3 eyes before SO removal. Submacular fluid was represented in 1 eye before silicone SO removal. Resolution of CME and submacular fluid was achieved 1mo after SO removal in all eyes. Mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 1.15±0.65 (range, hand movement to 0.2) before SO removal in the eyes without macular changes. After SO removal, the mean BCVA values at 1wk and 1 and 3mo, and 0.82±0.23, 0.76±0.21, and 0.70±0.19, all of which were significantly better than baseline (P=0.030, 0.017, 0.006 respectively). In the eyes with macular CME and subretinal fluid the mean BCVA was significantly improved at 3mo after SO removal compared with baseline (P=0.037). CONCLUSION Decreased visual acuity in eyes filled with SO could be caused by macular complications due to SO. CME and subretinal fluid may resolve without any additional macular surgery after SO removal.

Karahan, Eyyup; Tuncer, Ibrahim; Zengin, Mehmet Ozgur; Kucukerdonmez, Cem; Kaynak, Suleyman

2014-01-01

258

High altitude pulmonary edema, down syndrome, and obstructive sleep apneas.  

PubMed

A 24-year-old adult with a Down syndrome was admitted in December 2006 at the Moutiers hospital in the French Alps for an acute inaugural episode of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) that occurred in the early morning of day 3 after his arrival to La Plagne (2000 m). This patient presented an interventricular septal defect operated on at the age of 7, a hypothyroidism controlled by 50 microg levothyrox, a state of obesity (BMI 37.8 kg/m(2)), and obstructive sleep apneas with a mean of 42 obstructive apneas or hypopneas per hour, treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). The patient refused to use his CPAP during his stay in La Plagne. At echocardiography, resting parameters were normal, with a left ventricular, ejection fraction of 60%, a normokinetic right ventricle, and an estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) of 30 mmHg. At exercise, sPAP rose to 45 mmHg and the right ventricle was still normokinetic and not dilated. An exercise hypoxic tolerance test performed at 60 W and at the equivalent altitude of 3300 m revealed a severe drop in arterial oxygen saturation down to 60%, with an abnormal low ventilatory response to hypoxia, suggesting a defect in peripheral chemosensitivity to hypoxia. In conclusion, patients with Down syndrome, including adults with no cardiac dysfunction and regular physical activity, are at risk of HAPE even at moderate altitude when they suffer from obstructive sleep apneas associated with obesity and low chemoresponsiveness. This observation might be of importance since an increasing number of young adults with Down syndrome participate in recreational or sport activities, including skiing and mountaineering. PMID:18578649

Richalet, Jean-Paul; Chenivesse, Cécile; Larmignat, Philippe; Meille, Laurent

2008-01-01

259

Amlodipine, enalapril, and dependent leg edema in essential hypertension.  

PubMed

Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) blunt postural skin vasoconstriction, an autoregulatory mechanism that minimizes gravitational increases in capillary pressure and avoids fluid extravasation when standing. To evaluate the dose-response relation between this pharmacological interference and dependent edema, a frequent side effect of CCBs during antihypertensive treatment, skin blood flow (laser Doppler flowmetry) at the dorsum of the foot, both supine and with the limb passively placed 50 cm below the heart level, and leg weight (Archimedes principle) were measured at baseline, during increasing doses of the dihydropyridine amlodipine (5 and 10 mg UID each for 2 weeks), and after drug withdrawal in 10 hypertensive men. Because angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may attenuate ankle swelling by CCBs, those parameters were evaluated according to a similar design during amlodipine (10 mg UID) and enalapril (20 mg UID) combined (n=10). As a control, the effect of enalapril monotherapy (10 and 20 mg UID for 2 weeks each) was evaluated in a third series of patients (n=8). Amlodipine (5 mg UID) increased leg weight without modifying postural vasoconstriction (the percent skin blood flow decrease from horizontal to dependent position), which indicates that extravascular fluid shift was independent of postural skin vasoconstriction. At 10 mg UID, however, amlodipine blunted postural vasoconstriction and increased leg weight further, which suggests that skin blood flow autoregulation limited additional fluid transfer. Both parameters normalized after drug withdrawal. Enalapril per se did not affect cutaneous vasomotion or leg weight but reduced the amount of dependent fluid extravasation by the CCB despite a persistent antagonism for postural vasoconstrictor responses. PMID:10679507

Pedrinelli, R; Dell'Omo, G; Melillo, E; Mariani, M

2000-02-01

260

The painful bone marrow edema syndrome of the hip joint.  

PubMed

In this issue of the WKW, Aigner et al have published that, for the first time, a conservative approach with iloprost has shown to be equally successful as the well-documented core decompression surgical approach in patients with BMES of the hip joint. The BME pattern on MR-imaging of the hip joint represents a common but unspecific finding, which may be associated with several diseases requiring different therapeutic strategies (Table 1). It is still controversial, whether BMES of the hip represents a distinct self-limiting disease also known as transient osteoporosis, transient marrow edema, or algodystrophy, or merely reflects a subtype of ON. Since prognosis and therapeutic consequences vary significantly, differential diagnosis between BMES, CRPS and ON is of clinical interest (Table 2). Both, BMES and ON show similar ON risk factors and a male prevalence, while classical CRPS has a history of trauma and a prevalence among females. Clinical presentation of BMES and ON is similar with typical mechanical pain and prevalence of the hip joint. In contrast, classical CRPS shows a diffuse and burning pain in combination with trophic and vasomotor signs, mainly in the hands and feet. Imaging patterns of BMES are more diffuse, across the entire femoral head, while focal and subchondral in ON. In both, the patterns are limited to the femoral head. In contrast to classical CRPS, the imaging changes are located in all periarticular bones, and the soft tissues are always affected. The histological bone marrow changes are similar in all three diseases, but with abundant new bone formation in BMES and CRPS, whereas in ON only limited new bone formation surrounds the focal necrosis with a sclerotic rim. Protected weight-bearing and treatment with iloprost for BMES, but operative treatment for ON, and a sophisticated physiotherapy for CRPS in combination with iloprost are the preferred treatment strategies in our institution. PMID:15847189

Hofmann, Siegfried

2005-02-01

261

Molecular Mechanisms of Ischemic Cerebral Edema: Role of Electroneutral Ion Transport  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The brain achieves homeostasis of its intracellular and extracellular fluids by precisely regulating the transport of solute and water across its major cellular barriers: endothelia of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), choroid plexus epithelia, and neuroglial cell membranes. Cerebral edema, the pathological accumulation of fluid in the brainÂ?s intracellular and extracellular spaces, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality following stroke and other forms of ischemic brain injury. Until recently, mechanisms of cerebral edema formation have been obscure; consequently, its treatment has been empiric and suboptimal. Here, we provide a paradigm for understanding ischemic cerebral edema, showing that its molecular pathogenesis is a complex yet step-wise process that results largely from impaired astrocytic cell volume regulation and permeability alterations in the cerebral microvasculature, both of which arise from pathological changes in the activities of specific ion channels and transporters. Recent data has implicated the bumetanide-sensitive NKCC1, an electroneutral cotransporter expressed in astrocytes and the BBB, in cerebral edema formation in several different rodent models of stroke. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic deficiency of NKCC1 decreases ischemia-induced cell swelling, BBB breakdown, cerebral edema, and neurotoxicity. Combination pharmacological strategies that include NKCC1 as a target might thus prove beneficial for the treatment of ischemic, and potentially other types of, cerebral edema.

Kristopher Kahle (Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School Neurosurgery)

2009-08-01

262

Nitric oxide-associated pulmonary edema in children with pulmonary venous hypertension.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO)-associated pulmonary edema is rarely reported in children; in adults, it is often associated with left-sided heart failure. We report a case series of children with NO-associated pulmonary edema, which was defined as new multilobar alveolar infiltrates and worsening hypoxemia within 24 h of initiation or escalation of NO and radiologic or clinical improvement after NO discontinuation. We identified six patients (0.4-4 years old) with ten episodes of NO-associated pulmonary edema. Diagnoses included atrioventricular canal defect with mitral valve disease (n = 2), pulmonary atresia and major aorta-pulmonary collateral arteries (n = 2), total anomalous pulmonary venous return (n = 1), and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (n = 1). All patients had evidence of pulmonary venous hypertension, and two had mitral valve disease resulting in clinical evidence of left-sided heart failure. Pulmonary edema improved or resolved within 24 h of discontinuing NO. At cardiac catheterization, mean left atrial pressure was <15 mmHg in three of three patients (none with mitral valve disease), whereas pulmonary artery occlusion pressure was >15 mmHg in two of five patients. In conclusion, we describe six young children with NO-associated pulmonary edema and pulmonary venous hypertension. Only two of these children had left-sided heart failure: Left atrial pressure as well as pulmonary artery occlusion pressure may not be helpful in identifying children at risk for NO-associated pulmonary edema. PMID:23064842

Baird, J Scott; Havalad, Vinod; Aponte-Patel, Linda; Ravindranath, Thyyar M; October, Tessie W; Starc, Thomas J; Smerling, Arthur J

2013-04-01

263

Sequential change of brain edema by semiquantitative measurement on MRI in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.  

PubMed

The progression of brain edema in seven patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) was evaluated. Five were of putaminal and two were of thalamic hemorrhage. The hematoma volume in the patients was 4 approximately 40 ml (18.9 +/- 8.0 ml). Sequential MRI (SE: 2000/40) was performed at one, two and four weeks after onset. The edema volume (EV) was calculated as 1/2.(long diameter).(short diameter).(thickness) of the high intensity area (HIA) on MRI. In comparison with the EV at one week after onset, the EV at two weeks was increased and the EV at four weeks returned to the same level of that at one week (132.3 +/- 26.1%, 100 +/- 10.6%, respectively). In contrast, the consciousness level and motor weakness of the patients had already improved at two weeks after onset. Our results demonstrate that progression of brain edema after small or medium size ICH may not bring about a deterioration of the clinical course. Moreover, progression of brain edema to the cerebral cortex and ventricle as indicated by MRI suggested an absorption pathway for the edema fluid, and implying that brain edema following ICH could play a part in the healing process after ICH. PMID:7976651

Suga, S; Sato, S; Yunoki, K; Mihara, B

1994-01-01

264

Sodium hydrogen exchanger as a mediator of hydrostatic edema induced intestinal contractile dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Background Resuscitation-induced intestinal edema is associated with early and profound mechanical changes in intestinal tissue. We hypothesize that the sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE), a mechano-responsive ion channel, is a mediator of edema-induced intestinal contractile dysfunction. Methods An animal model of hydrostatic intestinal edema was utilized for all experiments. NHE isoforms 1-3 mRNA and protein were evaluated. Subsequently, the effects of NHE inhibition (with 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA)) on wet to dry ratios, signal transduction and activator of transcription (STAT)-3, intestinal smooth muscle myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, intestinal contractile activity, and intestinal transit were measured. Results NHE1-3 mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased in the small intestinal mucosa with the induction of intestinal edema. Administration of EIPA, an NHE inhibitor, attenuated validated markers of intestinal contractile dysfunction induced by edema as measured by decreased STAT-3 activation, increased MLC phosphorylation, improved intestinal contractile activity, and enhanced intestinal transit. Conclusion The mechano-responsive ion channel NHE may mediate edema-induced intestinal contractile dysfunction, possibly via a STAT-3 related mechanism. PMID:20553904

Uray, Karen S.; Shah, Shinil K.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S.; Jimenez, Fernando; Walker, Peter A.; Stewart, Randolph H.; Laine, Glen A.; Cox, Charles S.

2010-01-01

265

Management of a Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome in pregnant women with mega-cisterna magna and splenic and vulvar varices at birth: a case report.  

PubMed

Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is a rare, sporadic and complex malformation characterized by the clinical triad of: (i) capillary malformation (port-wine stain); (ii) soft tissue and bone hypertrophy or occasionally, hypertrophy of one lower limb; and (iii) atypical lateral varicosity. The maternal and fetal risks associated with pregnancy in women with KTS are proportional to disease severity, which can be exacerbated by pregnancy. Complications include bleeding, disseminated intravascular coagulation, thromboembolic events and pain. Here, we report the case of a pregnant woman with KTS who had an uneventful pregnancy, labor and postpartum course, but had splenic and large vulvar vein varices. The obstetrical course of women with KTS varies. Management is largely conservative and multidisciplinary approaches form the mainstay for managing these patients based on their symptoms. PMID:22612590

Atis, Alev; Ozdemir, Gunseli; Tuncer, Gulden; Cetincelik, Umran; Goker, Nimet; Ozsoy, Sibel

2012-11-01

266

Great lakes embryo mortality, edema, and deformities syndrome (GLEMEDS) in colonial fish?eating birds: Similarity to chick?edema disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several species of colonial fish?eating birds nesting in the Great Lakes basin, including herring gulls, common terns and double?crested cormorants, have exhibited chronic impairment of reproduction. In addition to eggshell thinning caused by high levels of DDT and metabolites, the reproductive impairment is characterized by high embryonic and chick mortality, edema, growth retardation, and deformities, hence the name Great Lakes

Michael Gilbertson; Timothy Kubiak; James Ludwig; Glen Fox

1991-01-01

267

Molecular characterization of Escherichia coli strains isolated from pigs with edema disease.  

PubMed Central

The present study was conducted to investigate the epidemiological relationship of isolates of Escherichia coli causing edema disease. Classical edema disease has not previously been described in Denmark, but between February 1994 and November 1995 cases appeared in 51 pig herds, among which direct or indirect trading contacts were confirmed for 36 of the herds. A total of 213 isolates from pigs with edema disease in Denmark and other countries and 23 E. coli O139 isolates from pigs with diarrhea or healthy pigs were analyzed to characterize their O serogroups, HindIII ribotypes, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types, and 183 of the isolates were also analyzed for their plasmid profiles. The resulting PFGE types of the isolates from pigs with edema disease were examined by cluster analysis. Ten isolates from three herds could not be typed with the available O antisera, whereas all other isolates were of serotype O139. However, all isolates from pigs with edema disease belonged to the same HindIII ribotype, which was not observed among the isolates from pigs with diarrhea or healthy pigs. All isolates from Danish pigs with edema disease except for three isolates originating from two herds belonged to the same or closely related XbaI PFGE types; the other three isolates were assigned to possibly related types. Isolates from pigs with edema disease in different countries belonged to different PFGE types. All isolates from Danish pigs with edema disease grouped together in one cluster, in contrast to isolates from other countries, which did not form any clusters. E. coli strains of serogroup O139 from pigs with diarrhea or isolated from the feces of healthy Danish pigs were very different. Plasmid profiles differed largely among isolates. However, among the isolates from Danish pigs with edema disease, one type predominated within herds. The present study indicated that most, if not all, of the observed cases of edema disease in Denmark were part of the same outbreak. The combination of PFGE typing and ribotyping was useful for studying the possible clonal relationship among strains, whereas plasmid profiling was less informative. PMID:8968875

Aarestrup, F M; Jorsal, S E; Ahrens, P; Jensen, N E; Meyling, A

1997-01-01

268

Delayed increase of astrocytic aquaporin 4 after juvenile traumatic brain injury: possible role in edema resolution?  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability in children and adolescents. The neuropathological sequelae that result from TBI are a complex cascade of events including edema formation, which occurs more frequently in the pediatric than the adult population. This developmental difference in the response to injury may be related to higher water content in the young brain and also to molecular mechanisms regulating water homeostasis. Aquaporins (AQPs) provide a unique opportunity to examine the mechanisms underlying water mobility, which remain poorly understood in the juvenile post-traumatic edema process. We examined the spatiotemporal expression pattern of principal brain AQPs (AQP1, 4, and 9) after juvenile TBI (jTBI) related to edema formation and resolution observed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Using a controlled cortical impact in post-natal 17 day-old rats as a model of jTBI, neuroimaging analysis showed a global decrease in water mobility (apparent diffusion coefficient, ADC) and an increase in edema (T2-values) at 1 day post-injury, which normalized by 3 days. Immunohistochemical analysis of AQP4 in perivascular astrocyte endfeet was increased in the lesion at 3 and 7 days post-injury as edema resolved. In contrast, AQP1 levels distant from the injury site were increased at 7, 30, and 60 days within septal neurons but did not correlate with changes in edema formation. Group differences were not observed for AQP9. Overall, our observations confirm that astrocytic AQP4 plays a more central role than AQP1 or AQP9 during the edema process in the young brain. PMID:22728101

Fukuda, Andrew M; Pop, Viorela; Spagnoli, David; Ashwal, Stephen; Obenaus, André; Badaut, Jérôme

2012-01-01

269

Expression of coinhibitory receptors on T cells in the microenvironment of usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is related to proinflammatory effector T cells and an increased recurrence-free survival.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus-induced usual-type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN) are infiltrated by immune cells but apparently not cleared. A potential explanation for this is an impaired T cell effector function by an immunesuppressive milieu, coinfiltrating regulatory T cells or the expression of coinhibitory molecules. Here, the role of these potential inhibitory mechanisms was evaluated by a detailed immunohistochemical analysis of T cell infiltration in the context of FoxP3, Tbet, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, programmed cell death 1, T cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 (TIM3), natural killer cell lectin-like receptor A (NKG2A) and galectins-1, -3 and -9. Paraffin-embedded tissues of primary uVIN lesions (n?=?43), recurrent uVIN lesions (n?=?20), vulvar carcinoma (n?=?21) and healthy vulvar tissue (n?=?26) were studied. We show that the vulva constitutes an area intensely surveyed by CD8+, CD4+, Tbet+ and regulatory T cell populations, parts of which express the examined coinhibitory molecules. In uVIN especially, the number of regulatory T cells and TIM3+ T cells increased. The expression of the coinhibitory markers TIM3 and NKG2A probably reflected a higher degree of T cell activation as a dense infiltration with stromal CD8+TIM3+ T cells and CD3+NKG2A+ T cells was related to the absence of recurrences and/or a prolonged recurrence-free survival. A dense coinfiltrate with regulatory T cells was negatively associated with the time to recurrence, most dominantly when the stromal CD8+TIM3+ infiltration was limited. This notion was sustained in vulvar carcinoma's where the numbers of regulatory T cells progressively increased to outnumber coinfiltrating CD8+TIM3+ T cells and CD3+NKG2A+ T cells. PMID:25220367

van Esch, Edith M G; van Poelgeest, Mariette I E; Kouwenberg, Simone; Osse, E Michelle; Trimbos, J Baptist M Z; Fleuren, Gert Jan; Jordanova, Ekaterina S; van der Burg, Sjoerd H

2015-02-15

270

Posttraumatic reduction of edema with aquaporin-4 RNA interference improves acute and chronic functional recovery  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in young children and adolescents and is associated with long-term disability and mortality. The neuropathologic sequelae that result from juvenile TBI are a complex cascade of events that include edema formation and brain swelling. Brain aquaporin-4 (AQP4) has a key role in edema formation. Thus, development of novel treatments targeting AQP4 to reduce edema could lessen the neuropathologic sequelae. We hypothesized that inhibiting AQP4 expression by injection of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting AQP4 (siAQP4) after juvenile TBI would decrease edema formation, neuroinflammation, neuronal cell death, and improve neurologic outcomes. The siAQP4 or a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)-free control siRNA (siGLO) was injected lateral to the trauma site after controlled cortical impact in postnatal day 17 rats. Magnetic resonance imaging, neurologic testing, and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess outcomes. Pups treated with siAQP4 showed acute (3 days after injury) improvements in motor function and in spatial memory at long term (60 days after injury) compared with siGLO-treated animals. These improvements were associated with decreased edema formation, increased microglial activation, decreased blood–brain barrier disruption, reduced astrogliosis and neuronal cell death. The effectiveness of our treatment paradigm was associated with a 30% decrease in AQP4 expression at the injection site. PMID:23899928

Fukuda, Andrew M; Adami, Arash; Pop, Viorela; Bellone, John A; Coats, Jacqueline S; Hartman, Richard E; Ashwal, Stephen; Obenaus, Andre; Badaut, Jerome

2013-01-01

271

Correlations between edema and the immediate and prolonged painful consequences of inflammation: therapeutic implications?  

SciTech Connect

The precise relationship between the degree of pan and the degree of inflammation in the individual remains debated. A quantitative analysis simultaneously applied to the immediate and prolonged painful consequences of inflammation has not yet been done. Thus, the correlations between edema, nociception and hypersensitivity following an inflammatory insult were assessed in rodents. To better understand the therapeutic value of modifying specific aspects of inflammation, the effects of anti-inflammatory drug were compared to the results. Inbred strains of mice and outbred rats received an intraplantar injection of honeybee venom and the between group and within-group correlations were calculated for spontaneous nociceptive measures, thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity, and edema and temperature. The effect of indomethacin on the pain and the inflammation measures was examined. Edema correlated with spontaneous flinching, licking and lifting of the inject paw, and not with thermal or mechanical hypersensitivity. Indomethacin affected edema and spontaneous nociception dose-dependently, and affected hypersensitivity only at the highest dose test (P <0.005). These results suggest that edema may contribute only to immediate spontaneous nociceptive responses to an inflammatory insult, and not to the more clinically relevant prolonged hypersensitivity. This analysis represents a method for determine which inflammatory processes are the most promising therapeutic targets against the multiple painful consequences of inflammation.

Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Lariviere, William R [University of Pittsburgh; Zhen, Li [Institute for Biomedical Sciences of Pain, Beijing, China; Shang, G [Institute for Biomedical Sciences of Pain, Beijing, China; Chen, Ya [Institute for Biomedical Sciences of Pain, Beijing, China; Yu, Yao [Institute for Biomedical Sciences of Pain, Beijing, China; Lu, Zhuo [Institute for Biomedical Sciences of Pain, Beijing, China; Chang, Ying [Institute for Biomedical Sciences of Pain, Beijing, China; Luo, Ceng [Institute for Biomedical Sciences of Pain, Beijing, China; Li, KaiCheng [Institute for Biomedical Sciences of Pain, Beijing, China; Chen, Jun [Institute for Biomedical Sciences of Pain, Beijing, China

2005-06-01

272

Spectral domain optical coherence tomography documented rapid resolution of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema with topical difluprednate  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pseudophakic cystoid macular edema is a common cause of poor vision after cataract surgery, and topical corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used for its treatment. We investigated the effectiveness of difluprednate (Durezol®, recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration) in the treatment of cystoid macular edema, assisted with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Case report A 63-year-old African-American woman presented 6 weeks after uneventful cataract surgery in her left eye with decreased vision and associated distortion of the central visual field. Fluorescein angiogram and SD-OCT confirmed pseudophakic cystoid macular edema. Difluprednate was topically administered twice daily and monitored with serial imaging. Resolution was noted after 1 month of topical therapy, with improvement in visual acuity and resolution of distortion. Conclusion Difluprednate is an effective treatment for patients with severe pseudophakic cystoid macular edema. SD-OCT allows the physician to monitor resolution of the macular edema easily. PMID:22291458

Chalam, KV; Khetpal, Vijay; Patel, Chirag J

2012-01-01

273

Lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins in the prevention and treatment of diabetic macular edema and retinopathy.  

PubMed

Diabetic macular edema and retinopathy are low-grade inflammatory conditions. Infusions of antitumor necrosis factor-? (anti-TNF-?) antibody and antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) antibody have been shown to be at least partly effective in the treatment of diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Intravitreal therapy of diabetic macular edema by the anti-TNF-? antibody has been found to produce significant side effects and anti-VEGF therapy to be ineffective. Nevertheless, these studies have indicated that the suppression of TNF-? and other proinflammatory cytokines and VEGF could be of benefit in diabetic macular edema and retinopathy. The retina is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially in ?-3, and several studies have shown that polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent diabetic retinopathy. Lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins derived from various polyunsaturated fatty acids possess anti-inflammatory actions and suppress the production of interleukin-6, and TNF-? and VEGF have antiangiogenic actions. In view of these evidences, I propose that lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins could be of significant benefit in the prevention and management of diabetic macular edema and retinopathy. PMID:22677359

Das, Undurti N

2013-01-01

274

Treatment and functional outcome of patients with cystoid macular edema: a single-center experience.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe a single-center experience in the treatment and follow-up of cystoid macular edema patients. Clinical records of all patients with cystoid macular edema followed up in the Rheumatologic and Ophthalmological Unit of our center between 1993 and 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. The outcome was assessed by visual acuity and optical coherence tomography status during follow-up. Comparisons were made by Fisher's exact test (p?edema. At the end of follow-up, 50 % of patients showed a significant visual loss, while 88 % did not present macular edema. In our small cohort, interferon-? is the most promising drug in contrasting visual acuity loss in cystoid macular edema. Visual prognosis remains severe in these patients. PMID:25028250

Taraborelli, Mara; Cavazzana, Ilaria; Fredi, Micaela; Airò, Paolo; Nascimbeni, Giuseppe; Tincani, Angela; Franceschini, Franco

2014-06-11

275

Platelet-Rich Plasma Extract Prevents Pulmonary Edema through Angiopoietin-Tie2 Signaling.  

