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The paper proposes a model for e-education in instruction, training, initiation and induction based upon the concept of extended teaching spaces involving execution, facilitation and liberation, and extended learning spaces used for acquisition, application and construction cemented by dialogue and reflection. The proposed model is based upon…
Intervention studies in school systems are sometimes aimed not at changing curriculum or classroom technique, but rather at changing the way that teachers, teaching coaches, and administrators in schools work with one another--in short, changing the professional social networks of educators. Current methods of social network analysis are…
Sweet, Tracy M.; Thomas, Andrew C.; Junker, Brian W.
The SpaceEducators' Handbook is a collection of space exploration information available on Hypercard as a spaceeducation reference book. Ranging from early dreams of space ships to current manned missions, the more than four thousand cards include entries of statistics, historical facts and anecdotes, technical articles, accounts of NASA missions from Mercury through the space shuttle, biographical information on women and men who have contributed to space exploration, scientific facts, and various other space-related data. The means of presenting the data range from cartoons and drawings to lists and narratives, some briefly quoted and some reproduced in full.
The Space Science Education Resource Directory is designed for educators seeking NASA space science educational products for use in classrooms, science museums, planetariums, and other settings. The directory can be searched by grade, subject (space, physical or earth science), topic, or keyword. A frequently-asked-questions feature and instructions on using the directory are provided.
The educational process for teaching space science has been examined as a topic at the 17th European Space Agency Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon, and Related Research. The approach used for an introductory course during the past 18 years at Penn State University is considered as an example. The opportunities for using space science topics to motivate the thinking and efforts of advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students are examined. The topics covered in the introductory course are briefly described in an outline indicating the breath of the material covered. Several additional topics and assignments are included to help prepare the students for their careers. These topics include discussions on workplace ethics, project management, tools for research, presentation skills, and opportunities to participate in student projects.
The role of the International Space Station in future U.S. aerospace education efforts is discussed from a NASA perspective. The overall design concept and scientific and technological goals of the Space Station are reviewed, and particular attention is given to education projects such as the Davis Planetarium Student Space Station, the Starship McCullough, the Space Habitat, the working Space Station model in Austin, TX, the Challenger Center for Space Life Education, Space M+A+X, and the Space Science Student Involvement Program. Also examined are learning-theory aspects of aerospace education: child vs adult learners, educational objectives, teaching methods, and instructional materials.
The goals of the Capacity Building Partnership for Research and Education in Space Science (CB-PRESS) project include 1) establish a viable partnership to develop modeleducation, research outreach programs in space science 2) to enhance existing STEM curricula using space science content 3) to develop a BS\\/MS space science track or full programs 4) to promote the value of space
An elementary science education professional development partnership between Culver City Unified School District teachers and UCLA has been formed. The project was designed to assist teachers to comfortably present introductory space science concepts, to support them in their efforts, and to aid them in encouraging their students to develop inquiry skills related to space sciences. The project encourages teacher use of observational science techniques in their classrooms, the use of NASA solar mission images and enhanced use of astronomical observation to facilitate discovery learning. The integrated approach of the project has fostered collegial learning activities among the participating teachers and offered them opportunities for continued renewal and professional development of teacher competencies in astronomy and space science. The activities used in the classroom were developed by others, classroom tested, and specifically address National Science Education and California Science Content Standards. These activities have been sustained through on-going collaboration between the scientist and the teachers, a summer Research Experience for Teachers program, and on-going, grade-specific, district-sponsored workshops. Assessment of the value of the program is done by the school district and is used to continuously improve each workshop and program component. Culver City (California) Unified School District is a small urban school district located on the Westside of Los Angeles. This paper describes the program and the plans for incorporating IHY-themed science into the classroom.
Moldwin, M. B.; Fiello, D.; Harter, E.; Holman, G.; Nagumo, N.; Pryharski, A.; Takunaga, C.
The contribution of space science to an education cursus can be conceived as a series of educational modules (each including text books for teacher and pupil, exercises, CD-roms, observations or study projects, kits for hands-on projects, and Internet products from space agencies) covering different age groups (elementary 7-10, middle 10-14, high school 15-17). These modules should not be limited to the science teacher area, but must pervade in all topics of education the same way as space is part of everyday life. Space agencies can contribute to this by supporting a pilot group of teachers on sabbatical residence to develop these modules. These teachers should cover different European languages (e.g. English, French, German, other languages), different educational systems experience, and different backgrounds (Language/arts, science, history, technology). These modules could be developed in one year, in partnership with education ministers, publishers, for validation and production. They should be distributed and inserted in curricula via education authorities and networks of teachers. We list some examples of space (science) modules to be developed, in different teachers courses for a total of about 20 hours courses/yr, with basic modules for age group (7-10 yr) and Advanced Modules for (10-15 yr).
One of the more difficult tasks facing educators (and others involved in education and public outreach) is that of identifying, finding, and accessing existing NASA science resources that meet their specific needs. NASA's OSS EPO Support Network has assembled a NASA Space Science Education resource Directory to assist interested individuals (including planetary scientists) to identify and download desired electronic products funded by NASA. This presentation will describe and demonstrate the system, which was unveiled in early October 2000 through a NASA Press Release; the Resource Directory is located at URL http://teachspacescience.stsci.edu. We are investigating solutions to the difficult issue of efficient distribution of hard copy resources. We hope to have a live computer demonstration of the Directory at the NASA Space Science EPO booth at the Conference. Comments and feedback on the Directory structure and contents will be solicited and welcome.
Most education programs offering space weather courses are understandably and traditionally heavily weighted with theoretical space physics that is the basis for most of what is researched and modeled. While understanding the theory is a good and necessary grounding for anyone working the field of space weather, few military or commercial jobs employ such theory in real-time operations. The operations sites/centers are much more geared toward use of applied theory-resultant models, tools and products. To ensure its operations centers personnel, commanders, real-time system operators and other customers affected by the space environment are educated on available and soon-to-be operational space weather models and products, the USAF has developed applicable course/lecture material taught at various institutions to include the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) and the Joint Weather Training Complex (335th/TRS/OUA). Less frequent training of operational space weather is available via other venues that will be discussed, and associated course material is also being developed for potential use at the National Security Space Institute (NSSI). This presentation provides an overview of the programs, locations, courses and material developed and/or taught by or for USAF personnel dealing with operational space weather. It also provides general information on student research project results that may be used in operational support, along with observations regarding logistical and professional benefits of teaching such non-theoretical/non-traditional material.
Four different educational programs impacting Space Life Sciences are described: the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program, the NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) Program, the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) Program, and the NASA Graduate Research Fellow Program. Each program makes somewhat different demands on the students engaged in them. Each program, at the University of Colorado, involves Space Life Sciences training. While the Graduate Student Research Fellow and NSCORT Programs are discipline oriented, the Advanced Design and CCDS Programs are focused on design, technologies and applications. Clearly, the "training paradigms" differ for these educational endeavors. But, these paradigms can be made to mutually facilitate enthusiasm and motivation. Discipline-oriented academic programs, ideally, must be flexible enough to accommodate the emergent cross-disciplinary needs of Space Life Sciences students. Models for such flexibility and resultant student performance levels are discussed based upon actual academic and professional records. PMID:11537954
The Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project successfilly met its objectives of creating a comprehensive online portfolio of science education curricular resources and providing a professional development program to increase educator competency...
The Higher Education Clearinghouse (HECl) is a searchable database of undergraduate classroom materials for faculty teaching planetary sciences and solar and space physics at both the introductory and upper division levels. Modeled after the highly successful SERC clearinghouse for geosciences assets, HECl was designed for easy submission of classroom assets - from homeworks and computer interactives to laboratories and demonstrations. All materials are peer-reviewed before posting, and authors adhere to the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY). HECl materials are automatically cross-posted to other digital libraries (e.g., ComPADRE) and virtual higher education communities (e.g., Connexions). In addition to classroom materials, HECl provides news and information about educational research and best practices, funding opportunities, and ongoing efforts and collaborations for undergraduate education.
The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), established in 1997 through a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) competition, is a 12-university consortium dedicated to space life science research and education. NSBRI's Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP) has partnered with Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM) to support NSBRI-NASA's education mission, which is to strengthen the nation's future science workforce through initiatives that communicate space exploration biology research findings to schools; support undergraduate and graduate programs; fund postdoctoral fellowships; and engage national and international audiences in collegial exchanges that promote global visions for space exploration education. This paper describes select MSM-NSBRI-EPOP activities, including scholarly interchanges with audiences in Austria, Canada, France, China, Greece, Italy, Scotland and Spain. The paper also makes the case for a global space exploration education vision that inspires students, engages educators and informs general audiences about the benefits that space exploration holds for life on Earth.
Shuttle mission 51-L launched an interactive promotion of education direct from space. Emphasis on use of actual video scenes of space mission and astronomical phenomena are encouraged as tools in the classroom. Observation and prediction of Earth satelli...
Globalization is creating an interdependent space-faring world and new opportunities for international partnerships that strengthen space knowledge development and transfer. These opportunities have been codified in the Global Exploration Strategy, which endorses the "inspirational and educational value of space exploration" . Also, during the 2010 Heads of Space Agencies Summit celebrating the International Academy of Astronautics' (IAA) 50th Anniversary, space-faring nations from across the globe issued a collective call in support of robust international partnerships to expand the frontiers of space exploration and generate knowledge for improving life on Earth . Educators play a unique role in this mission, developing strategic partnerships and sharing best educational practices to (1) further global understanding of the benefits of space exploration for life on Earth and (2) prepare the next generation of scientists required for the 21st Century space workforce. Educational Outreach (EO) programs use evidence-based, measurable outcomes strategies and cutting edge information technologies to transfer space-based science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) knowledge to new audiences; create indigenous materials with cultural resonance for emerging space societies; support teacher professional development; and contribute to workforce development initiatives that inspire and prepare new cohorts of students for space exploration careers. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM) have sustained a 13-year space science education partnership dedicated to these objectives. This paper briefly describes the design and achievements of NSBRI's educational programs, with special emphasis on those initiatives' involvement with IAA and the International Astronautical Congress (IAC). The IAA Commission 2 Draft Report, Space for Africa, is discussed as a model for developing sustainable partnerships and indigenous programs that support Africa's steady emergence as a global space-faring force. The IAC will provide timely: 2011 South Africa will provide timely feedback to refine that report's strategies for space life sciences education and public engagement in Africa and around the globe.
MacLeish, Marlene Y.; Akinyede, Joseph O.; Goswami, Nandu; Thomson, William A.
Indians have many mythological stories about many constellations and stars. Hindu months are based on MOON and 27 stars on Zodiac. They are very important for many Indians in ritual, religious functions. By prompting them to identify their birth star, really makes them elevated. Similarly conveying them the importance of star gazing with respect to their day today life makes them to take interest and active participation in Space Activities. Space activities should be driven by public; their requirements; their dreams and imaginations. Their active participation definitely gives valuable inputs to space scientists. Hence, there is a need of involving common man or public mass by appropriate motivation by organising sky gazing sessions, exhibitions, workshops, etc. In this connection, even if the some organisation are able to attract a small percent of qualified engineers/scientists,, enthusiastic students, it would result in the creation of a sizable pool of talent in space sciences,which may well determine the future mankind on this planet. Some simple motivation acts have made the people to take interest in space. we have been using certain methodologies to popularize space science - 1] Conducting theory sessions on basics of star gazing and conveying importance of sky gazing with respect to day-today life. 2] Organising seminars, workshops, lectures and other academic/popular science activities with special reference to space science 3] Projects - a] Cubsat Missions b] Automatic Weather Station Facility c] Model making d] Creating and simulating spacemodels and rover making competitions. The 50 year's of Exploration has left tremendous impact on many society's working towards spaceeducation and exploration.
The Goddard Space Flight Center Education Programs provide teachers and students with a wide variety of curriculum enhancement materials geared for Earth science classroom use. These collections support the Earth system science curriculum developed by NASA scientists from the Earth Science Enterprise, a team of teachers from Anne Arundel County Public Schools, and the Education Office at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Site materials include a listing of featured programs, information on educational programs for the public, public schools-based programs, and programs for higher education. The Educator Resource Center (ERC) provides access to educational publications, teaching materials, educator workshops, video duplication and many other resources. There are also links to other NASA research and space flight centers, the Goddard media center, and state-specific listservs for educators.
It is widely recognised that large urban centres exhibit significant and enduring patterns of educational inequality. This paper explores the social production of urban educationalspace. In particular, it argues that since these patterns are geographical, it will be useful to revisit the emergence of an "urban crisis" in education and attempts,…
Since 1969, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), a private, nonprofit corporation, has worked closely with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to advance space science and technology and to promote education in those areas. USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) has been NASA's life sciences research partner for the past 18 years. For the last six years, our Cooperative Agreement NCC9-41 for the 'Space Life Sciences Research and Education Program' has stimulated and assisted life sciences research and education at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) - both at the Center and in collaboration with outside academic institutions. To accomplish our objectives, the DSLS has facilitated extramural research, developed and managed educational programs, recruited and employed visiting and staff scientists, and managed scientific meetings.
The Space Ship Pilot model is a model of motion under Newton's laws with and without resistive forces. The first environment puts the user in control of docking a space shuttle, and the second puts the user in control of docking a boat.
Joiner, David; The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.
The paper discusses the impact of the Space Transportation System (STS) and the Space Shuttle on the science educational community and gives an overview of past spaceeducation programs. Construction of four flight 'Orbiters' (Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, and Atlantis) is being planned, with each Orbiter containing an External Tank (ET) to power the Orbiter's main engines, and two solid rocket boosters (SRB). Each Orbiter can carry a crew of seven, has a cargo bay for 65,000 lb of satellites and scientific equipment, and has an average flight duration of up to 7 days. NASA educational programs reviewed are the Skylab Student Program, the 'Getaway Special' Program, and the Shuttle Student Involvement Project for Secondary Schools (SSIP-S), as well as ESA programs including the Educational Physics Experiments in Spacelab and the Access to Spacelab for Young Europeans Program. A 'Classroom in Space' and 'Space University' have been proposed for the future.
The development of two parametric models for a four-panel planar initial space station is described. The derivations of the distributed parameter model are presented in detail with the hope that the same method and procedures can be employed for stations with different configurations or for changes within the same configuration class. The 19-DOF finite-element model is also described. With the availability of the 19-DOF and a lower-DOF space station models, the frequency characteristics of the various dynamical systems in the space station environment are identified.
The mission of this activity, known as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members. This paper is the final report from this now completed Cooperative Agreement.
The Universities Space Research Association received an award of Cooperative Agreement #NCC5-356 on September 29, 1998. The mission of this activity, know as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, USRA recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members.
The Universities Space Research Association received an award of Cooperative Agreement NCC5-356 on September 29, 1998. The mission of this activity, known as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, USRA recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members.
Evidence-based models and frameworks have been introduced to support diabetes self-management education and support. This\\u000a article presents various frameworks and models and describes their use in support of diabetes education at the patient–educator,\\u000a the practice environment, and the systems\\/policy\\/environmental level. The text and tables present various models and specific\\u000a recommendations and examples for educators to use at every level. Crosscutting
Information on the conducting of a teacher workshop is presented. This educational pilot project updated instruction material, used improved teaching techniques, and increased student motivation. The NASA/MSFC industrial facilities, and the displays at the Alabama Space and Rocket Center (ASRC) were key elements of the program, including a permanent exhibit, at the latter, on selected benefits accruing from the space program.
The components of an educational system based on, and perhaps enhanced by, space industrialization communications technology are considered. Satellite technology has introduced a synoptic distribution system for various transmittable educational media. The cost of communications satellite distribution for educational programming has been high. It has, therefore, been proposed to utilize Space Shuttle related technology and Large Space Structures (LSS) to construct a system with a quantum advancement in communication capability and a quantum reduction in user cost. LSS for communications purposes have three basic advantages for both developed and emerging nations, including the ability to distribute signals over wide geographic areas, the reduced cost of satellite communications systems versus installation of land based systems, and the ability of a communication satellite system to create instant educational networks.
Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)
Current plans for the operation of Space Station Freedom allow the orbit to decay to approximately an altitude of 200 km before reboosting to approximately 450 km. The Space Station will encounter dramatically increasing ambient and induced environmental effects as the orbit decays. Unfortunately, Shuttle docking, which has been of concern as a high contamination period, will likely occur during the time when the station is in the lowest orbit. The combination of ambient and induced environments along with the presence of the docked Shuttle could cause very severe contamination conditions at the lower orbital altitudes prior to Space Station reboost. The purpose here is to determine the effects on the induced external environment of Space Station Freedom with regard to the proposed changes in altitude. The change in the induced environment will be manifest in several parameters. The ambient density buildup in front of ram facing surfaces will change. The source of such contaminants can be outgassing/offgassing surfaces, leakage from the pressurized modules or experiments, purposeful venting, and thruster firings. The third induced environment parameter with altitude dependence is the glow. In order to determine the altitude dependence of the induced environment parameters, researchers used the integrated Spacecraft Environment Model (ISEM) which was developed for Marshall Space Flight Center. The analysis required numerous ISEM runs. The assumptions and limitations for the ISEM runs are described.
The Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project successfilly met its objectives of creating a comprehensive online portfolio of science education curricular resources and providing a professional development program to increase educator competency with Earth and Space science content and teaching pedagogy. Overall, 97% of participants stated that their experience was either good or excellent. The favorable response of participant reactions to the professional development opportunities highlights the high quality of the professional development opportunity. The enthusiasm generated for using the curricular material in classroom settings was overwhelmingly positive at 92%. This enthusiasm carried over into actual classroom implementation of resources from the curricular portfolio, with 90% using the resources between 1-6 times during the school year. The project has had a positive impact on student learning in Wisconsin. Although direct measurement of student performance is not possible in a project of this kind, nearly 75% of participating teachers stated that they saw an increase in student performance in math and science as a result of using project resources. Additionally, nearly 75% of participants saw an increase in the enthusiasm of students towards math and science. Finally, some evidence exists that the professional development academies and curricular portfolio have been effective in changing educator behavior. More than half of all participants indicated that they have used more hands-on activities as a result of the Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project.
Bilbrough, Larry (Technical Monitor); French, George
Recent research about sexuality and dance has begun to address the needs of gay male dancers, yet the needs of lesbian dancers have remained mostly absent from scholarly discourse. Exploring the lesbian lacunae, or invisible spaces of dance education, reveals the personal, political, and pedagogical implications of their existence within the dance…
This curriculum guide is prepared for the Aerospace Education III series publication entitled "International Space Programs." The guide is organized according to specific chapters in the textbook. It provides guidelines for teachers in terms of objectives, behavioral objectives, suggested outlines, orientation, suggested key points, instructional…
Air Univ., Maxwell AFB, AL. Junior Reserve Office Training Corps.
EarthSpace is a searchable database of undergraduate classroom materials designed specifically for faculty teaching planetary sciences, Earth sciences, astrophysics, and solar and space physics at the introductory and upper division levels. Modeled after the highly successful SERC clearinghouse for geosciences assets, EarthSpace was designed for easy submission of classroom assets, from homework and computer interactives to laboratory exercises, lectures, and demonstrations. The site capabilities are being expanded to allow assignment of a unique Digital Object Identifier (DOI) to submitted materials, which will provide material developers a way to identify their submitted materials as publications on their CVs. EarthSpace materials are automatically cross-posted to other digital libraries (e.g., ComPADRE) and virtual higher education communities (e.g., Connexions), providing a wider distribution of the resources. In addition to classroom materials, EarthSpace provides the latest news and information about educational research and best practices, funding opportunities, and ongoing efforts and collaborations for undergraduate education. This information is emailed monthly in a newsletter to faculty members via the community mailing list, HENews. HENews is a place for the higher education community to share and receive news and information about higher education, teaching, and Earth and space science. EarthSpace also has an RSS feed to notify members when items are added. EarthSpace is a community-driven effort; higher education faculty members contribute and review materials and thus influence the content provided on the site. All materials are peer-reviewed before posting, and authors adhere to the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 3.0). You are invited to visit EarthSpace to search for teaching resources, submit your materials, or volunteer to review submitted resources in your discipline with a frequency designed to fit your schedule.
The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with community thought. The difficulty with a show this elaborate and intricate is communicating on a level understandable for teenagers, whilst not treating them like children. Professional space scientists know how easy it is to lose oneself in technical specifics. This would, of course, only confuse young people. The author would like to discuss the ideas for this show with a knowledgeable audience and hopefully get some (constructive) feedback.
The goals of the Capacity Building Partnership for Research and Education in Space Science (CB-PRESS) project include 1) establish a viable partnership to develop modeleducation, research outreach programs in space science 2) to enhance existing STEM curricula using space science content 3) to develop a BS/MS space science track or full programs 4) to promote the value of space science within the "underserved" communities 5) to increase STEM majors 6) to develop adequate infrastructure for outreach and observation 7) to conduct ABET accreditation of the Engineering Physics Program. We report the following (1) Courses and programs: We are developing courses in astrophysics, Earth and Space Science, Solar Physics, and Space Radiation. We will begin offering these courses beginning Spring or Fall 2005. The BS/MS space science tracks will be offered beginning Fall 2005 pending approval. (2) Student training: Two students participated directly in NASA related research at Goddard Space Flight Center, and The National Radio Astronomy Observatory. (3) Public and K12 Outreach: We participated in one Teacher's workshop, and we made several trips to several elementary schools with our shows "Colors are Everywhere" We conducted outreach on "Venus Transit" for the public and NASA Sharp students. (4) Infrastructure: We are developing a robotic telescope for public outreach, and astronomy laboratory which non-existent at this time. We are also building the first robotic telescope on campus. (5) The draft proposal for the ABET accreditation of the Engineering Physics program is being studied. This work is supported by Minority University and College Education and Research Partnership Initiative (MUCERPI) in Space Science (NRA 03-OSS-03)
This publication provides the educational planner and the architect with some suggestions concerning models by which they may plan new flexible-use, shared-space facilities and supports the models with guidelines for the development of facilities and educational programs for occupational education. In addition to discussing the financial…
At present, Canada does not have enough scientists to be competitive in the global economy, which is rapidly changing from a reliance on natural resources and industry to information and technology. Space is the final frontier and it is a multidisciplinary endeavor. It requires a knowledge of science and math, as well as non-science areas such as architecture and law. Thus, it can attract a large number of students with a diverse range of interests and career goals. An overview is presented of the spaceeducation program designed by Canadian Alumni of the International Space University (CAISU) to encourage students to pursue studies and careers in science and technology and to improve science literacy in Canada.
Marton, Christine; Berinstain, Alain B.; Criswick, John
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was established in 1958 and began operating a formal education program in 1993. The purpose of this study was to analyze the education program from 1993 -- 2009 by examining strategic plan documents produced by the NASA education office and interviewing NASA education officials who served during that time period. Constant changes in education
Since the Second European Conference on Space Debris in 1997, the Orbital Debris Program Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center has undertaken a major effort to update and improve the principal software tools employed to model the space debris environment and to evaluate mission risks. NASA's orbital debris engineering model, ORDEM, represents the current and near-term Earth orbital debris
The Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) was selected as one of two MIDEX programs approved by NASA for a year 2000 launch. Its mission is to acquire, for the first time, a variety of 3-D images of magnetospheric boundaries and plasma distributions in the near-Earth environment. It will investigate their changes due to interactions with the solar wind on time scales from minutes to months. In response to the significant opportunities inherent in the IMAGE data for enhancing K-12 education in Earth and space science, the MIDEX/IMAGE project has begun the development of a WWW-based site (URL=http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov) which includes a program called POETRY: Public Outreach, Education, Teaching and Reaching Youth. The POETRY site contains: descriptive material on the spacecraft and mission objectives; an illustrated glossary of common space science terms; a primer on the physical processes under investigation; an archive of classroom activities highlighting space science concepts; and an 'Ask Dr. Magneto' area where students and teachers can pose questions and receive answers. This paper will review the design of this site, and present a selection of representative classroom activities designed to supplement earth science and physical science curricula.
Taylor, W. W. L.; Odenwald, S. F.; Green, J. L.; Burch, J. L.
The goal of the Space Market Model (SMM) is to develop an information resource for the space industry. The SMM is intended to contain information appropriate for decision making in the space industry. The objectives of the SMM are to: (1) assemble information related to the development of the space business; (2) construct an adequate description of the emerging space market; (3) disseminate the information on the space market to forecasts and planners in government agencies and private corporations; and (4) provide timely analyses and forecasts of critical elements of the space market. An Input-Output model of market activity is proposed which are capable of transforming raw data into useful information for decision makers and policy makers dealing with the space sector.
This resource guide contains information on curriculum guides, resources for teachers, computer software and computer related programs, audio/visual presentations, model aircraft and demonstration aids, training seminars and career education, and an aerospace bibliography for primary grades. Each entry includes all or some of the following items:…
Offers a critical account of the attempts to transform teacher education and development in South Africa by assessing three conceptions of "space" and related changes in time. Argues that the main direction of change in teacher education is from insulated space and interrupted time to porous space and continuous time. (CMK)
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was established in 1958 and began operating a formal education program in 1993. The purpose of this study was to analyze the education program from 1993-2009 by examining strategic plan documents produced by the NASA education office and interviewing NASA education officials who served during that…
A developmental education evaluation model designed to be used at a multi-unit urban community college is described. The purpose of the design was to determine the cost effectiveness/worth of programs in order to initiate self-improvement. A needs assessment was conducted by interviewing and taping the responses of students, faculty, staff, and…
The interval between births, as related to the nutritional status of children in a low-income community in Haiti, suggests the need to integrate education on child spacing into nutrition education programs. (BL)
Parametric cost models are an important tool for planning missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. This paper presents on-going efforts to develop single variable and multi-variable cost models for space telescope optical telescope assembly (OTA). These models are based on data collected from historical space telescope missions. Standard statistical methods are used to derive CERs for OTA cost versus aperture diameter and mass. The results are compared with previously published models.
The ASU\\/NASA Space Grant Program has created a teaching, modeling, and mentoring program for its graduate and undergraduate students to help train them in best practice methodologies and approaches so they can become more proficient at STEM outreach.
An allocation model for compensatory education was implemented in the Mesa, Arizona Public Schools based on educational need rather than on the current method of allocation which is based on economic need. Five models were developed and presented. The models incorporated, in addition to strict educational need, demographic characteristics of the…
The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) encourages open involvement by scientists and the public at large in the Institute's activities. Through its Education and Public Outreach Program, the Institute is supporting national efforts to improve Kindergarten through grade twelve (K-12) and undergraduate education and to communicate knowledge generated by space life science research to lay audiences. Three academic institutions—Baylor
The open method of coordination (OMC) within the Lisbon strategy is discussed in terms of a European Space for Education and "programme ontology". The focus is on indicators and the European dimension, and how they "work" in the forming of contents and identities in this European Space for Education. The OMC is analyzed in relation to Nancy…
The objectives of the research program, Space Market Model Development Project, (Phase 1) were: (1) to study the need for business information in the commercial development of space; and (2) to propose a design for an information system to meet the identified needs. Three simultaneous research strategies were used in proceeding toward this goal: (1) to describe the space business information which currently exists; (2) to survey government and business representatives on the information they would like to have; and (3) to investigate the feasibility of generating new economical information about the space industry.
A long tradition in the philosophy of education identifies education's most fundamental aim and ideal as that of the "fostering" or "cultivation of rationality". In this article I relate this tradition in philosophy of education to recent work inspired by Wilfred Sellars on "the space of reasons". I first offer a very brief overview of the…
The purpose of this study is to design a structural model explaining how users could utilize Facebook for educational purposes. In order to shed light on the educational usage of Facebook, in constructing the model, the relationship between users' Facebook adoption processes and their educational use of Facebook were included indirectly while the relationship between users' purposes in using Facebook
This paper focuses on comparison of two continuous space language modeling techniques, namely Tied-Mixture Language modeling (TMLM) and Neural Network Based Language Modeling (NNLM). Additionally, we report on using alternative feature representations for words and histories used in TMLM. Besides bigram co-occurrence based features we consider using NNLM based input features for training TMLMs. We also describe how we improve
Ruhi Sarikaya; Ahmad Emami; Mohamed Afify; Bhuvana Ramabhadran
This model focuses on organizational management at three distinct levels within a hospital or other medical care facility: institutional, programmatic, and direct patient education. It is based on the premise that patient education must be planned, coordi...
This paper describes the development of an environmental risk-mitigation tool for the Chandra X-ray Observatory's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS). Because exposure to 100-200 keV protons appears to have degraded the front-illuminated CCD's charge transfer inefficiency (CTI), an accurate tool for predicting encounters with magnetospheric regions rich in these particles is required. We implement standard models to predict bow-shock, magnetopause, and plasma-sheet boundaries. Using these models and solar-wind databases compiled from IMP-8 and ACE measurements, we then calculate the probability that Chandra is located in one of these regions, along with predicted particle flux, to arrive at appropriate safing times for the ACIS detector. Finally, we validate this tool by comparing the model's boundary-crossing and proton flux predictions with measurements from Chandra's on-board particle detector and with data from other spacecraft operating in the Earth's magnetosphere.
Blackwell, W. C.; Minow, J. I.; Warren, K.; Suggs, R. M.; ODell, S. L.; Swartz, D. A.; Tennant, A. F.; Virani, S. N.
THIS STUDY DELINEATED MODELS WHICH HAVE POTENTIAL USE IN GENERATING EDUCATIONAL THEORY. A THEORY MODELS METHOD WAS FORMULATED. BY SELECTING AND ORDERING CONCEPTS FROM OTHER DISCIPLINES, THE INVESTIGATORS FORMULATED SEVEN THEORY MODELS. THE FINAL STEP OF DEVISING EDUCATIONAL THEORY FROM THE THEORY MODELS WAS PERFORMED ONLY TO THE EXTENT REQUIRED TO…
Prior work suggests that science education faculty and other science faculty who help prepare future teachers can benefit greatly from professional development (PD) incorporating educationally-researched pedagogical techniques, the latest Earth & space science discoveries, and appropriate educational resources. In response, a team of scientists and science educators has delivered four such 2-day PD experiences, through Faculty Institutes in NASA Earth
Gregory R. Schultz; T. Slater; S. Slater; S. Shipp; C. Shupla; R. Pomeroy; J. Bailey
A space environment model was constructed based on the results of the review on space environment model conducted in Fiscal Year 1986 and 1987. The space environment model was constructed to collect theories and data required for grasping various physical entities such as radiation, plasma, and spacecraft fragments and so forth, and to enable quantitative prediction of their time wise, spacial distribution and their effects such as electrification and material deterioration, and its system structure and functions were shown. The Technical Data Acquisition Equipment (TEDA) installed onboard the Engineering Test Satellite-5 (ETS-5) consist of various satellite environment monitors and component and material deterioration monitors for the purpose of acquiring technical data required for design and evaluation for satellite development. Review was conducted to clarify the correlation between each TEDA data and to apply the result in constructing the satellite environment model. Correlation between each TEDA data was made clear.
A pictorial review presents educational facility designs from around the world as examples of contemporary and inspirational trends in school architecture. Photos showcase exterior and interior design features from primary and secondary, and adult educational facilities. Biographies of some of the architectural firms involved are provided. (GR)
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation and Mozhaisky Engineering Space Forces Academy together with collaborators are planning to launch two microsatellites - "Kompas-Tatyana" and "Universitetsky" in 2004. In the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Moscow University the team of educators and students was formed in order to develop and to test the space science education program. The program includes few directions. First, the curriculum materials which include all basic knowledge regarding the operation of satellites in outer space. There are cover the telecommunications, navigation, and physical conditions in outer space, the instruments and related subjects. Second stage of the program includes some practical works with real satellite data. When satellite telemetry received, the data must be processed and quick-look graphs constructed. The main task for students in the second stage is the approach to the analysis and the comparison with the data that already exist. They will solve the tasks how to infer some original results from raw data and how to the received data corresponds to the models of outer space. Third, after analysis the students are expected to prepare the written reports and display the results on the open lessons in the web-page formats. The practical realization of the educational program is planned for "Kompas-Tatyana" and "Universitetsky" satellites which will be launched in the end of 2004. It will carry out several scientific instruments with telemetry in the 137 Mhz open channel. Students will able to receive the "live" telemetry data. Such practice is rather exiting and motivates them to work hard with the program tasks. The simple receiving devices will allow to get some data in the high schools as well. Additional support for teachers and students will be provided via main server in the Internet. The pilot version of curriculum materials will be tested on the databases available from other space experiments and microsatellites. Such data bases already exist in Internet and have open public access.