PubMed

Increased vascular permeability contributes to life-threatening pathological conditions, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Current treatments for sepsis-induced pulmonary edema rely on low-tidal volume mechanical ventilation, fluid management, and pharmacological use of a single angiogenic or chemical factor with antipermeability activity. However, it is becoming clear that a combination of multiple angiogenic/chemical factors rather than a single factor is required for maintaining stable and functional blood vessels. We have demonstrated that mouse platelet-rich plasma (PRP) extract contains abundant angiopoietin (Ang) 1 and multiple other factors (e.g., platelet-derived growth factor), which potentially stabilize vascular integrity. Here, we show that PRP extract increases tyrosine phosphorylation levels of Tunica internal endothelial cell kinase (Tie2) and attenuates disruption of cell-cell junctional integrity induced by inflammatory cytokine in cultured human microvascular endothelial cells. Systemic injection of PRP extract also increases Tie2 phosphorylation in mouse lung and prevents endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema and the consequent decreases in lung compliance and exercise intolerance resulting from endotoxin challenge. Soluble Tie2 receptor, which inhibits Ang-Tie2 signaling, suppresses the ability of PRP extract to inhibit pulmonary edema in mouse lung. These results suggest that PRP extract prevents endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema mainly through Ang-Tie2 signaling, and PRP extract could be a potential therapeutic strategy for sepsis-induced pulmonary edema and various lung diseases caused by abnormal vascular permeability. PMID:24960457

Mammoto, Tadanori; Jiang, Amanda; Jiang, Elisabeth; Mammoto, Akiko

2015-01-01

276

Phase II study on paclitaxel in patients with recurrent, metastatic or locally advanced vulvar cancer not amenable to surgery or radiotherapy: a study of the EORTC-GCG (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer—Gynaecological Cancer Group)  

PubMed Central

Background: No standard treatment options are available for patients with advanced, recurrent or metastatic vulvar carcinoma not amenable for locoregional treatment. Patients and methods: In this phase II study, patients with advanced vulvar cancer received paclitaxel (Taxol) every 3 weeks for up to 10 cycles. Primary objective was response rate. Secondary objectives were response duration and toxicity. Response evaluation was assessed by World Health Organisation criteria, toxicity according to Common Toxicity Criteria. Results: Thirty-one women from 10 institutions were included, with a median age of 64 (range 47–84), of which 29 were assessable for response. On study patients received a median of four cycles (range 1–10). Safety: Grade 3 and 4 neutropenia was seen in eight patients (8/29 = 27.6%), which in one patient resulted in neutropenic fever and treatment-related death. Further treatment-related grade 3/4 toxicity includes fatigue in three patients (10.3%) and neuropathy in one patient (3.4%). Efficacy: Overall response was 13.8% (n = 4; two complete responses + two partial responses). With a median follow-up of 24 months, median PFS was 2.6 months (95%confidence interval 2.04–4.21). Conclusion: Paclitaxel shows moderate activity for local control in advanced vulvar cancer. PMID:19487487

Witteveen, P. O.; van der Velden, J.; Vergote, I.; Guerra, C.; Scarabeli, C.; Coens, C.; Demonty, G.; Reed, N.

2009-01-01

277

Association of pSTAT3-VEGF signaling pathway with peritumoral edema in newly diagnosed glioblastoma: an immunohistochemical study  

PubMed Central

It is well recognized that peritumoral edema is vasogenic cerebral edema in malignant glioma, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced by phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (pSTAT3) strongly contributes to tumor angiogenesis in glioblastoma. However, there is no study with regard to the correlation between pSTAT3 or VEGF and peritumoral edema. Such evidence may contribute to providing new targets for the management of peritumoral cerebral. In this study, newly diagnosed glioblastoma tissues from 84 patients were collected to investigate pSTAT3 and VEGF expression by immunohistochemistry, and peritumoral edema was detected by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. We found that a significantly positive correlation emerged between VEGF and pSTAT3 expression (P = 0.000) in glioblastoma tissues, but they were not related to patient gender and age (P > 0.05); the expression of pSTAT3 and VEGF were associated with peritumoral edema extent (P = 0.005), but not with edema shape (P > 0.05). Therefore, the pSTAT3-VEGF signaling pathway, which is correlated with peritumoral edema extent, might be a regulatory mechanism in the course of peritumoral edema formation during glioblastoma tumorigenesis and progression, thereby suggesting that STAT3 inhibition might be helpful for alleviation of peritumoral cerebral edema. PMID:25337261

Wang, Xing-Fu; Lin, Guo-Shi; Lin, Zhi-Xiong; Chen, Yu-Peng; Chen, Yao; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Tan, Wen-Long

2014-01-01

278

Comparative study of the edema-forming activity of Costa Rican snake venoms and its neutralization by a polyvalent antivenom.  

PubMed

The edema-forming activity of eight Costa Rican crotaline snake venoms and its neutralization by a polyvalent antivenom were studied using the mouse footpad test. All of the venoms induced edema, the highest activity being present in the venoms of Bothrops lateralis and Bothrops picadoi. When experiments were performed with preincubation of venom and antivenom, neutralization of edema was poor. Moreover, it was observed that, with some venoms, edema increased when large doses of antivenom were used. This effect was also observed when some venoms were incubated with coral snake antivenom, suggesting that venoms may release some pharmacologically active component(s) from antivenom, since the latter contains traces of alpha-2 and beta globulins. Based on these findings, an alternative approach to the study of the neutralization of edema was used; in this new method, antivenom was injected i.v. before venom administration, thereby avoiding preincubation. With this technique, a much better neutralization of edema was observed, although with some venoms it was still poor. Venoms contain low molecular weight factors which induce edema, suggesting that lack of immunogenicity of some components may cause a poor neutralization. However, such components are responsible for only a minor portion of the edema induced by crude venoms. It is suggested that experiments in which venom and antivenom are preincubated preincubated in testing the neutralization of edema should be avoided, and that a more adequate approach may be an independent inoculation of venom and antivenom. PMID:2877785

Gutiérrez, J M; Rojas, G; Lomonte, B; Gené, J A; Cerdas, L

1986-01-01

279

Vulvar and vaginal disorders.  

PubMed

Vulvovaginitis is the most common reason for a woman to see her gynecologist. The most common causes are bacterial vaginosis, Candida species, and Trichomonas vaginals, respectively. Human papillomavirus has become a major diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Human papillomavirus DNA testing suggests that exposure to human papillomavirus occurs frequently at birth and intermittently throughout a woman's life after the onset of sexual activity. Interferon has been shown to be effective in treating some forms of human papillomavirus. PMID:1333291

Hatch, K D

1992-12-01

280

Pediatric Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus  

MedlinePLUS

... labia minora (inner lips), labia majora (outer lips), clitoris, introitus (opening to the vagina), and perianal area ( ... the vaginal opening. Scarring and shrinkage of the clitoris and labia minora cannot be reversed. Lichen sclerosus ...

281

Intravitreal Injection of Bevacizumab to Treat a Macular Edema Caused by Leber's Miliary Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Purpose Leber's miliary aneurysm is a variant of Coats’ disease and similar to type 1 idiopathic macular telangiectasia. A recent report showed that an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (IVB) was effective in an adult patient with type 1 idiopathic macular telangiectasia. We describe our experience with an adult patient with a macular edema caused by Leber's miliary aneurysm, which had not been resolved by prior retinal laser photocoagulation, who underwent IVB. Methods We investigated the ocular characteristics of the patient before and after a single administration of IVB. Results The macular edema had partially improved 1 month after IVB, but then it worsened. We performed laser photocoagulation to treat the aneurysms near the fovea. The macular edema improved, but there was no improvement in visual acuity. Conclusion In this patient, the effect of IVB was limited. PMID:23275795

Takeyama, Masayuki; Iwaki, Masayoshi; Zako, Masahiro

2012-01-01

282

Pulmonary edema following postoperative laryngospasm: case reports and review of the literature.  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary edema that follows upper airway obstruction may occur in a variety of clinical situations. The predominant mechanism is forced inspiration against a closed or occluded glottis, inducing large intrapleural and transpulmonary pressure gradients favoring the transudation of fluid from the pulmonary capillaries into the interstitium. Postanesthetic laryngospasm has been implicated as the most frequent cause of this syndrome in adults. Risk factors for development of postlaryngospasm pulmonary edema include difficult intubation; nasal, oral, or pharyngeal surgical site; and obesity with obstructive apnea. The syndrome is recognized by development of hypoxia shortly (1-90 min) after a laryngospasm. A chest radiograph will reveal a symmetric bilateral infiltrate with normal heart size. Cardiogenic pulmonary edema and aspiration must be ruled out. Treatment is directed at correction of hypoxia with supplemental oxygen and use of diuretics (furosemide). Occasionally patients may require intubation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9481972

Scarbrough, F. E.; Wittenberg, J. M.; Smith, B. R.; Adcock, D. K.

1997-01-01

283

Surgical Management of Massive Labial Edema in a Gravid Preeclamptic Diabetic  

PubMed Central

Background. Massive labial edema is a rare complication during pregnancy that can jeopardize vaginal delivery, as well as leading to maternal and fetal morbidity. It can be related to systemic pathologies, but has been commonly associated with preeclampsia and diabetes. This increased and sometimes longstanding pressure may result in a “labial compartment syndrome” leading to microvascular damage and tissue necrosis if not resolved in a timely fashion. Case. Massive labial edema was treated first conservatively and then surgically in a gravid diabetic patient with severe preeclampsia. Immediately after Cesarean section, the labial compartment syndrome was relieved surgically and resolved rapidly. Conclusion. When conservative attempts at management of labial edema fail, or rapid resolution is critical to maternal and fetal outcome, surgical alternatives should be considered. PMID:25371838

Lindsey, Jennifer S.; DeVente, James E.

2014-01-01

284

[Angioneurotic orolingual edema associated with the use of rt-PA following a stroke].  

PubMed

Angioneurotic orolingual edema associated with the use of rt-PA (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator) for systemic thrombolysis are described in the literature, but only as isolated case reports. Strangely, the rate of anaphylactic reactions to rt-PA is higher (1.9%) when they are used in the treatment of acute stroke than when they are given to treat acute myocardial infarction (0.02%). Patients who are taking ACE inhibitors seem to be at increased risk of such a potentially life-threatening event. We now report on two patients, in each of whom asymmetric angioneurotic edema was observed following successful thrombolysis with rt-PA. Both these patients were taking ACE inhibitors. It was possible to avoid intubation and ventilation in both cases. Therapy with ranitidine, clemastine, and a C1 esterase inhibitor resulted in the resolution of symptomatic angioneurotic edema within hours. PMID:17694290

Laubinger, R; Guthke, K; Erdmann, U; Klein, U

2007-10-01

285

Nicotine Exacerbates Brain Edema during In Vitro and In Vivo Focal Ischemic Conditions  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that nicotine, the addictive component of tobacco products, alters the blood-brain barrier (BBB) Na+,K+,2Cl? cotransporter (NKCC) during in vitro hypoxia-aglycemia exposure. Attenuation of abluminal NKCC suggests that accumulation of ions in the brain extracellular fluid would result in an increase of fluid or cytotoxic edema in the brain during hypoxia-aglycemia or stroke conditions. To further investigate whether nicotine products have the potential to worsen stroke outcome by increasing edema formation, two separate models to mimic stroke conditions were utilized to decipher the effects of short-term and long-term administrations of nicotine products on brain edema following stroke. Oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) was studied in rat hippocampal slices with short-term or long-term exposure to nicotine and cigarette smoke constituents. During short-term exposure, the presence of nicotine at a concentration mimicking heavy smokers increased water content of hippocampal slices during OGD. Furthermore, long-term 1-week administration of nicotine increased water content in hippocampal slices that could be attenuated with nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonists, suggesting nicotine increase edema during OGD via nAChRs. A second model of focal ischemia, middle cerebral artery occlusion, showed an increase of infarct size during short-term exposure to nicotine and an increase of edema during both short-term and long-term administration of nicotine, compared with saline controls. These findings support the paradigm that nicotine products not only increase the incidence of stroke but also have the potential to worsen stroke outcome by increased edema formation. PMID:19889792

Paulson, Jennifer R.; Yang, Tianzhi; Selvaraj, Pradeep K.; Mdzinarishvili, Alexander; Van der Schyf, Cornelis J.; Klein, Jochen; Bickel, Ulrich

2010-01-01

286

Evidence for Diffuse Central Retinal Edema In Vivo in Diabetic Male Sprague Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Investigations into the mechanism of diffuse retinal edema in diabetic subjects have been limited by a lack of animal models and techniques that co-localized retinal thickness and hydration in vivo. In this study we test the hypothesis that a previously reported supernormal central retinal thickness on MRI measured in experimental diabetic retinopathy in vivo represents a persistent and diffuse edema. Methodology/Principal Findings In diabetic and age-matched control rats, and in rats experiencing dilutional hyponatremia (as a positive edema control), whole central retinal thickness, intraretinal water content and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC, ‘water mobility’) were measured in vivo using quantitative MRI methods. Glycated hemoglobin and retinal thickness ex vivo (histology) were also measured in control and diabetic groups. In the dilutional hyponatremia model, central retinal thickness and water content were supernormal by quantitative MRI, and intraretinal water mobility profiles changed in a manner consistent with intracellular edema. Groups of diabetic (2, 3, 4, 6, and 9 mo of diabetes), and age-matched controls were then investigated with MRI and all diabetic rats showed supernormal whole central retinal thickness. In a separate study in 4 mo diabetic rats (and controls), MRI retinal thickness and water content metrics were significantly greater than normal, and ADC was subnormal in the outer retina; the increase in retinal thickness was not detected histologically on sections of fixed and dehydrated retinas from these rats. Conclusions/Significance Diabetic male Sprague Dawley rats demonstrate a persistent and diffuse retinal edema in vivo, providing, for the first time, an important model for investigating its pathogenesis and treatment. These studies also validate MRI as a powerful approach for investigating mechanisms of diabetic retinal edema in future experimental and clinical investigations. PMID:22253747

Berkowitz, Bruce A.; Bissig, David; Ye, Yongquan; Valsadia, Puja; Kern, Timothy S.; Roberts, Robin

2012-01-01

287

Dexamethasone exacerbates cerebral edema and brain injury following lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus.  

PubMed

Anti-inflammatory therapies are the current most plausible drug candidates for anti-epileptogenesis and neuroprotection following prolonged seizures. Given that vasogenic edema is widely considered to be detrimental for outcome following status epilepticus, the anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone is sometimes used in clinic for alleviating cerebral edema. In this study we perform longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging in order to assess the contribution of dexamethasone on cerebral edema and subsequent neuroprotection following status epilepticus. Lithium-pilocarpine was used to induce status epilepticus in rats. Following status epilepticus, rats were either post-treated with saline or with dexamethasone sodium phosphate (10mg/kg or 2mg/kg). Brain edema was assessed by means of magnetic resonance imaging (T2 relaxometry) and hippocampal volumetry was used as a marker of neuronal injury. T2 relaxometry was performed prior to, 48 h and 96 h following status epilepticus. Volume measurements were performed between 18 and 21 days after status epilepticus. Unexpectedly, cerebral edema was worse in rats that were treated with dexamethasone compared to controls. Furthermore, dexamethasone treated rats had lower hippocampal volumes compared to controls 3 weeks after the initial insult. The T2 measurements at 2 days and 4 days in the hippocampus correlated with hippocampal volumes at 3 weeks. Finally, the mortality rate in the first week following status epilepticus increased from 14% in untreated rats to 33% and 46% in rats treated with 2mg/kg and 10mg/kg dexamethasone respectively. These findings suggest that dexamethasone can exacerbate the acute cerebral edema and brain injury associated with status epilepticus. PMID:24333865

Duffy, B A; Chun, K P; Ma, D; Lythgoe, M F; Scott, R C

2014-03-01

288

Gene interference regulates aquaporin-4 expression in swollen tissue of rats with cerebral ischemic edema  

PubMed Central

To investigate the effects of mRNA interference on aquaporin-4 expression in swollen tissue of rats with ischemic cerebral edema, and diagnose the significance of diffusion-weighted MRI, we injected 5 ?L shRNA- aquaporin-4 (control group) or siRNA- aquaporin-4 solution (1:800) (RNA interference group) into the rat right basal ganglia immediately before occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. At 0.25 hours after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, diffusion-weighted MRI displayed a high signal; within 2 hours, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient decreased markedly, aquaporin-4 expression increased rapidly, and intracellular edema was obviously aggravated; at 4 and 6 hours, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient slowly returned to control levels, aquaporin-4 expression slightly increased, and angioedema was observed. In the RNA interference group, during 0.25–6 hours after injection of siRNA- aquaporin-4 solution, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient slightly fluctuated and aquaporin-4 expression was upregulated; during 0.5–4 hours, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient was significantly higher, while aquaporin-4 expression was significantly lower when compared with the control group, and intracellular edema was markedly reduced; at 0.25 and 6 hours, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient and aquaporin-4 expression were similar when compared with the control group; obvious angioedema remained at 6 hours. Pearson's correlation test results showed that aquaporin-4 expression was negatively correlated with the apparent diffusion coefficient (r = ?0.806, P < 0.01). These findings suggest that upregulated aquaporin-4 expression is likely to be the main molecular mechanism of intracellular edema and may be the molecular basis for decreased relative apparent diffusion coefficient. Aquaporin-4 gene interference can effectively inhibit the upregulation of aquaporin-4 expression during the stage of intracellular edema with time-effectiveness. Moreover, diffusion-weighted MRI can accurately detect intracellular edema.

Hu, Hui; Lu, Hong; He, Zhanping; Han, Xiangjun; Chen, Jing; Tu, Rong

2012-01-01

289

MRI Reveals Edema in Larynx (But Not in Brain) During Anaphylactic Hypotension in Anesthetized Rats  

PubMed Central

Purpose Anaphylactic shock is sometimes accompanied by local interstitial edema due to increased vascular permeability. We performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare edema in the larynx and brain of anesthetized rats during anaphylactic hypotension versus vasodilator-induced hypotension. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to hypotension induced by the ovalbumin antigen (n=7) or a vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP; n=7). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and T2-relaxation time (T2RT) were quantified on MRI performed repeatedly for up to 68 min after the injection of either agent. The presence of laryngeal edema was also examined by histological examination. Separately, the occurrence of brain edema was assessed by measuring brain water content using the wet/dry method in rats with anaphylaxis (n=5) or SNP (n=5) and the non-hypotensive control rats (n=5). Mast cells in hypothalamus were morphologically examined. Results Mean arterial blood pressure similarly decreased to 35 mmHg after an injection of the antigen or SNP. Hyperintensity on T2-weighted images (as reflected by elevated T2RT) was found in the larynx as early as 13 min after an injection of the antigen, but not SNP. A postmortem histological examination revealed epiglottic edema in the rats with anaphylaxis, but not SNP. In contrast, no significant changes in T2RT or ADC were detectable in the brains of any rats studied. In separate experiments, the quantified brain water content did not increase in either anaphylaxis or SNP rats, as compared with the non-hypotensive control rats. The numbers of mast cells with metachromatic granules in the hypothalamus were not different between rats with anaphylaxis and SNP, suggesting the absence of anaphylactic reaction in hypothalamus. Conclusion Edema was detected using the MRI technique in the larynx during rat anaphylaxis, but not in the brain. PMID:24179686

Toyota, Ichiro; Tanida, Mamoru; Wang, Mofei; Kurata, Yasutaka; Tonami, Hisao

2013-01-01

290

Salicylate-induced pulmonary edema--a near-miss diagnosis.  

PubMed

A 43-year-old white woman presented to the emergency department with confusion, agitation, and progressive dyspnea. Chest x-ray revealed pulmonary edema. Initial diagnostic considerations were pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, sepsis, central nervous system infection, substance toxicity, and heart failure. Her salicylate level was 92.6 mg/dL, and an arterial blood gas revealed a respiratory alkalosis and nonanion gap metabolic acidosis, consistent with salicylate poisoning. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema is an atypical presentation of salicylate toxicity, and this case highlights the importance of an early toxicology screen to make a time-critical diagnosis and provide specific treatment. PMID:24361138

Yuklyaeva, Nataliya; Chaudhary, Ahmad; Gorantla, Ramakrishna; Bischof, Edward

2014-05-01

291

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Bumblebee Alcohol Extracts in CFA-Induced Rat Edema  

PubMed Central

In this study, we prepared alcohol extracts of the larva, pupa, queen, and cocoon (clony) of B. ignitus, B. terrestris, and B. h. sapporoensis, and tested the anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts by using a rat model of adjuvant-induced edema. The extracts derived from the queen of B. ignitus, the queen of B. terrestris, and the cocoon of B. ignitus decreased hind paw edema after 1 day of i.p. administration. These extracts also induced vasorelaxation and NO production in calf pulmonary artery endothelial cells. These results suggest that bumblebee alcohol extracts has anti-inflammatory and vasorelaxant properties. PMID:24278617

Han, Jea Woong; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Hwang, Jae Sam; Young, Yun Eun

2012-01-01

292

Microcysts in the inner nuclear layer, a nonspecific SD-OCT sign of cystoid macular edema.  

PubMed

Recently, many authors have propagated the notion that a specific form of "microcystic macular edema" occurs in patients with optic neuritis and optic atrophy of various etiology and is due to retrograde synaptic degeneration. The finding is isolated to the inner nuclear layer on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in most cases, and is present in a parafoveal, circumferential, and central macular distribution. This perspective critically reviews the evidence and suggests that inner nuclear layer cystoid changes are an early and nonspecific indicator of typical cystoid macular edema of any cause, and that the finding is likely not a distinct entity. PMID:24867911

Sigler, Eric J

2014-05-01

293

Safety and Efficacy of Ranibizumab in Macular Edema following Retinal Vein Occlusion  

PubMed Central

Macular edema is the leading cause of visual impairment in patients with retinal vein occlusion. Limited improvements may be obtained with laser photocoagulation or intravitreal triamcinolone. However, according to the data provided by randomized clinical trials, intravitreal injections of ranibizumab (Lucentis; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) constitute a new effective and safe option for the management of these vision-threatening diseases. The aim of the present review is to summarize the clinical evidence of ranibizumab for macular edema due to retinal vein occlusions. PMID:23650454

Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto; Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Marín-Lambíes, Cristina; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel

2012-01-01

294

Life-threatening Cerebral Edema Caused by Acute Occlusion of a Superior Vena Cava Stent  

SciTech Connect

A71-year-old man with advanced lung cancer developed a life-threatening cerebral edema caused by the acute occlusion of a superior vena cava (SVC) stent and was successfully treated by an additional stent placement. Although stent occlusion is a common early complication, no life-threatening situations have been reported until now. Our experience highlights the fact that acute stent occlusion can potentially lead to the complete venous shutdown of the SVC, resulting in life-threatening cerebral edema, after SVC stent placement. Immediate diagnosis and countermeasures are required.

Sofue, Keitaro, E-mail: keitarosofue@yahoo.co.jp; Takeuchi, Yoshito, E-mail: yotake62@qg8.so-net.ne.jp; Arai, Yasuaki, E-mail: arai-y3111@mvh.biglobe.ne.jp [National Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan)] [National Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro, E-mail: sugimura@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Kobe University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)] [Kobe University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

2013-02-15

295

Negative pressure pulmonary edema with laryngeal mask airway use: Recognition, pathophysiology and treatment modalities  

PubMed Central

Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) following the use of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is an uncommon and under-reported event. We present a case of a 58-year-old male, who developed NPPE following LMA use. After biting vigorously on his LMA, the patient developed stridor upon emergence, with concurrent appearance of blood-tinged, frothy sputum and pulmonary edema. He subsequently required three days of mechanical ventilation. After discontinuation of mechanical ventilation the patient continued to require additional pulmonary support using continuous positive airway pressure, with a full facemask, to correct the persistent hypoxemia. His roentgenographic findings demonstrated an accelerated improvement with judicious administration of intravenous furosemide. PMID:22837897

Vandse, Rashmi; Kothari, Deven S; Tripathi, Ravi S; Lopez, Luis; Stawicki, Stanislaw P A; Papadimos, Thomas J

2012-01-01

296

The impact of prostate edema on cell survival and tumor control after permanent interstitial brachytherapy for early stage prostate cancers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have shown that procedure-induced prostate edema during permanent interstitial brachytherapy (PIB) can cause significant variations in the dose delivered to the prostate gland. Because the clinical impact of edema-induced dose variations strongly depends on the magnitude of the edema, the temporal pattern of its resolution and its interplay with the decay of radioactivity and the underlying biological processes of tumor cells (such as tumor potential doubling time), we investigated the impact of edema-induced dose variations on the tumor cell survival and tumor control probability after PIB with the 131Cs, 125I and 103Pd sources used in current clinical practice. The exponential edema resolution model reported by Waterman et al (1998 Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 41 1069-77) was used to characterize the edema evolutions previously observed during clinical PIB for prostate cancer. The concept of biologically effective dose, taking into account tumor cell proliferation and sublethal damage repair during dose delivery, was used to characterize the effects of prostate edema on cell survival and tumor control probability. Our calculation indicated that prostate edema, if not appropriately taken into account, can increase the cell survival and decrease the probability of local control of PIB. The magnitude of an edema-induced increase in cell survival increased with increasing edema severity, decreasing half-life of radioactive decay and decreasing photon energy emitted by the source. At the doses currently prescribed for PIB and for prostate cancer cells characterized by nominal radiobiology parameters recommended by AAPM TG-137, PIB using 125I sources was less affected by edema than PIB using 131Cs or 103Pd sources due to the long radioactive decay half-life of 125I. The effect of edema on PIB using 131Cs or 103Pd was similar. The effect of edema on 103Pd PIB was slightly greater, even though the decay half-life of 103Pd (17 days) is longer than that of 131Cs (9.7 days), because the advantage of the longer 103Pd decay half-life was negated by the lower effective energy of the photons it emits (~21 keV compared to ~30.4 keV for 131Cs). In addition, the impact of edema could be reduced or enhanced by differences in the tumor characteristics (e.g. potential tumor doubling time or the ?/? ratio), and the effect of these factors varied for the different radioactive sources. There is a clear need to consider the effects of prostate edema during the planning and evaluation of permanent interstitial brachytherapy treatments for prostate cancer.

(Jay Chen, Zhe; Roberts, Kenneth; Decker, Roy; Pathare, Pradip; Rockwell, Sara; Nath, Ravinder

2011-08-01

297

Retinal thickness measurement and evaluation of natural history of the diabetic macular edema through optical coherence tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: 1) Diagnose, through optical coherence tomography (OCT) exam, the occurrence of diabetic macular edema in patients with diabetic retinopathy and visual acuity of 20\\/40 or better, by measuring the foveal center point thickness, during one year. 2) Evaluate the edema natural history, during this period, associating the center point thickness with hemoglobin A1c and changes in visual acuity. 3)

Rosana Zacarias Hannouche; Marcos Pereira de Ávila

2009-01-01

298

Prone positioning to treat acute severe pulmonary edema in the post-cardiac surgical patient: a case report.  

PubMed

Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema can be fatal without adequate resuscitation. We report, for the first time, the use of prone positioning in the immediate post-cardiac surgical period to treat a patient with profound hypoxemia secondary to massive (noncardiogenic) pulmonary edema. Prone positioning corrects ventilation-perfusion mismatch and allows gravity-dependent drainage of capillary leak-mediated endobronchial pulmonary fluid. PMID:16844634

Atluri, Pavan; Neligan, Patrick J; Acker, Michael A; Bensall, Dean L; Horak, Jiri

2006-01-01

299

Indian red scorpion venom-induced augmentation of cardio-respiratory reflexes and pulmonary edema involve the release of histamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary edema is a consistent feature of Mesobuthus tamulus (MBT) envenomation. Kinins, prostaglandins and other inflammatory mediators are implicated in it. Since, histamine also increases capillary permeability, this study was undertaken to evaluate whether MBT venom utilizes histamine to produce pulmonary edema and augmentation of cardio-respiratory reflexes evoked by phenylbiguanide (PBG). Blood pressure, respiratory excursions and ECG were recorded in

Abhaya Dutta; Shripad B. Deshpande

2011-01-01

300

Relationship between specific gravity, water content, and serum protein extravasation in various types of vasogenic brain edema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vasogenic brain edema was induced in cats by cold injury (six animals), brain tumors (five animals), and brain abscesses (six animals). Water and electrolyte content, specific gravity, blood volume, and the amount of extravasated serum proteins were determined in small tissue samples taken from gray and white matter at various distances from the lesion. Edema was strictly confined to the

H.-W. Bothe; W. Bodsch; K.-A. Hossmann

1984-01-01

301

An evaluation of standing-induced lower leg edema as a function of floor surace  

E-print Network

of the surfaces. The surfaces used included: two brands of anti-fatigue mat, three types of industrial grating, and concrete. Using water volume displacement, edema of three segments of the right leg (ankle-and-below, calf-and-below, and knee...

DiSalvi, Lawrence Roberts

1995-01-01

302

Effectiveness of CPAP by mask for pulmonary edema associated with hypercarbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) by mask to reduce hypercarbia in two patients who had pulmonary edema due to congestive heart failure. In such patients, beside reducing venous return and filling pressures, CPAP improves compliance and decreases the work of breathing, thereby improving effective ventilation. Hence, CPAP may be useful to combat not only hypoxemia but also hypercarbia

A. Perel; D. C. Williamson; J. H. Modell

1983-01-01

303

Pulmonary Edema in 6 Children With Down Syndrome During Travel to Moderate Altitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Children with Down syn- drome (DS) are living longer and are increasingly partic- ipating in recreational activities. When a child with DS was diagnosed with high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), this study was undertaken to determine whether and under what circumstances children with DS develop HAPE. Design. A retrospective review of the medical records of Children's Hospital, Denver, Colorado was

Anthony G. Durmowicz

304

Near-infrared spectroscopy technique to evaluate the effects of drugs in treating traumatic brain edema  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of several drugs in treating traumatic brain edema (TBE) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRs) technology. Rats with TBE models were given hypertonic saline (HS), mannitol and mannitol+HS respectively for different groups. Light scattering properties of rat's local cortex was measured by NIRs within the wavelength range

J. Xie; Z. Qian; T. Yang; W. Li; G. Hu

2011-01-01

305

Using NIR spatial illumination for detection and mapping chromophore changes during cerebral edema  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used spatially modulated near-infrared (NIR) light to detect and map chromophore changes during cerebral edema in the rat neocortex. Cerebral edema was induced by intraperitoneal injections of free water (35% of body weight). Intracranial pressure (ICP) was measured with an optical fiber based Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor inserted into the parenchyma of the right frontal lobe during water administration. Increase in ICP from a baseline value of 10 cm-water to 145 cm-water was observed. Following induction of cerebral edema, there was a 26+/-1.7% increase in tissue concentration of deoxyhemoglobin and a 47+/-4.7%, 17+/-3% and 37+/-3.7% decrease in oxyhemoglobin, total hemoglobin concentration and cerebral tissue oxygen saturation levels, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the use of NIR spatial modulation of light for detecting and mapping changes in tissue concentrations of physiologic chromophores over time in response to cerebral edema.

Abookasis, David; Mathews, Marlon S.; Owen, Christopher M.; Binder, Devin K.; Linskey, Mark E.; Frostig, Ron D.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

2008-02-01

306

Hypoxia and the Edema Syndrome: Elucidation of a Mechanism of Teratogenesis  

EPA Science Inventory

The elucidation of mechanisms and pathogenesis of birth defects is exceedingly complex. Consequently, there are few examples where the etiology of birth defects caused by a specific agent has been well described. One such example is the "Edema Syndrome" first described by Casimer...

307

Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) syndrome: ultrasonography as a diagnostic tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) syndrome is characterized by symmetrical synovitis and swelling of both the upper and lower extremities. The anatomical determinant of RS3PE is predominantly extensor tenosynovitis as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Given the cost constraints, time, and expertise required in carrying out MRI and ease in diagnosing tenosynovitis by ultrasound, we utilized

Vikas Agarwal; Ajay Kumar Dabra; Ravinder Kaur; Atul Sachdev; Ram Singh

2005-01-01

308

Newly expressed SUR1-regulated NCCa-ATP channel mediates cerebral edema after ischemic stroke  

PubMed Central

Pathological conditions in the central nervous system, including stroke and trauma, are often exacerbated by cerebral edema. We recently identified a nonselective cation channel, the NCCa-ATP channel, in ischemic astrocytes that is regulated by sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1), is opened by depletion of ATP and, when opened, causes cytotoxic edema. Here, we evaluated involvement of this channel in rodent models of stroke. SUR1 protein and mRNA were newly expressed in ischemic neurons, astrocytes and capillaries. Upregulation of SUR1 was linked to activation of the transcription factor Sp1 and was associated with expression of functional NCCa-ATP but not KATP channels. Block of SUR1 with low-dose glibenclamide reduced cerebral edema, infarct volume and mortality by 50%, with the reduction in infarct volume being associated with cortical sparing. Our findings indicate that the NCCa-ATP channel is crucially involved in development of cerebral edema, and that targeting SUR1 may provide a new therapeutic approach to stroke. PMID:16550187

Simard, J Marc; Chen, Mingkui; Tarasov, Kirill V; Bhatta, Sergei; Ivanova, Svetlana; Melnitchenko, Ludmila; Tsymbalyuk, Natalya; West, G Alexander; Gerzanich, Volodymyr

2009-01-01

309

Impact of clipping versus coiling on postoperative hemodynamics and pulmonary edema after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Volume management is critical for assessment of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This multicenter prospective cohort study compared the impact of surgical clipping versus endovascular coiling on postoperative hemodynamics and pulmonary edema in patients with SAH. Hemodynamic parameters were measured for 14 days using a transpulmonary thermodilution system. The study included 202 patients, including 160 who underwent clipping and 42 who underwent coiling. There were no differences in global ejection fraction (GEF), cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance index, or global end-diastolic volume index between the clipping and coiling groups in the early period. However, extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) were significantly higher in the clipping group in the vasospasm period. Postoperative C-reactive protein (CRP) level was higher in the clipping group and was significantly correlated with postoperative brain natriuretic peptide level. Multivariate analysis found that PVPI and GEF were independently associated with high EVLWI in the early period, suggesting cardiogenic edema, and that CRP and PVPI, but not GEF, were independently associated with high EVLWI in the vasospasm period, suggesting noncardiogenic edema. In conclusion, clipping affects postoperative CRP level and may thereby increase noncardiogenic pulmonary edema in the vasospasm period. His trial is registered with University Hospital Medical Information Network UMIN000003794. PMID:24818154

Horie, Nobutaka; Iwaasa, Mitsutoshi; Isotani, Eiji; Ishizaka, Shunsuke; Inoue, Tooru; Nagata, Izumi

2014-01-01

310

Perirenal edema and toxic nephrosis in cattle, associated with ingestion of pigweed.  

PubMed

Twenty-two young cows died or were euthanatized after intoxication associated with ingestion of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) growing in marginal grass pasture. After several days of weakness and posterior incoordination, the cattle became recumbent but remained alert. Pertinent clinical laboratory findings included increased blood urea nitrogen content and marked proteinuria. At necropsy, perirenal edema and toxic tubular neprosis were seen. PMID:1184428

Stuart, B P; Nicholson, S S; Smith, J B

1975-11-15

311

The effect of ASK1 on vascular permeability and edema formation in cerebral ischemia.  

PubMed

Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1) is the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) and participates in the various central nervous system (CNS) signaling pathways. In cerebral ischemia, vascular permeability in the brain is an important issue because regulation failure of it results in edema formation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. To determine the role of ASK1 on vascular permeability and edema formation following cerebral ischemia, we first investigated ASK1-related gene expression using microarray analyses of ischemic brain tissue. We then measured protein levels of ASK1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in brain endothelial cells after hypoxia injury. We also examined protein expression of ASK1 and VEGF, edema formation, and morphological alteration through cresyl violet staining in ischemic brain tissue using ASK1-small interference RNA (ASK1-siRNA). Finally, immunohistochemistry was performed to examine VEGF and aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) expression in ischemic brain injury. Based on our findings, we propose that ASK1 is a regulating factor of vascular permeability and edema formation in cerebral ischemia. PMID:25446452

Song, Juhyun; Cheon, So Yeong; Lee, Won Taek; Park, Kyung Ah; Lee, Jong Eun

2015-01-21

312

Agmatine attenuates brain edema through reducing the expression of aquaporin-1 after cerebral ischemia.  

PubMed

Brain edema is frequently shown after cerebral ischemia. It is an expansion of brain volume because of increasing water content in brain. It causes to increase mortality after stroke. Agmatine, formed by the decarboxylation of L-arginine by arginine decarboxylase, has been shown to be neuroprotective in trauma and ischemia models. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of agmatine for brain edema in ischemic brain damage and to evaluate the expression of aquaporins (AQPs). Results showed that agmatine significantly reduced brain swelling volume 22 h after 2 h middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice. Water content in brain tissue was clearly decreased 24 h after ischemic injury by agmatine treatment. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption was diminished with agmatine than without. The expressions of AQPs-1 and -9 were well correlated with brain edema as water channels, were significantly decreased by agmatine treatment. It can thus be suggested that agmatine could attenuate brain edema by limiting BBB disruption and blocking the accumulation of brain water content through lessening the expression of AQP-1 after cerebral ischemia. PMID:20029450

Kim, Jae Hwan; Lee, Yong Woo; Park, Kyung Ah; Lee, Won Taek; Lee, Jong Eun

2010-05-01

313

Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxin B Effects In Vitro: a Potential Protein Therapeutic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various in vitro effects of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were mitigated by Bacillus anthracis edema toxin. In particular, levels of some SEB-induced cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha, gamma interferon) and chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1), MIP-1) were significantly diminished or even nonexistent, depend- ing upon the timing of

Teresa Krakauer; Stephen F. Little; Bradley G. Stiles

2005-01-01

314

VEGF inhibitors in the treatment of cerebral edema in patients with brain cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most brain tumors oversecrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which leads to an abnormally permeable tumor vasculature. This hyperpermeability allows fluid to leak from the intravascular space into the brain parenchyma, which causes vasogenic cerebral edema and increased interstitial fluid pressure. Increased interstitial fluid pressure has an important role in treatment resistance by contributing to tumor hypoxia and preventing adequate

Elizabeth R. Gerstner; Dan G. Duda; Emmanuelle di Tomaso; Peter A. Ryg; Jay S. Loeffler; A. Gregory Sorensen; Percy Ivy; Rakesh K. Jain; Tracy T. Batchelor

2009-01-01

315

Evolution of cerebral edema and its relationship with power in the theta band.  

PubMed

In previous papers we have proposed that in patients with space-occupying lesions, delta power was related with the volume of the lesion and theta power with the volume of the edema. In this report we analyze the evolution of 10 patients with space-occupying lesions in whom we measured the volume of the lesion and of the edema before and after treatment that produced changes in these volumes. EEGs were recorded in the leads of the 10-20 system referenced to linked earlobes. Delta and theta powers were calculated for voltage and current source densities (CSD) and compared with age-norms to compute conventional Z-maps. These maps provide probability statements about the deviation of observed values from the norm. Rank correlations between the change in the volume of the lesion before and after treatment and the change in Z-values before and after treatment were significant only in the delta band. However, rank correlations between the change in the volume of the edema and the change in EEG Z-values were only significant in the theta band. These correlations were higher for CSD than for voltage estimates. We also observed that the site of the lesion and of the edema was better represented by CSD maps than by voltage maps. These results are also in agreement with our previous reports, in which we observed more precise localization of brain lesions by CSD than by voltage estimates. PMID:9146487

Fernández-Bouzas, A; Harmony, T; Marosi, E; Fernández, T; Silva, J; Rodríguez, M; Bernal, J; Reyes, A; Casián, G

1997-04-01

316

Hypoxia Decreases Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Mountaineers Susceptible to High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exaggerated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is essential for development of high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). We hypothesized that susceptibility to HAPE may be related to de- creased production of nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous modula- tor of pulmonary vascular resistance, and that a decrease in ex- haled NO could be detected during hypoxic exposure. Therefore, we investigated respiratory tract NO excretion

THILO BUSCH; PETER BÄRTSCH; DIRK PAPPERT; EKKEHARD GRÜNIG; WULF HILDEBRANDT; HUBERT ELSER; KONRAD J. FALKE; ERIK R. SWENSON

317

Disruption of Ion Homeostasis in the Neurogliovascular Unit Underlies the Pathogenesis of Ischemic Cerebral Edema  

PubMed Central

Cerebral edema is a major cause of morbidity and mortality following ischemic stroke, but its underlying molecular pathophysiology is incompletely understood. Recent data have revealed the importance of ion flux via channels and transporters expressed in the neurogliovascular unit in the development of ischemia-triggered cytotoxic edema, vasogenic edema, and hemorrhagic conversion. Disruption of homeostatic mechanisms governing cell volume regulation and epithelial/endothelial ion transport due to ischemia-associated energy failure results in the thermodynamically driven re-equilibration of solutes and water across the CSF–blood and blood–brain barriers that ultimately increases the brain’s extravascular volume. Additionally, hypoxia, inflammation, and other stress-triggered increases in the functional expression of ion channels and transporters normally expressed at low levels in the neurogliovascular unit cause disruptions in ion homeostasis that contribute to ischemic cerebral edema. Here, we review the pathophysiological significance of several molecular mediators of ion transport expressed in the neurogliovascular unit, including targets of existing FDA-approved drugs, which might be potential nodes for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24323726

Khanna, Arjun; Kahle, Kristopher T.; Gerzanich, Volodymyr

2014-01-01

318

Hyperbaric Oxygen in the Management of Brain Edema Associated with Stereotactic Radiosurgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hyperbaric oxygenation therapy (HBOT) is a method rarely used for patients with complications associated with the management of inoperable arteriovenous malformations, such as brain edema, treated with stereotactic radiosurgery. We present a successful treatment protocol in a series of steroid-refractory patients. Methods: Five patients diagnosed with arteriovenous malformations and 1 patient diagnosed with cavernous malformation were irradiated using stereotactic

M. A. Celis López; S. Moreno Jiménez; G. A. Gutierrez Aceves; C. Tenorio Tellez; C. Sanchez; J. J. Suárez Campos

2010-01-01

319

Treatment for painful bone marrow edema by open wedge tibial osteotomy.  

PubMed

We evaluated the results of patients who had undergone medial open wedge proximal tibial osteotomy, with painful bone marrow edema in the medial tibial plateau. The study included 21 patients who had presented with knee pain and whose MRIs showed bone marrow edema in medial plateau. The degree of osteoarthritis was evaluated radiologically according to the Kellgren-Lawrence criteria; 6 cases were Grade 1, 11 cases were Grade 2, and 3 cases were Grade 3. Preoperative varus angle was a mean of 2.19° (0-4). The bone marrow edema was classified according to the width of the lesions extending into the joint surface subchondral area on MRI T2 sequences. Open wedge osteotomy was performed in all patients. The postoperative results were evaluated by X-ray, MRI, and WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities) knee scores. The preoperative 2.19° varus angle was evaluated postoperatively as valgus 6.57° (4-8°) (p < 0.05). The postoperative WOMAC knee scores revealed a significant decrease in pain (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we are of the opinion that medial open wedge proximal tibial osteotomy is an effective treatment in patients who have painful bone marrow edema in medial tibia plateau. PMID:23412209

Kesemenl?, Cumhur Cevdet; Mem?soglu, Kaya; Muezz?noglu, Um?t Sefa; Akansel, Gur

2013-10-01

320

The Influence of Cellular Hypoxia and Reactive Oxygen Species on the Development of Endothelial Cell Edema  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated in vitro whether endothelial cell edema is induced by cellular hypoxia or oxygen radical formation. Measurements of relative cell volume (RCV) were made using microweight analysis, liquid scintillation spectrometry and analysis of cellular protein content. To validate this method of determining cell volume, endothelial cells were incubated in media of different osmolarities. Vascular endothelial cells reacted to osmotic

M. Hensel; T. Volk; W. J. Kox

1997-01-01

321

Prediction, by Retinal Location, of the Onset of Diabetic Edema in Patients with Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To formulate a model to predict the location of the onset of diabetic retinal edema (DE) in adults with diabetic retinopathy (DR), at risk for DE. Methods. In all, 46 eyes from 23 patients with DR were included. Subjects were followed semiannually until DE developed or the study concluded. The presence or absence of DE within the central 45° at the final visit was the outcome measure, and data from the prior visit were used as baseline. A logistic regression model was formulated to assess the relationship between DE development and: multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) implicit time (IT) Z-score, mfERG amplitude (Amp) Z-score, sex, diabetes duration, diabetes type, blood glucose, HbA1c, age, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure, and grade of retinopathy. A total of 35 retinal zones were constructed from the mfERG elements and each was graded for DE. Data from 52 control subjects were used to calculate the maximum IT and minimum Amp Z-scores for each zone. Receiver operating characteristic curves from a fivefold cross-validation were used to determine the model's predictive properties. Results. Edema developed in 5.2% of all retinal zones and in 35% of the eyes. The mfERG Amp, mfERG IT, SBP, and sex were together predictive of edema onset. Combined, these factors produce a model that has 84% sensitivity and 76% specificity. Conclusions. Together mfERG, SBP, and sex are good predictors of local edema in patients with DR. The model is a useful tool for assessing risk for edema development and a candidate measure to evaluate novel therapeutics directed at DE. PMID:21743017

Bearse, Marcus A.; Schneck, Marilyn E.; Wolff, Brian E.; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Barez, Shirin; Mick, Andrew B.; Dolan, Bernard J.; Adams, Anthony J.

2011-01-01

322

Characterization and quantification of cerebral edema induced by synchrotron x-ray microbeam radiation therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cerebral edema is one of the main acute complications arising after irradiation of brain tumors. Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), an innovative experimental radiotherapy technique using spatially fractionated synchrotron x-rays, has been shown to spare radiosensitive tissues such as mammal brains. The aim of this study was to determine if cerebral edema occurs after MRT using diffusion-weighted MRI and microgravimetry. Prone Swiss nude mice's heads were positioned horizontally in the synchrotron x-ray beam and the upper part of the left hemisphere was irradiated in the antero-posterior direction by an array of 18 planar microbeams (25 mm wide, on-center spacing 211 mm, height 4 mm, entrance dose 312 Gy or 1000 Gy). An apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured at 7 T 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after irradiation. Eventually, the cerebral water content (CWC) was determined by microgravimetry. The ADC and CWC in the irradiated (312 Gy or 1000 Gy) and in the contralateral non-irradiated hemispheres were not significantly different at all measurement times, with two exceptions: (1) a 9% ADC decrease (p < 0.05) was observed in the irradiated cortex 1 day after exposure to 312 Gy, (2) a 0.7% increase (p < 0.05) in the CWC was measured in the irradiated hemispheres 1 day after exposure to 1000 Gy. The results demonstrate the presence of a minor and transient cellular edema (ADC decrease) at 1 day after a 312 Gy exposure, without a significant CWC increase. One day after a 1000 Gy exposure, the CWC increased, while the ADC remained unchanged and may reflect the simultaneous presence of cellular and vasogenic edema. Both types of edema disappear within a week after microbeam exposure which may confirm the normal tissue sparing effect of MRT. For more information on this article, see medicalphysicsweb.org

Serduc, Raphaël; van de Looij, Yohan; Francony, Gilles; Verdonck, Olivier; van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Laissue, Jean; Farion, Régine; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Siegbahn, Erik Albert; Bravin, Alberto; Prezado, Yolanda; Segebarth, Christoph; Rémy, Chantal; Lahrech, Hana

2008-03-01

323

Comparative Assessment of Lymph Node Micrometastasis in Cervical, Endometrial and Vulvar Cancer: Insights on the Real Time qRT-PCR Approach versus Immunohistochemistry, Employing Dual Molecular Markers  

PubMed Central

To address the value of qRT-PCR and IHC in accurately detecting lymph node micrometastasis in gynecological cancer, we performed a systematic approach, using a set of dual molecular tumor-specific markers such as cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9), in a series of 46 patients (19 with cervical cancer, 18 with endometrial cancer, and 9 with vulvar cancer). A total of 1281 lymph nodes were analyzed and 28 were found positive by histopathology. Following this documentation, 82 lymph nodes, 11 positive and 71 negative, were randomly selected and further analyzed both by IHC and qRT-PCR for CK19 and CA9 expression. All 11 (100%) expressed CK19 by IHC, while only 6 (54.5%) expressed CA9. On the contrary, all the histologically negative for micrometastases lymph nodes were also negative by IHC analysis for both markers. The comparative diagnostic efficacy of the two markers using qRT-PCR, however, disclosed that the analysis of the same aliquots of the 82 lymph nodes led to 100% specificity for the CK19 biomarker, while, in contrast, CA9 failed to recapitulate a similar pattern. These data suggest that qRT-PCR exhibits a better diagnostic accuracy compared to IHC, while CK19 displays a consistent pattern of detection compared to CA9. PMID:24527437

Pappa, Kalliopi I.; Rodolakis, Alexandros; Christodoulou, Ioanna; Gazouli, Maria; Markaki, Sofia; Antsaklis, Aris; Anagnou, Nicholas P.