Zaitzev, A.; Boyrchuk, K.; Panasuk, M.; Krasotkin, S.; Radchenko, V.; Fateev, V.; Tereshkov, A.
NASA's Office of Space (OSS) has undertaken a monumental and inspiring challenge -- that of actively brokering powerful, positive, and productive relationships between the space science community it supports and the multiple realms of K-12 and public education nationwide. The OSS Education and Outreach Broker/Facilitator Program has named a set of regional Brokers/Facilitators whose primary function is to arrange alliances between educators and scientists that will help scientists turn results from space science missions and programs into educationally appropriate products and/or services that can be disseminated regionally or nationally. The Space Science Institute (SSI) has been chosen as one of five organizations serving as OSS Broker/Facilitator in a 12-state region (CO, AZ, NM, UT, WY, NV, MT, ID, WA, OR, Northern CA, and AL). SSI is a non-profit organization located in Boulder, Colorado, dedicated to excellence in research and education in the space and earth sciences. We have a robust program of educational endeavors that involve space and scientists. These include major traveling science exhibits (e.g. MarsQuest), curricular materials development (e.g. Solarscapes and the Cassini Teacher Guide), and workshops for scientists on K-12 education. SSI will carry out its OSS Broker/Facilitator role in collaboration with Wendy Pollock of the Association of Science-Technology Centers, Steve Pompea of Pompea & Associates, Russell Wright of Event Based Science, and James Hubbard of the Four Corners Rural Systemic Initiative.
We explore here the Space Weather Action Center (SWAC) Program, as an example of NASA initiatives in education. Many human activities in space can be disrupted by space weather. The main objective of this program is to enable students to produce space weather forecasts by accessing current NASA data. Implementation of the SWAC Program requires: technological resources, online materials, and
Norma Teresinha Oliveira Reis; Claudio André; Troy D. Cline; Timothy E. Eastman; Margaret J. Maher; Louis A. Mayo; Elaine M. Lewis
This paper provides an indepth overview of the enormous contrbutions made by the NASA Space Shuttle Program to Space science and engineering education over the past thirty years. The author has served as one of the major contributors and editors of NASA book "Wings In Orbit: Scientific and Engineering Legacies of the Space Shuttle program" (NASA SP-2010-3409). Every Space Shuttle mission was an education mission: student involvement programs such as Get Away Specials housed in Shuttle payload allowed students to propose research and thus enrich their university education experience. School students were able to operate "EarthKAM" to learn the intricacies of orbital mechanics, earth viewing opportunities and were able to master the science and art of proposal writing and scientific collaboration. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce the global student and teaching community in space sciences and engineering to the plethora of educational resources available to them for engaging a wide variety of students (from early school to the undergraduate and graduate level and to inspire them towards careers in Space sciences and technologies. The volume "Wings In Orbit" book is one example of these ready to use in classroom materials. This paper will highlight the educational payloads, experiments and on-orbit classroom activities conducted for space science and engineering students, teachers and non-traditional educators. The presentation will include discussions on the science content and its educational relevance in all major disiciplines in which the research was conducted on-board the Space Shuttle.
This space and astronomy guide, from the University of Leicester, England, presents information on the Solar System, the nine planets, stars, galaxies (including the Milky Way), nebulae, comets, asteroids, meteorites, the universe, and space missions (such as the International Space Station and interplanetary probes). There is also information on some of the first astronauts and cosmonauts. The International Space Station section covers the objectives of the station, the main research areas, member nations, assembly overview, and first modules.
The Ejs Phase Space Plotter model displays the dynamics of an ensemble of pendula or simple harmonic oscillators in phase space (velocity versus position). Friction is initially set to zero but can be changed via a textbox as can the number of elements in the ensemble. For the pendulum ensemble, the Cylinder checkbox keeps the angular position between âpi and pi for large initial angular velocities. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Phase Space Plotter model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ehu_analytical_mechanics_phase_space.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for Newtonian mechanics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.
Our intention is to dedicate a large section of our web site to spaceeducation. As the national User Support and Operation Center (USOC) for the International Space Station, MARS Center is also willing to provide material, such as videos and data, for educational purposes. In order to base our initiative on authoritative precedents, our first step has been a comparative analysis between different space agency education web sites, such as ESA and NASA. As is well known, Internet is a powerful reality, capable of connecting people all over the world and rendering public a huge amount of information. The first problem, then, is to organize this information, in order to use the web as an efficient education tool. That is why studies such as User Modeling (UM), Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Semantic Web have become more important in Information Technology and Science. Traditional search engines are unable to provide an optimal retrieval of contents really searched for by users. Semantic Web is a valid alternative: according to its theories, web information should be represented using metadata language. Users should be able and enabled to successfully search, obtain and study new information from web. Forging knowledge in an intelligent manner, preventing users from making errors, and making this formidable quantity of information easily available have also been the starting points for HCI methodologies for defining Adaptable Interfaces. Here the information is divided into different sets, on the basis of the intended user profile, in order to prevent users from getting lost. Realized as an adaptable interface, an education web site can help users to effectively retrieve the information necessary for their scopes (teaching for a teacher and learning for a student). For students it's a great advantage to use interfaces designed on the basis of their age and scholastic level. Indeed, an adaptable interface is intended not just for students, but also for teachers, who can use it to prepare their lessons, retrieve information and organize the didactic material in order to support their lessons. We think it important to use a user centered "psychology" based on UM: we have to know the needs and expectations of the students. Our intent is to use usability tests not just to prove the site effectiveness and clearness, but also to investigate aesthetical preferences of children and young people. Physics, mathematics, chemistry are just some of the difficult learning fields connected with space technologies. Space culture is a potentially never-ending field, and our scope will be to lead students by hand in this universe of knowledge. This paper will present MARS activities in the framework of the above methodologies aimed at implementing a web based approach to integrate space culture and education. The activities are already in progress and some results will be presented in the final paper.
The Higher Education Clearinghouse (HECl) is a searchable database of undergraduate classroom materials for faculty teaching planetary sciences and solar and space physics at both the introductory and upper division levels.
This is the final report for work on outreach to space scientists interested in k-12 education. It outlines what was accomplished during the two years of support and one year no-cost extension (October 1995-September 1998).
The Ionospheric Radio Science Laboratory (IRSL) at Institute of Space Science, National Central University in Taiwan has been conducting a program for public outreach educations on space science by giving lectures, organizing camps, touring exhibits, and experiencing hand-on experiments to elementary school, high school, and college students as well as general public since 1991. The program began with a topic of traveling/living in space, and was followed by space environment, space mission, and space weather monitoring, etc. and a series of course module and experiment (i.e. experiencing activity) module was carried out. For past decadal, the course modules have been developed to cover the space environment of the Sun, interplanetary space, and geospace, as well as the space technology of the rocket, satellite, space shuttle (plane), space station, living in space, observing the Earth from space, and weather observation. Each course module highlights the current status and latest new finding as well as discusses 1-3 key/core issues/concepts and equip with 2-3 activity/experiment modules to make students more easily to understand the topics/issues. Meanwhile, scientific camps are given to lead students a better understanding and interesting on space science. Currently, a visualized image projecting system, Dagik Earth, is developed to demonstrate the scientific results on a sphere together with the course modules. This system will dramatically improve the educational skill and increase interests of participators.
The Hubble Space Telescope has conducted a long-standing and vigorous program in education and public outreach. This program uses a variety of methods to reach a broad spectrum of audiences. Education products are developed in a team environment that partners educators, curriculum experts, scientists, and production experts, such as graphic artists, Web designers, programmers, and education evaluators. A popular Web site is maintained, and has been substantially augmented in the past year. The Amazing Space program consists of a suite of online, interactive modules for use in the kindergarten through 12th grade classroom. The program is rooted in the national education standards and benefits from a robust evaluation process. The HST images and data are used to engage students in learning basic science and mathematics concepts. The activity/lessons include extensive, online assistance for educators, so that they can be readily used in the classroom. Hardcopy products such as posters, lithographs, teacher guides, and trading cards are generally tied to online products, to provide multiple entries to the material. We also provide training for teachers in the use of our products, as appropriate. Informal science education is supported by providing services to museums, planetariums, libraries and related institutions. The very popular ViewSpace, a computer-based video service is being used by many informal science facilities. In addition, HST has supported the creation of both permanent and traveling exhibits about HST. The Space Telescope Science Institute operates the Hubble Space Telescope for NASA.
Teays, T. J.; Eisenhamer, B.; Eisenhamer, J.; Amazing Space Team
The focus of this article is how "religion", as a materially heterogeneous concept, becomes mobilized in different educationalspaces, and the "kinds of knowing" to which this gives rise. Three "case studyish" illustrations are deployed in order to consider how religion and education produce kinds of knowing which may--or may not--involve knowing…
The aim of this article is to analyse the circulation of discourse in the global educational field and its relation to local-specific education policies and practices. The first section examines the logic of networks and relates it to the specificities of the networks of interaction that, it is argued, constitute "global policy spaces" in…
CELE's International Pilot Project on Evaluating Quality in EducationalSpaces aims to assist education authorities, schools and others to maximise the use of and investment in learning environments. This article provides an update on the pilot project, which is currently being implemented in Brazil, Mexico, New Zealand, Portugal and the United…
This article compares the power spaces occupied by both donors and the Ministry of Education in the formulation of Ghana's Education Strategic Plan (ESP). It shows that the formulation of the ESP was more donor-led than Ministry-led due to the donor-initiated global policy frameworks also referred to as the non-negotiables. Consequently, donors…
The Double Pendulum Phase SpaceModel shows a frictionless double pendulum that is driven periodically by an external source. The massless rigid pendulum rods are shown as straight lines. Masses are concentrated in the center of the pendulum bobs. Calculus Models are part of âLearning and Teaching Mathematics using Simulations â Plus 2000 Examples from Physicsâ ISBN 978-3-11-025005-3, Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG
This booklet provides guidelines for school planners and designers on the state requirements for space allocation in its K-12 public schools. Recommendations are included for various specialized facilities to assure that proper spaces can be provided beyond the typical classroom space. Guidelines are arranged under the categories of instructional,…
The European space sector is facing a growing problem in human resource scheduling On the one hand interest in scientific and technical studies is declining and on the other hand first indications of an ageing workforce are becoming apparent In order to react to this situation the European Space Agency ESA is currently implementing a new education strategy -- in particular the ESERO project that will be described in the paper Reaching its primary target audience directly i e millions of students or professors teachers is an impossible task for ESA s Education Department In addition the educational systems are very different from one Member State to another Therefore in order to implement with effectiveness its education policy the Agency ideally had to opt for a Member State by Member State approach using intensively the already existing professional networks The objective of the ESERO project is to establish in all ESA Member States ESERO contact points ESA contractor - preferably located at already existing educational facilities manned by an education expert well integrated into the national educational system and networks This should allow the ESA Education Department to support through the ESERO network the specific educational needs of the Member States and as mentioned above to get easy access to the already-existing national networks publishers museums teachers associations etc The ESERO contact point whose primary task is to share the enthusiasm for European space exploration is responsible for the
This paper develops the notions of dialogue and dialogic space in relation to adult education projects with emancipatory agendas. It explores the philosophical genealogy of the notion of dialogue in order to establish a basis for the concept of dialogic space, surveying the works of seminal figures such as Plato, Buber, Bakhtin, Habermas and…
Education is particularly important for new fields. In the case of space architecture, there are two core needs: educating the aerospace community about the architect's function and activity and design process within the enterprise; educatingspace architects and associated specialists about constraints, conditions, and priorities unique to human space systems. These needs can be addressed, respectively, by two key educational tools for the 21st century: introducing the space architecture discipline into the space system engineering curricula; developing space architecture as a distinct, complete training curriculum. New generations of professionals with a space architecture background can help shift professional focus from just engineering-driven transportation systems and "sortie" missions to permanent offworld human presence by offering their inherently integrative design approach to all types of space structures and facilities. Although architectural and engineering approaches share some similarities in solving problems, they also have significant differences. Architectural training teaches young professionals to operate at all scales from the "overall picture" down to the smallest details to provide directive intention - not just analysis - to design opportunities, to address the relationship between human behavior and the built environment, and to interact with many diverse fields and disciplines throughout the project lifecycle.
There is a crisis in education relating to science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM). In the UK, universities are closing physics and chemistry departments in favour of subjects such as media studies. Astronomy and space science may hold the key to engaging and captivating new audiences who may go on to be the scientists and engineers of the future. Orbit Research Ltd is carrying out practical research and development to work cooperatively with teachers and pupils in schools, colleges and universities, and industrial partners such as ESA, the National Science Learning Centre and the UK Space Industry Best Practice Club to rekindle the sense of excitement that space science can bring. The research includes the development of a 'spaceeducation centre' where the aim is to link elements of current national curriculum science to contemporary space research and space missions.
As NASA Administrator Dan Goldin has noted, children are especially interested in three things: ghosts, dinosaurs, and space. We need to capitalize on the interest in space to develop and encourage a continuing understanding and curiosity about space-related issues from the grade school level through adulthood. Unfortunately, because astronomy is usually only offered in college as an introductory-level elective or as a specialized area of graduate study, most pre-college educators are uncomfortable teaching space sciences in the classroom. Additionally, the particularly dynamic nature of the field leaves educators with materials that are out-of-date and inadequate. In the framework of the new educational pedagogy focusing on hands-on activities, this paper presents a discussion of technologically innovative resources for the space science classroom (primarily at the high school level) which utilize hands-on activities for the students. The discussion will focus in five areas: major high-tech programs (which require specialized equipment in the schools), national and local workshops available to educators, hands-on activities commercially available, educational astronomical resources, and examples of hands-on activities developed and expanded upon by teachers and astronomers attending an educational workshop in Hawai'i from 1993-1995.
The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) encourages open involvement by scientists and the public at large in the Institute's activities. Through its Education and Public Outreach Program, the Institute is supporting national efforts to improve Kindergarten through grade twelve (K-12) and undergraduate education and to communicate knowledge generated by space life science research to lay audiences. Three academic institution Baylor College of Medicine, Morehouse School of Medicine and Texas A&M University are designing, producing, field-testing, and disseminating a comprehensive array of programs and products to achieve this goal. The objectives of the NSBRI Education and Public Outreach program are to: promote systemic change in elementary and secondary science education; attract undergraduate students--especially those from underrepresented groups--to careers in space life sciences, engineering and technology-based fields; increase scientific literacy; and to develop public and private sector partnerships that enhance and expand NSBRI efforts to reach students and families. PMID:11669133
MacLeish, M Y; Moreno, N P; Tharp, B Z; Denton, J J; Jessup, G; Clipper, M C
Sports Education is becoming a popular alternative curricular model in physical education, opposing the more traditional Multi-activity model. Physical education classes are slowly changing to include sport education. The change comes with the support of the community in the form of Sport Education in Physical Education Program (SEPEP). However,…
The Ionospheric Radio Science Laboratory (IRSL) at Institute of Space Science, National Central University in Taiwan has been conducting a program for public outreach educations on space science by giving lectures, organizing camps, touring exhibits, and experiencing hand-on experiments to elementary school, high school, and college students as well as general public since 1991. The program began with a topic of traveling/living in space, and was followed by space environment, space mission, and space weather monitoring, etc. and a series of course module and experiment (i.e. experiencing activity) module was carried out. For past decadal, the course modules have been developed to cover the space environment of the Sun, interplanetary space, and geospace, as well as the space technology of the rocket, satellite, space shuttle (plane), space station, living in space, observing the Earth from space, and weather observation. Each course module highlights the current status and latest new finding as well as discusses 1-3 key/core issues/concepts and equip with 2-3 activity/experiment modules to make students more easily to understand the topics/issues. Regarding the space technologies, we focus on remote sensing of Earth's surface by FORMOSAT-2 and occultation sounding by FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC of Taiwan space mission. Moreover, scientific camps are given to lead students a better understanding and interesting on space sciences/ technologies. Currently, a visualized image projecting system, Dagik Earth, is developed to demonstrate the scientific results on a sphere together with the course modules. This system will dramatically improve the educational skill and increase interests of participators.
email@example.com The space sciences education and outreach project was initiated at Moscow State University in order to incorporate modern space research into the curriculum popularize the basics of space physics, and enhance public interest in space exploration. On 20 January 2005 the first Russian University Satellite “Universitetskiy-Tatyana” was launched into circular polar orbit (inclination 83 deg., altitude 940-980 km). The onboard scientific complex “Tatyana“, as well as the mission control and information receiving centre, was designed and developed at Moscow State University. The scientific programme of the mission includes measurements of space radiation in different energy channels and Earth UV luminosity and lightning. The current education programme consists of basic multimedia lectures “Life of the Earth in the Solar Atmosphere” and computerized practice exercises “Space Practice” (based on the quasi-real-time data obtained from “Universitetskiy-Tatyana” satellite and other Internet resources). A multimedia lectures LIFE OF EARTH IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE containing the basic information and demonstrations of heliophysics (including Sun structure and solar activity, heliosphere and geophysics, solar-terrestrial connections and solar influence on the Earth’s life) was created for upper high-school and junior university students. For the upper-university students there a dozen special computerized hands-on exercises were created based on the experimental quasi-real-time data obtained from our satellites. Students specializing in space physics from a few Russian universities are involved in scientific work. Educational materials focus on upper high school, middle university and special level for space physics students. Moscow State University is now extending its space science education programme by creating multimedia lectures on remote sensing, space factors and materials study, satellite design and development, etc. The space sciences educational activity of Moscow State University is a non-profit project and is open for all interested parties. “Space schools” for university teachers and students were held in the autumn of 2004 and 2005. The main objective of those schools was to attract interest in space research. Tutors and students who took part in these schools had never before been involved in the space sciences. The idea behind these schools was to join forces: Moscow State University scientists gave space science lectures, students from different universities (Ulianovsk, Samara, Kostroma and other Russian universities) performed the work (prepared educational material) and their university teachers managed the students. After participating in these schools, both students and teachers started to study space science related topics emphasizing the success of these schools. It is important for the educational community to understand what skills future space scientists and space industry employees must be equipped with. In the next years, emphasis is to be placed on space science education at all educational levels and better communication should be practiced between universities and industry.
The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) new vision for space exploration by educating and inspiring the next generation of students through a seamless pipeline of kindergarten through postdoctoral education programs. NSBRI EPOP initiatives are designed to train scientists and to communicate the significance of NSBRI science, as well as other space exploration science, to schools, families and lay audiences. The NSBRI EPOP team is comprised of eight main partners: Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), Binghamton University-State University of New York (BUSUNY), Colorado Consortium for Earth and Space Science Education (CCESSE), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM), Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM), Rice University and the University of Texas Medical Branch (RU-UTMB), and Texas A&M University (TAMU). The current kindergarten through undergraduate college (K-16) team, which was funded through an open national competition in 2004, consolidates the past 7 years of K-16 education activities and expands the team's outreach activities to more museums and science centers across the nation. NSBRI also recently expanded its education mission to include doctoral and postdoctoral level programs. This paper describes select K-16 EPOP activities and products developed over the past 7 years, and reports on new activities planned for the next 3 years. The paper also describes plans for a doctoral program and reports on 1st-year outcomes of the new postdoctoral program.
MacLeish, Marlene Y.; Thomson, William A.; Moreno, Nancy; Gannon, Patrick J.; Smith, Roland B.; Houston, Clifford W.; Coulter, Gary; Vogt, Gregory L.
We developed an educational program of space science data and science data observed from the space using a digital globe system, Dagik Earth. Dagik Earth is a simple and affordable four dimensional (three dimension in space and one dimension in time) presentation system. The educational program using Dagik Earth has been carried out in classrooms of schools, science museums, and research institutes to show the scientific data of the earth and planets in an intuitive way. We are developing the hardware system, data contents, and education manuals in cooperation with teachers, museum staffs and scientists. The size of the globe used in this system is from 15cm to 2m in diameter. It is selected according to the environment of the presentation. The contents cover the space science, such as aurora and geomagnetic field, the earth science, such as global clouds and earthquakes, and planetary science. Several model class plans are ready to be used in high school and junior high school. In public outreach programs of universities, research institutes, and scientific meetings, special programs have been carried out. We are establishing a community to use and develop this program for the space science education.
The NASA Office of Space Science (OSS) has made a significant commitment to increase scientist participation in Education and Public Outreach (EPO), with a focus on providing tools and assistance for educators in K-12 education and for public informal education. The general goals are to use NASA scientific discoveries and mission results to contribute to the technical and scientific literacy of the nation, to inspire youth, and to achieve significant and sustained enhancement of K-12 education. The participation of AGU scientists in EPO activities is vital to achieving these goals. This participation by individual scientists is often voluntary, but it can be funded as supplements to research grants or directly by OSS missions, which are now required to spend a few percent of their total budget on EPO. Scientists can provide inspiring role models for students, be powerful partners with teachers, and can help assure the scientific accuracy of educational materials. Scientists can also contribute by working with their local and regional educational leadership to include modern Earth and space science results in school curricula and in local museum exhibits and programs. The importance of partnerships between scientists and local educators is one element of a new AGU position statement on effective Earth and space science education at the K-12 level. Examples will be presented of highly-effective EPO programs and the successful strategies for active participation of scientists, with emphasis on activities of interest to AGU scientists.
This article draws together theoretical ideas from studies of space/spatiality and the history of teacher education. These ideas form a theoretical framework through which to analyse the findings from a small-scale ethnographic study of the geographical relocations made by two university schools of education in England. Data collection instruments…
In this paper, the author argues that the problematization of territorial movements in the process of globalization can provide important insights to understand some educational aspects of contemporary migration, especially if the theoretical ingredients involved in the political analysis of the signifying dimension of this process are articulated…
In this paper I explore connections between women, art education and spatial relations drawing on the Deleuzo-Guattarian concept of "machinic assemblage" as a useful analytical tool for making sense of the heterogeneity and meshwork of life narratives and their social milieus. In focusing on Mary Bradish Titcomb, a fin-de-siecle Bostonian woman…
This curriculum guide is prepared for the Aerospace Education III series publication entitled "Space Technology: Propulsion, Control and Guidance of Space Vehicles." It provides guidelines for each chapter. The guide includes objectives, behavioral objectives, suggested outline, orientation, suggested key points, suggestions for teaching,…
Air Univ., Maxwell AFB, AL. Junior Reserve Office Training Corps.
We explore here the Space Weather Action Center (SWAC) Program, as an example of NASA initiatives in education. Many human\\u000a activities in space can be disrupted by space weather. The main objective of this program is to enable students to produce\\u000a space weather forecasts by accessing current NASA data. Implementation of the SWAC Program requires: technological resources,\\u000a online materials, and
Norma Teresinha Oliveira Reis; Claudio André; Troy D. Cline; Timothy E. Eastman; Margaret J. Maher; Louis A. Mayo; Elaine M. Lewis
With the development of the International Space Station and the need for international collaboration for returning to the moon and developing a mission to Mars, NASA has embarked on developing international educational programs related to space exploration. In addition, with the explosion of educational technology, linking students on a global basis is more easily accomplished. This technology is bringing national and international issues into the classroom, including global environmental issues, the global marketplace, and global collaboration in space. We present the successes and lessons learned concerning international educational and public outreach programs that we have been involved in for NASA as well as the importance of sustaining these international peer collaborative programs for the future generations. These programs will undoubtedly be critical in enhancing the classroom environment and will affect the achievements in and attitudes towards science, technology, engineering and mathematics.
Dreschel, T. W.; Lichtenberger, L. A.; Chetirkin, P. V.; Garner, L. C.; Barfus, J. R.; Nazarenko, V. I.
To assist in educating future leaders in the science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) career fields through utilizing space science and astronomy, in order to strengthen the nation's future workforce, Capitol College is establishing the Center for Space Science Education and Public Outreach. This presentation shares information on how the Center provides hands-on educational and workforce development experiences for K-12, community college and college students, and those who support them, in achieving leadership careers in STEM fields. The Center's programs are intended to 1) increase student awareness of career fields that require a college education, 2) provide information on the necessary academic preparation related to STEM courses in high school, 3) provide information on the college admission process, and 4) initiate interest in careers within the STEM fields.
The UN/ESA workshops have been held in the regions of Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Western Asia, and Europe. Additional to the scientific benefits of the workshops and the strengthening of international cooperation, the workshops lead to the establishment of astronomical telescope facilities in Colombia, Egypt, Honduras, Jordan, Paraguay, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. The annual UN/ESA Workshops continue to pursue an agenda to network these astronomical telescope facilities through similar research and education programmes. Teaching material and hands-on astrophysics material has been developed for the operation of such astronomical telescope facilities in an university environment.
Al-Naimy, H. M. K.; Celebre, C. P.; Chamcham, K.; de Alwis, H. S. P.; de Carias, M. C. P.; Haubold, H. J.; Troche Boggino, A. E.
Library and cross-disciplinary literature all stress the increasing importance of instructional technology in higher education. However, there is a dearth of articles detailing funding for library instructional technology. The bulk of library literature on funding for these projects focuses on one-time grant opportunities and on the architecture…
Educational programs at the John C. Stennis Space Center Visitors Center reach more than 30,000 students in grades K-8 each year. Pictured above, a Stennis tour guide conducts a Living and Working in Space program for children at a local mall. This program, and others designed for specific age levels, is offered throughout the school year and summer for visiting students and youth groups.
The objective of the National Space Science and Technology Center's (NSSTC) Education and Public Outreach program (EPO) is to support K-20 education by coalescing academic, government, and business constituents awareness, implementing best business/education practices, and providing stewardship over funds and programs that promote a symbiotic relationship among these entities, specifically in the area of K-20 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education. NSSTC EPO Program's long-term objective is to showcase its effective community-based integrated stakeholder model in support of STEM education and to expand its influence across the Southeast region for scaling ultimately across the United States. The Education and Public Outreach program (EPO) is coordinated by a supporting arm of the NSSTC Administrative Council called the EPO Council (EPOC). The EPOC is funded through federal, state, and private grants, donations, and in-kind contributions. It is comprised of representatives of NSSTC Research Centers, both educators and scientists from the Alabama Space Science and Technology Alliance (SSTA) member institutions, the Alabama Space Grant Consortium and the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Education Office. Through its affiliation with MSFC and the SSTA - a consortium of Alabama's research universities that comprise the NSSTC, EPO fosters the education and development of the next generation of Alabama scientists and engineers by coordinating activities at the K-20 level in cooperation with the Alabama Department of Education, the Alabama Commission on Higher Education, and Alabama's businesses and industries. The EPO program's primary objective is to be Alabama's premiere organization in uniting academia, government, and private industry by way of providing its support to the State and Federal Departments of Education involved in systemic STEM education reform, workforce development, and innovative uses of technology. The NSSTC EPO is poised to be a leader in this field because of its direct support to agency's accountable for America's educational systems, and for its synergistic relationships across the integrated stakeholder community. This includes Alabama's NASA facility, USRA, the SSTA's seven research universities, businesses and industries, and the Alabama Math, Science and Technology Education Coalition. In addition to traditional outreach methodologies, the EPO uses the unique resources of the NSSTC to assist in dissolving the boundaries in education among academia, government, and industry and to foster a more collaborative environment in support of STEM education reform.
Creating long-duration, high-powered lasers, for satellites, that can withstand the type of optical misalignment and damage dished out by the unforgiving environment of space, is work that is unique to NASA. It is complicated, specific work, where each step forward is into uncharted territory. In the 1990s, as this technology was first being created, NASA gave free reign to a group of "laser jocks" to develop their own business model and supply the Space Agency with the technology it needed. It was still to be a part of NASA as a division of Goddard Space Flight Center, but would operate independently out of a remote office. The idea for this satellite laboratory was based on the Skunk Works concept at Lockheed Martin Corporation. Formerly known as the Lockheed Corporation, in 1943, the aerospace firm, realizing that the type of advanced research it needed done could not be performed within the confines of a larger company, allowed a group of researchers and engineers to essentially run their own microbusiness without the corporate oversight. The Skunk Works project, in Burbank, California, produced America s first jet fighter, the world s most successful spy plane (U-2), the first 3-times-the-speed-of-sound surveillance aircraft, and the F-117A Nighthawk Stealth Fighter. Boeing followed suit with its Phantom Works, an advanced research and development branch of the company that operates independent of the larger unit and is responsible for a great deal of its most cutting-edge research. NASA s version of this advanced business model was the Space Lidar Technology Center (SLTC), just south of Goddard, in College Park, Maryland. Established in 1998 under a Cooperative Agreement between Goddard and the University of Maryland s A. James Clark School of Engineering, it was a high-tech laser shop where a small group of specialists, never more than 20 employees, worked all hours of the day and night to create the cutting- edge technology the Agency required of them. Drs. Robert Afzal and Joseph Dallas were directors of the SLTC, and led the development and production of active spaceborne, remote-sensing, optical instruments. As a pioneer in the area of photonics, Dr. Dallas led basic research, development, and production of semiconductor laser diode products, improving coupling efficiency through novel physical optics modeling and intracavity phase-correction techniques. He worked for NASA for 15 years, 11 of which were as a civil servant, and 4 of which were as a contractor.
Discusses some historically important reference systems including those by Newton, Leibniz, and Galileo. Provides models illustrating space-time relationship of the reference systems. Describes building models. (YP)
Session MP3 includes short reports on: (1) Telemedicine: A User's Perspective; (2) Health Care in Extreme Environments; (3) Integration of Emerging Technologies in Information and Telecommunications in Health Care Systems for Space; (4) Telemedicine and Environmental Medicine in Russia: A First Step in Basic Medical Education; and (5) Clinical Utility of Internet Telemedicine.
This article describes soft modeling with partial least squares in a nontechnical manner and suggests its greater use in special education research. This approach allows model building and evaluation in situations with high complexity but without well-articulated theories. (DB)
The International Space Station (ISS) has the unique ability to capture the imaginations of both students and teachers worldwide and thus stands as an invaluable learning platform for the advancement of proficiency in research and development and education. The presence of humans on board ISS for the past ten years has provided a foundation for numerous educational activities aimed at capturing that interest and motivating study in the sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines which will lead to an increase in quality of teachers, advancements in research and development, an increase in the global reputation for intellectual achievement, and an expanded ability to pursue unchartered avenues towards a brighter future. Over 41 million students around the world have participated in ISS-related activities since the year 2000. Projects such as the Amateur Radio on International Space Station (ARISS) and Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), among others, have allowed for global student, teacher, and public access to space through radio contacts with crewmembers and student image acquisition respectively. . With planned ISS operations at least until 2020, projects like the aforementioned and their accompanying educational materials will be available to enable increased STEM literacy around the world. Since the launch of the first ISS element, a wide range of student experiments and educational activities have been performed by each of the international partner agencies: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Canadian Space Agency (CSA), European Space Agency (ESA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos). Additionally, a number of non-participating countries, some under commercial agreements, have also participated in Station-related activities. Many of these programs still continue while others are being developed and added to the station crewmembers tasks on a regular basis. These diverse student experiments and programs fall into one of the following categories: student-developed experiments; students performing classroom versions of ISS experiments; students participating in ISS investigator experiments; students participating in ISS engineering education; education demonstrations and cultural activities. This paper summarizes some of the main student experiments and educational activities that have been conducted on the ISS. It also highlights some upcoming projects.