2014-01-01

324

The Influence of Running on Patellar Water Content and Bone Marrow Edema in Females with and without Patellofemoral , H. H. Hu2  

E-print Network

subchondral bone thickness and stiffness, and bone marrow edema (BME)[3]. Bone marrow edemaThe Influence of Running on Patellar Water Content and Bone Marrow Edema in Females of increased pressure on highly innervated subchondral bone[1]. Current literature also suggests

Southern California, University of

325

Imaging of carotid artery vessel wall edema using T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance  

PubMed Central

Background Atherothrombosis remains a major health problem in the western world, and carotid atherosclerosis is an important contributor to embolic ischemic strokes. It remains a clinical challenge to identify rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques before clinical events occur. Inflammation, endothelial injury and angiogenesis are features of vulnerable plaques and may all be associated with plaque edema. Therefore, vessel wall edema, which can be detected by 2D T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), may be used as a dynamic marker of disease activity in the atherosclerotic plaque. However, 2D imaging is limited by low spatial resolution in the slice-select direction compared to 3D imaging techniques. We sought to investigate the ability of novel 3D techniques to detect edema induced in porcine carotid arteries by acute balloon injury compared to conventional 2D T2-weighted black-blood CMR. Methods Edema was induced unilaterally by balloon overstretch injury in the carotid artery of nine pigs. Between one to seven hours (average four hours) post injury, CMR was performed using 2D T2-weighted short-tau inversion recovery (T2-STIR), 3D volumetric isotropic turbo spin echo acquisition (VISTA) and 3D T2 prepared gradient-echo (T2prep-GE). The CMR images were compared in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratio. Furthermore, the presence of vessel wall injury was validated macroscopically by means of Evans Blue dye that only enters the injured vessel wall. Results All three imaging sequences classified the carotid arteries correctly compared to Evans Blue and all sequences demonstrated a significant increase in SNR of the injured compared to the non-injured carotid vessel wall (T2-STIR, p?=?0.002; VISTA, p?=?0.004; and T2prep-GE, p?=?0.003). There was no significant difference between sequences regarding SNR and CNR. Conclusion The novel 3D imaging sequences VISTA and T2prep-GE perform comparably to conventional 2D T2-STIR in terms of detecting vessel wall edema. The improved spatial coverage of these 3D sequences may facilitate visualization of vessel wall edema to enable detection and monitoring of vulnerable carotid atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:24593873

2014-01-01

326

Malignant Cerebral Edema following CT Myelogram Using Isovue-M 300 Intrathecal Nonionic Water-Soluble Contrast: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Lumbar myelogram utilizing nonionic contrast is a commonly performed procedure to identify spinal pathology. Complication rates are low. Cerebral edema has been shown to occur following intrathecal injection of ionic contrast; however, no current literature has documented this complication relating to the ubiquitously used nonionic contrast medium. We report a case of a patient who developed malignant cerebral edema following a lumbar myelogram with Isovue-M 300 nonionic water-soluble intrathecal contrast. We believe this is the first reported case of cerebral edema resulting from the use of a nonionic contrast. PMID:22091377

Kelley, Brian C.; Roh, Simon; Johnson, Philip L.; Arnold, Paul M.

2011-01-01

327

Bilateral upper lobe pulmonary edema during gynecologic laparoscopic surgery in the Trendelenberg position -A case report-.  

PubMed

A 25-year-old woman was diagnosed with a ruptured ectopic pregnancy. During laparoscopic surgery, the patient was in the Trendelenberg position (20° degrees). Massive froth in the endotracheal tube was observed at the end of surgery. A portable chest x-ray, checked at the end of the operation, showed diffuse haziness in both upper lung fields. After one hour of aggressive treatment with drugs and positive mechanical ventilation, the amount of froth in the endotracheal tube was reduced considerably. Considering the symptom and radiologic findings, we concluded that diffuse bilateral upper lung field haziness was due to atypical pulmonary edema. We speculated that the rapid improvement of pulmonary edema was due to redistribution of fluid to the lowest part of lung by immediate reversing the patient's Trendelenberg position, along with aggressive treatment. PMID:21286430

Shim, Jae-Hang; Shin, Woo Jong; Lee, Sang Hoon

2010-12-01

328

Scorpion sting envenomation presenting with pulmonary edema in adults: a report of seven cases from Nepal.  

PubMed

Scorpion sting is a common problem in villages of Eastern Nepal. The life-threatening complications of myocarditis and pulmonary edema is known in red scorpion in India but not reported in Nepal. This condition requires urgent attention and ICU care from few hours to days. Delay in recognition and the hypoxemia increase the morbidity and mortality. Illiteracy, ignorance, poverty, traditional faith healers trying treatment in remote areas, lack of transport in difficult terrains and the non availability of ventilation facility in nearby hospital, add to delay in appropriate treatment. Seven young adult patients admitted in a span of two years with history of scorpion sting presenting with pulmonary edema required ICU care. They were successfully managed with the positive pressure ventilation with PEEP, cardiac support with inotropes and fluid balance. Magnitude of problem, clinical presentation and management done is emphasized. PMID:16444084

Bhadani, Umesh Kumar; Tripathi, Mukesh; Sharma, Sanjib; Pandey, Rajesh

2006-01-01

329

Subthreshold Diode Micropulse Laser Photocoagulation (SDM) as Invisible Retinal Phototherapy for Diabetic Macular Edema: A Review  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To present the state-of-the-art of subthreshold diode laser micropulse photocoagulation (SDM) as invisible retinal phototherapy for diabetic macular edema (DME). Method: To review the role and evolution of retinal laser treatment for DME. Results: Thermal laser retinal photocoagulation has been the cornerstone of treatment for diabetic macular edema for over four decades. Throughout, laser induced retinal damage produced by conventional photocoagulation has been universally accepted as necessary to produce a therapeutic benefit, despite the inherent risks, adverse effects and limitations of thermally destructive treatment. Recently, SDM, performed as invisible retinal phototherapy for DME, has been found to be effective in the absence of any retinal damage or adverse effect, fundamentally altering our understanding of laser treatment for retinal disease. Summary: The discovery of clinically effective and harmless SDM treatment for DME offers exciting new information that will improve our understanding of laser treatment for retinal disease, expand treatment indications, and improve patient outcomes. PMID:22587512

Luttrull, Jeffrey K; Dorin, Giorgio

2012-01-01

330

[Frequency and risk factors for diabetic macular edema in the wilaya of Constantine (Algeria)].  

PubMed

We conducted an exhaustive cross-sectional descriptive study, in 2009, on type 1 diabetics residing in the wilaya of Constantine. Our objective was to assess the frequency and risk factors associated with diabetic macular edema (DME) by mydriatic non-stereoscopic fundus photographs of nine retinal fields. The frequency of DME was 8.7%. There was no gender influence on the frequency of macular edema. There were as many men (46.4%) as women (53.6%) with ME (P=0.8). On bivariate analysis, the duration of diabetes (P=0.001), age (P=0.0001), hypertension (P=0.00001), renal involvement (P=0.00001) and hypercholesterolemia (P=0.01) were risk factors for DME. PMID:25443400

Berkani, Z; Kitouni, Y; Lakehal, A; Kherroubi, R; Hartani, D

2015-01-01

331

Transgenic lettuce producing a candidate protein for vaccine against edema disease.  

PubMed

Pig edema disease is a bacterial disease caused by Shiga toxin 2e-producing Escherichia coli belonging mainly to serotypes O138, O139, and O141. The B subunit of Shiga toxin 2e (Stx2eB) is a candidate protein for use in a vaccine against edema disease. We produced this protein in transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa), an edible plant that can be cultivated in a factory setting. In a transient expression system, we found that NtADH 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) functions as a translational enhancer in lettuce cells, and that Stx2eB accumulates most efficiently in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of lettuce cells. Stx2eB was produced in stable transgenic lettuce plants expressing a modified Stx2eB gene fused with the NtADH 5'-UTR and sequence encoding ER localization signals. PMID:19584542

Matsui, Takeshi; Asao, Hiroshi; Ki, Misa; Sawada, Kazutoshi; Kato, Ko

2009-07-01

332

Anthrax Lethal and Edema Toxins Fail to Directly Impair Human Platelet Function  

PubMed Central

Hemorrhage is a prominent clinical manifestation of systemic anthrax. Therefore, we have examined the effects of anthrax lethal and edema toxins on human platelets. We find that anthrax lethal toxin fails to cleave its target, mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, and anthrax edema toxin fails to increase intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Surface expression of toxin receptors tumor endothelial marker 8 and capillary morphogenesis gene 2, as well as coreceptor low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), are markedly reduced, preventing toxin binding to platelets. Our studies suggest that the hemorrhagic clinical manifestations of systemic anthrax are unlikely to be caused by the direct binding and entry of anthrax toxins into human platelets. PMID:22158563

Chauncey, Kassidy M.; Szarowicz, Sarah E.; Sidhu, Gurjit S.; During, Russell L.

2012-01-01

333

Extent of perilesional edema differentiates radionecrosis from tumor recurrence following stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases  

PubMed Central

Background Differentiation of tumor recurrence from radionecrosis is a critical step in the follow-up management of patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases. A method that can reliably differentiate tumor recurrence from radiation necrosis using standard MR sequences would be of significant value. Methods We analyzed the records of 49 patients with 52 brain metastases treated with SRS who subsequently underwent surgical resection of the same lesion. Forty-seven of the lesions had preoperative MRI available for review (90%), including T1 postcontrast, T2, and fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences. Pre-SRS and preoperative lesion and edema volumes were manually contoured and measured in a blinded fashion using radiation treatment planning software. A neuropathologist analyzed samples for the presence of tumor and/or radiation necrosis. Results Longer time between SRS and resection (P < .001) and a larger edema/lesion volume ratio (high T2/T1c, P = .002) were found to be predictive of radionecrosis as opposed to tumor recurrence. Using a cutoff value of 10 for the edema/lesion volume ratio, we were able to predict the presence of tumor with a positive predictive value of 92%, which increased to 100% when looking only at patients who underwent resection <18 months following SRS. Conclusions On follow-up imaging, lesions with a high edema/lesion volume ratio and lesions that progress later after SRS are more likely to contain radionecrosis. These indices may help guide clinical decision making in the context of evolving lesions after SRS for brain metastases and thereby avoid unnecessary interventions. PMID:24243914

Leeman, Jonathan E.; Clump, David A.; Flickinger, John C.; Mintz, Arlan H.; Burton, Steven A.; Heron, Dwight E.

2013-01-01

334

Quadriceps fat pad edema: significance on magnetic resonance images of the knee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  While clinically reading magnetic resonance (MR) images of the knees we have occasionally noted edema within the suprapatellar\\u000a fat pad, with mass effect both on the suprapatellar joint recess posteriorly, and on the quadriceps tendon anteriorly. This\\u000a MR appearance is analogous to Hoffa’s disease described in the infrapatellar fat pad. We sought to evaluate the frequency\\u000a and pattern of this

Nogah Shabshin; Mark E. Schweitzer; William B. Morrison

2006-01-01

335

Inhibition of chlorine-induced pulmonary inflammation and edema by mometasone and budesonide  

SciTech Connect

Chlorine gas is a widely used industrial compound that is highly toxic by inhalation and is considered a chemical threat agent. Inhalation of high levels of chlorine results in acute lung injury characterized by pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and decrements in lung function. Because inflammatory processes can promote damage in the injured lung, anti-inflammatory therapy may be of potential benefit for treating chemical-induced acute lung injury. We previously developed a chlorine inhalation model in which mice develop epithelial injury, neutrophilic inflammation, pulmonary edema, and impaired pulmonary function. This model was used to evaluate nine corticosteroids for the ability to inhibit chlorine-induced neutrophilic inflammation. Two of the most potent corticosteroids in this assay, mometasone and budesonide, were investigated further. Mometasone or budesonide administered intraperitoneally 1 h after chlorine inhalation caused a dose-dependent inhibition of neutrophil influx in lung tissue sections and in the number of neutrophils in lung lavage fluid. Budesonide, but not mometasone, reduced the levels of the neutrophil attractant CXCL1 in lavage fluid 6 h after exposure. Mometasone or budesonide also significantly inhibited pulmonary edema assessed 1 day after chlorine exposure. Chlorine inhalation resulted in airway hyperreactivity to inhaled methacholine, but neither mometasone nor budesonide significantly affected this parameter. The results suggest that mometasone and budesonide may represent potential treatments for chemical-induced lung injury. - Highlights: • Chlorine causes lung injury when inhaled and is considered a chemical threat agent. • Corticosteroids may inhibit lung injury through their anti-inflammatory actions. • Corticosteroids inhibited chlorine-induced pneumonitis and pulmonary edema. • Mometasone and budesonide are potential rescue treatments for chlorine lung injury.

Chen, Jing; Mo, Yiqun; Schlueter, Connie F.; Hoyle, Gary W., E-mail: Gary.Hoyle@louisville.edu

2013-10-15

336

Predictors of malignant brain edema in middle cerebral artery infarction observed on CT angiography.  

PubMed

Patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction accompanied by MCA occlusion with or without internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion have a poor prognosis, as a result of brain cell damage caused by both the infarction and by space-occupying and life-threatening edema formation. Multiple treatments can reduce the likelihood of edema formation, but tend to show limited efficacy. Decompressive hemicraniectomy with duroplasty has been promising for improving functional outcomes and reducing mortality, particularly improved functional outcomes can be achieved with early decompressive surgery. Therefore, identifying patients at risk for developing fatal edema is important and should be performed as early as possible. Sixty-four patients diagnosed with major MCA infarction with MCA occlusion within 8hours of symptom onset were retrospectively reviewed. Early clinical, laboratory, and computed tomography angiography (CTA) parameters were analyzed for malignant brain edema (MBE). Twenty of the 64 patients (31%) had MBE, and the clinical outcome was poor (3month modified Rankin Scale >2) in 95% of them. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score, Clot Burden Score, and Collateral Score (CS) showed statically significant differences in both groups. Multivariable analyses adjusted for age and sex identified the independent predictors of MBE: NIHSS score >18 (odds ratio [OR]: 4.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-16.0, p=0.023) and CS on CTA <2 (OR: 7.28, 95% CI: 1.7-30.3,p=0.006). Our results provide useful information for selecting patients in need of aggressive treatment such as decompressive surgery. PMID:25510537

Kim, Hoon; Jin, Seon Tak; Kim, Young Woo; Kim, Seong Rim; Park, Ik Seong; Jo, Kwang Wook

2015-03-01

337

Pediatric posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome presenting with isolated cerebellar edema and obstructive hydrocephalus  

PubMed Central

In this report, the authors describe the case of a teenage boy who presented with hypertensive emergency, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, and hydrocephalus due to fourth ventricle outlet obstruction. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a well-characterized but uncommon syndrome in children that is generally triggered by severe hypertension. The unusual clinical picture of this patient, who had isolated cerebellar edema leading to obstructive hydrocephalus, has been rarely described in children. PMID:25062302

Ettinger, Nicholas; Pearson, Matthew; Lamb, Fred S.; Wellons, John C.

2015-01-01

338

Pulmonary edema in the transurethral resection syndrome induced with mannitol 5%.  

PubMed

Two patients developed the transurethral resection (TUR) syndrome after having absorbed mannitol 5% during TUR of the prostate. Both developed pulmonary edema and became severely hypoatremic (lowest serum sodium 99 and 97 mmol/l, respectively). Hypertonic saline was infused to raise the serum sodium level and plasma volume expansion used to combat hypotension. One patient also required positive-pressure ventilation and intravenous administration of norepinephrine. Both patients recovered completely. PMID:19397498

Wang, J H; He, Q; Liu, Y L; Hahn, R G

2009-09-01

339

Unusual ventilation perfusion scintigram in a case of immunologic pulmonary edema clinically simulating pulmonary embolism  

SciTech Connect

A case of immunologic pulmonary edema secondary to hydrochlorothiazide allergy developed in a 55-year-old woman that clinically simulated pulmonary embolism. The patient had abnormal washin images with normal washout images on an Xe-133 ventilation study. On the perfusion study, large bilateral central and posterior perfusion defects were present that showed an unusual mirror image pattern on the lateral and posterior oblique views. Resolution of radiographic and scintigraphic abnormalities occurred over a 3-day period in conjunction with corticosteroid therapy.

Campeau, R.J.; Faust, J.M.; Ahmad, S.

1987-11-01

340

Usefulness of lung ultrasound in the bedside distinction between pulmonary edema and exacerbation of COPD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses the usefulness of bedside lung ultrasound in the diagnostic distinction between different causes of\\u000a acute dyspnea in the emergency setting, particularly focusing on differential diagnosis of pulmonary edema and exacerbation\\u000a of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This is possible using a simple unit and easy-to-acquire technique performed\\u000a by radiologists and clinicians. Major advantages include bedside availability, absence

Giovanni Volpicelli; Luciano Cardinale; Giorgio Garofalo; Andrea Veltri

2008-01-01

341

Pulmonary edema secondary to chronic upper airway obstruction. Hemodynamic study in a child  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 22-month-old girl with the syndrome of hypoventilation, pulmonary hypertension, cor pulmonale and pulmonary edema due to adenoidal hypertrophy is described. Adenoidectomy resulted in relief of all symptoms and signs within 24 h. Hemodynamic study using pulmonary artery catheter showed that the pulmonary artery pressure returned to normal 48 h after relief of the obstruction. The normal left ventricular end-diastolic

S. Sofer; R. Baer; Y. Gussarsky; A. Lieberman; J. Bar-Ziv

1984-01-01

342

Amniotic fluid embolism: A case with non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an uncommon case of amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) in a 24-year-old woman with a 26th-week, second pregnancy. Clinical\\u000a manifestations were dominated by acute respiratory distress and pulmonary edema. Recovery was complete. Early invasive hemodynamic\\u000a studies showed normal function of the left ventricle with a low pulmonary artery occluded pressure. These findings are controversial\\u000a to the concept of cardiogenic

A. Koegler; P. Sauder; A. Marolf; A. Jaeger

1994-01-01

343

Recurrent pulmonary edema secondary to elongated soft palate in a cat.  

PubMed

A 9-month-old intact female Persian cat presented with recurrent pulmonary edema secondary to an elongated soft palate. Endoscopic evaluation of the pharynx and larynx showed that the elongated soft palate was overlying the epiglottis. Partial resection of the soft palate was performed and the cat showed no further respiratory signs. This report is the first description of elongated soft palate causing airway obstruction in a brachycephalic cat. PMID:22398461

Corgozinho, Katia Barão; Pereira, Adriana Neves; Cunha, Simone Carvalho dos Santos; Damico, Cristiane Brandão; Ferreira, Ana Maria Reis; de Souza, Heloisa Justen Moreira

2012-06-01

344

Crocin alleviates the local paw edema induced by histamine in rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: Crocin, as an active constituent of saffron, has many biological functions including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of crocin and chlorpheniramine on local edema induced by histamine. Materials and Methods: Local edema was induced by subcutaneous injection of histamine (100 ?l, 0.1%) in ventral surface of right hind paw. The thickness of paw was measured at 1 h before and 1, 2, 3 h after injection of histamine, using a fine caliper. The number of neutrophils in paw tissue sections was counted 3 h after intraplantar injection of histamine. Results: Intraperitoneal injection of crocin at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg and chlorpheniramine at a dose of 10 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05) decreased both paw thickness and infiltration of neutrophils in paw tissues. In a combined treatment, intraperitoneal injection of an effective dose of crocin (100 mg/kg) with an ineffective dose of chlorpheniramine (2.5 mg/kg) produced a more documented response in comparison with crocin (100 mg/kg) and chlorpheniramine (2.5 mg/kg) used alone. Conclusion: The results suggested that both crocin and chlorpheniramine suppressed histamine-induced local paw edema. Moreover, histamine H1 receptors function may be affected by crocin. PMID:25050237

Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Farshid, Amir Abbas; Hosseini, Leila

2012-01-01

345

Effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in bone marrow edema syndrome of the hip.  

PubMed

There is no gold standard for treatment of bone marrow edema syndrome of the hip (BMESH). Usually, treatment is conservative, owing to the favorable and self limiting prognosis. In musculoskeletal disorders, the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been widely recognized and recent research supports its use in the treatment of the first stages of avascular osteonecrosis of the proximal femur and in other conditions where bone marrow edema is present. On this basis, we performed a prospective study to evaluate the effectiveness of ESWT in normalizing the symptoms and imaging features of BMESH. Twenty consecutive symptomatic patients underwent two treatments of high-energy ESWT and were followed-up at 2, 3 and 6 months, with a final clinical follow-up at mean 15.52 ± 1.91 months. Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the hip and were evaluated according to the Harris hip score. The mean improvement in HHS over the course of the study was of 58.5 ± 14.9 points (p < 0.0001), and the mean edema area reduced from 981.9 ± 453.2 mm(2) pre-treatment to 107.8 ± 248.1 mm(2) at 6 months. ESWT seems to be a powerful, non-pharmacological tool that produces rapid pain relief and functional improvement and aids the normalization of the vascular and metabolic impairments which characterize BMESH. PMID:24658812

d'Agostino, Cristina; Romeo, Pietro; Lavanga, Vito; Pisani, Salvatore; Sansone, Valerio

2014-11-01

346

High altitude pulmonary edema-clinical features, pathophysiology, prevention and treatment  

PubMed Central

High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a noncardiogenic pulmonary edema which typically occurs in lowlanders who ascend rapidly to altitudes greater than 2500-3000 m. Early symptoms of HAPE include a nonproductive cough, dyspnoea on exertion and reduced exercise performance. Later, dyspnoea occurs at rest. Clinical features are cyanosis, tachycardia, tachypnoea and elevated body temperature generally not exceeding 38.5°C. Rales are discrete initially and located over the middle lung fields. HAPE mainly occurs due to exaggerated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and elevated pulmonary artery pressure. It has been observed that HAPE is a high permeability type of edema occurring also due to leaks in the capillary wall (‘stress failure’). Slow descent is the most effective method for prevention; in addition, graded ascent and time for acclimatization, low sleeping altitudes, avoidance of alcohol and sleeping pills, and avoidance of exercise are the key to preventing HAPE. Treatment of HAPE consists of immediate improvement of oxygenation either by supplemental oxygen, hyperbaric treatment, or by rapid descent. PMID:23580834

Paralikar, Swapnil J.

2012-01-01

347

Carvacrol alleviates cerebral edema by modulating AQP4 expression after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.  

PubMed

Carvacrol is a natural compound extracted from many plants of the family Lamiaceae. Previous studies have demonstrated that carvacrol has potential neuroprotective effects in central nervous system diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and cerebral ischemia. In this study, we investigated the preclinical effect of carvacrol on cerebral edema after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) using a bacterial collagenase-induced ICH mouse model. Mice were randomly divided into sham (n=43), vehicle-treated (n=51), and carvacrol-treated groups (n=101). In carvacrol-treated group, carvacrol was administrated to mice at 0h, 1h, or 3h after ICH induction. Carvacrol was injected intraperitoneally with single doses of 10, 25, 50, or 100mg/kg. Neurologic dysfunctions, brain water content, aquaporins (AQPs) mRNAs level and AQP4 protein expression in the perihematomal area were evaluated post ICH. Our results showed that carvacrol administration improved neurological deficits after day 3 following ICH (p<0.05). Carvacrol reduced cerebral edema and Evans Blue leakage at day 3 (p<0.05). We also found that carvacrol treatment decreased AQP4 mRNA in a dose-dependent manner at 24h. Furthermore, AQP4 protein expression in the perihematomal area was reduced by carvacrol significantly at day 3 after ICH (p<0.05). Our findings suggest that carvacrol may exert its protective effect on ICH injury by ameliorating AQP4-mediated cerebral edema. PMID:24051341

Zhong, Zhihong; Wang, Baofeng; Dai, Minchao; Sun, Yuhao; Sun, Qingfang; Yang, Guoyuan; Bian, Liuguan

2013-10-25

348

Bilateral acute anterior uveitis and optic disc edema following a snake bite.  