Context Prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is frequently performed, counter to clinical practice guidelines. Background It was hypothesized that an e-mail–based intervention termed “spacededucation” could reduce clinicians’ inappropriate screening for prostate cancer. Design The study was conducted as an RCT. Setting/participants The study involved 95 primary care clinicians in eight Veterans Affairs medical centers from January 2007 to February 2009. Intervention Participants were randomized into two cohorts: spacededucation clinicians received four isomorphic cycles of nine e-mails over 36 weeks (zero to two e-mails per week), whereas control clinicians received no intervention. Each e-mail presented a clinical scenario and asked whether it was appropriate to obtain a PSA test. Participants received immediate feedback after submitting their answers. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the number and percentage of inappropriate PSA screening tests ordered. Inappropriate testing was defined as use of PSA for prostate cancer screening in patients aged >76 or <40 years. Appropriateness of screening was dichotomized based on patient age at time of screening. Patients with PSA testing for non-screening reasons were excluded using a validated protocol. Logistic regression with adjustment for patient clustering by clinician was performed. Analyses were conducted in 2009. Results During the intervention period (Weeks 1–36), clinicians receiving spacededucation e-mails ordered significantly fewer inappropriate PSA screening tests than control clinicians (10.5% vs 14.2%, p=0.041). Over the 72-week period following the intervention (Weeks 37–108), spacededucation clinicians continued to order fewer inappropriate tests compared to controls (7.8% vs 13.1%, respectively, p=0.011), representing a 40% relative reduction in inappropriate screening. Conclusions Spacededucation durably improves the prostate cancer screening behaviors of clinicians and represents a promising new methodology to improve patient care across healthcare systems.
Kerfoot, B. Price; Lawler, Elizabeth V.; Sokolovskaya, Galina; Gagnon, David; Conlin, Paul R.
This paper presents a technique for deriving the linearized Harmonic State Spacemodel of a power electronic converter. The Harmonic State Spacemodel, in which harmonics of state variables, inputs and outputs are posed separately in a State Space form, can be used for dynamic small signal studies, and for harmonic steady state studies. The technique can handle autonomous switches
This article, occasioned by the new AACTE position on multicultural education, examines the present policy of cultural homogenity in education and defines and advocates syngery as a model of implementing multicultural education. (JA)
Geostatistical space–time models are used increasingly for addressing environmental problems, such as monitoring acid deposition or global warming, and forecasting precipitation or stream flow. Each discipline approaches the problem of joint space–time modeling from its own perspective, a fact leading to a significant amount of overlapping models and, possibly, confusion. This paper attempts an annotated survey of models proposed in
USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) was established in 1983 as the Division of Space Biomedicine to facilitate participation of the university community in biomedical research programs at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The DSLS is currently housed in the Center for Advanced Space Studies (CASS), sharing quarters with the Division of Educational Programs and the Lunar and Planetary Institute. The DSLS provides visiting scientists for the Johnson Space Center; organizes conferences, workshops, meetings, and seminars; and, through subcontracts with outside institutions, supports NASA-related research at more than 25 such entities. The DSLS has considerable experience providing visiting scientists, experts, and consultants to work in concert with NASA Life Sciences researchers to define research missions and goals and to perform a wide variety of research administration and program management tasks. The basic objectives of this contract have been to stimulate, encourage, and assist research and education in the NASA life sciences. Scientists and experts from a number of academic and research institutions in this country and abroad have been recruited to support NASA's need to find a solution to human physiological problems associated with living and working in space and on extraterrestrial bodies in the solar system.
The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) encourages open involvement by scientists and the public at large in the Institute's activities. Through its Education and Public Outreach Program, the Institute is supporting national efforts to improve Kindergarten through grade twelve (K-12) and undergraduate education and to communicate knowledge generated by space life science research to lay audiences. Three academic institution Baylor College of Medicine, Morehouse School of Medicine and Texas A&M University are designing, producing, field-testing, and disseminating a comprehensive array of programs and products to achieve this goal. The objectives of the NSBRI Education and Public Outreach program are to: promote systemic change in elementary and secondary science education; attract undergraduate students--especially those from underrepresented groups--to careers in space life sciences, engineering and technology-based fields; increase scientific literacy; and to develop public and private sector partnerships that enhance and expand NSBRI efforts to reach students and families. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
MacLeish, M. Y.; Moreno, N. P.; Tharp, B. Z.; Denton, J. J.; Jessup, G.; Clipper, M. C.
The Driven Pendulum with Phase SpaceModel computes and displays the dynamics of a damped and driven pendulum, its phase space, and its Poincare section.Â Â The model displays pendulum motion in the main window and the phase space in a second window. Because a phase space trajectory can be very complicated, the motion is easier to analyze by plotting a point in phase space after every cycle (period T) of the external force. Such a phase space plot is called a Poincare map. The Driven Pendulum with Phase SpaceModel was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the model's jar file will run the simulation if Java is installed.
The EarthSpace is a searchable database of undergraduate classroom materials for undergraduate faculty teaching earth and space sciences at both the introductory and upper division levels. Modeled after the highly successful SERC clearinghouse for geosciences assets, EarthSpace was designed for easy submission of classroom assets - from homeworks and computerinteractives to laboratories and demonstrations. All materials are reviewedbefore posting, and authors adhere to the Creative Commons Non-Commercial Attribution (CC-BY NC 3.0). If authors wish, their EarthSpace materials are automatically cross-posted to other digital libraries (e.g., ComPADRE) and virtual higher education communities(e.g., Connexions). As new electronic repositories come online, EarthSpace materials will automatically be sent. So faculty submit their materials only once and EarthSpace ensures continual distribution as time goes on and new opportunities arise. In addition to classroom materials, EarthSpace provides news and information about educational research and best practices, funding opportunities, and ongoing efforts and collaborations for undergraduate education. http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace
How do we reach the public with the exciting story of Solar System Exploration? How do we encourage girls to think about careers in science, math, engineering and technology? Why should NASA scientists make an effort to reach the public and informal education settings to tell the Solar System Exploration story? These are questions that the Solar System Exploration Forum, a part of the NASA Office of Space Science Education (SSE) and Public Outreach network, has tackled over the past few years. The SSE Forum is a group of education teams and scientists who work to share the excitement of solar system exploration with colleagues, formal educators, and informal educators like museums and youth groups. One major area of the SSE Forum outreach supports the training of Girl Scouts of the USA (GS) leaders and trainers in a suite of activities that reflect NASA missions and science research. Youth groups like Girl Scouts structure their activities as informal education.
Within two years, the Kennedy Space Center will complete a total redesign of NASA's busiest Visitor's Center. Three million visitors per year will be witness to a new program focused on expanding the interests of the younger public in NASA's major space programs, in space operations, and in astronomy. This project, being developed through the Visitor's Center director, a NASA faculty fellow, and the Visitor's Center contractor, is centered on the interaction between NASA programs, the visiting youth, and their parents. The goal of the Center's program is to provide an appealing learning experience for teens and pre teens using stimulating displays and interactive exhibits that are also educational.
Contents of this book include: (1) "New Models: The Need for School Reform," James W. Guthrie--a survey of some of the past successes of our educational system, an attempt to assess present public opinion about it, and an analysis of some possible explanations for its apparent inability to perform satisfactory; (2) "National Assessment: A History…
The current economic crisis, a growing workforce, the increasing lifespan of workers, and demanding, complex jobs have made organizations highly selective in employee recruitment and retention. It is therefore important, to the adult educator, to develop models of learning that better prepare adult learners for the workplace. The purpose of…
Fifty years ago the International Geophysical Year organized a unique and unprecedented program of research that united 60,000 scientists from 66 nations to study global phenomena concerning the Earth and its space environment. In that same spirit, "Space Weather Around the World" is a program to coordinate and facilitate the involvement of NASA heliophysics missions and scientists to inspire and educate a world-wide audience about the International Heliophysical Year (IHY). We will use the popular Sun-Earth Day annual event framework sponsored by the Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum to promote IHY science and the spirit of international collaboration. The theme for the March 2007 Sun-Earth Day: "IHY: Living in the Atmosphere of the Sun" was selected a year ago in anticipation of the IHY celebration. These efforts will be expanded through a series of coordinated programs under the theme "Space Weather Around the World" for Sun-Earth Day 2008. We will produce a live broadcast from China of the total solar eclipse on August 1st 2008 as the central event, highlighting investigations associated with the eclipse by the international heliophysics community. Additional collaborative efforts will include: a Space Weather Media Maker web-tool to allow educators and scientists to create their own multi-media resource to enhance teaching and learning at all levels; Rock-n-Sol, a musical composition by children internationally inspired by space weather and incorporating sonifications of solar data; and Space Weather Action Centers for students to track a solar storm featuring podcasts of multi-cultural perspectives on IHY. The anticipated audience would be millions of people internationally The science and E/PO heliophysics community has an exciting story to tell about IHY, and we look forward to the opportunity to share it globally.
Thieman, J. R.; Ng, C.; Hawkins, I.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.
This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education III, includes a discussion of the essentials of propulsion, control, and guidance and the conditions of space travel. Chapter 1 provides a brief account of basic laws of celestial mechanics. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 are devoted to the chemical principles of propulsion. Included are the basics of…
Providing aerospace industry with highly qualified workforce is an international problem. There are multiple science and educational programs which are currently being developed aimed at training specialists capable of solving tasks related to the development, creation, testing and utilization of complicated technical systems. Some portion of these programs is being conducted with the support of national space agencies.
Mayorova, V. I.; Samburov, S. N.; Zhdanovich, O. V.; Strashinsky, V. A.
Seven years after the publication of the National Science Education Standards and adoption of new state science education standards, Earth and space science remains outside the mainstream K-12 curriculum. Currently, less than ten percent of high school students in the United States of America take an Earth or space science course before graduation. This state of affairs is simply unacceptable. "All of us who live on this planet have the right and the obligation to understand Earth's unique history, its dynamic processes, its abundant resources, and its intriguing mysteries. As citizens of Earth, with the power to modify our climate and ecosystems, we also have a personal and collective responsibility to understand Earth so that we can make wise decisions about its and our future". As one step toward addressing this situation, we support the establishment of state-based alliances to promote Earth and space science education reform. "In many ways, states are the most vital locus of change in our nation's schools. State departments of education define curriculum frameworks, establish testing policies, support professional development and, in some cases, approve textbooks and materials for adoption". State alliance partners should include a broad spectrum of K-16 educators, scientists, policy makers, parents, and community leaders from academic institutions, businesses, museums, technology centers, and not-for profit organizations. The focus of these alliances should be on systemic and sustainable reform of K-16 Earth and space science education. Each state-based alliance should focus on specific educational needs within their state, but work together to share ideas, resources, and models for success. As we build these alliances we need to take a truly collaborative approach working with the other sciences, geography, and mathematics so that collectively we can improve the caliber and scope of science and mathematics education for all students.
Hayduk (1985) investigated the ability of two models to account for a series of stop-distance measurements of personal space preferences. The repeated failure of the factor model implied that it was incorrect to interpret the multiple stop-distance measurements as reflecting a single, stable underlying characteristic called one's personal space preference. The success of the simplex model (a linear sequence of
In 1998, NASA's former Office of Space Science (OSS) established a national Support Network of ten organizations called Education and Public Outreach Forums and Broker\\/Facilitators. The author served for 8 years as one of the regional Broker\\/Facilitators in the American west, charged to support NASA scientists in education, to create bridges and productive partnerships between space scientists and educators, and
A typical nine-week summer session of the International Space University includes 100 graduate students and young professionals from as many as thirty countries. In addition to lectures and team projects covering a variety of space-related disciplines, the curriculum contains several modes of cross-cultural education. In role- playing workshops, students (asked to behave in accord with known cultural norms of various countries) engage in negotiations on problems such as the rescue and return of astronauts as mandated in international agreements and treaties. Culture shock that could derail such negotiations in actual practice is observed, and the participants come away with heightened sensitivity to cultural differences. This technique could be extended to other educational settings, such as the activities of the UN's Regional Centres in developing countries and the outreach efforts associated with the International Heliophysical Year.
This report describes models for multimegawatt, space power systems which Sandia's Advanced Power Systems Division has constructed to help evaluate space power systems for SDI's Space Power Office. Five system models and models for associated components are presented for both open (power system waste products are exhausted into space) and closed (no waste products) systems: open, burst mode, hydrogen cooled nuclear reactor -- turboalternator system; open, hydrogen-oxygen combustion turboalternator system; closed, nuclear reactor powered Brayton cycle system; closed, liquid metal Rankine cycle system; and closed, in-core, reactor therminonic system. The models estimate performance and mass for the components in each of these systems. 17 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.
The NASA Office of Space Science (OSS) has made a significant commitment to increase scientist participation in Education and Public Outreach (EPO), with a focus on providing tools and assistance for educators in K-14 education and for public informal education. The general goals are to use NASA scientific discoveries and mission results to contribute to the technical and scientific literacy of the nation, to inspire youth, and to achieve significant and sustained enhancement of K-14 education. The participation of AGU scientists in EPO activities is vital to achieving these goals. This participation by individual scientists is often voluntary, but it can be funded as supplements to research grants or directly by OSS missions, which are now required to spend a few percent of their total budget on EPO. Scientists can provide inspiring role models for students, be powerful partners with teachers, work with community-based organizations and museums, and help assure the scientific accuracy of educational materials. The Sun Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF) is supported by OSS to facilitate scientist involvement in EPO. SECEF coordinates national programs for broad audiences that highlight solar and geospace missions and research programs. Examples of SECEF high-visibility national events are Sun-Earth Day and Eclipse 2001. These events involved more than 100 space scientists in schools, museums, and other venues across the nation, including members of minority professional societies, such as the National Society of Black Physicists. We will discuss lessons learned and future opportunities for scientist participation.
Parametric cost models are routinely used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. However, great care is required. Some space telescope cost models, such as those based only on mass, lack sufficient detail to support such analysis and may lead to inaccurate conclusions. Similarly, using ground based telescope models which include the dome cost will also lead to inaccurate conclusions. This paper reviews current and historical models. Then, based on data from 22 different NASA space telescopes, this paper tests those models and presents preliminary analysis of single and multi-variable space telescope cost models.
Stahl, H. Philip; Prince, F. Andrew; Smart, Christian; Stephens, Kyle; Henrichs, Todd
This article introduces the UK branch of the European SpaceEducation Resource Office (ESERO-UK), also known as the UK SpaceEducation Office. It is a teaching project designed to use space to enthuse primary and secondary students to study science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subjects. The office is funded by the European Space…
The field of space physics is rich with examples of basic physics and analysis techniques, yet it is rarely seen in physics courses or textbooks. As space physicists in an undergraduate physics department we like to use research to inform teaching, and we find that students respond well to examples from magnetospheric science. While we integrate examples into general education courses as well, this talk will focus on physics major courses. Space physics examples are typically selected to illustrate a particular concept or method taught in the course. Four examples will be discussed, from an introductory electricity and magnetism course, a mechanics/nonlinear dynamics course, a computational physics course, and a plasma physics course. Space physics provides examples of many concepts from introductory E&M, including the application of Faraday's law to terrestrial magnetic storm effects and the use of the basic motion of charged particles as a springboard to discussion of the inner magnetosphere and the aurora. In the mechanics and nonlinear dynamics courses, the motion of charged particles in a magnetotail current sheet magnetic field is treated as a Newtonian dynamical system, illustrating the Poincaré surface-of-section technique, the partitioning of phase space, and the KAM theorem. Neural network time series analysis of AE data is used as an example in the computational physics course. Finally, among several examples, current sheet particle dynamics is utilized in the plasma physics course to illustrate the notion of adiabatic/guiding center motion and the breakdown of the adiabatic approximation. We will present short descriptions of our pedagogy and student assignments in this "backdoor" method of space physics education.
In information retrieval, it is common to model index terms and documents as vectors in a suitably defined vector space. The main difficulty with this approach is that the explicit representation of term vectors is not known a priori. For this reason, the vector spacemodel adopted by Salton for the SMART system treats the terms as a set of
S. K. Michael Wong; Wojciech Ziarko; Patrick C. N. Wong
The applicability of model checking is often limited by the size of the industrial system. This is known as state space explosion problem. Compositional verification has been particularly successful in this regard. This paper presents an approach based on a refinement of search space partition for reducing the complexity in verification of models with non-deterministic choices and open environment. The
System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE) is a computer model of the International Space Station's (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This uniquely integrated, detailed model can predict EPS capability, assess EPS performance during a given mission with a specified load demand, conduct what-if studies, and support on-orbit anomaly resolution.
An overview of educational gerontology is presented, followed by development of models of continuing education in gerontological nursing and a review of continuing education in gerontological nursing in Canada. It is argued that first?level nursing education cannot be expected to produce professionals with lifelong competency. Rather than having nurses and other health care professionals return to the university for continuing
The Capitol College Center for Space Science Education and Public Outreach is in its second year of operation working to address the clearly articulated national need of providing an educated workforce in the science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields. Working with the K-12, community college and college students, the Center is actively engaged in providing learning opportunities for future leaders in STEM. This goal is accomplished through the following methods: 1. Increase student awareness of selected astronomy/space science career fields that require a college education, including necessary academic preparation related to STEM courses in high school. 2. Increase the number of community college students, specifically within the traditionally under-represented populations, advance to the bachelor's level degree within the STEM fields and then secure jobs within the field. 3. Increase STEM participation/majors in general (both in community colleges and four-year colleges), and especially NASA-related disciplines. This presentation provides an update regarding the Center's activities, reports on the year-one results working with middle schools and high schools in the state of Maryland and the Prince George's Community College, and highlights plans for the future.
Space Weather is a relatively new discipline that studies the sun and Earth as a connected system with much relevance to our technological society. The Space Weather Living History project has gathered stories of observations, discoveries, events and impacts to build a timeline that will highlight the contributions of many scientists. In particular, pioneers and leaders who are active from the International Geophysical Year (IGY) to the present share their personal stories of how they are creating the history of space weather. The goal is to capture not just anecdotes, but careful analogies and insights of researchers and historians associated with various programs and events. Original historical materials also known as primary sources will allow both science and education communities to tell the stories of pioneers and leaders in space weather studies. Utilizing interactive media, this program aims to address important STEM needs, inspire the next generation of explorers, and feature women as role model. The products will align with Appendix H of the Next Generation Science Standards, the Nature of Science, where it is emphasized that 'science knowledge is cumulative and many people, from many generations and nations, have contributed to science knowledge.' This project augments existing historical records with education technology; connect the pioneers, current leaders and the nature and history of space weather with students, educators and the public, covering all areas of studies in Heliophysics. The project is supported by NASA award NNX11AJ61G.
Ng, C.; Thompson, B. J.; Major, E. R.; Odenwald, S. F.; Cline, T. D.; Fox, K.; Lewis, E.; Stephenson, B.; Spadaccini, J.; Davis, H.
The Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System promotes quantitative Earth Science education with models through its educational portal, which has collections of models and animations illustrating Earth surface processes, lab exercises using Earth systems modeling, lectures on Earth surface modeling, images of the Earth's surface, and more.
The Space Station Freedom program has established a series of natural environment models and databases for utilization in design and operations planning activities. The suite of models and databases that have either been selected from among internationally recognized standards or developed specifically for spacecraft design applications are presented. The models have been integrated with an orbit propagator and employed to compute environmental conditions for planned operations altitudes of Space Station Freedom.
New visions of learning have entered education. This article discusses the consequences for teacher education, and examines modelling by teacher educators as a means of changing the views and practices of future teachers. The results of a literature search and a multiple case study on modelling are discussed. Both the literature search and the…
THIS TECHNICAL NOTE IS A NONTECHNICAL DISCUSSION OF THE URBAN EDUCATIONMODEL, AN ANALYTIC, SYMOBLIC MODEL TO BE USED IN PLANNING THE LOCATION AND ENROLLMENT SIZE OF URBAN SCHOOLS. AMONG THE EDUCATIONAL ALTERNATIVES THAT MAY BE CONSIDERED BY THE METHODOLOGY PRESENTED ARE THE "GREAT HIGH SCHOOLS" AND THE "EDUCATIONAL PARKS." THE CENTRAL ORIENTATION…
Few educators envision themselves as marketing or public relations experts, yet economic reality is forcing many academicians into these roles. Over the past four years, the Eastern Washington University Department of Education has developed a successful marketing model for educators. The model begins with a successful reform of department…
Control Dynamics, in conjunction with Marshall Space Flight Center, has participated in the modeling and testing of Flexible Space Structures. Through the series of configurations tested and the many techniques used for collecting, analyzing, and modeling the data, many valuable insights have been gained and important lessons learned. This paper discusses the background of the Large Space Structure program, Control Dynamics' involvement in testing and modeling of the configurations (especially the Active Control Technique Evaluation for Spacecraft (ACES) configuration), the results from these two processes, and insights gained from this work.
Space analysis is an important procedure by orthodontists to determine the amount of space available and required for teeth alignment during treatment planning. Traditional manual methods of space analysis are tedious and often inaccurate. Computer-based space analysis methods that work on 2D images have been reported. However, as the space problems in the dental arch exist in all three planes of space, a full 3D analysis of the problems is necessary. This paper describes a visualization and measurement system that analyses 3D images of dental plaster models. Algorithms were developed to determine dental arches. The system is able to record the depths of the Curve of Spee, and quantify space liabilities arising from a non-planar Curve of Spee, malalignment and overjet. Furthermore, the difference between total arch space available and the space required to arrange the teeth in ideal occlusion can be accurately computed. The system for 3D space analysis of the dental arch is an accurate, comprehensive, rapid and repeatable method of space analysis to facilitate proper orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning.
Chuah, Joon H.; Ong, Sim Heng; Kondo, Toshiaki; Foong, Kelvin W. C.; Yong, Than F.
This article highlights one aspect of a case study of international educators at Dubai Women's College (DWC), United Arab Emirates (UAE). It examines perceptions of international educators in third space teaching female Emirati, higher-education students in the UAE. Drawing on third space theory (Bhabha, 1994), this study explored the nature of…
The solvable Lie algebra parametrization of the symmetric spaces is discussed. Based on the solvable Lie algebra gauge two equivalent formulations of the symmetric space sigma model are studied. Their correspondence is established by inspecting the normalization conditions and deriving the field transformation laws.
The relationship between educational theories, game design and game development are used to develop models for the creation of complex learning environments. The Game Object Model (GOM), that marries educational theory and game design, forms the basis for the development of the Persona Outlining Model (POM) and the Game Achievement Model (GAM).…
After explicitly constructing the symmetric space sigma model Lagrangian in terms of the coset scalars of the solvable Lie algebra gauge in the current formalism, we derive the field equations of the theory.
Traditional vector-based models use word co-occurrence counts from large corpora to represent lexical meaning. In this paper we present a novel approach for constructing semantic spaces that takes syntactic relations into account. We introduce a formalisation for this class of models and evaluate their adequacy on two modelling tasks: semantic priming and automatic discrimination of lexical relations.
This paper describes experiences with modeling the liquid hydrogen subsystem of the space shuttle. The Symbolic Model Verifier tool and the Software Cost Reduction tool set were used to model and specify the behavior of the system. The tools were then use...
In this activity, students compare and contrast the diameters of the other planets in the solar system to that of the Earth, create a scale factor based on a reasonable size for the Earth's model and build a scale model of the solar system.
Multivariable parametric cost models for space telescopes provide several benefits to designers and space system project managers. They identify major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades. They enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment. And, they provide a basis for estimating total project cost. A survey of historical models found that there is no definitive space telescope cost model. In fact, published models vary greatly . Thus, there is a need for parametric space telescopes cost models. An effort is underway to develop single variable  and multi-variable  parametric space telescope cost models based on the latest available data and applying rigorous analytical techniques. Specific cost estimating relationships (CERs) have been developed which show that aperture diameter is the primary cost driver for large space telescopes; technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and increasing mass reduces cost.
Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Dollinger, Courtney
Highly politicized educational reforms in New York City have seen special education become marginalized as a casualty of the accountability movement. There is a liminal space between "old" and "new" ways where special education administrators find themselves as they consider their roles and responsibilities in continuing to press for opportunities…
Currently NASA, USA, has under active study and development several large structures for deployment in space. These include for instance beam-like trusses to serve as antenna masts and/or basic building blocks for Space Station construction. An important design consideration is that of assuring adequate stability of the structure in the space environment and in addition in the case of antennas, meeting stringent pointing accuracy requirements. This paper addresses some of the basic design considerations involved such as: (1) modeling flexible multibody dynamics, including sensors and actuators, (2) identifying/monitoring model parameters in orbit, and (3) integrated controls-structures optimization with emphasis on novel concepts and techniques.
Accordingly the United States Census Bureau, the ethnic group adding the largest number of people to the national population is the Hispanic exceeding 12 percent of the population and growing by almost 60 percent between 1990 and 2000. The status of the nation's educational system with respect to Hispanic students is perhaps one of the most influential issues facing the largest economy of the world. The low income, lack of language skills, highest drop-out rate in the nation, are some of the reasons why Hispanics are less likely to receive a university degree than any other ethical group. In short, the government requires to implement compensatory programs and bilingual education to ensure global leadership. Because of ongoing immigration, Spanish persists longer among Hispanics than it did among other immigrant groups. Spanish is the fourth most spoken language in the world after Mandarin, Hindustani and English. Although not all U.S. Hispanics speak Spanish, almost all U.S. Spanish speakers are Hispanics. This paper is intended to outline the challenging implementation of a bilingual education project affiliated to NASA Johnson Space Center encouraging greater academic success of Hispanics in engineering, math and science. The prospective project covers the overall role of space activities in the development of science and technology, socioeconomic issues and international cooperation. An existent JSC project is the starting stage to keep on developing an interactive video teleconference and web-media technology and produce stimulating learning products in English and Spanish for students and teachers across the nation and around the world.
The NASA Office of Space Science (OSS) has made a significant commitment to increase scientist participation in Education and Public Outreach (EPO), with a focus on providing tools and assistance for educators in K-12 education and for public informal education. The general goals are to use NASA scientific discoveries and mission results to contribute to the technical and scientific literacy
The NASA Office of Space Science (OSS) has made a significant commitment to increase scientist participation in Education and Public Outreach (EPO), with a focus on providing tools and assistance for educators in K-14 education and for public informal education. The general goals are to use NASA scientific discoveries and mission results to contribute to the technical and scientific literacy
The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a multi-agency partnership to support the research and developmental work necessary to substantially increase space weather modeling capabilities and to facilitate advanced models deployment in forecasting operations. Space weather models and coupled model chains hosted at the CCMC range from the solar corona to the Earth's upper atmosphere. CCMC has developed a number of real-time modeling systems, as well as a large number of modeling and data products tailored to address the space weather needs of NASA's robotic missions. The CCMC conducts unbiased model testing and validation and evaluates model readiness for operational environment. CCMC has been leading recent comprehensive modeling challenges under GEM, CEDAR and SHINE programs. The presentation will focus on experience in carrying out comprehensive and systematic validation of large sets of. space weather models
Kuznetsova, M. M.; Hesse, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Maddox, M.; Rastaetter, L.; Berrios, D.; Zheng, Y.; MacNeice, P. J.; Shim, J.; Taktakishvili, A.; Chulaki, A.
Space weather refers to conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems and that affect human life or health. Space weather has two focal points: scientific research and applications. In order to make the real- or faster than real-time numerical prediction of adverse space weather events and their influence on the geospace environment, high performance computational models are required. The main objective in this talk is how programmable GPUs can be used in the numerical space weather modeling for the study of solar wind background as a crucial part in the numerical space weather modeling. GPU programming is realized for our Solar-Interplanetary-CESE MHD model (SIP-CESE MHD model) by numerically studying the solar corona/interplanetary solar wind. The global solar wind structures is obtained by the established GPU model with the magnetic field synoptic data as input. Meanwhile, the time-dependent solar surface boundary conditions derived from the method of characteristics and the mass flux limit are incorporated to couple the observation and the 3D MHD model. The simulated evolution of the global structures for two Carrington rotations 2058 and 2062 is compared with solar observations and solar wind measurements from spacecrafts near the Earth. The MHD model is also validated by comparison with the standard potential field source surface (PFSS) model. Comparisons show that the MHD results have good overall agreement with coronal and interplanetary structures, including the size and distribution of coronal holes, the position and shape of the streamer belts, and the transition of the solar wind speeds and magnetic field polarities. Our initial tests with available hardware show speedups of roughly 5x compared to traditional software implementation. This work presents a novel application of GPU to the space weather study.
Some of the criticisms that have been leveled at the educational establishment by social analysts are discussed. It is suggested that one of the new realities is that education must be a lifelong process in order to avoid the catastrophe of human obsolescence. The assumptions and elements for a new model of education as a lifelong process are…
This document begins by defining and discussing educational planning. A brief overview of mathematical programing with an explanation of the general linear programing model is then provided. Some recent applications of mathematical programing techniques to educational planning problems are reviewed, and their implications for educational research…
Chapter 1 of this document contains sets of statements adopted by either the Minnesota State Board of Education or the Minnesota State Legislature. They represent the hierarchy used by Department of Education staff as they develop model learner outcomes for each subject area. Contents include learner values, education system values, philosophy for…
The initial activities on spaceeducation began right after World War II, in the early 1950s, when USA and USSR started the Space Race. At that time, Spaceeducation was only and exclusively available to researchers and technicians working directly in space programs. This new area was restricted only to post-graduate programs (basically master and doctoral degree) or to very specific training programs dedicated for beginners. In South America, at that time there was no kind of activity on spaceeducation, simply because there was no activity in space research. In the beginning of the 1970s, Brazil, through INPE, had created masteral and doctoral courses on several space areas such as remote sensing and meteorology. Only in the mid-1980s did Brazil, after a UN request, create its specialisation course on remote sensing dedicated to Latin American professionals. At the same period, the Agustin Codazzi Institute (Bogota, Colombia) began to offer specialisation courses in remote sensing. In South America, educationalspace programs are currently being created for elementary and high schools and universities, but the author personally estimates that 90% of these educational programs still make use of traditional educational materials — such as books, tutorials, maps and graphics. There is little educational material that uses multimedia resources, advanced computing or communication methods and, basically, these are the materials that are best suited to conduct instructions in remote sensing, GIS, meteorology and astronomy.
This portal provides access to a variety of educational resources from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) ocean surface topography program based on the missions of the TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason satellites. Materials include a kids' section with games, puzzles, and facts; educational entertainment; online resources for educators; information about useful books; and links to lesson plans and classroom activities. There is also a section on radar altimetry and its use in studying ocean topography, and a set of links to interactive exhibits demonstrating TOPEX/Poseidon technology. The class activities section includes hands-on demonstrations, skits, and an activity in which older students make models of the sea surface to match TOPEX/Poseidon satellite images of sea-surface height. There is also information on obtaining posters, brochures, CDs and slides, and a collection of links to additional resources and to frequently-asked-questions.
It's a challenge educators at all grade levels face: How do you teach subjects your students can't see, touch, or hear? You do it with models--which have gained new importance since the National Science Education Standards specifically recommended using models as an organizing framework for teaching and understanding science. Whether your lessons concern molecules or Mars, Understanding Models in Earth and Space Science offers practical guidance. It's designed to help you understand the full range of models available to illustrate abstract concepts, demonstrate complex ideas, or teach about things students can't see. The book provides an in-depth look at specific kinds of models--what they are, how they can be designed, the best ways to use them, and possible shortcomings. Among the chapter topics are concrete models; mathematical models; similes, analogies, and metaphors; computer models; and inquiry and model building. Itself a model of good modeling, the book offers abundant examples (including drawing parallels between seemingly unrelated topics, such as how tornadoes are like vacuum cleaners) and plentiful background specific to Earth science teachers. Understanding Models is the result of a partnership between NSTA and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics.
A methodology for automatic mathematical modeling is described. The major objective is to create a very friendly environment for engineers to design, maintain and verify their model and also automatically convert the mathematical model into FORTRAN code for conventional computation. A demonstration program was designed for modeling the Space Shuttle Main Engine simulation mathematical model called Propulsion System Automatic Modeling (PSAM). PSAM provides a very friendly and well organized environment for engineers to build a knowledge base for base equations and general information. PSAM contains an initial set of component process elements for the Space Shuttle Main Engine simulation and a questionnaire that allows the engineer to answer a set of questions to specify a particular model. PSAM is then able to automatically generate the model and the FORTRAN code. A future goal is to download the FORTRAN code to the VAX/VMS system for conventional computation.
String fragmentation models such as the Lund Model fit experimental particle production cross sections very well in the high-energy limit. This paper gives an introduction of the massless relativistic string in the Lund Model and shows how it can be modified with a simple assumption to produce formulas for meson production cross sections for space radiation research. The results of the string model are compared with inclusive pion production data from proton-proton collision experiments.
Tang, Alfred; Johnson, Eloise (Editor); Norbury, John W.; Tripathi, R. K.
Parametric cost models are routinely used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. Previously, the authors published two single variable cost models based on 19 flight missions. The current paper presents the development of a multi-variable space telescopes cost model. The validity of previously published models are tested. Cost estimating relationships which are and are not significant cost drivers are identified. And, interrelationships between variables are explored
The educational activities of NASA which is one of 16 agencies on the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology is discussed. NASA's education mission is to utilize its unique facilities and its specialized workforce to conduct and to leverage externally conducted science, mathematics, and technology education programs and activities. These efforts aimed at meeting the national education goals should help to preserve U.S. leadership in aeronautics, space science, and technology.
Finarelli, Margaret G.; Brown, Robert W.; Owens, Frank C.
A multidisciplinary group of students from the university and latter also from the high school was formed in 1988 with the objective to make them put in practice their knowledge in physics, chemistry and mathematics and engineering fields in experimental rocketry. The group was called "Grupo de Foguetes Experimentais", GFE. Since that time more than 150 students passed throw the group and now many of them are in the space arena. The benefits for students in a space hands-on project are many: More interest in their school subjects is gotten as they see an application for them; Interrelation attitudes are learned as space projects is a team activity; Responsibility is gained as each is responsible for a part of a critical mission project; Multidisciplinary and international experience is gotten as these are space project characteristics; Learn how to work in a high stress environment as use to be a project launch. This paper will cover the educational experiences gotten during these years and how some structured groups work. It is explained the objectives and how the group was formed. The group structure and the different phases that at each year the new team passes are described. It is shown the different activities that the group uses to do from scientific seminars, scientific club and international meetings to technical tours and assistance to rocket activities in regional schools. It is also explained the group outreach activities as some launches were covered by the media in more then 6 articles in newspaper and 7 television news. In 1999 as formed an official group called NATA, Núcleo de Atividades Aerospaciais within the Universidade Estadual de Londrina, UEL, by some GFE members and teachers from university. It is explained the first group project results.
Korea has a short history in space development compared to neighboring countries like Japan, China, India and Russia. During the past 20 years, Korea has focused on developing satellite and rocket space technology under the national space development plan. KOMPSAT-1 and 2, and KSLV-1 are the results of the selection and concentration policy of the Korean government. Due to the arduous mission of developing hardware oriented space technology, the topic of spaceeducation and outreach for the general public has not received much in the national space program. But recently, the Korean government has begun planning a space science outreach program in the detailed action plan of the mid-long term national space development plan. This paper introduces and analyzes the organizations performing spaceeducation and outreach programs for primary and secondary schools in the Republic of Korea. "Young Astronaut Korea (YAK)" is one such program. This is a non-profit organization established to provide spaceeducation for students in 1989 when Korea just started its space development program. "YAK" is a unique group in Korea for spaceeducation and outreach activities because it is organized by branches at each school in the nation and it is much like the Boy Scout and Girl Scout programs. Space Science Museum and National Youth Space Center (NYSC), which are located near NARO space center in the southernmost part of the Korean peninsula are other examples of spaceeducation and outreach programs. NARO space center, which is the only launch site in Korea became the center of public interest by showing the KSLV-1 launch in 2009 and will be expected to play a key role for the spaceeducation of students in the Republic of Korea. The NYSC will perform many mission oriented spaceeducation programs for students as Space Camp in the USA does. This paper introduces the status of the spaceeducation and outreach programs of each organization and presents the future direction of spaceeducation and outreach for the Korean public and students. If these three organizations cooperate with each other and develop systematic programs of spaceeducation and outreach for the people, they will prepare a base for growth and progress in future space science and technology in Korea.
Parametric cost models are routinely used to plan missions, compare concepts, and justify technology investments. However, great care is required. There is a lot of confusion and wrong information for space telescopes. Cost estimating relationships based on primary mirror diameter vary by an order of magnitude. Cost estimating relationships based only on mass lack sufficient detail to support concept analysis and can lead to inaccurate conclusions by encouraging excessively complex and technologically immature solutions. Similarly, using ground-based models leads to incorrect conclusions. This work surveys current and historical published cost models for space telescopes while attempting to interpret them in a common logical framework to enable a systematic intercomparison.
This paper presents a fundamental modeling strategy for dealing with powered and propelled bodies moving along space tethers. The tether is divided into a large number of discrete masses, which are connected by viscoelastic springs. The tether is subject to the full range of forces expected in Earth orbit in a relatively simple manner. Two different models of the elevator
Multiple, new technologies for chemical systems are becoming available and include high temperature rockets, very light propellant tanks and structures, new bipropellant and monopropellant options, lower mass propellant control components, and zero boil off subsystems. Such technologies offer promise of increasing the performance of in-space chemical propulsion for energetic space missions. A mass model for pressure-fed, Earth and space-storable, advanced chemical propulsion systems (ACPS) was developed in support of the NASA MSFC In-Space Propulsion Program. Data from flight systems and studies defined baseline system architectures and subsystems and analyses were formulated for parametric scaling relationships for all ACPS subsystem. The paper will first provide summary descriptions of the approaches used for the systems and the subsystems and then present selected analyses to illustrate use of the model for missions with characteristics of current interest.
Byers, David C.; Woodcock, Gordon; Benfield, Michael P. J.
Multiple, new technologies for chemical systems are becoming available and include high temperature rockets, very light propellant tanks and structures, new bipropellant and monopropellant options, lower mass propellant control components, and zero boil off subsystems. Such technologies offer promise of increasing the performance of in-space chemical propulsion for energetic space missions. A mass model for pressure-fed, Earth and space-storable, advanced chemical propulsion systems (ACPS) was developed in support of the NASA MSFC In-Space Propulsion Program. Data from flight systems and studies defined baseline system architectures and subsystems and analyses were formulated for parametric scaling relationships for all ACPS subsystems. The paper will first provide summary descriptions of the approaches used for the systems and the subsystems and then present selected analyses to illustrate use of the model for missions with characteristics of current interest.
Byers, David C.; Woodcock, Gordon; Benfield, M. P. J.
Large numbers of contradictory problems generally consist in the design of the architectural interior space. It is very necessary to study the measure to solve the contradictory problems consist in spatial form from the contradictory problems. The basic theory of Extenics provides the thesis extension leading idea of transformation and one of the tools of matter-element theory. On the base of these theories, the thesis tries to set up space-element model to describe the contradictory problems in the architectural inner space, and even guide the theory and practice for the future, tries to provide the methods to solve the contradictory problems intellectualized.
Presented is a description of a computer program which permits assessment of the operational support requirements of space transportation systems functioning in both a ground- and space-based environment. The scenario depicted provides for the delivery of payloads from Earth to a space station and beyond using upper stages based at the station. Model results are scenario dependent and rely on the input definitions of delivery requirements, task times, and available resources. Output is in terms of flight rate capabilities, resource requirements, and facility utilization. A general program description, program listing, input requirements, and sample output are included.
Scientists and educators at Baylor College of Medicine are using space life sciences research areas as themes for middle school science and health instructional materials. This paper discusses study findings of the most recent unit, Food and Fitness, which teaches concepts related to energy and nutrition through guided inquiry. Results of a field test involving more than 750 students are reported. Use of the teaching materials resulted in significant knowledge gains by students as measured on a pre/post assessment administered by teachers. In addition, an analysis of the time spent by each teacher on each activity suggested that it is preferable to conduct all of the activities in the unit with students rather than allocating the same total amount of time on just a subset of the activities. PMID:15834997
Moreno, Nancy P; Roberts, J Kyle; Tharp, Barbara Z; Denk, James P; Cutler, Paula H; Thomson, William A
A technical elective course has been offered to normal civil engineering fourth year students in Eastern Mediterranean University of Northern Cyprus. The course matter has been chosen in such a way that a wide variety of space civil engineering applications have been tackled. A further interesting property of the course was that it was offered through Internet in the context of distance education. The students are asked to enter a final examination and also to make presentations on subjects chosen by themselves out of a list prepared by the instructor. At the end of the course a survey has been conducted among the students and the faculty in order to measure the overall reactions. In this article an evaluation of the course is presented and the results of the survey mentioned are discussed.
The Ejs Pendulum Motion in Phase Spacemodel displays the dynamics of an ensemble of pendula in phase space (velocity versus position). Friction is set to zero. For the pendulum ensemble, the motion is shown both in a traditional phase-space plot and on a phase-space cylinder which keeps the angular position between âpi and pi for large initial angular velocities. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Pendulum Motion in Phase Spacemodel was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ehu_analytical_mechanics_pendulum.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for Newtonian mechanics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.
Observational data sets generated by complex processes are common in ecology. Traditionally these have been very challenging to analyze because of the limitations of available statistical tools. This seems to be changing, and these are exciting times to be involved with ecological statistics, not just because of the neo-Bayesian revival but also because of the proliferation of computationally intensive methods in general. It is now possible to fit much richer models to observational data than in the relatively recent past, which in turn has stimulated much interest in how to evaluate and compare such models. In such an immature, vibrant, and rapidly growing field, not everyone is going to agree on the best way to do things. This is reflected in the contrast of opinions offered by the discussants. Each offers a thoughtful and thought-provoking critique of our work that reflects the current thinking in a non-negligible segment of the ecological data analysis community. We want to thank them for their insights.
Heisey, Dennis M.; Osnas, Erik E.; Cross, Paul C.; Joly, Damien O.; Langenberg, Julia A.; Miller, Michael W.
The space science research has been started in Egypt since 1910 by measuring the solar constant as indication of solar radiation at Helwan Observatory. The solar sunspot studies and its influence on the Nile flooding was erected and operated at Helwan as a first solar station in Egypt during 1957. Zeiss-Coude' refractor was installed in 1964. Astronomy and space science educations started in Egypt at the university level since 1936 at Department of Astronomy and Meteorology of Cairo University. Undergraduate and graduate education in Egypt will be discussed in this work. The total solar eclipse observations on 25th February, 1952 in Khartoum have been done by on Egyptian-French group by using the Worthington Camera. Several international groups observed the total solar eclipse on 29 March 2006, in El-Saloum (Egypt). A coordinated effort partly undertaken in the frame of the French-Egyptian scientific cooperation permitted joined simultaneous eclipse observations of the solar corona. Several Ground base instrumental set-up has been prepared. Spaceborne quasi-simultaneous EIT and Lasco observations of SoHO have been used as well as TRACE observations in Lyman-alpha of HI. W-L images taken with and without a radial filter are processed to show the magnetic structure of the corona. Polarization analysis is performed to study the F-corona in the outer corona. Several filters have been obtained to show the distribution of the emission measures of the inner and middle corona. Spectra were obtained over several emission lines.
The objectives of this project were: (1) to investigate the implications of qualitative modeling techniques for problems arising in the monitoring, diagnosis, and design of Space Station subsystems and procedures; (2) to identify the issues involved in using qualitative models to enhance and automate engineering functions. These issues include representing operational criteria, fault models, alternate ontologies, and modeling continuous signals at a functional level of description; and (3) to develop a prototype collection of qualitative models for fluid and thermal systems commonly found in Space Station subsystems. Potential applications of qualitative modeling to space-systems engineering, including the notion of intelligent computer-aided engineering are summarized. Emphasis is given to determining which systems of the proposed Space Station provide the most leverage for study, given the current state of the art. Progress on using qualitative models, including development of the molecular collection ontology for reasoning about fluids, the interaction of qualitative and quantitative knowledge in analyzing thermodynamic cycles, and an experiment on building a natural language interface to qualitative reasoning is reported. Finally, some recommendations are made for future research.
A parametric software cost estimation model prepared for Deep Space Network (DSN) Data Systems implementation tasks is presented. The resource estimation model incorporates principles and data from a number of existing models. The model calibrates task magnitude and difficulty, development environment, and software technology effects through prompted responses to a set of approximately 50 questions. Parameters in the model are adjusted to fit DSN software life cycle statistics. The estimation model output scales a standard DSN Work Breakdown Structure skeleton, which is then input into a PERT/CPM system, producing a detailed schedule and resource budget for the project being planned.
The International Space Station provides an excellent opportunity for industry sponsorship of international spaceeducation. As a highly visible worldwide asset, the space station already commands our interest. It has captured the imagination of the world's researchers and connected the world's governments. Once operational, it can also be used to capture the dreams of the world's children and connect the world's industry through education. The space station's global heritage and ownership; its complex engineering, construction, and operation; its flexible research and technology demonstration capability; and its long duration make it the perfect educational platform. These things also make a space station education program attractive to industry. Such a program will give private industry the opportunity to sponsor space-related activities even though a particular industry may not have a research or technology-driven need for space utilization. Sponsors will benefit through public relations and goodwill, educational promotions and advertising, and the sale and marketing of related products. There is money to be made by supporting, fostering, and enabling education in space through the International Space Station. This paper will explore various ISS education program and sponsorship options and benefits, will examine early industry response to such an opportunity, and will make the case for moving forward with an ISS education program as a private sector initiative.
The document contents divide into (1) the basic flow model of an educational system and its application to the secondary school system of Ontario and (2) a group of interrelated submodels that describe the entrance to higher education in considerably finer detail. In the first section, the principal variable of the model--the transition…
Reflecting back over a century ago to the small village of Menlo Park, New Jersey provides insight into a remarkable visionary and an exceptional role model for today's problem-solving and design-focused technology educator: Thomas A. Edison, inventor, innovator, and model technology educator. Since Edison could not simply apply existing knowledge…
Pretzer, William S.; Rogers, George E.; Bush, Jeffery
This document is the fifth in a series of 12 early childhood program descriptions compiled by the Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development. The program described here is the Tucson Early EducationModel (TEEM) located at the University of Arizona. The model is designed for Head Start programs and kindergarten through third…
Arizona Univ., Tucson. Arizona Center for Educational Research and Development.
The Ejs Liouvilleâs Theorem Phase Space Plotter model displays the dynamics of an ensemble of pendula or simple harmonic oscillators in phase space (velocity versus position). Friction is initially set to zero but can be changed via a textbox as can the number of elements in the ensemble. The initial starting point of each element in the ensemble forms a particular shape (square, hollow square, disk, or circle). Therefore at the beginning of the simulation, each starting point is near the others and the red center point in phase space. For the pendulum ensemble, the Cylinder checkbox keeps the angular position between âpi and pi for large initial angular velocities. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Liouvilleâs Theorem Phase Space Plotter model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ehu_analytical_mechanics_Liouville.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for Newtonian mechanics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.
Several immunological processes can be affected by space flight. However, there is little evidence to suggest that flight-induced immunological deficits lead to illness. Therefore, one of our goals has been to define models to examine host resistance during space flight. Our working hypothesis is that space flight crews will come from a heterogeneous population; the immune response gene make-up will be quite varied. It is unknown how much the immune response gene variation contributes to the potential threat from infectious organisms, allergic responses or other long term health problems (e.g. cancer). This article details recent efforts of the Kansas State University gravitational immunology group to assess how population heterogeneity impacts host health, either in laboratory experimental situations and/or using the skeletal unloading model of space-flight stress. This paper details our use of several mouse strains with several different genotypes. In particular, mice with varying MHCII allotypes and mice on the C57BL background with different genetic defects have been particularly useful tools with which to study infections by Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Pasteurella pneumotropica and Ehrlichia chaffeensis. We propose that some of these experimental challenge models will be useful to assess the effects of space flight on host resistance to infection.
Chapes, Stephen Keith; Ganta, Roman Reddy; Chapers, S. K. (Principal Investigator)
The IHY offers unique opportunities to provide education and public outreach programs throughout the world. The Stanford Solar Center has developed a student-focused space weather monitoring program aimed at developing global understanding of the response of Earth's atmosphere to terrestrial and extraterrestrial drivers. Through our educational component, we hope to inspire the next generation of space and Earth scientists and
The Education and Public Outreach (E\\/PO) office in The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) Space Department strives to excite and inspire the next generation of explorers by creating interactive education experiences. Since 1959, APL engineers and scientists have designed, built, and launched 61 spacecraft and over 150 instruments involved in space science. With the vast array of current
M. Matiella Novak; K. Beisser; L. Butler; D. Turney
The NASA Office of Space Science (OSS) has established four Education Forums corresponding to the four OSS science themes: The Sun-Earth Connection; Solar System Exploration; Origins; and the Structure and Evolution of the Universe. Hosted by leading space science research institutions across the country, the Education Forums work in concert with a network of OSS Broker\\/Facilitators to provide a variety
The purpose of the discussion is to summarize the various papers presented,and to try to address the issue of establishing a sustainable network of educators and space scientists. Beside the contextual differences in education systems, cultures, etc., what can be the best promising practices, and how to get the children interested in space sciences. The discussion is opened to all interested parties
The object of this article is to present a categorisation of the ways in which time and space are conceived in the rationale of Mapuche family education. This approach considers knowledge of natural, social, and cultural elements that characterise the classification of time and space by "kimches" (sages) in the education of children and…
The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a multi-agency partnership, which aims at the creation of next generation space weather models. The goal of the CCMC is to support the research and developmental work necessary to substantially increase the present-day modeling capability for space weather purposes, and to provide models for transition to the Rapid Prototyping Centers at the space weather forecast centers. This goal requires close collaborations with and substantial involvement of the research community. The physical regions to be addressed by CCMC-related activities range from the solar atmosphere to the Earth's upper atmosphere. The CCMC is an integral part of the National Space Weather Program Implementation Plan, of NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) initiative, and of the Department of Defense Space Weather Transition Plan. CCMC includes a facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. CCMC also provides, to the research community, access to state-of-the-art space research models. In this paper we will provide a description of the current CCMC status, discuss current plans, research and development accomplishments and goals, and describe the model testing and validation process undertaken as part of the CCMC mandate. Special emphasis will be on solar and heliospheric models currently residing at CCMC, and on plans for validation and verification.
This report details three models quantifying the relationships between educational means (resources) and ends (pupil achievements) to analyze resource allocation problems within school districts: (1) the Pupil Performance Model; (2) the Goal Programming Model; and (3) the Operational Structure of a School and Pupil Performance Model. These models…
We show that the set of 2D images produced by the point features of a rigid 3D model can be represented with two lines in two high-dimensional spaces. These lines are the lowest-dimensional representation possible. We use this result to build a system for...
Describes plastic, skeletal molecular models that are color-coded and can illustrate both the conformation and overall shape of small molecules. They can also be converted to space-filling counterparts by the additions of color-coded polystyrene spheres. (MLH)
This paper presents a methodology for the reliability evaluation of Space Station power system. The two options considered are the photovoltaic system and the solar dynamic system. Reliability models for both of these options are described along with the methodology for calculating the reliability indices.
In the last decade our group at the Center for Space Environment Modeling (CSEM) has developed the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) that efficiently couples together different models describing the interacting regions of the space environment. Many of these domain models (such as the global solar corona, the inner heliosphere or the global magneto-sphere) are based on MHD and are represented by our multiphysics code, BATS-R-US. SWMF is a powerful tool for coupling regional models describing the space environment from the solar photosphere to the bottom of the ionosphere. Presently, SWMF contains over a dozen components: the solar corona (SC), eruptive event generator (EE), inner heliosphere (IE), outer heliosphere (OH), solar energetic particles (SE), global magnetosphere (GM), inner magnetosphere (IM), radiation belts (RB), plasmasphere (PS), ionospheric electrodynamics (IE), polar wind (PW), upper atmosphere (UA) and lower atmosphere (LA). This talk will present an overview of SWMF, new results obtained with improved physics as well as some validation studies.
Gombosi, Tamas; Toth, Gabor; Sokolov, Igor; de Zeeuw, Darren; van der Holst, Bart; Ridley, Aaron; Manchester, Ward, IV
As growing trends show, living in "space" has acquired new meanings, especially considering the utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) with regard to group interaction as well as individual needs in terms of time, space and crew accommodations. In fact, for the crew, the Spaced Station is a combined Laboratory-Office/Home and embodies ethical, social, and cultural aspects as additional parameters to be assessed to achieve a user centered architectural design of crew workspace. Habitability Concept Models can improve the methods and techniques used to support the interior design and layout of space architectures and at the same time guarantee a human focused approach. This paper discusses and illustrates some of the results obtained for the interior design of a Habitation Module for the ISS. In this work, two different but complementary approaches are followed. The first is "object oriented" and based on Video Data (American and Russian) supported by Proxemic methods (Edward T. Hall, 1963 and Francesca Pregnolato, 1998). This approach offers flexible and adaptive design solutions. The second is "subject oriented" and based on a Virtual Reality environment. With this approach human perception and cognitive aspects related to a specific crew task are considered. Data obtained from these two approaches are used to verify requirements and advance the design of the Habitation Module for aspects related to man machine interfaces (MMI), ergonomics, work and free-time. It is expected that the results achieved can be applied to future space related projects.
Globalising processes are shifting the established nation-building project of twentieth-century national education systems. This historic axis between education and territorialised state power is being re-spatialised and remade as a globally networked, lifelong learning educational order. Political sociology of education theorises these de- and…
The magnetosphere within the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) has been represented by a global magnetosphere model (BATSRUS), an inner magnetosphere model (the Rice Convection Model) and a model of the ionospheric electrodynamics. We present significant improvements in the SWMF: (1) We have implemented a spherical grid within BATSRUS and have utilized this for modeling the magnetosphere; (2) We have significantly improved the physics of the auroral oval within the ionospheric electrodynamics code, modeling a self-consistent diffuse and discrete auroral oval; (3) We utilize the multifluid MHD code within BATSRUS to allow for more accurate specification and differentiation of the density within the magnetosphere; and (4) we have incorporated the Hot Electron and Ion Drift Integrator (HEIDI) ring current code within the SWMF. We will present these improvements and show the quantitative differences within the model results when comparing to a suite of measurements for a number of different intervals.
Ridley, A. J.; Liemohn, M.; Dezeeuw, D.; Ilie, R.; Sokolov, I.; Toth, G.; Yu, Y.
The methods are described which are used in predicting the thermal radiation received by space shuttles, from the plumes of the main engines. Radiation to representative surface locations were predicted using the NASA gaseous plume radiation GASRAD program. The plume model is used with the radiative view factor (RAVFAC) program to predict sea level radiation at specified body points. The GASRAD program is described along with the predictions. The RAVFAC model is also discussed.
This paper describes one of the most comprehensive models ever developed for a spacecraft electrical power system (EPS). The model was developed for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to evaluate vehicle power system performance and to assist in scheduling maintenance and refurbishment missions by providing data needed to forecast EPS power and energy margins for the mission phases being planned. The EPS model requires a specific mission phase description as the input driver and uses a high granularity database to produce a multi-orbit power system performance report. The EPS model accurately predicts the power system response to various mission timelines over the entire operational life of the spacecraft.
Parametric cost models are used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. This paper reviews an on-going effort to develop cost modes for space telescopes. This paper summarizes the methodology used to develop cost models and documents how changes to the database have changed previously published preliminary cost models. While the cost models are evolving, the previously published findings remain valid: it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; technology development as a function of time reduces cost; and lower areal density telescopes cost more than more massive telescopes.
Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Luedtke, Alexander; West, Miranda
The International Space Station (ISS) National Lab Education Project has been created as a part of the ISS National Lab effort mandated by the U.S. Congress The project seeks to expand ISS education of activities so that they reach a larger number of stud...
Future space missions demand operations on large flexible structures, for example, space webs, the lightweight cable nets deployable in space, which can serve as platforms for very large structures or be used to capture orbital objects. The interest in research on space webs is likely to increase in the future with the development of promising applications such as Furoshiki sat-ellite of JAXA, Robotic Geostationary Orbit Restorer (ROGER) of ESA and Grapple, Retrieve And Secure Payload (GRASP) of NASA. Unlike high-tensioned nets in civil engineering, space webs may be low-tensioned or tensionless, and extremely flexible, owing to the microgravity in the orbit and the lack of support components, which may cause computational difficulties. Mathematical models are necessary in the analysis of space webs, especially in the conceptual design and evaluation for prototypes. A full three-dimensional finite element (FE) model was developed in this work. Trivial truss elements were adopted to reduce the computational complexity. Considering cable is a compression-free material and its tensile stiffness is also variable, we introduced the cable material constitutive relationship to work out an accurate and feasible model for prototype analysis and design. In the static analysis, the stress distribution and global deformation of the webs were discussed to get access to the knowledge of strength of webs with different types of meshes. In the dynamic analysis, special attention was paid to the impact problem. The max stress and global deformation were investigated. The simulation results indicate the interesting phenomenon which may be worth further research.
The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) hosts a set of state-of-the-art space science models ranging from the solar atmosphere to the Earth's upper atmosphere. CCMC provides a web-based Run-on-Request system, by which the interested scientist can request simulations for a broad range of space science problems. To allow the models to be driven by data relevant to particular events CCMC developed a tool that automatically downloads data from data archives and transform them to required formats. CCMC also provides a tailored web-based visualization interface for the model output, as well as the capability to download the simulation output in portable format. CCMC offers a variety of visualization and output analysis tools to aid scientists in interpretation of simulation results. During eight years since the Run-on-request system became available the CCMC archived the results of almost 3000 runs that are covering significant space weather events and time intervals of interest identified by the community. The simulation results archived at CCMC also include a library of general purpose runs with modeled conditions that are used for education and research. Archiving results of simulations performed in support of several Modeling Challenges helps to evaluate the progress in space weather modeling over time. We will highlight the scientific benefits of CCMC space science model archive and discuss plans for further development of advanced methods to interact with simulation results.
Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Berrios, David; Chulaki, Anna; Hesse, Michael; MacNeice, Peter J.; Maddox, Marlo M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Rastaetter, Lutz; Taktakishvili, Aleksandre
The results of a research project investigating information needs for space commercialization is described. The Space Market Model Development Project (SMMDP) was designed to help NASA identify the information needs of the business community and to explore means to meet those needs. The activity of the SMMDP is reviewed and a report of its operation via three sections is presented. The first part contains a brief historical review of the project since inception. The next part reports results of Phase 3, the most recent stage of activity. Finally, overall conclusions and observations based on the SMMDP research results are presented.
A demonstration of an integrated fault propagation model for Space Station Freedom is described. The demonstration uses a HyperCard graphical interface to show how failures can propagate from one component to another, both within a system and between systems. It also shows how hardware failures can impact certain defined functions like reboost, atmosphere maintenance or collision avoidance. The demonstration enables the user to view block diagrams for the various space station systems using an overview screen, and interactively choose a component and see what single or dual failure combinations can cause it to fail. It also allows the user to directly view the fault model, which is a collection of drawing and text listings accessible from a guide screen. Fault modeling provides a useful technique for analyzing individual systems and also interactions between systems in the presence of multiple failures so that a complete picture of failure tolerance and component criticality can be achieved.
The National Association of Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) (2002) has taken a firm stance on the importance of adequate fitness levels of physical education teachers stating that they have the responsibility to model an active lifestyle and to promote fitness behaviors. Since the NASPE declaration, national initiatives like Let's Move…
This paper reports on the introduction of a "clinical model" of teacher education at the University of Glasgow in 2011. The account is set against the backdrop of a review of major contemporary developments in teacher education. The common focus in this work is on such themes as the key function of the practicum, on "teaching…
This Indiana distributive education competency-based curriculum model is designed to help teachers and local administrators plan and conduct a comprehensive marketing and distributive education program. It is divided into three levels--one level for each year of a three-year program. The competencies common to a variety of marketing and…
Background: A review of the literature on handwashing has documented the absence of research on the education of the patient as an intervention model for changing staff behavior regarding handwashing compliance. The primary objective of this project was to conduct a prospective control study of the effect of patient handwashing education on staff compliance with handwashing. Method: A prospective, controlled,
Maryanne McGuckin; Richard Waterman; Lois Porten; Sandra Bello; Mary Caruso; Barbara Juzaitis; Elyse Krug; Sherry Mazer
While astronomy has recently re-emerged in many science curricula, there remain unresolved teaching and learning difficulties peculiar to astronomy education. This paper argues that mental model building, the core process in astronomy itself, should be reflected in astronomy education. Also, this crucial skill may promote a better understanding of…
This paper presents the tool chain, methodology, and initial results of a study to provide a thorough, objective, and quantitative analysis of the design alternatives for space Software Defined Radio (SDR) transceivers. The approach taken was to develop a set of models and tools for describing communications requirements, the algorithm resource requirements, the available hardware, and the alternative software architectures, and generate analysis data necessary to compare alternative designs. The Space Transceiver Analysis Tool (STAT) was developed to help users identify and select representative designs, calculate the analysis data, and perform a comparative analysis of the representative designs. The tool allows the design space to be searched quickly while permitting incremental refinement in regions of higher payoff.
Reinhart, Richard C.; Liebetreu, John; Moore, Michael S.; Price, Jeremy C.; Abbott, Ben
The Internet enables new models. In the commercial world, for example, we have eBay, Amazon.com, and Netflix. These new models operate with a different set of rules than do traditional models. New models are emerging in higher education as well--for example, competency-based programs. In addition, courses that are being provided from outside the…
The optical modeling of laser beam propagation between two points on the earth's surface is discussed with reference to a space relay experiment using relay mirrors on one or more satellites. A two-dimensional laser beam propagation code is applied, and several novel modules are developed to realistically model the environment of the experiment. These are the Kolmogorov atmosphere, a deformable mirror, a segmented aperture, and wind shear. The model allows the calculation of the beam-Strehl ratio and efficiency of the energy transfer for an arbitrary input beam distribution.
The document was prepared to serve as a guide to adult educators and others interested in specific information relating to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and to provide a source of information of the breadth and scope of space explorations including space benefits to mankind. The course is organized into eight units of…
Space weather describes the various processes in the Sun-Earth system that present danger to human health and technology. The goal of space weather forecasting is to provide an opportunity to mitigate these negative effects. Physics-based space weather modeling is characterized by disparate temporal and spatial scales as well as by different relevant physics in different domains. A multi-physics system can be modeled by a software framework comprising several components. Each component corresponds to a physics domain, and each component is represented by one or more numerical models. The publicly available Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) can execute and couple together several components distributed over a parallel machine in a flexible and efficient manner. The framework also allows resolving disparate spatial and temporal scales with independent spatial and temporal discretizations in the various models. Several of the computationally most expensive domains of the framework are modeled by the Block-Adaptive Tree Solarwind Roe-type Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code that can solve various forms of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, including Hall, semi-relativistic, multi-species and multi-fluid MHD, anisotropic pressure, radiative transport and heat conduction. Modeling disparate scales within BATS-R-US is achieved by a block-adaptive mesh both in Cartesian and generalized coordinates. Most recently we have created a new core for BATS-R-US: the Block-Adaptive Tree Library (BATL) that provides a general toolkit for creating, load balancing and message passing in a 1, 2 or 3 dimensional block-adaptive grid. We describe the algorithms of BATL and demonstrate its efficiency and scaling properties for various problems. BATS-R-US uses several time-integration schemes to address multiple time-scales: explicit time stepping with fixed or local time steps, partially steady-state evolution, point-implicit, semi-implicit, explicit/implicit, and fully implicit numerical schemes. Depending on the application, we find that different time stepping methods are optimal. Several of the time integration schemes exploit the block-based granularity of the grid structure. The framework and the adaptive algorithms enable physics-based space weather modeling and even short-term forecasting.