PubMed

The authors wish to report a case of bilateral acute anterior uveitis and optic disc edema following a hemotoxic snake bite, in order to highlight the concomitant occurrence of these conditions and the potential adverse effects of anti-snake venom (ASV). A 35-year-old male was bitten by a viper at seventeen thirty hours, and was started on ASV. Two days following treatment he experienced sudden onset redness and painful diminution of vision in both eyes (OU). On examination, the patient's visual acuity (VA) in OU was 20/200. Examination revealed fresh keratic precipitates, cells, and flare in the anterior chamber (AC), posterior synechiae, sluggish and ill-sustained pupillary reaction, and hyperemic, edematous disc with blurred margins in OU. He was started on topical steroids, cycloplegics and intravenous methylprednisolone. Following treatment, the patient showed improvement and was continued on topical medications and oral prednisolone tapered over 3 weeks, after which VA OU improved, the AC showed no cells and flare and disc edema resolved. Uveitis and optic disc edema in snake bite can either be due to the direct toxic effects of the venom or the effect of ASV. Steroids have a beneficial role in the management of these symptoms. PMID:24688264

Kumar, Praveen K; Ahuja, Shashi; Kumar, Praveen S

2014-04-01

349

Inhibition of chlorine-induced pulmonary inflammation and edema by mometasone and budesonide.  

PubMed

Chlorine gas is a widely used industrial compound that is highly toxic by inhalation and is considered a chemical threat agent. Inhalation of high levels of chlorine results in acute lung injury characterized by pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and decrements in lung function. Because inflammatory processes can promote damage in the injured lung, anti-inflammatory therapy may be of potential benefit for treating chemical-induced acute lung injury. We previously developed a chlorine inhalation model in which mice develop epithelial injury, neutrophilic inflammation, pulmonary edema, and impaired pulmonary function. This model was used to evaluate nine corticosteroids for the ability to inhibit chlorine-induced neutrophilic inflammation. Two of the most potent corticosteroids in this assay, mometasone and budesonide, were investigated further. Mometasone or budesonide administered intraperitoneally 1h after chlorine inhalation caused a dose-dependent inhibition of neutrophil influx in lung tissue sections and in the number of neutrophils in lung lavage fluid. Budesonide, but not mometasone, reduced the levels of the neutrophil attractant CXCL1 in lavage fluid 6h after exposure. Mometasone or budesonide also significantly inhibited pulmonary edema assessed 1 day after chlorine exposure. Chlorine inhalation resulted in airway hyperreactivity to inhaled methacholine, but neither mometasone nor budesonide significantly affected this parameter. The results suggest that mometasone and budesonide may represent potential treatments for chemical-induced lung injury. PMID:23800689

Chen, Jing; Mo, Yiqun; Schlueter, Connie F; Hoyle, Gary W

2013-10-15

350

Automated detection of exudates and macula for grading of diabetic macular edema.  

PubMed

Medical systems based on state of the art image processing and pattern recognition techniques are very common now a day. These systems are of prime interest to provide basic health care facilities to patients and support to doctors. Diabetic macular edema is one of the retinal abnormalities in which diabetic patient suffers from severe vision loss due to affected macula. It affects the central vision of the person and causes total blindness in severe cases. In this article, we propose an intelligent system for detection and grading of macular edema to assist the ophthalmologists in early and automated detection of the disease. The proposed system consists of a novel method for accurate detection of macula using a detailed feature set and Gaussian mixtures model based classifier. We also present a new hybrid classifier as an ensemble of Gaussian mixture model and support vector machine for improved exudate detection even in the presence of other bright lesions which eventually leads to reliable classification of input retinal image in different stages of macular edema. The statistical analysis and comparative evaluation of proposed system with existing methods are performed on publicly available standard retinal image databases. The proposed system has achieved average value of 97.3%, 95.9% and 96.8% for sensitivity, specificity and accuracy respectively on both databases. PMID:24548898

Akram, M Usman; Tariq, Anam; Khan, Shoab A; Javed, M Younus

2014-04-01

351

[The suppressive effect of melilotus extract on the thermal edema of rats].  

PubMed

The effect of melilotus extract (ME) and Esberiven (ES) which contain coumarin on the thermal edema, which is one of high protein edema, was evaluated by both quantitative and qualitative assays. The intraperitoneal injection of ME immediately after burn greatly reduced the amount of swelling and effectively inhibited the occurrence of necrosis and induration in the injured leg-skin as compared with the saline controls in which a 3rd degree of thermal injury was observed. Administration of ES also induced a similar suppressive effect. Furthermore, either intraperitoneal or subcutaneous local injection of ME 4 hr before burn was effective in reducing the edema and thermal injury. No increase of the lymph flow and output of lymphocytes and protein from the thoracic duct lymph was observed in thermally injured rats given an injection of ME. The massive infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages 6 to 24 hr after the subcutaneous injection of ME was histologically observed in the dermal lesion of normal rats. Twenty-four hr later, macrophages, fibroblasts, and lymphocytes became predominant. The present data taken together suggest that ME exerts the suppressive effect on thermal injury by either prior or post administration, and these effects might be induced in an indirect manner, through the action of phagocytic cells accumulated in the injured lesion, not via lymphatic drainages of excess fluid and protein. PMID:6862319

Nishikawa, M; Yamashita, A; Ando, K; Mitsuhiro, S

1983-03-01

352

A pre-injury high ethanol intake in rats promotes brain edema following traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Drinking is a risk factor for traumatic brain injury (TBI), and ethanol can aggravate the outcome by promoting brain edema. The mechanism involved is not fully understood. It has been confirmed that aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play pivotal roles in cytotoxic/vasogenic brain edema individually, and both of these proteins are downstream regulatory factors of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?). In this study, we used a fluid percussion injury (FPI) model in rats to determine the effects of acute ethanol intake on the expression levels of HIF-1?, AQP4, and VEGF prior to FPI. The animals were sacrificed 1, 2, 3, and 4 days post-injury. We found that the expression levels of HIF-1? and AQP4 were significantly upregulated in the ethanol-pretreated groups, whereas the VEGF expression level was not. In addition, there was a positive correlation between HIF-1? and AQP4. The results of this study indicate that cytotoxic brain edema may play an important role in the early stage of FPI in ethanol-pre-treated animals and that HIF-1? and AQP4 might be involved. PMID:24814385

Wu, Weichuan; Tian, Runfa; Hao, Shuyu; Xu, Feifan; Mao, Xiang; Liu, Baiyun

2014-12-01

353

Effect of glycerol on ischemic cerebral edema assessed by magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to assess the anticerebral edema effect of glycerol on a large cerebral infarction with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Glycerol, which is widely used as an osmotic agent against cerebral edema, could exacerbate brain tissue shift, since it has been suggested that glycerol might shrink a noninfarcted hemisphere and worsen the mass effect after a large hemispheric cerebral infarction. To investigate these issues, changes in a large hemispheric infarction with cerebral edema were studied using MRI before and after glycerol administration. Infarct volumes, normal brain tissue volumes and lateral ventricle volumes, in addition to signal intensities of T(2)-weighted images, were measured in six patients before and after administration of 300 ml of glycerol. Ventricle volumes were significantly increased (p=0.0015) and the T(2) signal intensity of the post-treatment ischemic region decreased after glycerol administration. In contrast, no significant differences in either cerebral volume or T(2) signal intensity were seen in the noninfarcted hemisphere before and after administration. Our data suggest that glycerol does not exacerbate the mass effect on a large hemispheric infarction. PMID:12686405

Sakamaki, Masanori; Igarashi, Hironaka; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Hagiwara, Hiroshi; Ando, Jun; Chishiki, Tetsurou; Curran, Brian C; Katayama, Yasuo

2003-05-15

354

Monoscopic versus stereoscopic photography in screening for clinically significant macular edema.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to determine whether monoscopic photography could serve as an accurate tool when used to screen for clinically significant macular edema. In a masked randomized fashion, two readers evaluated monoscopic and stereoscopic retinal photographs of 100 eyes. The photographs were evaluated first individually for probable clinically significant macular edema based on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study criteria and then as stereoscopic pairs. Graders were evaluated for sensitivity and specificity individually and in combination. Individually, reader one had a sensitivity of 0.93 and a specificity of 0.77, and reader two had a sensitivity of 0.88 and a specificity of 0.94. In combination, the readers had a sensitivity of 0.91 and a specificity of 0.86. They correlated on 0.76 of the stereoscopic readings and 0.92 of the monoscopic readings. These results indicate that the use of monoscopic retinal photography may be an accurate screening tool for clinically significant macular edema. PMID:17152553

Welty, Christopher J; Agarwal, Anita; Merin, Lawrence M; Chomsky, Amy

2006-01-01

355

Effect of a Dynamic Air Cushion on the Development of Leg Edema during Wheelchair Sitting.  

PubMed

[Purpose] To clarify how a novel dynamic cushion affects the leg edema evoked by wheelchair sitting, we measured the changes in leg volume induced during wheelchair sitting with the dynamic air cushion or a static cushion. [Subjects and Methods] Nine healthy male subjects participated in this study. Leg edema during wheelchair sitting was evaluated with strain gauge plethysmography (the gauge was placed around the middle portion of the lower thigh). Following a period of rest, each subject was asked to sit on a wheelchair containing the dynamic cushion for 15?min. Then, the protocol was repeated with a static cushion. The angles of the knee and ankle joints were set to 90 degrees, and no footrests were used. [Results] The change in leg volume observed during sitting on the dynamic cushion (0.00 ± 0.03?mL/100?mL) was smaller than that observed during sitting on the static cushion (0.02 ± 0.02?mL/100?mL). [Conclusion] These results suggested that the dynamic cushion relieved leg edema during wheelchair sitting. PMID:25013295

Murata, Jun; Murata, Shin; Ohyama, Michie; Kogo, Haruki; Matsubara, Shohzo

2014-06-01

356

Effect of a Dynamic Air Cushion on the Development of Leg Edema during Wheelchair Sitting  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] To clarify how a novel dynamic cushion affects the leg edema evoked by wheelchair sitting, we measured the changes in leg volume induced during wheelchair sitting with the dynamic air cushion or a static cushion. [Subjects and Methods] Nine healthy male subjects participated in this study. Leg edema during wheelchair sitting was evaluated with strain gauge plethysmography (the gauge was placed around the middle portion of the lower thigh). Following a period of rest, each subject was asked to sit on a wheelchair containing the dynamic cushion for 15?min. Then, the protocol was repeated with a static cushion. The angles of the knee and ankle joints were set to 90 degrees, and no footrests were used. [Results] The change in leg volume observed during sitting on the dynamic cushion (0.00 ± 0.03?mL/100?mL) was smaller than that observed during sitting on the static cushion (0.02 ± 0.02?mL/100?mL). [Conclusion] These results suggested that the dynamic cushion relieved leg edema during wheelchair sitting. PMID:25013295

Murata, Jun; Murata, Shin; Ohyama, Michie; Kogo, Haruki; Matsubara, Shohzo

2014-01-01

357

Edema induced by Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) snake venom and its inhibition by Costa Rican plant extracts.  

PubMed

We tested the capacity of leaf (Urera baccifera, Loasa speciosa, Urtica leptuphylla, Chaptalia nutans, and Satureja viminea) and root (Uncaria tomentosa) extracts to inhibit edema induced by Bothrops asper snake venom. Edema-forming activity was studied plethysmographically in the rat hind paw model. Groups of rats were injected intraperitoneally with various doses of each extract and, one hour later, venom was injected subcutaneously in the right hind paw. Edema was assessed at various time intervals. The edematogenic activity was inhibited in those animals that received an injection U. tomentosa, C. nutans or L. speciosa extract. The extract of U. baccifera showed a slight inhibition of the venom effect. Extract from S. viminea and, to a lesser extent that of U. leptuphylla, induced a pro-inflammatory effect, increasing the edema at doses of 250 mg/kg at one and two hours. PMID:18494294

Badilla, Beatriz; Chaves, Fernando; Mora, Gerardo; Poveda, Luis J

2006-06-01

358

Expression Profiling of Vulvar Carcinoma: Clues for Deranged Extracellular Matrix Remodeling and Effects on Multiple Signaling Pathways Combined with Discrete Patient Subsets12  

PubMed Central

The molecular mechanisms of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) remain obscure. To this end, we investigated systematically for the first time the expression profile of VSCC using the microarray technology, in a total of 11 snap-frozen samples, from five VSCC patients covering early and advanced stages of VSCC undergoing radical surgery and from six matched healthy controls. All experiments were performed using Affymetrix Human Genome U133A 2.0 oligonucleotide arrays, covering 22,277 probe sets. Genes were filtered and analyzed using analysis of variance, t test, fold-change calculations, and unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis. Further processing included functional analysis and overrepresentation calculations based on Gene Ontology, Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The molecular phenotypes of VSCC patients exhibited significant and discrete transcriptional differences from the healthy controls, whereas principal component analysis documented that this separation is mediated by a consistent set of gene expression differences. We detected 1077 genes (306 upregulated and 771 downregulated) that were differentially expressed between VSCC patients and healthy controls by at least twofold (P < .01), whereas a novel subset of patients was revealed displaying a distinct pattern of 125 upregulated genes involved in multiple cellular processes. Functional analysis of the 1077 genes documented their involvement in more than 50 signaling pathways, such as PTEN, oncostatin M, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling, affecting extracellular matrix remodeling and invasion. Comparison of our data set with those of the single VIN study revealed that the two entities share a limited number of genes and display unique features. PMID:21966547

Pappa, Kalliopi I; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Vlachos, George D; Christodoulou, Ioanna; Partsinevelos, George; Amariglio, Ninette; Markaki, Sofia; Antsaklis, Aris; Anagnou, Nicholas P

2011-01-01

359

Success or failure of vaccination for HPV16-positive vulvar lesions correlates with kinetics and phenotype of induced T-cell responses.  

PubMed

One half of a group of 20 patients with human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16)-induced vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 displayed a complete regression (CR) after therapeutic vaccination with HPV16 E6/E7 synthetic long peptides. Patients with relatively larger lesions generally did not display a CR. To investigate immune correlates of treatment failure, patients were grouped according to median lesion size at study entry, and HPV16-specific immunity was analyzed at different time points by complementary immunological assays. The group of patients with smaller lesions displayed stronger and broader vaccine-prompted HPV16-specific proliferative responses with higher IFNgamma (P = 0.0003) and IL-5 (P < 0.0001) levels than patients with large lesions. Characteristically, this response was accompanied by a distinct peak in cytokine levels after the first vaccination. In contrast, the patient group with larger lesions mounted higher frequencies of HPV16-specific CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells (P = 0.005) and displayed a lower HPV16-specific IFNgamma/IL-10 ratio after vaccination (P < 0.01). No disparity in T memory immunity to control antigens was found, indicating that the differences in HPV-specific immunity did not reflect general immune failure. We observed a strong correlation between a defined set of vaccine-prompted specific immune responses and the clinical efficacy of therapeutic vaccination. Notably, a high ratio of HPV16-specific vaccine-prompted effector T cells to HPV16-specific CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells was predictive of clinical success. Foxp3(+) T cells have been associated previously with impaired immunity in malignancies. Here we demonstrate that the vaccine-prompted level of this population is associated with early treatment failure. PMID:20547850

Welters, Marij J P; Kenter, Gemma G; de Vos van Steenwijk, Peggy J; Löwik, Margriet J G; Berends-van der Meer, Dorien M A; Essahsah, Farah; Stynenbosch, Linda F M; Vloon, Annelies P G; Ramwadhdoebe, Tamara H; Piersma, Sytse J; van der Hulst, Jeanette M; Valentijn, A Rob P M; Fathers, Lorraine M; Drijfhout, Jan W; Franken, Kees L M C; Oostendorp, Jaap; Fleuren, Gert Jan; Melief, Cornelis J M; van der Burg, Sjoerd H

2010-06-29

360

Success or failure of vaccination for HPV16-positive vulvar lesions correlates with kinetics and phenotype of induced T-cell responses  

PubMed Central

One half of a group of 20 patients with human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16)-induced vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 displayed a complete regression (CR) after therapeutic vaccination with HPV16 E6/E7 synthetic long peptides. Patients with relatively larger lesions generally did not display a CR. To investigate immune correlates of treatment failure, patients were grouped according to median lesion size at study entry, and HPV16-specific immunity was analyzed at different time points by complementary immunological assays. The group of patients with smaller lesions displayed stronger and broader vaccine-prompted HPV16-specific proliferative responses with higher IFN? (P = 0.0003) and IL-5 (P < 0.0001) levels than patients with large lesions. Characteristically, this response was accompanied by a distinct peak in cytokine levels after the first vaccination. In contrast, the patient group with larger lesions mounted higher frequencies of HPV16-specific CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells (P = 0.005) and displayed a lower HPV16-specific IFN?/IL-10 ratio after vaccination (P < 0.01). No disparity in T memory immunity to control antigens was found, indicating that the differences in HPV-specific immunity did not reflect general immune failure. We observed a strong correlation between a defined set of vaccine-prompted specific immune responses and the clinical efficacy of therapeutic vaccination. Notably, a high ratio of HPV16-specific vaccine-prompted effector T cells to HPV16-specific CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells was predictive of clinical success. Foxp3+ T cells have been associated previously with impaired immunity in malignancies. Here we demonstrate that the vaccine-prompted level of this population is associated with early treatment failure. PMID:20547850

Welters, Marij J. P.; Kenter, Gemma G.; de Vos van Steenwijk, Peggy J.; Löwik, Margriet J. G.; Berends-van der Meer, Dorien M. A.; Essahsah, Farah; Stynenbosch, Linda F. M.; Vloon, Annelies P. G.; Ramwadhdoebe, Tamara H.; Piersma, Sytse J.; van der Hulst, Jeanette M.; Valentijn, A. Rob P. M.; Fathers, Lorraine M.; Drijfhout, Jan W.; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Oostendorp, Jaap; Fleuren, Gert Jan; Melief, Cornelis J. M.; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.

2010-01-01

361

Back to Basics: Pitting Edema and the Optimization of Hypertension Treatment in Incident Peritoneal Dialysis Patients (BRAZPD)  

PubMed Central

Systemic arterial hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease that is frequently observed in populations with declining renal function. Initiation of renal replacement therapy at least partially decreases signs of fluid overload; however, high blood pressure levels persist in the majority of patients after dialysis initiation. Hypervolemia due to water retention predisposes peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients to hypertension and can clinically manifest in several forms, including peripheral edema. The approaches to detect edema, which include methods such as bioimpedance, inferior vena cava diameter and biomarkers, are not always available to physicians worldwide. For clinical examinations, the presence of pitting located in the lower extremities and/or over the sacrum to diagnose the presence of peripheral edema in their patients are frequently utulized. We evaluated the impact of edema on the control of blood pressure of incident PD patients during the first year of dialysis treatment. Patients were recruited from 114 Brazilian dialysis centers that were participating in the BRAZPD study for a total of 1089 incident patients. Peripheral edema was diagnosed by the presence of pitting after finger pressure was applied to the edematous area. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those with and without edema according to the monthly medical evaluation. Blood arterial pressure, body mass index, the number of antihypertensive drugs and comorbidities were analyzed. We observed an initial BP reduction in the first five months and a stabilization of blood pressure levels from five to twelve months. The edematous group exhibited higher blood pressure levels than the group without edema during the follow-up. The results strongly indicate that the presence of a simple and easily detectable clinical sign of peripheral edema is a very relevant tool that could be used to re-evaluate not only the patient's clinical hypertensive status but also the PD prescription and patient compliance. PMID:22649498

Ferreira-Filho, Sebastião R.; Machado, Gilberto R.; Ferreira, Valéria C.; Rodrigues, Carlos F. M. A.; Proença de Moraes, Thyago; Divino-Filho, José C.; Olandoski, Marcia; McIntyre, Christopher; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto

2012-01-01

362

Involvement of thromboxane and neutrophils in multiple-system organ edema with interleukin-2.  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) produces toxicity characterized by generalized edema within 24 hours. This study tests whether the rate of IL-2 administration modulates the onset of edema and examines thromboxane (Tx) and neutrophils as possible mediators of this event. Recombinant human IL-2, 10(5) U (n = 7), 10(6) U (n = 9), or vehicle (n = 8) were given to anesthetized rats intravenously during a period of 1 hour. At 6 hours edema, as measured by increase in wet to dry weight (w/d) ratio, was present in the heart, liver, and kidney, with 10(5) U IL-2 and in the lung, heart, liver and kidney, with 10(6) U IL-2, relative to values with vehicle-infused controls (all p less than 0.05). With a 1-hour infusion of 10(6) U IL-2, there was an increase in plasma thromboxane (Tx)B2 level to 1290 +/- 245 pg/mL, higher than 481 +/- 93 pg/mL in control rats (p less than 0.05); lung polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) sequestration of 53 +/- 7 PMN/10 higher-power fields (HPF) relative to 23 +/- 2 PMN/10 HPF in controls (p less than 0.05); and increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid protein concentration of 1970 +/- 210 micrograms/mL relative to 460 micrograms/mL in controls (p less than 0.05). When 10(6) U IL-2 was given as a 1-minute intravenous bolus (n = 9), edema was not demonstrated, plasma TxB2 levels were similar to controls, there was no leukosequestration, and BAL protein levels were normal. These data indicate that a constant infusion but not the rapid bolus administration of IL-2 produces in rats multiple-system organ edema, increased plasma TxB2, sequestration of PMNs, and microvascular permeability. These findings may explain the early toxicity seen in patients given high-dose IL-2 in cancer treatment. PMID:2256765

Welbourn, R; Goldman, G; Kobzik, L; Valeri, C R; Shepro, D; Hechtman, H B

1990-01-01

363

Lethal factor, but not edema factor, is required to cause fatal anthrax in cynomolgus macaques after pulmonary spore challenge.  