Tóth, Gábor; van der Holst, Bart; Sokolov, Igor V.; De Zeeuw, Darren L.; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Fang, Fang; Manchester, Ward B.; Meng, Xing; Najib, Dalal; Powell, Kenneth G.; Stout, Quentin F.; Glocer, Alex; Ma, Ying-Juan; Opher, Merav
Japanese two lunar and planetary missions, Kaguya (SELENE) and Hayabusa (MUSES-C) are returning vast amount of result to the Earth, and these data are planned to open to the public via the Internet. These are considered useful not only for scientists and engineers but also for the educators and students as a “real textbook”. In spaceeducation, we can use several methods to facilitate students' interest. Here we describe some of our examples to promote spaceeducation. One is the event accompanying with the major conferences, and second is the video program describing the Hayabusa mission with very unique viewpoint, and the third is the website carefully designed for children. However, the application of mission results to the spaceeducation has some points which should be specific to these missions. This paper describes our current attempt of these application and future prospects for the promotion of spaceeducation.
Electronic, software-managed mechanisms using, for example, radio-frequency identification (RFID) cards, enable great flexibility in specifying access control policies to physical spaces. For example, access rights may vary based on time of day or could differ in normal versus emergency situations. With such fine-grained control, understanding and reasoning about what a policy permits becomes surprisingly difficult requiring knowledge of permission levels, spatial layout, and time. In this paper, we present a formal modeling framework, called AccessNets, suitable for describing a combination of access permissions, physical spaces, and temporal constraints. Furthermore, we provide evidence that model checking techniques are effective in reasoning about physical access control policies. We describe our results from a tool that uses reachability analysis to validate security policies.
This viewgraph presentation attempts to develop a model of factors which need to be considered in the design and construction of spacecraft to lessen the effects of space weather on these vehicles. Topics considered include: space environments and effects, radiation environments and effects, space weather drivers, space weather models, climate models, solar proton activity and mission design for the GOES mission. The authors conclude that space environment models need to address issues from mission planning through operations and a program to develop and validate authoritative space environment models for application to spacecraft design does not exist at this time.
The Reference Architecture for Space Information Management (RASIM) suggests the separation of the data model from software components to promote the development of flexible information management systems. RASIM allows the data model to evolve independently from the software components and results in a robust implementation that remains viable as the domain changes. However, the development and management of data models within RASIM are difficult and time consuming tasks involving the choice of a notation, the capture of the model, its validation for consistency, and the export of the model for implementation. Current limitations to this approach include the lack of ability to capture comprehensive domain knowledge, the loss of significant modeling information during implementation, the lack of model visualization and documentation capabilities, and exports being limited to one or two schema types. The advent of the Semantic Web and its demand for sophisticated data models has addressed this situation by providing a new level of data model management in the form of ontology tools. In this paper we describe the use of a representative ontology tool to capture and manage a data model for a space information system. The resulting ontology is implementation independent. Novel on-line visualization and documentation capabilities are available automatically, and the ability to export to various schemas can be added through tool plug-ins. In addition, the ingestion of data instances into the ontology allows validation of the ontology and results in a domain knowledge base. Semantic browsers are easily configured for the knowledge base. For example the export of the knowledge base to RDF/XML and RDFS/XML and the use of open source metadata browsers provide ready-made user interfaces that support both text- and facet-based search. This paper will present the Planetary Data System (PDS) data model as a use case and describe the import of the data model into an ontology tool. We will also describe the current effort to provide interoperability with the European Space Agency (ESA)/Planetary Science Archive (PSA) which is critically dependent on a common data model.
Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel J.; Ramirez, Paul; Mattmann, chris
The purpose of this study was to develop and test a model to predict educational aspirations of Canadian adolescents. Participants were a national sample of 4,034 students from grades 8–13 (2,037 males, 1,973 females). Results of a modified structural model included three sets of influences: a) a background factor comprised of parental occupation and education; b) a family involvement factor
Rashmi Garg; Carol Kauppi; John Lewko; Diana Urajnik
This paper presents a fundamental modeling strategy for dealing with powered and propelled bodies moving along space tethers. The tether is divided into a large number of discrete masses, which are connected by viscoelastic springs. The tether is subject to the full range of forces expected in Earth orbit in a relatively simple manner. Two different models of the elevator dynamics are presented. In order to capture the effect of the elevator moving along the tether, the elevator dynamics are included as a separate body in both models. One model treats the elevator's motion dynamically, where propulsive and friction forces are applied to the elevator body. The second model treats the elevator's motion kinematically, where the distance along the tether is determined by adjusting the lengths of tether on either side of the elevator. The tether model is used to determine optimal configurations for the space elevator. A modal analysis of two different configurations is presented which show that the fundamental mode of oscillation is a pendular one around the anchor point with a period on the order of 160 h for the in-plane motion, and 24 h for the out-of-plane motion. Numerical simulation results of the effects of the elevator moving along the cable are presented for different travel velocities and different elevator masses.
In an effort to prepare health care professionals for the team-based work environment that exists in health care delivery systems today, some nursing faculty may consider collaborative, team-taught courses that integrate faculty and students from various disciplines. To assist nursing faculty in making an informed decision about integrated curriculum development and course implementation, multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, and transdisciplinary educational teams are defined. Examples are offered that reflect these three integrated educational team models. Finally, the benefits and potential problem areas that result from team initiatives are briefly reviewed. PMID:14528864
In today"s economy, public university administrators need to reflect on current practices for reporting and projecting space requirements to government entities as the cost of constructing new facilities or renovating space rises while income from legislative appropriations diminishes. As stewards of public buildings and funds, institutions are…
One of NASA's missions is to attract and retain students in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. Creating missions or programs to achieve this important goal helps strengthen NASA and the nation's future work force as well as engage and inspire Americans and the rest of the world. During the last three years, in an attempt to revitalize educationalspace flight, NASA generated a new and exciting initiative. This initiative, NASA's Educational Launch of Nanosatellite (ELaNa), is now fully operational and producing exciting results. Nanosatellites are small secondary satellite payloads called CubeSats. One of the challenges that the CubeSat community faced over the past few years was the lack of rides into space. Students were building CubeSats but they just sat on the shelf until an opportunity arose. In some cases, these opportunities never developed and so the CubeSat never made it to orbit. The ELaNa initiative is changing this by providing sustainable launch opportunities for educational CubeSats. Across America, these CubeSats are currently being built by students in high school all the way through graduate school. Now students know that if they build their CubeSat, submit their proposal and are selected for an ELaNa mission, they will have the opportunity to fly their satellite. ELaNa missions are the first educational cargo to be carried on expendable launch vehicles (ELY) for NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP). The first ELaNa CubeSats were slated to begin their journey to orbit in February 2011 with NASA's Glory mission. Due to an anomaly with the launch vehicle, ELaNa II and Glory failed to reach orbit. This first ELaNa mission was comprised of three IU CubeSats built by students at Montana State University (Explorer Prime Flight 1), the University of Colorado (HERMES), and Kentucky Space, a consortium of state universities (KySat). The interface between the launch vehicle and the CubeSat, the Poly-Picosatellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD), was developed and built by students at California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly). Integrating a P-POD on a NASA ELV was not an easy task. The creation of new processes and requirements as well as numerous reviews and approvals were necessary within NASA before the first ELaNa mission could be attached to a NASA launch vehicle (LV). One of the key objectives placed on an ELaNa mission is that the CubeSat and PPOD does not increase the baseline risk to the primary mission and launch vehicle. The ELaNa missions achieve this objective by placing a rigorous management and engineering process on both the LV and CubeSat teams. So, what is the future of ELaNa? Currently there are 16 P-POD missions manifested across four launch vehicles to support educational CubeSats selected under the NASA CubeSat Initiative. From this initiative, a rigorous selection process produced 22-student CubeSat missions that are scheduled to fly before the end of 2012. For the initiative to continue, organizations need to submit proposals to the annual CubeSat initiative call so they have the opportunity to be manifested and launched.
This paper describes the innovative features of the first regional model of interprofessional education (IPE) in the US, developed by The Commonwealth Medical College, Scranton, PA, USA, as a new, independent, community-based medical school in northeastern Pennsylvania. Essential educational components include collaborative care seminars, interprofessional sessions, simulations, live web-based seminars and newly innovative virtual environment interactive exercises. All of these elements are being integrated into the curricula of 14 undergraduate and allied professional schools, and three graduate medical education programs located in the region. Activities incorporate simulation, standardized patients, student leadership, and faculty and student facilitation. As this new regional model of interprofessional education is fully implemented, its impact will be assessed using both quantitative and qualitative outcomes measurements. Appropriate ongoing modifications to the model will be made to ensure improvement and further applicability to collaborative learning.
Olenick, Maria; Foote, Edward; Vanston, Patricia; Szarek, John; Vaskalis, Zachary; Dimattio, Mary Jane; Smego, Raymond A
Created by the Shodor Education Foundation, Inc., the Modeling And Simulation Tools for Education Reform (MASTER) provide useful educational tools that help students and teachers learn through observation and modeling activities. The Shodor Foundation worked in tandem with the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, George Mason University, and other educational organizations to craft these tools and visitors can access all eight of them here. The Fractal Modeling Tools are a good place to start as visitors can download the required software or take in some instructional materials, such as the interactive fractal microscope and the snowflake fractal generator. Other notable areas here include The Pit and the Pendulum, which offers the work of Edgar Allan Poe as a way to learn about better reading through computation.
We developed a capability for model-based trade space exploration to be used in the conceptual design of Earth-orbiting space missions. We have created a set of reusable software components to model various subsystems and aspects of space missions. Several example mission models were created to test the tools and process. This technique and toolset has demonstrated itself to be valuable
Ronald Cohen; Wayne Boncyk; James Brutocao; Iain Beveridge
The worksphere, a user controlled computer workstation enclosure, was expanded in scope to an engineering workstation suitable for use on the Space Station as a crewmember desk in orbit. The concept was also explored as a module control station capable of enclosing enough equipment to control the station from each module. The concept has commercial potential for the Space Station and surface workstation applications. The central triangular beam interior configuration was expanded and refined to seven different beam configurations. These included triangular on center, triangular off center, square, hexagonal small, hexagonal medium, hexagonal large and the H beam. Each was explored with some considerations as to the utilities and a suggested evaluation factor methodology was presented. Scale models of each concept were made. The models were helpful in researching the seven beam configurations and determining the negative residual (unused) volume of each configuration. A flexible hardware evaluation factor concept is proposed which could be helpful in evaluating interior space volumes from a human factors point of view. A magnetic version with all the graphics is available from the author or the technical monitor.
Taylor, T. C.; Spencer, J. S.; Rocha, C. J.; Kahn, E.; Cliffton, E.; Carr, C.
The thermal dynamics of two space suits, the Space Shuttle EMU and the MPLSS Advanced Space Suit, are considered as they relate to astronaut thermal comfort control. The activities documented in this dissertation cover three related areas, modeling, analysis, and control. A detailed dynamic lumped capacitance thermal model of the operational Space Shuttle EMU is used to analyze the thermal
Model reduction is an important practical problem in the control of flexible spacecraft, and a considerable amount of work has been carried out on this topic. Two of the best known methods developed are modal truncation and internal balancing. Modal truncation is simple to implement but can give poor results when the structure possesses clustered natural frequencies, as often occurs in practice. Balancing avoids this problem but has the disadvantages of high computational cost, possible numerical sensitivity problems, and no physical interpretation for the resulting balanced 'modes'. The purpose of this work is to examine the performance of the subsystem balancing technique developed by the investigator when tested on a realistic flexible space structure, in this case a model of the Permanently Manned Configuration (PMC) of Space Station Freedom. This method retains the desirable properties of standard balancing while overcoming the three difficulties listed above. It achieves this by first decomposing the structural model into subsystems of highly correlated modes. Each subsystem is approximately uncorrelated from all others, so balancing them separately and then combining yields comparable results to balancing the entire structure directly. The operation count reduction obtained by the new technique is considerable: a factor of roughly r(exp 2) if the system decomposes into r equal subsystems. Numerical accuracy is also improved significantly, as the matrices being operated on are of reduced dimension, and the modes of the reduced-order model now have a clear physical interpretation; they are, to first order, linear combinations of repeated-frequency modes.
The stability of a linear model of the active cochlea is difficult to determine from its calculated frequency response alone. A state spacemodel of the cochlea is presented, which includes a discretized set of general micromechanical elements coupled via the cochlear fluid. The stability of this time domain model can be easily determined in the linear case, and the same framework used to simulate the time domain response of nonlinear models. Examples of stable and unstable behavior are illustrated using the active micromechanical model of Neely and Kim. The stability of this active cochlea is extremely sensitive to abrupt spatial inhomogeneities, while smoother inhomogeneities are less likely to cause instability. The model is a convenient tool for investigating the presence of instabilities due to random spatial inhomogeneities. The number of unstable poles is found to rise sharply with the relative amplitude of the inhomogeneities up to a few percent, but to be significantly reduced if the spatial variation is smoothed. In a saturating nonlinear model, such instabilities generate limit cycles that are thought to produce spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. An illustrative time domain simulation is presented, which shows how an unstable model evolves into a limit cycle, distributed along the cochlea. PMID:18189567
This proposal addresses the need for effective and innovative science and health education materials that focus on space bone biology and its implications for bone health on Earth. The focus of these materials, bone biology and health, will increase scien...
The authors have joined in "Live from the Hubble Space Telescope" which was operated by a Passport to Knowledge Project team. The authors are sure that collaboration between scientists and teachers using Internet have an effect on science education.
We often start the design of learning spaces with service and operational considerations rather than with questions about the character of the learning we want to happen in the space. To correct this practice, six questions are here proposed that colleges and universities should ask first and persistently throughout the construction or renovation of learning spaces. Much of this discussion
The paper describes the industry/university consortia programs established by the United States and Australia and examines these programs from the viewpoint of their impact on spaceeducation in their respective countries. Particular attention is given to the aim and the nature of the three programs involved: the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDSs) (funded by NASA), which are currently involving about 250 companies and 88 universities as participants; the Space Industry Development Centers (SIDCs) (funded by the Australian Space Office): and the Cooperative Research Centers (CRCs) (funded by the Federal Government), which are not limited to the space area but are open to activities ranging from medical research to waste-water treatment. It is emphasized that, while the main aim of the CCDS, SIDC, and CRC programs is to develop space expertise, spaceeducation is a very significant byproduct of the activity of these agencies.
The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums have developed a web-based information system - NASA Wavelength - that will enable easy discovery and retrieval of thousands of resources from the NASA Earth and space science education portfolio. The beta system is being launched fall 2012 and has been developed based on best-practices in the architecture and design of Web-based information systems. The design style and philosophy emphasize simple, reusable data and services that facilitate the free-flow of data across systems. The primary audiences for NASA Wavelength are STEM educators (K-12, higher education and informal education) as well as scientists, education and public outreach professionals who work with k-12, higher education and informal education.
Schwerin, T.; Peticolas, L. M.; Bartolone, L. M.; Davey, B.; Porcello, D.
We present T&D-Bench, Teaching and Design Workbench, a framework for design space exploration of embedded processors. Design space exploration has become a fundamental phase of the SOC (system on a chip) design process in industry and in research, and so it is important also in computer architecture education. T&D-Bench is an innovative framework to be employed in computer architecture education,
I will describe a community-wide educator enrichment program in the Earth and Space Sciences that is being developed at Halibut Point State Park in Rockport, MA. Through wide-ranging partnerships, we will provide two on-site hands-on workshops in Earth and Space Science that will serve the interests of school teachers, scout leaders, park interpreters, amateur astronomers, and other community educators. Each
In this paper the importance of the ill-posedness of the classical, non-dissipative massive tether model on an orbiting tether system is studied numerically. The computations document that via the regularisation of bending resistance a more reliable numerical integrator can be produced. Furthermore, the numerical experiments of an orbiting tether system show that bending may introduce significant forces in some regions of phase space. Finally, numerical evidence for the existence of an almost invariant slow manifold of the singularly perturbed, regularised, non-dissipative massive tether model is provided. It is also shown that on the slow manifold the dynamics of the satellites are well-approximated by the finite dimensional slack-spring model.
Kristiansen, K. Uldall; Palmer, P. L.; Roberts, R. M.
This paper describes a method for tracking moving image features by combining spatial and temporal edge information with model based feature information. The algorithm updates the two-dimensional position of object features by correlating predicted model features with current image data. The results of the correlation process are used to compute an updated model. The algorithm makes use of a high temporal sampling rate with respect to spatial changes of the image features and operates in a real-time multiprocessing environment. Preliminary results demonstrate successful tracking for image feature velocities between 1.1 and 4.5 pixels every image frame. This work has applications for docking, assembly, retrieval of floating objects and a host of other space-related tasks.
Space-based systems are developing into critical infrastructure to support the quality of life on Earth. Mission requirements along with rapidly evolving technologies have outpaced efforts to accommodate detrimental space environment impacts on systems. This chapter describes approaches to accommodate space climate and space weather impacts on systems and notes areas where gaps in model development limit our ability to prevent spacecraft anomalies.
The International Space Station (ISS) National Lab Education Project has been created as a part of the ISS National Lab effort mandated by the U.S. Congress The project seeks to expand ISS education of activities so that they reach a larger number of students with clear educational metrics of accomplishments. This paper provides an overview of several recent ISS educational payloads and activities. The expected outcomes of the project, consistent with those of the NASA Office of Education, are also described. NASA performs numerous education activities as part of its ISS program. These cover the gamut from formal to informal educational opportunities in grades Kindergarten to grade 12, Higher Education (undergraduate and graduate University) and informal educational venues (museums, science centers, exhibits). Projects within the portfolio consist of experiments performed onboard the ISS using onboard resources which require no upmass, payloads flown to ISS or integrated into ISS cargo vehicles, and ground based activities that follow or complement onboard activities. Examples include ground based control group experiments, flight or experiment following lesson plans, ground based activities involving direct interaction with ISS or ground based activities considering ISS resources in their solution set. These projects range from totally NASA funded to projects which partner with external entities. These external agencies can be: other federal, state or local government agencies, commercial entities, universities, professional organizations or non-profit organizations. This paper will describe the recent ISS education activities and discuss the approach, outcomes and metrics associated with the projects.
Severance, Mark T.; Tate-Brown, Judy; McArthur, Cynthia L.
In this paper, we introduce methods for evaluating climate model performance across spatial scales. These techniques are based on the "scale space" framework widely used in the image processing and computer vision communities. We discuss why the diffusion equation on the sphere provides a particularly attractive means of smoothing two-dimensional maps of global climate data. We establish that no structure is introduced into a map as an artifact of the smoothing procedure. This allows for the comparison of models and observations at multiple scales. As a test case for these methods, we compare the ability of high- and low-resolution versions of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) to simulate the seasonal climatologies of surface air temperature (TAS), sea level pressure (PSL), and total precipitation rate (PR). For TAS, we find that the high-resolution model is better able to capture the boreal summer (JJA) climatological pattern at fine scales, although there is no such improvement in winter (DJF). We find the performances of the high- and low-resolution models to be similarly capable of capturing the summertime sea level pressure climatology at all scales. However, the high-resolution model PSL climatology is degraded for DJF, especially at larger scales. For both JJA and DJF precipitation climatologies, we find larger precipitation errors in the high-resolution model at the finest scales; however, performance at larger scales is improved.
National policy in higher education requires higher education institutions to widen access to adult learners alongside other previously excluded groups, yet gives few indications as to how this should be done. The assumption seems to have been that broadening access is sufficient in itself. In this article we argue that it is possible to construct…
The booklet discusses the concept of environmental psychology and suggests ways of applying environmental psychology principles to education. A new field of study, environmental psychology deals with influences of the physical environment on human attitudes and behavior. Of potential use to educators on all levels as they seek to use the physical…
This article begins with an overview of how WebCT is used within a Masters in Education (M.Ed.) program in social studies and global education. WebCT is a class management system that allows instructors to choose from a variety of electronic technologies for a single course or integrate coursework across an entire academic program. In the M.Ed.…
State-spacemodels provide an important body of techniques for analyzing time-series, but their use requires estimating unobserved states. The optimal estimate of the state is its conditional expectation given the observation histories, and computing this expectation is hard when there are nonlinearities. Existing filtering methods, including sequential Monte Carlo, tend to be either inaccurate or slow. In this paper, we study a nonlinear filter for nonlinear/non-Gaussian state-spacemodels, which uses Laplace’s method, an asymptotic series expansion, to approximate the state’s conditional mean and variance, together with a Gaussian conditional distribution. This Laplace-Gaussian filter (LGF) gives fast, recursive, deterministic state estimates, with an error which is set by the stochastic characteristics of the model and is, we show, stable over time. We illustrate the estimation ability of the LGF by applying it to the problem of neural decoding and compare it to sequential Monte Carlo both in simulations and with real data. We find that the LGF can deliver superior results in a small fraction of the computing time.
Perez-Bolde, Lucia Castellanos; Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla; Kass, Robert E.
The Space Place is an integrated NASA education and public outreach program, so far representing over 40 different NASA missions. It combines Web-based, printed, and externally published media to reach underserved audiences across the nation. Its primary mission is to develop and provide a highly desirable suite of attractive and educational products designed to appeal to and immerse the general
The promotion of education for sustainable development (ESD) is likely to be constrained by its compatibility with other missions and objectives of higher education institutions (HEIs). Finding space for ESD in the Enterprise Economy invites consideration of opportunities for increasing the visibility and audibility of environmental messages in HE…
This documentary account explores the potential of public art pedagogy to co-construct imaginative spaces in pre-service teacher education. Based upon a collaborative venture between two professors and an arts-based educational organization, the present article describes and analyzes key features and relations that were influential in transforming…
The education of system engineers with emphasis on designing systems for space applications is discussed. System engineers determine the functional requirements, performance needs, and implementation procedures for proposed systems and their education is based on aeronautics and mathematics. Recommendations from industry for improving the curriculum of system engineers at the undergraduate and graduate levels are provided. The assistance provided by companies to the education of system engineers is examined.
This description of the Model Edspec, which can be used by itself or in conjunction with the "Format Guide of Educational Specifications," serves as a comprehensive planning tool for the selection and application of technology. The model is designed to assist schools in implementing the facilities development process, thereby making electronic…
Maryland State Dept. of Education, College Park. Office of Administration and Finance.
Combined data from Coleman's 1961 Adolescent Society survey and 15-year follow-up study of early status attainment of respondents. Found parents' effects on children's educational aspirations and attainments due to modeling and defining influences. Defining effects exceeded modeling effects in strength; proportion of parental influence due to…
We propose a multidimensional model that can be used to formulate a research agenda that aims to explore how innovations in teaching and instruction influence the science of learning within educational contexts. This model depicts the complexity of relationships between variables within: classrooms, the total school program, and inside and outside…
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; Mitchell, Gail S.; Dolan, Teresa A.
Develops a taxonomy scheme that classifies the manpower-educational flow models which appear in the literature. The classification scheme shows the similarities and differences of all models classified, and it can be used to pinpoint areas for future research. (Author/DN)
The development and application of educational programs to improve public awareness of the space shuttle/space lab capabilities are reported. Special efforts were made to: identify the potential user, identify and analyze spaceeducation programs, plan methods for user involvement, develop techniques and programs to encourage new users, and compile follow-on ideas.
Chronicles the shift from “collegial academy to corporate enterprise” in higher education institutions. Examines the major political, economic and educational reasons given for this shift and relates them to the gradual decline of the liberal educational tradition. Notes that with the present government’s growing belief in a market model of higher education, a new form of education is emerging which
This collection contains articles from the journal "Planning for Higher Education" organized around four core spaces commonly found on a college or university campus. Following an introduction, Section 2, "Cultural Spaces," contains these articles: (1) "Planning the Successful Performing Arts Facility" (Wendell Brase, v18 n3); (2) "Frontier…
Sixth Form Colleges (along with the general Further Education sector) in England and Wales have of late begun to appoint new chaplains and to set aside space for quiet, prayer and reflection. This article explores this phenomenon as exhibited by three colleges in the English Midlands, utilising spatial theory and the sociology of "sacred" spaces…
Topics concerning the modeling, analysis, and optimization of large space structures are discussed including structure-control interaction, structural and structural dynamics modeling, thermal analysis, testing, and design.
Pinson, L. D. (compiler); Amos, A. K. (comp..); Venkayya, V. B. (compiler)
Modeling, like inquiry more generally, is not a single method, but rather a complex suite of strategies. Philosophers of biology, citing the diverse aims, interests, and disciplinary cultures of biologists, argue that modeling is best understood in the context of its epistemic aims and cognitive payoffs. In the science education literature, modeling has been discussed in a variety of ways, but often without explicit reference to the diversity of roles models play in scientific practice. We aim to expand and bring clarity to the myriad uses of models in science by presenting a framework from philosopher of biology Jay Odenbaugh that describes five pragmatic strategies of model use in the biological sciences. We then present illustrative examples of each of these roles from an empirical study of an undergraduate biological modeling curriculum, which highlight how students used models to help them frame their research question, explore ideas, and refine their conceptual understanding in an educational setting. Our aim is to begin to explicate the definition of modeling in science in a way that will allow educators and curriculum developers to make informed choices about how and for what purpose modeling enters science classrooms.
A general review of NASA\\/OSS goals and overall structure for providing opportunities for NASA supported scientists to optimize their influence on the development of effective and accurate K-13 educational resources will be presented. The intent of the Forum\\/Broker system will be discussed. The state of implementation of NASA\\/OSS's education \\/outreach addendum to research proposals will be reviewed. How best can
A computer program for the application of parameter identification on the structural dynamic models of space shuttle and other large models with hundreds of degrees of freedom is described. Finite element, dynamic, analytic, and modal models are used to represent the structural system. The interface with math models is such that output from any structural analysis program applied to any structural configuration can be used directly. Processed data from either sine-sweep tests or resonant dwell tests are directly usable. The program uses measured modal data to condition the prior analystic model so as to improve the frequency match between model and test. A Bayesian estimator generates an improved analytical model and a linear estimator is used in an iterative fashion on highly nonlinear equations. Mass and stiffness scaling parameters are generated for an improved finite element model, and the optimum set of parameters is obtained in one step.
NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo rocks and regolith soils first hand. Lunar samples embedded in plastic are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks has revealed the early history of our Earth-Moon system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet as well as connections to the basic lunar surface processes - impact and volcanism. With these samples educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by missions to Moon. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections of the rocks to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the violent impact history of the Moon. The disks also include two regolith soils and orange glass from a pyroclastic deposit. The loan program also includes Meteorite Disks containing six meteorites that will help educators share the early history of the solar system with students and the public. Educators may borrow either lunar or meteorite disks through Johnson Space Center Curatorial Office. In trainings provided by the NASA Aerospace Education Services Program specialists, educators certified to borrow the disk learn about education resources, the proper use of the samples, and the special security for care and shipping of the disks. The Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program is set up to bridge to new education programs that will carry NASA exploration to more people. Getting Space Rocks out to the public and connecting the public to the current space exploration missions is the focus the NASA disk loan program.
This book, for use only in the Air Force ROTC training program, deals with the idea of space exploration. The possibility of going into space and subsequent moon landings have encouraged the government and scientists to formulate future plans in this field. Brief descriptions (mostly informative in nature) of these plans provide an account of…
We often start the design of learning spaces with service and operational considerations rather than with questions about the character of the learning we want to happen in the space. To correct this practice, six questions are here proposed that colleges and universities should ask first and persistently throughout the construction or renovation…
This research project began as an effort to redesign a learning theory course as transitional space and evolved into an analysis of how unresolved conflict from younger learning selves influence graduate preservice teachers' acquisition of teacher identity. The study draws upon work by Elizabeth Ellsworth on transitional space and Deborah P.…
The Space Weather Laboratory, and the Community Coordinated Modeling Center at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, have developed new tools to disseminate space weather and space environment information to end-users. These include a new web-based data streaming service for space weather simulation data, a new web-based interactive time series visualization for arbitrary time series data, and a new iPhone app for the integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA). We highlight the technical challenges associated with each of these efforts and demonstrate the new services.
Berrios, D.; Mullinix, R. E.; Maddox, M. M.; Rastaetter, L.; Doria, S.
We are taking a new look at our NASA-sponsored space science educational outreach for the CINDI mission from the perspective of meeting the needs of mathematics educators to strengthen the connections between science and mathematics for students.
The results of the prototype operations of the Space Business Information Center are presented. A clearinghouse for space business information for members of the U.S. space industry composed of public, private, and academic sectors was conducted. Behavioral and evaluation statistics were recorded from the clearinghouse and the conclusions from these statistics are presented. Business guidebooks on major markets in space business are discussed. Proprietary research and briefings for firms and agencies in the space industry are also discussed.
This catalog provides information on current, ongoing and pilot programs conducted at precollege through postdoctoral levels which are primarily funded or managed by the Office of Space Science Applications (OSSA). The directory of programs section includes teacher and faculty preparation and enhancement, student enrichment opportunities, student research opportunities, postdoctoral and advanced research opportunities, initiatives to strengthen educational institution involvement in research and initiatives to strengthen research community involvement in education. The Educational Products appendices include tabular data of OSSA activities, NASA Spacelink, NASA education satellites videoconferences, the Teacher Resource Center Network, and a form for requesting further information.
The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a US inter-agency activity aiming at research in support of the generation of advanced space weather models. As one of its main functions, the CCMC provides to researchers the use of space science models, even if they are not model owners themselves. The second CCMC activity is to support Space Weather forecasting at national Space Weather Forecasting Centers. This second activity involves model evaluations, model transitions to operations, and the development of space weather forecasting tools. Owing to the pace of development in the science community, new model capabilities emerge frequently. Consequently, space weather products and tools involve not only increased validity, but often entirely new capabilities. This presentation will review the present state of space weather tools as well as point out emerging future capabilities.
Hesse, Michael; Kuznetsova, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Maddox, M.; Rastaetter, L.; Berrios, D.; MacNeice, P.
Most of higher education institutions provide certain area known as learning centre for their students to study or having group discussions. However, some of the learning centers are not provided by optimum number of tables and seats to accommodate the students sufficiently. This study proposed a new mathematical model in optimizing the number of tables and seats at Laman Najib, Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam. An improvement of space capacity with maximum number of students who can facilitate the Laman Najib at the same time has been made by considering the type and size of tables that are appropriate for student's discussions. Our finding is compared with the result of Simplex method of linear programming to ensure that our new model is valid and consistent with other existing approaches. As a conclusion, we found that the round-type tables with six seats provide the maximum number of students who can use Laman Najib for their discussions or group studying. Both methods are also practical to use as alternative approaches in solving other space optimization problems.
Abdullah, Kamilah; Kamis, Nor Hanimah; Sha'ari, Nor Shahida; Muhammad Halim, Nurul Suhada; Hashim, Syaril Naqiah
In this paper, we describe a method of 3D modeling based on photographs for real-time graphics system of educational use. The method uses few basic models like squares, spheres and so on, and a 3D model is constructed by modifying basic models, guided by parameters. For example, we made an educational real-time graphics system of the deep space, having galaxies' 3D models. A typical galaxy called spiral galaxy consists of two parts; a spherical center part named bulge, and a whirlpool convex-lens shaped surrounding part named galactic disc. Galaxies' photographs are taken from a limited angle, because they are too far away, and viewed only from the earth. So a galaxies' photograph is whether in a whirlpool form, a convex-lens form, or in a slant form between the two forms. Therefore our method puts a sphere model at the bulge position, and a convex-lens model formed by a sphere metamorphism at the galactic disc position. Parameters are used to change galaxies' position, size, XYZ-axes metamorphism and rotation. Thus we get a 3D galaxy model corresponding to the photograph, and learners can look at a 3D galaxy from any viewpoint and view direction. In this way, we construct realistic 3D models. The amount of rendering computation is still low. Thus real-time rendering images are produced freely from a moving viewpoint and view direction.
Introduces the Amazing Space program which is designed to enhance student mathematics, science, and technology skills using recent data and results from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Hubble Space Telescope mission. Explains the process of designing multi-media resources in a five-week summer workshop that partners…
Christian, C. A.; Eisenhamer, B.; Eisenhamer, Jonathan; Teays, Terry
The purpose of this spatial study is to understand the function space play in a combined credential program in the US in helping or hindering the program's inclusive mission. The study examines how physical and social manifestations of general and special education are (re)organized in the new program. The data provides evidence for the pervasive…
Examines how the Southern European Mediterranean immigrants to Australia attempted to contribute to the making of an educational system that would cater to their real or imagined cultural ecology and educational curriculum. An economic rationale is suggested for the Australian model of multiculturalism and its impact on education. (SLD)
An overview of the science related to the development of production of space food is presented for school students. Students are acquainted with careers in food science, nutrition, dietetics, microbiology, and astrobiology.
One of the precepts of the company was to provide educators with practical, innovative, and manageable audio-visual teaching aids in a wide spectrum of educational fields, but primarily geography, geology and social science. A pilot slide set was prepared, demonstrating primary areas along the entire length of the San Andreas Fault Zone in California and Mexico. This set utilized several NASA infrared research aircraft photos, to more clearly delineate fault traces. A decision was made to mount a massive program of repackaging NASA generated infrared aircraft imagery into topical teaching sets.
The authors have taught many space related classes for different universities and distance learning programs at the NASA Johnson Space Center and on Embry Riddle's residential campus in Prescott, Arizona. The student clientele were aerospace professionals at NASA/JSC or fulltime undergraduate students in Prescott. Over the course of these classes the topic of space debris was introduced and it was found that this field can serve as a very elaborate example pool for applied orbital mechanics, mission planning, and space craft design. Projects like the analysis of satellite fragmentations, interactive web based flux directionality calculations, and the long time effects of perturbations on a satellite's orbit are a few examples on how this important topic can be included in a university curriculum. Additionally, a university can serve as a repository of knowledge, which extends beyond the life of an industrial contractual relationship. This paper will present methods on how to implement into an aerospace engineering or space physics curriculum the knowledge and foundation needed to understand space debris problems, and by extension many interdisciplinary problems and other areas of science and technology.
A model of the various human factors issues and interactions that might affect crew safety is developed. The first step addressed systematically the central question: How is this Space Station different from all other spacecraft? A wide range of possible issue was identified and researched. Five major topics of human factors issues that interacted with crew safety resulted: Protocols, Critical Habitability, Work Related Issues, Crew Incapacitation and Personal Choice. Second, an interaction model was developed that would show some degree of cause and effect between objective environmental or operational conditions and the creation of potential safety hazards. The intermediary steps between these two extremes of causality were the effects on human performance and the results of degraded performance. The model contains three milestones: stressor, human performance (degraded) and safety hazard threshold. Between these milestones are two countermeasure intervention points. The first opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against stress. If this countermeasure fails, performance degrades. The second opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against error. If this second countermeasure fails, the threshold of a potential safety hazard may be crossed.
As part of the NASA Education Forums, the Higher Education Working Group (HEWG) strives to support undergraduate science education through a variety of activities. These activities include: providing resource that incorporate space science topics into the existing undergraduate curriculum, understanding the role that community colleges play in STEM education and preparing STEM teachers, and identifying issues in diversity related to STEM education. To assess the best way of including space science into the undergraduate curriculum, the HEWG held a series of workshops and conducted surveys of undergraduate faculty who are conducting research in space science. During this engagement, the faculty expressed a need for a centralized repository of materials that can be used as part of already existing undergraduate courses in astronomy, physics, and earth science. Such a repository has since been developed, the 'EarthSpace Higher Education Clearing House (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace/) and it is still growing. Additional community tools, such as a newsletter, are provided through this website. To better understand the role and needs of community colleges, the HEWG undertook and extensive survey of community college STEM faculty. 187 faculty responded to the survey and the results show the extensive teaching load these faculty have, as well as the diverse demographics and the extent to which STEM teachers begin their preparation at 2 year institutions. Finally, the HEWG has begun to work on understanding the issues faced in increasing the diversity of the STEM work force. Progress and results of all this work will be summarized in this presentation.
Gross, N. A.; Buxner, S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Fraknoi, A.; Moldwin, M.; Peticolas, L. M.; Low, R.; Schultz, G. R.
In December of 1982, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, with the cooperation and support of the Mitre Corporation, initiated a primarily undergraduate educational program to develop experiments to be flown onboard a NASA Space Shuttle. Christened the MITRE WPI Space Shuttle Program, it sponsored the development of five educationally meritorious experiments over a period of four years. Although the experiments were ready
Fred J. Looft; Robert C. Labonte; William W. Durgin
Today's students are faced with the challenge of utilizing technology to support not only their personal lives, but also their academic careers. "Technology Implementation and Teacher Education: Reflective Models" provides teachers with the resources needed to address this challenge and develop new methodologies for addressing technology in…
Yamamoto, Junko; Kush, Joseph C.; Lombard, Ron; Hertzog, C. Jay
A brief discussion of a school/life model of career development, designed to provide for elimination of curriculum overlap, consistent evolution and integration of the career education concept, and understanding and communication with participating staff, is presented in this document. Eight elements are listed representing the main factors…
Robbinsdale Independent School District 281, Minn.
Gerontological faculty should extend teaching into the clinical field to provide continuing education for nurses. Two models are Train the Trainer and a workplace learning package consisting of videotape, self-study modules, and self-directed, problem-based group study. (SK)
In this article, the author describes the Interdisciplinary Cohort Model of Teacher Preparation at the University of Kentucky. It has been successful in preparing business and marketing teachers in a one-year period, has made educational foundations an integral part of classroom practice, and fostered collaboration between business and marketing…
The Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) provides a high-performance flexible framework for physics-based space weather simulations, as well as for various space physics applications. The SWMF integrates numerical models of the Solar Corona, Eruptive Event Generator, Inner Heliosphere, Solar Energetic Particles, Global Magnetosphere, Inner Magnetosphere, Radiation Belt, Ionosphere Electrodynamics, and Upper Atmosphere into a high-performance coupled model. The components can
Gábor Tóth; Igor V. Sokolov; Tamas I. Gombosi; David R. Chesney; C. Robert Clauer; Darren L. De Zeeuw; Kenneth C. Hansen; Kevin J. Kane; Ward B. Manchester; Robert C. Oehmke; Aaron J. Ridley; Ilia I. Roussev; Quentin F. Stout; Ovsei Volberg; Richard A. Wolf; Stanislav Sazykin; Anthony Chan; Bin Yu; József Kóta
The success of physics based space weather forecasting depends on several factors: we need sufficient amount and quality of timely observational data, we have to understand the physics of the Sun-Earth system well enough, we need sophisticated computational models, and the models have to run faster than real time on the available computational resources. This presentation will focus on a single ingredient, the recent improvements of the mathematical and numerical models in the Space Weather Modeling Framework. We have developed a new physics based CME initiation code using flux emergence from the convection zone solving the equations of radiative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Our new lower corona and solar corona models use electron heat conduction, Alfven wave heating, and boundary conditions based on solar tomography. We can obtain a physically consistent solar wind model from the surface of the Sun all the way to the L1 point without artificially changing the polytropic index. The global magnetosphere model can now solve the multi-ion MHD equations and take into account the oxygen outflow from the polar wind model. We have also added the options of solving for Hall MHD and anisotropic pressure. Several new inner magnetosphere models have been added to the framework: CRCM, HEIDI and RAM-SCB. These new models resolve the pitch angle distribution of the trapped particles. The upper atmosphere model GITM has been improved by including a self-consistent equatorial electrodynamics and the effects of solar flares. This presentation will very briefly describe the developments and highlight some results obtained with the improved and new models.
Toth, G.; Fang, F.; Frazin, R. A.; Gombosi, T. I.; Ilie, R.; Liemohn, M. W.; Manchester, W. B.; Meng, X.; Pawlowski, D. J.; Ridley, A. J.; Sokolov, I.; van der Holst, B.; Vichare, G.; Yigit, E.; Yu, Y.; Buzulukova, N.; Fok, M. H.; Glocer, A.; Jordanova, V. K.; Welling, D. T.; Zaharia, S. G.
A viewgraph presentation on NASA Stennis Space Center's Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling activities is shown. The topics include: 1) Overview of NASA Stennis Space Center; 2) Role of Computational Modeling at NASA-SSC; 3) Computational Modeling Tools and Resources; and 4) CFD Modeling Applications.
Education and public outreach (EPO) continue to play an important role in how science is funded by the federal government. The plasma science community has a responsibility to share their exciting science with the American public. Bruce Alberts, president of the National Academy of Sciences, and Neal Lane, former head of NSF, are on record as strong advocates of scientists
Illustrates contemporary approaches to construction technology programs which focus on thematic approaches and learning activities that integrate subject areas. Argues for thematic instruction in technology education and describes scope of programs, methods of teaching, thematic exploration of technology, interdisciplinary approaches, technology…
Philosopher Gilles Deleuze and psychoanalyst Felix Guattari's figuration of the rhizome describes structures that are non-hierarchical and open-ended. Rhizomatic analyses are increasingly being adopted in educational research to challenge traditional power structures, give voice to those previously unheard and open issues in messy but…
This article examines the ways in which the scholarship of teaching and learning (SOTL) can be integrated into graduate education in the humanities to support future faculty preparation in teaching. Drawing on data from a multi-year project at a research-1 institution in the United States, and theories from postmodern geography and postcolonial…
Background/Context: While the arts are being elbowed out of school curricula, new community-based education venues for the arts are emerging in cities across the country. This article describes Richard Hugo House, an arts center for creative writing in Seattle, which attracts people of different ages and sociocultural backgrounds who participate…
This article uses the lens of contemporary visual art as a counternarrative to explore the racialization of immigration in the United States and its relationship to education. Drawing on critical race theory, I argue that today several artists use their artistic practice to intervene strategically in the immigration debates. These artistic…
Earth based networking in support of various space agency projects has been based on leased service/circuits which has a high associated cost. This cost is almost always taken from the science side resulting in less science. This is a proposal to use Research and Education Networks (RENs) worldwide to support space flight operations in general and space-based science operations in particular. The RENs were developed to support scientific and educational endeavors. They do not provide support for general Internet traffic. The connectivity and performance of the research and education networks is superb. The connectivity at Layer 3 (IP) virtually encompasses the globe. Most third world countries and all developed countries have their own research and education networks, which are connected globally. Performance of the RENs especially in the developed countries is exceptional. Bandwidth capacity currently exists and future expansion promises that this capacity will continue. REN performance statistics has always exceeded minimum requirements for spaceflight support. Research and Education networks are more loosely managed than a corporate network but are highly managed when compared to the commodity Internet. Management of RENs on an international level is accomplished by the International Network Operations Center at Indiana University at Indianapolis. With few exceptions, each regional and national REN has its own network ops center. The acceptable use policies (AUP), although differing by country, allows any scientific program or project the use of their networks. Once in compliance with the first RENs AUP, all others will accept that specific traffic including regional and transoceanic networks. RENs can support spaceflight related scientific programs and projects. Getting the science to the researcher is obviously key to any scientific project. RENs provide a pathway to virtually any college or university in the world, as well as many governmental institutes and science centers. RENs are not to be used for mission critical types of network traffic, even though RENs performance characteristics would support it.
Positron emission tomography (PET) cameras are now in widespread use in hospitals. A model of a PET camera has been installed in Stockholm House of Science and is used to explain the principles of PET to school pupils as described here.
The projected radiation levels within the International Space Station (ISS) have been criticized by the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in their report to the NASA Administrator. Methods for optimal reconfiguration and augmentation of the ISS shielding are now being developed. The initial steps are to develop reconfigurable and realistic radiation shield models of the ISS modules, develop computational procedures for the highly anisotropic radiation environment, and implement parametric and organizational optimization procedures. The targets of the redesign process are the crew quarters where the astronauts sleep and determining the effects of ISS shadow shielding of an astronaut in a spacesuit. The ISS model as developed will be reconfigurable to follow the ISS. Swapping internal equipment rack assemblies via location mapping tables will be one option for shield optimization. Lightweight shield augmentation materials will be optimally fit to crew quarter areas using parametric optimization procedures to minimize the augmentation shield mass. The optimization process is being integrated into the Intelligence Synthesis Environment s (ISE s) immersive simulation facility at the Langley Research Center and will rely on High Performance Computing and Communication (HPCC) for rapid evaluation of shield parameter gradients.
Qualls, G. D.; Wilson, J. W.; Sandridge, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Nealy, J. E.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Hugger, C. P.; Verhage, J.; Anderson, B. M.; Atwell, W.
There is a well-known relation between spatial ability and mathematics dating back to the work of early twentieth century factor analysts. This connection is a ripe opportunity for educators, who might use spatial training to improve math learning. However, a closer look at the literature reveals gaps that impede direct application. The primary problem is that although this relation is well established in older children and adults, its emergence in early development and subsequent developmental interactions are not well documented. Moreover, there is a need for more mechanistic explanations that might be leveraged to improve math education. In this chapter, we attempt to address these issues by reviewing the existing literature to identify instances where answers are available and others where further research is needed. PMID:22675907
This report contains five papers which describe mathematical models of the educational system as it relates to economic growth. Experimental applications of the models to particular educational systems are discussed. Three papers, by L. J. Emmerij, J. Blum, and G. Williams, discuss planning models for the calculation of educational requirements…
Aquarius is a focused satellite mission to measure global sea surface salinity. Launching in 2009, this mission will provide the first global map of sea surface salinity with unprecedented accuracy, resolution and coverage. The importance of salinity measurements in understanding coastal ocean processes is critical. Because of its dynamic range in the coastal oceans, salinity is a critical factor in understanding and predicting biological and physical processes and their interactions with the food Web, climate, and global water cycle. AquariusÃ¢ÂÂs pioneering efforts to deliver the Ã¢ÂÂmissing pieces of the climate puzzleÃ¢ÂÂ will undoubtedly intrigue informal audiences via the activities and information contained in this Website. Moreover, climate and its influence on humankind is an integral part of K-16 formal education and common to national learning standards. The goal of the Education and Outreach component of Aquarius is to teach fundamental concepts about salinity variations and the role these changes play in controlling global ocean circulation and EarthÃ¢ÂÂs climate. Education products will appear as modules addressing the missionÃ¢ÂÂs goals and purpose, augment existing El Nino/La Nina materials with salinity based content, provide on-line interactive tools demonstrating environmental change through data sets and in situ time-series analysis, and engage students in activities designed to demonstrate salt-water interactions.
In a systematic effort to improve the preparation of future science teachers, scholars coordinated by the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research are providing a series of high-quality, 2-day professional development workshops, with year-round follow-up support, for college and university professors who prepare future science teachers to work with highly diverse student populations. These workshops focus on reforming and revitalizing undergraduate science teaching methods courses and Earth and Space science content courses that future teachers most often take to reflect contemporary pedagogies and data-rich problem-based learning approaches steeped in authentic scientific inquiry, which consistently demonstrate effectiveness with diverse students. Participants themselves conduct science data-rich research projects during the institutes using highly regarded approaches to inquiry using proven models. In addition, the Institute allocates significant time to illustrating best practices for working with diverse students. Moreover, participants leave with a well-formulated action plan to reform their courses targeting future teachers to include more data-rich scientific inquiry lessons and to be better focused on improving science education for a wide diversity of students. Through these workshops faculty use a backwards faded scaffolding mechanism for working inquiry into a deeper understanding of science by using existing on-line data to develop and research astronomy, progressing from creating a valid and easily testable question, to simple data analysis, arriving at a conclusion, and finally presenting and supporting that conclusion in the classroom. An updated schedule is available at FINESSEProgram.org
Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, Stephanie; Marshall, Sunette Sophia; Stork, Debra; Pomeroy, J. Richard R
The use of metric measurement in space is summarized for classroom use. Advantages of the metric system over the English measurement system are described. Some common metric units are defined, as are special units for astronomical study. International system unit prefixes and a conversion table of metric/English units are presented. Questions and activities for the classroom are recommended.
As NASA plans to send people beyond low Earth orbit, it is important to educate and inspire the next generation of astronauts, engineers, scientist, and general public. This is so important to NASA future that it is one of the agencies strategic goals. The Space Suits and Crew Survival Systems Branch at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is actively involved in helping to achieve this goal by sharing our hardware and technical experts with students, educators, and the general public and educating them about the challenges of human space flight, with Education and Public Outreach (EPO). This paper summarizes the Space Suit and Crew Survival Systems Branch EPO efforts throughout fiscal year 2012.
As NASA plans to send people beyond low Earth orbit, it is important to educate and inspire the next generation of astronauts, engineers, scientists, and the general public. This is so important to NASA s future that it is one of the agency s strategic goals. The Space Suits and Crew Survival Systems Branch at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is actively involved in achieving this goal by sharing our hardware and technical experts with students, educators, and the general public and educating them about the challenges of human space flight, with Education and Public Outreach (EPO). This paper summarizes the Space Suit and Crew Survival Systems Branch EPO efforts throughout fiscal year 2012.
Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA) during the past 16 years. The YES program provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science) and engineering. The first component of YES is an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year. Afterwards, students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. During these years, YES has developed a website for topics in space science from the perspective of high school students, including NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) (http://yesserver.space.swri.edu). High school science teachers participate in the workshop and develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation in the academic year. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. Over the past 16 years, all YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, one business has started, and three scientific publications have resulted. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge funding and support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, Northside Independent School District, SwRI, and several local charitable foundations.
Teaching remote sensing in higher education has been traditionally restricted in lecture and computer-aided laboratory activities. This paper presents and evaluates an engaging inquiry-based educational experiment. The experiment was incorporated in an introductory remote sensing undergraduate course to bridge the gap between theory and application of relevant technology. During this semester-long experiment, titled ‘ESF goes to space’, students designed, built,
This educational resource, provided by the Southern California Integrated Global Positioning System (GPS) Network, provides instruction, exercises, and projects that illustrate how space technologies are used to predict and measure earthquakes. Using these resources, students can learn about plate tectonics, earthquakes, and satellite technologies. These resources are intended for secondary school or undergraduate students, but the explanations are simple enough that educators of younger children may be interested in using them.
This educational resource, provided by the Southern California Integrated Global Positioning System (GPS) Network, provides instruction, exercises, and projects that illustrate how space technologies are used to predict and measure earthquakes. Using these resources, students can learn about plate tectonics, earthquakes, and satellite technologies. These resources are intended for secondary school or undergraduate students, but the explanations are simple enough that educators of younger children may be interested in using them.
The document describes the Mountain-Plains career educationmodel and discusses its implications for higher education. The Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., is a non-profit corporation chartered by the State of Montana and funded through the National Institute of Education for a five-year cycle of research and…
The European Space Agency (ESA) Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS) provides standardized access to models of the hazardous space environment through a user-friendly Web interface, available at http:\\/\\/www.spenvis.oma.be\\/. SPENVIS is designed to help spacecraft engineers perform rapid analyses of environmental problems and, with extensive documentation and tutorial information, allows engineers with relatively little familiarity with the models to produce reliable
D. Heynderickx; B. Quaghebeur; J. Wera; E. J. Daly; H. D. R. Evans
In order to show the advantages of using hydrologic models in R environment, particularly for educational purposes, we have implemented a conceptual rainfall-runoff model, originally written in Fortran language into R. This hydrologic model is used in many scientific studies and operational engineering applications in Austria. The model consisting of a snow, a soil moisture and a flow routing routine and run on a daily time step in a lumped or a semi-lumped way. The R environment allows to compile and use this model on different platforms and operating system, taking advantage of many additional routines already available in R (i.e. visualisation or optimisation tools). In this poster we present a set of examples that are used in a graduate level course on engineering hydrology at the Vienna University of Technology, which include: - Multi-objective calibration of the model; - Manual vs. automatic calibration; - Visualisation of model outputs and efficiencies; - Model application in ungauged catchments; - Operational runoff forecast. The flexibility of R is ideal for education, since students can easily play with the extensive list of existing functionalities and define new functions and extensions.
Parajka, J.; Rogger, M.; Kobler, U.; Salinas, J.; Nester, T.; Bloeschl, G.
Shared space coordination models such as Linda are ill-suited for structuring applications composed of erroneous or insecure components. This paper presents theSecure Object Spacemodel. In this model, a data element can be locked with a key and is only visible to a process that presents a matching key to unlock the element. We give a precise semantics for Secure
It is a great challenge for a robot in space to track and capture a free-flying object in the future space operations. In previous research, most of them employed model-based method which requires robot model in advance. However, it is difficult and time-consuming to obtain the precise mathematical model of robots. Moreover, the computer installed on the space robot is
During the past twelve years, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has supported a wide range of Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities, targeting K-14 students and the general public. The purpose of the Fermi E/PO program is to increase student and public understanding of the science of the high-energy Universe, through inspiring, engaging and educational activities linked to the mission’s science objectives. The E/PO program has additional more general goals, including increasing the diversity of students in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) pipeline, and increasing public awareness and understanding of Fermi science and technology. Fermi's multi-faceted E/PO program includes elements in each major outcome category: ? Higher Education: Fermi E/PO promotes STEM careers through the use of NASA data including research experiences for students and teachers (Global Telescope Network), education through STEM curriculum development projects (Cosmology curriculum) and through enrichment activities (Large Area Telescope simulator). ? Elementary and Secondary education: Fermi E/PO links the science objectives of the Fermi mission to well-tested, customer-focused and NASA-approved standards-aligned classroom materials (Black Hole Resources, Active Galaxy Education Unit and Pop-up book, TOPS guides, Supernova Education Unit). These materials have been distributed through (Educator Ambassador and on-line) teacher training workshops and through programs involving under-represented students (after-school clubs and Astro 4 Girls). ? Informal education and public outreach: Fermi E/PO engages the public in sharing the experience of exploration and discovery through high-leverage multi-media experiences (Black Holes planetarium and PBS NOVA shows), through popular websites (Gamma-ray Burst Skymap, Epo's Chronicles), social media (Facebook, MySpace), interactive web-based activities (Space Mysteries, Einstein@Home) and activities by amateur astronomers nation-wide (Supernova! Toolkit). This poster highlights various facets of the Fermi E/PO program.
Cominsky, Lynn R.; McLin, K. M.; Simonnet, A.; Fermi E/PO Team
NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forums are charged with engaging, extending, supporting, and coordinating the community of E/PO professionals and scientists involved in Earth and space science education activities. This work is undertaken to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of the overall national NASA science education and outreach effort made up of individual efforts run by these education professionals. This includes facilitating scientist engagement in education and outreach. A number of resources and opportunities for involvement are available for scientists involved in - or interested in being involved in - education or outreach. The Forums provide opportunities for earth and space scientists to stay informed, communicate, collaborate, leverage existing programs and partnerships, and become more skilled education practitioners. Interested scientists can receive newsletters, participate in monthly calls, interact through an online community workspace, and attend E/PO strategic meetings. The Forums also provide professional development opportunities on a myriad of topics, from common pre-conceptions in science, to program evaluation, to delivering effective workshops. Thematic approaches, such as Earth Science Week (http://www.earthsciweek.org), and the Year of the Solar System (http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss) are coordinated by the Forums; through these efforts resources are presented topically, in a manner that can be easily ported into diverse learning environments. Information about the needs of audiences with which scientists interact - higher education, K-12 education, informal education, and public - are provided by SMD's Audience-Based Working Groups. Their findings and recommendations are made available to inform the activities and products of E/PO providers so they are able to better serve these audiences. Also available is a 'one-stop shop' of SMD E/PO products and resources that can be used in conjunction with E/PO activities, NASA Wavelength (http://nasawavelength.org). Further supporting higher-education efforts, the Forums coordinate a network of science faculty, bringing them together at science conferences to share resources and experiences and to discuss pertinent education research. An online higher education clearinghouse, EarthSpace (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace), has been developed to provide faculty with news and funding information, the latest education research and resources for teaching undergraduates, and undergraduate course materials, including lectures, labs, and homework. This presentation will explore the Science E/PO Forums' pathways and tools available to support scientists involved in - or interested in being involved in - E/PO.
Peticolas, L. M.; Gross, N. A.; Hsu, B. C.; Shipp, S. S.; Buxner, S.; Schwerin, T. G.; Smith, D.; Meinke, B. K.
This document presents a short summary of ten model elementary teacher education programs developed under the sponsorship of the U.S. Office of Education--the original nine models plus the Wisconsin Elementary Teacher Education Program. After a short explanation of the general approach and objectives of the models, they are compared with each…
Examined here is the sensitivity of a variety of space experiments to residual accelerations. In all the cases discussed the sensitivity is related to the dynamic response of a fluid. In some cases the sensitivity can be defined by the magnitude of the response of the velocity field. This response may involve motion of the fluid associated with internal density gradients, or the motion of a free liquid surface. For fluids with internal density gradients, the type of acceleration to which the experiment is sensitive will depend on whether buoyancy driven convection must be small in comparison to other types of fluid motion, or fluid motion must be suppressed or eliminated. In the latter case, the experiments are sensitive to steady and low frequency accelerations. For experiments such as the directional solidification of melts with two or more components, determination of the velocity response alone is insufficient to assess the sensitivity. The effect of the velocity on the composition and temperature field must be considered, particularly in the vicinity of the melt-crystal interface. As far as the response to transient disturbances is concerned, the sensitivity is determined by both the magnitude and frequency of the acceleration and the characteristic momentum and solute diffusion times. The microgravity environment, a numerical analysis of low gravity tolerance of the Bridgman-Stockbarger technique, and modeling crystal growth by physical vapor transport in closed ampoules are discussed.
The development and testing of a mouse model for simulating some aspects of weightlessness that occurs during space flight, and the carrying out of immunological experiments on animals undergoing space flight is examined. The mouse model developed was an antiorthostatic, hypokinetic, hypodynamic suspension model similar to one used with rats. The study was divided into two parts. The first involved determination of which immunological parameters should be observed on animals flown during space flight or studied in the suspension model. The second involved suspending mice and determining which of those immunological parameters were altered by the suspension. Rats that were actually flown in Space Shuttle SL-3 were used to test the hypotheses.
The Space Place is an integrated NASA education and public outreach program, so far representing over 40 different NASA missions. It combines Web-based, printed, and externally published media to reach underserved audiences across the nation. Its primary mission is to develop and provide a highly desirable suite of attractive and educational products designed to appeal to and immerse the general public in space exploration. Its primary target audience is elementary school age kids. The program has developed an extensive network of partnerships with museums and libraries in rural areas, English and Spanish language newspapers, astronomy societies, rocketry clubs, and national youth organizations. Materials are distributed monthly through all these channels. Originally a New Millennium Program (NMP) outreach effort only, it is open to all NASA missions. NMP (a NASA-level program managed out of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory) continues to provide the base of support to build and maintain the outreach program’s infrastructure. Obtaining independent evaluation and reporting of the effectiveness of the program is one of NASA’s requirements for education and public outreach efforts. The Program Evaluation and Research Group (PERG) at Lesley University, Cambridge, MA, was retained to perform this service for The Space Place. PERG is also evaluating education and public outreach programs for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. PERG recently delivered a report evaluating The Space Place program. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, PERG surveyed representative samples of Space Place partner museums, astronomy clubs, and newspapers. The survey included questions about all the products the program provides. The report concludes that The Space Place fills a niche by serving small institutions, giving them a personal alliance with NASA that they would otherwise not have. By providing free, quality materials, The Space Place program provides these under-served populations access to space and science as only NASA can.
Traditionally, surgical and procedural apprenticeship has been an assumed activity of students, without a formal educational context. With increasing barriers to patient and operating room access such as shorter work week hours for residents, and operating room and endoscopy time at a premium, alternate strategies to maximizing procedural skill development are being considered. Recently, the traditional surgical apprenticeship model has been challenged, with greater emphasis on the need for surgical and procedural skills training to be more transparent and for alternatives to patient-based training to be considered. Colonoscopy performance is a complex psychomotor skill requiring practioners to integrate multiple sensory inputs, and involves higher cortical centres for optimal performance. Colonoscopy skills involve mastery in the cognitive, technical and process domains. In the present review, we propose a model for teaching colonoscopy to the novice trainee based on educational theory.
Following the acceptance and implementation of the new National Standards for Accreditation of Teacher Education, the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education prepared this model for evaluating teacher education graduates as an aid to education institutions. The paper briefly reviews research on teachers and evaluation and places the…
Outlines models of correctional education in the last 3 decades: (1) adult basic education, General Educational Development preparation and vocational education (1970s-1980s); (2) addition of functional competency and job preparation (1980s-1990s); (3) addition of special reading techniques and inmate tutors (mid-late 1990s); and (4) addition of…
In addition to supporting space research in the international community, the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) has as its second objective to apply the power of modern research models toward space weather specification and forecasting. Motivated by the objectives to test models and to ease the transition of research models to space weather forecasting organizations, the CCMC has developed a number of real-time modeling systems, as well as a large number of modeling and data products for space weather forecasting support. Over time, these activities have produced tailored products for partners, as well as tools, which address the space weather needs of NASA's robotic mission community. All tools are accessible via a configurable, flexible interface. During this process, CCMC has accumulated substantial experience in understanding model performance, as well as in the design and execution of realtime systems. This presentation will focus on lessons learned and it will suggest low hanging fruit for transition to operations at partner agencies.
[Abstract]. The STEM acronym emphasizes the renewed desire by space professionals (including NASA) and others involved in education to focus more strongly on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Based on the precipitous decline in the number of students choosing these areas for their future careers, this emphasis seems reasonable. NASA, as the example utilized in this paper, faces a dearth
The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) was established by NASA in 1964 to provide for the preservation and dissemination of scientific data from NASA missions. It has evolved to support distributed, active archives that were established in the Planetary, Astrophysics, and Heliophysics disciplines through a series of Memoranda of Understanding. The disciplines took over responsibility for working with new projects to acquire and distribute data for community researchers while the NSSDC remained vital as a deep archive. Since 2000, NSSDC has been using the Archive Information Package to preserve data over the long term. As part of its effort to streamline the ingest of data into the deep archive, the NSSDC developed and implemented a data model of desired and required metadata in XML. This process, in use for roughly five years now, has been successfully used to support the identification and ingest of data into the NSSDC archive, most notably those data from the Planetary Data System (PDS) submitted under PDS3. A series of software packages (X-ware) were developed to handle the submission of data from the PDS nodes utilizing a volume structure. An XML submission manifest is generated at the PDS provider site prior to delivery to NSSDC. The manifest ensures the fidelity of PDS data delivered to NSSDC. Preservation metadata is captured in an XML object when NSSDC archives the data. With the recent adoption by the PDS of the XML-based PDS4 data model, there is an opportunity for the NSSDC to provide additional services to the PDS such as the preservation, tracking, and restoration of individual products (e.g., a specific data file or document), which was unfeasible in the previous PDS3 system. The NSSDC is modifying and further streamlining its data ingest process to take advantage of the PDS4 model, an important consideration given the ever-increasing amount of data being generated and archived by orbiting missions at the Moon and Mars, other active projects such as BRRISON, LADEE, MAVEN, INSIGHT, OSIRIS-REX and ground-based observatories. Streamlining the ingest process also benefits the continued processing of PDS3 data. We will report on our progress and status.