PubMed

Inhalational anthrax is caused by inhalation of Bacillus anthracis spores. The ability of B. anthracis to cause anthrax is attributed to the plasmid-encoded A/B-type toxins, edema toxin (edema factor and protective antigen) and lethal toxin (lethal factor and protective antigen), and a poly-d-glutamic acid capsule. To better understand the contribution of these toxins to the disease pathophysiology in vivo, we used B. anthracis Ames strain and isogenic toxin deletion mutants derived from the Ames strain to examine the role of lethal toxin and edema toxin after pulmonary spore challenge of cynomolgus macaques. Lethal toxin, but not edema toxin, was required to induce sustained bacteremia and death after pulmonary challenge with spores delivered via bronchoscopy. After intravenous challenge with bacilli to model the systemic phase of infection, lethal toxin contributed to bacterial proliferation and subsequent host death to a greater extent than edema toxin. Deletion of protective antigen resulted in greater loss of virulence after intravenous challenge with bacilli than deletion of lethal toxin or edema toxin alone. These findings are consistent with the ability of anti-protective antigen antibodies to prevent anthrax and suggest that lethal factor is the dominant toxin that contributes to the escape of significant numbers of bacilli from the thoracic cavity to cause anthrax after inhalation challenge with spores. PMID:25285720

Hutt, Julie A; Lovchik, Julie A; Drysdale, Melissa; Sherwood, Robert L; Brasel, Trevor; Lipscomb, Mary F; Lyons, C Rick

2014-12-01

364

Comparison of diffusion-weighted with T2-weighted imaging for detection of edema in acute myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies, performed with the use of a commercially available diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) sequence, showed that they are sensitive to the increase of water content in the myocardium and may be used as an alternative to the standard T2-weighted sequences. The aim of this study was to compare two methods of myocardial edema imaging: DWI and T2-TIRM. Methods The study included 91 acute and post STEMI patients. We applied a qualitative and quantitative image analysis. The qualitative analysis consisted of evaluation of the quality of blood suppression, presence of artifacts and occurrence of high signal (edema) areas. On the basis of edema detection in AMI and control (post STEMI) group, the sensitivity and specificity of TIRM and DWI were determined. Two contrast to noise ratios (CNR) were calculated: CNR1 - the contrast between edema and healthy myocardium and CNR2 - the contrast between edema and intraventricular blood pool. The area of edema was measured for both TIRM and DWI sequences and compared with the infarct size in LGE images. Results Edema occurred more frequently in the DWI sequence. A major difference was observed in the inferior wall, where an edema-high signal was observed in 46% in T2-TIRM, whereas in the DWI sequence in 85%. An analysis of the image quality parameters showed that the use of DWI sequence allows complete blood signal suppression in the left ventricular cavity and reduces the occurrence of motion artifacts. However, it is connected with a higher incidence of magnetic susceptibility artifacts and image distortion. An analysis of the CNRs showed that CNR1 in T2-TIRM sequence depends on the infarct location and has the lowest value for the inferior wall. The area of edema measured on DWI images was significantly larger than in T2-TIRM. Conclusions DWI is a new technique for edema detection in patients with acute myocardial infarction which may be recommended for the diagnosis of acute injuries, especially in patients with slow-flow artifacts in TIRM images. PMID:24098944

2013-01-01

365

High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) in a Himalayan trekker: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction High altitude pulmonary edema is a non-cardiogenic form of pulmonary edema that develops in unacclimatized individuals at altitudes over 2500 m. Early recognition of symptoms and immediate descent are important for successful treatment. Despite early signs and symptoms of high altitude illness, many trekkers tend to push themselves to the maximum limit. Some of them, such as the case reported here, choose to ascend on horse-back which is extremely dangerous and can be fatal. Case presentation A 55 years of age Indian ethnic South African lady was emergency air-lifted from 4410 m altitude in the Nepal Himalayas to Kathamandu (1300 m) with a suspected case of high altitude pulmonary edema. She had continued ascending despite experiencing mild altitude symptoms at Namche (3440 m), and these symptoms worsened considerably at Tengboche (3860 m). At the very start of her trek, just after Lukla (2800 m), she suffered from sore throat, and had consequently begun a course of antibiotics (azithromycin) for a suspected throat infection. She had planned to continue ascending on horse back to complete the trek, however her condition deteriorated further and she had to be medically evacuated. On admission to the clinic her axillary temperature was 99.4 F, blood pressure 120/60 mmHg, pulse rate 72/min, respiratory rate of 25 breaths/min, and pulse oximeter showed saturation of 90% on room air at rest. Right sided crackles on the axillary and posterior region were heard on chest auscultation. Heel to toe test showed no signs of ataxia. The chest radiograph showed patchy infiltrates on the right side. An echocardiogram was done which revealed a high pulmonary artery pressure of 50 mm of Hg. She was diagnosed as resolving high altitude pulmornay edema. She was treated with bed rest, supplemental oxygen and sustained release nifedipine 20 mg (orally) twice a day. On the third day her crackles had cleared significantly and repeat chest radiograph as shown showed remarkable improvement. She felt much better. A repeat echocardiogram revealed a normal pulmonary artery pressure. Conclusion The case report highlights numerous points: 1) Many high altitude trekkers have invested significant time, money and physical efforts in in their ventures and are determined to ascend despite early warning and illnesses. 2) Despite no history of altitude illnesses in previous altitude exposure,inter-current illness (in this case a nonspecific respiratory tract infection) may contribute to the development of high altitude pulmonary edema. 3) Continuing ascent using other transport means, whilst suffering from symptoms of high altitude illness, worsens the condition and could be life threatening. 4) Acetazolamide does not prevent high altitude pulmonary edema–perhaps more so in the cases that have inter-current illness. 5) Descent is the golden rule in all altitude illnesses. Actually ‘descent’ is advised in any undiagnosed illness at high altitude among sojourners. 6) Finally, an experienced guide who has mountain medicine training is essential. They can be crucial in noticing early signs and symptoms of altitude illnesses to inform the client’s safety as in this case. PMID:24636661

2014-01-01

366

Myelotomy reduces spinal cord edema and inhibits aquaporin-4 and aquaporin-9 expression in rats with spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Objective:Spinal cord edema contributes to the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying spinal cord injury (SCI) and is associated with functional recovery after SCI. Early myelotomy may be a promising surgical intervention for reducing SCI-induced edema. However, it remains unclear whether myelotomy can reduce SCI-induced edema. In addition, aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and aquaporin-9 (AQP9) have important roles in the regulation of water homeostasis. Here, we aimed to determine the effects of myelotomy on AQP4 and AQP9 expression and spinal cord edema in a rat model of moderate SCI.Methods:Rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the sham control group (n=22) receiving laminectomy alone; the contusion group (n=44) receiving laminectomy plus contusion; and the myelotomy group (n=44) receiving laminectomy plus contusion followed by myelotomy at 24?h. Functional recovery was estimated by the open-field and inclined plane tests. Spinal cord edema was determined by measuring the water content. The expression of AQP4 and AQP9 was determined by western blot.Results:Compared with the contusion group, myelotomy significantly improved the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores in the open-field test and resulted in a higher mean angle value in the incline plane test. Myelotomy significantly reduced SCI-induced edema at 4 and 6 days after SCI, which was accompanied by downregulation of AQP4 and AQP9 expression.Conclusion:Myelotomy improves locomotor function, reduces edema in rats with SCI and is associated with decreased expression of AQP4 and AQP9.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 2 December 2014; doi:10.1038/sc.2014.209. PMID:25448191

Hu, A-M; Li, J-J; Sun, W; Yang, D-G; Yang, M-L; Du, L-J; Gu, R; Gao, F; Li, J; Chu, H-Y; Zhang, X; Gao, L-J

2014-12-01

367

Factors Affecting Reading Speed in Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema Treated with Laser Photocoagulation  

PubMed Central

Purpose To study the factors that may affect reading speed in patients with diabetic macular edema previously treated with laser photocoagulation. Methods Consecutive patients with type II diabetes treated with laser photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema (DME) at least twelve months previously, with best corrected visual acuity of better than 65 letters (approximately 20/40) measured with Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) charts were included in this study. Patients previously treated with pan-retinal photocoagulation, vitrectomy, intravitreal steroid or anti-VEGF therapy were excluded. Any other ocular co-morbidities that may influence reading ability such as cataract, glaucoma or macular degeneration were also excluded. All patients were refracted by a certified examiner, the following measurements were collected: best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast sensitivity with Pelli-Robson chart, reading speed with MNREAD chart, microperimetry with Nidek MP1, and central subfield thickness with Zeiss spectral domain optical coherent topography. Results The slow reading group had poorer contrast sensitivity (p?=?0.001), reduced retinal sensitivity (p?=?0.027) and less stable fixation (p?=?0.013). Most interestingly the reduced retinal sensitivity findings were driven by the microperimetry value on the right subfield (p?=?0.033), (nasal to the fovea in the right eye and temporal to the fovea in the left eye). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that contrast sensitivity is probably the most important factor that affects reading speed (p?=?0.001). Conclusion Reduced retinal sensitivity after laser treatment is associated with reduced reading speed in patients with diabetic macular edema. PMID:25265280

Pearce, Elizabeth; Sivaprasad, Sobha; Chong, Ngaihang V.

2014-01-01

368

Hyperbaric oxygen reduces edema and necrosis of skeletal muscle in compartment syndromes associated with hemorrhagic hypotension  

SciTech Connect

This study examined the effect of exposures to hyperbaric oxygen on the development of the edema and necrosis of muscle that are associated with compartment syndromes that are complicated by hemorrhagic hypotension. A compartment syndrome (twenty millimeters of mercury for six hours) was induced by infusion of autologous plasma in the anterolateral compartment of the left hind limb of seven anesthetized dogs while the mean arterial blood pressure was maintained at sixty-five millimeters of mercury after 30 per cent loss of blood volume. These dogs were treated with hyperbaric oxygen (two atmospheres of pure oxygen) and were compared with six dogs that had an identical compartment syndrome and hypotensive condition but were not exposed to hyperbaric oxygen. Forty-eight hours later, edema was quantified by measuring the weights of the muscles (the pressurized muscle compared with the contralateral muscle), and necrosis of muscle was evaluated by measuring the uptake of technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate. The ratio for edema was significantly (p = 0.01) greater in dogs that had not been exposed to hyperbaric oxygen (1.15 +/- 0.01) than in the dogs that had been treated with hyperbaric oxygen (1.01 +/- 0.03), and the ratio for necrosis of muscle was also significantly (p = 0.04) greater in dogs that had not had hyperbaric oxygen (1.96 +/- 0.41) than in those that had been treated with hyperbaric oxygen (1.05 +/- 0.11). Comparisons were also made with the muscles of four normal control dogs and separately with the muscles of six normotensive dogs that had an identical compartment syndrome and normal blood pressure and were not treated with hyperbaric oxygen.

Skyhar, M.J.; Hargens, A.R.; Strauss, M.B.; Gershuni, D.H.; Hart, G.B.; Akeson, W.H.

1986-10-01

369

Use of Electrical Impedance Tomography to Monitor Regional Cerebral Edema during Clinical Dehydration Treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective Variations of conductive fluid content in brain tissue (e.g. cerebral edema) change tissue impedance and can potentially be measured by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT), an emerging medical imaging technique. The objective of this work is to establish the feasibility of using EIT as an imaging tool for monitoring brain fluid content. Design a prospective study. Setting In this study EIT was used, for the first time, to monitor variations in cerebral fluid content in a clinical model with patients undergoing clinical dehydration treatment. The EIT system was developed in house and its imaging sensitivity and spatial resolution were evaluated on a saline-filled tank. Patients 23 patients with brain edema. Interventions The patients were continuously imaged by EIT for two hours after initiation of dehydration treatment using 0.5 g/kg intravenous infusion of mannitol for 20 minutes. Measurement and Main Results Overall impedance across the brain increased significantly before and after mannitol dehydration treatment (p?=?0.0027). Of the all 23 patients, 14 showed high-level impedance increase and maintained this around 4 hours after the dehydration treatment whereas the other 9 also showed great impedance gain during the treatment but it gradually decreased after the treatment. Further analysis of the regions of interest in the EIT images revealed that diseased regions, identified on corresponding CT images, showed significantly less impedance changes than normal regions during the monitoring period, indicating variations in different patients' responses to such treatment. Conclusions EIT shows potential promise as an imaging tool for real-time and non-invasive monitoring of brain edema patients. PMID:25474474

Hu, Shi-Jie; Li, Xia; Xu, Can-Hua; Wang, Bing; Yang, Bin; Tang, Meng-Xing; Dong, Xiu-Zhen; Fei, Zhou; Shi, Xue-Tao

2014-01-01

370

[Topography and structure of secondary brain damage in edema associated with supratentorial foci of encephalomalacia].  

PubMed

The paper comprises 70 cases of extensive supratentorial infarctions. The topography and structure of secondary lesions occurring in the region of herniation and displacements caused by the coexisting brain edema were analysed. The extent of edema served as criterion in the division of the material into three groups in dependence on the occurrence of herniations and displacements. Most frequent was herniation of hippocampal uncus and most rare that of the cerebellar vermis. In group I showing no herniations selective necrosis was noted of neurons particularly sensitive to ischemia and anoxia, especially in Sommer's sector of the hippocampus. In group II secondary necrosis was visible in the regions of herniae, and in the group III also in the translocated deep brain structures in the hemisphere contralateral to the infarct and in the brain stem where, moreover, secondary hemorrhages were present. Supratentorial secondary hemorrhages were less frequent. They were noted in the thalamus both on the side of the infarct and in the contralateral hemisphere. Supratentorial necroses were more frequent. Their intensity varied from selective necrosis to Jacob's edematous necrosis. Severe displacement of deep structures and of the brain stem was associated with development of secondary internal hydrocephalus, especially in the hemisphere contralateral to the herniation. To the most important pathogenetic factors causing development of secondary morphological lesions belong disturbances of blood supply occurring as the result of pressure differences between the supra- and infratentorial space, resulting from pressure and displacement of arterial vessels, damage of their walls and distrubances of venous flow and also development of secondary internal hydrocephalus. Extensive necroses and hemorrhages increase the area of primary necrosis. Lesions resulting from herniation, displacement and compression of vessels were superposed on the picture of brain edema both present or passed. Secondary necroses damaging bilaterally structures belonging to the limbic system and reticular formation may be an additional factor in the development of edematous encephalopathy and the development of a psychoorganic syndrome after stroke. PMID:2626177

Szpakowa, G M

1989-01-01

371

Pulmonary function and hypoxic ventilatory response in subjects susceptible to high-altitude pulmonary edema.  

PubMed

To determine if spirometric changes reflect early high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) formation, we measured the FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75 serially during the short-term period following simulated altitude exposure (4,400 m) in eight male subjects, four with a history of HAPE and four control subjects who had never experienced HAPE. Three of the four HAPE-susceptible subjects developed acute mountain sickness (AMS), based on their positive Environmental Symptom Questionnaire (AMS-C) scores. Clinical signs and symptoms of mild pulmonary edema developed in two of the three subjects with AMS after 4 h of exposure, which prompted their removal from the chamber. Their spirometry showed small decreases in FVC and greater decreases in FEV1 and FEF25-75 after arrival at high altitude in the presence of rales or wheezing on clinical examination and normal chest radiographs. One of the two subjects had desaturation (59 percent) and tachycardia during mild exercise, and excessive fatigue and inability to complete the exercise protocol developed in the other at 4 h. The six other subjects had minimal changes in spirometry and did not develop signs of lung edema. Further, we measured each subject's ventilatory response to hypoxia (HVR) prior to decompression to determine whether the HVR would predict the development of altitude illness in susceptible subjects. In contrast to anticipated results, high ventilatory responses to acute hypoxia, supported by increased ventilation during exposure to high altitude, occurred in the two subjects in whom symptoms of HAPE developed. The results confirm that HAPE can occur in susceptible individuals despite the presence of a normal or high ventilatory response to hypoxia. PMID:8417862

Selland, M A; Stelzner, T J; Stevens, T; Mazzeo, R S; McCullough, R E; Reeves, J T

1993-01-01

372

Prevention of ventilator-induced lung edema by inhalation of nanoparticles releasing ruthenium red.  

PubMed

The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a devastating lung disease that has no cure, is exacerbated by life-supportive mechanical ventilation that worsens lung edema and inflammation through the syndrome of ventilator-induced lung injury. Recently, the membrane ion channel transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) on alveolar macrophages was shown to mediate murine lung vascular permeability induced by high-pressure mechanical ventilation. The objective of this study was to determine whether inhalation of nanoparticles (NPs) containing the TRPV4 inhibitor ruthenium red (RR) prevents ventilator-induced lung edema in mice. Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid NPs containing RR were evaluated in vitro for their ability to block TRPV4-mediated calcium signaling in alveolar macrophages and capillary endothelial cells. Lungs from adult C57BL6 mice treated with nebulized NPs were then used in ex vivo ventilation perfusion experiments to assess the ability of the NPs to prevent high-pressure mechanical ventilation-induced lung edema. Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid NPs (300 nm) released RR for 150 hours in vitro, and blocked TRPV4-mediated calcium signaling in cells up to 7 days after phagocytosis. Inhaled NPs deposited in alveoli of spontaneously breathing mice were rapidly phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages, and blocked increased vascular permeability from high-pressure mechanical ventilation for 72 hours in ex vivo ventilation perfusion experiments. These data offer proof of principle that inhalation of NPs containing a TRPV4 inhibitor prevents ventilator damage for several days, and imply that this novel drug delivery strategy could be used to target alveolar macrophages in patients at risk of ventilator-induced lung injury before initiating mechanical ventilation. PMID:24405281

Jurek, Samuel C; Hirano-Kobayashi, Mariko; Chiang, Homer; Kohane, Daniel S; Matthews, Benjamin D

2014-06-01

373

Pediatric cerebral stroke: susceptibility-weighted imaging may predict post-ischemic malignant edema.  

PubMed

Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is an advanced MRI technique providing information on the blood oxygenation level. Deoxyhemoglobin is increased in hypoperfused tissue characterized by SWI-hypointensity, while high oxyhemoglobin concentration within hyperperfused tissue results in a SWI iso- or hyperintensity compared to healthy brain tissue. We describe a child with a stroke, where SWI in addition to excluding hemorrhage and delineating the thrombus proved invaluable in determining regions of hyperperfusion or luxury perfusion, which contributed further to the prognosis including an increased risk of developing post-ischemic malignant edema. PMID:24199819

Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Poretti, Andrea; Orman, Gunes; Meoded, Avner; Huisman, Thierry A G M

2013-10-01

374

Bone marrow edema induced by a bullet after a self-inflicted accidental firing.  

PubMed

We present a case of a postmortem finding of bone marrow edema in postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR) indirectly induced by a bullet, which barely missed the bone of a 92-year-old man found kneeling in front of his bed of a tidy apartment. Additionally, a selective postmortem computed tomography angiography (PMCTA) of the left leg was performed, visualizing a laceration of the left femoral vein by the bullet with consecutive contrast media extravasation. A vast pulmonary fat embolism was diagnosed and together with the blood loss found to be the cause of death. PMID:24112989

Berger, Nicole; Paula, Pia; Gascho, Dominic; Flach, Patricia M; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen G; Ampanozi, Garyfalia

2013-11-01

375

Role of inflammation in previously untreated macular edema with branch retinal vein occlusion  

PubMed Central

Background The association of inflammatory factors and the aqueous flare value with macular edema in branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) patients remains unclear. The relationship between the aqueous flare value and the vitreous fluid levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), and soluble VEGF receptor-2 (sVEGFR-2) was evaluated to investigate the role of inflammation in BRVO associated with macular edema. Aqueous flare values and the vitreous levels of VEGF, IL-6, MCP-1, sICAM-1, and sVEGFR-2 were compared between previously untreated patients with BRVO and patients with macular hole (MH). Methods Vitreous samples were obtained from 45 patients during vitreoretinal surgery (28 patients with BRVO and 17 with MH), and the levels of VEGF, IL-6, MCP-1, sICAM-1, and sVEGFR-2 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Retinal ischemia was evaluated by measuring the area of capillary non-perfusion using fluorescein angiography and the Scion Image program. Aqueous flare values were measured with a laser flare meter and macular edema was examined by optical coherence tomography. Results The median aqueous flare value was significantly higher in the BRVO group (12.1 photon counts/ms) than in the MH group (4.5 photon counts/ms, P?edema. PMID:24884703

2014-01-01

376

Acute serous macular detachment and cystoid macular edema after uncomplicated phacoemulsification using standard dose subconjunctival cefuroxime.  

PubMed

Acute toxic serous macular detachment after cataract surgery is very rare, and has been described previously with the use of high concentrations of intra-cameral cefuroxime. We report a case of serous macular detachment and cystoid macular edema 1 day after uncomplicated phacoemulsification using standard dose subconjunctival cefuroxime at the end of surgery. Our case demonstrates that subconjunctival cefuroxime may cause retinal toxicity in a similar fashion to intra-cameral cefuroxime, possibly due to entry of the drug into the anterior chamber through the section or trans-scleral absorption. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this complication with subconjunctival administration of cefuroxime. PMID:24147948

Kontos, Andreas; Mitry, Danny; Althauser, Susanne; Jain, Saurabh

2014-09-01

377

Dynamic dosimetry and edema detection in prostate brachytherapy: a complete system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: Brachytherapy (radioactive seed insertion) has emerged as one of the most effective treatment options for patients with prostate cancer, with the added benefit of a convenient outpatient procedure. The main limitation in contemporary brachytherapy is faulty seed placement, predominantly due to the presence of intra-operative edema (tissue expansion). Though currently not available, the capability to intra-operatively monitor the seed distribution, can make a significant improvement in cancer control. We present such a system here. Methods: Intra-operative measurement of edema in prostate brachytherapy requires localization of inserted radioactive seeds relative to the prostate. Seeds were reconstructed using a typical non-isocentric C-arm, and exported to a commercial brachytherapy delivery system. Technical obstacles for 3D reconstruction on a non-isocentric C-arm include pose-dependent C-arm calibration; distortion correction; pose estimation of C-arm images; seed reconstruction; and C-arm to TRUS registration. Results: In precision-machined hard phantoms with 40-100 seeds and soft tissue phantoms with 45-87 seeds, we correctly reconstructed the seed implant shape with an average 3D precision of 0.35 mm and 0.24 mm, respectively. In a DoD Phase-1 clinical trial on 6 patients with 48-82 planned seeds, we achieved intra-operative monitoring of seed distribution and dosimetry, correcting for dose inhomogeneities by inserting an average of 4.17 (1-9) additional seeds. Additionally, in each patient, the system automatically detected intra-operative seed migration induced due to edema (mean 3.84 mm, STD 2.13 mm, Max 16.19 mm). Conclusions: The proposed system is the first of a kind that makes intra-operative detection of edema (and subsequent re-optimization) possible on any typical non-isocentric C-arm, at negligible additional cost to the existing clinical installation. It achieves a significantly more homogeneous seed distribution, and has the potential to affect a paradigm shift in clinical practice. Large scale studies and commercialization are currently underway.

Jain, A.; Deguet, A.; Iordachita, I.; Chintalapani, G.; Blevins, J.; Le, Y.; Armour, E.; Burdette, C.; Song, D.; Fichtinger, G.

2008-03-01

378

Intracranial tumor lysis and cerebral edema after administration of intrathecal methotrexate: a case report and discussion.  

PubMed

Methotrexate is a common agent used in the management of hematological malignancies, but is often associated with the development of diverse central nervous system adverse events, such as seizures. We present a case of seizures after intrathecal administration of methotrexate, during the management of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. There was complete resolution of the CNS lesions after chemotherapy along with the interval development of diffuse cerebral edema. We hypothesize that tumor lysis is the underlying mechanism of this untoward event, resulting in the corresponding clinical presentation. PMID:19847678

Bachegowda, Lohith S; Grivas, Petros D; Anand, Rachna; Stecker, Elissa; Ward, Kristine

2010-12-01

379

High altitude pulmonary edema in an experienced mountaineer. possible genetic predisposition.  

PubMed

High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a form of high altitude illness characterized by cough, dyspnea upon exertion progressing to dyspnea at rest and eventual death, seen in patients who ascend over 2,500 meters, particularly if that ascent is rapid. This case describes a patient with no prior history of HAPE and extensive experience hiking above 2,500 meters who developed progressive dyspnea and cough while ascending to 3,200 meters. His risk factors included rapid ascent, high altitude, male sex, and a possible genetic predisposition for HAPE. PMID:25493133

Whitlow, Kenneth S; Davis, Babette W

2014-11-01

380

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Surgically Removed Hard Exudates in Diabetic Macular Edema.  

PubMed

Three eyes of 2 patients with diabetic macular edema underwent a vitrectomy to remove subfoveal hard exudates. Fatty acid compositions of hard exudates and plasma phospholipids (PL) as an objective estimation of dietary intake were analyzed. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were relatively consistent in hard exudates and PL, but were less abundant in hard exudates. The hard exudates had lower levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 omega3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 omega3), which oxidized more readily than other PUFA. Dietary PUFA may be associated with the composition of retinal hard exudates. PMID:20337342

Byeon, Suk Ho; Chung, Hae-Yun; Kwon, Oh W

2010-03-01

381

Calcific tendinitis of the gluteus medius tendon with bone marrow edema mimicking metastatic disease.  

PubMed

A case of calcific tendinitis of the gluteus medius is presented. This report describes a patient with a history of breast cancer who had the combination of amorphous calcifications in the gluteus medius tendon and the MR finding of conspicuous bone marrow edema in the adjacent greater trochanter, prompting concern for metastatic disease. We present images from radiography, bone scanning, CT, and MR imaging. The unusual combination of findings in these studies should be considered conclusive for calcific tendinitis, and should not be confused with malignancy. PMID:12073121

Yang, Ik; Hayes, Curtis W; Biermann, J Sybil

2002-06-01

382

Indian red scorpion venom-induced augmentation of cardio-respiratory reflexes and pulmonary edema involve the release of histamine.  

PubMed

Pulmonary edema is a consistent feature of Mesobuthus tamulus (MBT) envenomation. Kinins, prostaglandins and other inflammatory mediators are implicated in it. Since, histamine also increases capillary permeability, this study was undertaken to evaluate whether MBT venom utilizes histamine to produce pulmonary edema and augmentation of cardio-respiratory reflexes evoked by phenylbiguanide (PBG). Blood pressure, respiratory excursions and ECG were recorded in urethane anaesthetized adult rats. Injection of PBG (10 ?g/kg) produced apnoea, hypotension and bradycardia and the responses were augmented after exposure to venom (100 ?g/kg). There was increased pulmonary water content in these animals. Pretreatment with pheniramine maleate (H? antagonist, 3 mg/kg) blocked both venom-induced augmentation of PBG response and pulmonary edema. In another series, compound 48/80 (mast cell depletor) was treated for 4 days then the PBG responses were elicited as before. At the end of the experiments, mast cells were counted from the peritoneal fluid. The venom-induced pulmonary edema and the augmentation of PBG reflex were not observed in compound 48/80 treated animals. Further, mast cells in the peritoneal fluid were absent in this group as compared to vehicle treated group (29 ± 7.9 cells/mm³). These observations indicate that venom-induced pulmonary edema and augmentation of PBG reflexe are mediated through mast cells by involving H? receptors. PMID:21112349

Dutta, Abhaya; Deshpande, Shripad B

2011-02-01

383

Candesartan Attenuates Ischemic Brain Edema and Protects the Blood–Brain Barrier Integrity from Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Angiotensin II (Ang II) has an important role on cerebral microcirculation; however, its direct roles in terms of ischemic brain edema need to be clarified. This study evaluated the role of central Ang II by using candesartan, as an AT1 receptor blocker, in the brain edema formation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries in rat. Methods: Rats were exposed to 60-min middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Vehicle and non-hypotensive doses of candesartan (0.1 mg/kg) were administered one hour before ischemia. Neurological dysfunction scoring was evaluated following 24 h of reperfusion. Animals were then decapitated under deep anesthesia for the assessments of cerebral infarct size, edema formation, and BBB permeability. Results: The outcomes of 24 h reperfusion after 60-min MCA occlusion were severe neurological disability, massive BBB disruption (Evans blue extravasation = 12.5 ± 1.94 µg/g tissue), 4.02% edema, and cerebral infarction (317 ± 21 mm3). Candesartan at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg, without changing arterial blood pressure, improved neurological dysfunction scoring together with significant reductions in BBB disruption (54.9%), edema (59.2%), and cerebral infarction (54.9%). Conclusions: Inactivation of central AT1 receptors, if not accompanied with arterial hypotension, protected cerebral micro-vasculatures from damaging effects of acute stroke. PMID:25326022

Panahpour, Hamdollah; Nekooeian, Ali Akbar; Dehghani, Gholam Abbas

2014-01-01

384

A Novel Zebrafish Model to Provide Mechanistic Insights into the Inflammatory Events in Carrageenan-Induced Abdominal Edema  

PubMed Central

A suitable small animal model may help in the screening and evaluation of new drugs, especially those from natural products, which can be administered at lower dosages, fulfilling an urgent worldwide need. In this study, we explore whether zebrafish could be a model organism for carrageenan-induced abdominal edema. The research results showed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 1.5% ?-carrageenan in a volume of 20 µL significantly increased abdominal edema in adult zebrafish. Levels of the proinflammatory proteins tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were increased in carrageenan-injected adult zebrafish during the development of abdominal edema. An associated enhancement was also observed in the leukocyte marker, myeloperoxidase (MPO). To support these results, we further observed that i.p. methylprednisolone (MP; 1 µg), a positive control, significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced inflammation 24 h after carrageenan administration. Furthermore, i.p. pretreatment with either an anti-TNF-? antibody (1?5 dilution in a volume of 20 µL) or the iNOS-selective inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG; 1 µg) inhibited carrageenan-induced abdominal edema in adult zebrafish. This new animal model is uncomplicated, easy to develop, and involves a straightforward inducement of inflammatory edema for the evaluation of small volumes of drugs or test compounds. PMID:25141004

Huang, Shi-Ying; Feng, Chien-Wei; Hung, Han-Chun; Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Chen, Chun-Hong; Chen, Wu-Fu; Jean, Yen-Hsuan; Wang, Hui-Min David; Sung, Chun-Sung; Sun, Yu-Min; Wu, Chang-Yi; Liu, Wangta; Hsiao, Chung-Der; Wen, Zhi-Hong

2014-01-01

385

Protocol: Effect of intravitreal bevacizumab (avastin) in the treatment of macular edema: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Cystoid macular edema (CME) is a relatively common painless condition usually accompanied by blurred vision. The prevalence of CME varied from 5% to 47% depending on cause of pathology. There are several treatments available for ME including intravitreal use of bevacizumab that has been used in different doses in few studies. However, there is still scarcity of data available on the use of bevacizumab for the treatment of ME. A systematic review is needed to provide a foundational base to discuss and synthesize the available information on the effectiveness and safety of intravitreal bevacizumab in macular edema, so that recommendations and policies can be built regarding controversial use of bevacizumab in macular edema. We have planned to perform a systematic review with an objective to compare the effects of a single injection of 1.25 mg intravitreal bevacizumab (avastin) in the improvement of visual acuity, macular edema, and thickness with other interventions/controls for the treatment of macular edema at 3 and 6 months interval using randomized controlled trials. This is only a protocol of the review and we will be conducting a full length review, addressing the issue in future. PMID:23853638

Qazi, Hammad A.

2012-01-01

386

Temporal correlation of optical coherence tomography in-vivo images of rabbit airway for the diagnosis of edema  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, full-range optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems have been developed to image the human airway. These novel systems utilize a fiber-based OCT probe which acquires three-dimensional (3-D) images with micrometer resolution. Following an airway injury, mucosal edema is the first step in the body's inflammatory response, which occasionally leads to airway stenosis, a life-threatening condition for critically ill newborns. Therefore, early detection of edema is vital for airway management and prevention of stenosis. In order to examine the potential of the full-range OCT to diagnose edema, we investigated temporal correlation of OCT images obtained from the subglottic airway of live rabbits. Temporally correlated OCT images were acquired at fixed locations in the rabbit subglottis of either artificially induced edema or normal tissues. Edematous tissue was experimentally modeled by injecting saline beneath the epithelial layer of the subglottic mucosa. The calculated cross temporal correlations between OCT images of normal airway regions show periodicity that correlates with the respiratory motion of the airway. However, the temporal correlation functions calculated from OCT images of the edematous regions show randomness without the periodic characteristic. These in-vivo experimental results of temporal correlations between OCT images show the potential of a computer-based or -aided diagnosis of edema in the human respiratory mucosa with a full-range OCT system.

Kang, DongYel; Wang, Alex; Tjoa, Tjoson; Volgger, Veronika; Hamamoto, Ashley; Su, Erica; Jing, Joseph; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J. F.

2014-03-01

387

Alveolar epithelial damage. A critical difference between high pressure and oleic acid-induced low pressure pulmonary edema.  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to compare high pressure pulmonary edema (HPPE) and oleic acid-induced low pressure pulmonary edema (OAPE) in dogs when similar amounts of extra vascular water were present in the lung. The high pressure edema was produced by intravenous fluid overload and by inflating an aortic balloon catheter (n = 6). The low pressure edema was produced by the injecting 0.08 mg/kg oleic acid suspended in 5 ml saline (n = 6). Comparison of the difference between initial control measurements and final measurements in the edematous states showed that the animals with OAPE had a greater fall in percent oxygen saturation and a greater increase in shunt fractions. The light microscopic studies showed that OAPE was associated with greater amounts of alveolar flooding than HPPE where the edema fluid was located to a greater extent in the peribronchial interstitial space. The electron microscopy studies showed that the alveolar flooding in OAPE was associated with epithelial disruption, and tracer studies carried out in rabbits showed that dextran (150,000 mol wt) could pass from blood to airspace and that dextran (40,000 mol wt) could pass from air-space to blood in OAPE. We conclude that epithelial disruption is responsible for the excessive alveolar flooding in OAPE and that this results in a greater impairment in gas exchange. Images PMID:2423558

Montaner, J S; Tsang, J; Evans, K G; Mullen, J B; Burns, A R; Walker, D C; Wiggs, B; Hogg, J C

1986-01-01

388

Leg Edema Quantification for Heart Failure Patients via 3D Imaging  

PubMed Central

Heart failure is a common cardiac disease in elderly patients. After discharge, approximately 50% of all patients are readmitted to a hospital within six months. Recent studies show that home monitoring of heart failure patients can reduce the number of readmissions. Still, a large number of false positive alarms as well as underdiagnoses in other cases require more accurate alarm generation algorithms. New low-cost sensors for leg edema detection could be the missing link to help home monitoring to its breakthrough. We evaluated a 3D camera-based measurement setup in order to geometrically detect and quantify leg edemas. 3D images of legs were taken and geometric parameters were extracted semi-automatically from the images. Intra-subject variability for five healthy subjects was evaluated. Thereafter, correlation of 3D parameters with body weight and leg circumference was assessed during a clinical study at the Medical University of Graz. Strong correlation was found in between both reference values and instep height, while correlation in between curvature of the lower leg and references was very low. We conclude that 3D imaging might be a useful and cost-effective extension of home monitoring for heart failure patients, though further (prospective) studies are needed. PMID:23948874

Hayn, Dieter; Fruhwald, Friedrich; Riedel, Arthur; Falgenhauer, Markus; Schreier, Günter

2013-01-01

389

Intravitreal Bevacizumab May Increase Diabetic Macular Edema in Eyes with Attached Posterior Vitreous  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report 2 eyes of a patient which developed vitreomacular traction (VMT) 1 month after intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection. Materials and Methods A 45-year-old female with bilateral diffuse diabetic macular edema (DME) received bilateral IVB. Results Her initial visual acuity (VA) was 0.15 and 0.2 in OD and OS, respectively. Central foveal thickness (CFT) was 568 and 662 µm in OD and OS, respectively, without any sign of VMT. Both eyes responded well initially but developed VMT at 1 month. This time, intravitreal triamcinolone (IVTA) injection was performed. One month after IVTA injection, VMT was released and CFT decreased to 163 and 181 µm in OD and OS, respectively. Six months after IVTA injection, CFT was 163 and 153 µm, and VA was 0.7 and 0.9 in OD and OS, respectively. Conclusion In eyes with DME and attached posterior vitreous, VMT may develop after IVB injection and increase edema. IVTA injection might be an option to release VMT before considering vitrectomy. PMID:23467022

Ozsutcu, Mustafa; Gulkilik, Gokhan; Ayintap, Emre; Altinisik, Muhammed; Demirci, Goktug; Aras, Cengiz

2013-01-01

390

Five-Month Observation of Persistent Diabetic Macular Edema after Intravitreal Injection of Ozurdex Implant  

PubMed Central

Aims. This retrospective analysis was aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of treatment of persistent diabetic macular edema with intravitreal injections of 0.7?mg dexamethasone implant Ozurdex. The study comprised three male patients (6 eyes). Results. The average thickness of the retina at baseline was 632??m, the medial BCVA was 0.8?logMAR, and corrected intraocular pressure was 13.7?mmHg. The maximum decrease in mean retinal thickness was observed at four weeks following the treatment and was 365??m (?267??m) and visual acuity improved by an average of two lines and was 0.6?logMAR. The largest increase in mean retinal thickness to average of 528??m (+164??m) occurred at 16 weeks and the average BCVA was 0.614 lines BCVA logMAR. In one eye, there was a steroid cataract development after the third dose of dexamethasone implant of 0.7?mg. Conclusions. The intravitreal dexamethasone implant treatment of patients with persistent diabetic macular edema in whom laser photocoagulation proved to be ineffective and as a result they required a monthly injection of anti-VEGF factors (Ranibizumab, Bevacizumab) may be a good alternative to extending the interval of injections. However, reinjections involve a high risk of developing poststeroid cataracts, which is not without significance in middle-aged patients. PMID:24659860

Zalewski, Dominik; Raczy?ska, Dorota; Raczy?ska, Krystyna

2014-01-01

391

The effects of intravitreal bevacizumab in infectious and noninfectious uveitic macular edema.  

PubMed

Background/Aims. To assess the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab injection (IVBI) for the treatment of macular edema due to infectious and noninfectious uveitides. Design. Retrospective interventional case series. Methods. A chart review was performed on all the patients who were diagnosed with uveitic macular edema (UME) and received 1.25?mg of IVBI at two referral centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All included patients had their visual acuity and macular thickness analyzed at baseline and at 1 and 3 months following IVBI and any sign of reactivation was noted. Results. The mean age of patients was 41 ± 16 years with a mean followup of 4 ± 1 months. Ten patients had idiopathic intermediate uveitis, 9 patients had Behcet's disease, 10 had idiopathic panuveitis, and twelve patients had presumed ocular tuberculosis uveitis. Following IVBI, the mean LogMAR visual acuity improved from 0.8 ± 0.8 at baseline to 0.4 ± 0.5 at 1 month and 0.3 ± 0.5 at 3 months (P < 0.002, at 3 months). The mean macular thickness was 430 ± 132??m at baseline. Following IVBI macular thickness improved to 286 ± 93??m at 1 month and to 265 ± 88??m at 3 months of followup (P < 0.001, at 3 months). Conclusion. Bevacizumab was effective in the management of UME associated with both infectious and noninfectious uveitides. Intravitreal bevacizumab induced remission of UME with infectious uveitis and had no immunosuppressive effect against infectious agents. PMID:25136452

Al-Dhibi, Hassan; Hamade, Issam H; Al-Halafi, Ali; Barry, Maan; Chacra, Charbel Bou; Gupta, Vishali; Tabbara, Khalid F

2014-01-01

392

Consecutive Macular Edema and Visual Outcome in Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion  

PubMed Central

Purposes. The study introduced the concept of “consecutive macular edema” and evaluated the validity of visual outcome in macular edema (ME) secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Methods. Patients were categorized into the gainer group and the nongainer group according to the final visual acuity. We analyzed clinical characteristics involving total and consecutive duration of ME between the two groups. Results. Among the total 71 eyes of 71 patients, intravitreal bevacizumab injection (26 patients), triamcinolone (21), and natural course (33) were enrolled. The consecutive duration of ME was shorter in the gainer group than in the nongainer group (3.33 ± 1.50 and 5.24 ± 2.39 months; P = 0.000). After exclusion of macular ischemia, consecutive duration of ME in gainer group was also significantly shorter than in nongainer group (3.62 ± 1.60 and 6.11 ± 4.20 months; P = 0.010). Conclusions. The duration of ME in the nongainer group was longer than in the gainer group. In particular, the consecutive duration was an important factor in determining the final visual outcome. Clinical Trial Registration. Approval by Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital Institutional Review Board/Ethics Committee was obtained for this retrospective study. PMID:24967098

Baek, Sung Uk; Kwon, Soon Il; Park, In Won; Choi, Kyung Jun

2014-01-01

393

Computer aided detection of tumor and edema in brain FLAIR magnetic resonance image using ANN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an efficient region based segmentation technique for detecting pathological tissues (Tumor & Edema) of brain using fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) images. This work segments FLAIR brain images for normal and pathological tissues based on statistical features and wavelet transform coefficients using k-means algorithm. The image is divided into small blocks of 4×4 pixels. The k-means algorithm is used to cluster the image based on the feature vectors of blocks forming different classes representing different regions in the whole image. With the knowledge of the feature vectors of different segmented regions, supervised technique is used to train Artificial Neural Network using fuzzy back propagation algorithm (FBPA). Segmentation for detecting healthy tissues and tumors has been reported by several researchers by using conventional MRI sequences like T1, T2 and PD weighted sequences. This work successfully presents segmentation of healthy and pathological tissues (both Tumors and Edema) using FLAIR images. At the end pseudo coloring of segmented and classified regions are done for better human visualization.

Pradhan, Nandita; Sinha, A. K.

2008-03-01

394

Effect of pubic bone marrow edema on recovery from endoscopic surgery for athletic pubalgia.  

PubMed

Athletic pubalgia (sportsman's hernia) is often repaired by surgery. The presence of pubic bone marrow edema (BME) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may effect on the outcome of surgery. Surgical treatment of 30 patients with athletic pubalgia was performed by placement of totally extraperitoneal endoscopic mesh behind the painful groin area. The presence of pre-operative BME was graded from 0 to 3 using MRI and correlated to post-operative pain scores and recovery to sports activity 2 years after operation. The operated athletes participated in our previous prospective randomized study. The athletes with (n?=?21) or without (n?=?9) pubic BME had similar patients' characteristics and pain scores before surgery. Periostic and intraosseous edema at symphysis pubis was related to increase of post-operative pain scores only at 3 months after surgery (P?=?0.03) but not to long-term recovery. Two years after surgery, three athletes in the BME group and three in the normal MRI group needed occasionally pain medication for chronic groin pain, and 87% were playing at the same level as before surgery. This study indicates that the presence of pubic BME had no remarkable long-term effect on recovery from endoscopic surgical treatment of athletic pubalgia. PMID:24350624

Kuikka, L; Hermunen, H; Paajanen, H

2013-12-18

395

Rifaximin, but not growth factor 1, reduces brain edema in cirrhotic rats  

PubMed Central

AIM: To compare rifaximin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 treatment of hyperammonemia and brain edema in cirrhotic rats with portal occlusion. METHODS: Rats with CCl4-induced cirrhosis with ascites plus portal vein occlusion and controls were randomized into six groups: Cirrhosis; Cirrhosis + IGF-1; Cirrhosis + rifaximin; Controls; Controls + IGF-1; and Controls + rifaximin. An oral glutamine-challenge test was performed, and plasma and cerebral ammonia, glucose, bilirubin, transaminases, endotoxemia, brain water content and ileocecal cultures were measured and liver histology was assessed. RESULTS: Rifaximin treatment significantly reduced bacterial overgrowth and endotoxemia compared with cirrhosis groups, and improved some liver function parameters (bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). These effects were associated with a significant reduction in cerebral water content. Blood and cerebral ammonia levels, and area-under-the-curve values for oral glutamine-challenge tests were similar in rifaximin-treated cirrhotic rats and control group animals. By contrast, IGF-1 administration failed to improve most alterations observed in cirrhosis. CONCLUSION: By reducing gut bacterial overgrowth, only rifaximin was capable of normalizing plasma and brain ammonia and thereby abolishing low-grade brain edema, alterations associated with hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:22563196

Òdena, Gemma; Miquel, Mireia; Serafín, Anna; Galan, Amparo; Morillas, Rosa; Planas, Ramon; Bartolí, Ramon

2012-01-01

396

The Effects of Intravitreal Bevacizumab in Infectious and Noninfectious Uveitic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims. To assess the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab injection (IVBI) for the treatment of macular edema due to infectious and noninfectious uveitides. Design. Retrospective interventional case series. Methods. A chart review was performed on all the patients who were diagnosed with uveitic macular edema (UME) and received 1.25?mg of IVBI at two referral centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All included patients had their visual acuity and macular thickness analyzed at baseline and at 1 and 3 months following IVBI and any sign of reactivation was noted. Results. The mean age of patients was 41 ± 16 years with a mean followup of 4 ± 1 months. Ten patients had idiopathic intermediate uveitis, 9 patients had Behcet's disease, 10 had idiopathic panuveitis, and twelve patients had presumed ocular tuberculosis uveitis. Following IVBI, the mean LogMAR visual acuity improved from 0.8 ± 0.8 at baseline to 0.4 ± 0.5 at 1 month and 0.3 ± 0.5 at 3 months (P < 0.002, at 3 months). The mean macular thickness was 430 ± 132??m at baseline. Following IVBI macular thickness improved to 286 ± 93??m at 1 month and to 265 ± 88??m at 3 months of followup (P < 0.001, at 3 months). Conclusion. Bevacizumab was effective in the management of UME associated with both infectious and noninfectious uveitides. Intravitreal bevacizumab induced remission of UME with infectious uveitis and had no immunosuppressive effect against infectious agents. PMID:25136452

Al-Dhibi, Hassan; Hamade, Issam H.; Al-Halafi, Ali; Barry, Maan; Chacra, Charbel Bou; Gupta, Vishali; Tabbara, Khalid F.

2014-01-01

397

Tumefactive perivascular spaces mimicking cerebral edema in a patient with diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acute cerebral edema is a significant cause of death in patients treated for diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome. Case presentation We present the case of a 44-year-old African American woman admitted with acute severe headache and diagnosed with diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome. Computed tomography of the head showed diffuse leukoencephalopathy, but sparing of the cortex. We were concerned for acute cerebral edema secondary to hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed numerous collections of cystic spaces in the white matter of both hemispheres representing tumefactive perivascular spaces. Her headache improved with correction of the hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state. Conclusion Although the clinical presentation and head computed tomography were concerning for cerebral edema, the distinctive features on brain magnetic resonance imaging helped to clarify the diagnosis and differentiate it from other processes. PMID:23432798

2013-01-01

398

Lipophilic amino alcohols reduces carrageenan-induced paw edema and anti-OVA DTH in BALB/c mice.  

PubMed

The inflammation process is a coordinated response of the organism related to immune response with release of pro-inflammatory substances, as nitric oxide, TNF-? and IL-1?. In this work, a series of lipophilic amino alcohols were evaluated on RAW264.7 and primary macrophages for the modulation of nitric oxide and TNF-?. The most potent compounds were submitted to the treatment of BALB/c mice and evaluation of the carrageenan-induced paw edema and TNF-? and IL1-? release in the paws and anti-OVA delayed type hypersensitivity reaction. RAW264.7 and primary macrophages were incubated in the presence of amino alcohols at different concentrations (1, 0.5, 0.05 and 0.005 ?g mL(-1)). All tested compounds were not cytotoxic, however the inhibition of NO and TNF-? were observed only in RAW264.7 cultures. The NO production were reduced in 100% for all compounds, but only the compounds 4a and 4b expressively reduced the TNF-? release (67% and 92% respectively). On the carrageenan-induced paw edema, the compound 4b treatment showed reduction of edema, TNF-? and IL-1? as efficient as dexamethasone treatment. Meanwhile, the compound 4a treatment showed only slight reduction of paw edema. In the anti-OVA DTH reaction, both compounds showed reduction in the paw edema as effective as dexamethasone. In function of the observed results in vitro and in the acute and anti-OVA inflammation of mice paw edema compound 4b showed promissory anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:24035232

Reis, Elaine F C; Castro, Sandra B R; Alves, Caio Cesar S; Oliveira, Erick E; Corrêa, Tais A; Almeida, Mauro V; Ferreira, Ana Paula

2013-11-01

399

Pulmonary vein edema in a patient undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery and concomitant radiofrequency ablation for chronic atrial fibrillation.  

PubMed

The syndrome of pulmonary vein stenosis characterized by pulmonary hypertension, dyspnea on exertion, and right heart failure, is a well-described complication of percutaneous ablation approaches, but has not been described with surgical approaches. We describe the case of a patient who developed localized edema at the pulmonary vein-left atrial junction after undergoing intraoperative radiofrequency ablation for chronic atrial fibrillation as part of CABG for severe triple vessel disease. The pulmonary vein edema resolved within 10 months suggesting that it may be a clinically silent and self-resolving phenomenon. PMID:16970719

Shah, Amit D; Wokhlu, Nina; Anderson, Mark; Shindler, Daniel

2006-09-01

400

Dual-energy computed tomographic virtual noncalcium algorithm for detection of bone marrow edema in acute fractures: early experiences.  

PubMed

Computed tomography (CT) is often used to assess the presence of occult fractures when plain radiographs are equivocal in the acute traumatic setting. While providing increased spatial resolution, conventional computed tomography is limited in the assessment of bone marrow edema, a finding that is readily detectable on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Dual-energy CT has recently been shown to demonstrate patterns of bone marrow edema similar to corresponding MRI studies. Dual-energy CT may therefore provide a convenient modality for further characterizing acute bony injury when MRI is not readily available. We report our initial experiences of 4 cases with imaging and clinical correlation. PMID:24834889

Reagan, Adrian C; Mallinson, Paul I; O'Connell, Timothy; McLaughlin, Patrick D; Krauss, Bernhard; Munk, Peter L; Nicolaou, Savvas; Ouellette, Hugue A

2014-01-01

401

Postoperative obstructing laryngeal edema in patients with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis of cervical spine -A report of two cases-  

PubMed Central

Two cases were reported in which severe postoperative laryngeal edema were developed after the operation of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) of cervical spine. In the first case, sudden airway obstruction was developed in the general ward 6 hour after uneventful decompression surgery for osteophyte. In the second patient, an elective preoperative tracheostomy was performed before surgery but the tube could not be removed for 2 months because of laryngeal edema and decreased vocal cord mobility. It should be emphasized that this airway problem can develop during the postoperative as well as the preoperative period, especially in the case of anterior cervical spine surgery. PMID:21716570

Kim, Young-Soon; Chung, Yang Hoon; Kim, Eun Sang; Chung, Ik-Soo

2011-01-01

402

Chest sonography: a useful tool to differentiate acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema from acute respiratory distress syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Differential diagnosis between acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (APE) and acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) may often be difficult. We evaluated the ability of chest sonography in the identification of characteristic pleuropulmonary signs useful in the diagnosis of ALI/ARDS and APE. Methods Chest sonography was performed on admission to the intensive care unit in 58 consecutive patients affected by ALI/ARDS or by acute pulmonary edema (APE). Results Ultrasound examination was focalised on finding in the two groups the presence of: 1) alveolar-interstitial syndrome (AIS) 2) pleural lines abnormalities 3) absence or reduction of "gliding" sign 4) "spared areas" 5) consolidations 6) pleural effusion 7) "lung pulse". AIS was found in 100% of patients with ALI/ARDS and in 100% of patients with APE (p = ns). Pleural line abnormalities were observed in 100% of patients with ALI/ARDS and in 25% of patients with APE (p < 0.0001). Absence or reduction of the 'gliding sign' was observed in 100% of patients with ALI/ARDS and in 0% of patients with APE. 'Spared areas' were observed in 100% of patients with ALI/ARDS and in 0% of patients with APE (p < 0.0001). Consolidations were present in 83.3% of patients with ALI/ARDS in 0% of patients with APE (p < 0.0001). A pleural effusion was present in 66.6% of patients with ALI/ARDS and in 95% of patients with APE (p < 0.004). 'Lung pulse' was observed in 50% of patients with ALI/ARDS and in 0% of patients with APE (p < 0.0001). All signs, except the presence of AIS, presented a statistically significant difference in presentation between the two syndromes resulting specific for the ultrasonographic characterization of ALI/ARDS. Conclusion Pleuroparenchimal patterns in ALI/ARDS do find a characterization through ultrasonographic lung scan. In the critically ill the ultrasound demonstration of a dyshomogeneous AIS with spared areas, pleural line modifications and lung consolidations is strongly predictive, in an early phase, of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. PMID:18442425

Copetti, Roberto; Soldati, Gino; Copetti, Paolo

2008-01-01

403

VA/Q distribution during heavy exercise and recovery in humans: implications for pulmonary edema  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) inequality has been shown to increase with exercise. Potential mechanisms for this increase include nonuniform pulmonary vasoconstriction, ventilatory time constant inequality, reduced large airway gas mixing, and development of interstitial pulmonary edema. We hypothesized that persistence of VA/Q mismatch after ventilation and cardiac output subside during recovery would be consistent with edema; however, rapid resolution would suggest mechanisms related to changes in ventilation and blood flow per se. Thirteen healthy males performed near-maximal cycle ergometry at an inspiratory PO2 of 91 Torr (because hypoxia accentuates VA/Q mismatch on exercise). Cardiorespiratory variables and inert gas elimination patterns were measured at rest, during exercise, and between 2 and 30 min of recovery. Two profiles of VA/Q distribution behavior emerged during heavy exercise: in group 1 an increase in VA/Q mismatch (log SDQ of 0.35 +/- 0.02 at rest and 0.44 +/- 0.02 at exercise; P less than 0.05, n = 7) and in group 2 no change in VA/Q mismatch (n = 6). There were no differences in anthropometric data, work rate, O2 uptake, or ventilation during heavy exercise between groups. Group 1 demonstrated significantly greater VA/Q inequality, lower vital capacity, and higher forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of forced vital capacity for the first 20 min during recovery than group 2. Cardiac index was higher in group 1 both during heavy exercise and 4 and 6 min postexercise. However, both ventilation and cardiac output returned toward baseline values more rapidly than did VA/Q relationships. Arterial pH was lower in group 1 during exercise and recovery. We conclude that greater VA/Q inequality in group 1 and its persistence during recovery are consistent with the hypothesis that edema occurs and contributes to the increase in VA/Q inequality during exercise. This is supported by observation of greater blood flows and acidosis and, presumably therefore, higher pulmonary vascular pressures in such subjects.