Bell, E. V.; McCaslin, P.; Grayzeck, E.; McLaughlin, S. A.; Kodis, J. M.; Morgan, T. H.; Williams, D. R.; Russell, J. L.
The educational resources and activities on this Web site teach fundamental concepts about salinity variations and the role these changes play in controlling global ocean circulation and Earthâs climate. The modules augment existing El Nino/La Nina materials with salinity-based content, provide on-line interactive tools demonstrating environmental change through data sets and in situ time-series analysis, and engage students in activities designed to demonstrate salt-water interactions. Launched in June 2011, NASAâs Aquarius will provide the first global map of sea surface salinity with unprecedented accuracy, resolution and coverage. The importance of salinity measurements in understanding coastal ocean processes is critical as salinity is a key factor in understanding and predicting biological and physical processes and their interactions with the food web, climate, and global water cycle.
Climate change is a highly interdisciplinary topic, involving not only multiple fields of science, but also social science and the humanities. There are many aspects of climate change science that make it particularly well-suited for exploration in the K-12 setting, including opportunities to explore the unifying processes of science such as complex systems, models, observations, change and evolution. Furthermore, this field of science offers the opportunity to observe the nature of science in action - including how scientists develop and improve their understanding through research and debate. Finally, climate change is inherently highly relevant to students - indeed, students today will need to deal with the consequences of the climate change. The science of climate change is clearly present in current science education standards, both at the National level as well as in the majority of states. Nonetheless, a significant number of teachers across the country report difficulties addressing climate change in the classroom. The National Earth Science Teachers Association has conducted several surveys of Earth and space science educators across the country over the past several years on a number of issues, including their needs and concerns, including their experience of external influences on what they teach. While the number of teachers that report external pressures to not teach climate change science are in the minority (and less than the pressure to not teach evolution and related topics), our results suggest that this pressure against climate change science in the K-12 classroom has grown over the past several years. Some teachers report being threatened by parents, being encouraged by administrators to not teach the subject, and a belief that the "two sides" of climate change should be taught. Survey results indicate that teachers in religious or politically-conservative districts are more likely to report difficulties in teaching about climate change than in other areas of the country. This presentation will provide an overview of our most recent survey results on climate change education in the K-12 Earth and space science classroom, including highlighting some of the strategies that teachers are using to bring this critically important area of science to their students.
Holzer, M. A.; National Earth Science Teachers Association
Government schools in Congo kinshasa are not providing quality education to the masses since many years, and this phenomenon has not escaped the eyes of experts, activists, and policy makers. However, there seems to be a general perception that the main, and sometimes even the sole, source of this problem are the low levels of government expenditure of education. And to prove their case supports of this view cite educational expenditure to GDP ratios in Congo kinshasa in comparison with that of some other nations. Though there may be reasonable arguments to increase the level of government expenditure on education, such hijacking of public debate to focus on - the level of expenditure - often overlooks more important issues. Contrary to common perception the level of per student expenditure on government schools in Delhi is reasonable, ranging from Fc.6000 to Fc.12000 p.a. There are a number of organisational deficiencies which do not create checks and balances for appropriate utilization of fund. Moreover, the division of these funds among social groups and for different purposes is also questionable. Though, female literacy lags significantly behind male literacy, about 15% points, extra resources provided for female education are insignificant. And in some schemes such as the one run for 'street children' and 'child labourers', large amounts are budgeted year after year without a single French congolese being spent. Also government schools catering to richer regions of Kinshasa seem to be spending more per child as compared to the poorer counterparts. The paper also proposes an education voucher model, which may have the potential to address some of the issues raised in the paper. Trends in expenditure under some schemes have been studied in relation to the purpose of expenditure. The issue of government expenditure on education is a complex one, and public space should be utilized to discuss them as they are, rather than reducing discussion to dogmatic wars aimed at increasing the levels of expenditure. Though, one may agree or disagree with the methods and findings of the author, hopefully the paper highlight the complexity of the issue at hand, and the need to understand the institutional deficiencies and allocative inefficiencies in government expenditure on education.
Since its inception in 1999, the EPO office of the MIT Center for Space Research (CSR) has fostered direct participation of local scientists in educational initiatives such as teachers workshops and public tours of the Chandra Operations and Control Center. The role played by the CSR EPO office has grown significantly, thanks to the award of a number of EPO
Drawing on the foundational theories of John Dewey and Kurt Lewin, we examine recent developments in theory and research on experiential learning and explore how this work can enhance experiential learning in higher education. We introduce the concept of learning space as a framework for understanding the interface between student learning styles and the institutional learning environment. We illustrate the
Introduction: This paper seeks to establish basic dimensions on which to construct a system of indicators for evaluating university quality, from the perspective of pupils, and within the framework offered by the European Space for Higher Education. Method: The population for this study was defined as the set of students enrolled at the…
A testing of 159 first-year medical students who took a spaced sex education course (requiring student participation in a weekly lecture, film, and group discussion) showed significant changes in cognitive knowledge as well as attitudinal tolerance of others but no changes in styles of thinking. Results are related to earlier studies. (JT)
Planning for the Alabama Space and Rocket Center's new recreational-educational complex included (1) goal establishment, (2) needs assessment (including accessibility for the disabled), (3) environmental impact analysis, (4) formulation of objectives and priorities, and (5) strategy development to meet objectives, as well as preparation of a…
This study examines the higher education experience among Palestinian Arab females in two national spaces and seeks to determine whether studying at an Arab institution of higher learning in a nearby Arab country can alleviate the emotional and economic difficulties that affect Palestinian women at Israeli universities. What can institutions of…
In this paper, we reflect on our experience with an experimental inquiry component within a teacher education program in a large urban city on the West Coast of the United States. This learning space, which is referred to as "Inquiry," promotes the integration of theoretical and practical knowledge through reflection and dialogue. We highlight how…
In a document retrieval or other pattern matching environment where stored entities (documents) are compared with each other, or with incoming patterns (search requests), it appears that the best indexing (property) space is one where each entity lies as ...
The floating potential of the International Space Station (ISS) as a function of the electron current collection of its high voltage solar array panels is derived analytically. Based on Floating Potential Probe (FPP) measurements of the ISS potential and ...
Educational outreach is an integral part of the International Space Station (ISS) mandate. In a few scant years, the International Space Station has already established a tradition of successful, general outreach activities. However, as the number of outreach events increased and began to reach school classrooms, those events came under greater scrutiny by the education community. Some of the ISS electronic field trips, while informative and helpful, did not meet the generally accepted criteria for education events, especially within the context of the classroom. To make classroom outreach events more acceptable to educators, the ISS outreach program must differentiate between communication events (meant to disseminate information to the general public) and education events (designed to facilitate student learning). In contrast to communication events, education events: are directed toward a relatively homogeneous audience who are gathered together for the purpose of learning, have specific performance objectives which the students are expected to master, include a method of assessing student performance, and include a series of structured activities that will help the students to master the desired skill(s). The core of the ISS education events is an interactive videoconference between students and ISS representatives. This interactive videoconference is to be preceded by and followed by classroom activities which help the students aftain the specified learning objectives. Using the interactive videoconference as the centerpiece of the education event lends a special excitement and allows students to ask questions about what they are learning and about the International Space Station and NASA. Whenever possible, the ISS outreach education events should be congruent with national guidelines for student achievement. ISS outreach staff should recognize that there are a number of different groups that will review the events, and that each group has different criteria for acceptance. For example, school administrators are more likely to be concerned about an event meeting national standards and the cost of the event. In contrast, a teacher's acceptance of an education event may be directly related to the amount of extra work the event imposes upon that teacher. ISS education events must be marketed differently to the different groups of educators, and must never increase the workload of the average teacher.
The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast an academic extension educationmodel with an Extension human resource management model. The academic model of 19 competencies was similar across the 22 competencies of the Extension human resource management model. There were seven unique competencies for the human resource management model.…
Scheer, Scott D.; Cochran, Graham R.; Harder, Amy; Place, Nick T.
Background The present study aimed at determining if the addition of spacededucation to traditional face-to-face lectures increased the time students kept busy with the learning content of a theoretical radiological science course. Methods The study comprised two groups of 21 third-year dental students. The students were randomly assigned to a “traditional group” and a “spacededucation group”. Both groups followed a traditional face-to-face course. The intervention in the spacededucation group was performed in way that these students received e-mails with a delay of 14?days to each face-to-face lecture. These e-mails contained multiple choice questions on the learning content of the lectures. The students returned their answers to the questions also by e-mail. On return they received an additional e-mail that included the correct answers and additional explanatory material. All students of both groups documented the time they worked on the learning content of the different lectures before a multiple choice exam was held after the completion of the course. All students of both groups completed the TRIL questionnaire (Trierer Inventar zur Lehrevaluation) for the evaluation of courses at university after the completion of the course. The results for the time invested in the learning content and the results of the questionnaire for the two groups were compared using the Mann–Whitney-U test. Results The spacededucation group spent significantly more time (216.2?±?123.9?min) on keeping busy with the learning content compared to the traditional group (58.4?±?94.8?min, p?.0005). The spacededucation group rated the didactics of the course significantly better than the traditional group (p?=?.034). The students of the spacededucation group also felt that their needs were fulfilled significantly better compared to the traditional group as far as communication with the teacher was concerned (p?=?.022). Conclusions Adding spacededucation to a face-to-face theoretical radiological science course activates students in a way that they spend significantly more time on keeping busy with the learning content.
Events such as the Mars rover landings bring much public attention and provide excellent reasons for substantive educational outreach to educators and the public. In the fall of 2003, the Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado (USA) led the refurbishment and redeployment of the 5000 sq. ft MarsQuest traveling exhibition. Prior to this, MarsQuest had completed a highly successful 3-year tour of the US. Earlier in 2003, SSI launched the 600 sq. ft. ``mini-MarsQuest'' exhibit called Destination Mars. This paper will report on the lessons we have learned regarding the educational programming associated with these exhibits. In this context, ``educational programming'' refers to: 1) workshops for museum educators and docents at exhibit host sites; 2) workshops for local educators who will bring their students to visit the exhibit; 3) materials and resources to support science center programming such as school-group visits, family days, and camp-ins; and 4) public talks by scientists. We will focus this paper on our 3 years of experience with the Mars exhibits, plus the results of a formal evaluation being conducted in collaboration with Randi Korn & Associates. The lessons learned will be of great value to the educational programming of future SSI traveling exhibits. In addition, we expect that many of our lessons learned will be of broader value to any scientist or educator who works in collaboration with science centers and museums.
Morrow, C.; Edwards, C.; McLain, B.; Dusenbery, P.
The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums have developed a digital library--NASAWavelength.org--that enables easy discovery and retrieval of thousands of resources from the NASA Earth and space science education portfolio. The system has been developed based on best practices in the architecture and design of web-based information systems. The design style and philosophy emphasize simple, reusable data and services that facilitate the free flow of data across systems. The primary audiences for NASA Wavelength are STEM educators (K-12, higher education and informal education) as well as scientists, education and public outreach professionals who work with K-12, higher education, and informal education. A NASA Wavelength strandmap service features the 19 AAAS strandmaps that are most relevant to NASA science; the service also generates all of the 103 AAAS strandmaps with content from the Wavelength collection. These maps graphically and interactively provide connections between concepts as well as illustrate how concepts build upon one another across grade levels. New features have been developed for this site based on user feedback, including list-building so that users can create and share individual collections within Wavelength. We will also discuss potential methods for integrating the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) into the search and discovery tools on NASA Wavelength.
Smith, D. A.; Schwerin, T. G.; Peticolas, L. M.; Porcello, D.; Kansa, E.; Shipp, S. S.; Bartolone, L.
This article is about (1) the ancient (Aristotelian) emotional virtue of emulation, (2) some current character-education inspired accounts of the use of role models in moral education and, most importantly, (3) the potential relevance of (1) for (2). The author argues that the strategy of role-modelling, as explicated by the character-education…
The purpose of this article is to review current models for curriculum and pedagogy used in elementary school physical education programs. Historically, physical educators have developed and used a multiactivity curriculum in order to educate students through physical movement. More recently, a variety of alternative curricular models have been…
This study investigated the adaptation process of an externally developed model of reform in Greenland's educational system. Under investigation was how reform leaders responded to the needs of the community after implementing an educationalmodel developed in the United States by researchers at the Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and…
Describes development of the Oregon Quality Educationmodel, an adequacy-funding model. Explores the rationale behind its development as well as the political and economic realities policymakers face in attempting to determine how much money Oregon's schools would need to meet state education reform goals and provide a quality education to all…
NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo samples and meteorites first hand. Lunar rocks and soil, embedded in Lucite disks, are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks reveals the early history of our Earth-Moon system and meteorites reveal much of the history of the early solar system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet and solar system and the basic processes accretion, differentiation, impact and volcanism. With these samples, educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by many NASA planetary missions. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the violent impact history of the Moon. The disks also include two regolith soils and orange glass from a pyroclastic deposit. Each Meteorite Disk contains two ordinary chondrites, one carbonaceous chondrite, one iron, one stony iron, and one achondrite. These samples will help educators share the early history of the solar system with students and the public. Educators may borrow either lunar or meteorite disks and the accompanying education materials through the Johnson Space Center Curatorial Office. In trainings provided by the NASA Aerospace Education Services Program specialists, educators certified to borrow the disk learn about education resources, the proper use of the samples, and the special security for care and shipping of the disks. The Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program will take NASA exploration to more people. Getting Space Rocks out to the public and inspiring the public about new space exploration is the focus of the NASA disk loan program.
Allen, Jaclyn; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.
Consideration of the physical environment in which learning takes place has become a growing area of academic interest over the past decade. This study focuses on the experiences and perceptions of academic staff and students who used three refurbished, and innovative, learning spaces at the University of Leicester. The results suggest that the…
A blue-ribbon panel convened by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) concluded in 2010 that teacher education in the United States must be "turned upside down," with practical experience at its center and academic content woven around the practical. It might seem that the new clinical model based on medical…
The Space Experiment Module (SEM) concept is one of a number of education initiatives being pursued by the NASA Shuttle Small Payloads Project (SSPP) in an effort to increase educational access to space by means of Space Shuttle Small Payloads and associated activities. In the SEM concept, NASA will provide small containers ('modules') which can accommodate small zero-gravity experiments designed and constructed by students. A number, (nominally ten), of the modules will then be flown in an existing Get Away Special (GAS) carrier on the Shuttle for a flight of 5 to 10 days. In addition to the module container, the NASA carrier system will provide small amounts of electrical power and a computer system for controlling the operation of the experiments and recording experiment data. This paper describes the proposed SEM carrier system and program approach.
In addition to supporting space research in the international community, the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) has as its second objective to bring to apply the power of modern research models toward space weather specification and forecasting. Initially motivated by the objective to test models and to ease the transition of research models to space weather forecasting organization, the CCMC has developed a number of real-time modeling systems, as well as large number of modeling and data products for space weather forecasting. Over time, these activities have evolved into tailored products for partners, as well as into a direct support of the space weather needs within NASA robotic mission community. Accessible through a customizable interface, users within the US or at partnering institutions internationally have access to space weather tools driven by the most advanced space research models. Through partnering with agencies and institutions in the US and abroad, the CCMC strives to set up further data sharing agreements to the benefit of all participating institutions. In this presentation, we provide an overview of existing CCMC space weather services and products, and we will explore additional avenues for international collaborations.
Models through which higher education provides outreach include centralized, decentralized, and hybrid. The latter, academically integrated and administratively decentralized, meshes continuing education programs with the academic mission while maximizing cost effectiveness. (SK)
The standard model fermion spectrum, including a right handed neutrino, can be obtained as a zero-mode of the Dirac operator on a space which is the product of complex projective spaces of complex dimension two and three. The construction requires the introduction of topologically non-trivial background gauge fields. By borrowing from ideas in Connes' non-commutative geometry and making the complex spaces 'fuzzy' a matrix approximation to the fuzzy space allows for three generations to emerge. The generations are associated with three copies of space-time. Higgs' fields and Yukawa couplings can be accommodated in the usual way.
The baseline Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS) employs photovoltaic (PV) arrays and nickel hydrogen (NiH2) batteries to supply power to housekeeping and user electrical loads via a direct current (dc) distribution system. The EPS was originally designed for an operating life of 30 years through orbital replacement of components. As the design and development of the EPS continues, accurate EPS performance predictions are needed to assess design options, operating scenarios, and resource allocations. To meet these needs, NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has, over a 10 year period, developed SPACE (Station Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation), a computer code designed to predict EPS performance. This paper describes SPACE, its functionality, and its capabilities.
Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Green, Robert D.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Mckissock, David B.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.
The primary difficulties with the dream of Space Solar Power (SSP) for Earth, are the extreme launch costs of solar power satellites to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO), and the absence of an evolutionary path to SSP. This makes the cost-to-first-power unacceptably high. This paper presents a 3-stage approach to SSP, and lay out the problems and opportunities. The key idea is to use space assets initially for global transmission and distribution, rather than generation, establish the infrastructure, and then add space-based power generation to a revenue-generating power grid. In the first stage, a Space Power Grid is established with satellites 1,200 km above Earth, distributing earth-generated beamed microwaves to other satellites and ground receivers. This boosts the earth-based alternative power industry (wind and solar-thermal) by providing transmission between any points on earth, and accommodating fluctuations in demand and supply. It also satisfies strategic needs for emergency power delivery. In Stage 2, direct power conversion technology will augment the existing space power grid with space-generated solar power. In Stage 3, large ultralight GEO reflectors will beam light to the direct-conversion collectors, and multiply the power through the grid. The need to put expensive, heavy solar arrays in high orbit is avoided, along with the objections to atmospheric transmission of visible light. The system would gain significantly from the development of low-mass, high-efficiency conversion equipment for direct conversion of broadband solar energy to beamed microwaves.
Background The selection of an evolutionary model to best fit given molecular data is usually a heuristic choice. In his seminal book, J. Felsenstein suggested that certain linear equations satisfied by the expected probabilities of patterns observed at the leaves of a phylogenetic tree could be used for model selection. It remained an open question, however, whether these equations were sufficient to fully characterize the evolutionary model under consideration. Results Here we prove that, for most equivariant models of evolution, the space of distributions satisfying these linear equations coincides with the space of distributions arising from mixtures of trees. In other words, we prove that the evolution of an observed multiple sequence alignment can be modeled by a mixture of phylogenetic trees under an equivariant evolutionary model if and only if the distribution of patterns at its columns satisfies the linear equations mentioned above. Moreover, we provide a set of linearly independent equations defining this space of phylogenetic mixtures for each equivariant model and for any number of taxa. Lastly, we use these results to perform a study of identifiability of phylogenetic mixtures. Conclusions The space of phylogenetic mixtures under equivariant models is a linear space that fully characterizes the evolutionary model. We provide an explicit algorithm to obtain the equations defining these spaces for a number of models and taxa. Its implementation has proved to be a powerful tool for model selection.
The emergence of large sensor networks has facilitated the collection of large amounts of real-time data to monitor and control complex engineering systems. However, in many cases the collected data may be incomplete or inconsistent, while the underlying environment may be time-varying or unformulated. In this paper, we develop an innovative cognitive fault diagnosis framework that tackles the above challenges. This framework investigates fault diagnosis in the modelspace instead of the signal space. Learning in the modelspace is implemented by fitting a series of models using a series of signal segments selected with a sliding window. By investigating the learning techniques in the fitted modelspace, faulty models can be discriminated from healthy models using a one-class learning algorithm. The framework enables us to construct a fault library when unknown faults occur, which can be regarded as cognitive fault isolation. This paper also theoretically investigates how to measure the pairwise distance between two models in the modelspace and incorporates the model distance into the learning algorithm in the modelspace. The results on three benchmark applications and one simulated model for the Barcelona water distribution network confirm the effectiveness of the proposed framework. PMID:24806649
This article results from the Dimensional Continuous Space-Time Theory for which the introductory theoretician was presented in . A theoretical model of the Continuous Space-Time is presented. The wave equation of time into absolutely stationary empty space referential will be described in detail. The complex time, that is the time fixed on the infinite phase time speed referential, is deduced from the New View of Relativity Theory that is being submitted simultaneously with this article in this congress. Finally considering the inseparable Space-Time is presented the duality equation wave-particle.
In multichannel identification and detection (or model-based multichannel detection) problems the parameters of a model are identified from the observed channel process and the identified model is used to facilitate the detection of a signal in the observ...
A planning and feasibility study to identify and document a methodology needed to incorporate educational programs into future missions and operations of the space transportation system was conducted. Six tasks were identified and accomplished during the study. The task statements are as follows: (1) potential user identification, (2) a review of spaceeducation programs, (3) development of methodology for user involvement, (4) methods to encourage user awareness, (5) compilation of follow-on ideas, and (6) response to NASA questions. Specific recommendations for improving the educational coverage of space activities are provided.
Large numbers of contradictory problems generally consist in the design of the architectural interior space. It is very necessary to study the measure to solve the contradictory problems consist in spatial form from the contradictory problems. The basic theory of Extenics provides the thesis extension leading idea of transformation and one of the tools of matter-element theory. On the base
In a document retrieval, or other pattern matching environment where stored entities (documents) are compared with each other, or with incoming patterns (search requests), it appears that the best indexing (property) space is one where each entity lies as far away from the others as possible; that is, retrieval performance correlates inversely…
Green space system, as part of the urban ecological environment and urban landscape, plays a significant role in the protection of biological diversity of the urban eco-systems. During the process of rapid modernization in China, it is evident that in order to satisfy the residents' needs of entertainment and communication effectively; there should be abundant types and adequate arrangement of green space. And at the same time a comprehensive and stable hierarchical structure of green space system ought to be established. Huff Model is widely used in facility location planning and service area segmentation in business geography, and has potentials in urban facility planning and design. This paper aims to evaluate, design and optimize the urban green space in Luoyang City, Henan Province, using GIS and Huff Model. Considering the existing location, size and shape of the green space supply, the spatial distribution of residence and the urban transportation systems, the attractiveness between residence and green space is estimated. The spatial pattern and service capability of the green space system are also evaluated critically. Based on the findings, the possible optimization design of the green space system in Luoyang is discussed innovatively. Huff model test shows that the design improves the overall spatial accessibility observably. The case study shows that GIS technology and Huff Model have great potential in urban green space evaluation, planning and design.
Several factors in the H. J. Walberg Educational Productivity Model, which assumes that 9 factors affect academic achievement, were examined with a limited sample of 1st-year students in the University of Groningen. Information concerning 8 of these factors—grades, motivation, age, prior achievement, home environment, support from peers, classroom environment, quality of instruction, and quantity of instruction—was collected through the departmental
The Curiosity mission has captured the imagination of children, as NASA missions have done for decades. The AIAA and the University of Houston have developed a flexible curriculum program that offers children in-depth science and language arts learning culminating in the design and construction of their own model rover. The program is called the Mars Rover Model Celebration. It focuses on students, teachers and parents in grades 3-8. Students learn to research Mars in order to pick a science question about Mars that is of interest to them. They learn principles of spacecraft design in order to build a model of a Mars rover to carry out their mission on the surface of Mars. The model is a mock-up, constructed at a minimal cost from art supplies. This project may be used either informally as an after school club or youth group activity or formally as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system astronomy or robotics, or as a multi-disciplinary unit for a gifted and talented program. The project's unique strength lies in engaging students in the process of spacecraft design and interesting them in aerospace engineering careers. The project is aimed at elementary and secondary education. Not only will these students learn about scientific fields relevant to the mission (space science, physics, geology, robotics, and more), they will gain an appreciation for how this knowledge is used to tackle complex problems. The low cost of the event makes it an ideal enrichment vehicle for low income schools. It provides activities that provide professional development to educators, curricular support resources using NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) content, and provides family opportunities for involvement in K-12 student learning. This paper will describe the structure and organization of the 6 week curriculum. A set of 30 new 5E lesson plans have been written to support this project as a classroom activity. The challenge of developing interactive learning activities for planetary science will be explored. These lesson plans incorporate state of the art interactive pedagogy and current NASA Planetary Science materials.
Henriquez, E.; Bering, E. A.; Slagle, E.; Nieser, K.; Carlson, C.; Kapral, A.
The phenomenological track-structure model of cell damage is discussed. A description of the application of the track-structure model with the NASA Langley transport code for laboratory and space radiation is given. Comparisons to experimental results for cell survival during exposure to monoenergetic, heavy-ion beams are made. The model is also applied to predict cell damage rates and relative biological effectiveness for deep-space exposures.
Katz, Robert; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Shinn, Judy L.; Ngo, Duc M.
Understanding valve behavior will aid testing of rocket components at Stennis Space Center. The authors of this viewgraph presentation have developed a computational model for a cryogenic liquid control valve, and a gas pressure regulator valve. The model is a compressible/incompressible pressure-based FDNS code from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). It is a k-epsilon turbulence model with wall functions.
firstname.lastname@example.org Astronomy and Space Sciences (ASS) are important fields of research, study, knowledge and culture. They have been the cradle of both eastern and western sciences. We all know, from education and psychology, about the effective teaching and learning of ASS. Unfortunately, a small percentage of this knowledge is actually used in teaching at schools, universities level and any other academic institutions in the Arab countries. The challenge is to provide effective professional development for ASS educators and researchers at all levels, from elementary school to university. ASS is the most appealing subject to young students and very important tool to convey scientific knowledge? Once students have understood the importance of science, they might be more easily pursued to continue their education in science and technology. The aim of this paper is to show the importance of the formal and informal ASS research, and education, giving an example of a possible curriculum, projects, and comments on the activities that have been carried out in a few Arab countries. We feel the need for a new communication channel among the Arab people based on our common scientific ground. ASS is, in this respect, the best possible choice in the vast cultural heritage of the Arab basin. The final purpose is scientific and economical. Building modern and good observatories, planetariums and research centers in the region jointly by Arab astronomers and space scientists is essential and will be an excellent step toward developing astronomy and astrophysics (for research, education and knowledge).
In the present day society, there is a vital need for setting up education and outreach activities in the Space Weather field for creating a healthy environment for the proper development of Space Weather markets along with the fundamental and applied research activities. It is important to educate children about the important role that the Sun has in their lives. This presentation gives an educational outreach tool entitled "I Love My Sun" that has been developed for school children in the approximate age group 7 through 11 years. Its main objective is to make children aware of space weather, the Sun, Sun-Earth relations and how they, the children, are part of this global picture. Children are given a lecture about the Sun; this is preceded and followed by the children drawing a picture of the Sun. The activity was initiated by Y. Tulunay in Ankara, Turkey as national project in the context of the 50th anniversary of Space Age and IHY activities. Since then it has been extended into a spatial (Europe) and temporal dimensions. A metric has been developed to facilitate an objective evaluation of the outcomes of the Events. In this presentation, the background behind the "I Love My Sun" initiative is given and it is described how to perform an "I Love My Sun" event. Impressions and main results from the case studies are given. As a new extension, preliminary examples are also given concerning senior people.
In this paper we report on state-space system identification approaches to dynamic behavioral abstraction of military simulation models. Two stochastic simulation models were identified under a variety of scenarios. The `Attrition Simulation' is a model of two opposing forces with multiple weapon system types. The `Mission Simulation' is a model of a squadron of aircraft performing battlefield air interdiction. Four
Capacity-building efforts in space science and technology are a major focus of the activities of the Office of Outer Space Affairs. Such efforts include providing support to the regional centres for space science and technology education, affiliated to the United Nations, whose goal is to develop, through in-depth education, an indigenous capability for research and applications in the core disciplines of: (a) remote sensing and geographical information systems; (b) satellite communications; (c) satellite meteorology and global climate; and (d) space and atmospheric sciences and data management. The regional centres are located in Morocco and Nigeria for Africa, in Brazil and Mexico for Latin America and the Caribbean and in India for Asia and the Pacific. The overall policy-making body of each Centre is its Governing Board and consists of member States (within the region where the Centre is located), that have agreed, through their endorsement of the Centre's agreement, to the goals and objectives of the Centre. The United Nations Programme on Space Applications, with the support of prominent educators, has developed standard education curricula, which were adopted by the Centres for teaching each of the four core disciplines. Within the framework of the International Committee on global navigation satellite systems (ICG), which is established as an informal body for the purpose of promoting the use and application of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) on a global basis, the Regional Centres will also be acting as the ICG Information Centres. The ICG Information Centres aim to foster a more structured approach to information exchange in order to fulfil the reciprocal expectations of a network between ICG and Regional Centres.
This book meets a demand in the science education community for a comprehensive and introductory measurement book in science education. It describes measurement instruments reported in refereed science education research journals, and introduces the Rasch modeling approach to developing measurement instruments in common science assessment domains,…
The document is part of a series that reports the findings and accomplishments of the Models for Career Education in Iowa project which was initiated to research, define, and describe an emerging concept of career education and to suggest possible approaches for implementation in primary and secondary education. One of the basic components in the…
In this paper, an approach to instantons in supersymmetrical 2-dimensional sigma models is discussed. In this approach superinstantons are characterized as the superconformal maps of a physical space into the isotopic (target) space. The authors consider a special case of the supersphere with punctures. New topological invariants as the number of the so-called fermionic points appear in this case. The authors also analyze the structure of the moduli space of superinstantons within this framework.
Monastyrsky, M.I. (Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117259 Moscow (SU)); Natanzon, S.M. (Research Inst. for Geodesy, Aerial Survey and Cartography, Moscow (SU))
Pleurodeles waltl, an Urodele amphibian is proposed as a model for space biology studies. Our laboratory is developing three types of experiments in space using this animal: 1.1)in vivo fertilization and development (“FERTILE” project);2.2)influence of microgravity and space radiation on the organization and preservation of spacialized structures in the neurons and muscle cells (in vitro; “CELIMENE” PROJECT);3.3)influence of microgravity on
L. Gualandris; S. Grinfeld; F. Foulquier; P. Kan; A. M Duprat
Pleurodeles waltl, an Urodele amphibian is proposed as a model for space biology studies. Our laboratory is developing three types of experiments in space using this animal: 1) in vivo fertilization and development (``FERTILE'' project); 2) influence of microgravity and space radiation on the organization and preservation of spacialized structures in the neurons and muscle cells (in vitro; ``CELIMENE'' PROJECT); 3) influence of microgravity on tissue regeneration (muscle, bone, epidermis and spinal cord).
Gualandris, L.; Grinfeld, S.; Foulquier, F.; Kan, P.; Duprat, A. M.
NASA research scientists work closely with Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (SSAI) personnel at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) on a large variety of education and public outreach (E/PO) initiatives. This work includes assistance in conceptualizing E/PO plans, then carrying through in the development of materials, publication, cataloging, warehousing, and product distribution. For instance, outreach efforts on the Terra, Aqua, and Aura-still in development-EOS missions, as well as planetary and visualization programs, have been coordinated by SSAI employees. E/PO support includes convening and taking part in sessions at professional meetings and workshops. Also included is the coordination of exhibits at professional meetings such as the AGU, AAAS, AMS and educational meetings such as the National Science Teachers Association. Other E/PO efforts include the development and staffing of booths; arranges for booth space and furnishings; shipping of exhibition materials and products; assembling, stocking, and disassembling of booths. E/PO personnel work with organizations external to NASA such as the Smithsonian museum, Library of Congress, U.S. Geological Survey, and associations or societies such as the AGU, American Chemical Society, and National Science Teachers Association to develop products and programs that enhance NASA mission E/PO efforts or to provide NASA information for use in their programs. At GSFC, E/PO personnel coordinate the efforts of the education and public outreach sub-committees in support of the Space and Earth Sciences Data Analysis (SESDA) contract within the GSFC Earth Sciences Directorate. The committee acts as a forum for improving communication and coordination among related Earth science education projects, and strives to unify the representation of these programs among the science and education communities. To facilitate these goals a Goddard Earth Sciences Directorate Education and Outreach Portal has been developed to provide a repository and clearinghouse for upcoming education events, and a speaker's bureau. The committees are planning a series of workshops in the near future to expand participation, and further leverage respective Earth science education and outreach efforts through cooperative work with other NASA centers. Founded in 1977 as a minority, women-owned business, SSAI's staff includes a large and varied pool of scientists, E/PO employees covering a broad range of training and talents. SSAI provides support on a number of NASA related projects at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland ranging from science research to data acquisition, storage, and distribution.