Schaffartzik, W.; Poole, D. C.; Derion, T.; Tsukimoto, K.; Hogan, M. C.; Arcos, J. P.; Bebout, D. E.; Wagner, P. D.

1992-01-01

404

Intravitreal steroids versus observation for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion  

PubMed Central

Background Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is a common retinal vascular abnormality associated with conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, glaucoma, and a wide variety of hematologic disorders. Macular edema (ME) represents an important vision-threatening complication of CRVO. There is no proven treatment; laser photocoagulation is not effective in treating cystoid macular edema secondary to CRVO. Intravitreal steroids, such as triamcinolone acetonide, have been utilized to treat macular edema stemming from a variety of etiologies and may represent a treatment option for CRVO-ME. Objectives The objective of this review was to explore the effectiveness and safety of intravitreal steroids in the treatment of CRVO-ME. Search strategy We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2008), MEDLINE (January 1950 to November 2008) and EMBASE (January 1980 to November 2008). There were no language or date restrictions in the search for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 5 November 2008. For all included primary studies, we used The Science Citation Index and manually reviewed reference lists to identify other possible relevant trials. We contacted researchers in the field, currently working on a randomized controlled trial (RCT) on this topic (The Standard Care versus Corticosteroid for Retinal Vein Occlusion - SCORE study), for information on additional current, past, or unpublished trials. Selection criteria We considered RCTs that compared intravitreal steroids of any dosage/duration to observation in the treatment of CRVO-ME for inclusion in this review. We focused on studies that included individuals of any age or gender with unilateral or bilateral disease, with a minimum of six months follow up. Secondarily we considered non-randomized studies with the same criteria for description of evidence, however we did not conduct a separate electronic search for finding all non-randomized studies. Data collection and analysis We found no RCTs that met the inclusion criteria after independent and duplicate review of the search results. Main results We found no relevant RCTs and therefore performed no meta-analysis. Evidence from non-randomized studies is reported in this review. Authors’ conclusions There is inadequate evidence for the use of intravitreal steroids for CRVO-ME due to a paucity of RCTs and well-designed observational studies on the topic; therefore, it is still an experimental procedure. PMID:19160332

Gewaily, Dina; Greenberg, Paul B

2014-01-01

405

Comparison of Modified-ETDRS and Mild Macular Grid Laser Photocoagulation Strategies for Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare two laser photocoagulation techniques for treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME): modified-ETDRS direct/grid photocoagulation (mETDRS) and a, potentially milder, but potentially more extensive, mild macular grid (MMG) laser technique in which small mild burns are placed throughout the macula, whether or not edema is present, and microaneurysms are not treated directly. Methods 263 subjects (mean age 59 years) with previously untreated DME were randomly assigned to receive laser photocoagulation by mETDRS (N=162 eyes) or MMG (N=161 eyes) technique. Visual acuity, fundus photographs and OCT measurements were obtained at baseline and after 3.5, 8, and 12 months. Treatment was repeated if DME persisted. Main Outcome Measure Change in OCT measures at 12-months follow up. Results From baseline to 12 months, among eyes with baseline central subfield thickness ? 250 microns, central subfield thickening decreased by an average of 88 microns in the mETDRS group and decreased by 49 microns in the MMG group (adjusted mean difference: 33 microns, 95% confidence interval 5 to 61 microns, P=0.02). Weighted inner zone thickening by OCT decreased by 42 and 28 microns, respectively (adjusted mean difference: 14 microns, 95% confidence interval 1 to 27 microns, P=0.04), maximum retinal thickening (maximum of the central and four inner subfields) decreased by 66 and 39 microns, respectively (adjusted mean difference: 27 microns, 95% confidence interval 6 to 47 microns, P=0.01), and retinal volume decreased by 0.8 and 0.4 mm3, respectively (adjusted mean difference: 0.3 mm3, 95% confidence interval 0.02 to 0.53 mm3, P=0.03). At 12 months, the mean change in visual acuity was 0 letters in the mETDRS group and 2 letters worse in the MMG group (adjusted mean difference: 2 letters, 95% confidence interval ?0.5 to 5 letters, P=0.10). Conclusions At 12 months after treatment, the MMG technique is less effective at reducing OCT measured retinal thickening than the more extensively evaluated current mETDRS laser photocoagulation approach. However, the visual acuity outcome with both approaches is not substantially different. Given these findings a larger long-term trial of the MMG technique is not justified. Application to Clinical Practice Modified ETDRS focal photocoagulation should continue as a standard approach for treating diabetic macular edema. PMID:17420366

2008-01-01

406

Cerebral embolism: local CFBF and edema measured by CT scanning and Xe inhalation. [Baboons  

SciTech Connect

Serial CT scans were made in baboons after cerebral embolization during stable Xe inhalation for measuring local values for CBF and lambda (brain-blood partition or solubility coefficients), followed by iodine infusion for detecting blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. Persistent zones of zero flow surrounded by reduced flow were measured predominantly in subcortical regions, which showed gross and microscopic evidence of infarction at necropsy. Overlying cortex was relatively spared. Reduced lambda values attributed to edema appeared within 3 to 5 minutes and progressed up to 60 minutes. Damage to BBB with visible transvascular seepage of iodine began to appear 1 to 1 1/2 hours after embolism. In chronic animals, lambda values were persistently reduced in areas showing histologic infarction. Contralateral hemispheric CBF increased for the first 15 minutes after embolism, followed by progressive reduction after 30 minutes (diaschisis).

Meyer, J.S.; Yamamoto, M.; Hayman, L.A.; Sakai, F.; Nakajima, S.; Armstrong, D.

1980-01-01

407

Nicardipine-induced acute pulmonary edema: a rare but severe complication of tocolysis.  

PubMed

We report four cases of acute pulmonary edema that occurred during treatment by intravenous tocolysis using nicardipine in pregnancy patients with no previous heart problems. Clinical severity justified hospitalization in intensive care unit (ICU) each time. Acute dyspnea has begun at an average of 63 hours after initiation of treatment. For all patients, the first diagnosis suspected was pulmonary embolism. The patients' condition improved rapidly with appropriate diuretic treatment and by modifying the tocolysis. The use of intravenous nicardipine is widely used for tocolysis in France even if its prescription does not have a marketing authorization. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this complication remain unclear. The main reported risk factors are spontaneous preterm labor, multiple pregnancy, concomitant obstetrical disease, association with beta-agonists, and fetal lung maturation corticotherapy. A better knowledge of this rare but serious adverse event should improve the management of patients. Nifedipine or atosiban, the efficiency of which tocolysis was also studied, could be an alternative. PMID:25215245

Serena, Claire; Begot, Emmanuelle; Cros, Jérôme; Hodler, Charles; Fedou, Anne Laure; Nathan-Denizot, Nathalie; Clavel, Marc

2014-01-01

408

Bilateral Simultaneous Disc Edema and Cataract Associated with Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy  

PubMed Central

A 16-year-old female presented with poor vision in both eyes. On clinical examination, she had bilateral cataracts and optic disc edema bilaterally on ultrasound examination. Extensive intracranial calcification was evident on computerized tomography. Physical examination revealed short stature, rounded chubby face, dental abnormalities, brachydactyly, and obesity. Laboratory evidence of hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, elevated parathyroid hormone level (indicative of pseudohypoparathyroidism) along with the constellation of phenotypical characteristics lead to a diagnosis of Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy. This case is being presented to increase awareness regarding presence of coexisting and previously undiagnosed hypocalcemic syndromes in pediatric cataracts. The role of an ophthalmologist may be pivotal in diagnosing such an entity as documented in the present case. PMID:22346135

Sengupta, Sabyasachi; Ravindran, Ravilla D.; Kannusamy, Veena; Tamrakar, Varsha

2012-01-01

409

Commercial double-indicator-dilution densitometer using heavy water: Evaluation in oleic-acid pulmonary edema  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated a commercially available, double-indicator-dilution densitometric system for the estimation of pulmonary extravascular water volume in oleic acid-induced pulmonary edema. Indocyanine green and heavy water were used as the nondiffusible and diffusible tracers, respectively. Pulmonary extravascular water volume, measured with this system, was 67% of the gravimetric value (r = 0.91), which was consistent with values obtained from the radioisotope methods. The measured volume was not influenced by changes in cardiac index over a range of 1 to 4 L.min.m2. This system is less invasive than the thermal-dye technique and has potential for repeated clinical measurements of pulmonary extravascular lung water and cardiac output.

Leksell, L.G.; Schreiner, M.S.; Sylvestro, A.; Neufeld, G.R. (Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia (USA))

1990-04-01

410

Significant reduction of diabetic macular edema following intravitreal ranibizumab injection in the fellow eye.  

PubMed

A significant therapeutic effect in the fellow eye after intravitreal ranibizumab injections was observed in a 39-year-old diabetic male. The patient was followed-up with fluorescein angiography (FA) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). On referral, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 6/60 in the right eye and Counting Fingers in the left eye. FA revealed foveal leakage in both eyes. OCT revealed diabetic and cystoid macular edema (DME-CME) in both eyes. The patient was treated with two intravitreal ranibizumab injections in the left eye. BCVA was 6/15 and 6/30 one month after the last injection. OCT revealed significant improvement (DME elimination and significant CME improvement) in both eyes, despite the fact that only the left eye was treated. It is conceivable that, in this eye, chronic vascular damage was limited and a minimal quantity of ranibizumab had a positive effect on vascular permeability, resulting in DME resolution. PMID:25192913

Rotsos, Tryfon; Symeonidis, Chrysanthos; Triantafillopoulou, Ioanna; Kanellopoulos, Spyridon; Kouris, Anastasios

2014-12-01

411

Both lethal and edema toxins of Bacillus anthracis disrupt the human dendritic cell chemokine network.  

PubMed

Bacillus anthracis, the agent of anthrax, produces two main virulence factors: a capsule and two toxins. Both lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET) paralyze the immune defense system. Here, we analyze the effects of LT and ET on the capacity of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) to produce proinflammatory chemokines. We show that both toxins disrupt proinflammatory chemokine production. LT has more pronounced effects than ET on CXCL8 production, which is correlated with impaired recruitment of neutrophils in vitro. Finally, we show that both toxins also differentially disrupt IL-12p70, IL-10, and TNF-? production. Taken together, these results demonstrate that both B. anthracis toxins alter MoDC functions and the activation of the innate immune system. PMID:22937027

Cleret-Buhot, Aurélie; Mathieu, Jacques; Tournier, Jean-Nicolas; Quesnel-Hellmann, Anne

2012-01-01

412

Nicardipine-Induced Acute Pulmonary Edema: A Rare but Severe Complication of Tocolysis  

PubMed Central

We report four cases of acute pulmonary edema that occurred during treatment by intravenous tocolysis using nicardipine in pregnancy patients with no previous heart problems. Clinical severity justified hospitalization in intensive care unit (ICU) each time. Acute dyspnea has begun at an average of 63 hours after initiation of treatment. For all patients, the first diagnosis suspected was pulmonary embolism. The patients' condition improved rapidly with appropriate diuretic treatment and by modifying the tocolysis. The use of intravenous nicardipine is widely used for tocolysis in France even if its prescription does not have a marketing authorization. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this complication remain unclear. The main reported risk factors are spontaneous preterm labor, multiple pregnancy, concomitant obstetrical disease, association with beta-agonists, and fetal lung maturation corticotherapy. A better knowledge of this rare but serious adverse event should improve the management of patients. Nifedipine or atosiban, the efficiency of which tocolysis was also studied, could be an alternative. PMID:25215245

Serena, Claire; Begot, Emmanuelle; Cros, Jérôme; Hodler, Charles; Fedou, Anne Laure; Nathan-Denizot, Nathalie; Clavel, Marc

2014-01-01

413

Syndrome of remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema: A case series.  

PubMed

Remitting Seronegative Symmetrical Synovitis with Pitting Edema (RS3PE) is a rare clinical entity that is easily missed due to lack of knowledge. It was formerly considered as a subset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but is now regarded as a distinct disease/syndrome. The diagnosis of RS3PE is not easy, as it is always hindered by the lack of definite diagnostic criteria and presence of other much common rheumatological disorders that mimic it. We report a series of seven cases that attended our clinic in the last year, which highlight the salient features of the disease. The disease was found to have a heterogeneous presentation. Immunogenetic, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and possible etiological factors and associations with the neoplasm are described, as also other peculiar presentations. Finally, a comparison with other common rheumatological disorders is made to alert the clinician about this rare, but easily treatable disease. PMID:25511217

Varshney, A N; Singh, N K

2015-01-01

414

Preadult Stage Parasites and Multiple Timed Exposure to Infective Larvae Are Involved in Development of Limb Edema in Brugia malayi-Infected Indian Leaf Monkeys (Presbytis entellus)†  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of filarial limb edema is not known. The role of parasitological variables and parasite-mediated phenomena in the development of limb edema was investigated in the Presbytis entellus-Brugia malayi model. Infection was initiated with subcutaneous inoculation of infective third-stage larvae (L3), and the animals were reexposed to different doses of L3 at the prepatent, patent, and diminishing microfilaremia (0 to 5% of peak microfilaremia count) stages of infection. A large L3 inoculum size and repeated inoculation in the ankle region during the prepatent, patent, and diminishing microfilaremia stages of infection were found to be necessary for reproducible induction of limb edema. The preadult stage of the parasite was found to be the most potent inducer of limb edema, followed by L5 and L4. The presence of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1?, and interleukin-6 in edema fluid in the leg receiving the parasite challenge indicated that the limb edema development was due to parasite-mediated cytokine responses. The absence of bacterial infection or anti-streptolysin O titer in the edema fluid and blood indicated that bacterial infection is not necessary for the development of limb edema. PMID:12093695

Murthy, P. K.; Khan, M. A.; Rajani, H. B.; Srivastava, V. M. L.

2002-01-01

415

Comparative effects of lercanidipine, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and leg edema in confirmed ambulatory hypertensive patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lercanidipine (LER) is a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist having shown a lower incidence of leg edema in comparison with its congeners. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) as well as on the magnitude of leg edema of treatments using LER, amlodipine (AML), or hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in patients with confirmed ambulatory hypertension

Jean Lefebvre; Luc Poirier; Yves Lacourcière

2005-01-01

416

Role of histamine receptors in the regulation of edema and circulation postburn.  

PubMed

Despite histamine being a potent endogenous vasoactive agent released in increasing amounts postburn, its role in postburn oedema formation has been controversial and its effect on burn circulation poorly investigated. The present study investigated the involvement of H(1), H(2) and H(3) receptors in postburn edema in rats exposed to skin and muscle burns and their influence on skin circulation postburn. We used the selective antagonists clemastine (H(1)), ranitidine (H(2)), thioperamide (H(3)) and the selective H(3) receptor agonist, imetit. Results showed that none of the antagonists or the H(3) agonist had significant effect on postburn edema measured by quantitative spectrophotometric analysis of extravasated Evans blue-albumin in the full-thickness burned skin or muscle. Clemastine and thioperamide failed to induce significant effect on blood flow in the partial- or full-thickness skin burn injury as measured by laser Doppler flowmetry, while ranitidine significantly (P<0.01) reduced blood flow in the full-thickness burn. In contrast, the H(3) receptor agonist, imetit, significantly increased blood flow, both in the partial-thickness burn injury (P<0.05) and in the full-thickness burn (P<0.01). Moreover, imetit significantly (P<0.01) increased mean arterial pressure while thioperamide significantly (P<0.01) reduced systemic pressure. In conclusion, H(1), H(2) and H(3) receptors are not important actors in the regulation of vascular patency permeability, whereas H(3) receptors play an important role by increasing skin circulation postburn, presumably by relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and/or by interacting with other inflammatory neurotransmitters. Data also suggest that H(2) receptor blockers may not be best choice for stress ulcer prophylaxis in burn patients. PMID:14636750

Räntfors, Johanna; Cassuto, Jean

2003-12-01

417

Cerebral Blood Flow and Cerebral Edema in Rats With Diabetic Ketoacidosis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE— Cerebral edema (CE) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children. Osmotic fluctuations during DKA treatment have been considered responsible, but recent data instead suggest that cerebral hypoperfusion may be involved and that activation of cerebral ion transporters may occur. Diminished cerebral blood flow (CBF) during DKA, however, has not been previously demonstrated. We investigated CBF and edema formation in a rat model of DKA and determined the effects of bumetanide, an inhibitor of Na-K-Cl cotransport. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— Juvenile rats with streptozotocin-induced DKA were treated with intravenous saline and insulin, similar to human treatment protocols. CBF was determined by magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion–weighted imaging before and during treatment, and CE was assessed by determining apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) using MR diffusion–weighted imaging. RESULTS— CBF was significantly reduced in DKA and was responsive to alterations in pCO2. ADC values were reduced, consistent with cell swelling. The reduction in ADCs correlated with dehydration, as reflected in blood urea nitrogen concentrations. Bumetanide caused a rapid rise in ADCs of DKA rats without significantly changing CBF, while saline/insulin caused a rapid rise in CBF and a gradual rise in ADCs. DKA rats treated with bumetanide plus saline/insulin showed a trend toward more rapid rise in cortical ADCs and a larger rise in striatal CBF than those observed with saline/insulin alone. CONCLUSIONS— These data demonstrate that CE in DKA is accompanied by cerebral hypoperfusion before treatment and suggest that blocking Na-K-Cl cotransport may reduce cerebral cell swelling. PMID:18633109

Yuen, Natalie; Anderson, Steven E.; Glaser, Nicole; Tancredi, Daniel J.; O'Donnell, Martha E.

2008-01-01

418

Norepinephrine and traumatic brain injury: a possible role in post-traumatic edema.  

PubMed

Unilateral cerebral contusion is associated with an early (30 min) increase in norepinephrine (NE) turnover followed by a later (6-24 h) depression of turnover which is bilateral and widespread throughout the brain. Blockade of NE function during the first few hours after traumatic brain injury (TBI) impedes subsequent recovery of function without enlarging the size of the lesion. The current studies were carried out to characterize further the timing of the switch from increased to decreased NE turnover and to investigate the pathogenesis of the delayed recovery of function associated with blocking NE function. Adult male rats had unilateral somatosensory cortex contusions made with a 5 mm diameter impact piston. They were killed after 2 h and their brains analyzed for NE turnover by HPLC with electrochemical detection. In general, NE turnover (the ratio of 3-methoxy-4-hyroxyphenylglycol to NE levels) had returned to sham-lesion control levels in most brain regions by 2 h after either left or right sided contusions. The only exceptions were a persistent 87% increase at the lesion site after right-sided contusions and 22% and 32% increases in the contralateral cerebellum after right- and left-sided contusions, respectively. Blockade of alpha1-adrenoceptors by treatment with prazosin (3 mg/ kg, i.p.) 30 min prior to TBI produced edema in the striatum and hippocampus at 24 h which was not seen saline-treated rats nor in rats where NE reuptake was blocked with desmethylimipramine (DMI; 10 mg/kg, i.p.). DMI increased edema at the lesion site at 24 h, however. These data suggest that the early increase in NE release following unilateral cerebral contusion is protective and that this may act to stabilize the blood-brain barrier in areas adjacent to the injury site. Drugs that interfere with this enhanced noradrenergic function might enhance the damage caused by TBI. PMID:9685666

Dunn-Meynell, A A; Hassanain, M; Levin, B E

1998-08-01

419

Genome Wide Expression Analysis Suggests Perturbation of Vascular Homeostasis during High Altitude Pulmonary Edema  

PubMed Central

Background High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a life-threatening form of non-cardiogenic edema which occurs in unacclimatized but otherwise normal individuals within two to four days after rapid ascent to altitude beyond 3000 m. The precise pathoetiology and inciting mechanisms regulating HAPE remain unclear. Methodology/Principle findings We performed global gene expression profiling in individuals with established HAPE compared to acclimatized individuals. Our data suggests concurrent modulation of multiple pathways which regulate vascular homeostasis and consequently lung fluid dynamics. These pathways included those which regulate vasoconstriction through smooth muscle contraction, cellular actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and endothelial permeability/dysfunction. Some notable genes within these pathways included MYLK; rho family members ARGEF11, ARHGAP24; cell adhesion molecules such as CLDN6, CLDN23, PXN and VCAM1 besides other signaling intermediates. Further, several important regulators of systemic/pulmonary hypertension including ADRA1D, ECE1, and EDNRA were upregulated in HAPE. We also observed significant upregulation of genes involved in paracrine signaling through chemokines and lymphocyte activation pathways during HAPE represented by transcripts of TNF, JAK2, MAP2K2, MAP2K7, MAPK10, PLCB1, ARAF, SOS1, PAK3 and RELA amongst others. Perturbation of such pathways can potentially skew vascular homeostatic equilibrium towards altered vascular permeability. Additionally, differential regulation of hypoxia-sensing, hypoxia-response and OXPHOS pathway genes in individuals with HAPE were also observed. Conclusions/Significance Our data reveals specific components of the complex molecular circuitry underlying HAPE. We show concurrent perturbation of multiple pathways regulating vascular homeostasis and suggest multi-genic nature of regulation of HAPE. PMID:24465776

Sharma, Manish; Singh, Shashi Bala; Sarkar, Soma

2014-01-01

420

Comparison of reduction of edema after rest and after muscle exercises in treatment of chronic venous insufficiency  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of this work was to compare the reduction in edema obtained in the conservative treatment of phlebopathies after resting and after performing a muscle exercise program in the Trendelenburg position. Methods Twenty-eight limbs of 24 patients with venous edema of distinct etiologies and classified as between C3 and C5 using CEAP classification. Volumetric evaluation by water displacement was carried out before and after resting in the Trendelenburg position and after performing programmed muscle exercises 24 hours later under identical conditions of time, position and temperature. For the statistical analysis the paired t-test was used with an alpha error of 5% being considered acceptable. Results The average total volume of the lower limbs was 3,967.46 mL. The mean reduction in edema obtained after resting was 92.9 mL, and after exercises it was 135.4 mL, giving a statistically significant difference (p-value = 0.0007). Conclusion In conclusion, exercises are more efficient to reduce the edema of lower limbs than resting in the Trendelenburg position. PMID:19602249

Quilici, Belczak Cleusa Ema; Gildo, Cavalheri; de Godoy, Jose Maria Pereira; Quilici, Belczak Sergio; Augusto, Caffaro Roberto

2009-01-01