\\u000a Electronic, software-managed mechanisms using, for example, radio-frequency identification (RFID) cards, enable great flexibility\\u000a in specifying access control policies to physical spaces. For example, access rights may vary based on time of day or could\\u000a differ in normal versus emergency situations. With such fine-grained control, understanding and reasoning about what a policy\\u000a permits becomes surprisingly difficult requiring knowledge of permission levels,
Robert Frohardt; Bor-Yuh Evan Chang; Sriram Sankaranarayanan
Despite developments in error analysis for discrete objects and interval/ratio fields, there exist conceptual problems with the case of nominal fields. This paper seeks to consolidate a conceptual framework based on the discriminant space for categorical mapping and error modeling. The discriminant space is defined upon the essential properties and processes underlying occurrences of spatial classes, and lends itself to geostatistical analysis and modeling. The discriminant space furnishes consistency in categorical mapping by imposing class-conditional mean structures that are associated with discriminant or "environmental" variables in various statistical models, and facilitates physically interpretable and scale-dependent error modeling. Further research will focus on models and methods based on multi-dimensional discriminant space and at multiple scales.
Environmental data is nearly always multivariate and often spatial-temporal. Thus to interpolate the data in space or to predict in space-time it is necessary to use a multivariate spatial-temporal method. Cokriging is easily extended to spatial-temporal data if there are valid space-time variograms or covariance functions. Various authors have proposed such models. In this paper, a generalized product-sum model is used with a linear coregionalization model for cokriging. The GSLib "COKB3D" program was modified to incorporate the space-time linear coregionalization model ( ST-LCM), using the generalized product-sum variogram model. Hence, a new GSLib software, named "COK2ST", is proposed. To demonstrate the use of the software, hourly measurements of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide from the Puglia region in Italy are used.
A detailed space suit computational model is being developed at the Langley Research Center for radiation exposure evaluation studies. The details of the construction of the space suit are critical to estimation of exposures and assessing the risk to the astronaut on EVA. Past evaluations of space suit shielding properties assumed the basic fabric layup (Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment, fabric restraints, and pressure envelope) and LCVG could be homogenized as a single layer overestimating the protective properties over 60 percent of the fabric area. The present space suit model represents the inhomogeneous distributions of LCVG materials (mainly the water filled cooling tubes). An experimental test is performed using a 34-MeV proton beam and high-resolution detectors to compare with model-predicted transmission factors. Some suggestions are made on possible improved construction methods to improve the space suit s protection properties.
Wilson, J. W.; Tweed, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Kim, M.-H. Y.; Anderson, B. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Ware, J.; Persans, A. E.
Of all large space structural systems, space stations present a unique challenge and requirement to advanced control technology. Their operations require control system stability over an extremely broad range of parameter changes and high level of disturbances. During shuttle docking the system mass may suddenly increase by more than 100% and during station assembly the mass may vary even more drastically. These coupled with the inherent dynamic model uncertainties associated with large space structural systems require highly sophisticated control systems that can grow as the stations evolve and cope with the uncertainties and time-varying elements to maintain the stability and pointing of the space stations. The aspects of space station operational properties are first examined, including configurations, dynamic models, shuttle docking contact dynamics, solar panel interaction, and load reduction to yield a set of system models and conditions. A model reference adaptive control algorithm along with the inner-loop plant augmentation design for controlling the space stations under severe operational conditions of shuttle docking, excessive model parameter errors, and model truncation are then investigated. The instability problem caused by the zero-frequency rigid body modes and a proposed solution using plant augmentation are addressed. Two sets of sufficient conditions which guarantee the globablly asymptotic stability for the space station systems are obtained.
The distorting effect of peculiar velocities on the power speturm and correlation function of IRAS and optical galaxies is studied. The observed redshift space power spectra and correlation functions of IRAS and optical the galaxies over the entire range of scales are directly compared with the corresponding redshift space distributions using large-scale computer simulations of cold dark matter (CDM) models
Despite developments in error analysis for discrete objects and interval\\/ratio fields, there exist conceptual problems with the case of nominal fields. This paper seeks to consolidate a conceptual framework based on the discriminant space for categorical mapping and error modeling. The discriminant space is defined upon the essential properties and processes underlying occurrences of spatial classes, and lends itself to
Jingxiong Zhang; Michael Goodchild; Phaedon Kyriakidis; Xiong Rao
Finite elements with unstructured grids are common in the field of engineering, but they are seldom used to modelspace plasmas. Yet, this technique offers unique advantages that nicely complement other approaches. In particular, it lends itself naturally to local refinement and adaptivity, and it offers the possibility of working with meshes that are aligned along preferred directions in space.
R. Marchand; J. Y. Lu; K. Kabin; R. Rankin; T. Keeler
This paper will examine the applicability of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) standard breakup model 2000 revision to explosion breakup in space. The cylinder specimens of stainless steel with smooth were explosively expanded to fragmentation. The driver was a column of the high explosive PETN inserted into the central bore and initiated by exploding a bundle of fine
The thermal dynamics of two space suits, the Space Shuttle EMU and the MPLSS Advanced Space Suit, are considered as they relate to astronaut thermal comfort control. The activities documented in this dissertation cover three related areas, modeling, analysis, and control. A detailed dynamic lumped capacitance thermal model of the operational Space Shuttle EMU is used to analyze the thermal dynamics of the system with observations verified using experimental and flight data. Prior to using the model to define performance characteristics and limitations for the space suit, the model is first evaluated and improved. This evaluation includes determining the effect of various model parameters on model performance and quantifying various temperature prediction errors in terms of heat transfer and heat storage. The thermal dynamics and design of an Advanced Space Suit are next considered. A transient model of the MPLSS Advanced Space Suit design is developed and implemented using MATLAB/Simulink, to help with sizing, with design evaluation, and with the development of an automatic thermal comfort control strategy. The model is described and the thermal characteristics of the Advanced Space Suit are investigated including various parametric design studies. The steady state performance envelope for the Advanced Space Suit is defined in terms of the thermal environment and human metabolic rate and the transient response of the human-suit-MPLSS system is analyzed. The observations and insights about the thermal dynamics of a space suit are then applied to the automatic thermal comfort control of the MPLSS Advanced Space Suit. Automatic thermal comfort control for the Advanced Space Suit is investigated using three proposed strategies. These strategies use a transient thermal comfort definition based on body heat storage. The first strategy is measurement based using a proposed body heat storage estimation method to determine the astronaut's thermal state. The second strategy is model based using a model to determine the desired liquid cooling garment inlet temperature to provide thermal comfort. The third strategy is a hybrid strategy combining the measurement based and model based approach using the Generalized Predictive Control framework. Each strategy then uses a resource allocation decision logic to determine which of three control mechanisms to use so that thermal comfort can be provided while minimizing the use of consumables. Accuracy and performance of the strategies are evaluated using simulations, highlighting their advantages and limitations.
The educator planning continuing education programs for nurses should move from a unidimensional focus which examines only the internal determinants of the nursing profession to a wholistic focus embracing a community orientation. This article presents a model comprised of five elements for use in planning continuing nursing education programs.…
This report contains selected findings from a research project that investigated field experiences in industrial technology education. Funded by the Texas Education Agency, the project addressed the identification of characteristics of a model field experience in industrial technology education. This was accomplished using the Delphi technique.…
This paper describes the capabilities of a simplified modeling approach for end-to-end IR sensor cryogenics subsystems. It uses an Excel-based model that exercises a variety of thermal subsystem components including cryocoolers, ambient radiators, cryoradiators, flexible thermal links, and high-performance MLI. This model takes detector temperature and power dissipation inputs and outputs requirements for the supporting subsystems. The advantage of this approach is the ability to quickly respond to trade studies and configuration changes. Outputs of the model include radiator sizing, subsystem power requirements and cryocooler margins. Other advantages include ease of thermal model margin bookkeeping, (universal) software, and ease of comprehension. The need for this type of modeling approach is outlined below, followed by a model example referred to as the Case Study.
Spaceeducation is a discipline that has evolved at an unprecedented rate over the past 25 years. Although program proceedings, research literature, and historical documentation have captured fragmented pieces of information about student space experiments, the field lacks a valid comprehensive study that measures the educational impact of sounding rockets, Skylab, Ariane, AMSAT, and Space Shuttle. The lack of this information is a problem for spaceeducators worldwide which led to a national study with classroom teachers. Student flown experiments continue to offer a unique experiential approach to teach students thinking and reasoning skills that are imperative in the current international competitive environment in which they live and will work. Understanding the history as well as the current status and educational spin-offs of these experimental programs strengthens the teaching capacity of educators throughout the world to develop problem solving skills and various higher mental processes in the schools. These skills and processes enable students to use their knowledge more effectively and efficiently long after they leave the classroom. This paper focuses on student space experiments as a means of motivating students to meet this educational goal successfully. PMID:11541156
Burkhalter, B B; McLean, J E; Curtis, J P; James, G S
The concept of evaluation is becoming increasingly ambiguous and a lot of processes may be called evaluation without any clear definitions. A theoretical frame of reference may function as a compass in an evaluation context when collecting, analysing and interpreting data as well as drawing conclusions. The purpose of the present study was to present and discuss the applicability of an educational interaction model for the evaluation of nursing education programs and the professional competence of nurses. The model combines different dimensions in the educational process, using both a student and an educational perspective. It is not uncommon for evaluations to concentrate on one dimension only, which tends to give an insufficient picture of the process of interaction. Examples are provided from nurse students/nurses education and professional practise to show that the relationship between students' abilities and educational factors, in the form of intentional goals and educational frameworks, have an influence on educational outcome. PMID:12084019
Enhancing access to high quality science education resources for teachers, students, and the general public is a high priority for the earth and space science education communities. However, to significantly increase access to these resources and promote their effective use will require a coordinated effort between content developers, publishers, professional developers, policy makers, and users in both formal and informal education settings. Federal agencies, academic institutions, professional societies, informal science centers, the Digital Library for Earth System Education, and other National SMETE Digital Library Projects are anticipated to play key roles in this effort. As a first step to developing a coordinated, national strategy for developing and delivering high quality earth and space science education resources to students, teachers, and the general public, 65 science educators, scientists, teachers, administrators, policy makers, and business leaders met this June in Snowmass, Colorado to create "Earth and Space Science Education 2010: A Blueprint for Change". The Blueprint is a strategy document that will be used to guide Earth and space science education reform efforts in grades K-12 during the next decade. The Blueprint contains specific goals, recommendations, and strategies for coordinating action in the areas of: Teacher Preparation and Professional Development, Curriculum and Materials, Equity and Diversity, Assessment and Evaluation, Public Policy and Systemic Reform, Public and Informal Education, Partnerships and Collaborations, and Technology. If you develop, disseminate, or use exemplary earth and space science education resources, we invite you to review the Blueprint for Change, share it with your colleagues and local science educators, and join as we work to revolutionize earth and space science education in grades K-12.
This document contains 51 papers from a conference devoted to the theme of exploring spaces in adult education. The following are among the papers included: "Exploring Everyday Spaces: Women's Transitions from Welfare to Paid Work and Education" (Cynthia Lee Andruske); "Lost in Space? Re-valuing the Impact of Education Research" (Paul Armstrong);…
The floating potential of the International Space Station (ISS) as a function of the electron current collection of its high voltage solar array panels is derived analytically. Based on Floating Potential Probe (FPP) measurements of the ISS potential and ambient plasma characteristics, it is shown that the ISS floating potential is a strong function of the electron temperature of the surrounding plasma. While the ISS floating potential has so far not attained the pre-flight predicted highly negative values, it is shown that for future mission builds, ISS must continue to provide two-fault tolerant arc-hazard protection for astronauts on EVA.
Articulation, the coordination of curricula at different levels of education in order to improve efficiency and effectiveness, has become increasingly important in secondary and postsecondary vocational-technical education. Among the types of articulation being practiced are time-shortened models, advanced skills models, and tech-prep models.…
The sport educationmodel (SEM) has been widely used as a curriculum and instructional model to provide children with authentic and active sport experiences in physical education. In this model, students are assigned various roles to gain a deeper understanding of the sport or activity. This article provides a brief overview of the SEM and…
Presse, Cindy; Block, Martin E.; Horton, Mel; Harvey, William J.
In science education, students should come to understand the nature and significance of models. In the case of chemistry education it is argued that the present use of models is often not meaningful from the students' perspective. A strategy to overcome this problem is to use an authentic chemical modelling practice as a context for a curriculum unit. The theoretical
Gjalt T. Prins; Astrid M. W. Bulte; Jan H. van Driel; Albert Pilot
In the current study, the Distance Education Student Satisfaction Model, estimated as a structural equation model, is proposed to understand better what predicts student satisfaction from online learning environments. In the present study, the following variables are employed based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, Bagozzi, & Warshaw, 1989) and literature: computer knowledge, flexibility of distance education, usefulness of
An extension of the orbital service model, a technique for coordinating mission services between multiple spacecraft, is presented. This facilitates the creation of virtual uploadable ‘app’ missions to deep space probes.
In this project the components of a Stirling space nuclear power system were modeled using MATLAB(Registered) and Simulink(Registered) under both steady state and transient conditions. Using information provided through NASA's Glenn Research Center, the D...
The Systems Engineering Education Development (SEED) Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center develops systems engineers from existing discipline engineers. The program has evolved significantly since the report to INCOSE in 2003. This paper describes the SEED Program as it is now, outlines the changes over the last year, discusses current status and results, and shows the value of human systems and leadership skills for practicing systems engineers.
Bagg, Thomas C., III; Brumfield, Mark D.; Jamison, Donald E.; Granata, Raymond L.; Casey, Carolyn A.; Heller, Stuart
On Feb 1, 2003, the Shuttle Columbia was lost during its return to Earth. As a result of the conclusion that debris impact caused the damage to the left wing of the Columbia Space Shuttle Vehicle (SSV) during ascent, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board recommended that an assessment be performed of the debris environment experienced by the SSV during ascent. A flight rationale based on probabilistic assessment is used for the SSV return-to-flight. The assessment entails identifying all potential debris sources, their probable geometric and aerodynamic characteristics, and their potential for impacting and damaging critical Shuttle components. A probabilistic analysis tool, based on the SwRI-developed NESSUS probabilistic analysis software, predicts the probability of impact and damage to the space shuttle wing leading edge and thermal protection system components. Among other parameters, the likelihood of unacceptable damage depends on the time of release (Mach number of the orbiter) and the divot mass as well as the impact velocity and impact angle. A typical result is visualized in the figures below. Probability of impact and damage, as well as the sensitivities thereof with respect to the distribution assumptions, can be computed and visualized at each point on the orbiter or summarized per wing panel or tile zone.
Huyse, Luc J.; Asce, M.; Waldhart, Chris J.; Riha, David S.; Larsen, Curtis E.; Gomez, Reynaldo J.; Stuart, Phillip C.
The Area of Environmental Technology in Department of Civil Engineering has developed an innovation education project, entitled Application of new Information and Communication Technologies in Area of Environmental Technology teaching, to create a Web site that benefits both parties concerned in teaching-learning process, teachers and students. Here teachers conduct a supervised teaching and students have necessary resources to guide their learning process according to their capacities and possibilities. The project has also included a pilot experience to introduce European Space of Higher Education (ESHE) new teaching concept based on student's work, in one subject of Environmental Science degree, considering interactive learning complementary to presence teaching. The experience has showed strength and weakness of the method and it is the beginning in a gradual process to guide e-learning education in future.
Zamorano, M.; Rodríguez, M. L.; Ramos-Ridao, A. F.; Pasadas, M.; Priego, I.
The state space explosion problem is still the key obstacle for applying model checking to systems of industrial size. Abstraction-based\\u000a methods have been particularly successful in this regard. This paper presents an approach based on refinement of search space\\u000a partition and abstraction which combines these two techniques for reducing the complexity of model checking. The refinement\\u000a depends on the representation
Abstract Space-varying regression models are generalizations of standard linear models where the regression coe4cients are allowed to change in space. The spatial structure is speci%ed by a multivariate extension of pairwise di6erence priors, thus enabling incorporation of neighboring structures and easy sampling schemes. Bayesian inference is performed by incorporation of a prior distribution for the hyperparameters. This approach leads to
Understanding the importance of polar ice sheets and their role in the evolution of Sea Level Rise (SLR), as well as Climate Change, is of paramount importance for policy makers as well as the public and schools at large. For example, polar ice sheets and glaciers currently account for 1/3 of the SLR signal, a ratio that will increase in the near to long-term future, which has tremendous societal ramifications. Consequently, it is important to increase awareness about our changing planet. In our increasingly digital society, mobile and web applications are burgeoning venues for such outreach. The Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) is a software that was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/CalTech/NASA, in collaboration with University of California Irvine (UCI), with the goal of better understanding the evolution of polar ice sheets. It is a state-of-the-art framework, which relies on higher-end cluster-computing to address some of the aforementioned challenges. In addition, it is a flexible framework that can be deployed on any hardware; in particular, on mobile platforms such as Android or iOS smart phones. Here, we look at how the ISSM development team managed to port their model to these platforms, what the implications are for improving how scientists disseminate their results, and how a broader audience may familiarize themselves with running complex climate models in simplified scenarios which are highly educational and entertaining in content. We also look at the future plans toward a web portal fully integrated with mobile technologies to deliver the best content to the public, and to provide educational plans/lessons that can be used in grades K-12 as well as collegiate under-graduate and graduate programs.
A qualitative case study using the deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH) push-in model was conducted on the perceptions of 3 itinerant deaf educators and 3 general educators working in 1 school district. Participants worked in pairs of 1 deaf educator and 1 general educator at 3 elementary schools. Open-ended research questions guided the study, which was concerned with teachers' perceptions of the model in general and with the model's advantages, disadvantages, and effectiveness. Data collected from observations, one-to-one interviews, and a focus group interview enabled the investigator to uncover 4 themes: Participants (a) had an overall positive experience, (b) viewed general education immersion as an advantage, (c) considered high noise levels a disadvantage, and (d) believed the effectiveness of the push-in model was dependent on several factors, in particular, the needs of the student and the nature of the general education classroom environment. PMID:23858703
Space Exploration educators worldwide are confronting challenges and embracing opportunities to prepare students for the global 21st century workforce. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), established in 1997 through a NASA competition, is a 12-university consortium dedicated to space life science research and education. NSBRI's Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP) is advancing the Institute's mission by responding to global educational challenges through activities that: provide teacher professional development; develop curricula that teach students to communicate with their peers across the globe; provide women and minority US populations with greater access to, and awareness of science careers; and promote international science education partnerships. A recent National Research Council (NRC) Space Studies Board Report, America's Future in Space: Aligning the Civil Program with National Needs, acknowledges that "a capable workforce for the 21st century is a key strategic objective for the US space program… (and that) US problems requiring best efforts to understand and resolve…are global in nature and must be addressed through mutual worldwide action".  This sentiment has gained new momentum through a recent National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) report, which recommends that the life of the International Space Station be extended beyond the planned 2016 termination.  The two principles of globalization and ISS utility have elevated NSBRI EPOP efforts to design and disseminate science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) educational materials that prepare students for full participation in a globalized, high technology society; promote and provide teacher professional development; create research opportunities for women and underserved populations; and build international educational partnerships. This paper describes select EPOP projects and makes the case for using innovative, emerging information technologies to transfer space exploration knowledge to students, engage educators from across the globe in discourse about science curricula, and foster multimedia collaborations that inform citizens about the benefits of space exploration for life on Earth. Special references are made to educational activities conducted at professional meetings in Austria, Canada, France, China, Greece, Italy, Russia, Scotland and Spain.
MacLeish, Marlene Y.; Thomson, William A.; Moreno, Nancy P.
Background: Spacededucation (SE) is a novel, evidence-based form of online learning. We investigated whether an SE program following a face-to-face continuing medical education (CME) course could enhance the course's impact on providers' clinical behaviors. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted from March 2009 to April 2010,…
Shaw, Timothy; Long, Andrea; Chopra, Sanjiv; Kerfoot, B. Price
The widespread adoption of standard packet-based data communication protocols and services for spaceflight missions provides the foundation for other standard space data handling services. These space data handling services can be defined as increasingly sophisticated processing of data or information received from lower-level services, using a layering approach made famous in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Open System Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). The Space Data System Interconnection Reference Model (SDSI-RM) incorporates the conventions of the OSIRM to provide a framework within which a complete set of space data handling services can be defined. The use of the SDSI-RM is illustrated through its application to data handling services and protocols that have been defined by, or are under consideration by, the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS).
A key concern in transportation planning and traffic management is the ability to forecast traffic flows on a street network. Traffic flows forecasts can be transformed to obtain travel time estimates and then use these as input to travel demand models, dynamic route guidance and congestion management procedures. A variety of mathematical techniques have been proposed for modeling traffic flow
Extreme space weather events, while rare, pose significant risk to society in the form of impacts on critical infrastructure such as power grids, and the disruption of high end technological systems such as satellites and precision navigation and timing systems. There has been an increased focus on modelling the effects of extreme space weather, as well as improving the ability of space weather forecast centres to identify, with sufficient lead time, solar activity with the potential to produce extreme events. This paper describes the development of a data-based model for predicting the occurrence of extreme space weather events from solar observation. The motivation for this work was to develop a tool to assist space weather forecasters in early identification of solar activity conditions with the potential to produce extreme space weather, and with sufficient lead time to notify relevant customer groups. Data-based modelling techniques were used to construct the model, and an extensive archive of solar observation data used to train, optimise and test the model. The optimisation of the base model aimed to eliminate false negatives (missed events) at the expense of a tolerable increase in false positives, under the assumption of an iterative improvement in forecast accuracy during progression of the solar disturbance, as subsequent data becomes available.
Terkildsen, Michael; Steward, Graham; Neudegg, Dave; Marshall, Richard
Science, Mathematics, Aerospace, Research, and Technology (S.M.A.R.T.), Inc. has a long history of supporting education and public outreach in the fields of Earth and Space Science, both on its own and through its membership in the DC Space Grant Consortium (DCSGC). Our activities include teacher training courses and informal workshops in Earth &Space Science; and a new curriculum in this topic area to be initiated at Howard University this fall (which will be open to undergraduate students majoring in science, engineering, or science education in all of the DCSGC-member universities). In addition, S.M.A.R.T. has participated, and plans to continue participating, in informal educational programs for pre-college students, parents, and teachers in the Washington, DC area. We worked with the Sun-Earth Connection EPO organization at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and Berkeley to support student and parent involvement in the Eclipse 2001 event (a Family Night at the S.M.A.R.T. Technology Learning Center, and a web-cast viewing of the eclipse at NASA GSFC). S.M.A.R.T. also participated in a similar activity for the 1999 solar eclipse. We are currently developing a series of videos, one for each of the four major themes of NASA's Office of Space Science (The Sun-Earth Connection, Solar System Exploration, Search for Origins and Planetary Systems, and Structure and Evolution of the Universe). These are intended for students at the middle school and high school levels. As in previous videos we have produced, these videos feature students and teachers as active participants. S.M.A.R.T.'s future plans include providing a Family Night for the Sun-Earth Day aurora activity and public viewing (jointly with Howard University's Dept. of Physics &Astronomy) of the June 8, 2004 Venus transit. A solar telescope and video camera that we developed as part of our SEC EPO activities will be used.
This work proposes a different approach for the use of turning function space to change shapes in accordance with shape descriptions and consistent with spectral information. The main steps are: (1) segmentation; (2) contour extraction; (3) turning function space transform; (4) classification; (5) shape analysis; and (6) blob enhancement on image space. In the analysis of shape the boundary is modified based on both image and model and constraints are imposed to portions of the turning function. Shape modeling can be done by defining criteria such as linearity, angles and sizes. Results on synthetic examples are presented.
Volotão, Carlos F. S.; Erthal, Guaraci J.; Santos, Rafael D. C.; Dutra, Luciano V.
Traffic model data for the space shuttle for calendar years 1980 through 1991 are presented along with some supporting and summary data. This model was developed from the 1973 NASA Payload Model, dated October 1973, and the NASA estimate of the 1973 Non-NASA/Non-DoD Payload Model. The estimates for the DoD flights included are based on the 1971 DoD Mission Model.
A simplified model is presented of the space shuttle main engine (SSME) dynamics valid within the range of operation of the engine. This model is obtained by linking the linearized point models obtained at 25 different operating points of SSME. The simplified model was developed for use with a model-based diagnostic scheme for failure detection and diagnostics studies, as well as control design purposes.
Over the last decade SERC at Carleton College has developed a collaborative platform for geoscience education that has served dozens of projects, thousands of community authors and millions of visitors. The platform combines a custom technical infrastructure: the SERC Content Management system (CMS), and a set of strategies for building web-resources that can be disseminated through a project site, reused by other projects (with attribution) or accessed via an integrated geoscience education resource drawing from all projects using the platform. The core tools of the CMS support geoscience education projects in building project-specific websites. Each project uses the CMS to engage their specific community in collecting, authoring and disseminating the materials of interest to them. At the same time the use of a shared central infrastructure allows cross-fertilization among these project websites. Projects are encouraged to use common templates and common controlled vocabularies for organizing and displaying their resources. This standardization is then leveraged through cross-project search indexing which allow projects to easily incorporate materials from other projects within their own collection in ways that are relevant and automated. A number of tools are also in place to help visitors move among project websites based on their personal interests. Related links help visitors discover content related topically to their current location that is in a 'separate' project. A 'best bets' feature in search helps guide visitors to pages that are good starting places to explore resources on a given topic across the entire range of hosted projects. In many cases these are 'site guide' pages created specifically to promote a cross-project view of the available resources. In addition to supporting the cross-project exploration of specific themes the CMS also allows visitors to view the combined suite of resources authored by any particular community member. Automatically generated author profiles highlight the contributions an individual has made through any of the projects with an option for customization by the author. An overarching portal site provides a unified view of resources within this diverse set of geoscience education projects. The SERC CMS provides a common platform upon which individual projects can build their own identities, while allowing cross-project pollination and synergies to be realized without significant extra investment by each project. This is a sustainable model for a collaborative platform that takes advantage of the energy and resources of individual projects to advance larger community goals.
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), shown below, will detect gravitational waves produced by objects such as binary black holes or objects falling into black holes (extreme mass ratio inspirals) over a frequency range of l0(exp -4) to 0.1 Hz. Within the conceptual frame work of Newtonian physics, a gravitational wave produces a strain, (Delta)l/l, with magnitudes of the order of Earth based gravitational wave detectors, such as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) project, use Michelson interferometers with arm lengths l = 4 km to detect these strains. Earth induced seismic noise limits ground-based instruments detecting gravitational waves with frequencies lower than approx. 1 Hz.
Waluschka, Eugene; Pedersen, Tracy R.; McNamara, paul
Robots involved in high value manipulation must be effectively coupled to a human operator either at the work-site or remotely connected via communication links. In order to make use of experimental performance evaluation data, models must be developed. Powerful models of remote manipulation by humans can be used to predict manipulation performance in future systems based on today's laboratory systems. In this paradigm, the models are developed from experimental data, and then used to predict performance in slightly different situations. Second, accurate telemanipulation will allow design of manipulation systems which extend manipulation capability beyond its current bounds.
This document describes the development of an accurate model for the dynamics of the Momentum Exchange Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) system. The MXER is a rotating tether about 100-km long in elliptical Earth orbit designed to catch payloads in low Earth orbit and throw them to geosynchronous orbit or to Earth escape. To ensure successful rendezvous between the MXER tip catcher and a payload, a high-fidelity model of the system dynamics is required. The model developed here quantifies the major environmental perturbations, and can predict the MXER tip position to within meters over one orbit.
The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: systems design; picking the best constructor pool; prototype model; linear programming; simulated annealing; neural networks; and genetic algorithms.
Three historical and developmental dimensions of teacher education foundations of education are discussed: (1) academic dimension; (2) professional dimension; and (3) client dimension. A fourth dimension, research, is also described. (CJ)
This report of The Scottish Funding Council is to encourage discussion of the best form of campus development, in light of emerging learning trends relevant to their institutions. Teaching-centered models are being replaces by Student-centered approaches. New environments for learning are being designed or reshaped, in response to changing pedagogical styles, to incoprpate new information technology and to adapt to changing numbers and abilities of learners.
This talk will present new capabilities implemented in the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) and new validation studies that were recently carried out at the University of Michigan. We will focus on four new developments: 1) the recently developed anisotropic plasma pressure simulation technique that made it possible to implement a sophisticated two-way coupling of the CRCM ring current model, 2) the newly developed solar wind model that starts at the chromosphere and extends beyond Earth orbit, 3) regional space weather impact modeling capability and 4) new validation studies using various magnetospheric storms.
Gombosi, T. I.; Toth, G.; van der Holst, B.; Sokolov, I.; Manchester, W. B.; Daldorff, L.; DeZeeuw, D.; Welling, D. T.; Ridley, A. J.; Liemohn, M. W.; Oran, R.; Meng, X.; Jin, M.
Fluid models with first-order finite Larmor radius (FLR) corrections have been known since the early sixties. It however turns out that a correct dispersion relation for oblique Alfvén waves requires FLR corrections of at least second order in an asymptotics based on temporal and spatial scale separation. Supplementing Landau damping, that provides an essential ingredient for a realistic description of Alfvénic turbulence, is moreover delicate as, in these models, the combination of dispersive and dissipative effects can produce spurious instabilities in some parameter regimes. We thus propose a new kind of fluid model, closed at the level of the fourth-rank moments, that combines the advantages of fully-nonlinear large-scale FLR models, with a small-scale regularization where the nongyrotropic contributions of all the retained moments are evaluated consistently with the low-frequency linear kinetic physics, down to transverse scales comparable to or smaller than the ion gyroradius [see Phys. Plasmas 14, 082502 (2007), Phys. Plasmas 19, 082113 (2012)]. This model, which is based on a matching of the FLR expressions derived both from the fluid formalism and from the kinetic theory, is asymptotically valid at large scales. The small-scale "sub-grid" modeling leads to an accurate description of the linear properties of kinetic Alfvén waves and of the mirror instability, but also provides the correct (in the absence of cyclotron resonance) and sufficient dissipation for turbulent simulations, allowing for the development of power law spectra extending to the smallest resolved scale.
In order for the United States to maintain its global competitiveness, the long-term success of our engineering students in specific courses, programs, and colleges is now, more than ever, an extremely high priority. Numerous studies have focused on factors that impact student success, namely academic performance, retention, and/or graduation. However, there are only a limited number of works that have systematically developed models to investigate important factors and to predict student success in engineering. Therefore, this research presents three separate but highly connected investigations to address this gap. The first investigation involves explaining and predicting engineering students' success in Calculus I courses using statistical models. The participants were more than 4000 first-year engineering students (cohort years 2004 - 2008) who enrolled in Calculus I courses during the first semester in a large Midwestern university. Predictions from statistical models were proposed to be used to place engineering students into calculus courses. The success rates were improved by 12% in Calculus IA using predictions from models developed over traditional placement method. The results showed th